Subliminal Messages in Advertising

Subliminal messaging and subliminal perception are controversial topics in the field of psychology. Many studies have been conducted to determine if subliminal messaging does in fact work. Many people think that subliminal messages in the field of advertising are much more successful than subliminal messages for self-improvement, such as tapes sold to help the consumer lose weight, gain intelligence, or do something else to improve themselves simply by listening to a tape. Subliminal advertising can be defined as “embedding material in print, audio, or video messages so faintly that hey are not consciously perceived.

Rogers and Smith (1993) surveyed 400 households. When asked if they believed advertisers deliberately included subliminal messages, 61. 5% responded ‘yes’. A 72. 2% ‘yes’ answer was obtained when asked if subliminal advertisements were effective. Based on these results, it can be concluded that consumers are aware of subliminal advertising, and believe it is effectively used by advertisers to influence their decisions. The term “sub-threshold effects,” first popularized by Packard in 1957, preceded the popular notion of “subliminal advertising,” whose originator is James Vicary.

Subliminal advertising first came to the public’s attention in 1957 when Jim Vicary conducted a subliminal advertising strategy of interspersing “drink Coca-Cola” and “eat popcorn” messages on a movie screen so quickly that they could not be seen consciously by the audience. His research initially reported increases in the sales of both Coca-Cola and popcorn as a result of the subliminal messages. Later, however, when he was challenged and could not replicate or even produce the results, Vicary admitted that the results of the initial study had been fabricated (Weir, 1984).

Key (1989) has more recently laimed that hidden or embedded messages are widespread and effective. Key’s theories have been widely discredited by scholars who have examined marketing applications scientifically (Moore, 1982). Although a few scholarly studies have reported certain limited effects of exposure to subliminal stimuli in laboratory settings (Greenwald, Klinger, and Liu, 1989), most academic researchers on the subject have reported findings which indicate no practical or predictable effect in an advertising setting (Dixon, 1971).

The 1957 Vicary study has been largely disregarded in the scholarly community due to lack f scientific documentation of methodology and failure to replicate. However, scholarly findings and industry assertions may have had little or no effect on the average American, who has been exposed to popular articles and books promoting the notion that subliminal advertising is used and is effective.

In addition, Americans have been exposed to advertisements claiming that self-help audio-tapes and videotapes containing subliminal materials can help the purchaser with weight loss, better relationships, an improved golf game, quitting smoking, and even birth control. Awareness of Subliminal Messaging by the Public Many in the public are aware of the term “subliminal advertising,” understand the basics of the concept, and believe it not only is used by advertisers but is also successful in influencing brand and purchase choice.

Shortly after the Vicary study was brought to the public’s attention (Brean, 1958), Haber (1959) sought to discern “exactly what the public believes about subliminal advertising when so little factual information is available. ” Results of this study determined that 41 percent of 324 respondents had heard of subliminal advertising, and although half believed it to be “unethical,” 67 percent stated that they ould still watch a television program even if they believed subliminal messages were embedded in the commercials.

Two decades later, a survey of 209 adults conducted by Zanot, Pincus, and Lamp (1983) reported double the awareness levels of the Haber study. The Zanot survey concluded that 81 percent had heard of subliminal advertising and that “respondents believe that subliminal advertising is widely and frequently used and that it is successful in selling products. ” The same survey determined that educational level is the demographic variable most highly correlated with awareness of subliminal advertising; the more ducated the respondent, the more likely he or she is to be aware of the phenomenon.

A study by Rogers and Smith (1993) found that the more education a person has (and therefore the more opportunity to learn of the limitations of the subliminal persuasion phenomenon), the more likely one is to believe that subliminal advertising “works. ” A 1985 study by Block and Vanden Bergh surveying consumers’ attitudes toward use of subliminal techniques for self-improvement found some consumer skepticism and reported more favorable attitudes among those who were less educated and younger.

Three surveys onducted in the past decade have demonstrated that a majority of American adults are aware of “subliminal advertising” and believe advertisers sometimes use it to sell products. The three surveys spanned a broad geographic spectrum (Washington, D. C. ; Honolulu, Hawaii; and Toledo, Ohio). All three surveys opened with questions that determined whether the respondent was aware of subliminal advertising and determined whether or not basic knowledge was present and sufficient for continued discussion. Remaining questions in all three surveys assessed beliefs about the phenomenon, as distinguished rom knowledge.

Each study covered slightly different ground. Each was subject to different limitations, yet all three produced similar findings. All three surveys found similar proportions who were aware of subliminal advertising, who believed that it is used by advertisers, and who thought that it “works” to help marketers sell products. Awareness of Subliminal Messaging by the Advertising Industry A survey of advertising agency members, their clients and media production professionals was conducted by Rogers and Seiler (1994) as to whether or not they have ever used, or been connected with a irm that used, subliminal advertising.

Based on a response rate of 36 percent, the reaction was nearly unanimously negative, and evidence suggests that the few positive responses were due to a misunderstanding of the term “subliminal advertising. ” The results revealed that the majority denied ever using this advertising strategy, despite the public’s fears of this method of ‘brainwashing. ‘ In addition, a significant part of the minority that answered in the affirmative is shown to have misinterpreted ‘subliminal’ as ‘subtle. The advertising industry trade press has for decades idiculed the notion of using hidden or embedded messages in advertisements. A significant percentage (75 to 80 percent) of the U. S. population believes that advertising agencies and the companies they represent purposely use subliminal advertising. These consumers also believe that subliminal advertising actually “works” even though research studies have shown that no significant effects can be identified as a result of using subliminal imagery in advertisements (Rosen and Singh, 1992).

Consumers spend about 50 million dollars a year on subliminal self-help products (Krajick, 1990). Scholars have esearched advertisements with subliminal messages embedded in them and their effects (Beatty and Hawkins, 1989). These studies have generally refuted the possibility of eliciting predictable responses that could be useful to marketers. No one has tried to determine whether the advertising community has deliberately utilized subliminal messages (Kelly, 1979; Dudley, 1987).

The advertising industry has repeatedly denied the use of subliminal embeds, and spokespersons within the industry have used such common-sense arguments against its probable use as: “If subliminals worked, wouldn’t there be textbooks n how to practice it? ” and “How can showing someone a penis get him or her to switch, say, from Kent (cigarettes) to Marlboro? ” (Kanner, 1989). Wilson Bryan Key’s (1972, 1976, 1980, 1989) writings, and frequent public-speaking presentations, may have served to promote the concept and purported use of subliminal persuasion by advertisers.

While his theories have been widely discredited by scholars (Moore, 1982), his writings still appeal to consumers and keep the question current: do advertisers use subliminal advertising purposely in order to elicit a predictable response by consumers? Kelly (1979) sserts that this question is extremely important but unanswered by existing research, which focuses on whether subliminal advertising might be effective if it were used, and not on whether it is used deliberately.

One way of identifying whether in agencies and the client companies they represent consciously use subliminal advertising to help sell their products is to survey them. It was not until 1984 that a formal research study was undertaken to determine if advertisers purposely used subliminal embeds as an advertising strategy. In his survey of 100 advertising agency art directors, Haberstroh (1984) inquired whether any f these art directors had ever deliberately embedded, supervised an embedding, or had knowledge of an embedding of a subliminal message in advertising artwork for a client.

His findings indicated that, of the 47 usable responses, only 2 answered “yes” to any of the questions. When he checked open-ended explanations by these two respondents, he determined there was confusion on the part of the respondents to the implied definition of “subliminal embeds” and that, apparently, none of the 47 participants had ever used subliminal messages (Haberstroh, 1984). The Affects of Subliminal Messaging Vokey and Read 1985) were unable to find any evidence to support the claim that subliminal messages affect behavior in their study.

Key is a major figure in the argument that subliminal messaging not only occurs, but is also effective. Key claims that a variety of subliminal techniques are used to capitalize upon the public’s obsession with sex. These include the obvious use of sexual imagery within the verbal and pictorial content of advertisements. Examples of Key’s research include both the Playboy ads and the rum pictorial ads. Key asserts that the subliminal sexual imagery included in a Playboy magazine advertisement epicting a naked woman effectively renders the ad more memorable.

He stated that about 95% of college males remembered viewing this ad an entire month later. It is also possible that the college students would have remembered the ad equally well without the embedded imagery. There is ample data to demonstrate that college students can likely recognize 95% of even relatively extensive sets of pictures shown to them. In the case of the rum ads, Key felt that the explanation for an overwhelming preference for a particular brand of rum is the embedded presence of the phrase “u buy” in a pictorial ad depicting four ypes of rum.

No researcher since has been able to find the message in the ad. Key claims that 80% of the subjects in his studies unconsciously perceived the backward message, resulting in a marked preference for the rum with the message. Key refuses to believe that the fact that the preferred rum is the only one with the words “extra special” written on the bottle, or that it is much darker than the others and presented in a high-status brandy-snifter in a larger bottle has anything to do with the preference.

A study by Vokey and Read (1985) was conducted to test Key’s hypothesis on the embedding of sexual essages on images. Participants in the study recognized the images imbedded with sexual imagery, random imagery, and no imagery at the same rate. Key suggested that it often takes at least a day to see the effect of the subliminal material. Vokey and Read waited two days and found that the participants who waited the two days to indicate what slides they had previously seen remembered less than those who indicated what slides they had seen immediately.

Every result in the study disagreed with Key and his ideas regarding subliminal messages. It is difficult to believe that while there has been so much esearch completed proving that not only are subliminal messages not used, but that subliminal messages are completely ineffective in changing or influencing behavior, the public so strongly believes in the influence. After all the research, the public still fears subliminal messages and the effects they could have.

Psychologists must work to educate the public in the matter of subliminal messages. It is as if subliminal messages are like superstitions. Everyone knows that it is just a superstition that if one breaks a mirror it will bring on seven years of bad luck, yet most people will ecome quite upset if they do break a mirror. Most people realize that subliminal messages do not have a strong effect, yet they are still superstitious about them.

The paranoia brought on by the idea that the brain can be influenced by subliminal messages is great. No one likes the idea that their thoughts and beliefs are being altered without their knowledge or consent. Education regarding advertising practices and the non-existent effects of subliminal messages would help to bridge the gap between the knowledge and beliefs of the industry, and the knowledge and beliefs of the public.

Human Perception: An Intimate Look Into The Most Intriguing Aspect of Modern Psychology

It determines what we see, what we do, what we feel. It controls our emotions, our thoughts, and our conscience. What is this remarkable element of the human mind? It is called perception. Perception as defined in the Merrian- Webster Dictionary as the following- 1 a : awareness of the elements of environment through physical sensation b: Physical sensation interpreted in the light of experience 2 a : quick, acute, and intuitive cognition : APPRECIATION b : capacity for comprehension Perception. As hard as it is to define it, it is impossible to correctly conceive a “correct” or “right” way to use it.

Perception varies with not only humans, but with virtually all other animals as well, whether through instinct or with conscious thought. Let us take this a step farther. When a bee looks at a flower that is meant for feeding from, they do not only notice the colors the human mind sees. The bee sees a yellow “run-way” directly into the core of the flower, guiding it into the source of nectar. This brings us to the question- “is what we see real, or is what we see our own reality? “. What the human mind sees is only three dimensions.

Since Albert Einstein first conjured the cientific possibility of a fourth dimension, human beings have longed to see it. Many people assume that it does not exist simply because they cannot see it. They are not able to see the yellow “run-way” into the heart of a flower, but to the bee and an ultraviolet light, that “run-way” is certainly real. People’s physical use of their own perception is very limited, as such noticeable in the “tunnel-vision” effect. A good example of the Tunnel Vision effect is a perception or thought such as “if I cannot see it, it simply does not exist”.

We as humans are limited not only to what we can sense, but how we perceive what we ense. Such is a formidable question. What if that fourth dimension does exist, what if we can see it , only our brain cannot perceive it being there, therefor it never exists in the first place. I would consider that as a paradox. Where does perception come from? Is it a result of the upbringing and surroundings of an individual (animal or human), or is it a result of genetics? Certainly I would believe that conditioning has a great impact on an individual’s perception.

An example to that would be as such : A dog is abused, beaten, and starved by a group of owners in a kennel. The dog is then recovered by the humane society and adopted by a local family. The dog in turns bites one in the family every time a hand is raised near it as a motion, for food or otherwise. The dog has been conditioned into fear. However, due to the conditioning, the dog perceives the hand motions differently than would a newborn pup. The dog perceives such hand actions as a premonition that it is about to be hit or harmed in some way.

I can only conclude to myself that there is a distinct possibility that conditioning has the ability to alter perception in a great amount. People often mistakenly identify people for others in many circumstances everyday. For example, I got on the bus to go to school a few weeks ago, and sat down next to a person whom I believed I had talked to the day before regarding a topic. I started to say something, I looked up and realized the person was a totally different person than whom I believed I was talking to.

I had seen the person who I thought I was talking to when I got on that bus. The physical features, the voice, etc. all matched. However, a neuron must have misfired because there was an entirely different person altogether in that seat. I went o another seat, pondered it over, and realized how speculative human identification is. Often victims of rape, robbery, or other crimes are asked to identify their assailant in a police lineup. Seventy two percent of people misidentify suspects in police lineups the first try. The reason?

The person sees who they “saw” when they were attacked. I would presume that during an attack, a person would be more concerned about staying alive than noticing the exact physical characteristics of the individual who is attacking. Since the brain is overworking to do multitudes of tasks at the time of an attack, I would ssume that a person would not pay particular notice to the appearance of the attacker. This is why human visual identification is so controversial and hard to support. Perhaps the person *did* see that person who attacked them in the lineup.

People often fill in the gaps of a picture and story to make everything seem clear to them and the authorities. Therefor, human visual identification cannot be trusted simply due to people’s differences of perception. When I look at and read the Bible, I regard it as an awesome literary work, but not something I would base or live my life upon. However, there are those who perceive the Bible as not only words on a page, but as the guiding force behind humanity. Religion and perception do not go well together simply due to the vast differences in opinion among the human race.

What I perceive as fact is that Jesus Christ did not ascend into heaven, and that the Bible is merely a literary work. A book to be concise. However, what Christians perceive as fact is the exact opposite. Often, there are those in the religious or family oriented lobby industries who try to suppress what I read or hear based upon their own erception, Perhaps this is stretching the links of perception, but I believe that the perceptual differences among people are the original roots of censorship.

One group of people or person perceives something as obscene or “harmful”. Another group perceives *the same thing* as intellectually stimulating or entertaining. Such is why I consider perception as not only having to do with human psychology, but with politics and beliefs as well. I consider perception to be not only what a person senses, but what they get out of what they sense. I listen to hard-core rock and like the sound of it. However, an adult would most likely label it as simply “noise”.

The perceptual differences among people is the *single* biggest speed bump in attaining world, civil, and domestic peace. Our differences are small, but great in bounty. I see white, you see black. Never will all people in the world agree on one particular topic, however we can learn to respect the perception of that topic. Until people understand the roots of problems is how they perceive them, and that it is only a problem if you make it a problem, peace and respect are unattainable goals.

The Psychosocial Characteristics of Olympic Track and Field Athletes

Fortunately, it was quite a simple task to find a research topic related to the material that we have covered so far in sport psychology. After some quick searching, we ran across a rather interesting article written in the International Journal of Sport Psychology that could obviously be useful. Conveniently, it was in the most recent issue of this particular journal available in the Evansdale Library. Entitled, Psychosocial Characteristics of Olympic Track and Field Athletes, this article happened to be one that we could easily relate too.

Because both of us are runners, we share a definite commonality with the subjects of the study. This is true, even though neither of us will actually make it to the Olympics to perform at the subjects’ standards. At least, though, it is possible to relate highly to these interesting people. Basically, the purpose of this particular study was to identify the specific personality characteristics of 15 Olympic caliber track and field athletes. Certainly, several people, especially sport psychologists, would like to know if there are specific attitudes and personalities that belong to the topnotch athletes of the world.

Pretty simple request, right? Or at least it sounds that way. To perform this experiment, each of the athletes was asked six standardized questions. For instance, one of the questions focused directly on the subject of How do you prepare for a competition. The athletes responses to these questions were recorded word for word and analyzed for content. Interestingly enough, typical themes could be found throughout their responses. For example, some of the athletes would mention that a higher power was some how related to everything that they have done.

The people performing this study would relate this to the category of spiritual/ religious factors. Also, a couple of the runners claimed that their lives were completely based on the theme of mental skills and attitudes such as hard work and perseverance. It was very easy to notice that these themes appeared time after time, for each question answered by the same person. The researchers concluded that these emerging themes play an important role in the psychological development of each athlete.

While it isnt a direct correlation, the work these researchers have done could be somewhat related to developments in psychological skills training. Ideally, sports psychologists should know exactly what effects the attitudes of an athlete. If some areas of psychological development are more improved in an Olympic athlete, we could discover why, and possibly use exercises to better another persons mental state if they are lacking in a similar area. By investigating the way each of these athletes responds to the standardized questions, we may be able to find methods to strengthen the mental attitudes of the average athlete.

Schizophrenia – Mental Illness

Schizophrenia, severe mental illness characterized by a variety of symptoms, including loss of contact with reality, bizarre behavior, disorganized thinking and speech, decreased emotional expressiveness, and social withdrawal. Usually only some of these symptoms occur in any one person. The term schizophrenia comes from Greek words meaning “split mind.” However, contrary to common belief, schizophrenia does not refer to a person with a split personality or multiple personality. (For a description of a mental illness in which a person has multiple personalities, see Dissociative Identity Disorder.) To observers, schizophrenia may seem like madness or insanity.

Perhaps more than any other mental illness, schizophrenia has a debilitating effect on the lives of the people who suffer from it. A person with schizophrenia may have difficulty telling the difference between real and unreal experiences, logical and illogical thoughts, or appropriate and inappropriate behavior. Schizophrenia seriously impairs a person’s ability to work, go to school, enjoy relationships with others, or take care of oneself. In addition, people with schizophrenia frequently require hospitalization because they pose a danger to themselves. About 10 percent of people with schizophrenia commit suicide, and many others attempt suicide. Once people develop schizophrenia, they usually suffer from the illness for the rest of their lives. Although there is no cure, treatment can help many people with schizophrenia lead productive lives.

Schizophrenia also carries an enormous cost to society. People with schizophrenia occupy about one-third of all beds in psychiatric hospitals in the United States. In addition, people with schizophrenia account for at least 10 percent of the homeless population in the United States (see Homelessness). The National Institute of Mental Health has estimated that schizophrenia costs the United States tens of billions of dollars each year in direct treatment, social services, and lost productivity.

II Prevalence Print Preview of Section

Approximately 1 percent of people develop schizophrenia at some time during their lives. Experts estimate that about 1.8 million people in the United States have schizophrenia. The prevalence of schizophrenia is the same regardless of sex, race, and culture. Although women are just as likely as men to develop schizophrenia, women tend to experience the illness less severely, with fewer hospitalizations and better social functioning in the community.

III Symptoms Print Preview of Section

Schizophrenia usually develops in late adolescence or early adulthood, between the ages of 15 and 30. Much less commonly, schizophrenia develops later in life. The illness may begin abruptly, but it usually develops slowly over months or years. Mental health professionals diagnose schizophrenia based on an interview with the patient in which they determine whether the person has experienced specific symptoms of the illness.

Symptoms and functioning in people with schizophrenia tend to vary over time, sometimes worsening and other times improving. For many patients the symptoms gradually become less severe as they grow older. About 25 percent of people with schizophrenia become symptom-free later in their lives.

A variety of symptoms characterize schizophrenia. The most prominent include symptoms of psychosis-such as delusions and hallucinations-as well as bizarre behavior, strange movements, and disorganized thinking and speech. Many people with schizophrenia do not recognize that their mental functioning is disturbed.

A Delusions

Delusions are false beliefs that appear obviously untrue to other people. For example, a person with schizophrenia may believe that he is the king of England when he is not. People with schizophrenia may have delusions that others, such as the police or the FBI, are plotting against them or spying on them. They may believe that aliens are controlling their thoughts or that their own thoughts are being broadcast to the world so that other people can hear them.

B Hallucinations

People with schizophrenia may also experience hallucinations (false sensory perceptions). People with hallucinations see, hear, smell, feel, or taste things that are not really there. Auditory hallucinations, such as hearing voices when no one else is around, are especially common in schizophrenia. These hallucinations may include two or more voices conversing with each other, voices that continually comment on the person’s life, or voices that command the person to do something.

C Bizarre Behavior

People with schizophrenia often behave bizarrely. They may talk to themselves, walk backward, laugh suddenly without explanation, make funny faces, or masturbate in public. In rare cases, they maintain a rigid, bizarre pose for hours on end. Alternately, they may engage in constant random or repetitive movements.

D Disorganized Thinking and Speech

People with schizophrenia sometimes talk in incoherent or nonsensical ways, which suggests confused or disorganized thinking. In conversation they may jump from topic to topic or string together loosely associated phrases. They may combine words and phrases in meaningless ways or make up new words. In addition, they may show poverty of speech, in which they talk less and more slowly than other people, fail to answer questions or reply only briefly, or suddenly stop talking in the middle of speech.

E Social Withdrawal Advertisement

Another common characteristic of schizophrenia is social withdrawal. People with schizophrenia may avoid others or act as though others do not exist. They often show decreased emotional expressiveness. For example, they may talk in a low, monotonous voice, avoid eye contact with others, and display a blank facial expression. They may also have difficulties experiencing pleasure and may lack interest in participating in activities.

F Other Symptoms

Other symptoms of schizophrenia include difficulties with memory, attention span, abstract thinking, and planning ahead. People with schizophrenia commonly have problems with anxiety, depression, and suicidal thoughts. In addition, people with schizophrenia are much more likely to abuse or become dependent upon drugs or alcohol than other people. The use of alcohol and drugs often worsens the symptoms of schizophrenia, resulting in relapses and hospitalizations.

IV Causes Print Preview of Section

Schizophrenia appears to result not from a single cause, but from a variety of factors. Most scientists believe that schizophrenia is a biological disease caused by genetic factors, an imbalance of chemicals in the brain, structural brain abnormalities, or abnormalities in the prenatal environment. In addition, stressful life events may contribute to the development of schizophrenia in those who are predisposed to the illness.

A Genetic Factors

Research suggests that the genes one inherits strongly influence one’s risk of developing schizophrenia. Studies of families have shown that the more closely one is related to someone with schizophrenia, the greater the risk one has of developing the illness. For example, the children of one parent with schizophrenia have about a 13 percent chance of developing the illness, and children of two parents with schizophrenia have about a 46 percent chance of eventually developing schizophrenia. This increased risk occurs even when such children are adopted and raised by mentally healthy parents. In comparison, children in the general population have only about a 1 percent chance of developing schizophrenia.

B Chemical Imbalance

Some evidence suggests that schizophrenia may result from an imbalance of chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. These chemicals enable neurons (brain cells) to communicate with each other. Some scientists suggest that schizophrenia results from excess activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine in certain parts of the brain or from an abnormal sensitivity to dopamine. Support for this hypothesis comes from antipsychotic drugs, which reduce psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia by blocking brain receptors for dopamine. In addition, amphetamines, which increase dopamine activity, intensify psychotic symptoms in people with schizophrenia. Despite these findings, many experts believe that excess dopamine activity alone cannot account for schizophrenia. Other neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, may play important roles as well.

C Structural Brain Abnormalities

Brain imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and positron- emission tomography, have led researchers to discover specific structural abnormalities in the brains of people with schizophrenia. For example, people with chronic schizophrenia tend to have enlarged brain ventricles (cavities in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid). They also have a smaller overall volume of brain tissue compared to mentally healthy people. Other people with schizophrenia show abnormally low activity in the frontal lobe of the brain, which governs abstract thought, planning, and judgment. Research has identified possible abnormalities in many other parts of the brain, including the temporal lobes, basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, and superior temporal gyrus. These defects may partially explain the abnormal thoughts, perceptions, and behaviors that characterize schizophrenia. D Factors Before and During Birth

Evidence suggests that factors in the prenatal environment and during birth can increase the risk of a person later developing schizophrenia. These events are believed to affect the brain development of the fetus during a critical period. For example, pregnant women who have been exposed to the influenza virus or who have poor nutrition have a slightly increased chance of giving birth to a child who later develops schizophrenia. In addition, obstetric complications during the birth of a child-for example, delivery with forceps-can slightly increase the chances of the child later developing schizophrenia.

E Stressful Events

Although scientists favor a biological cause of schizophrenia, stress in the environment may affect the onset and course of the illness. Stressful life circumstances-such as growing up and living in poverty, the death of a loved one, an important change in jobs or relationships, or chronic tension and hostility at home-can increase the chances of schizophrenia in a person biologically predisposed to the disease. In addition, stressful events can trigger a relapse of symptoms in a person who already has the illness. Individuals who have effective skills for managing stress may be less susceptible to its negative effects. Psychological and social rehabilitation can help patients develop more effective skills for dealing with stress.

V Treatment Print Preview of Section

Although there is no cure for schizophrenia, effective treatment exists that can improve the long-term course of the illness. With many years of treatment and rehabilitation, significant numbers of people with schizophrenia experience partial or full remission of their symptoms.

Treatment of schizophrenia usually involves a combination of medication, rehabilitation, and treatment of other problems the person may have. Antipsychotic drugs (also called neuroleptics) are the most frequently used medications for treatment of schizophrenia. Psychological and social rehabilitation programs may help people with schizophrenia function in the community and reduce stress related to their symptoms. Treatment of secondary problems, such as substance abuse and infectious diseases, is also an important part of an overall treatment program.

A Antipsychotic Drugs

Antipsychotic medications, developed in the mid-1950s, can dramatically improve the quality of life for people with schizophrenia. The drugs reduce or eliminate psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. The medications can also help prevent these symptoms from returning. Common antipsychotic drugs include risperidone (Risperdal), olanzapine (Zyprexa), clozapine (Clozaril), quetiapine (Seroquel), haloperidol (Haldol), thioridazine (Mellaril), chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), and trifluoperazine (Stelazine). People with schizophrenia usually must take medication for the rest of their lives to control psychotic symptoms. Antipsychotic medications appear to be less effective at treating other symptoms of schizophrenia, such as social withdrawal and apathy.

Antipsychotic drugs help reduce symptoms in 80 to 90 percent of people with schizophrenia. However, those who benefit often stop taking medication because they do not understand that they are ill or because of unpleasant side effects. Minor side effects include weight gain, dry mouth, blurred vision, restlessness, constipation, dizziness, and drowsiness. Other side effects are more serious and debilitating. These may include muscle spasms or cramps, tremors, and tardive dyskinesia, an irreversible condition marked by uncontrollable movements of the lips, mouth, and tongue. Newer drugs, such as clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and quetiapine, tend to produce fewer of these side effects. However, clozapine can cause agranulocytosis, a significant reduction in white blood cells necessary to fight infections. This condition can be fatal if not detected early enough. For this reason, people taking clozapine must have weekly tests to monitor their blood.

B Psychological and Social Rehabilitation

Because many patients with schizophrenia continue to experience difficulties despite taking medication, psychological and social rehabilitation is often necessary. A variety of methods can be effective. Social skills training helps people with schizophrenia learn specific behaviors for functioning in society, such as making friends, purchasing items at a store, or initiating conversations. Behavioral training methods can also help them learn self-care skills such as personal hygiene, money management, and proper nutrition. In addition, cognitive-behavioral therapy, a type of psychotherapy, can help reduce persistent symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, and social withdrawal.

Family intervention programs can also benefit people with schizophrenia. These programs focus on helping family members understand the nature and treatment of schizophrenia, how to monitor the illness, and how to help the patient make progress toward personal goals and greater independence. They can also lower the stress experienced by everyone in the family and help prevent the patient from relapsing or being rehospitalized.

Because many patients have difficulty obtaining or keeping jobs, supported employment programs that help patients find and maintain jobs are a helpful part of rehabilitation. In these programs, the patient works alongside people without disabilities and earns competitive wages. An employment specialist (or vocational specialist) helps the person maintain their job by, for example, training the person in specific skills, helping the employer accommodate the person, arranging transportation, and monitoring performance. These programs are most effective when the supported employment is closely integrated with other aspects of treatment, such as medication and monitoring of symptoms.

Some people with schizophrenia are vulnerable to frequent crises because they do not regularly go to mental health centers to receive the treatment they need. These individuals often relapse and face rehospitalization. To ensure that such patients take their medication and receive appropriate psychological and social rehabilitation, assertive community treatment (ACT) programs have been developed that deliver treatment to patients in natural settings, such as in their homes, in restaurants, or on the street.

C Associated Problems

People with schizophrenia often have other medical problems, so an effective treatment program must attend to these as well. One of the most common associated problems is substance abuse. Successful treatment of substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia requires careful coordination with their mental health care, so that the same clinicians are treating both disorders at the same time.

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The high rate of substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia contributes to a high prevalence of infectious diseases, including hepatitis B and C and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Assessment, education, and treatment or management of these illnesses is critical for the long-term health of patients.

Other problems frequently associated with schizophrenia include housing instability and homelessness, legal problems, violence, trauma and post- traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, and suicide attempts. Close monitoring and psychotherapeutic interventions are often helpful in addressing these problems.

Burrhus Frederic Skinner – one of the most influential theorists in modern psychology

B. F. Skinner was one of the most influential theorists in modern psychology. His work was very important and has been studied by many for years. Skinner was a very straightforward man and a very educated man. His theories have helped mankind in many ways. He has studied the behavior patterns of many living organisms. Skinner was a well-published writer. His work has been published in many journals. He also has written many books on behaviorism. His most important work was the study of behaviorism. First began by John B. Watson, behaviorism is one of the most widely studied theories today.

B. F. Skinner and His Influence in Psychology B. F. Skinner was one of the most famous of the American psychologists. He was born in Pennsylvania in 1904. Skinner was the father of modern behaviorism. Skinner did not get into psychology until he was in graduate school at Harvard. He was driven to Psychology after reading about the experiments of Watson and Pavlov. He received his doctoral degree in three years and taught at the University of Minnesota and the University of Indiana and finally returned to his alma mater at Harvard. Skinner contributed to psychological behaviorism by performing experiments that linked behaviors with erms commonly used to describe mental states.

Skinner was responsible for some famous experiments such as the “Skinner box”. Skinner also wrote some very famous books. One of them was “The Behavior of Organisms”. This book describes the basic points of his system. Another was Walden Two. This book describes a utopian society that functions on positive reinforcement. Skinner was a very productive person until his death in 1990 at the age of 86. Behaviorism is a school of thought in psychology that is interested in observable behavior. Skinner said, “Behaviorism is not the science of human ehavior; it is the philosophy of that science”(Skinner, 1974).

There are various types of behavior, such as innate behavior. Innate behaviors are certain behaviors that we are born with, such as eating when we are hungry and sleeping when we are tired. Early Life Burrhus Frederic Skinner was born in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania on March 20, 1904 to William Arthur and Grace Madge Skinner. Skinners home was a warm and stable place. He lived in the house he was born in until he went off to college. Skinner also had a younger brother named Edmond James Skinner, born November 6, 1906. Skinner was very fond of his brother and loved him very much.

At the young age of sixteen, Edmond died of a cerebral aneurysm. Skinner was a very inventive young man. He always was making or building things, such as wagons, model airplanes, etc. He also attempted to invent a perpetual motion machine, but it failed. He also read about animals. He collected toads, lizards, and snakes. He trained pigeons to do tricks after he saw them performing one year at a fair. Training the pigeons probably was where he got his ideas of operant conditioning. He attended Susquehanna High School ust like his mother and father.

In his graduating class there were only eight people including him. He was a very intellectual boy. He reported that he really enjoyed school. Over the four years in high school Skinner became quite good at mathematics and reading Latin, but was weak at science. He made up for it though, because he was always performing physical and chemical experiments while he was at home. His father was an avid book collector. Skinner always had a good library of books around his house. Skinner recalled the little collection of applied psychology journals that his father had bought.

Those books could have been the starting point in his psychology career. Skinner grew up in a very religious family. His grandmother often reminded him of the concept of hell. His mother once washed his mouth out with soap literally for saying a bad word. His father never punished him, but he told him of the punishments that awaited him if he ever turned out to be a criminal. Overall Skinner had a good and happy childhood. College Life After graduating high school, Skinner went to Hamilton College where he majored in English Literature and minored in Romance Languages.

He was drawn toward English when he was in high school by one of his teachers named Miss Graves. She also was responsible for his enjoyment of art and sculpting. Skinner never really fit into the campus life and he was not much of a sportsman. He said “my shins were cracked in ice hockey and better players bounced basketballs off my cranium” (Boring, 1967). Skinners freshman year did not turn out to be what he expected. He felt that the college was pushing him around with unnecessary requirements, such as daily chapel and physical education. Skinners college life became better as the years went on.

He was ery comfortable with college life by his senior year. Skinner turned out to be quite the joker in college. He and a friend once printed up a poster that said that Charles Chaplin was coming to speak about being in the silent movies. They printed up some copies and distributed them throughout the campus. The effect of their actions was more than they expected. A large amount of people showed up to see the famous star that was not coming.

The kicker was that Skinner said that the presentation was under the direct supervision of Skinners English composition teacher and all of the blame was on him when Mr. Chaplin did not show up. Skinner graduated soon after that, and it was the start of a new life. Psychological Beginning After graduating Skinner started writing, but that did not work out. Skinner started classes at Harvard University studying for his Masters Degree in Psychology. Skinner always had been interested in animal behavior after seeing the performing pigeons when he was younger. He also was interested in human behavior as well. This began when the man that taught him how to play the saxophone when he was younger told him how he would entertain troops.

He would write the alphabet forward with his right and backwards with his left hand, add up some figures given to him and answer questions from the crowd all at the same time. The man said that it gave him a headache. Skinner wanted to know how he did all of that. Skinner read some of the works of some famous psychologists. He read some books on Pavlov and the work that he did with the dogs and the work of John B. Watson, a famous behaviorist. He really became interested in behaviorism when he met two men, Fred Keller and Charles Trueblood. Keller was a strict behaviorist.

Skinner saw Trueblood carrying caged rats that he was working with in the laboratory. After that Skinner really started hitting the books. He had a complex schedule of waking up, studying during breakfast, attending classes, study until nine oclock at night, and then going to bed. He held this regimen for two years straight. He did not have much of a life during those two years. When Skinner began working on his doctoral degree, he was working part of the time at a medical school and the other part in a subterranean laboratory with his animals. He remained in that laboratory for a otal of five years.

While working on his research, Skinner found that Pavlov had given him the most influence in the experimental method. Pavlov said, “control the environment and you will see order in behavior” (Boring, 1967). Skinner first used the term “operant” when some of his papers came under attack. He said, “the term “operant” was to identify behavior traceable to reinforcing contingencies rather than to eliciting stimuli” (Boring, 1967). Behaviorism and Skinner Over the years after receiving his doctoral degree Skinner became a strict behaviorist. In 1964, Skinner gave a speech on what he alled “The Science of Behavior and Human Dignity.

The main point of the speech was that people blame their shortcomings on the environment and take all the credit for their achievements. This belief wound up being the theme of one of Skinners books. It was called “Beyond Freedom and Dignity”, published in 1971. This was a very popular book and a very unpopular book. Many thought that Skinner did not believe in freedom and dignity. He wanted people to see that if we could move beyond those things then perhaps our society could move on to be a more realized one. Skinner believed that the study of behavior depends on what the organism should and should not do.

Skinner also was very productive in the laboratory. His most famous experiment was the “Skinner box”. The “Skinner box” was just a plain looking box that could measure conditioning in many different ways. Here is how it works. A hungry rat is placed in the box and left alone. The rat will survey its environment. The rat eventually will find a lever and when it is pressed, food is delivered. In operant conditioning terms, the food reinforces the rats behavior of pressing the lever. Skinner xplained how this experiment worked in his first major work “The Behavior of Organisms: an experimental analysis”.

He explained that the type of conditioning the rat underwent was called “free operant conditioning”. It was free because the rat was uninterrupted and free to press the lever as many times as it wanted. He explained it like this because he wanted to distinguish himself from Ivan Pavlov and his dogs. One difference that was pointed out was that the dogs had to hear the bell in order to start salivating. The rat was given no stimulation; it just pressed the lever because it knew there would be ood. Skinner really wanted to study human behavior.

The box did little of that, but he found that if you change a humans environment, a behavioral change would occur just like the rats behavior would change, if you change the lever pressing. So, the main idea of behaviorism is that human behavior is a product of the stimulus-response interaction and that behavior is modifiable (Behaviorism, 1997). In another of Skinners famous works he talks about his three-part thesis on human behavior. He believed that biology, genotype, and conditioning all work together in natural selection, operant conditioning, and n the development of social environments.

Skinners life appeared to be very good. He had a good family, two loving children and wife. He also had a good job teaching Psychology at his alma mater, Harvard University. America lost a very important, intellectual man in 1990 when B. F. Skinner died at the age of 86 of leukemia that he had contracted when he was younger. Even though he was dying he still delivered a paper to the American Psychological Association. His work and theories always will be looked at and studied far into the future.

Conclusion B. F. Skinner was one of the most important American psychologists ever. He was known as the father of operant conditioning. Skinners experiments have paved the way for many ideas and theories that may be developed by future generation psychologists. He was responsible for writing many books that also have helped in understanding behaviorism. He tried to explain how human behavior would change if the environment were manipulated. In my opinion, Skinner was one of the most well known psychologists of all time. He was a very intellectual man and will be remembered far into the future.

The Human Psychology

He is peeping through a small hole, from which a light comes out and shows his expression. Is it an expression of pleasure? No, it looks like pain he feels. But his eyes are looking so lusty in desire, he is masturbating. I have never seen an expression like this, he is both taking sexual pleasure and feeling a deep pain, plus he seems to be afraid of a mother who might catch him masturbating; he is in such a hurry. But that’s ridiculous, he is a grown up, why would a man be afraid of his mother? Why would a man have to hide himself while satisfying himself?

Such traces of ear and shame can only be seen on the face of a child caught by his mother in the middle of self pleasure. There are traces in that facial expression of Norman Bates of nightmares that Freud describes in his psychoanalysis theories. These are the nightmares which we somehow learn, accept and respect; but which we never dare to emphatize ourselves with. Sigmund Freud talks about the preferably hidden, forbidden and carved mysteries of the human psychology, one of which is deeply reflected in Norman Bates’ twisted face.

There is pleasure; first from the act of self-satisfaction and then from secretly xperiencing something forbidden. There is fear; both from being noticed by the object of pleasure (Marion Crane) and from being caught by the authoritarian mother. And there is shame on that face, contrasting with the hungry eyes. The motive behind the combination of these contrasting feelings should in fact be searched for in the labyrinths of Freudian psycho-analysis. Freud likes to explain every attribute of human behavior from the early memories and experiences of childhood, focusing single- mindedly on sexuality and aggression.

So, what can be the motive behind such a confused expression in the presence of sexual pleasure of asturbation? At this point, Freud would ask for the case history of our patient. Although vague, we have information on very critical incidents in Norman Bates’ life. He is the son of a motel manageress, living far from the town without a father. Here, Freud would come up with the idea of “lack of authoritarian father figure”, which, according to his theories, is a reason for the underdevelopment of superego in the subject’s personality.

In order to support this thought of Freud’s, the lack of the system of values in Norman Bates may be given as a reference; peeping through to a motel lient’s bathroom is not a widely accepted value (of course murdering a mother and many women is out of question). Moreover, added to this traumatic basis in the child’s psychology is the incident of his mother’s and her lover’s death; on the same bed; pierced by the bullets from a pistol held by Norman Bates.

This terrible incident may give us clues why sexual pleasure is an experience that has to be kept hidden, as the child mind links the two incidents: sex and death, and therefore develops a conditional reflex even towards his own bodily pleasures. However, here, Freud would not be satisfied with these plane xplanations; he would come forth with a serious but proud face and start a long conference by explaining that this destructive trauma, given the prior consequences added, should have caused much deeper wounds in the subject’s mind.

Then he would go on this conference with the details of his famous psychoanalysis; the psycho-sexual development phases of human personality. According to him, there are five phases in the first eleven years of life, in each of which there are certain factors in operation that are essential in psychological development. One of these, the phallic phase (between 2 to years) is the phase of utmost importance. In this phase the famous Oedipus Complex takes place during child’s first experience of sexual identification, sexual pleasure and masturbation. Sigmund Freud drew this term from the myth of Oedipus.

Freud describes the source of this complex in his Introductory Lectures (Twenty-First Lecture): “You all know the Greek legend of King Oedipus, who was destined by fate to kill his father and take his mother to wife, who did everything possible to escape the oracle’s decree and punished himself by blinding when he learned that he had none the less unwittingly committed both these crimes” (16. 30). These words not only make a reference to the original complex and Oedipus’ tragedy; but also reveals the ideal of Freud that the childhood period has determining effect on the subject’s future personality.

As in other phases, in this phase the child is in need to identify himself with someone close to it but in sexual terms. Oedipus Complex stands for the child’s feeling (sexual) attraction to the parent of opposite sex and rivalry and hostility to the parent of its own sex Freud claimed this complex to occur by identification with the parent of the same sex and by the renunciation f sexual interest in the parent of the opposite sex and to be related to the transference of the breast from the feeding object to the pleasure and sexual object.

Freud, according to whom the head stones of personality is the repression of sexuality and aggression, also claimed that if this complex could not be solved or directed by the parents, it results in serious abnormalities, obsessions in the subject’s personality (asexuality, sexual abnormality, fetish, unnatural homosexuality/lesbianity, serious resentment, psychology split-up, multi – personality etc). Such primal esires are, of course, quickly repressed but, even among the mentally sane, they will arise again in dreams or in literature.

Nevertheless, in our case, the malfunction in the phallic phase of Norman Bates shows itself not in dreams or literature, but in reality. Therefore, according to Freudian theory, Norman Bates had noone around himself to identify himself with except his mother in his childhood period. Up until the phallic phase, this identification must have been kept normal; but when he came to these critical years, mother had already become the center of every need for him – – even sexual pleasure. This over – identification led him to exaggerate his mother into an angel – like embracing figure.

If the isolation of Norman Bates from the community is taken into account, it may well be seen that this exaggeration became an obsession for him; filling the empty spaces of friends in a child’s heart. Then came the evil turning point of his life – the point here are not the deaths itself or the fact that he was already a murderer; but the biting fact that he most probably saw his mother and her lover having sex, maybe watched them for a while. This is his motive for the murders; however, hile for a simple observer the reason is “jealousy”, for Freud it would be “disappointment”.

He was a boy then, with nothing on his mind but his idealized mother figurine that suppresses every other notions that should be active in a normal boy’s mind – girls, love, sex, parties or football. But just then, this beautiful figurine (because from the only incident we see Mrs. Bates in flesh in Psycho IV (1990), we obviously gather that she was in fact very beautiful) is broken by its own maker; she was not an angel at all, but a “whore”, a “slut” of sex-lust. He killed them both; the igurine was already dead then and it was her mother that killed the imagined figurine; she was guilt of her son’s disappointment.

Then his false identification made the way for the pistol into his hand. BANG! BANG! He was all alone now, in a world he doesn’t even know of. Just like Oedipus, he chose to shut his eyes in order not to see the bitter reality and grew up alone in that lonely motel and the lonely mansion. Nevertheless, he didn’t blind himself completely as Oedipus did, instead, he blinded his mind to the outer world except the few clients in his motel. These facts help explain the wickedness of his masturbation; so lifeless, o fast, so secret and so masochistic.

But he has shame, he has doubt as if he didn’t know how to satisfy himself from birth and he clearly has fear on his face; these feelings are so obvious that it seems as though they acquire concrete existence. Why would a grown up like him be afraid of a mother? From a mother, whom he watched dying? The beautiful, but too thin, girl is in the shower; she is not aware that her body serves Norman Bates as the object of sexual pleasure. She seems to be in need of purification; there are signs of anxiety in her eyes, showing themselves in hesitations.

However, she feels secure as she is safe in that hotel. After all, the smile on Norman’s face has been really reassuring. The smooth and beautiful bath is interrupted with the apparition of a dark figure behind the semi-opaque bath curtains. The girl doesn’t seem to be aware of it at all. Suddenly, the scared face and screaming mouth of the beautiful, but too thin, girl covers the camera. One cut. Two cuts. Three, four, five. The girl falls into the bath, lifeless but still beautiful. Blood unites with water; but as always blood wins. The bathroom doesn’t look very safe now.

The girl’s body is twisted in a very strange position. Would Norman masturbate again if he saw the bending eautiful body? By the way, where is he? This murder is the beginning of our journey to the Psycho cycle. However, even Freud would not come up with a potential suspect. But he may be of help, when Norman comes into the girl’s bathroom and cleans up the mess, as calmly as a maid. He utters something about his mother while doing the “messy” work, that makes us aware that the murderess is his mother. Mother? Didn’t he kill her years ago?

Then, he carefully puts the body into her car and drives the car into the lake. How could he be so calm? Then comes elder woman voices from the mansion, we see Norman carrying corpse, talking to it with his frozen smile, sometimes taking orders, sometimes giving. Here, attributable innocence and guilt shift places. A bit obsessive, resented, sexually abnormal but smiling Norman Bates becomes the symbol of evil in the movie. No psycho mothers, no psycho serial killers, no rapists but our Norman Bates is the one behind these murder, and many other before.

However, he is not even aware of these; he thinks that they are all his mother’s job. Mother? He still thinks that his mother is still alive. That’s why he keeps the corpse in the cobwebby fruit cellar; that’s why he still talks to her. But why? Even if Norman is seriously abnormal, why does he want to keep his mother alive in his mind although she let him down? Mr. Freud loves to reply “why”s. However, he begins to talk about Oedipus Rex, written by Sophocles. In that play, Oedipus is propheted that he will kill his own father, marry his own mother and his children will bring shame upon him.

However, denying the prophets of Apollo the foreseer, he runs away in search for different fates. Freud accounted for this uncanny hold which the play exercises upon us by suggesting that in it we see ourselves, for the oracle given to Oedipus is also, he said, given to very man. However, according to Freud who claimed that men’s deeds are largely inherent in his nature, men’s oracle is not the prophets of Apollo, but the psychiatrists, psychologists and doctors, who foretell necessary and inevitable future actions with detailed inspections in their fields.

In a sense, if Norman Bates had met Freud and spoken his mind to him, Freud, like Apollo, could have foretold him that he would eventually become a murderer. At this point, Mrs. Bates’ death should be revisited. After Norman killed them both, he fell into a painful loneliness, he no longer has his other, he has never had friends, never had a real personality, never had values. Furthermore, he was deeply in need of his mother to help, embrace and protect him. These conflicts made him let the “mother self” move into his mind.

However, his hatred didn’t allow her to stay as she had been, it deprived her of his womanhood and sexual attributes; for Norman she can no longer have any woman-like properties. Therefore, she became an old, ugly woman with a harsh, commanding voice in his head. Therefore, he lets her (or his shadowy feminine side or superego) move into his mind. (this figure nterferes in Norman’s life, just like he is used to be treated by his mother. Every time Norman is sexually aroused in desire for a living woman, his subconscious mother emerges and tries to stop this.

Another reason for this interference is the underlying guiltiness of cheating on his mother that he feels while masturbating. The imagined, unconscious mother is symbolized with the cobwebby fruit cellar. He lets his idealized mother live within him, because of his fear of loneliness and motherlessness, however this psychonecrophiliac union is the cruel reason beneath his ragedy; as the mother takes over him completely. Even in his memory, there are blank periods in which his mother takes the control and he does not remember.

Furthermore, the “mother” in Norman’s head is the symbol of authority for him , calling out his name in an old, harsh voice every time another feminine figure appears in his life. Mother figure is a powerful, ambiguous and self – contradictory image. Father figure changes from individual to individual; but mother figure has some basic and distinct same images in everyone’s head. Mothers invoke memories of comfort; but also of punishment and fear. This image does not have tragic differences from culture to culture.

Because of this prototypical figure, which every individual has in some way a connection to, and because of the identical experiences this results in, there is a collective unconscious that is sometimes hidden, sometimes helpful and sometimes over active in the collective conscious. In our case, as Freud would also agree, Norman Bates’ mother figure becomes the dominant decision organ of his mind; even though he knows that she died, according to him, she “came back.

The role of motherhood is a blank space in his mind, and e deeply needs to fill that space without being let down by “whores” – i. e. real women. His tragedy (and the movie) ends with the combination of the unconscious (mother) and the conscious (Norman) which results in Norman’s dread, making him aware of everything. However, he finds another way, as he always does, to escape from this dread by letting his body and his mother’s dead mind get united and take the control.

In the end, Norman sits immobile in a chair, imagining himself the desiccated corpse in the fruit cellar who couldn’t hurt a fly. We see the empty sockets of her skull peeking out from behind his eyes. PSYCHO CYCLE In Psycho II (1983), Norman has been cured. Mother has been exorcised, but that just means that her role is available again if anyone else should want it In Psycho III (1986), the audience see Norman in full form again, still believing that his mother is alive, but “just goes a little crazy sometimes.

From his careless words “But you came back” to his mother, we understand that it does not make any difference for Norman who takes the mother role; as in his own mind, she should be the idealized Mrs. Bates. She always comes back to him, sometimes as Miss Spool, sometimes s the unconscious mother. In the third (literally fourth) movie, the subconscious mother carries on living in him; but it is him who desires to kill but again to protect his mother. He becomes willing to kill.

However, something unexpected happens, and Norman falls in love with a living woman, the ex-nun and after admitting this to himself he slashes his mother to ribbons. The reason beneath this decision of his is that he and his mother are equal then; he has killed her lover and (in his mind) his mother has killed the woman he is in love with. This notion exorcises the mother figure from is mind. Therefore, the post of motherhood becomes empty, with no one else left to take it.

This release from the dominant mother figure in fact symbolizes his postponed personality transition from the phallic phase to genital phase. ) In the movie, Psycho IV, Norman appears as a husband. However, although the commanding mother voice has been cut off, he decides to kill his wife when he learns that she is pregnant. But his real aim behind this decision is to prevent his wife from becoming a “mother”, which cognition becomes nothing but an obsession. According to this obsessed point of iew, any mother “in flesh” has possibility to let him down.

This cruel decision calls the mother figure to help (“Get rid of that slut! “) and the transference of the Mother into Norman’s mind takes place. Though it is never stated as such, it is clear that Norman murders Norma because, by virtue of her inconsistent, positively sexual behavior, she has forfeited the role of “Mother,” now rigidly defined by the superego “Mother” who has been firmly installed in Norman’s head. Norma makes the fatal error of renouncing the role of Mother and becoming one of the “whores” — i. e. , real live women.

Personality Psychology Essay

Psychology covers a vast field, and one interesting aspect of it is personality. Personality by itself involves various issues. Some of which basic aspects are Psychoanalytic, Ego, Biological, Behaviorist, Cognitive, Trait, Humanistic and Interactionist. Though personality as a subject fascinates me a lot, what interests me the most in this subject is behaviorism. For me different types of behaviors are amazing to learn about, mainly the behavior therapy, collective behavior, crime and punishment, and Social behavior and peer acceptance in hildren.

I chose Behaviorism over the other aspects because I believe Behavior determines human personality and is very interesting. You can tell what one is by his behavior, and one behaves according to what place he has in society. By doing this paper on Behavior, I hope to get a better understanding of, if behavior develops a personality or if personality guides behavior. I also see behaviorism helping me in the future with my personal and professional career by understanding human personality and behaviour better than I do.

No matter what our major is, if you can determine one’s personality by his behavior you can really get your work done from that person and understand the better than you would otherwise. This person could be your employee or your employer. Behavior Therapy Behavior therapy is the application of experimentally derived principles of learning to the treatment of psychological disorders. The concept derives primarily from work of Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov.

Behavior-therapy techniques differ from psychiatric methods, particularly psychoanalysis, in that hey are predominately symptom (behaviour) oriented and show little or no concern for unconscious processes, achieving new insight, or effecting fundamental personality change. Behavior therapy was popularized by the U. S. psychologist B. F. Skinner, who worked with mental patients in a Massachusetts state hospital. From his work in animal learning, Skinner found that the establishment and extinction of responses can be determined by the way reinforcers, or rewards, are given.

The pattern of reward giving, both in time and frequency, is known as a schedule of reinforcement. The gradual change in behavior in approximation of the desired result is known as shaping. More recent developments in behavior therapy emphasize the adaptive nature of cognitive processes. Behaviour-therapy techniques have been applied with some success to such disturbances as enuresis (bed-wetting), tics, phobias, stuttering, obsessive-compulsive behavior, drug addiction, neurotic behaviours of normal persons, and some psychotic conditions.

It has also been used in training the mentally retarded. Collective Behavior Much of collective behaviour is dramatic, npredictable and frightening, so the early theories and many contemporary popular views are more evaluative than analytic. The French social psychologist Gustave Le Bon identified the crowd and revolutionary movements with the excesses of the French Revolution; the U. S. psychologist Boris Sidis was impressed with the resemblance of crowd behavior to mental disorder. Many of these early theories depicted collective behaviour returned to an earlier stage of development.

Freud retained this emphasis in viewing crowd behaviour and many ther forms of collective behaviour as regressions to an earlier stage of childhood development; he explained, for example, the slavish identification that followers have for leaders on the basis of such regression. More sophisticated recent efforts to treat collective behavior as a pathological manifestation employ social disorganization as an explanatory approach. From this point of view collective behavior erupts as an unpleasant symptom of frustration and malaise stemming from cultural conflict, organizational failure, and other social malfunctions.

The distinctive feature of this approach is a eluctance to take seriously the manifest contest of collective behaviour. Neither the search for enjoyment in recreational fad, the search for spiritual meaning on a religious sect, nor the demand for equal opportunity in an interest-group movement is accepted to face value. An opposite evaluation of many forms of collective behaviour has become part of the analytic perspective in revolutionary approaches to society. From the revolutionist¦¦s point of view a much collective behavior is a release of creative impulses from the repressive effects of establish social orders.

Why do psychologists do experiments

Psychology is very hard to define due to it’s very nature and the wide range of topics that it covers. No two books will give exactly the same definition of ‘psychology’ or what subject matter it covers. However most definitions would suggest psychology to be the ‘scientific study of behaviour and mental processes. ‘ An astonishing variety of topics is covered under this definition for example topics can range from ‘obesity’ to ‘living with a divided brain’, from ‘expression of aggression’ to ‘childhood amnesia’.

No one today can afford not to know psychology as it touches every aspect of life. For example: How does the way your parents raised you affect the way you raise your kids? What effect does stress have on your immune system? How effective is psychotherapy when treating depression? How should instruments in a nuclear power station be designed to minimise human error? Can men care for infants as ably as women?

Psychologists work on these and many more questions which need to be answered as through psychological theories and research we can learn to better understand ourselves, what motivates us and how to handle situations in a better way although each situation and the individuals involved in it are unique, some things could be applied to real life. For example parents may learn that reward is better than punishment when handling their kids.

Also such theories and research have and will continue to influence laws concerning a number of areas such as capital punishment, pornography, sexual behaviour (for example sexual deviancy) However as most questions like the ones mentioned above relate to the ‘psyche’ (a totality of inner experience lacking in spatial dimensions) the problem is: How do external observers investigate someone else’s psyche systematically if they cannot understand it with their senses?

Behaviourism, a movement in psychology, maintains ‘we cannot study the psyche at all because its immateriality renders it inaccessible to measurement. ‘ This is where experimentation comes in. An experiment is a ‘method of investigation in which the researcher manipulates the situation in order to bring about a change in the research participant’s behaviour. ‘ Behaviourists, use cause-effect methodology to measure the directly observable: the environment and behaviour as this is essentially the only way one can get an insight in to the answer of any of the above questions.

However many psychologists object to this exclusively behavioural definition saying that a complete denial of the psyche prevents them from making inferences about the phenomena behind behaviour. If psychologists can explain behaviour by referring to consciousness, cognition, thought or emotion, then they can risk a much richer range of predictions about behaviour. Thus many psychologists regularly construct theories about the psyche, but still choose to base them on the experimental observation of behaviour played out in measurable environmental circumstances.

Therefore experiments are essential as they allow determination of cause and affect as psychologists are interested in finding about more about human behaviour and the mental processes that underpin it. For example if we wanted to find out if absence really does make the heart grow fonder (Does ‘absence really make the heart grow founder? ). Is it enough simply to look around and make informal observations and on that basis come to a conclusion we feel happy with?

Of course in one sense it is, and as naturally inquisitive people, we do this sort of thing all the time as a means of forming our own opinions. But the fact of the matter is that such a process inevitably leads different people to different conclusions – because we each focus on different information, have different experiences, have different agendas. Thus some people think absence really does make the heart grow fonder while others think the opposite, that Absence leads the heart to wander; or Out of sight, is out of mind.

To know which is correct or when each is correct and, more importantly, why, we need to act as scientists, not lay-scientists. Using the scientific method to answer such questions differentiates psychology from other disciplines that address similar questions. The scientific method is a procedure for acquiring and testing knowledge through systematic observation or experimentation (e. g. , through use of empirical methods) and plays an essential role in achieving the goals/objectives psychology has set out for itself.

Psychology sets out to:- cientifically study behaviour and mental processes promote human welfare Research is ‘any honest attempt to study a problem systematically or to add to man’s knowledge of a problem’ (Penguin Dictionary of Psychology) The goals of psychological research are: describe behaviour explain behaviour predict behaviour control behaviour In order to investigate psychological theories, psychologist have a number of research methods they could use. For any method there is a compromise between conflicting advantages and disadvantages.

Some of the methods available to psychologists are experimental/scientific, field experiment, natural experiment, correlation, observation, case study, survey, cross-sectional, longitudinal and cross-cultural. They are not necessarily exclusive for example you can have a cross-cultural observation. A brief explanation of a few of the methods:- Experimental: the relationship between two things is explored by deliberately producing a change in one variable (the independent variable, IV) and recording what effect this has on the other variable (the dependent variable, DV).

This method is advantageous as it can be well controlled and replicated however it can be very artificial thus making it hard to generalise to real life. Observational: behaviour is observed in its natural environment. All ‘variables are free to vary and interference is kept to a minimum’ No independent variable is manipulated but nevertheless a hypothesis can be tested. It is most often used with young children, wild animals, uncooperative subjects, when something is studied for the first time and when there are ethical objections to manipulating variables, e. looking at the effects of death.

This method boasts high ecological validity and if the observer remains undetected most experimental effects are avoided e. g. experimenter bias and demand characteristics. However you can’t infer cause and effect, there are a lack of controls and it can’t be replicated. Case Study: detailed account of a single individual: personal history, background, test results, ratings, interviews and so on. It is advantageous as it relates to real life, gives rich qualitative data and may be the only way to study atypical behaviour.

On the otherhand it is time consuming and expensive, is not very scientific, is unstructured, unreplicable and unreliable. A limited sample also makes it hard to generalise to the population as a whole. In conclusion psychologists do experiments as they are interested in finding more about human behaviour and the mental processes that underpin it. Experiments are needed in order to do this as observation is not very reliable were as experiments are scientifically based and usually allow determination of cause and affect thus helping to solve the many mysteries of life.

Is Psychology a Science

In order to answer this question it is important to understand the definitions of both psychology and science. The word ‘psychology’ comes from the Greek ‘psyche’ (or soul) and ‘logos’ (or study), which came to be known as the ‘study of the soul’. The American Heritage Dictionary defines psychology as: 1. the science dealing with the mind and with mental and emotional processes 2. the science of human and animal behavior.

In its pure definition the dictionary has provided us with a clue to the answer, it describes science as: 1. systematized knowledge derived from observation, study, etc. 2. ranch of knowledge, esp. one that systematizes facts, principles, and methods 3. skill or technique In order to prove this claim we have to look at whether or not psychology can fill this definition above. Scientific study is a valid way of coming to an understanding of life, and can be very useful in every area of life. Science develops theories based on what is observed. It examines each theory with rigorous and scrupulous tests to see if it describes reality. The scientific method works well in observing and recording physical data and in reaching conclusions which either confirm or nullify a theory.

During the mid-19th century, scholars (although at that time probably termed philosophers) wanted to study human nature with the aim of applying the scientific method to observe, record, and treat human behavior that was deemed as unnatural. They believed that if people could be studied in a scientific manner, there would be a greater accuracy in understanding present behavior, in predicting future behavior, and, most controversially, in altering behavior through scientific intervention. There are many areas of psychology, each attempting to explain behavior from slightly different perspectives;

Social psychology is concerned with the effects of social situations on human behavior. Personality theorists study individual behavior. Comparative psychologists study animal behaviors across the range of species Physiological psychologists are concerned with the biological basis of behavior. Developmental psychologists study principles and processes responsible for change throughout life. Cognitive psychologists investigate memory, thought, problem solving, and the psychological aspects of learning.

Analysis of behavior studies the conditions under which a behavior can be learned and the ituations that cause that behavior to occur. Learning is an area of psychology exploring how new behaviors are learned and maintained. Clinical psychologists study ways to help individuals and groups of individuals change their behavior. Industrial and organizational psychologists are concerned with the physical and social aspects of people’s work environments as they affect work output. Community psychologists use scientific methods to study and solve social problems.

As Western describes, the psychological paradigm is a collection of assumptions used to make sense of a subject area or xperience, this can be applied to psychology itself. Psychology lacks one unified paradigm but has four perspectives that search for its understanding; The pyschodynamic perspective believes that behavior is a result of unconscious processes, personal motivation and early childhood experiences. It’s most famous advocate was Sigmund Freud. Its method of data collection rely heavily on interpreting discussion, dreams and fantasies, actions, case studies and a limited amount of experimentation.

The behaviorist perspective believes that behavior is learned and selected by environmental consequences. Its method of data collection relies heavily on experimentation conducted in the scientific laboratory where the factors studied can be controlled; or it may take place in a real life setting where more natural behavior is studied and far more variables exist. The cognitive perspective believes that behavior is a result of information processing, storage in the brain, transformation and the retrieval of information.

The methods of data collection used are again experimentation but with much use of computer modeling. The evolutionary perspective believes that psychological rocesses echo the evolutionary processes of natural selection. Its method of data collection includes the deduction of explanations for behavior, and comparisons between species and cultures. It also involves a limited amount of experimentation. Of these four perspectives all lend common similarities to the traditional sciences. All have elements of controlled experimentation, as does physics or chemistry.

Cognitive perspectives use computer modeling, as does mathematics. There are similarities, but there are also differences to any other sciences, such as the study of dreams and fantasies. The methods of experimentation and research in psychology is completed on a scientific basis. Psychological experimental research would involve the manipulation of a situation to examine the way in which the subjects of an experiment react, in order to observe cause and effect. The experimenter manipulates independent variables and the subjects responses would prove the dependant variables.

By measuring the subjects responses, the experimenter can tell if the manipulation has had an effect. Psychological hypotheses are sought to operationalise – to turn an abstract concept into a concrete argument. This process is scientific in its element. The hypothesis is framed, variables are operationalised separately, a standard procedure is developed that is maintained throughout the experiment, subjects are scientifically selected, results are tested and conclusions drawn. Control groups are often used, similar in essence to control chemicals used in chemistry.

These control groups are not exposed to the manipulation but instead to neutral conditions, providing a standards to compare results. In some cases researchers carry out blind studies where subjects are kept unaware of the aspects of the study. Double blind studies have been used in the past where the researchers are kept blind too. A scientific subject knows its own limitations. Psychology attempts to study complex phenomena in laboratory and field situations where validity is called into question. Results contrast with differing personal understandings of researchers which will always differ to some extent.

In a physical science a variance of error may be intolerable above 2%, in psychology 50% may be an acceptable level. Every psychological experiment and theory is evaluated with the same level of criticality as that of the traditional sciences. Questions are asked over the theoretical framework, the results validity and its relationship with the hypothesis, the quality and range of sample and if it is representative, the conclusions that can be drawn form the data and broader conclusions that may be apparent.

Finally the studies are questioned on their meanings and ethics to operationalise the original hypothesis. Psychology has adopted the scientific mode. However, from a strictly scientific point of view, it has not been able to meet the requirements of true science. In attempting to evaluate the status of psychology as a cientific study, the American Psychological Association appointed Sigmund Koch to conduct a study, employing over eighty noted scholars in assessing the facts, hypotheses, and methods of psychology. In 1983, the results were published in a series entitled ‘Psychology: A Study of Science’.

Koch describes what he believes to be the delusion in thinking of psychology as a science: The truth is that psychological statements which describe human behavior or which report results from tested research can be scientific. However, when there is a move from describing human ehavior to explaining it there is also a move from science to opinion. Here it is important to make the distinction between psychology and psychiatry. Academic psychology is a scientific project, initiated by Wilhelm Wundt at the University of Leipzig at around 1885.

His work was the study of the average adult human mind, and the scientific method used was introspection. His approaches have long since been abandoned, as have many of his ideals, but not the basic idea of understanding and describing human functioning within a scientific context. Psychotherapy, on the other hand, is no more a science than that f civil engineering. Ideally, scientifically investigated therapeutic techniques and methods are used together with ethical and philosophical principles in order to achieve a desired outcome. Psychotherapy, then, is a mixture of a craft and an art and may not be called a science.

Psychology breeds many conflicting explanations of man and his behavior. Psychologist Roger Mills, in his 1980 article, “Psychology Goes Insane, Botches Role as Science,” says: “The field of psychiatry today is literally a mess. There are as many techniques, methods and theories around as there are researchers and therapists. I have personally seen therapists convince their clients that all of their problems come from their mothers, the stars, their biochemical make-up, their diet, their lifestyle and even the “karma” from their past lives.

These opinions are describing psychotherapy and not psychology in its core. Remembering that psychology is the scientific study of the behavior of humans and animals, we should look at their methods of study. As we have seen, psychologists use scientific methods in an attempt to understand and predict behavior, to develop procedures for changing behavior, and to evaluate treatment strategies. Mitchell and Jolley discuss the question of whether psychology is a science in the first chapter of their text ‘Research Design Explained’ (3rd Edition).

Their conclusions support the claim that psychology is a science. They discuss the facts that psychology produces objective evidence that can be replicated (replicated with the same success as physics and chemistry experiments). That it unearths observable, objective evidence that either supports or refutes existing beliefs and creates new knowledge. And that psychology is open- minded about claims, even those that go against common sense and ceptical about ideas that, even though they make sense, have not been supported by any research evidence.

If we can define a science using subjective methods then Psychology is definitely a science. Psychology represents an empirical science, its methods demanding empirical testing of hypotheses. Many empirical results of psychology are subject to personal interpretation and intense dispute. This can be seen as a function of the phenomena that is psychology. But the key to resolving these disputes is to turn back to the empirical methods and pit alternative interpretations against each other.

Albert Ellis and William Glasser

Albert Ellis and William Glasser have been in the mainstream of psychological society for over four decades. Both have contributed greatly to modern psychotherapy. The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) of Albert Ellis and the Reality therapy of William Glasser have endured the trendy world of psychology and in fact as they are based in ancient philosophy (Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius), they also remain the foundation for brief therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and ecclectisism. Their strength is in the flexibility and simplicity inherent in each.

They go directly to the problem and focus energy there without lengthy psychotherapy. Both prolific writers and dedicated therapists have expanded their views and adapted with the times. They are true humanists in that through non-profit organizations they have been able to alleviate much human suffering by providing sources for personal and professional growth. In 1955, Albert Ellis used the fundamental concept of truth and logic to help people overcome the obstacles in their lives. By using mans’ high power of rationality Ellis has allowed us to use our cognitive abilities to overcome environmental or social situations. By 1975 Ellis combined Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) with Rational Behavior Training (RBT) and with the collaboration of many other noted therapists, created Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT).

Ellis tells us in a new Guide to Rational Living (1975): I (A. E. ) originated the system around the early part of 1955 and gave a first paper on it at the 1956 meeting of the American Psychological Association in Chicago Since that time, RET has gone through many minor and some major changes, originated by myself and some of my main collaborators-especially Dr. Robert A. Harper, Dr. H. Jon Geis, Edward Garcia, Dr. William Knause, Dr. John M. Gullo, Dr. Paul Hauck, Dr. Donald R. Meichenbaum, Dr. Janet L. Wolf, Dr. Arnold A. Lazarus, Dr. Aaron T. Beck, and (most notably) Dr. Maxie C. Maultsbie Jr. It has taken on other names than Ret-such as Rational Therapy (RT), semantic therapy, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and (quite popularly) rational behavior training (RBT)(pg. 202) Based on the strongest tenets of cognitive and behavioral therapy, REBT helps individuals to challenge the cause and effect relationships they believe exist between external events and their own emotional states.

Ellis writes: RET employs an A-B-C method of viewing human personality and disturbance. When trying to help a person, the therapist usually begins with C-the upsetting emotional Consequence that he [sic] has recently experienced. Typically he has been rejected by someone (this rejection can be called A, the Activating Experience) and then feels anxious, worthless or depressed at C. He wrongly believes that A, his being rejected has caused C, his feelings ; and he may even overtly voice this belief by saying something like, “She rejected me and that made me depressed.

The individual can be shown that A does not and cannot really cause C- that an Activating Event in the outside world cannot possibly create any feeling or emotional consequence in his head and gut. For if this were true virtually everyone who gets rejected would have to feel just as depressed as he does; and this is obviously not the case. C, then is really caused by some intervening variable, or by B; and B is the individuals belief system. So there is the simplicity of Ellis and RET; the knowledge that the individual chooses to believe and behave in a way that causes the distress.

The confrontational and often playful style of Ellis’s REBT helps people to recognize and change parts of their thinking that are insensible, inaccurate and not useful. The counselor then confronts the client with this truth and helps them move towards greater self – control. “Disputing” is the type of confronting the therapist uses to help people rethink those dysfunctional beliefs into more healthy and reasonable ones. In the example above, the dispute was whether the A caused C. It is important for the client to be confronted with that disputation of his perception.

It is not uncommon for Ellis to call irrational beliefs “nuttiness” or “nonsense” or “silly” or “idiotic”. Other disputations have to do with more complex or long standing personal beliefs that encumber the client. Statements like ” I am no good at reading, I will never get ahead! ” or ” I am worthless no one will ever love me! ” have no helpful, healthy basis for an individual’s thinking and may therefore be disputed or put to the test of logic. Logic implies that if something is true then it can be supported by fact. If it cannot be supported by fact, then it is an irrational belief.

Ellis is quick to interject with “who said so? ” or, “where is your proof of that? ” or “where is it written? ” The poor reader needs to learn that reading ability like the desire to grow for the better, are things that can be changed. The lonely, insecure person need only understand that love can be reached like any other goal with a little work and perseverance. But Ellis can be very emphatic in pointing out the illogic of someone’s thinking. It is up to the therapist to teach clients new ways of thinking, feeling and behaving so that they can get better at reading to get ahead or to find a new loveable self-concept.

But Ellis does not sugar coat the lessons, he is abrupt, direct, and confrontational. Ellis is like a father or coach or teacher when counseling. His REBT is both practical and goal oriented as it focuses on new ways of thinking, feeling and behaving towards personal fulfillment. Goals like reading better to get ahead or creating a new self – image involve attacking those inner obstacles of irrational beliefs. He encourages strength and bravery in the battle for self-fulfillment. Emphasis is placed on individual responsibility to enhance personal growth and deal with problems through hard work.

Clients strive to think, feel and behave in a more functional manner through practice and homework. Owning those irrational beliefs causing emotional distress and accepting that they are the real place to focus energy, is key to REBT. Ellis will not let anyone slide. He may support and collaborate with the client to identify those existing problems to learn new behaviors. In the process of helping clients deal with the unsavory aspects of affect, Ellis ingeniously uses emotional and behavioral techniques designed to reduce the upset and maximize personal effectiveness.

These include guided imagery, assertiveness training, behavioral homework, communication skill training and others. All of these focus on the present. Regardless of past realities or self-concepts, the client is allowed to try new ways of looking at the world. Guided imagery helps the client to perceive and believe that success is attainable by picturing or imagining a new scenario where the client is reading with more ability, or being loved or winning in some other way. It is a form of hypnosis usually done in a calm atmosphere employed with progressive relaxation techniques.

The client reframes the self-concept of the past with images based on hope and logic. Logic requires that for a person to change, one must imagine that it is possible and achievable with a little work. This technique is preparatory in nature for goals like conquering fears, but is very important in creating a relaxing state at any time. Guided imagery is a skill that the client can use as a post-therapy tool to be used for life if needed. Assertiveness training allows the client to act on the idea that personal worth and rights can be defended with quiet dignity or insistence.

The idea is to train clients how to not be bullied, manipulated, or otherwise abused. More importantly it trains the individual how to express one’s own needs and desires without resorting to bullying, manipulating or other abuse. Clients often go through guided imagery sessions prior to practicing assertiveness in the real world. Part of the therapy requires that a certain amount of practical behaviors be practiced away from therapy. Stimulus control is a way to keep a client from indulging in unwanted behaviors by having the presence of mind to avoid chances to do them.

Ellis writes in How to Make Yourself Happy (1999): “Is stimulus control an inelegant solution to your indulgence problems? Yes, to some extent it is because if you allowed yourself to be in tempting situations and still resisted them, you would be working harder to overcome your low frustration tolerance (LFT) and would be changing your irrational beliefs that create and sustain this LFT. There is no reason you can’t do both: dispute your irrational beliefs and also employ a measure of stimulus control. “(Pp 161-162)

The client may be required to do homework like logging the amount of times one was assertive or used profanity or practiced phonics and reading or repeated self affirmations. Interestingly sometimes the task is paradoxical in nature. Do not think of your fear of sidewalk cracks is turned around to think of your fear of sidewalk cracks. Ellis as coach, parent, and teacher insists on clients taking their work seriously. The homework is checked in therapy and the client is sometimes shamed for not trying or not trying hard enough. REBT has a refreshing if not startling amount of confrontation in the conduct of sessions.

This doesn’t suggest an overall brusque manner on his part. Recently, Ellis has written How to cope with a Fatal Illness and Optimal Aging, and it is clear that his style is flexible in that he still confronts but is very aware of the sensitivity surrounding special issues like those of aging and dying. What is consistent across all his work is that he does not wish anyone to be miserable if it is possible to avoid it. To whit: he is very caring as a therapist as person and has dedicated his life to make people feel better in dealing with life’s travails.

The cognitive behavioral techniques of Albert Ellis’ REBT are mirrored by William Glasser in Reality therapy. William Glasser is a medical doctor, a psychiatrist. He and Dr. G. L. Harrington developed Reality therapy in defiance of traditional psychotherapy, which they saw as severely lacking, being built on the wrong premises. People are not psychotic or demented or schizophrenic, but rather frustrated in fulfilling their basic needs. Glasser can reduce client distress down to a matter of three basic concerns: Reality, Responsibility and Right and wrong (rectitude).

Reality is the unchanging world that the client must live in with all its’ rules, limitations and demands while trying to fulfill basic psychological needs like love and self respect. Responsibility is inherent within the individual to act in accordance with the confines of its’ rules, limitation, and demands. Glasser (1965) writes: “Responsibilitythe ability to fulfill one’s needs, and to do so in a way that does not deprive others from the ability to fulfill their needs. “(Page 13) Right and wrong have more to do with the choices of behavior that people make and their inherent consequences.

Personal responsibility for acting justly in life is the basis for Reality therapy. Reality therapy like REBT is based in the here and now. Accepting that the past may contribute to a clients’ current condition, Glasser writes in Reality Therapy (1965) that past irresponsibility has little to do with what can be changed right now, calling past problems “psychiatric garbage. “(Page 37) The “what” of behavior is important then, not the “why” a client did something. The question is then, if the behavior is one way, can it be better? This is a very simple and straightforward look at therapy.

What behavior is responsible for causing the difficulty and how do we modify it? He highlights in the Identity Society (1975) principles of Reality therapy: involvement of the therapist or helper, awareness of the current behavior, evaluating behavior to see if it is good for the client or people who care about the client, Planning responsible behavior, commitment to the plan (usually with a signed contract), non acceptance of excuses for irresponsible behavior, non punishment of failures (only praise and reasonably agreed upon consequences). (pp. 77-102)

The techniques employed by Glasser are as simple as the concept itself. Glasser is very paternal in his demeanor and very patient but stern in his approach to those resistant to change. Perhaps his work in correctional institutions and school systems has tempered his style. He sets firm guidance for change (acting responsibly) and challenges the client to meet the grade. His insistence on discipline reflects his notion that when people refuse to meet the rules of the world they cannot be fulfilled. Glasser knows his clients can succeed, so he sets some high standards for changing.

He is moralistic in his approach also as he posits that pleasure for pleasure sake is not redeeming. (page 38) Glasser wants mankind to act reasonably and with a purpose. His idea of right and wrong does not sit well with some psychologists who allow clients to act according to whim. Glasser does not agree that people who act bizarrely or irresponsibly are sick and therefore not responsible for their actions; rather, he believes that they are acting in a manner of trying to get what they want, and need to be reminded when their behavior is inappropriate. He expects the therapist to model behavior and engender trust by that behavior.

He suggests in Reality Therapy (1965): “The therapist must be a very responsible person-tough, interested, human, and sensitive Neither aloof, superior, nor sacrosanct always strong never expedient. He [sic] must withstand the patients’ requests for sympathy, for an excess of sedatives, for justification of his actions no matter how the patient pleads or threatens”(page22). If this sounds severe, it is actually based on a kind of tough love. Glasser is humanistic and very accepting of even the worst of clients but he refuses to be manipulated, wallow in the self-justification of why someone does something.

He requires that the client accept the reality that their irresponsible behaviors may be harmful to themselves and others. Like the alcoholic who must admit to the reality of that lifestyle before beginning the road to recovery, Glasser leads clients to face reality. He is sensitive enough not to push too hard, in fact relies on the client to make moves toward self- improvement as he patiently offers his therapeutic services. Unlike Ellis who will goad, cajole and otherwise actively direct the client toward change, Glasser leaves the client with full responsibility to make the initial first move.

Glasser is not less warm than Ellis but perhaps more stoic and inflexible in his demeanor due to his convictions. It is simply a matter of technique when helping the client change. Glasser shows his human side in Choice Theory (1998): Huge numbers of people are not willing to settle for lives with no happiness. They are not willing to turn their lives over to the search for pleasure without happiness. Many of these unhappy people want very much to find others to love, but because of the reality of their life situations – they are poor, old, uneducated, unattractive, workless, homeless, sick or criminal, the list is long, – they are unable to.

There may be an answer to the poignant question posed by the Beatles: All the lonely people, where do they all come from? They come from a world in which they are separated from their husbands, wives, children, teachers, and employers by this destructive psychology (external locus of control). (Page 195) Glasser as therapist person is very sensitive and caring, he understands behavioral training in the discipline arena and juxtaposes it with societies’ notion of punishment reward (stimulus/response).

He will encourage an attempt at changing, even if it results in failure, thus exhibiting confidence in the clients ability to eventually win and not turning the situation in to one of conditional regard (I will help you only if you succeed all the time. ) This is in the tradition of the very best coaches and mentors as well as therapists. Glasser will give time out only for the length of time it would take for an offender to figure out a way to negotiate a way to work within the rules. In this ingenious way, he always leaves the power, control and responsibility in the clients’ hands, where he argues it should be.

In The Reality Therapy Reader (1976) Barbara Hobbie writes: Reality therapy stresses warm human involvement; shuns pedagogic psychiatric categories such as dementia praecox, paranoid schizophrenia, and manic depression; avoids examination and analysis of early trauma or past history; holds patients responsible for their own recovery; and, in fact, rejects the idea that there is such a thing as mental illness. What Reality therapy seeks to do, in short, is to force people to face their own reality and reshape their behavior in order to fulfill their needs.

When people do not fulfill their needs they regard themselves as failures. (Page 253) The therapy itself is in the hands of laymen as well as those who come to therapy. Ellis and Glasser offer uncomplicated ways to help individuals change. Generally anyone can read either therapist’s works and with enough desire can head toward change. They are both matter of fact, no nonsense therapies based in the here and now. Both require the client to evaluate, confront their behaviors, and seek goals of attaining alternative behaviors.

REBT and Reality Therapy have stood the test of time and some of their techniques remain the cornerstone of many cognitive and behavioral as well as many eclectic therapies. They are simple in concept and easy to put into practical use. They are both user-friendly therapies available to laymen, in books, tapes, and videos and now on the Internet. Both have undergone revisions, adapting to the increased value on multicultural sensitivity. The original works of both Ellis and Glasser are written in the masculine second person with many sexist, racist (albeit innocent terminology based on the norms of that era) and ageist language.

What existed in the early works of both and remain to date is an unparalleled commitment to excellence in the field of psychotherapy. Ellis and Glasser were both reformers and breakaways from the traditional psychotherapy of their day. Both are closer to the nature of human misery in that they have defined what frustrates so many human beings, and that is humans need to be fulfilled with love and feelings of worth that come from success in life. They think and behave in order to become fulfilled and when they are unfulfilled, their thoughts and behaviors are the problem.

While Ellis and Glasser recognized it they understood that many people are not capable of being scientific. To whit: most people routinely think illogically, irrationally and often with emotion based on impulse. What both gentlemen have offered is a rational way to see the world and a simple plan to clarify that view for better navigation within it. They pick up where other therapies fall short by allowing the client to experience the flush of pride and strength that comes from taking responsibility for their behaviors and consequences that come with them as they grow towards personal choice and freedom.

Other therapies do a disservice by suggesting that the client is not to blame for responding to the forces of the world and the demands of society. Those psychologists take the responsibility away from clients and deny them the refreshing touch of reality. Both therapies give the client a place in the world and strength to move through it confidently without drugs or denying their place in it. Both are highly productive in a group setting. They do what drugs cannot, that is: change behaviors that weaken nervous and immune systems in the first place.

They do have their fundamental differences even though at face value they are inconsequential when comparing the two therapists. Albert Ellis is fun spirited and takes life not so seriously. It is part of his personal philosophy that there are no “shoulds”, or musts or other absolutes with which to govern ones life by. In fact he revised his writing style to avoid hypocrisy when other colleagues and students noted that his first writings were full of shoulds, musts and other absolutes.

He seems to enjoy life because he is not bound by any absolutist credo. He is free to work as hard or as lightly as he pleases. Without such pressure he is absolutely prolific, working sometimes 7 days a week, flying all around the globe giving seminars and maintaining his post as chairman of the Albert Ellis Institute of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. William Glasser on the other hand is kind but more sedate in his professional comportment. He is warm sensitive and caring but maintains a very dignified composure when working with clients.

It is against his nature to ridicule a client, as he is certain that the risk of harming a client through such behavior does not justify the gamble. His view on confrontation is basically to read a client and see what the client is ready for. He likens pushing too much to denying young lovers to see each other only to force them to elope. William Glasser would rather coax a client towards growth with his appeal as a steadfast, competent, caring helper rather than behave in a way to scare or insult the client. He would never “shame” a client, as would Ellis because it is a form of punishment.

Glasser does not believe in punishment. Punishment to him is an external control that can seldom be effective because people understand that they have choices and never internalize (when the locus of control is external) the lesson intended by punishment. He was notably successful for not using punishment when he worked at the V. A. hospital, the Ventura school and other institutions in California through the years. Glasser as well is very prolific in his works and is chairman of the William Glasser Institute.

Hysteria – a very unique and abnormal mental disease

Hysteria is a very unique and abnormal mental disease. What makes it so interesting is that it causes physical symptoms that someone would not normally experience. ‘Mental conflicts are unconsciously converted to symptoms that appear to be physical, but for which no organic cause is found’;(Hysteria 1). One major outburst of hysteria occurred in 1692, resulting in the deaths of twenty-four innocent lives. ‘By the time hysteria had spent itself, twenty-four people had died’;(TWHSTSV 2). This type of hysteria was mass hysteria, where a group of people are in a frenzy as opposed to just one individual.

Evidently, hysteria is a very serious disease and has the potential to cause many avoidable deaths. Mass hysteria is a frenzy that has the potential to effect an entire community, state or possibly even country or nation. ‘[It is] a condition where a group of people dash about wildly, screaming and sometimes talking as if another person is in them; experiencing rapid breathing, spasms of extremities or even fainting’;(Hayes 1). In some ways, it can be look on as a chain reaction. ‘It is often caused by new problems that worsen existing difficulties’;(TWHSTSV 2).

When one person sees another running about wildly and finds out what the cause is, he or she will do the same; until eventually the idea spreads to the entire population. Some problems that cause these are ‘overly strict regulations, lack of open communication between the authorities and the residents, as well as inadequate healthy recreational outlets’;(Hayes 1). All these issues are things that if performed, can help prevent or calm an outbreak of mass hysteria. In the Salem Witch Trials, the ‘existing difficulties’; that led up to the witchcraft theory were ordinary stresses of seventeenth century life in Massachusetts.

These include ‘a strong belief in the devil, factions among Salem Village fanatics and rivalry with nearby Salem Town, a recent small pox epidemic and the threat of attack by warring tribes’;(D’Amario 1). All these issues led to rising fear and suspicion. ‘Soon prisons were filled with more that 150 men surrounding Salem; their names had been ‘cried out’ by tormented young girls as the cause of their pain. All would await trial for a crime punishable by death, the practice of witchcraft’;(D’Amario 1). Many theories exist as to why these girls behaved as they did and caused the witchcraft hysteria.

One theory states: ‘they had eaten bread contaminated with a hallucinogenic fungus’;(TWHSTSV 2), which supposedly caused them to act as they did. Another says: ‘they were bored and got caught up in the sudden attention they were receiving and the power they were exercising’;(TWHSTSV 2). ‘Still others contend that the accusations were the result of old jealousies among neighbors. And Chadwick Hansen in his book ‘Witchcraft at Salem’ claims that he girls were the victims of clinical hysteria themselves’;(TWHSTSV 2).

Whatever the true cause of the mass hysteria during the Salem Witch Trials, by the end 150 had been accused and twenty-four lost their lives. Nineteen people had died by hanging, and one even by being crushed by heavy stones. ‘Those accused who did not confess to working with the Devil were convicted, imprisoned, and killed’;(Witch 1). In the viewpoint of many Americans, ‘it is considered a tragedy that American society had to witness’;(Hayes 1). People who were convicted really had no chance of living.

If the people of Salem asked the convicted person whether or not he/she was a witch and the person said ‘no,’; he/she would be killed for not admitting it. Likewise, if he/she said that he/she was in fact a witch, then they would be killed for actually being one. Without a doubt, the mass hysteria that developed in Salem in 1692 was very serious and tragic. It was a group of crazy maniacs who killed innocent people to try to come up with an explanation for unexplainable events. This is a great example of the consequences hysteria can lead to, and how dangerous of a disease it really is.

History Of Psychology

Academics have always been interested in how the mind works and indeed psychology has existed in one form or another for many years, but other subjects, especially philosophy, have often overshadowed it. Often it was seen as not scientific and philosophical in the sense that there seemed to be no concrete answers within the subject. Now it is one of the most popular subjects to study and has a firm place within the sciences. It is interesting to consider how this formulation of psychology as a science arose and how this new psychology and the old psychology have been merged together.

The aim of this essay is to consider Wundt and James’s involvement in this transitional process between philosophy and psychology. The evidence presented should show that Wundt and James were extremely instructive and influential figures in the history of psychology. Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt, the son of an Evangelical pastor, was born near Manheim, Germany, on 16 August 1832. He was from an academic family with members who were scientists, professors, government officials and physicians.

He was often inattentive in his own schooling and was a habitual daydreamer. He failed his first year of high school and was sent to Heidelberg to live with an aunt. Here he improved academically and graduated at age 19. He decided to embark on a career in medicine and indeed excelled in this area. His achievements lead him into the field of physiology and he decided to proceed into the academic side of this subject by becoming a lecturer. As a lecturer at Heidelberg Wundt earned a very low salary so he began to teach courses privately.

His first course in experimental physiology he taught in his own home and attracted only four students. Wundt wished to further his career by both private teaching and private studies. His studies at this time were connected with earlier work in the fields of physiology and astronomy however these studies also carried implications for a future science of psychology. It was in these scientific experiments that Wundt developed his ideas for a hybrid of philosophy and physiology, which would eventually become psychology. He formulated two branches of psychology.

The branch he is most famous for is experimental psychology. In this he took his experiences as a philosopher studying the mind and experiences in physiology studying the body and created a new area of science. He believed the mind could be studied in relation to the body and by controlled experimental conditions new hypotheses could be formulated and either supported or not in this new field. He did not believe however, that the experimental method would prove enough to provide a balanced view of the science of psychology.

He also devised what he termed Volkerpsychologie (ethnic or folk psychology). This embraced especially the study of language, myth and custom. Once he had devised these two new branches he began to actively pursue them. In the summer of 1862 Wundt offered a new course of lectures on the experimental side entitled “Psychology from the standpoint of Natural Science”. He also wrote “Lectures on the Human and Animal Mind” (published in1863 and 1864) which was the start of Wundt’s investigation into Volkerpsychology.

Wundt resigned from his post and became even more dependent on and involved in his private studies. In 1867 Wundt was invited to write for a journal entitled “Recent Advances in the field of Physiological Psychology”. His article aroused more attention than anything else he had written and convinced many that a new scientific psychology was truly on the horizon (Fancher, 1996, page155). In this way Wundt began to become an extremely influential man. He had defined this new science and succeeded in making it an independent subject.

He had written the first widely read articles on this new area and he had begun to devise explicit rules for his experimental method in psychology. As his ideas grew so did his influence and this was apparent in 1874 when he produced his book Principles of Physiological Psychology. As well as clarifying his ideas and this new area it was also heralded as the first genuine textbook for Psychology. In 1875 he accepted a full professorship at Leipzig and it is here that Wundt cemented his place as one of the great innovators of psychology.

He installed the first fully-fledged programme in experimental psychology and as he became more established his area grew dramatically. By 1879 he had the first working research laboratory explicitly devoted to experimental psychology and students flocked to study this new science with him. In his new official “institute” of psychology graduate students could study for PhDs in experimental psychology. He was extremely important as he trained the first generation of psychologists.

In 1881 he founded the journal Philosophische Studien (Philosophical Studies) this meant that his research laboratories could publish their findings it also meant that word of this new domain of science could be more widely spread. By the 1900’s there were more than 100 psychology laboratories world-wide and psychology was recognised as an important and academic subject. Wundt continued to publish right up to his death in 1920. It is mostly his institutional developments that have lead to Wundt often being regarded as the ‘father’ of psychology.

If Wundt was the founder of psychology then William James was the man who brought the science to life in the United States. He has been described as the first of the ‘new’ psychologists in the U. S. William James was born on 11 January 1842 in New York City. He was the eldest child of a wealthy, unconventional family. His father moved the family around America and Europe and was plagued be panic attacks and nervous problems. All the children were educated privately and in this unusual household they were encouraged to formulate and discuss their own personal opinions from an early age.

James as a child was interested in and showed great aptitude at art but this career was quickly terminated by his father. James was encouraged to go into science so in 1861 James went to Harvard, where he first studied chemistry and then changed to physiology. In 1864 he enrolled at Harvard’s Medical School. After suffering from health problems James’s future was uncertain and after suffering episodes similar to his fathers he was in despair. However, he completed his medical degree but his interests were beginning to emerge in another field-philosophy.

His career still unstable and the fact that he had no real experience in any area worried James, but at last in 1872 he got he opportunity he had been waiting for. He was asked to teach on a newly instituted physiology course at Harvard. James excelled as a teacher provoking enthusiasm and interest from his students. He was charming and vivacious and very much involved personally with many of his students. He conveyed his own love of a subject to his students beautifully and with ease. James had no formal training in this area and often was learning the material himself days or hours before his lectures.

He soon renamed the course ” The Relations between Physiology and Psychology” and while he was working on his book The Principles of Psychology, between 1878 and 1890, he focused exclusively on psychology. As James’s interest in psychology grew so he was determined to spread its message. He was extremely influential in this area as he brought the new science to life and taught in a way that all could understand. He had himself benefited from his readings with regard to his nerve problems and was determined that his students would see psychology’s worth and importance in everyday life.

In 1890 James’s book The Principles of Psychology was published and even when not original, an old theme was given new life by its brilliance of formulation (Watson, 1963, page 325). James proved himself to be an accomplished writer and his exciting way of conveying psychology lead to it quickly becoming the leading psychology text in English. In later years James’s interest in psychology dwindled and he worked more in philosophy. However, James can be seen as the man that not only spread the new science academically but who brought it to the people.

As well as instilling great interest in his students he also wrote another book Briefer Course in 1892 which was read by people from all walks of life. He helped bring psychology into the classroom by applying its theories to everyday life. He was extremely important in the spread of psychology around the United States. James was influential in a way that previously academics had been wary of. Wundt liked to control all his research but James positively forced his students to think for themselves and to take psychology forward as a science.

James had no particularly new psychological ideas for his students to adhere to and he encouraged and inspired them to develop their own individual approaches. Three of James’s students G. Stanley Hall, Mary Whiton Calkins and Edward Lee Thorndike went on to contribute significantly to the development of American psychology. Wundt certainly had no startling new theories with relation to psychology but he succeeded in merging physiology and philosophy and making psychology an independent subject in its own right.

He modelled his innovations on the progressions he saw in the other sciences. Although not a inspiring man he was the first man who could be called a psychologist without qualifying the statement by reference to another, stronger interest (Leahey, 1980,page 241). He also wrote the first texts on psychology and this succeeded in highlighting this new domain of science. Wundt’s experimental psychology has influenced the psychology seen today and has helped to cement psychology’s place within the other sciences.

James had no fresh ideas about psychology; indeed his own interests seemed to lie with philosophy. However, drawing on his own experiences of psychology’s real life uses he gave the subject meaning for all. He allowed this new psychology to be read and understood by the masses. He inspired and encouraged his students and was definitely influential in the future of psychology due to the high calibre of students he gave to the field of psychology. `If Wundt founded psychology then James could be said to have brought it alive and to the people.

The Common View Of Hypnosis

The common view of hypnosis is that it is an altered state of consciousness, a trance-like state characterized by intense concentration, extreme relaxation, and high suggestibility. Many who accept this view also believe that hypnosis is the way of accessing the unconscious mind, thereby allowing the recovery of repressed memories, multiple personalities, and even memories of past lives. Since at least the 1960’s this view of hypnosis has been seen as a myth by scientifically-minded psychologists, who deny that hypnosis is an altered state which somehow allows the hypnotist to communicate directly with the unconscious mind.

There are two distinct, though related, aspects to the mythical view of hypnosis: the myth of the altered state, and the myth of the unconscious mind as a reservoir of repressed memories, numerous personalities, past lives, and for some, mythical insights and occult truths. Thoughts of hypnosis began in the 1970’s with an Australian physician Franz Mesmer who would rely heavily on the power of suggestion. Franz’s last name is where the term mesmerize came about. Later the term hypnosis emerged through an English surgeon named James

Braid. Hypnosis is a Greek word, which means sleep. Braid used it to describe the hypnotic state people would be in after hypnosis. We now know that hypnosis is not sleep, but an altered state of consciousness. Many people believe the hypnosis is mythical and magical. Those supporting the mythical view of hypnosis often cite studies which show that during hypnosis the brain shows electrical changes and that the brain waves under hypnosis differ from those during waking consciousness. There are many problems with the realism of hypnosis.

Many people feel that it’s brought up upon the troubled people themselves. One clue as to the falsehood of the common view of hypnosis is the fact that it usually occurs under very dramatically different social settings: The showroom, the clinic, the classroom, and the police station. Showroom hypnotists usually work bars and clubs, and their subjects are usually people those idea of a good time is to join dozens of hundreds of others in a place where alcohol is the main social bonding agent.

The subjects of clinical hypnotists are usually people with problems who have heard that hypnotherapy works for relieving pain or overcoming an addiction, fear, weight problem, etc. Another group of people who get hypnotized are college students who take psychology classes. Finally, some hypnotic subjects are people who have been victims or witnesses of a crime, but can’t remember enough details to help police investigators who encourage them to undergo hypnosis to help them remember.

There are many facts that claim that hypnosis is not a reliable tool. Most of what is know about hypnosis, opposed to what is believed, has come from studies on the subject, not the hypnotists. We know that there is a significant correlation between being imaginative and being responsive to hypnosis. We know that those who are fantasy-prone are also likely to make excellent hypnotic subjects. We know that hypnotic subjects are not turned into zombies and are not controlled by their hypnotist.

We know that hypnosis does not enhance the accuracy of memory. We know that a person under hypnosis is very suggestible and that memory is easily filled in by imagination and by suggestions made under hypnosis. We know that confabulation is quite common while under hypnosis and that many states do not allow testimony which has been induced by hypnosis because it is intrinsically unreliable. We last know that the greatest predictor of hypnotic responsiveness is what a person believes about hypnosis.

Some things that hypnosis is used for are to help you lose weight, quit smoking, find out different things, reincarnation, and many other things. The most controversial is its use in past life regressive therapy. According to its advocates, hypnosis opens a window to the unconscious mind were memories of past lives are stored. How memories of past lives get into the unconscious mind of a person is unknown, but advocates loosely adhere to a doctrine of reincarnation even though a doctrine does not require a belief in either the unconscious mind or memories of past lives.

The only evidence that has been reported is the fact that while hypnotized many subjects report events from past lives. Hypnosis is an interesting subject in almost every person’s eyes. Whether the whole concept is true, is not really known. It is said that people who believe in hypnosis are easier to hypnotize, while those who don’t believe can’t be hypnotized at all. There is still quite a mystery about the whole subject that everyone is waiting to be solved.

The Insanity Defense

The insanity defense refers to that branch of the concept of insanity which defines the extent to which men accused of crimes may be relieved of criminal responsibility by virtue of mental disease. The terms of such a defense are to be found in the instructions presented by the trial judge to the jury at the close of a case. These instructions can be drawn from any of several rules used in the determination of mental illness. The final determination of mental illness rests solely on the jury who uses information drawn from the testimony of “expert” witnesses, usually professionals in the field of psychology.

The net result of such a determination places an individual accordingly, be it placement in a mental facility, incarceration, or outright release. Due to these aforementioned factors, there are several problems raised by the existence of the insanity defense. Problems such as the actual possibility of determining mental illness, justifiable placement of judged “mentally ill” offenders, and the overall usefulness of such a defense. In all, I believe that these problems, as well as others which will be mentioned later, lead us to the conclusion that the insanity defense is useless and should be abolished entirely.

Insanity is a legal, not a medical definition. Therefore, mental illness and insanity are not synonymous: only some mental illness constitutes insanity. Insanity, however, includes not only mental illness but also mental deficiencies. Due to this, there are problems in exactly how to apply a medical theory to a legal matter (Herman, 1983;128). The legal concepts of mental illness and insanity raise questions in a conflict between what are termed legalistic criminology and scientific criminology: mens rea, punishment v. treatment, responsibility, and prisons v. hospitals.

This debate seesaws to and fro amidst a grey rea between law and science. The major difficulty with a theory such as mental illness is that it is just that, a theory. To scientists theories are a way of life, but applied to the concept of law theories become somewhat dangerous. By applying a loose theory such as mental illness to law we are in essence throwing the proverbial “monkey wrench” into the wheels of justice.  At the center of the legal use of insanity lies the mens rea. Every crime involves a physical act, or actus reus, and a mental act, or mens rea, the non-physical cause of behavior.

The mens rea is the ental element required for a crime, and if absent excuses the defendant from criminal responsibility and punishment (Jeffery, 1985;49). The difficulty here lies in analyzing the mens rea. In order to do this lawyers apply one of several rules used by psychologists. These rules range from the Irresistible Impulse Test to the M’Naghten Rule. Each of these rules approach mental illness/capacity in a different way and in my opinion each falls short of actual proof. I will discuss each in detail.

The M’Naghten Rule The M’Naghten Rule, also known as the right-wrong test, arose in 1843 during the trial of Daniel M’Naghten who argued that he was not criminally responsible for his actions because he suffered from delusions at the time of the killing. The M’Naghten Rule reads: A defendant may be excused from criminal responsibility if at the time of the commission of the act the party accused was laboring under such a defect of reason, from a disease of the mind, as not to know the nature and the quality of the act he was doing, or if he did know it, that he did not know that he was doing what was wrong.

Thus, according to the rule, a person is basically insane if he or she is unable to distinguish between right nd wrong as a result of some mental disability. Criticism of the M’Naghten Rule has come from both legal and medical professions. Many criticize that the test is unsound in its view of human psychology. Psychiatry, it is argued, views the human personality as an integrated entity, not divisible into separate compartments of reason, emotion, or volition (Herman, 1983;138). Additionally, the test is criticized for defining responsibility solely in terms of cognition.

While cognitive symptoms may reveal disorder, they alone are not sufficient to give an adequate picture of such a disorder or determine esponsibility. Also, it has been shown that individuals deemed insane by psychologists have possessed the ability to differentiate right from wrong. I believe that the major weakness of this test, however, lies in the fact that courts are unable to make clear determinations of terms such as disease of the mind, know, and the nature and quality of the act.

The Irresistible Impulse Test This rule excludes from criminal responsibility a person whose mental disease makes it impossible to control personal conduct. Unlike the M’Naghten Rule, the criminal may be able to distinguish between right and wrong, but may e unable to exercise self-control because of a disabling mental condition. Normally this test is combined with the M’Naghten Rule. Many of the criticisms of the Irresistible Impulse Test center around the claim that the view of volition is so extremely narrow that it can be misleading.

Just as the M’Naghten Rule focused on cognition rather than the function of the person in an integrated fashion, the Irresistible Impulse Test abstracts the element of volition in a way that fails to assess a person’s function in terms of an integrated personality. Additionally, it has been asserted that the concept at est has medical significance in only minor crimes resulting from obsession-compulsion, and that seldom, if ever, can it be shown that this disorder results in the commission of a major crime (Seigel 1993;144).

Such a claim is subject to the objection that it cannot be conclusively proven. Interestingly, it has been shown by many psychiatric authorities that no homicidal or suicidal crime ever results from obsession-compulsion neurosis. Another criticism of this test is the difficulty, if not the impossibility, of proving the irresistibility of the impulse, which the definition of the test requires. The jury, as I said earlier, has the final decision, and is faced with deciding when the impulse was irresistible and when it was merely unresisted, a task that psychiatrists suggest is impossible to perform.

We are also able to argue that the test is one of volition. It is too narrow in that it fails to recognize mental illness characterized by brooding and reflection (Herman 1983;140). The test is misleading in its suggestion that where a crime is committed as a result of emotional disorder due to insanity, it must be sudden and impulsive. The Durham Rule The Durham Rule, also known as the Products Test, is based on the contention that insanity represents many personality factors, all of which may not be present in every case.

It was brought about by Judge David Bazelon in the case of Durham v. U. S. who rejected the M’Naghten Rule and stated that the accused is not criminally responsible if the unlawful act was the product of mental disease or defect. The primary problem with this rule of course lies in its meaning. Again it is impossible for us to define mental disease or defect, and product does not give the jury a reliable standard by which to base a decision. It is unnecessary to offer further riticism, for my purpose I believe this attempt fails at it’s onset.

The Substantial Capacity Test Another test is termed the Substantial Capacity Test which focuses on the reason and will of the accused. It states that at the time of the crime, as a result of some mental disease or defect, the accused lacked the substantial capacity to (a) appreciate the wrongfulness of their conduct or (b) conform their conduct to the requirements of the law. This test is disputable in the fact that it is not only impossible to prove capacity of reason or will, but to even test such abstracts seems absurd.

Additionally, the term “substantial capacity” lies question in that it is an abstract impossible to define. The meaning of insanity is the legal definition as put forth in a rule such as the M’naghten Rule or whatever school of thought is in use on any given day. The legal test is applied in an adversary system which pitches lawyer against psychiatrist and psychiatrist against psychiatrist. Because of this, the psychiatrist is often perceived not as a scientist but a partisan for the side which is paying for his testimony (Jeffery, 1985;56).

The major problem in this ase being that the use of a neutral expert is impossible to implement. In the end the determination of insanity is a layman’s decision since it is the jury which ultimately decides whether the defendant is sane or insane. This of course is ludicrous since professional scientists cannot agree on the meaning of mental illness. How can a layman make such a decision especially after listening to contradictory testimony which is manipulated by opposing lawyers.

I believe that the major problem that we can point out here is in the futility of asking psychiatrists to testify in terms of legal concepts f insanity. The psychiatrist finds himself in a double bind: he has no medical definition of mental illness and he must answer questions from lawyers concerning legal insanity, right and wrong, and irresistible impulses. As stated by Packer: “The insanity defense cannot tolerate psychiatric testimony since the ethical foundations of the criminal law are rooted in beliefs about human rationality, deterribility, and free will. These are articles of moral faith rather than scientific fact.

In the insanity defense we have no variable independent of the riminal behavior we are studying. Insanity refers to a class of behaviors known by observing the behavior of the patient, and criminality is a class of behavior likewise known by observing the behavior of the defendant. We are involved in classification and labels. Where we have one class of behaviors labeled as schizophrenia, and the other class labeled as crimes, what we have are two co-existing classes of behavior in the same individual, and not a cause or effect relationship (Simon, 1988;47).

A person can be Catholic and commit a robbery without a casual relationship existing; ikewise, a person can be schizophrenic and a robber without a casual relationship existing between the two classes of behavior. Coexistence does not show a casual relationship. Behavior cannot cause behavior. What we must do, in order to prove a relationship between mental illness and criminal behavior is produce some independent link between the two classes of behavior on a biochemical level. We must have a definition of mental illness independent of the behavioral symptoms in order to establish a casual relationship between crime and mental illness.

There is such a view and it is termed the Biological Psychiatric view. The view basically states that there is some defect or malfunction in the actual make-up of the brain of an individual which causes schizophrenia. This same defect then causes the criminal behavior such as robbery or murder. The problem here is that we have no actual way of mapping the brain and conclusively determining exactly what portion thereof is responsible for either type of behavior much less that one area is responsible for both. In essence even if true this theory is unprovable.

There is also a statistical relationship between crime and mental illness. Guttmacker and Weihofen ound 1. 5 percent of the criminal population psychotic, 2. 4 percent mentally defective, 6. 9 percent neurotic, and 11. 2 percent psychopathic (Jeffery, 1985:66). These figures are very unconvincing. Additionally they are based on old diagnostic categories and procedures which are most unreliable. Also, the meaning of neurotic or psychotic or psychopathic is uncertain within the context of these studies and they do not refer to modern biological categories of brain disease.

Terms such as insanity, mental illness, and mens rea have no scientific meaning, therefore we must leave as unspecified and ncertain the relationships between insanity, mental illness and criminal law. We certainly cannot conclude that mental illness bears any relationship to diseases of the brain, nor can we conclude that mental illness or insanity causes criminal behavior. Not only is there no agreement as to the meaning of insanity and mental illness, but to add further confusion, there is a school of thought that states that mental illness is a myth and does not exist.

This approach is found in the works of such persons as Thomas Szasz (1961;1963) who argues that mental illness is a myth and label applied o behavior by psychiatrists who are making political and ethical decisions, and Laing (1969;1971) who claims that labels are being used by society to impose violence and control on people. View such as these and others deny the physical and biological basis of behavioral disorders. They separate completely biology and behavior, brain and behavior, and mental and physical.

The fact that we refer to “mental” disease has been cited as evidence that we do not regard it as disease but as something outside the realm of biological science. Szasz states, for example, that the psychiatrist confuses physical disease nd neurological disorders with mental diseases. A study in evidence of this was done by Rosenhan (Ziskin, 1975:54) known as “Being Sane in Insane Places. ” Rosenhan, a psychologist, placed eight normal people in mental hospitals as “pseudo-patients. ” They were diagnosed as schizophrenic, and later on when they appeared normal, rediagnosed as schizophrenia in remission.

After one experiment one hospital challenged Rosenhan to send them “pseudo-patients” during the next several months. At the end of the period the hospital announced that they had discovered that 12 percent of their admission were pseudo-patients” from Rosenhan went in fact none had ever been sent. As we have already seen, there is much confusion dealing with the placement of insanity and mental illness, it’s definition, and even it’s very existence.

We have likewise seen the use of several of the various testing techniques used to determine mental illness and their shortcomings. This information alone would lead us to believe that the insanity defense needs at least to be revised and improved in many areas. What we have looked at thus far is what precedes the actual judgment of sanity. What we have not looked at, however, is that implementation of the actual judgment of sanity. That is to say, the actual results of the defense when successful. I believe that it is here that we will see the most heinous travesties of justice.

There are several decisions which can be reached when insanity is at last proven. These judgements include not guilty by reason of insanity (NGI), and guilty but mentally ill (GMI), with the later verdict not being implemented until the early eighties in an attempt to reform the insanity defense and decrease the amount of NGI verdicts. The NGI erdict is the more dangerous verdict and the one which I believe has the strongest argument against the insanity defense. The objection here is that it allows dangerous men to return to the streets where they commit heinous crimes.

Of the 300 persons committed on NGI verdicts 80 percent were released from mental hospitals by psychiatrists, and in several instances these mental patients went on to kill again (Jeffery, 1985;73). My belief is that psychiatrists and mental hospitals do not cure the mentally ill. This is the reality of the insanity defense which I find irrefutable; in many cases criminals re released due to loopholes such as the insanity defense to simply commit the same crime again. Even is these cases make up 10 out of 100,000, there now exist 10 crimes that need not have happened.

The guilty but mentally ill approach has three serious flaws. First it strikes indirectly at the mens rea requirement, introducing the slippery notion that the accused had partial, but not complete, criminal intent. Second, it creates a lesser and included offense that judges and juries may choose as simply a compromise verdict. They believe the accused probably did something wrong and deserves some unishment, but they are unwilling to bring in a verdict of guilty on the top charge. The GMI verdict would allow them to split the difference. Finally the GMI verdict is fraudulent on the issue of treatment.

As proposed, it makes no provision for treatment of the person who has been declared mentally ill. The GBI option has already proved to be a bogus reform. A 1981 Illinois law added the GMI as an additional verdict, retaining the traditional insanity defense. In Cook County, verdicts of not guilty by reason of insanity actually increased from 34 to 103 between 1981 and 1984. At the same time GMI ent from 16 in 1982, the first year the option was available, to 87 in 1984. There has been much evidence of a “hydraulic” effect that was contrary to the law’s intent.

In both Illinois and Michigan, GMI verdicts involved people who would otherwise have been found guilty, not defendents who would have been found not guilty by reason of insanity (Walker, 1994;155-156). The real function of the GBI option is to appease public opinion. The public has little concern for the details of what actually happens to a mentally ill criminal defendent. Basically, it wants a symbolic statement of “guilty. ” In practice, the GMI verdict has as much meaning as “guilty but brown eyes. ” How dangerous is the GMI verdict?

As we say with the NGI verdict, many extremely dangerous mentally ill criminals were simply released onto the streets where they committed the same crimes. Does the GMI verdict solve this problem? We have some “natural experiments” on this questio rising from some court decisions. A 1971 decision forced to reassessment of 586 inmates of Pennsylvania’s Fairview State Hospital for the Criminaly Insane who were placed there under the GMI verdict. Over two-thirds were eventually released. Over the next four years, 27 ercent were rearrested. Eleven percent were rearrested for violent crime.

Including some others who were rehospitalized for a violent act, a total of 14. 5 percent of those released proved to be dangerous. Abolishing the insanity defense is easier said than done for the simple reason that the mens rea requirement remains a fundamental legal principle. The proposal that “mental condition shall not be a defense to any charge of criminal conduct” could be interpreted in one of two ways. The broader interpretation would mean that absolutly no aspect of mental condition could be taken into account. In effect, this interpretation would abolish the mens rea requirement altogether.

The prosecution would not have to prove anything about the accused’s mental state. This is unneccessarry. For one thing, it would wipe out the distintions that separarte first-degree murder, second-degree murder, and manslaughter. It is doubtful that anyone againt the insanity defense would choose to take this approach. So sweeping, in fact, would be it’s effect, that it would probably be declared unconstitutuional. A more limited reading of the wording “mental condition shall not be a defense to any charge of criminal conduct” ould mean that an affermative plea of “not guilty by reason of insanity” could not be raised.

The crucial distinction here is drawn between affermative and ordinary defenses. An ordinary defense is simply an attempt to shown that the prosecution has failed to connect the accused with the crime, a defense used in everyday law. An affermative defense is raised when the prosecution has connected the accused with the crime, as in an example of self-defense. The defense argues that, yes, the accused did shoot and kill the person and did so intentionally, but because the act was commited in self-defense the ccused does not bear criminal responsibilty for it. The same is true in the case of a criminal act commited under duress.

The insanity defense, in this respect, is an affermative defense. It is this usage that needs to be abolished. In cases such as self defense it may be an adequate and totally acceptable defense, for in how many cases do you hear of a man being aquitted due to a self-defense plea returning to the streets in order to kill again? To draw a comparison between the two and argue that both defenses are neccessarry to the total order is naive and unfounded. The law of insanity involves the conceptes of mens rea and punishments, as does the criminal law in general.

Insanity is a legal concept, not a medical concept, and insanity is defined within the context of an adversary system wherin psychiatrists and lawyers battle one another over the meaning of terms such as “right and wrong” and “ability to control one’s behavior. ” Mental illness and mental disease are psychoanalytic concepts, not scientific concepts. Mental illness is defined by talking to people or by giving them written tests, and there is no agreement among psychiatrists as to the meaning of this llness or whether or not it really exists.

Some psychiatrists call mental illness a myth. The psychoanalyst has not been successful in treating or predicting mental illness. The psychoanalyst has never established a casual relationship between mental illness and criminal behavior. The insanity defense would require both a mental illness and a relationship between the illness and the criminal behavior, neither of which could be scientificly established. Of the criminals both aquited and convicted using the insanity defense, a good number have shown conclusive evidence of recidivism.

Many dangerous persons are allowed to return to the streets and many non-dangerous persons are forced into facilities due to an insanity plea adding further confusion and injustice within both the legal and medical systems. In my opinion the iunsanity defense is impossible to maintain on the basis of rules such as the M’Naghten Rule, and the relationship between law and psychiatry must be reestablished on a more scientific level, based on the neurological work now going on in the brain sciences. The insanity defense is impracticle in it’s present usage and should therefore be abolished.

Psychoanalysis – a system of psychology

Psychoanalysis is a system of psychology originated by the Viennese physician Sigmund FREUD in the 1890’s and then further developed by himself, his students, and other followers. It consists of three kinds of related activities: (1) a method for research into the human mind, especially inner experiences such as thoughts, feelings, emotions, fantasies, and dreams; (2) a systematic accumulation of a body of knowledge about the mind; and (3) a method for the treatment of psychological or emotional disorders.

Psychoanalysis began with the discovery that HYSTERIA, an illness with physical ymptoms that occurred in a completely healthy physical body–such as a numbness or paralysis of a limb or a loss of voice or a blindness–could be caused by unconscious wishes or forgotten memories. (Hysteria is now commonly referred to as conversion disorder. ) The French neurologist Jean Martin CHARCOT tried to rid the mind of undesirable thoughts through hypnotic suggestion, but without lasting success.

Josef Breuer, a Viennese physician, achieved better results by letting Anna O. , a young woman patient, try to empty her mind by just telling him all of her thoughts and feelings. Freud refined Breuer’s method by conceptualizing theories about it and, using these theories, telling his patients through interpretations what was going on inside the unconscious part of their minds, thus making the unconscious become conscious.

Many hysterias were cured this way, and in 1895, Breuer and Freud published their findings and theories in Studies in Hysteria. Traditional psychoanalytical theory states that all human beings are born with instinctual drives that are constantly active even though a person is usually not conscious of thus being driven. Two drives–one for sexual pleasure, called libido, the other called aggression–motivate and propel most behavior.

In the infant, the libido first manifests itself by making sucking an activity with pleasurable sensations in the mouth. Later similar pleasures are experienced in the anus during bowel movements, and finally these erotically tinged pleasures are experienced when the sexual organ is manipulated. Thus psychosexual development progresses from the oral through the anal to the phallic stage. (Phallic, in psychoanalytic theory, refers to both male and female sexual organs. )

During the height of the phallic phase, about ages three to six, these libidinous drives focus on the parent of the opposite sex and lend an erotic cast to the relation between mother and son or between father and daughter, the so-called Oedipus COMPLEX. However, most societies strongly disapprove of these sexual interests of children. A TABOO on incest rules universally. Parents, therefore, influence children to push such pleasurable sensations and thoughts out of their conscious minds into the unconscious by a process called repression.

In this way the mind comes to consist of three parts: (1) an executive part, the EGO, mostly conscious and comprising all the ordinary thoughts and functions needed to direct a person in his or her daily behavior; (2) the id, mostly unconscious and containing all the instincts and everything that was repressed into it; and (3) the superego, the conscious that harbors the values, ideals, and prohibitions that set the guidelines for the ego and that punishes through the imposition of guilt feelings.

Strong boundaries between the three parts keep the ego fairly free from disturbing thoughts and wishes in the id, thereby guaranteeing efficient unctioning and socially acceptable behavior. During sleep the boundaries weaken; disturbing wishes may slip into the ego from the id, and warnings may come over from the superego. The results are intrapsychic conflicts, often manifested in dreams (see DREAMS AND DREAMING), sometimes even in frightening NIGHTMARES. Freud elucidated this concept in his first major work, The Interpretation of Dreams (1900; Eng. trans. , 1913).

Something very similar to the weakening of boundaries during sleep sometimes happens during ordinary daytime activities when some impulses from the id manages to cross the epression barrier to invade the ego and cause faulty actions such as slips of the tongue. Psychoneurotic symptoms occur if psychologically hurtful experiences during childhood have left the repression too weak or have distorted the ego, or if overstimulation has left the id wishes too strong, or if the delicate balance between ego, id, and superego has been upset by injury or other events.

Any kind of psychic trauma may lead to the ego becoming an area of intrapsychic conflict between the intruding id, the threatening superego, and the powerful influences emanating from the surrounding environment. Furthermore, the damage done to the basic psychological structures by traumatic experiences leaves those structures weakened and with defective functioning. Such conflicts and defects can cause intense ANXIETY and severe DEPRESSION. In order to keep functioning effectively, the ego attempts to maintain control by achieving some sort of compromise between the contending forces.

Often such compromises appear in the form of inhibitions or compulsions that affect behavior. Abnormal behavior and the anxiety, depressions, and PHOBIAS that go with them are called psychoneurotic symptoms in psychoanalytic theory. Neurotic character is the phrase used to designate a consistent pattern of neurotic behavior. When the damage abnormally distorts self-esteem, the resulting disturbance is called a narcissistic personality disorder, or a disorder of the self.

Patients seek psychoanalytic treatment because they suffer from one or more of a variety of psychological symptoms such as anxiety, depression, sexual and other inhibitions, obsessive thoughts, compulsive actions, irrational angers, shyness and timidity, phobias, inability to get along with friends or spouses or co- orkers, low self-esteem, a sense of feeling unfulfilled, nervous irritability, and blocked creativity. The defects and repressed conflicts that cause these symptoms are usually indicative of a psychoneurosis or a narcissistic personality disorder.

Normal ego functioning and the joy of life that comes with easy relationship to others are seriously interfered with or sometimes lost altogether. Psychoanalysis does not promise a quick cure but holds out the hope that through better understanding of oneself and of others one can achieve an amelioration of symptoms as well as a smoother and more effective socialization f one’s behavior. Psychological maladaptations usually originate from painful misunderstandings or outright failures in the child’s relationship to his or her parents.

Sometimes parents lack the appropriate and attuned empathic understanding that children need. Sometimes severe physical or mental illness or the death of a parent or sibling causes serious psychic wounds. Consequently, even in adults, there remain ever-present though usually unconscious fears that the early hurtful experiences will now be repeated again with others. Transference is the unconscious expectation that the old injuries and insults will now again be uffered, only this time at the hands of friends, spouses, children, bosses, just about anybody–as if transferred from the past into the present.

Transference makes one have irrational expectations from the people with whom one lives and works. For example, one may feel a need to be appreciated by one’s supervisors similarly to a child’s needing approval from his or her parents. Frustration of these expectations may evoke immature rage or other immature behavior. Transference causes great distress, but it also makes treatment possible. The method of treatment seems simple at first. The patient reclines on a comfortable couch in the analyst’s office with the analyst seated behind the patient.

The recumbent position, as well as not being able to see the analyst, minimizes distraction and allows concentration on inner experiences, thoughts, wishes, fantasies, and feelings. The patient is instructed to say absolutely everything that comes to mind without censoring anything, a technique that is called free association. This brings about a state of regression in which long- forgotten events and painful encounters are remembered, often with great clarity and intense emotions.

At the same time, because of transference, the patient experiences the analyst as well, as if he or she were a figure from the past, perhaps resembling a parent. The analyst often can trace the connection between the patient’s current fantasies and feelings about the analyst and the origin of these thoughts and emotions in childhood experiences. The re-experienced conflicts and traumas, together with the accompanying fears and feelings, then are interpreted by the analyst.

The patient learns to recognize the connections between the past and the present. The combination of insight together with the powerful emotional re- xperience during the regressed state brought about by the analytic method cause a reorganization of the psychological structures into more healthfully adaptive patterns. The analyst’s friendly and calmly explaining attitude that is devoid of any moralizing or other biases creates an atmosphere in which, most of the time, all human failings and foibles can be looked at, talked about, and finally resolved.

Typically, an analysis lasts for a few years, with four to five sessions per week of about 45 minutes each. In this way the psychoneuroses and the narcissistic personality disorders can be treated successfully in a majority of atients. Serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, manic-depressive illness, and the psychoses caused by organic malfunctioning of the brain cannot be cured by psychoanalytic treatment, though the patient can often benefit from psycho-pharmacological treatment–sedatives, tranquilizers, anti-depressants–in combination with psychotherapy.

In the United States most psychoanalysts are physicians who, after medical school, first specialized in PSYCHIATRY and who then were trained as psychoanalysts in an institute for psychoanalysts. Institute training typically akes from five to seven years. Outside the United States many non-medical psychologists and other behavioral scientists have been trained as psychoanalysts, and recently non-medical candidates are being trained in increasing numbers by American institutes.

rom the beginnings in the late 19th century, psychoanalytic theory and practice have continued to develop into the present modern practices. Initially, Freud believed that forgotten sexual seductions of children were the cause of neurosis and that remembering the trauma and emotions was therapeutic. He later modified nd elaborated his views into the theory of infantile instinctual drives as the motivating force for normal behavior and, when miscarried, as the cause of neurosis. Drive psychology gradually expanded into a closer study of the ego’s ways of coping with the instinctual drive, the so-called ego psychology.

Continuing research has discovered much evidence that the early relationships between children and parents, the so-called object relations, have the greatest impact on later psychological development. The influence of the care givers, especially during infancy, leaves a lasting imprint on the personality. Emphasis on the object-relations theory developed by Melanie KLEIN characterizes psychoanalysis in much of Britain and Latin America. In the United States a particular aspect of object relations, namely their effects on the sense of self and on self-esteem, are being studied by a growing number of psychoanalysts.

Initiated by Heinz Kohut, self-psychology is being developed by his followers into one of the main concepts that make up the body of psychoanalytic theory. Self-psychology is a psychology of subjective experience. The self- psychologically oriented psychoanalyst, in addition to considering the usual sychoanalytic data of inner experiences such as dreams and free associations, emphasizes the use of empathic immersion by the analyst into the life experience of the patient as an essential source of data for treatment and for theorizing.

Self-psychology postulates a nuclear self at the core of the individual. A cohesive, vigorous, and balanced self lends the person a sense of self and of well-being. Any experience with objects, including persons, that evoke and strengthen the self are “self-object” experiences and are needed by every human being from birth to death in order to sustain a cohesive self. Absence of or faulty self- object experiences cause a loss of cohesion with attendant fragmentation of the self.

In addition to their clinical application, psychoanalytic theories have been used as guides to doing research in certain social sciences as well as in the humanities. Some cross-cultural anthropological investigations, for example, have used interviewing techniques that were based on the psychoanalytic method. Some psychohistorical studies have employed the theories of psychoanalysis in the interpretation of the dynamic forces underlying historical events.

Biographical research has been enriched by adding the insights of psychoanalysis, and the resulting psycho-biographies have added a dimension of depth to the understanding of some outstanding persons, as, for example, in Gandhi’s Truth (1969) by Erik ERIKSON. But it is in the application of psychoanalysis to artistic and literary criticism that analysts, especially Freud (on Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo), Kurt Eissler (on Hamlet), Jacques Lacan (on Edgar Allen Poe), and Heinz Kohut (on Thomas Mann), have made their most widely known contributions.

Research in the theories and methods of psychoanalysis presents special difficulties. In contrast to the natural sciences, psychoanalytic data are private, subjective, and often non-repeatable inner experiences. They are grasped by introspection and by empathy and, therefore, are not publicly verifiable in the same way that natural science data can be demonstrated. Nevertheless, continuing attempts to compare and to check findings with colleagues in a worldwide psychoanalytic community, in addition to finding confirmation of psychoanalytic concepts from research in contiguous sciences, provide a measure of verification.

Is Psychotherapy More Effective When Therapist Disclose Information About Themselves

In the world of psychology therapist raise a question whether or not they should disclose personal information during psychotherapy. Several therapists have suggested that therapist self-discloser can have a positive impact on treatment. From this view, self-discloser by the therapists may elicit greater discloser by the client enhancing the possibilities for client self-exploration(e. , Bugental, 1965, chap. 7; Jourad, 1971, chap. 17; Strassberg, Roback, DAntonio & Gable, 1977).

In addition, self-discloser is thought to encourage an atmosphere of honesty and understanding between client and therapist, fostering a stronger and more effective therapeutic relationship). However many other therapist disagrees with that statement.

They reply psychodynamic theorist since Freud have generally regarded therapist self-disclosure as detrimental to treatment because it might interfere with the therapeutic process, shifting the focus of therapy away from the client(e. g. , see cutis, 1982b; Freud, 1912/1958; Greenson, 1967, chap. 3). In addition, it is argued that therapist self-discloser may adversely affect treatment outcome by exposing therapist weakness or vulnerabilities, thereby undermining client trust in the therapist(e. , see cutis, 1982b, 1981)

According to the journal These differences in identifying therapist self-disclosures may be of importance in the evaluation of their impact on treatment. For example, theoretical concerns about therapist self-discloser have emphasized the risk of shifting the focus of therapy away from the client. However when therapist self-disclose, are in direct response to comparable client disclosers the presumed risk of alerting the focus of treatment is likely to reduced.

Insanity Is it in our Schools

What exactly is the definition of insanity? Insanity is being in a mental state of mind that does not allows you to make correct decisions on events that are occurring at that moment. But this definition is not always the same through out the United States. One persons definition is not always the same as the next. This comes into conflict when trying to decide someones fate in court cases, and this is especially important when it involves a minor that has committed a serious crime. As an example to the seriousness of some of the crimes, look at all of the school shootings that have been occurring throughout the United States.

What are we to do with young children that are now sentenced to prison for life without parole? To call them insane is not the answer. We need to find something that can be done to help stop the huge number of young people in the correctional system. Because the huge amount of money it costs to house inmates per year is extreme, and it is costing the taxpayers enough money already to house the adult inmates. We need to find alternate solutions other than sending these young men and woman to prison for the rest of their life, and causing them to legally go insane.

What can we do to prevent these young adults from committing such extreme crimes? We need to look at the home and see if anything is wrong there first before anything else is even looked at. Because, to take away the children from their parents is only a good if they are part of the problem. Parents are extremely important in a child life and set the foundation for what is to come in the future from him/her whether in the positive or the negative. There are many reasons for there being problems at home.

It could be the lack of supervision by an adult, the absence of punishment, and many more reason why the child is not having a good home life. There are still many more reasons why child resort to violence when faced with a problem. What can we do to help prevent a poor upbringing for children throughout the U. S? The American people need to stop putting such an emphasis on material belongings, and put it on the well being of our friends and family. We have families with everything in the world but their children have dont even know who their parents are.

Then we have the exact opposite with ones that have very little but have a very close family life. To help with the family we need to get the parents more active in the childrens life. Whatever has to be done it has to be something that brings the family closer together. You might be asking what else can we do to change these young people if the problem is not at home. What these kids do when they are not at home is another main concern. Whether it be the friends they hang around with, drugs and/or alcohol, sex, and the activities they do when they are out. The peer pressure effect has link to all the other problems.

Kids want to fit in no matter what they have to do to get in the group (click) they will do it. In the Columbine High School shooting the two young gentlemen April 20, 1999 is the day when many childrens lives changed at Columbine High School by two young men that just did not fit in. They were said to be members of a group called the Trench Coat Mafia. This was a group out casts at the school. This school shooting also happened on a day well known to many for drugs and racists. It was the 110th anniversary of Adolph Hitlers birthday. These kids had been planning this attack for over a year.

They had practice making explosives and perfected their shooting skills well in advance. Why they did this no one will ever know because after they were finished their rampage through the school shooting as many people they could they turned the guns on themselves and ended it all. Where would these kids get the idea to do such a thing as this to their fellow students? What was going through their minds when they thought of committing this crime? If it was because they were not treated the way they wanted to be or anything else, it does not matter because nothing is going to make it okay to kill.

There have been many shootings popping up around the United States involving teens and not only their peers but also their families. This is alarming, because we now have children turning on their parents because they say that they were not satisfied with the way their parents took care of them. This brings us right back to where we started, with the problems at home blossoming and coming to school. In Hattiesburg, Mississippi, Luke Woodham murdered his mother then went to his school killed two classmates and wounded seven more. He confessed to all of the charges except for murdering his mother.

He said that he had no recollection of the events that took place that afternoon at his house. Woodham insisted that a man, know as Grant Boyette, egged him on about killing his mother and ex-girlfriend. Grant is a member of a cult-like group known as the Kroth. The big question is would Woodham have done what he did if his mother would not have like talk on the phone to a cult member. Where was his mother when he was on the phone for several hours the day before the shootings? These are questions that never will be answered because she is now died.

She was brutally beaten and stabbed in an act of rage by the by her own son. Another shooting in an Oregon community, by a young man named Kipland Kinkel. He also murdered his parents and two classmates at his school. Why do these young kids throw their whole life away? They are going to grow up in prison and there is nothing we can do to help them because of the way that our correctional system works. They have committed a serious crime and have been found supposedly to have the capacity of an adult. If this is the case why arent all of the ages for such things as smoking and drinking dropped also?

All of these children that have committed these crimes are never going to be aloud to be free for the rest of their lives due to the length of their sentences. What are we as citizens expected to think of our justice system when we see a fifth teen year old kid sentence to life without the possibility of parole five times. We now have to pay millions of dollars to house this kid for the rest of his life because he had no one there when he needed it. As in Luke Woodham case he had no one to talk to except for a cult member that knew he could get Luke to do whatever he wanted by pushing and pushing him, until he got him to say yes.

Why would anyone want to do anything to a young man like this is beyond my belief except for stupidity. You might be asking what is some ways that we can protect our children in schools. Well the schools are now putting in locks on doors that only open from the inside, cameras on the inside and the outside of the school, more police presence in schools, and teaching students how to manage their anger by talking to people about their problems instead of resorting to violence. There is no reason for young men and women to be killing each other over words.

Parents need to take an active role in their childrens life and show then what they also had to go through when they were in school. Nothing has changed between when they went to show and us, but it has changed in how the children of today respond to the problem in which they are facing. What can be causing are kids to grow up in such a manor that everything has to be resolved with violence. Well it is easy to blame it on the time period or their surroundings, but it has more to do with what they feel is right by what they experience everyday in their lives.

Single parents are at the highest percentage than ever before. This only increases the effect of what the children think is right. So if the parents are not there to so them right from wrong that is besides the police and the authority figures at schools and other places kids go. If they are not taught how are we to blame them for wrong. Discipline is lacking in this country. More and more children are ruling the house instead of the parents. Why is this you ask?

It is because of the laws that are being passed in Congress that say you cannot hit your child. If a kid does wrong who is to say you cannot hit him/her for disciplinary reasons. If it goes beyond discipline then it is abuse but when your child can call the police for you just grabbing them, then there is something wrong. Do you think that there is insanity in your local schools? In every school around the country there is that one student that is not liked, does not fit in, wears old cloths, and is always made fun of.

Exactly when do you think he will crack? Could be today or tomorrow, but he will break because he/she has it in their mind that there is no other way to solve their problems. If we could only show them that there is other ways of solving their problems we may be able to prevent another useless slaying. If only the people of America would look in the mirror and see that if they would change they could make it a better place for all. But this is the hardest part because it involves everyone not just a few.

Schizophrenia – Mental Disorder

When I lived in Germany, I had a friend who played on my High School tennis team. On a sunny afternoon after our tennis lessons we decided to drink an ice tea and have a little snack at the tennis snack bar. We started talking about tennis strategies, but my friend, Thomas, was kind of depressed and sad. When I asked him what was really bothering him, he started tell me about his sick mother. He tried to explain her disease to me, but I could not understand it. He said, ” my mother is suffering from persecution mania and in addition, she sometimes talks about things that make no sense.

Nevertheless, I saw Thomas again after the summer holidays and I asked him how his mother was doing now. He responded with a very sad voice and also had tears in his eyes because his mother committed suicide and the doctors told him that she had schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder marked by the loss of contact with reality. When a person’s thinking, feeling, and behavior is abnormal, it interferes with his or her ability to function in everyday life. Delusions, hallucinations, and irregular thinking and emotions are produced. If these signs are present, he or she may have the mental illness called schizophrenia.

About one hundred years ago, schizophrenia was first recognized as a mental disorder and researchers have been searching for a cure ever since. The cause of schizophrenia is still unknown today and scientists have concluded that schizophrenia has more than one cause. Scientists have developed dozens of theories to explain what causes this disease, but researchers are focusing on four leading theories: the Genetic Theory, the Environmental Theory, the Biochemical Theory, and the Bio-Psycho-Social Theory. The Genetic Theory argues that schizophrenia is caused by traits in a person’s genetic makeup.

A normal person has twenty-three pairs of chromosomes. Each pair contains one chromosome from each parent. In corresponding locations called loci of each chromosome, the genes for specific traits are located. Some researchers believe that mutations with these genes can cause schizophrenia. We inherit our genes from our parents, but this does not mean that the parents of a schizophrenic are mentally ill. Problems in a person’s genetic make up could come from mutated chromosomes or recessive genes. In an attempt to prove this theory, scientists study identical twins.

Due to the fact that identical twins have identical genetic make up, researchers are able to determine if heredity is the main cause of schizophrenia. However, evidence seems to disprove this theory. In some instances, both identical twins are schizophrenics and other times only one is affected. To defend this theory, it should be noted that this research is complicated. Identical twins are relatively rare, especially twins who are both diagnosed with schizophrenia. Studies have also shown that children with one parent diagnosed with schizophrenia have a ten percent chance of suffering from schizophrenia.

When both parents are schizophrenic, their risk raises to approximately forty percent. Little is known about the Environmental Theory. The theory is built mainly on the effects of stress on human behavior. Most researchers agree that stress alone cannot be the main cause of schizophrenia. Most researchers agree that stress could possibly trigger or worsen the symptoms when the illness is already present. Other researchers focus on drug abuse. Like stress, certain drugs such as amphetamines can make psychotic symptoms worse if a person already has schizophrenia. Furthermore, these drugs can, in a sense, create schizophrenia.

Other researchers that support the Environmental Theory believe that “slow viruses” may be to blame. Slow viruses are viral infections that go undetected for long periods of time. Signs and symptoms are delayed and may occur many years after the first infection. The Bio-Chemical Theory suggests that schizophrenia is caused by mixed up signals to the brain. When something acts upon one of our senses, electrical impulses are sent to the brain. These impulses allow us to feel, smell, taste, hear, see, and they also manage our thought processes. In our body we have a complex nervous system.

For example, there is not simply a single nerve that travels from our feet to our brain. In order for information to be sent to the brain, the nerves must interact with each other, translating the messages from one nerve to the next. Because the system is so complex, it is possible for the signal to get mixed up. When this happens, our brain may misinterpret the signal or may not receive it at all. If the signal does get mixed up on the way to the brain, the make up of the impulse can undergo a chemical change, resulting in irregular thought processes and abnormal behavior.

Scientists have undergone in-depth studies on a chemical in the brain called dopamine. They believe that schizophrenics have higher levels of this chemical than a mentally sound person does. To experiment this theory, researchers have injected animals and humans with amphetamines increasing the amount of dopamine reaching the brain. Following the injection, the animals exhibit the same type of behavior as humans who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia, such as standing still for long periods of time or continuously pacing.

In humans, research has shown that when given small doses of amphetamines the amount of dopamine in the brain slightly increases. Although the increase is small it still causes delusions and hallucinations. In conclusion, researchers believe that an increased amount of dopamine to the brain causes abnormal behavior, however, they cannot safely say that this is the sole cause of schizophrenia. The Bio-Psycho-Social Theory combines all of the previous theories. Some researchers believe that bio-chemical abnormalities are a contributing factor but that other events must also occur.

They suggest that environmental and social problems have to be considered along with biological problems. Social scientists believe that no chemical factors are involved, instead they believe “mental disorders are described as a consequence of human motivations, drives, and unconscious forces. ” (Schizophrenia, Douglas W. Smith). These scientists suggest that people become overloaded with stress, information, and stimulation. When this happens they lose their ability to cope with the anxiety which accompanies these stressors. Instead of dealing with their problems they seek peace in their own world.

For example, it is common for individuals to return to “happy times” in their life such as infancy and they begin to act like a child. Scientists have asked if there is a particular nationality that suffers more than any other. Studies have been done in Ireland and it appears that one in every twenty-five people show signs of schizophrenia, opposed to one in every hundred in the United States. E. Fuller Torrey has spent a great deal of time researching a number of schizophrenics in Ireland. Torrey has discovered that the population of schizophrenics has been rising since the 18th Century.

After he made his findings public other scientists began asking questions as to why the Irish are suffering so badly. The basis of their research has focused around their diet, mainly potatoes. If potatoes are exposed to too much sunlight they produce an alkaloid called solanine. Solanine has the ability to induce gastro-intestinal problems and psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations. The idea that schizophrenia in Ireland is caused by the potato is not as far fetched as people might believe. Closer to home, a mental disease that afflicted southerners, pellagra, was caused solely from the lack of the vitamin niacin.

This may lead us to believe that a mental disorder can be caused by too much exposure or lack of a certain type of food. Another possibility, is the amount of insecticides the Irish consume from the potato. At planting time farmers use high amounts of chemicals on their potatoes to protect them from insects. When an insect ingests the chemicals they are easily killed because the chemicals interfere with the normal functioning of the nervous system by disrupting the transmission of nerve impulses. If large doses of these chemicals have the same affect on humans as they do on insects this could answer the Irish dilemma.

These toxins could be especially dangerous to women who are pregnant by damaging the fetal nerve tissue. Despite all these theories, it is quite evident that the cause of schizophrenia is still a mystery. It also seems clear that this disease is not caused by any one factor. As of now, researchers are leaning toward the Bio-Chemical theory. The brain is the most complex organ in the human body and an imbalance of the brain’s chemical system has been suspected as the main cause of schizophrenia for a long time. As previously mentioned, some researchers point to an excess of or lack of dopamine a chemical substance in the brain.

Others suspect different neurotransmitters which are substances that allow communication between nerve cells. The area of the brain thought to be affected in most cases of schizophrenia is the limbic system. This is the area of the brain that acts like a gate for incoming stimuli or messages. In any case, it appears that all schizophrenics have some sort of abnormal chemicals that are not found in healthy people. Schizophrenia is a complicated and difficult disease. It is hard to diagnose mental disorders because there are no physical indications. In the case of schizophrenia, a person can be mistaken for a shy child or person.

They are not in touch with their surroundings. Besides recognizing these symptoms, other methods of diagnosing schizophrenia is with the use of pictures and drawings. The doctor will listen to what the patient “sees” and analyze it. In doing this it is possible to determine their state of mind. Another process used in the diagnosis is Rorschach, better known as inkblots. These inkblots are used worldwide and Doctors have analyzed normal and abnormal answers. By listening to answers a doctor can determine what a common answer from a schizophrenic is. A normal persons answer would be something ordinary like a person or a mountain.

A person suffering from schizophrenia would see something weird like a beast or some conflict. In the past individuals have schizophrenia were labeled as crazy and families were embarrassed to have a mentally ill person in their family. These people would be isolated in a mental institution with bars on the windows, the building being dark and desolate. Also a common treatment for schizophrenia was insulin shock treatment. A patient would receive enough insulin to induce a seizure. This treatment worked for very few patients. The environment that these patients lived in was more damaging to them than helpful.

Mental illness was not accepted or thought of as a disease. When patients were taken to the hospitals it was common for them to be left there. Family would generally desert them because the environment was terrible, family and friends dreaded visiting. The modern day treatment for schizophrenia has many aspects. It involves medicine, counseling, electro-convulsive therapy and hospitalization. The medications most commonly used are; anti-psychotics which are used to help calm agitation, diminish destructive behavior and hallucinations and may help correct disturbed thought processes.

Secondly are anti-depressants, normally slow acting drugs but if no improvement occurs within three weeks, they may not be effective at all. Thirdly, are mood normalizers such as lithium carbonate used in manic depressive states to help stabilize mood swings which are part of the condition. Lastly, tranquilizers are used for calming agitation and anxiety. Unfortunately, along with these medications come some side effects such as inability to concentrate, and tiredness. However, there are side effect controls available. Electro-convulsive therapy is the application of electrical currents to the brain.

It is mainly used for patients suffering from extreme depressions who are suicidal and who seem unable to shake the depression under any circumstances. Unlike in the past, hospitals now have a happy environment. The family is involved with the treatment of the patient. The family themselves try to cope. They learn how things can change when the patient returns home. After the patient is released it is possible for them to go on living a normal life. A schizophrenic will most likely have to take doses of medication for the rest of their life.

Side effects will be felt and unreasonable fears may still be evident but their life will be basically normal. Researchers anticipate massive progress on the treatment for schizophrenia in the future. They believe hospitalization will be a thing of the past. Patients will be injected with medications monthly and attend group therapy with their family. The disease is detected early because of education and research. The drugs used for treatment have few side effects. Scientists hope that in the years to come treatment for schizophrenia will be non-existent.

Researchers hope to pinpoint the cause and eliminate it at birth through screening. With this treatment schizophrenia could be wiped out. Although it may surprise some people, schizophrenia is a common disorder, striking one person in every hundred. For most people, young adulthood means leaving home, starting a job and starting a family. For most schizophrenics, young adulthood means first admission to a psychiatric hospital. An unfortunate reality for young schizophrenics is the need for hospitalization during their most vibrant and productive time.

The age of the first admission is younger for men than women, early twenties for males and mid-twenties for women. The reasoning behind this variation is not exactly known but there is speculation. One biological theory that exists is the help of the female sex hormones. Scientists speculate that these hormones may help delay the horrifying symptoms that afflict schizophrenics. Another question raised is who gets schizophrenia more commonly, men or women? Studies have shown there is no great variation in the numbers but in the severity of the symptoms. Men seem to suffer more severely.

Scientists have attempted to explain this through differences in the brain. Research has shown schizophrenia tends to affect the left side of the brain. Males are generally “left- brained” or “right-brained” while females have less specialization on either side of the brain. Yet another startling fact about schizophrenia is the amount of schizophrenics who are winter born. A scientific explanation for this is seasonal viruses, which may have infected the fetus but remain dormant or not as active until many years later. This fact was discovered as early as 1929 but was ignored for about forty years.

By the late 1960’s studies were being done in six countries using over 125,000 people in their research. Another theory is the lack of nutrition, babies developing during the summer months do not seem to receive as much protein, thus causing abnormalities in the child. Although schizophrenia is a serious and devastating disease the outcome is not always bad. At least 25% of the treated schizophrenics recover fully to live a normal life in every aspect. Another group are not so well off and remain severely psychotic, this occurs in about 10% of the treated schizophrenics.

Motivation Equals Progress

Self interest is a driving force; it is motivation. Motivation leads to progression and without progression early man would never have gotten past learning about fire. There is no single purpose of self-interest, it is for the individual to decide, but it is my motivation to live and I am convinced that it raises the standards of life. All things naturally progress because they adapt. According to Darwin, the strong survive; that is, the members of a species best suited to their environment. Progress is a number of different things but it generally means a forward movement.

In one of its forms it is characterized by events like the industrial revolution and scientific revolution. These events are considered progressive because they have helped man control the environment around him with greater ease and precision. Self-interest serves to better my life. It encompasses both hobbies and passions. Hobbies are relaxing and promote self-enjoyment. Therefore, I work hard and endure the days of unpleasant chores because I am motivated to participate in my hobbies like racing sailboats and driving cars. Bettering my life through self-enjoyment allows me to contribute in a more affective way to society.

A person who has spent a weekend participating in their hobbies and passions will be much more relaxed than someone who has been working without any self-satisfaction. A relaxed person is a more productive person and productive people tend to give of themselves in society. Motivation towards self-enjoyment leads to an overall improvement in society. Without motivation would Einstein have had any reason to invent the theory of relativity? Self interest is the driving force behind invention and creativity. Most hobbies need capital to be participated in.

The production of capital coincides with contributions of ideas and new products to society. The advantage of inventions and theories like the theory of relativity is that they provide the building blocks for machines and appliances. Such advancements contribute to society and allow our nation to adapt to the furtherance of the current times. All modern conveniences are products of progression; geniuses were motivated by their self interest, which is most likely exploring the unknown, to developing such items as the telephone, TV and car. Self-interest is not greed, but can however lead to such.

Greed and corruption are the downfalls of self-interest and the market system. People whose motivation is to make money and nothing more have deranged priorities, in my opinion. These downfalls lead to homeless people and a world that is not perfect. The downfalls of the market system occur because people are obsessed and fascinated by power. Some people believe that money is power; to some extent this is true, but not entirely. There are people that take extreme measures to gain control of money and this leads to actions such as robbery and murder.

Gambling addiction is a disease that has its foundation in the obsession of self-interest and money. The competition and sportsmanship in sports has been corrupted by greed and has lead to less than enthusiastic play by the athletes. The rainforests of the world have been chopped down because the greed of individuals to make money off it s resources. The rainforests of the world have also been saved by environmentalists who have a self-interest in helping society and preserving the environment.

A person can have self-interest in community service and still be motivated to help others; helping others improves society as a whole. Self-interest doesnt have to be selfish or greedy. Choosing a job that gives you satisfaction and self-gratification is self-interest but it also promotes a greater place to live. There are internists that work only for their own self-promotion but there are also volunteers who work because it feels right in their heart. When I worked at Cold Spring Harbor lab I worked selfishly; I wanted something spectacular on my transcript.

However when I worked in the Oncology wing of Huntington Hospital I did it because it felt good. I was giving back to society; by assisting the elders who had once looked out for me. My efficiency was consequently heightened at the Hospital as compared to the lab. It was because of my motivation which in turn lead to a better product or work ethic. Self-interest is why America was against communism and why captivated people fight for freedom. Freedom is the ability to participate in self-interest and that is why it is so preciously defended throughout the world.

The problem with freedom is that without responsibility it can be dangerous and unjust. Freedom allows people to become individuals. Without freedom, individuals are nothing but numbers in a population. The purpose of self-interest is to allow individuals to shine and bring out whats best in them. Letting individuals be individuals is very important to the success of society and that is the purpose of self-interest. In communism the workers are deprived of pursuing their self-interests. Their jobs are given to them and they receive limited funds to pay for their endeavors.

Competition among companies and co-workers ceases to exist because there is no possibility for promotion. Workers dont have motivation and without motivation they dont work as hard. This keeps society from reaching further progression. The standard of living in communist societies is lower and the technology they have to ease daily lives is not nearly as available as it is to us because their societies arent as competitive. The incentive of individual self-interest produces competition. This competition results in the catering of goods that society wants, at the cost people are prepared to pay for.

This happens because people are driven to do whatever society is willing to pay for. Some conservative people are against the progression of society. They defend the fact that things are good and need not be changed. Many religious people are against self-interest and change; the fact is that following religion is self-interest. Conservative people are people who arent willing to take risks. They stick with what is proven and they progress very slowly, if at all. Religious people do not usually advocate self-interest but they dont realize that freedom is what allows them to take a part in their religion.

Economics was started and is motivated by self-interest. Ancient society could function without economics, however, modern culture cannot. When social life was intertwined with work and religion it was possible to not participate extensively in self-interest but people were still motivated to work because it was a means of survival. Before more efficient forms of trade and transportation were developed, people in ancient society had to produce everything essential to their life within their own small living community.

These people were motivated to work hard because if they didnt they wouldnt receive the essential requirements to live like shelter and food. In todays world where social and business life are separate it isnt possible to not have self-interest. Instead of working just to survive, people work for capital to help fund self interests, like vacations and hobbies. There isnt the same motivation in work because it isnt for a means of survival; people feel that they can take risks because they can always fall back on financial aid or well fair.

The purpose of self-interest is progression of ones self and society. The process towards self-interest is driven by motivation. It is the motivation of self-satisfaction that drives people to be passionate about items and activities. A person is an individual because what they choose to be interested in molds their personality. There would be nothing unique about people if it wasnt for self-interest; our society would be a very dull place. Self-interest drives motivation, which equates to the progression of our world.

How To Argue And Win Everytime

Jerry Spence startes off by asking why do we argue? He says that he doesn’t like to argue and he doesn’t like people that do. The confused me at first. He askes why not ty to get along, and besides when he argues he loses. He says we were born to make a winning argument just as we were born to walk. Mr. Spence says that we are so bound up, so mute. From the moment we have been conditioned to avoid confrontation. We have been taught not to let our emotions show. By the time we become adults the word argue calls up dark and negative feelings.

Many throughout our lives have forced up to accept their ways, their relugion, their values, ect… The key to our freedom is embarrassingly obvious. We need only to give ourselves permission, to unlock to doors. The key is to give ourselves permission to peer out of our closets and to look around, to ask questions and demand respect. We need to speak out and just to be. Most people are afriad to argue because it just causes trouble. Our arguements turn sour, the words ugly, the passages to the heart close, and the feelings of love are replaced by the hurt and the anger. But, fear is ourr ally.

Fear confirms us. Fear is our energy that is convertible to POWER-our power. We need to learn not to afraid of our fear but to embrace it. If you feel your fear, you can also feel its power and you can change its power into YOUR power. First, to win an argument, exhaustive preparation is essential. The most prepared person will usually win. In the preparation process, you must thoroughly research and understand your case, and you must also thoroughly research and understand your opponent’s position. You should know and understand the facts and arguments of your opponent better than he or she does.

Second, you must have a profound understanding of the thinking and emotions of the decision maker(s) – in his case, the jury. Your argument should be framed to harmonize with the decision makers’ values, wants and needs. You must understand the prejudices of the jurors and address the built-in objections they may have to your arguments. You must help them to understand the motives of your client and identify with them as their own. In other words, empathize with the jurors and help them empathize with your client. Mr. Spence emphasizes that, in order for the jurors to believe your arguments, you must argue from your own sincere belief.

You also have to talk to them in their own language, treat them with respect and relate with them so they can relate back to you. If you act superior to them, you will probably make them your enemies and never gain their trust. Mr. Spence says that, in your personal relationships, you may find the only way to win an argument is to lose. If the only way to win your point is to destroy the relationship, you may find it’s better to concede. This was an excellent book on argumentation skills. However, first you have to define what it is to win.

What do you want to get from the argument and what are you willing to risk to get that? Through several examples he works out how to win by losing, how to win by empowering others, how to win by redirecting the prejudice of others or using that prejudice to your advantage, etc. He spends a great deal of time discussing the importance of using stories to illustrate points and does a fine job of it. The book is filled with stories and experiences from his real life courtroom experiences and how his arguments affected the jury, sometimes in a manner that surprised him and sometimes in the manner he expected.

Even when the results were a surprise he explains why, after thinking about it, the decision went the way it did. The book is highly slanted toward the argument styles of a lawyer in front of a jury. However, it is useful to anyone in any potentially argumentative situation where a position has to be taken and defended. How to argue, how to win, when to argue, when to shut up, it all starts with deciding what it is to win and then moving to that point. It includes sections on arguing in the marriage and the workplace. The one about handling arguments in a relationship is an interesting chapter.

I particularly enjoyed reading How To Argue And Win Every Time because of the insights Gerry Spence shared about himself, including his prejudicial dislike of corporate executives. Studying How To Argue And Win Every Time can help you in your personal relationships, in personal selling and in writing advertising. It should be required reading for aspiring lawyers and highly recommended for anyone else. In How to Argue and Win Every Time, Spence shares the philosophy that has made him such a formidable and persuasive advocate. Gerry Spence portrays himself as a simple country lawyer.

His easy and pleasant appearance is not what one might expect from such a high-powered attorney. His ” aw shucks ” personna is credible because it is true. Spence’s appearance and mannerisms are no affectation. They are real; and here lies the first lesson that he teaches the reader. In order to argue winningly, he argues; one must tell the truth. Indeed, one must sometimes delve deeply into the matter at hand in order to discover the essential truth. To Spence, the winning argument must always have credibility with the jury. Argument is discovering what you truly believe and stating that strongly.

Spence also realizes that it is extremely important to listen with empathy to the other side of the argument. This is so critical in our everyday lives. We must listen not to refute but to learn. Many times we will be able to avoid an argument altogether and quickly reach common ground. At the very least, we will be able to clearly understand where the other side is coming from. Even though Gerry Spence is a lawyer, he addresses the types of argument most of us will face. He writes about how to win argument in love relationships as well as business relationships. He even has a separate chapter entitled, ” Arguing with Kids.

Spence builds his argument chapter by chapter. He carefully lays out his well-reasoned case in such a manner that the reader may find her or himself nodding in agreement. Spence’s skills in the art of persuasion may remind you of a master in the martial arts. I found this book an easy and enjoyable read. How to Argue and Win Every Time is filled with many chunks of wisdom. Some of the insights have been stated before, but the book contained a surprising amount of unique, original material. Do I now win every argument? Well no, but I must say that I have avoided several since reading this wonderful book.

Comparative View Of Two Dinstinct School Of Psychology Behaviourism And Humanism

In this paper, it is tried to explain the first force (Behaviourism) and the third force (Humanistic Psychology) and, compare differences and similarities between them. Each school of thought in psychology was sometimes born as a reaction to the previous ones or a new version of them. Although behaviourism is very popular, reactions to it and alternative thoughts are also strong in modern psychology. The debate between structuralism and functionalism was only the prelude to other fundamental controversies in psychology. In the early 1900s, another major school of thought appeared that dramatically altered the course of psychology.

Founded by John B. Watson (1878-1958), behaviourism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour. It is important to understand what a radical change this definition represents. Watson (1913) was proposing that psychologists abandon the study of consciousness altogether and focus exclusively on behaviours that they could observe directly. In essence, he was redefining what scientific psychology should be about. The shift in direction of psychology was caused by his belief that the power of the scientific method rested on the idea of verifiability.

In principle, scientific claims can always be verified (or disproved) by anyone who is able and willing to make the required observations. However, this power depends on studying things that can be observed objectively. Otherwise, the advantage of using the scientific approach -replacing vague speculations and personal opinion with reliable, exact knowledge – is lost. For Watson mental processes were not a proper subject for scientific study because they are ultimately private events. After all, no one can see or touch another’s thoughts.

Consequently, if psychology were to be a science, it would have to give up consciousness as its subject matter and become instead the science of behaviour. Behaviour refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism. Watson asserted that psychologists could study anything that people do or say -shopping, playing, chess, eating- but they couldn’t study scientifically the thoughts, wishes, and feelings that might accompany these observable behaviours. Watson’s radical reorientation of psychology did not end with his redefinition of its subject matter.

After Watson, behaviourists eventually came to view psychology’s mission as an attempt to relate overt behaviours (responses) to observable events in the environment (stimuli). A stimulus is any detectable input from the environment. Behaviourism’s stimulus-response approach contributed to the rise of animal research in psychology. Having deleted consciousness from their scope of concern, behaviourists no longer needed to study human subjects who could report on their mental processes. Many psychologists thought that animals would make better research subjects anyway.

One key reason was that experimental research is often more productive if experimenters can exert considerable control over their subjects. Otherwise, too many complicating factors enter into the picture and contaminate the experiment. Obviously, a researcher can exert much more control over a laboratory rat or pigeon than over a human subject, who arrives at a lab with years of uncontrolled experience who will probably insist on going home at night. Thus, the discipline that had begun its life a few decades earlier as the study of the mind now found itself heavily involved in the study of simple responses made by laboratory animals.

Psychology – The Science Of Behavior

Psychology is the science of behavior. Psychology is not the science of the mind. Behavior can be described and explained without making reference to mental events or to internal psychological processes. The sources of behavior are external (in the environment), not internal (in the mind). Behaviorism is a doctrine, or a set of doctrines, about human and nonhuman animal behavior. An important component of many psychological theories in the late nineteenth century were introspection, the study of the mind by analysis of one’s own thought processes.

It was in reaction to this trend that behaviorism arose, claiming that the causes of behavior need not be sought in the depths of the mind but could be observed in the immediate environment, in stimuli that elicited, reinforced, and punished certain responses. The explanation, in other words, lay in learning, the process whereby behavior changes in response to the environment. It wasnt until the twentieth century that the scientist began to uncover the actual mechanism of learning, thereby laying the theoretical foundation for behaviorism.

The contributions of four particular scientists are Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, Edward Lee Thorndike, and B. F. Skinner. A Russian neurophysiologist, named Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), found that if he consistently sounded a tone at the same time that he gave a dog food, the dog would eventually salivate to the sound of the tone alert. Through this research he discovered a basic mechanism of learning called the Conditioned Reflex.

A Conditioned Reflex is if a neutral stimulus (i. e. the tone) is paired with a nonneutral stimulus (i. the food), the organism will eventually respond to the neutral stimulus as it does to the nonneutral stimulus. Perhaps the strongest application of classical conditioning involves emotion. Common experience and careful research both confirm that human emotion conditions very rapidly and easily. Particularly when the emotion is intensely felt or negative in direction, it will condition quickly. His findings raised the possibility that many of our responses, like those of the dogs, were the result of a simple learning process.

In other words, our loves and hates, our tastes and distastes might be the consequences of nothing more mysterious that a conditioning process whereby various things in our environment became \”linked\” in our minds to other things that we responded to instinctively, such as food, warmth, and pain. Clearly, classical conditioning is a pervasive form of influence in our world. Behaviorism was first developed in the early 20th century by the American psychologist John B Watson (1878-1958). Watson was credited with the founding the behavioral movement.

This is not because Watson made major contributions to the theory of behaviorism but rather because he publicized the empirical method and made it the battle cry for a new school of psychology, aggressively opposed to subjective approaches. The dominant view of that time was that psychology is the study of inner experiences or feelings by subjective, introspective methods. Watson proposed to make the study of psychology scientific by using only objective procedures such as a laboratory experiments designed to establish statistically significant result.

Watson supported his rejection of the introspective method by demonstrating, in a classic experiment, that a supposed subjective emotion such as fear could, like the salvation response of Pavlov’s dogs, result from a simple, objective conditioning process. With the help of an associate Watson conditioned a fear of rats into an eleventh month boy. Before the experiment, Albert had no fear of rats. On the first day of the experiment Albert was shown a white rat. Watson than struck a medal bar with a hammer that caused a very loud noise. The first time it was done the boy was simply startled.

As it happened again and again, he began to show signs of fright, crying, falling over, crawling away from the rat. After several time Albert showed this reactions without the noise. Thus a conditioned fear reaction had been established. American psychologist and educator, born in Williamsburg, Massachusetts, was Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949). He joined the psychology faculty at Teachers College of Columbia University in 1899, where he served as adjunct professor of educational psychology from 1901 to 1904 and as professor of psychology from 1904 until his retirement in 1940.

By using trial-and-error experiments with animals, Thorndike formulated his so-called law of effect, which stated that responses that lead to \”satisfying\” consequences are strengthened and therefore are likely to be repeated, while responses that lead to \”unsatisfying\” consequences are weakened and therefore are unlikely to be repeated. Thorndike’s specialty was the \”puzzle box,\” into which he would put various animals (chickens, rats, cats) and let them find their way out by themselves. He was the first psychologist to study animal’s behavior in an experimental psychology laboratory and apply the same techniques to children and youths.

Through Thorndike used objective methods in his experiments, Watson did not consider him a behaviorist, for he used subjective terms such as satisfying and unsatisfying to describe his observations. For the early behaviorist, all reference to inferred mental states were unscientific and therefore to be avoided. Yet despite its subjective wording, Thorndike’s law of effect had laid down another fundamental principle of learning: the importance of reward in the learning process. Following the pioneering discoveries of Pavlov and Thorndike, B. F.

Skinner (1904-1990) contributed to the development of learning theory. He began the study through precise experimental analysis. In the course of these experiments he was able to pinpoint basic principles that have allowed us to study human behavior in a precise way and to change human behavior by arranging the social and psychical environment. Skinner is the only major figure in the history of behaviorism to offer a socio-political worldview on his commitment to behaviorism. Skinner’s major contribution was to refine Thorndike’s discoveries and to demonstrate their application to everyday life.

Like Watson, Skinner was interested in the control of behavior, and he saw in Thorndike’s law, which he renamed principles of reinforcement, the basic mechanism for predicting and controlling human behavior. Skinner pointed out that our social environment is filled with reinforcing consequences, which mold our behavior as surely as the piece of salmon molded the behavior of Thorndike’s cat. Our friends and families control us with their approval or disapproval. Our jobs control us by offering or withholding money. Our schools control us by passing us or failing us thus affecting our access to jobs.

Thus Skinner stated outright what Pavlov had merely suggested: that much of our behavior is based not on internal contingencies but based on external ones. According to traditional behavioral theory, all behavior falls into two categories, respondent and operant. There are ten principles of learning. Respondent learning is the process by which you learn a conditioned response. A conditioned response is a neutral stimulus that is the result of repeatedly pairing the neutral stimulus with a non-neutral or an unconditioned stimulus that would have naturally elicited the response.

In respondent behavior the organism responds to the environment; in operant behavior the organism operates on the environment in order to achieve a desired result. In operant conditioning the likelihood of a response is increased or decreased by virtue of its consequence. Having taken a certain action, the organism learns to associate that action with certain consequences. Reinforcement operates on behavior in many ways. In positive reinforcement a response is followed by a positive rein forcer, with the result that the response increases in frequency.

The first semester at college I got an 4. 0 gpa when my parents found out that I worked so hard for the grades and did so well the rewarded me with one hundred dollars, to show that hard work and dedtication pays off in the end. A second type of reinforcement that increases the frequency of behavior is negative reinforcement. It is a conditioning procedure in which a response is followed by the removal of an aversive event or stimulus, thereby promoting the response. There was one class that I was doing very poorly in.

Almost every test I had gotten a C on. I figured out that the problem was that I was not studying enough for the test. So I began to put more effort into studying for my test and it worked I never got less than a B on every test after that. A third type of reinforcement is punishment. It is the process in which the person, in order to avoid a consequence, stops performing a behavior. Now this is the type of reinforcement that I have a lot of experience in. When I was younger my brother and I would constantly fight.

My parents tried to change my ways by sending me to my room for days but eventually I got out. There methods were good because today he is my best friend. In addition to defining respondent and operant conditioning, psychologist have identified a number of other mechanisms associated with learning. The most important of these mechanisms is extinction, the elimination of a response by ending the conditioning that created it. When I was younger I remember coming home from school one day, and everyday I had to cross a dangerous street.

Well one day I didnt cross in the crosswalk. Well when I got home I got into so much trouble that I never did that again. Another important aspect of learning is the process of generalization. Generalization is, whereby once an organism has been conditioned to respond in a certain way to a particular stimulus, it will respond in the same way to a similar stimuli without further conditioning. In other words, the conditioned response automatically \”spreads,\” or generalizes, to thinks that resemble the conditioned stimulus.

An example to this is in Watson’s experiment with little Albert’s spontaneous fear of rabbits, and other animals that resembles a white rate. The opposite side of the coin from generalization is discrimination that is learning to distinguish among similar stimuli and to respond only to the appropriate one. People learn to discriminate between similar stimuli, between a friendly smile and a malicious grin. When one turns to have reinforcing consequences and the other does not. When I was a little boy I loved the ice cream man.

There would be so much noise going up and down my block but I could always hear his music over all the noise. Shaping is a critical process to operant conditioning. Throughout this process there is a positive reinforcement of successive approximations. The basic assumptions of behaviorism are that psychology’s task is to study behavior, or the responses an organism makes to the stimuli in its environment; that psychological research should be empirical, based on measurement; that behavior can be controlled and predicted, and that the major component of behavior is learning.

The Effect of Visual Field Position and Type of Stimuli on the Stroop Effect

Psychologists have been interested in how the human brain works and how stimuli are processed and interpreted. The brain is a highly complex organ that is the center for all our human functions. The more we know about how it works and how efficient the brain is, the better psychologists will be able to analyze human behavior. The stoop test has been used for many years to investigate how we process information. Laterality is one of the factors in which the stroop test can be used to investigate.

Many researchers have examined laterality in the Stroop task. Dyer (1973) showed that presenting the word and the color separately to the left and right fixation did not alter the Stroop effect. Interference and facilitation were still factors (MacLeod, 1991). There are many instances of the left hemisphere showing more interference during this kind of testing. Aine and Harter (1984) studied this same effect and found that activity associated with interference occurs in the left hemisphere, effecting the response time and error-rate measured.

Similar results were found in a study conducted by Posner, Walker, Friedrich, and Rafal; (Citedin, Macleod, 1991) they found that the left parietal and frontal lobe may be involved in disengaging attention. Many other variables such as gender, bilingual ness, even handedness have been proven to alter the Stroop effect. This experiment investigated how visual field position and differing stimuli influenced the reaction time in naming ink colors. Based on the information above and past studies, these hypotheses were formulated. The time to name the ink colors will vary with visual field position.

The slowest time should occur when the stimulus appears in the right visual field because of its association with the left side of the brain. The time to name congruent stimuli should be faster then the time to name incongruent stimuli. The time to name ink color will vary with both visual field position and type of stimuli. Time to name ink colors for congruent stimuli should not vary much with visual field but the time to name ink color of incongruent should increase as the stimuli gets color to the right visual field. Methods Participants

This study contained a total of fifteen students from the University of Tampa’s upper level psychology class. Thirteen of the participants were female and the remaining two were male. In addition to this class thirty six students from other classes were also used in this study. Materials I-Mac G3 computers and a program from Old Mississippi University were used to test the lateralized Stroop effect from http://psychexp. olemiss. edu. The name of the actual program was the Lateralized Stroop Experiment. The stimuli used by this program were colors that appeared laterally on a computer screen.

Not only did the colors appear laterally but in differing hemispheres on the computer screen. The colors were in the form of written words. For example the word “red” was shown in green font. This was be an example of an incongruent stimulus because the written color word did not agree with the font color shown. An example of a congruent stimuli is be the word “red” in red font. Design and Procedure The experiment had a 3×2 design with two independent variables. The first independent variable was visual field position.

The words appeared to the right, left, or middle of the field of vision established by a pulsating focal point used to initiate each trial The second independent variable was the type of stimuli (congruent or non-congruent). The appearance and screen location for each trial is randomly assigned. The dependent variable was the reaction time it takes to submit a response.

The dependent variable (response time) was calculated by the time between a word’s appearance and a key press that indicated the font color of the stimulus into the computer. ” represents the color red, “4” represents blue, “6” represents green, and “8” represents yellow. First the website http://psychex. olemiss. edu was connected to via the internet. After an in depth overview of the experiment is read by the participants, each will have to agree to a consent form. Then practice for the experiment is begun. This practice helps the participants to become familiar with the number- color codes that are necessary for the program to record the reaction time of each response.

After the practice trials are completed and proficiency is proven, a number-color code is acquired the actual experiment can be conducted. The participants elected to complete 72 trials. A correct trial run was recorded and admissible for inclusion in the PsychExps database if it was correct. Each trial begins with a pulsation plus sign that serves to establish a focal point on the computer screen. Research participants press a key when they are ready for a word to be presented. Next there is a delay of 1 to 3 seconds before the word appears.

When the words appear they are written vertically on the screen. The central axis of the word is designed to be approximately 3 degrees of visual angle to the right or left of the fixation point on lateral presentations, though the actual visual angle will vary depending on monitor size and the distance of research participants from the monitor. This should be a constant in the experiment with each participant about 11 inches from the monitor and a standard size monitor. On the central presentation, the word axis is at 0 degrees relative to the fixation point.

Display times are fixed at 150 msec to assure that laterally presented words are experienced in a single visual hemisphere. With four words (red, blue, Green, and yellow) that are printed in a word-color congruent form or non-congruent form appearing at any of three positions (right, left, or center), there are 24 possible stimulus events. The reaction time type of stimuli is measured and recorded for each trial. After the experiment is completed the result must be printed out and analyzed.

Abnormal Psychology: Bipolar Disorder

Mental illness has plagued human kind for as long as we have been on this earth. The science of psychology has made great strides in past century. The stigma of being mentally ill has begun to fall away and people are finally starting to get the help that they need to recover. Bipolar disorder is one illness that we have come to more fully understand. Through assistance from a psychiatrist, family and medication a patient with bipolar disorder can enter remission and live a normal life. Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive disorder (MDD), affects people of all races, colors, and economic backgrounds.

Approximately two million Americans aged 18 and older are affected by this disorder. Typically, patients are diagnosed during adolescence, (Mayo Clinic) but people may be diagnosed at any stage of their life. This disorder is characterized by cycling from manic (high) to depressed (low). On the downward swing from mania, patients may experience normal moods. Eventually, depression will occur (NMHA). MDD is thought to be caused by chemical imbalances in the brain. Neurotransmitters act as messengers to our neurons, or nerve cells (NMHA).

Because there is no biological test for this disorder, a physician cannot access risk or diagnose patients easily (Tate). Human genome studies have yet to discover a specific gene which causes this disorder (Tate), but those who suffer from this illness generally have relatives with some form of depression, showing a clear genetic link (NMHA). Symptomology The manic phase is when the patients mood is up. Patients often experience euphoria along with excessive energy, aggressive behavior, and irritability. Hypersexuality and exhibiting poor judgment are two symptoms that can be very worrisome.

NMHA) Often patients cannot control their behavior and may engage in unprotected sexrisking harm from violence or from sexually transmitted disease. They have a tendency to drive fast and start altercations, often ending with incarceration. Patients often tend to make loose associations and suffer from delusions of grandeur, feeling increased confidence and optimism. Other notable behaviors during the manic phase are changes in dress, hair color, getting tattoos and piercings; the patient exhibits uncharacteristic personality changes.

They may exhibit lack of cleanliness, or wear garish clothes (Butler). Sleep is also disrupted during this period; patients may feel a decreased need for sleep while feeling no fatigue (NMHA). Psychosis may be the most frightening aspect of mania. One sufferer believed that she was a terrorist and was responsible for the attacks on September 11, 2002. She stated that she had to end her life in order for the violence to stop (Fleischauer). Though psychosis is common during mania, it may not happen to all patients (NMHA).

On the opposite side of the mood spectrum is depression. Depression consists of sad moods, sleep disorders, feeling hopeless or worthless, and loss of interest in regular activities. Patients may also experience psychosomatic illnesses, fatigue, reduced or increased appetite and suicidal thoughts (NMHA). Plagued by extreme guilt and sense of worthlessness, some patients feel no choice but to end their lives. In fact, fifty-percent of MDD patients will try to commit suicide; five percent will succeed (Fleischer). Diagnosis

Diagnosing this disorder can be a difficult task. The increased energy and restlessness of mania may be mistaken for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In fact, many patients seen by CORE Research, an independent clinical trials company, had been misdiagnosed with ADHD. Upon being given medication for this illness, their symptoms were exacerbated. For many, this is when the correct diagnosis is made. (Butler). Physicians must first rule out other possible diagnoses. Patients will normally be tested for drugs and their psychosocial stressors accessed.

Many drugs, including cocaine and marijuana may be causes of erratic behavior and mood swings. Also, the patients thyroid status should be assessed. A University of North Carolina study has proved that depression is three times more likely for those with hypothyroidism than those with normal thyroid function (Dranov). Psychiatrists must do a full psychiatric evaluation in order to diagnose a patient with bipolar disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV is used for diagnosis; the DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder must be met in order to diagnose a patient.

Tools such as scales are very helpful in aiding of the diagnosis of the patient. Scales are a series of questions relating to the disorder in question and according to the score, clinicians can either confirm or rule out a diagnosis. Typical scales for bipolar disorder are: Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Montgomery-Asberg Depression rating scale (MADRS), and The Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) (Psychiatry). When scales are repeated during the course of treatment, efficacy of medication can be assessed.

As MDD patients are historically under-reporters of symptoms, it may be helpful for a close loved one to accompany the patient to treatment. Patients may also not recognize the extent of their behavior and it helps to have a secondary report (Butler). Treatment options Medication is the first line of defense in treating bipolar disorder. Traditionally, lithium was the drug of choice for bipolar patients. Though lithium is still used today, there are many drugs which have been shown to be valuable managing symptoms.

Anti-depressants, mood stabilizers, anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) as mood stabilizers, typical and atypical neuroleptics, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are all being used to treat bipolar disorder (Bringham). As with any medication, there are side effects and not all drugs will work for all people. Very often, patients find a working regimen by trial and error. (Butler). ECT should be considered as a treatment option for MDD. Though people are typically turned off by ECT, it has been shown to be more effective than antidepressants in depression and has shown to be equally effective for both mania and depression.

Bringham) Research Research is an invaluable tool in the psychiatric field. In order to test new medications and to test older drugs (not approved for psychiatric use) for their efficacy in treating patients with bipolar disorder, subjects are needed for these clinical trials. Patients receive free care and free medication, possibly for extended periods of time. Clinical trials can prove to be a god-send for many patients as they may be economically challenged. And with the cost of health insurance and managed care, prescription drugs may be too costly.

On the negative side of research is the inevitability that some patients may not benefit from the drug in question, or they may receive a placebo in a double-blind trial. Unfortunately, the patient may considerably decompensate and end up in a mental health facility or in jail. Though every precaution is taken to ensure patient safety, there is no way to prevent these pitfalls (Butler). Bipolar disorder can be a very debilitating, very lonely disease. With proper treatment and effective medications, many patients will be able to live long, productive and normal lives.

Sport Psychology Essay

To fully understand sport psychology, we must ask ourselves two very important questions, first, what is sport psychology and second, who is it for? Put in the most sim-ple way, sport psychology can be an example of psychological knowledge, principles, or methods applied to the world of sport. “Two psychologists, Bunker and Maguire, say sport psychology is not for psychologists, but is for sport and its participants. (Murphy & White, 1978:2)

However, it can be argued that sport psychology, can be for psycho-logy, just as it can be for sports scientists, managers, teachers, administrators, coaches nd last but by no means least, the athletes themselves. It is sport psychology that has stood apart from the discipline of psychology as a whole. “Its history is different, its concerns are often different, its centres of learning and teaching are often different, and its professional training is different. (Garfield, 1984:34)

Yet despite this, sport psychology remains permanently bonded to psychology through its common interest in the fundamental principles of psychology, human behavior, and experience. No one can deny the significant role which sport and recreation plays in very cul-ture and society across the globe. In the western and eastern worlds alike, sport and lei-sure continue to support huge industries and take up massive amounts of individual time, effort, money, energy, and emotion.

Within the media, competitive sport has gotten enor-mous attention and despite this, the public’s appetite for more sport never is stated. “It has been estimated that around two thirds of all newspaper readers in Great Britain first turn to the sports pages when they pick up their daily paper. ” (Butt, 1987:65) When one con-siders the number of people who actually engage in sport or even take egular exercise, then the significance of sport to all our lives cannot be denied. A common problem with sport psychology research lies in its somewhat myopic or short-sighted appreciation of present day accumulated psychological knowledge.

As we look into sport psychology, we are confronted by a landscape of knowledge which rises and falls often suddenly and dramatically. “At certain times, massive peaks of understand-ing rise up before out eyes yet at other times, huge tracts of psychology remain untouched to the horizon. ” (Garfield, 1984:6) Around the 1960’s, scientific traditions, institutions, and publications hich pros-per to this day first came into being, and it was this era which truly marked the structural genesis of modern day sport psychology. However, there are many untouched aspects of sport psychology today.

In order for us to determine whether psychology plays a signi-ficant role in the mind of a young athlete, we must look at the uses and techniques of sport psychology. Sport psychologists over the years have maintained a keen interest in psychological profiling and have been naturally drawn to the quantification of personality variables. As sport itself revolves aroung the measurement and eward of individual differences in per-formances, it is no surprise that scientists quantify psychological differences rather than sporting differences.

The research is often looked at in terms of three primary areas, the search for the winning profile, a comparison between athletes and non-athletes, and diffe -ences in the personalities of athletes either competing in different sports or playing in different positions. ” (Butt, 1987:97) Any discussion of personality traits in sports could not ignore one particular trait which has occupied more time than any other, competitive anxiety. Helping athletes deal with pressure has become the bread and butter of many sport psychologists.

The prob-lem of anxiety is dealt with with two areas of research: test anxiety and achievement moti-vation. ” (Hackfort & Spielberger, 1989:247) Presently, the test scale which enjoys the greatest popularity is the second version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory or CSAI-2. It is this test that psychologists measure the level of anxiety of an athlete. It consists of questions in which each have four levels of severity with four being the highest level. The CSAI-2 has been the basis for many other odern day anxiety questionaires.

There remain so many fundamental questions which have yet to be resolved that attempts to quantify concepts such as anxiety, when we are still not sure just what this term actually means, can seem rather premature at times, but the development of research instruments has nevertheless proceeded rapidly. ” (Wolff, 1993:22) Achievement motivation, competitiveness, and self-confidence together with competition anxiety seem to form the cluster of core psychological constructs which would seem to be most relevent to our understanding of sport erformance.

With regard to achievement motivation and competitiveness, recent advances have been predicated upon the interest originally stimulated by the Atkinson model of achievement motivation. “Atkinson’s nAch or the need to achieve was taken to be a composite of two independent factors, the motive to achieve success (M ) and the motive to avoid failure (M ), mediated by the probability of success (P ) and the incentive value of success (1-P ). ” (Hackfort & Spielberger, 1989:251) This relationship is represented by the following formula. nAch = (M – M ) x (P x [ 1- P ] )

Without exploring the subtleties of this model in any depth, the single most impor-tant message to come through is that high achievers will be drawn towards competition and difficult yet realizable challenges. Low achievers will try to avoid personal challenges or set unattainable goals where failure is a high probability. “In terms of applied sport psy-chology, this motivational model can often be very revealing of problems, particularly those afflicting young athletes. ” (Hackfort & Spielberger, 1989:252) There are some methods of sport psychology that deal with cognitive psychology.

Traditional behavior modification techniques seek to change behavior by amending the en-vironment in systematic ways. However, there have been claims that it is not the environ-mental events themselves which are of primary importance in behavior change but the individual’s perception of those events. “Cognitive coping strategies may be amended by conventional behaviour modification but involvement of the individual in expressing his or her own thoughts and feelings has been held to increase the efficacy of treatment. (Mar-tens, 1981:57) Meichenbaum’s Stress-Inoculation Training (SIT) is one of range of stress management packages advocated as useful to coaches and athletes for reducing stress and enhancing performance.

Other popular programs include Smith’s Cognitive-Affective Stress Management or SMT and Suinn’s program of Anxiety Management Training or AMT. “SIT and SMT have been adapted or developed specifically for use in sport and both outline essentially the same four stage process. (Smith, 1983:139) The first stage of the SIT or SMT is the educational phase during which athletes explore the stress reaction itself, including antecedents of stress, nature of stressors, and own reactions and consequences of action. The next stage is an introduction to coping skills for handling stress which include relaxation training and the use of cognitive skills to prepare for stress.

The next phase is the practice phase. “SIT encourages supervised practice in coping in increasingly stressful situations, e. . , practice, game-like practice, and games and SMT introduces an induced affect as a major factor: the athlete imagines dis-tressing situations which generate high levels of emotional arousal and use coping skills. ” (Smith, 1983:141) The final stage is an evaluation component which is included to assess the effectiveness of the rogram in meeting individual needs. Another method of cognitive sport psychology is imagery and visualization.

Many self-help manuals for coaches and athletes currently advocate the use of imagery for a wide variety of purposes including skill acquisition, skill maintenance, competition prepar-ation, and arousal control. “Empirical investigations of imagery have tended to focus on the role of mental practice in skill acquisition, the role of imagery as a pre-competition cognitive psyching-up strategy and comparisons in the use of imagery by successful and unsuccessful athletes. ” (Murphy & White, 1978:14) A number of hese studies also ex-plore the various variables thought to mediate imagery effects.

Studies have shown that more successful athletes have used imagery than unsuccessful athletes. However, despite these apparently supportive findings, the recent research has not been without criticism. In particular much of the work conducted within sport psychology as been accused of be-ing methodologically flawed and lacking a coherent theoretical framework to explain imagery effects. Although suggestions for improvement in both these areas have been made, research efforts ironically have tended to lag behind actual ractice of interventions and practical guidelines for imagery use in sport.

Another popular approach to improving sporting performance which appears to be above all else psychological is that of the Inner Game. “Inner Game was an expression coined by Gallwey in the 1970’s, and has been the basis for a considerable number of pop-ular sport psychology books by Gallwey focusing on games including golf, skiing, and ten-nis. ” (Butt, 1987:78) Gallwey claimed that the most formidable opponent a performer in sports must face is inside his or her own head. Inner Game is essentially a conflict be-tween two selves, elf 1 and self 2.

They are said to have quite different characteristics. Self 1 is conscious, self-conscious, and linguistic. It is the thinking self which evaluates, analyzes and criticizes performance and it may be responsible for inappropriate responses or it may motivate the athlete towards counterproductive actions. Self 2, on the other hand, is described as unconscious and computer like, and deals most effectively with visual and spatial information. “The self analysis and self-criticism of an athlete during perfor-mance is a function of self 1 and is symptomatic of the conflict between the two selves. Butt, 1987:79) Self 1 can express itself linguistically and, therefore, usually gains this control inappropriately.

According to Gallwey, it is not necessary to analyze why doubts and fears are away from the more relevant visual and spatial elements of the task. The Inner Game is directed toward allocating the resources of the two selves to the functions in which each is more competent so that they can operate in harmony and therefore pro-duce optimal performance. Some methods of sport psychology deal with clinical psychology. Relaxation tech-niques are a good example. Self directed relaxation aims to elease tension in each of the body’s major muscle groups while emphasizing slow, easy breathing, and encouraging vi-sualization of stress flowing away from the body. ” (Murphy & White, 1978:13)

While initially it may take ten minutes to work through instructions, with some practice, greater and greater relaxation should be achieved in less and less time. Progressive Relaxation Training (PRT) was originally pioneered by Edmund Jacobson, an American physician working in the 1920’s and 1930’s, but has been modi-fied over the years. PRT is learning to feel tension in the muscles and hen learning to let go of this tension. ” (Murphy & White, 1978:14)

The PRT procedure involves three steps. The athlete must be on a mat with subdued lighting. The athlete is then asked to tense the first 16 muscle groups between 5 and 7 seconds. The tension is then released and the athlete relaxes for 30 to 45 seconds. The same routine is followed for each muscle set for 15 to 20 minutes, twice daily, gradually learning to combine muscle groups until only four are used.

Eventually the athlete will be able to relax just by recalling the sensa-tion and experience, even during competition itself. Another method that is similar to PRT is autogenic training. “While PRT concen-trates on relaxation alone, autogenic training brings in other sensations associated with the state of relaxation, and calls for some type of self-hypnosis on the part of the athlete” (Butt, 1987:189) This type of training was developed in the early 1900’s by the German psychiatrist, J. H. Schultz. Athletes are tutored in self-relaxation, based on self-suggestions and imagery.

This is designed to create feelings of warmth, heaviness and control in different body parts and finally reach a state of mental equilibrium. Imagery relaxation, like imagery itself, works well for some people but is difficult for others. “Imagery relaxation involves imagining yourself in some environment or place where you have experienced feelings of relaxation and comfort. ” (Hackfort & Spielberger, 1989:146) This could be a place at home or somewhere special that you remember from holidays or childhood such as a warm beach with a cool sea breeze, a grassy mountainside, or just wherever you feel good.

The better able the individual is to put him/herself in the place through imagery, the more relaxed she/he is to be. With regular practice in imagi-ning his place without guidance will allow the athlete to feel relaxed much more quickly. Other methods of sport psychology deal with motor behavior. Practice is an essential element in acquiring any motor skill. However, many individuals may not be aware of the fact that the distribution of practice conditions may have varying effects on how much is learned or how well a skill is learned. Distribution of practice refers to the spacing between different practice sessions. ” (Martens, 1981:103)

A coach could advise a young gymnast to spend one hour of a two hour practice session trying to improve a handspring vault, hereas another coach might favor having gymnasts practice the vault during three 15-minute blocks combined with other practice activities. Studies showed that the hour of the practice session was a better method. Another issue which is of considerable importance to teachers and coaches alike concerns the best method of practicing the skills being learned. Should skills be present-ed and practiced in their entirety (the whole method) or should they be broken down into smaller component parts ( the part method). ” (Butt, 1987:165)

The general conclusion that was reached was that whole methods f training were better and even today most coaches use whole methods of training. A common problem facing teachers and coaches of motor skills is how to teach several essential skills within a given practice session. The teacher is faced with two choices. She/he can require the learner to spend a specified number of practice trials on one task, correcting it before the next task (blocked practice).

Alternatively, the learner could be required to rotate around the various tasks, never practicing the same skill on two consecutive trials (random practice). “This issue of blocked vs random practice has enerated a good deal of research interest since the late 1970’s. ” (Garfield, 1984:199) Subjects practicing under random conditions tended to perform worse than subjects prac-ticing under blocked conditions during acquisition trials. However, when all subjects were given a retention test to evaluate learning 10 days after the experiment, it was the random practice group that proved itself more effective.

These findings suggest that more learning takes place when random practice is used. The belief that mental rehearsal will enhance performance has become popular among most coaches today. However, the effectiveness of mental practice in relation to motor learning is also given consideration here. “Mental practice refers to a situation in which the learner thinks about or imagines performing the task rather than physically prac-ticing it. ” (Wolff, 1993:193) After reviewing over 60 studies of mental training, Feltz and Landers concluded that performance can be improved by mental practice.

However, men-tal practice was better than no practice, but physical practice was found to be better. “Tasks with a large cognitive component seem to benefit more from mental ractice than tasks requiring large amounts of strength. ” (Butt, 1987:191) This would affect gymnas-tics, ice skating, or any team sport where the performer is attempting to learn a new game play or strategy. Given these findings, it is unwise to replace physical practice with mental practice. Other parts of sport psychology deal with social psychology. It is generally true that the presence of others leads to enhanced performance on certain tasks, and specifi-cally tasks which call for well learnt, dominant responses. ” (Smith, 1983:4)

If you can do something well, the presence of thers will improve performance. On the other hand, if you are incompetent, learning a skill or attempting something for the first time, then you may perform worse in company than alone. This deals with social facilitation. We feel we are being evaluated by spectators and this has led psychologists to believe evaluation apprehension is the key to social facilitation.

Another factor of social psychology is aggression in sport. “Aggression can be ex-pressed in socially acceptable or unacceptable ways. ” (Murphy & White, 1978:125) Ag-gression can be instrumental or rule governed or angry/hostile aggression. Rule governed aggression is socially acceptable in which an athlete is just displaying intensity in a sport. Angry/hostile aggression is socially unacceptable in which an athlete causes physical harm to the opposition. Psychologists still have much work to do in reducing an athlete’s ag-gression.

Aggression is something that cannot be fixed overnight. “Whenever there is sports, there is going to be aggression, but with some positive reinforcement, psycholo-gists can maintain positive aggression. ” (Murphy & White, 1978:126) Occupational Psychology is a branch of psychology that relates to sport psycho-logy. One aspect of this is sports coaches. Many applied psychologists have come to acknowledge that the most effective way to get their message across is not by working directly with athletes but by working with the coaches.

A psychologist can come and go, but it is the coach that maintains the most contact with an athlete. “If the coach can learn how to convey messages which have a sound foundation in psychological knowledge, and thus can act as the agent or mouthpiece for sport psychology, then the messages are likely to have that much more impact. ” (Smith, 1983:166) More and more coaches are begin-ning o take sport psychology courses and sport psychology guides have become more available for coaches to buy. This will help athletes tremendously.

Alongside work on coaching, goal setting represents one of two primary areas where occupational psychologists have made a direct and considerable impact on the world of sports, in both a theoretical and a practical sense. “While the use of goal setting within sport is widespread, the adoption of formal goal setting principles has not been without controversy and it is interesting that a recent review article actually refers to goal setting not as he blue-eyed boy of sport psychology but as its Jekyll and Hyde. (Garfield, 1984:63)

Within psychology as a whole, the idea of goal setting to guide or direct our behavior has a well established history. However, the recent use of goal setting as a per-formance enhancement technique can be traced directly back to Edwin Locke’s goal set-ting theory. His theory is the notion that behavior is regulated by values and goals, with a goal defined as a conscious intention or what the person is setting out to accomplish.

According to Locke, goals affect performance by way of four mechanisms; first, goal setting focuses ttention, second, it mobilizes effort in proportion to the demands of the tasks, third, it enhances persistence, and finally, they encourage the individual to develop strategies for achieving their goals. ” (Wolff, 1993:146) Another goal setting procedure is the widespread use of the acronym SCAMP as a way of teaching athletes simple goal setting procedures. Specify exactly how much you want to improve and how you can measure it. Set goals that are challenging but have pos-sibility.

Set goals that are attainable. Set multiple goals to increase probability of attain-ment. Set goals that relate to you, ones that are personal. Over recent years, considerable attention has been paid to the development of theories and models dealing with participation motivation in sports. “The work deliberate-ly focuses on young athletes and highlights the significance of intrinsic motivators in maxi-mizing an individual’s long term commitment to sport. ” (Butt, 1987:215) At the same time, the dangers associated with either parents or coaches emphasizing extrinsic rewards are openly acknowledged.

In brief, the history of research on work motivation has shown a radual shift from traditional content models of work motivation which strived to list or classify motivators, and towards an appreciation of the complexities of the process of mo-tivation. “The complexities of the process of motivation are exemplified by the various expectancy-value models which describe personal and environmental variables play their part in determining the relationship between effort, performance, rewards, and satisfac-tion. (Garfield, 1984:34)

The argument advanced by Porter and Lawler is that motivation is related to per-formance, to reward and to satisfaction in a definable way. “Three rinciple components are taken to determine motivation, namely expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. ” (Butt, 1987:86) Our motivation will depend first, upon our belief that we are capable of influencing our performance through increasing effort. Second, our knowledge that an increase in performance will result in more awards.

Finally, it will depend on the value which we place on the reward that we expect to receive. This is represented in the model below. One important feature of this model is the emphasis it places on feedback. “Ac-cordingly in the context of coaching the model has considerable ractical utility for identi-fying and dealing with management problems effectively. ” (Butt, 1987: 87) The model also has great learning value for considering the interaction between a number of cognitive and environmental factors in determining satisfaction and future effort.

However, the complexity of the model also means that it is difficult to develop a research project which is able to look at each component systematically or to take into account all other possible intervening factors, for example, attributional style. “Once more, occupational psychology may present genuine opportunities for nderstanding and there is a need to ensure that an awareness of the many faces of sport, both amateur and professional, voluntary and com-pulsory, are kept very much to the fore in any further discussion of sport motivation. (Garfield, 1984:38) Using a very basic expectancy-value model to frame discussion, a preliminary study by Kremer and Robinson (1992) considered the attitudes and motivations of professional apprentice soccer players that were from Northern Ireland who had travelled to join English and Scottish teams, often to return to Ireland after being rejected there.

Contrary to predictions based on intrinsic otivation models, these platers did not return disenchanted and lost to the game, but almost invariably they slotted comfortably into life in the Irish League, often older and wiser as to their potential but still continuing to take a very active part in the game which they continued to enjoy. ” (Butt, 1987:88) Clearly the reward structure which motivated these young professional athletes was very different from that which is described in relation to participation rates and drop-outs amongst young, amateur athletes.

Once more, occupational psychology may present genuine opportunities for understanding and there is a eed to ensure that a knowledge and aware-ness of the many faces of sport, both amateur and professional, voluntary and compulsory, are kept very much to the front in any future discussion of sport motivation. From this research that has been done over some four years, one can understand that psychology does play a significant part in sport and in the minds of athletes, especially at a young age.

Sport psychology ranges from judging an athlete’s personality all the way to his/her coach. We see the many methods and techniques used by psychologists to keep an athlete in the right frame of mind to participate in sports. We have seen methods dealing with the cognitive side of sport psychology such as imagery and visualization to handle stress in sports. We have seen methods of clinical psy-chology such as relaxation techniques to release pre- game tensions and anxiety.

We have seen methods of social psychology dealing with harmful aggression of athletes. We also have seen methods of occupational psychology in which the coaches of athletes get in-volved in psychology and motivation models come into play for coaches to use in order to motivate their athletes. We can see that psychologists have not ignored psychology in the world f sport, something that cannot be ignored with the growing number in athletic participation by young people. With each new year comes an increase in new developments dealing with sport psychology. ” (Murphy & White, 1978:9)

However, there is still much work to be done in sport psychology. There are still many unresolved questions and even some new questions and even some new questions that have arisen over the years dealing with sport psychology. Take anxiety for instance. Psychologists have found ways to reduce anxiety but not eliminate it. Maybe there is no way to eliminate it since everyone has it. Another example is aggression.

Wherever there are sports, there is aggression. Psychologists have stated that sports are a way for people to release their aggression. However, they still have not been able to fully eliminate the violence in sports. Psychologists are also working on new methods for motivating athletes because some athletes are harder to motivate that others. Even though there are these unresolved issues in sport psychology, the future of psychology in sports, especially youth sports, looks to be on a very progressive track with many new discoveries.

Do Not Judge a Book by Its Cover

We as teenagers are often defined as shallow, naive, and sometimes uncompassionate youngsters. Most of this recognition comes from our common failure to take social risks and possess an open mind. We are all one student body, yet we are so separated in many aspects. Much of the segregation exists because we are unable to look past appearances. What gives designer clothes, thick lensed glasses, or different hairstyles the authority to determine if we are people who are worth knowing? Would you feel hurt if people rejected you because you had a few pimples on your face?

Would it be fair? These days, there is too much emphasis on looks. If everyone would take a brief moment to see the shining wit or loving personality in a person instead of his or her body, then the world would unmistakably be a better place. There are many truly great and natural differences among people. Nerds are not football players. Their talents, skills, and capacities are not the same. An unalterable condition in human society is that the lowest cannot be made equal with the highest. Nature is vain.

However, these conditions are dapted to benefit both individuals as well as the community. Life requires varied aptitudes, diverse services, and miscellaneous types of people to carry on its affairs as life as a whole. Drawn by our natural tendencies to fall into peer pressure, in our feelings of inadequacy, we constantly seek to form exclusive associations or cliques. Within these groups, we should discourage any exclusion based on the wrong reasons such as appearances, which many people cannot drastically change.

It is important to remember hat our harmony depends on our effort and ability to accept others in whatever form they come, even if they are different in ethnicity, religion, or appeara! nce. All forms of conformity are self sacrilege. We are in a state of many changes, a chance to try new things, and to discover who we really are. Ones struggle to be their own person inside as well as out is an admirable task that calls for courage. Do not ridicule those who walk down the hall with mismatched socks pulled up to their knees, or those who wear bright, patterned clothing.

They are only expressing themselves nd sharing their uniqueness. Our inability to individualize people is a weakness that we must not dismiss. The recognition of our rights, individual and collective, include our most basic obligation: respect for our peers. Next time, think about what is in a hairstyle, or what is in make-up. Sadly, they both have too much significance in our superficial expectations. Man is a person endowed by our Creator with gifts of body and mind. We are all created in His image and likeness. We, as imperfect sinners, do not have the right to judge or question His wisdom.

Rather we are obliged to regard our bodies as good and honorable. Mankind is not wrong when he regards himself superior to bodily concerns. For by interior qualities, he can overcome the whole sum of mere things. The intellectual nature of the human person needs to be perfected by wisdom, for wisdom gently attracts the minds of mankind in a quest for love of what is true and good. It is important to remember when wisdom and understanding is present, man can pass through visible realities to discover the real person within. Never judge a book by its cover.

Appearances can be deceiving. Within the most unattractive people can lie the most caring hearts. They are able to give to uncaring people, like ourselves, the gifts of forgiveness and friendship. Just imagine that each gift is wrapped with unconditional love and delivered with the most genuine smile. Let there be no more victims of discrimination. Ignore the false perceptions of beauty that society has imposed on us. Remember, true beauty lies within. As soon as one realizes that in their heart, everyone may be better known, better loved, and better served.

Psychodynamic Versus Behavioral

In psychology there are six modern psychological perspectives. These perspectives are behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive, sociocultural, and biological. Each perspective has its own unique way of explaining the human behavior. I believe to truly explain the complex mental processes and behavior, each perspective must be examined, not limited to just one. The following is my explanation and comparisons between two of these perspectives: psychodynamic and behavioral.

“The behavioral view is defined as the psychological perspective that emphasizes the power of the environment to influence behavior. Zimbardo, page 17) The behavioral view is often referred to as behaviorism and was developed by psychologists who disagreed with the cognitive view. Instead of looking at the mental processes, behaviorists look at humans externally by observing the effects of people, objects, and events on behavior. The stimulus-response connection, developed by behaviorists, explains human behavior by stating that each response has a stimulus. An example would be a loud noise (the stimulus) causing a person to jump (the response).

True behaviorists claim that thoughts, feelings, and motives do not play a role in determining behavior. Thoughts and feelings are not the cause, but the result. B. F. Skinner is quoted as saying, “The crucial age-old mistake is the belief thatwhat we feel as we behave is the cause of our behaving. ” (Zimbardo, page 20). “The psychodynamic view is defined as a psychological perspective that emphasizes unconscious memories, needs and conflicts as the causes of behavior. ” (Zimbardo, page 17) Psychodynamic psychologists look at the cause and mental conflict that trigger behavior.

Importance is put on the unconscious motives and discords. Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, which is considered the most well-known of the psychodynamic theories. (Zimbardo, page 19) Frued explained the mind as having pressures that build up and when these can no longer be contained, then the unconscious mind releases these pressures. (Frued, pages 13-15) These pressures might be jealousy and desires from early childhood relationships. For the troubled mind, this release must be more dramatic than the release normal people get from everyday activities.

This may result in violence or other bizarre behavior. (Zimbardo, page 19) The behavioral and psychodynamic view points seem to differ more than they overlap. An example of a situation where psychologists from both disciplines might agree is with a teenager’s low self-esteem. The behavioral view point would claim that something had to have ‘stimulated’ this feeling for it to result in a response of a low self-esteem. Psychodynamic psychologists would believe that something from the teen’s past childhood experiences is causing pressure that the mind is having a hard time releasing.

In this case the behavioral stimulus is the psychodynamic pressure and the response is the releasing of the pressure as low self-esteem. While examining these two very different psychological perspectives, I have come to the conclusion that no situation or particular behavior can be attributed to just one reason. If a situation is looked at through only one perspective, then many questions are left unanswered. This is why I do not believe that any perspective is ‘wrong,’ nor do I believe any perspective is completely and solely ‘right. ‘

Psychology and Personality

Psychology covers a vast field, and one interesting aspect of it is personality. Personality by itself involves various issues. Some of which basic aspects are Psychoanalytic, Ego, Biological, Behaviorist, Cognitive, Trait, Humanistic and Interactionist. Though personality as a subject fascinates me a lot, what interests me the most in this subject is behaviorism. For me different types of behaviors are amazing to learn about, mainly the behavior therapy, collective behavior, crime and punishment, and Social behavior and peer acceptance in children.

I chose Behaviorism over the other aspects because I believe Behavior etermines human personality and is very interesting. You can tell what one is by his behavior, and one behaves according to what place he has in society. By doing this paper on Behavior, I hope to get a better understanding of, if behavior develops a personality or if personality guides behavior. I also see behaviorism helping me in the future with my personal and professional career by understanding human personality and behaviour better than I do.

No matter what your major is, if you can determine one`s personality by his behavior you can really get your work done from that person and understand the better than you ould otherwise. This person could be your employee or your employer. Behavior Therapy Behavior therapy is the application of experimentally derived principles of learning to the treatment of psychological disorders. The concept derives primarily from work of Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov.

Behavior-therapy techniques differ from psychiatric methods, particularly psychoanalysis, in that they are predominately symptom (behaviour) oriented and show little or no concern for unconscious processes, achieving new insight, or effecting fundamental personality change. Behavior therapy was popularized by the U. S. sychologist B. F. Skinner, who worked with mental patients in a Massachusetts state hospital. From his work in animal learning, Skinner found that the establishment and extinction of responses can be determined by the way reinforcers, or rewards, are given.

The pattern of reward giving, both in time and frequency, is known as a schedule of reinforcement. The gradual change in behavior in approximation of the desired result is known as shaping. More recent developments in behavior therapy emphasize the adaptive nature of cognitive processes. Behaviour-therapy techniques have been applied with some success to uch disturbances as enuresis (bed-wetting), tics, phobias, stuttering, obsessive-compulsive behavior, drug addiction, neurotic behaviours of normal persons, and some psychotic conditions.

It has also been used in training the mentally retarded. Collective Behavior Much of collective behaviour is dramatic, unpredictable and frightening, so the early theories and many contemporary popular views are more evaluative than analytic. The French social psychologist Gustave Le Bon identified the crowd and revolutionary movements with the excesses of the French Revolution; the U. S. psychologist Boris Sidis was mpressed with the resemblance of crowd behavior to mental disorder.

Many of these early theories depicted collective behaviour returned to an earlier stage of development. Freud retained this emphasis in viewing crowd behaviour and many other forms of collective behaviour as regressions to an earlier stage of childhood development; he explained, for example, the slavish identification that followers have for leaders on the basis of such regression. More sophisticated recent efforts to treat collective behavior as a pathological manifestation employ social disorganization as an explanatory approach.

From his point of view collective behavior erupts as an unpleasant symptom of frustration and malaise stemming from cultural conflict, organizational failure, and other social malfunctions. The distinctive feature of this approach is a reluctance to take seriously the manifest contest of collective behaviour. Neither the search for enjoyment in recreational fad, the search for spiritual meaning on a religious sect, nor the demand for equal opportunity in an interest-group movement is accepted to face value.

An opposite evaluation of many forms of collective behaviour has become part of the analytic perspective n revolutionary approaches to society. From the revolutionist¦¦s point of view a much collective behavior is a release of creative impulses from the repressive effects of establish social orders. ¦¦Revolutionary theorists such as Frantz Fanon depict traditional social arrangements as destructive of human spontaneity, and various forms of crowd and revolutionary movements as man¦¦s creative self-assertion bursting its social shackles. ¦¦ (MSN behaviorism Search/types of behaviors.

Crime and Punishment Psychologists have approached the task of explaining delinquent ehavior by examining in particular the processes by which behaviour and restraints on behaviour are learned. (MSN behaviorism Search/crime and punishment) Criminality is seen to result from the failure of the superego, as a consequence either of its incompletes development or of unusually strong instinctual drives. ¦¦The empirical basis for such a theory is necessarily thin. Behaviour theory views all behaviour criminal and otherwise as learned and thus manipulable by the use of reinforcement and punishment.

Social learning theory examines the manner in which ehaviour is learned from contacts within the family and other intimate groups, from social contacts outside the family, particularly from peer groups, and from exposure to models of behavior in the media, particularly television. Mental illness is the cause of a relatively small proportion of crime, but its importance as a causative factor may be exaggerated by the seriousness of some of the crimes committed by persons with mental disorders.

Severe depression or psychopathy may lead to grave offenses of violence. Social Behavior and Peer Acceptance The peer relations literature is replete with studies showing that hildren who demonstrate certain kinds of social behaviors while refraining from other types of behaviors tend to be liked by their peers. For example, children who play cooperatively and show leadership abilities usually enjoy high peer acceptance (Hatzichristou & Hopf, 1996; Lass, Price, & Hart, 1988).

On the other hand, children who display high levels of aggressive behavior or who interact with their peers in argumentative, disruptive, and socially inappropriate ways are often rejected by their peers (Coie & Dodge, 1988; Dodge, 1983; Dodge, Coie, Pettit, & Price 1990). Shy and withdrawn behavior, uch as not playing interactively with peers, watching peers play rather than joining in, and wandering around a classroom or playground, also tends to be associated with low peer acceptance (Lemerise, 1997).

A study was designed to isolate the types of social behaviors that predict kindergarten children¦¦s peer acceptance when considering several types of social behavior simultaneously. The outcome of that question is important to help parents, teachers, and others who work with young children understand what social skills to specifically foster and promote in order to enhance hildren¦¦s perceptions of their peer acceptance. Previous research has discovered developmental differences in the associations between social behaviors and peer acceptance.

Aggression, for example, is linked with problematic peer relations from early childhood through adolescence, while socially withdrawn behavior begins to be associated with low peer acceptance in middle and late childhood (Rubin, Bookwork, & Parker, 1998) Adult perceptions of children¦¦s confidence in their own peer acceptance also may influence their social behaviors. Adults who believe children are not onfident about their peer acceptance might provide more opportunities to help these children develop play and friendship skills that could, in turn, lead to more confidence in their peer acceptance.

For example, a teacher who believes a child lacks confidence in his or her peer acceptance might pair the child with another child who is confident about her peer acceptance, in order to provide a model of behavior. In summary, this study investigated the associations between aggression, shyness/ withdrawal, prosocial behavior, friendship skill, and social behavior problems and peer acceptance in kindergarten students.

Children¦¦s own feelings of peer acceptance, sociometric ratings from peers, and teacher and parent perceptions of children¦¦s confidence in their peer acceptance were included in the regression analysis to isolate the social behaviors that predict kindergartners¦¦ peer acceptance across informants. The present study also investigated differences in social behaviors and peer acceptance among children of different genders and varied ethnic backgrounds in a diverse school and community. After doing this paper I came to the conclusion that behavior shapes personality.

The research nvolving children to learn social acceptance, showed us clearly that how one behaves makes him what he is. I believe the same for adults. I believe if one behaves in a certain way for a long time, not only society with believe you are what you are behaving as but he himself will start believing he is what he is behaving as. Also I have learnt to be more patient with people because I take a step in the further and think why a person would behave in a particular way. I now can see a clear difference between normal and abnormal behaviours to the knowledge I have gathered by reading about Skinner, Freud, Dollard and Miller.

Mother Love In Infancy Is As Important For Mental Health As Are Vitamins And Proteins For Physical Health

During the 1930s and 1940s John Bowlby, considered one of the most influential child psychiatrics, worked at a clinic for mentally disturbed adolescents. It was in this context that, between 1936 and 1939, he conducted a research on the case history of 44 patients, among whom a few had been convicted for various minor crimes, particularly for theft. The outcome of his research revealed that that 17 of them had been separated from their mother for more than six months, before the age of five.

From a later similar research on other 44 adolescents mentally disturbed but with no criminal tendency, emerged that only two had been deprived of the mothers care. Basing on these observations Bowlby concluded that maternal deprivation contributes to delinquency. His scientific publication entitled 44 Juvenile Thieves, gives an accurate explanation on how he reached his conclusion. He seems to have overlooked several other variables which could have well explained this criminal tendency, including the reasons of the separation in the first place.

Despite the relevance of his research it appears that, only 40 per cent of a small sample of just 44 subjects deprived of their mothers care sometime in the childhood, had manifested deviant behaviours. Moreover, it has to be taken into account the environment in which these children were somehow reared. The pre-war economic depression could have well been a dominant factor in shaping their personality. Another relevant research was carried out by William Goldfarb during the 1940s. He studied two groups of 15 orphans in New York matched for sex, age and social background of their deceased parents.

Goldfarb visited these two groups four times, at the age of three, six, eight and twelve, measuring their progress, language skills and ability to form relationships. He reported that the children adopted earlier did far better than the children who had spent more time within the orphanage walls. This practically was the kind of evidence highlighted by Bowlby in terms of early deprivation of mothers care. Again, from this longitudinal study, other conclusions can be drawn. For instance, being almost impossible to measure babies intelligence, there is no evidence of the pre-existing capacities of these two groups sample.

The fact that some of them had been chosen for adoption rather than others, could mean that they were already more intelligent or lively or inclined to form relationships easier. In opposition to Bowlbys theories there are equally relevant studies. Ann and Alan Clarkes observation on six war orphans for example, consistently challenge the point of view that early deprivation permanently affects child development. This case history sees six one-year-old children confined into a concentration camp, soon after their fathers died in World War Two.

Although the conditions were severely proving, lack of food, scarce attention and not to mention that occasional strangers were rearing them, these children seemed to be fairly close to each other. They would cope with daily problems almost independently and turn to adults only when they effectively needed something. The six children eventually learned to speak with no apparent difficulty and started to form solid relationships with adults, though they remained close to each other. This form of attachment, despite of the under-stimulating rearing environment, shows that children can survive without mothers.

Another example of challenging theories comes from Czech researcher Jarmila Koluchova. In 1972 she reported the case of two 12-year-old twins who had suffered severe deprivation. Their mother died shortly after they were born at the age of one and they were taken to the hospital and found normal and healthy infants. The father remarried and their new stepmother turned to be cruel and insensitive towards them, inflicting severe physical punishments. Many other factors had also worsened their growing.

The father was for most of the time absent from home because of his job and the economic condition of the family was far below the average low-working classs. At the age of seven the twins were finally examined and found physically and mentally retarded. Numerous scars and bruises covered their bodies and the lack of nutrition and vitamins resulted in a major bone disease. They could not walk straight and their coordination was very poor. After being hospitalised, the twins went to live with a loving and caring woman who took particular care of them. At the age of eleven they totally recovered.

Their speech was normal for their age, they seemed to particularly enjoy school activities, learned to play a piano and achieved important goals. There is no evidence though of the twins later lives to conclude that no major effects have taken place from early deprivation. Bowlbys first official statement of attachment entitled The Nature of the Child’s Tie to his Mother raised heavily criticism, particularly from notable exponents of the psychoanalytic society.

Bowlby himself at the end of 1950s realised that his and others statements (such as Goldfarbs, Katherine Wolfs, Rene Spitzs etc. n terms of attachment, sometime tent to be exaggerate, even though he has always insisted on the importance of the mother-child bonding in early life for later development. Nevertheless, other cases proved that some of the children severely deprived and without adequate bonding, recovered later in their life (e. g. Clarkes observation and Koluchovas report). Some other children, according to James and Joyce Robertson for instance, had shown no ill effect after suffering from temporary deprivation of their mother.

The research mentioned so far is from western cultures and it sees the mother as primarily caregiver and key figure in the attachment process. As well as Bowlby, many others have demonstrated that a large majority of the European and west countries babies with sensitive mothers are securely attached (type A). Within other cultures different patterns of bounding occur. Relevant studies on different mothering roles come from Mary Ainsworth. She conducted a research on some Ugandan mothers and children of the Ganda Tribe.

As for many poorer communities, Ugandan children spend most of their time close to their mothers since the birth. Researches show that mothers are less likely to neglect their babies if a skin-to-skin relationship occurs. Separate these children from mothers causes anxiety and distress. An alternative kind of mothering is found, for instance, in a small percentage of agricultural population in Israel, commonly called Kibbutzim. The main feature of this 4 per cent of the entire Israelite population is that they try to be self-sufficient and keep everyone fully employed.

Therefore, in order to readily return to work, the mother spends a limited period of time with her baby (normally four to six weeks). Thus, this short direct contact time is characterised by an intense bonding behaviour. After the initial mother involvement, childrens houses look after babies while parents spend with them one or two intense hours each day. This system seems to work for two reasons. First because the short but highly qualitative contact between parents and children makes the latter feel wanted and secure. Second, because the surrogate childminding is appropriate.

Going back to Bowlbys quotes, part of the reason for which children temporarily or permanently separated from their mothers suffered, could well be addressed in an inadequate alternative care. Bowlbys theories and studies have had an important impact in post-war society. They have contributed in modifying numerous aspects of children rearing and improving the quality and the flexibility of contacts between mother and child. However, it has also been criticised to be politically convenient. In the late 1940s and 1950s it would have suited the government if women had not gone out to work, leaving more space to men.

In conclusion, it is clear that some of Bowlbys original ideas may not be completely correct. The flexibility of children often leads to overcome major difficulties occurred in early stage and the surrounding in which they are reared plays an important role in shaping them. Furthermore, quoting the studies of Shaffer and Emerson (60 Glasgow Children, 1964) and Skeels (orphans reared by mentally retarded women, 1966) in terms of bond formation, babies are naturally inclined to form multiple attachments, thus the mothers role is not as important as some people have believed. Childminding can be successfully shared among several people.

Attentional Interference in relation to the Stroop Effect

Interference and facilitation are two important aspects of automatic processes. Interference refers to the range to which one process encumbers performance of another, whereas facilitation indicates the extent to which one process assists performance of another. Through practice and maturation, reading progresses from a controlled process to one that is automatic, lessening the demands on attentional resources. Stroop reported one of the first studies, which provided support for this, in 1935.

He combined the word object/property dimensions in the same stimulus to create one of the most researched phenomena in cognitive psychology: The Stroop effect (MacLeod, 1991). He found that it was faster to read words than it was to name the corresponding object or their properties, including their color. Due to its key in understanding attention, the study that lead to many other related investigations, originated by examining interference in reading automaticity. Stroop furthered his research by creating tasks involving color naming and reading.

He first compared the time it took to read color names printed in incongruent ink colors to a base line reading of color words. For the second part of his study, Stroop compared the time it took to name the ink color when congruent with the color word (e. g. , blue printed in blue ink) to the time it took to name the ink color. By comparing the response times in the interference conditions to the control conditions he found that it took people longer to respond to the color of the ink when printed in a color incongruent to the color word (Stroop, 1995).

The words interfere with naming the color; yet, the color does not interfere with reading the word. The nature of the Stroop effect results as a consequence of automaticity. People have difficulty ignoring the meaning of a word because, through practice, reading has become an automatic process. The two main explanations accounting for the Stroop effect in the past have been cognitive attentional processes involved in learning, controlled and automatic. As previously mentioned, when a process is automatic (for example reading), it is not only faster; it also does not rely on other cognitive resources.

Controlled processes, for example color naming, are slow and demand more attentional resources. The theory is that an automatic process cannot successfully suppressed without causing interference of a controlled process. The second explanation, relative speed of processing, argues that the two processes involved in color naming and word reading are accomplished in parallel, but that word reading is carried out faster, assuming that the faster process will then interfere with the slower ones such as color naming (Dunbar and McLeod, 1984 as cited in Mel, 1997)

Although other compelling explanations for the Stroop effect are accessible, the generally accepted account involved automaticity. This study attempts to question the conclusion that suppression of the automatic process of reading results in interference of a controlled process such as color naming. We examined the above, hoping to further the interference effect, by not only having color words presented in incongruent colors, but to have the words themselves presented in congruent colors.

When the task is to respond to the color of the letters as opposed to the written words it is assumed that interference takes place by suppressing the automatic process of reading in order to respond to the color of the letters. A further delay in response time times would most likely occur as a consequence of the participant first attempting to make sense of reading the words and then responding to the color of the word that is presented. Independent measures include congruency and the dependent variables were response time and accuracy.

The Contribution of Psychology to Standardized Social Darwinism

The commercialization of intelligence may be one of the most controversial issues American education has faced in the twentieth century. Lewis M. Terman introduced the concept of classifying students through IQ tests to the public at a time when society was probably eager for any solution psychology could offer for their social and educational problems. Between the 1890s to the early 1920s, many novel problems were arising in America’s educational system.

A substantial amount of these problems were most likely caused by mere overpopulation; urban school enrollment was ncreasing at an unprecedented rate as immigrants flocked to the United States, a marked shift of families from rural to urban areas was also adding to school overcrowding, and finally newly enacted and enforced compulsory education laws were causing children to actually be present in classrooms. In a society where efficiency was of top priority, school administrators began focusing on new goals. Attention to college preparation shifted considerably to life preparation; people were being educated on how be useful members of society, not for higher education.

Yet, at the same time, administrators may not have been ready to give up the ideals of American education and therefore were searching for a way to preserve academic traditions. On top of this, the costs of educating so many children were astronomical; education needed to be factorized and streamlined. Thus, the arrival of the IQ test came at what was probably a critical turning point in education philosophy. However, many questions regarding the philosophy and implementation of the intelligence tests themselves still remain. First of all, when did psychology first begin to affect education?

What was the original purpose of the tests and how has this principle evolved over time? What groups were behind the IQ tests and whom did they aim their standards at? What has public sentiment been toward the tests? Lastly, what have been the lasting effects of the intelligence quotient? [i] Education as a Science: Thorndike’s Infusion of Psychology into Social Policy During the time of Edward L. Thorndike, psychology itself was still a fledgling science, striving to prove itself through experiments and empirical data on human behavior.

As a former animal behaviorist, Thorndike carried this meticulous nature over to his work on individual characteristics of humans, namely intellect and learning. Like many psychologists of his day, Thorndike found a lack of positions available for traditional psychology students and was forced to turn to new fields, such as child study and teacher education programs. By the beginning of the twentieth century, Thorndike had fully committed himself to education and began collecting data on learning theory.

One of Thorndike’s more important revelations established his career; in 1901; using empirical vidence, he disproved one of the central theories of 19th century education by proving that learning difficult subjects like Latin and Greek does not in fact exercise and increase the strength of the mind. Thorndike then expanded this theory to say that intellect was genetically influenced and could not be improved nor changed in any way. [ii] In 1910, Thorndike himself argued for the necessity of psychology in educational theory.

He stated in his book The Contribution of Psychology to Education that “Psychology contributes to a better understanding of the ims of education by defining them, making them clearer; by limiting them, showing us what can be done and what can not; and by suggesting new features that should be made parts of them. ” He argued that psychology gave definition and meaning to people’s perceptions of culture, knowledge and skill, and also that learning and comprehension were futile if they were not passed onto the next generation.

Therefore, psychology was salient to education in that it not only defined concepts, but it designated the best methods to pass the knowledge on. He conceded that ere classroom experience could indeed tell the best methods of teaching, but affirmed that psychological research was necessary to explain why methods were successful. This methodological inquiry into the why behind learning is probably the most important contribution of science to education. [iii] Thorndike then went on to define his new science with “Laws of Learning.

” As with other sciences, Thorndike was quick to point to problems that needed to be focused on and solved within the educational system; namely, the aims, the material or subjects, the means, the methods nd finally the results of education. He held that the most important aims of educational psychology were to find the most efficient means to educate men. Finally, and perhaps one of Thorndike’s more accurate observations of education, were his Laws of Exercise and Effect.

The Law of Exercise stated the more frequently an action is connected with a response, the more likely the action would be learned. The Law of Effect basically stated that a positive response to an action would bring a person to repeat and therefore learn said action. These two laws helped to set the foundation or future learning theorists. [iv] Toward the end of his career, Thorndike believed that science could solve all of the social ills. More importantly, he rejected G. Stanley Hall’s developmental theory and advocated genetic psychology.

This inflexible system did not allow room for growth and Thorndike capitalized on this by proposing a moral scale to measure people by. This idea could have set the foundation for the future proponents of the IQ test; Thorndike’s rigid scale of morality could have easily been transformed to the scale of intellect used to classify children throughout the 1920s.

Meditation Report Essay

Meditation is defined as a mind-body technique, which practices awareness, and induces tranquility in order to connect the mind and the body. It is also described as “mental fasting,” implying clearing and cleansing of the mind by the absence of distractions and negative emotions (Leikin, 2003). It has shown to benefit its users psychologically, physically, as well as spiritually. Meditation works by bringing about a relaxed and healthy state by physiologically and biochemically altering the body. It is characterized as a state of rest, while allowing the body to become more alert.

This is accomplished through a dramatic decrease in metabolism, in turn, relaxing breathing patterns, and thus slowing activity within the nervous system. Upon completion of meditation one is more likely to show faster reactions to certain stimuli, a greater level of creativity, and a more conscious understanding and comprehension (ICBS Inc. , 2004). Vast health and spiritual benefits can be observed, as well. This paper will describe and discuss how meditation came about, the context in which it was used in the past, reasons for its use as compared to modern uses, as well as, ways in which meditating can heal the body and soul.

It will also compare different forms of meditation, including; what each method entails, examples of postures to achieve each method, and results that can be achieved. Meditation was originally practiced spirituality in many ancient religions, including Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, and most commonly, Buddhism. The founder of Buddhism, Siddharta Gotama became the master of the art of meditation and went on to teach it to his followers. He became known as “Buddha,” (“Enlightened or Awakened One. “) (Saunders, 2000). Buddhism is one of the world’s oldest and largest religions, starting over 2500 years ago.

With Buddha as their leader (not as their God), followers learn the Four Noble Truths; First, “all existence is suffering,” secondly, “there is a cause for this suffering,” third, “the cause may be brought to an end,” and fourth, “the discipline necessary to bring it to an end is enlightenment (also known as, Buddhism)” (Saunders, 2000). Buddhists basic beliefs entail interconnectedness with everyone and everything, there is no beginning and no end (which involves the concept of reincarnation), and the law of “cause and effect,” or kharma.

However, Buddhists believe that kharma can be under our control with the practice of meditation. In this way, meditation can be used to “burn away” our bad kharma by replacing negative thoughts, actions, and attitudes with positive ones. Meditation brings the ones who practice it spiritually closer to the world, by reducing suffering and kharma and eventually allowing that person to become free both (Zen Mind International, 2004). This is just one example of religious use of meditation, which allows for spiritual benefits.

As mentioned, it is quite apparent that meditation carries spiritual benefits along with it, even without implementing religion. Although, presently, many people begin practicing meditation with the intent of achieving its physical benefits, most will go on to incorporate meditation into their spiritual well being (ICBS Inc. ,2004). They find that meditation is a way in which to spiritually grow, and to become one with their God (if religious) and with the universe.

They also find themselves more aware of their environment and their interconnectedness with the world around them, as well as feeling rejuvenated and possessing vitality, which compares with the feelings received by Buddhism. There are a few reasons and explanations for these similar feelings. For one, this interconnectedness is thought of coming from the act of emphasizing breathing and breathing exercises while meditating. By this act, one shares that breath with the world and the world shares breath with you (The Institute for Applied Meditation, Inc. ,2004).

Your body also is made up of and emits magnetic fields. Meditation and consciousness allows the body to emit the magnetic field further than usual, allowing for more communication, emotions, and feelings to be given off and received (The Institute for Applied Meditation Inc. , 2004). Also, many people who practice meditation for its spiritual benefits claim that it allows them to find meaning and fulfillment in their life, allowing for a feeling of being accomplished, as well as easier acceptance of unwanted events, and more self-confidence (Trivieri, 2001).

As you can see, regardless of whether meditation is used for religious or non-religious reasons, similar emotions and feelings are equated with both. However, in addition to its spiritual benefits, meditation is used, today, in the health care field as a form of healing and disease prevention, both physically and psychologically. Although these medical benefits were recognized many years ago, meditation was not initially utilized for that purpose (Smith, 2004). The 1970s brought about the beginning of recognizing the vast range of health benefits accomplished by meditation, and using them for that purpose.

Articles were first published in The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, which discussed these advantages that meditation can produce(Lukoff, 2002). A huge advocator of meditation, named Dr. Herbert Benson, completed an enormous amount of research on stress combined with meditation in the 1970s, and published much of his findings in the Scientific American, American Journal of Physiology, and also wrote a book called The Relaxation Response (Lukoff, 2002). At Harvard, he studied how stress causes the sympathetic nervous system to become activated, producing what is commonly known as the “fight or flight” response (Castleman,1996).

This response causes much undue stress on the body, including increased heart rate, increased respiratory rate, increased blood pressure, increased oxygen consumption, increased lactate production, increased cortisol production, as well as increased muscle tension. Through Benson’s studies, it was proven that practicing meditation had the opposite effects of stress on the body (i. e. decreased heart rate, decreased respiratory rate, decreased blood pressure, decreased oxygen consumption, decreased lactate production, decreased cortisol production, and decreased muscle tension) (Castleman,1996).

Benson then created a form of transcendental meditation (originally developed by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in India (Leikin,2003))that was non- religious, so that all people, regardless of whether they practice a religion or not, could enjoy the advantageous benefits that transcendental meditation produced on the body (Lukoff, 2002). As discussed above, stress relief (induced by lowered heart, breathing, and respiratory rate, as well as lowered blood pressure, oxygen consumption, lactate production, cortisol production, and muscle tension) is one physical benefit of meditation (Trivieri,2001).

However, meditation has the power to do much more than just this. Meditation has also shown to reduce cholesterol levels, thus decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease. Also, because breathing techniques are so heavily concentrated on during meditation, air flow is improved, therefore being beneficial to people with any sort of breathing disorder such as asthma or emphysema. Meditation also reduces free radicals in the body. These free radicals are toxic forms of oxygen molecules, which promote tissue damage, a major source of aging and disease in the body.

It also lowers the core body temperature, which has shown to increase life expectancy. Consequently, people who chronically practice meditation appear more youthful, age less quickly, and have an increased life expectancy (Trivieri,2001, Chopra, 1991). All sources overwhelmingly agree that meditation has the ability to assist in the treatment of a vast rage of disorders and diseases. The reason behind this is stress. Not only does a disease cause direct physical stress on the body, but the person it inflicts is usually mentally stressed knowing of the disease or disorder, as well.

For example, a person who has chronic pain, whether it be from an injury or arthritis, usually experiences some sort of mental anxiety, as well as physical stress of the pain on the body. Stress and anxiety actually cause intensified pain, thus leading to even more stress and anxiety. Meditation can break this cycle because of its ability to reduce factors associated with stress (heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol levels etc. ), and consequently reduce pain. This also goes for such problems as infertility, irritable bowel syndrome, and premenstrual syndrome, all of which cause a person to experience stress, depression, and/or anxiety.

By eliminating the stress you can reduce or eliminate the problem (Jaffe,1980). As mentioned before, meditation can help those with breathing disorders. When a person has a difficult time breathing, it raises the fear and anxiety of suffocation, causing even more difficult breathing. By relieving this stress, along with practicing breathing exercises during meditation, a person will have fewer incidents of these breathing episodes. Two other disorders that are caused by stress and that can be relieved by meditation are insomnia and ulcers (IBCS Inc. ,2004).

A study was also done regarding cancer patients and meditation, involving 73 patients who attended at least 20 sessions of intense meditation. Nearly all of them reported reduction in stress, anxiety, or depression. More than 50% reported a greatly improved quality of life and more than 20% had a reduction of growth or shrinkage of their tumor (ICBS Inc, 2004). Meditation can also assist people with drug addictions who are physically and psychologically dependent. Practicing meditation can reduce the anxiety and pain associated with withdrawl and/or relapse (ICBS Inc,2004).

There are two major techniques for meditating and they will be discussed and contrasted. The first method is called concentration meditation, and the other, mindfulness meditation. Concentration meditation is defined by focusing on an object (an image, a sound or a word). It also employs breathing techniques, and minimizing distractions by always focusing on that chosen object. This increases awareness of the mind and allows the body to breathe more deeply, using less oxygen, and thus decreasing heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, etc. (ICBS Inc. , 2004).

There are so many forms of this concentration meditation, including chakra, yantra, and mantra meditation. A chakra is a believed energy center in the body. There are seven of the chakras along the spinal column and three of them (the third, fourth, and sixth) are used for chakra meditation. The third chakra is the center for strength, the fourth for happiness, and the sixth for wisdom. By focusing on these chakras during meditation, strength, happiness, and wisdom will be gained (Zen Mind International, 2004). A yantra is an ancient geometrical design, which represents happiness and clarity.

During yantra meditation, the focus is on the center of the design and once the mind is quiet enough, the focus is extended outward until the entire design is being concentrated on. A mantra is a sacred word or phrase, meaning “speech” or “prayer”(White, 2000). During Mantra meditation, this word or phrase is repeated, focusing on breathing technique, as well as the sound and energy that the mantra brings. The mantra will also help you to focus your mind on a single entity, thus bringing you inner peace and clarity (White, 2000).

The second form of meditation is mindfulness meditation, also known as “vipassana” by Buddhists (Castleman,1996). This is quite different from concentration meditation. Instead of pushing out thoughts and focusing on one particular object or phrase, in mindfulness meditation the person is attentive to all of the passing emotions, sensations, images and sounds (ICBS Inc. , 2004). Although attentive to these entities, the person should not become involved in or react to them, but simply be accepting and nonjudgmental of them.

This form of meditation does impose the same health benefits as concentration meditation, it is simply done in a different way. Mindfulness meditation is said to help a person gain a more non-reactive and understanding mind, especially in times of stress or fear and also allows a person to react less impulsively, and so effectively and efficiently (ICBS Inc. ,2004, Castleman,1996). There are certain things that are needed in order to properly and correctly practice meditation, especially when first learning. The first thing needed is a quiet place.

It should be a comfortable environment with little or no distractions (Jaffe,1980). However, after becoming accustomed to meditation, it will be easy to do in any environment. A second thing that is necessary is a comfortable, yet poised posture. A classic and common posture used in meditation is called the Half Lotus Posture. It is sitting with legs crossed and head and spine upright and straight ( Jacobs, 1996). This could be uncomfortable for some people, especially ones first starting out. However, this posture is practical in maintaining awareness and in not falling asleep.

An example of another posture (and one in which falling asleep can occur) is called Shavasana. In this position, the person lays flat on the floor with legs apart and arms at sides (Jacobs, 1996). A third item needed in meditation is an object to concentrate on. For example, in Chakra meditation, the object would be an energy center in the body, In Yantra meditation, it would be a geometrical design or picture, and in Mantra meditation, the object would be a word or phrase. Also, in mindfulness meditation, the object would be any or all emotions, sounds, and sensations experienced (Jacobs,1996).

The fourth and final necessary thing needed in meditation is a passive attitude. One should focus on breathing technique, obtain internal silence, relax muscles, and engage all senses (Jacobs,1996, Jaffe,1980). Without this, full concentration cannot be reached. When meditating, one needs to be able to be completely focused and relaxed in order to achieve the full benefits of this practice. Although this task is difficult at first, after some practice, it can easily be achieved (ICBS Inc. , 2004). I, myself, have used meditation in certain times of my life when stress prevailed.

I found that it was difficult to perform, at first, because of the uncomfortable posture and the difficulty of clearing the mind. However, it is very relaxing and it gives the body a freeing and cleansing effect, after a bit of practicing. I find that it does help to alleviate stress by calming the body. Just the act of deep breathing alone is helpful in this task. I believe that this practice can be useful to me in the future, as I follow my career path. I am studying to become a physician assistant, and I would recommend meditation to my patients who experience stress or anxiety, or have a diseases who’s symptoms are amplified by stress.

As you can see, it is quite apparent how much power the mind possesses and how it affects both the body and the soul. This mind – body connection can be the key in overall health and wellness, physically, mentally, and spiritually, and this can be achieved through the practice of meditation. Not only will meditation reduce stress, and thus cause a healing domino effect throughout the body, but it can also be extremely useful in both religion and spirituality, creating inner peace, content, and a feeling of wholeness.

Subliminal Messages Essay

Have you ever seen or heard a commercial and then suddenly had an urge for something? Your urge may have been the result of subliminal messaging. “Subliminal messaging” can be defined as a technique of projecting information below an individual’s threshold of sensation or awareness (The Subliminal Scares: “FCC Information Bulletin on Subliminals” 1). These messages were everywhere from radio broadcasts to Disney movies to commercials.

In 1958, a survey taken by Ralph Hauber showed that out of 42 people interviewed: 50 percent thought of subliminal messages to be unethical and 50 percent thought of them as unethical” (The Subliminal Scares: “Hidden Persuasion” 4). I feel that these messages are extremely unethical and the messages are taking away people’s privacy. The man responsible for inventing subliminals is James Vicary. This man used social science and psychology to develop a new method to promote sales.

It took a lot of in depth research and patience to develop a new way of advertising, but Vicary developed a method no one will ever forget (The Subliminal Scares: “Hidden Persuasion” 1-2). In 1957, Vicary announced that he had designed a subliminal projection machine, which was capable of flashing unnoticeable messages during big-screen movies (The Subliminal Scares: “Hidden Persuasion 2”). When people were introduced to these unnoticeable messages they all basically asked the same question: “What’s the point? Why advertise something when you can’t see what it is?

The point is very simple. Let’s say that the subliminal message, “Eat nachos”, is flashed during a movie you are watching. You may not have wanted nachos before, but now you have a sudden craving for them. Since it was a “subliminal message” you were not able to see it. However, you subconsciously read the message. This method may be useful to advertisers, but it is harmful to the viewers of the ad. The very first experiment using subliminals took place in Fort Lee, New Jersey in 1956.

It took place in a movie theater during the movie “Picnic. The words ‘Drink Coca-Cola’ and ‘Hungry? Buy popcorn’ were flashed periodically using Vicary’s machine. As a result, there was an increase of 18 percent in the sales of Coca-Cola and a 58 percent increase in popcorn” (The Subliminal Scares: “Hidden Persuasion” 3). The results of this experiment baffled millions of people, but this technique, they thought was assaulting people’s minds. As you can see, right from the start, this method was controversial. After the Fort Lee experiment, many other people wanted to try this subliminal advertising.

In 1958, many radio stations began experimenting with it. One particular radio station, WAAF Chicago, tried to use a subliminal during a song. The disc jockeys pre-recorded barely audible phrases designated as ‘Phantom spots. ‘ These phrases were faded under musical recordings or dropped into pauses in the DJs’ dialogue in quick low voices (The Subliminal Scares: “FCC Information Bulletin” 4). This experiment failed because listeners heard the phrases. The experiments didn’t stop at movie theaters and radio stations.

Television programs also ran a series of subliminal experiments. A television station, BBC-TV in England, was the first to use a subliminal message during a regular broadcast. After the program was over, viewers were asked to report whether they noticed anything unusual. Of the relatively few who responded, only a small percentage correctly identified the message (The Subliminal Scares: “FCC Information Bulletin” 3). As people were seeing more and more tests being done, they became more and more concerned.

Most people had the same opinion: “it was a sneaky advertising device used to influence audiences to react, in a manner contrary to their normal likes and dislikes, to information that they could not ‘see’ or ‘hear'” (The Subliminal Scares: “FCC Information Bulletin” 1). United States Representative William L Dawson made an attempt to persuade the FCC to request that all radio and television stations to stop using subliminals. However, the FCC didn’t see it necessary to forbid them. In fact, the FCC referred to Section 326 of the Communications Act.

The section states, ” The FCC is prohibited from censoring broadcast material, including advertising” (The Subliminal Scares: “FCC Information Bulletin” 4). After much concern and many attempts, some progress was eventually made. At a convention of the National Association of Broadcasters in 1958, the broadcasters had made some changes to the NAB Broadcasting Code. The new and improved code states:”Any technique whereby an attempt is made to convey information to the listener by transmitted messages below the threshold of normal awareness is not prohibited” (The Subliminal Scares: “FCC Information Bulletin” 7).

Although this was passed, some people were still not satisfied. Representatives Wright and Hosmer took an extra step to outlaw the use of subliminal messages. On March 12, 1958, they proposed Bills HR. 10820 and 11363. These bills would make the use of subliminal messaging illegal. Although the bills were taken to the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, no hearings were held. These bills were not even taken into consideration by the people needed to stop the subliminal messaging. Right now the only restriction on using subliminals is the amended NAB Broadcasting Code.

The Subliminal Scares: “FCC Information Bulletin on Subliminals” 7) Passing the NAB Broadcasting Code most likely made and continues to make people feel better about advertising. They can put aside the fear of being manipulated into buying things. How does advertising businesses feel about the restriction? They feel that they do not need subliminals to be successful. Of course it would help, but overall they are not worried. subliminal scare finally died down as we entered the 1980s. In the 1990s, a new controversy arose: it was said that our children were being exposed to sexual subliminal messages.

Some of the most well known Disney movies have been accused of incorporating sexual gestures into the popular cartoon movies. A conservative Christian group by the name of the American Life League (ALL) studied the alleged sexual subliminals. (The Subliminal Scares: “Subliminal Survives” 2). Disney movie amongst the controversy was The Little Mermaid. On the cover of the videotape box, there appears to be a picture of a penis on the sea castle. Although most children would probably not notice, ALL was outraged. In one scene on the Little Mermaid, Arial and the Prince get married.

ALL noticed a suspected bulge on the priest that was said to be an erection. Another Disney movie that ALL was disgusted with was The Lion King. When a character plops onto the ground, a cloud of dust rises into the air and they say dust spells out the word S-E-X. Even though the scene is only about two seconds long, the words are very noticeable. In Aladdin, another Disney movie, a character was meant to say, “Scat good tiger, take off and go”. Instead, ALL heard, “Good teenagers, take of your clothes” (Subliminal Survives 2).

ALL insists that these types of messages are corruptive to children, however there has not been any legal action taken against the animators of the Walt Disney Company, but many parents are disturbed by ALL’s allegations. (The Subliminal Scares: “Subliminal Survives” 2). Since then there have not been any reports of subliminals being used. But now the question is: Have advertisers taken up another form of subliminal advertising? Is there some sort of influential ads being displayed on the Internet? The new advertising technique called profiling strongly resembles subliminal advertising.

By using this method, advertisers can watch what you do on the Internet. Then they try to promote things that resemble what you like on each website you visit. This invaded people’s privacy just like Vicary’s subliminals in 1956. They were unethical before and profiling is following in its footsteps. (Academic Universe: “Profiling” 1-3). Vicary’s controversial method of subliminal messaging has made people aware that they can be influenced by anyone at any time. Even our children were in danger of being influenced by these messages.

At least there were some measures taken, in order to protect us from being manipulated by these messages. I don’t feel that there was enough emphasis on the method. I believe that if things were taken care of in 1958, we wouldn’t be facing the profiling problem today. Whether it is embedded messages in commercials and television shows or Internet profiling, advertisers should not manipulate people. It is important that people recognize the techniques that people may be using to make us think a certain way. Subliminal messages are unethical and they are unnecessary.

Psychoanalysis, a system of psychology

Psychoanalysis is a system of psychology originated by the Viennese physician Sigmund Freud in the 1890’s and then further developed by himself, his students, and other followers. It consists of activities such as using methods for research into the human mind, a systematic knowledge about the mind, and a method for the treatment of psychological or emotional disorders. Psychoanalysis began with the discovery of “hysteria,” an illness with physical symptoms that occurred in a completely healthy physical body, such as a numbness or paralysis of a limb, loss of voice, or blindness.

This state could be caused by unconscious wishes or forgotten memories. Many women of the 1800’s were diagnosed with hysteria, given the disorder was thought to be primarily female. Freud began telling his patients, through interpretations, what was going on inside the unconscious part of their minds, thus helping the unconscious become conscious. Many cases of hysteria were cured this way, and in 1895, Freud, along with another fellow physician, published their findings and theories on the study of hysteria.

In The White Hotel by D. M. Thomas, the character Lisa does not exhibit the above form of hysteria, but rather a manifestation of reality. Her own reality has become too imprisoned, and she escapes it by creating another Lisa that is nothing like her person. The traditional psychoanalytical theory states that all human beings are born with instinctual drives that are constantly active even though a person is not usually conscious of them. Two drives, one for sexual pleasure and the other called aggression, motivate and propel most behaviors in people.

Lisa creates a very intense sexual drive for her fictive person. Readers may speculate that this creation may have been brought about by experiences beginning at birth. In the infant, the libido supposedly first manifests itself by making the act of sucking the thumb an activity with pleasurable sensations in the mouth. Later, according to Freud, similar pleasures are experienced in the anus during bowel movements, and finally these erotically tinged pleasures are experienced when the sexual organ is manipulated.

Thus psychosexual development progresses from the oral through the anal to the phallic stage. During the height of the phallic phase (about ages three to six), Freud notes that these drives focus on the parent of the opposite sex such as in the relations between mother and son or between father and daughter. These drives are known as the so-called Oedipus and Electra complexes. These complexes may also spread to other relationships, such as Lisa’s viewing of the love affair between her mother and uncle.

However, most societies strongly disapprove of the sexual interests of children, and Lisa never spoke of what she saw to anyone but Freud. She also, in the event of her mother’s death, fell subject to a withdrawn father who did not meet her needs for affection and attention as a growing child. This may have helped lead to her repressed sexual “rage. ” Also, taboo on incest rules almost universally. Parents, therefore, influence children to push pleasurable sensations and thoughts out of their conscious minds into the unconscious by a process called repression.

Repression is what Lisa learned most about in her childhood. In this way the mind comes to consist of three parts known as the ego, id, and superego. The ego is mostly conscious and comprises all the ordinary thoughts and functions needed to direct a person in his or her daily behavior. The id is mainly unconscious and contains the instincts and everything that was repressed into it. And finally, the superego is the conscious state that harbors the values, ideals, and prohibitions that set the guidelines for the ego, and punishes the person through feeling of guilt.

Strong boundaries between the three parts keep the ego fairly free from disturbing thoughts and wishes in the id, ensuring effective functioning and socially acceptable behavior. During sleep the boundaries weaken, and disturbing wishes may slip into the ego from the id. This often causes us to manifest in our dreams. Freud interpreted this concept in his first major work, The Interpretation of Dreams.

Something very similar to the weakening of boundaries during sleep may happen during ordinary daytime activities when some impulses from the id manage to cross the repression barrier and cause faulty actions such as “slips” of the tongue. This may occur often if psychologically hurtful experiences during childhood have left the repression too weak, distorted the ego, or strengthened the id too much by over-stimulation. Any kind of psychic trauma may lead to the ego becoming an area of conflict between the intruding id, the threatening superego, and the powerful influences emanating from the surrounding environment.

Furthermore, the damage done to the basic psychological structures by traumatic experiences leaves those structures weakened and with defective functioning. Such outcomes can cause intense anxiety and depression. In order to keep functioning effectively, the ego attempts to maintain control by achieving some sort of compromise between the contending forces. Lisa could not separate her self from her problems, and therefor fell victim to them. Her life was not focused, but she managed to create clarity in the release of her sexual self.

Patients seek psychoanalytic treatment because they suffer from one or more psychological symptoms such as anxiety, depression, sexual inhibitions or manifestations (such as with Lisa’s conflict), obsessive thoughts, compulsive actions, irrational anger, shyness, phobias, low self-esteem, a sense of being unfulfilled, nervous irritability, and many more. Psychoanalysis does not promise a quick cure but holds hope that through better understanding of oneself and others, one can achieve an correction of symptoms as well as smoother and more effective socialization regarding behavior.

It has been found that many psychological problems originate from painful misunderstandings or outright failures in the child’s relationship to his or her parents. The method of treatment seems simple at first. The patient is instructed to say absolutely everything that comes to mind without censoring anything, a technique that is called free association. This brings about a state of regression in which long-forgotten events and painful encounters are remembered, often with great clarity and intense emotions.

The analyst often can trace the connection between the patient’s current fantasies and feelings about the analyst and the origin of these thoughts and emotions in childhood experiences. These conflicts and traumas, together with the accompanying fears and feelings, are then are interpreted by the analyst. If treatment is successful, the patient learns to recognize the connections between past and present. The combination of insight and the emotional re-experience during the regressed state can cause a reorganization of the psychological structures into more healthfully adaptive patterns.

From the beginnings in the late 19th century, psychoanalytic theory and practice have continued to develop into the present modern practices. Initially, Freud believed that forgotten sexual seductions of children were the cause of neurosis and that remembering the trauma and emotions was therapeutic. He later modified and elaborated his views into the theory of infantile instinctual drives as the motivating force for normal behavior and as the cause of neurosis if repressed.

Continuing research has discovered much evidence that the early relationships between children and parents, have the greatest impact on later psychological development. The influence of the care-givers, especially during infancy, leave a lasting imprint on the personality. Any experience with objects, including persons, that evoke and strengthen the self are “self-object” experiences and are needed by every human being from birth to death in order to sustain a cohesive self.

Absence of or faulty self-object experiences cause a loss of cohesion with the self. Lisa’s character was a prime candidate for Freud’s psychoanalysis. She followed many of the stereotypical guidelines set by Freud’s studies. Her reality failed her, so a more vibrant one was created in order to suppress years of secrets, neglect, and the pain from it all. Her character was eventually brought back into a state of reality, but it was too late to “save” her. The true reality that faced her was the grimace of death of her true “self” in the end.

A Look Into Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis had its beginning with the discovery that a person in complete physical health could experience an illness with physical symptoms that stemmed from things trapped in the subconscious known as hysteria. Charcot, a French neurologist tried to liberate the mind through hypnosis. A Viennese physician, Josef Breuer, carried this purging further with a process based on his patient, Anna O. , revealing her thoughts and feelings to him. Sigmund Freud took Breuer’s method and made generalizations that grew into conceptualizations and eventually into the theories of psychoanalysis.

Freud would listen to his patients, and then use these thoughts to interpret what was happening in the unconscious part of their mind. This was explained as bringing the unconscious to consciousness so it could be dealt with through therapy. Breuer and Freud’s successes with this method led to the foundational publication of Studies in Hysteria in 1895. Freud continued his practice of theory until it became the system of psychology known as psychoanalysis, a system that is the single most influential theory of psychotherapy in our time.

A brief look into psychoanalysis is seen through the foundations of Freud’s theory. Freud began with his study of the three forces of the psyche: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the unconscious and contains most things inherited and the all-encompassing instincts. The ego is the conscious and must control the ever-demanding id by serving as its link to the external world. The ego is a regulator and responds to a stimulus by adapting or fleeing, regulating, and seeking pleasure while avoiding displeasure. The superego is actually managed by the id.

It carries the responsibility of the limitation of satisfactions and the representation of other persons’ influence, especially the influence of parents, teachers, and other role models. It also represents the impact of racial, cultural, and societal traditions. The instincts, which are mostly a part of the id, are the cause of every human behavior. Behavior is further made up of two basic instincts that are Eros (love) and Death (destructive and aggressive). Eros is responsible for establishing and preserving the unity of relationships.

The Death or destructive instinct carries the purpose of undoing connections and unity through aggression or destruction. They either work together to form attraction or in competition to create repulsion. Simply put one may be bashful or impotent or aggressive to the extreme of being a sex murderer. To carry his study further, Freud considered the sexuality of an individual. Through this particular study, Freud contends that one must go back to birth, which is the manifestation of an individual’s sexuality.

The oral phase is where life begins and that is why babies explore everything with their mouth, the center of all sensations. The following phase is the anal or sadistic-anal phase where excretory functions are the center of everything. Pleasures are experienced in the anus during bowel movements. Finally these erotically tinged pleasures are experienced when the sexual organ is manipulated. Thus psychosexual development progresses from the oral through the anal to the phallic (in psychoanalytic theory phallic refers to both male and female sexual organs) stage.

During the height of the phallic phase, about the ages of three to six, these libidinous forces focus on the parent of the opposite sex and lend an erotic cast to the relationship between parent and child (son/mother or daughter/father). This focus is known as the Oedipus phase for boys and the Electra phase for girls. The phallic phase is followed by a period of latency where sexual drives lay dormant until puberty when they are reawakened and individuals become more aware of the sexual roles they will play as an adult. The further structure comes with Freud’s description of the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious.

The conscious is driven by pleasure and is locked away from the conscious. Repression, as well as similar disorders, forms the barrier between the conscious and unconscious. The preconscious can be accessed by the conscious even though it is no longer being thought about. The psychoanalyst must find the line between what is merely a part of preconscious and what is part of the unconscious. Freud’s dream analysis was determined the gateway to the unconscious. The preconscious and unconscious had to be unlocked and evaluated in the beginning cases known as hysteria and in a multitude of psychological disorders.

As the disorders become neuroses treatment became necessary for a mentally healthy life. This treatment is used on patients that seek psychoanalytic treatment because they suffer from one or more of a variety of psychological symptoms such as anxiety, depression, sexual and other inhibitions, obsessive thoughts, compulsive actions, irrational angers, shyness and timidity, phobias, inability to get along with friends or spouses or co-workers, low self-esteem, a sense of feeling unfulfilled, nervous irritability, and blocked creativity.

The defects and repressed conflicts that cause these symptoms are usually indicative of a psychoneurosis or a narcissistic personality disorder. Normal ego functioning and the job of life that comes with easy relationship to others is seriously interfered with or sometimes lost altogether. Psychoanalysis does not promise a quick cure but holds out the hope that through the better understanding of oneself and of others one can achieve an amelioration of symptoms as well as a smoother and more effective socialization of one’s behavior.

Psychological maladaptations usually originate from painful misunderstandings or outright failures in the child’s relationship to his or her parents. Sometimes parents lack the appropriate and attuned empathic understanding that children need. Sometimes severe physical or mental illness or the death of a parent or sibling causes serious psychic wounds. Consequently, even in adults, they remain ever-[resent though usually unconscious fears that the early hurtful experiences will now be repeated again with others.

Transference is the unconscious expectation that the old injuries and insults will now again be suffered, only this time at the hand of friends, spouses, children, bosses, etc. as if transferred from the past into the present. Transference makes one have irrational expectations from the people with whom one lives and works. For example, one may feel a need for the approval of a supervisor similar to the same feeling of need a child has towards his parents. Frustration of these expectations may evoke immature rage or other immature behavior.

Transference causes great distress, but it also makes treatment possible. The method of treatment seems simple at first. The patient reclines on a comfortable couch in the analyst’s office with the analyst seated behind the patient. The recumbent position, as well as not being able to see the analyst, minimizes distraction and allows concentration on inner experiences, thoughts, wishes, fantasies, and feelings. The patient is instructed to say absolutely everything that comes to mind without censoring anything, a technique that is called free association.

This brings about a state of regression in which long-forgotten events and painful encounters are remembered, often with great clarity and intense emotions. At the same time, because of transference, the patient experiences the analyst as well, as if he or she were a figure from the past, perhaps resembling a parent. The analyst often can trace the connection between the patient’s current fantasies and feelings about the analyst and the origin of these thoughts and emotions in childhood experiences.

The analyst then interprets the re-experienced conflicts and traumas, together with the accompanying fears and feelings. The patient learns to recognize the connections between the experiences during the regressed state brought about by the analytic method which causes a reorganization of the psychological structures into more healthfully adaptive patterns . The analyst’s friendly and calmly explaining attitude that is generally devoid of any moralizing or other biases creates an atmosphere in which, most of the time, all human failings and foibles can be looked at, talked about, and finally resolved.

Typically, an analysis lasts for a few years, with four to five sessions per week of about 45 minutes each. In this way the psychoneuroses and the narcissistic personality disorders can be treated successfully in a majority of patients. Serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, manic-depressive illness, and the psychoses caused by organ malfunctioning of the brain cannot be cured by psychoanalytic treatment, though the patient can often benefit from psycho-pharmacological treatment – sedatives, tranquilizers, anti-depressants– in combinations with psychotherapy.

The longevity of success using psychoanalysis becomes a testimony to Freud’s in-depth study of the human mind. His forty plus years of work in the field were spent on the development of the main principles of psychoanalysis along with the techniques and methods used by the analyst. His work was furthered by his daughter and later adopted then adapted by Erikson. What seemed so revolutionary in the 1890’s and beyond has now become widely accepted by most all schools of psychological thought and its study.

What is stress

Stress is a part of day to day living. As a college student I experience stress meeting academic demands, adjusting to a different schedule every week, or developing relationships with others. The stress I or anyone else experience is not necessarily harmful; in fact, stress is a normal part of life. Although we tend to think of stress as caused by external events, events in themselves are not stressful. Rather, it is the way in which we interpret and react to those events that makes them stressful, and will either make us peak performers or not.

People differ greatly in the type of events they interpret as stressful and the way in which they respond to such stress. For example, speaking in front of a large crowd can be stressful for some people and relaxing for others. There are several and symptoms that you may notice when you are experiencing stress. These symptoms basically fall into three categories. They are feelings, thoughts, and behavior. When a person is under stress, they will normally show symptoms from each category.

When a person’s feelings are affected by stress, they become very anxious, irritable, and even scared. If you let your feeling and emotions be ruled by the stress you are under, you may quickly lose friends; or worse, lose yourself. You must learn to control your feelings when under extreme amounts of stress. A person’s thoughts are also seriously affected by stress. When a person’s thoughts are affected, they begin to have low self-esteem, the inability to concentrate, they constantly have the fear of failure, and they are often preoccupied and forgetful.

Behavior is another factor which is influenced by stress. When someone’s behavior is affected by stress, they may have difficulty speaking, they can become very impulsive, and they can either become very nervous (apparent by the high pitched voice) or very sad and cry for no apparent reason. All of these symptoms can be dealt with many ways; however, the following seem to be the most effective. Many people find that Yoga and other relaxation techniques are very effective in reducing or even eliminating stressful feelings.

Healthy friendships and relationships can also provide the means to control those feelings which are ruling you. Having a serious talk with a best friend or significant other can really help to bring back that sense of joy and satisfaction in your life, and can also give a renewed burst of energy and refresh your mind. Exercising has also proven to be a wonderful stress reducer. Regular exercise has been proven to increase energy, reduce tension, and relax muscles.

Becoming aware of your own reactions to stress and recognizing, accepting, and working within your own limits can also greatly reduce the amount of stress placed upon you. Stress can become very dangerous if allowed to go unchecked. If a person’s stress level is too high, medical and social problems can result if not dealt with correctly. People under extreme amounts of stress can become accident prone, and increase their usage of drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes. They sometimes lose their appetite, or go the other extreme and overeat.

Some people even get seriously ill when they cannot cope with stress. They will have symptoms such as diarrhea, indigestion, vomiting, and severe headaches, or even literally get sick with colds and flus. If a person is under extreme amount of stress and cannot seem to be able to cope with it, they can even become dangerous to others, or even suicidal, and need to seek professional help. A certified counselor or therapist can help a person to gain insight into their reactions to stress and the most effective ways to deal with it.

Time management can be very helpful when dealing with stress. Stress most often is a result of not managing time correctly, and as a result things begin to pile up and people begin to feel swamped by everything. There are many ways to manage your time so that you will not feel overburdened. Set goals which you want to accomplish. This will clarify what you want to do and give you the energy and focus to do it. Making a schedule will help incredibly. Fill your schedule with lots of time for leisure as well as work.

That way, you’ll enjoy your playtime because you’ll be doing it at the right time, not when you should be working. And when you are working, you won’t resent it because you’ll know that your leisure time is coming up soon. Making a schedule will hopefully keep you from procrastinating as well. Procrastination is a very common stressor, or cause of stress, and can be avoided easily. A certain amount of stress can be good. It can produce an excitement or rush that acts as a catalyst, therefore motivating you to do better work, cope with a problem, or give more of yourself.

The important thing is to be aware of stress so that you can deal with it. The only difference between peak performers and those who are not is how that stress is dealt with. Stress is a direct result of how we respond to different events. If we are feeling stressed by something, we need to take a step back and take stock of the situation. Ask yourself “How can I deal with this situation in a way that will not cause me undue amounts of stress? ” When the answer to that is found, you are on your way to leading a less stressful life.

Human Perception: An Intimate Look Into The Most Intriguing Aspect of Modern Psychology

Perception. As hard as it is to define it, it is impossible to correctly conceive a “correct” or “right” way to use it. Perception varies with not only humans, but with virtually all other animals as well, whether through instinct or with conscious thought. Let us take this a step farther. When a bee looks at a flower that is meant for feeding from, they do not only notice the colors the human mind sees. The bee sees a yellow “run-way” directly into the core of the flower, guiding it into the source of nectar.

This brings us to the question- “is what we see real, or is what we see our own reality? . What the human mind sees is only three dimensions. Since Albert Einstein first conjured the scientific possibility of a fourth dimension, human beings have longed to see it. Many people assume that it does not exist simply because they cannot see it. They are not able to see the yellow “run-way” into the heart of a flower, but to the bee and an ultraviolet light, that “run-way” is certainly real. People’s physical use of their own perception is very limited, as such noticeable in the “tunnel-vision” effect.

A good example of the Tunnel Vision effect is a erception or thought such as “if I cannot see it, it simply does not exist”. We as humans are limited not only to what we can sense, but how we perceive what we sense. Such is a formidable question. What if that fourth dimension does exist, what if we can see it , only our brain cannot perceive it being there, therefor it never exists in the first place. I would consider that as a paradox. Where does perception come from? Is it a result of the upbringing and surroundings of an individual (animal or human), or is it a result of genetics?

Certainly I would believe that conditioning has a great impact on an ndividual’s perception. An example to that would be as such : A dog is abused, beaten, and starved by a group of owners in a kennel. The dog is then recovered by the humane society and adopted by a local family. The dog in turns bites one in the family every time a hand is raised near it as a motion, for food or otherwise. The dog has been conditioned into fear. However, due to the conditioning, the dog perceives the hand motions differently than would a newborn pup.

The dog perceives such hand actions as a premonition that it is about to be hit or harmed in some way. I can only conclude to myself that there s a distinct possibility that conditioning has the ability to alter perception in a great amount. People often mistakenly identify people for others in many circumstances everyday. For example, I got on the bus to go to school a few weeks ago, and sat down next to a person whom I believed I had talked to the day before regarding a topic. I started to say something, I looked up and realized the person was a totally different person than whom I believed I was talking to.

I had seen the person who I thought I was talking to when I got on that bus. The physical features, the voice, etc. ll matched. However, a neuron must have misfired because there was an entirely different person altogether in that seat. I went to another seat, pondered it over, and realized how speculative human identification is. Often victims of rape, robbery, or other crimes are asked to identify their assailant in a police lineup. Seventy two percent of people misidentify suspects in police lineups the first try. The reason?

The person sees who they “saw” when they were attacked. I would presume that during an attack, a person would be more concerned about staying alive than noticing the xact physical characteristics of the individual who is attacking. Since the brain is overworking to do multitudes of tasks at the time of an attack, I would assume that a person would not pay particular notice to the appearance of the attacker. This is why human visual identification is so controversial and hard to support. Perhaps the person *did* see that person who attacked them in the lineup.

People often fill in the gaps of a picture and story to make everything seem clear to them and the authorities. Therefor, human visual identification cannot be trusted simply due to people’s differences of perception. When I ook at and read the Bible, I regard it as an awesome literary work, but not something I would base or live my life upon. However, there are those who perceive the Bible as not only words on a page, but as the guiding force behind humanity. Religion and perception do not go well together simply due to the vast differences in opinion among the human race.

What I perceive as fact is that Jesus Christ did not ascend into heaven, and that the Bible is merely a literary work. A book to be concise. However, what Christians perceive as fact is the exact opposite. Often, there are those in the religious or family oriented lobby ndustries who try to suppress what I read or hear based upon their own perception, Perhaps this is stretching the links of perception, but I believe that the perceptual differences among people are the original roots of censorship.

One group of people or person perceives something as obscene or “harmful”. Another group perceives *the same thing* as intellectually stimulating or entertaining. Such is why I consider perception as not only having to do with human psychology, but with politics and beliefs as well. I consider perception to be not only what a person senses, but what they get out of what they sense. I listen to hard-core rock and like the sound of it. However, an adult would most likely label it as simply “noise”.

The perceptual differences among people is the *single* biggest speed bump in attaining world, civil, and domestic peace. Our differences are small, but great in bounty. I see white, you see black. Never will all people in the world agree on one particular topic, however we can learn to respect the perception of that topic. Until people understand the roots of problems is how they perceive them, and that it is only a problem if you make it a problem, peace and respect are unattainable goals.

The Longest River: Denial

A hallmark of someone who is engaging in this addiction pattern, but who has not accepted that their behavior is out of their control, is denial. Denial is a psychological defense mechanism that enables a person to continue to engage in a behavior in spite of relatively obvious negative consequences on their life. It’s a way to protect ourselves from seeing or feeling things that are unpleasant. In the case of the gambling addict, there may be repeated warnings from his or her spouse that they will not tolerate continued spending of household savings, job loss, and constant harassment by creditors.

In light of this, the gambling addict will still deny that they have a problem with gambling and will believe that they have complete control over their actions. Denial permits one to distort reality, a very powerful psychological defense; it can have devastating consequences on our life, and the ability to disregard such negative consequences while continuing the behavior is a hallmark of denial. Denial is present, to some extent or another, in all addictions.

It’s necessary, in the development of an addictive process, to experience a sense of denial while the addiction is beginning to take hold. Otherwise we would not continue with the addictive behaviors. Because of denial, the impact of our negative behavior is never fully appreciated until the consequences become so overwhelming that they can no longer be ignored. This is sometimes referred to as hitting bottom. People may continue their behavior indefinitely, with no recognition of the negative consequences of their actions, in spite of numerous personal disasters.

Often an individual will not seek help for a specific problem, unless they’ve recognized that they are no longer in control of the situation and need help. This usually happens at a point when the negative impact of their addiction has become grossly obvious and their denial is broken. It is a process that cannot be rushed. Each person has to discover their own time frame for how and when to deal with their addiction. This, of course, can be very frustrating for family and friends of the addict, who often notice the problem long before the addict does.

Negative consequences of Internet use vary considerably. I have been consulted on Internet cases where employees have been caught using their work computer for personal Internet access (in some cases wasting considerable company time and/or downloading sexually related material onto their computer). In some cases, individuals could be charged with sexual harassment as a consequence of exposing fellow employees to sexually explicit material against their will (even accidentally! ).

There may even be a legal liability for employers who allow (even unknowingly) their employees to use the company network to send personal email or other material that might be seen as objectionable by others. I’ve also seen numerous cases of couples with significant marital or relationship problems due to Internet abuse; at times even resulting in child custody investigations! Everyday I hear or receive stories of people who are getting into trouble with their online behavior at home or at work.

It may take the form of abusing the Net by staying online longer than you had planned, having cybersex/cyberaffairs, or spending too much money online by gambling, stock trading, shopping, or auctioning. . I fear that as broadband access increases from the current 6% level, that we will see an increase in compulsive Internet use; The increase may occur because just as the faster modes of absorption of a drug increases the addictive potential a drug. Broadband Internet access could provide the hit in a much more rapid manner enabling a faster psychological impact and effect.

This may translate into a more habit-forming experience. Few people, except for those who have had a problem, recognize the power and attraction of being online. This is changing rapidly however. Although it is probably not an epidemic, I have little doubt that millions of people are experiencing a negative impact in their lives because of their compulsive use of the Internet and I believe that number will continue to grow. Recognition of both the dark and light side of the Internet will enable us to be served by technology, instead of ensnared by it!

Conceptual and Theoretical Matters

Classical Chinese theory of mind is similar to Western “folk psychology” in that both mirror their respective background view of language. They differ in ways that fit those folk theories of language. The core Chinese concept is xin (the heart-mind). As the translation suggests, Chinese folk psychology lacked a contrast between cognitive and affective states ([representative ideas, cognition, reason, beliefs] versus [desires, motives, emotions, feelings]). The xin guides action, but not via beliefs and desires. It takes input from the world and guides action in light of it.

Most thinkers share those core beliefs. Herbert Fingarette argued that Chinese (Confucius at least) had no psychological theory. Along with the absence of belief-desire explanation of action, they do not offer psychological (inner mental representation) explanations of language (meaning). We find neither the focus on an inner world populated with mental objects nor any preoccupation with questions of the correspondence of the subjective and objective worlds. Fingarette explained this as reflecting an appreciation of the deep conventional nature of both linguistic and moral meaning.

He saw this reflected in the Confucian focus on li (ritual) and its emphasis on sociology and history rather than psychology. The meaning, the very existence, of a handshake depends on a historical convention. It rests on no mental acts such as sincerity or intent. The latter may accompany the conventional act and give it a kind of aesthetic grace, but they do not explain it. Fingarette overstates the point, of course. It may not be psychologistic in its linguistic or moral theory, but Confucianism still presupposes a psychology, albeit not the familiar individualist, mental or cognitive psychology.

Its account of human function in conventional, historical society presupposes some behavioral and dispositional traits. Most Chinese thinkers indeed appear to presuppose that humans are social, not egoistic or individualistic. The xin coordinates our behavior with others. Thinkers differed in their attitude toward this natural social faculty. Some thought we should reform this tendency and try harder to become egoists, but most approved of the basic “goodness” of people. Most also assumed that social discourse influenced how the heart-mind guides our cooperation.

If discourse programs the heart-mind, it must have a dispositional capacity to internalize the programming. Humans accumulate and transmit conventional dao-s (guiding discoursesways). We teach them to our children and address them to each other. The heart-mind then executes the guidance in any dao it learns when triggered (e. g. , by the sense organs). Again thinkers differed in their attitude toward this shared outlook. Some thought we should minimize or eliminate the controlling effect of such conventions on human behavior.

Others focused on how we should reform the social discourse that we use collectively in programming each others xin. Typically, thinkers in the former group had some theory of the innate or hard-wired programming of the xin. Some in the latter camp had either a “blank page” or a negative view of the heart-minds innate patterns of response. For some thinkers, the sense organs delivered a processed input to the heart-mind as a distinction: salty and sour, sweet and bitter, red or black or white or green and so forth. Most had thin theories, at best, of how the senses contributed to guidance.

While it is tempting to suppose that they assumed the input was an amorphous flow of “qualia” that the heart-mind sorted into categories (relevant either to its innate or social programming). However, given the lack of analysis of the content of the sensory input, we should probably conservatively assume they took the nave realist view that the senses simply make distinctions in the world. We can be sure only that the xin did trigger reactions to discourse-relevant stimuli. Reflecting the theory of xin, the implicit theory of language made no distinction between describing and prescribing.

Chinese thinkers assumed the core function of language is guiding behavior. Representational features served that prescriptive goal. In executing guidance, we have to identify relevant “things” in context. If the discourse describes some behavior toward ones elder, one needs a way correctly to identify the elder and what counts as the prescribed behavior. Correct action according to a conventional dao must also take into account other descriptions of the situation such as urgent, normal, etc. These issues lay behind Confucian theories of “rectifying names.

The psychological theory (like the linguistic) did not take on a sentential form. Classical Chinese language had no “belief-grammar”, i. e. , forms such as X believes that P (where P is a proposition). The closest grammatical counterpart focuses on the term, not the sentence and point to the different function of xin. Where Westerners would say “He believes (that) it is good” classical Chinese would either use “He goods it” or “He, yi (with regard to) it, wei (deems:regards) good. ” Similarly zhi (to know) takes noun phrases, not sentences, as object.

The closest counterpart to propositional knowledge would be “He knows its being (deemed as) good. ” The xin guides action in the world in virtue of the categories it assigns to things, but it does not house mental or linguistic “pictures” of facts. Technically, the attitude was what philosophers a de re attitude. The “subject” was in the world not in the mind. The context of use picked out the intended item. The attitude consisted of projecting the mental category or concept on the actual thing. We distinguish this functional role best by talking about a disposition rather than a belief.

It is a disposition to assign some reality to a category. The requisite faculty of the heart-mind (or the senses) is the ability to discriminate or distinguish T from not-T, e. g. , good from bad, human being from thief. We might, alternately, think of Chinese belief and knowledge as predicate attitudes rather than propositional attitudes. Predicate attitudes are the heart-minds function. A basic judgment is, thus, neither a picture nor representation of some metaphysically complex fact. Its essence is picking out what counts as X in the situation (where X is a term in the guiding discourse).

The context fixes the object and the heart-mind assigns it to a relevant category. Hence, Chinese folk theory places a (learned or innate) ability to make distinctions correctly in following a dao in the central place Western folk psychology places ideas. They implicitly understood correctness as conformity to the social-historical norm. One of the projects of some Chinese philosophers was trying to provide a natural or objective ground of dao. Western “ideas” are analogous to mental pictographs in a language of thought. The composite pictures formed out of these mental images (beliefs) were the mental counterparts of facts.

Truth was “correspondence” between the picture and the fact. Pictures play a role in Chinese folk theory of language but not of mind. Chinese understood their written characters as having evolved from pictographs. They had scant reason to think of grammatical strings of characters as “pictures” of anything. Chinese folk linguistics recognized that history and community usage determined the reference of the characters. They did not appeal to the pictographic quality or any associated mental image individuals might have. Language and conventions are valuable because they store inherited guidance.

The social-historical tradition, not individual psychology, grounds meaning. Some thinkers became skeptical of claims about the sages and the “constancy” of their guidance, but they did not abandon the assumption that public language guides us. Typically, they either advocated reforming the guiding discourse (dao) or reverting to “natural,” pre-linguistic behavior patterns. Language rested neither on cognition nor private, individual subjectivity. Chinese philosophy of mind played mainly an application (execution of instructions) role in Chinese theory of language.

Chinese theory of language centered on counterparts of reference or denotation. To have mastered a term was for the xin and senses working together to be able to distinguish or divide realities “correctly. ” Correctly was the rub because the standard of correctness was discourse. It threatened a regresswe need a discourse to guide our practical interpretation of discourse. Philosophy of mind played a role in various attempted solutions. Chinese philosophers mostly agreed (except for innatists) that actual distinguishing would be relative to past training, experience, assumptions and situation.

However, they did not regard experience as a mental concept in the classic Western sense of the being a subjective or private content. An important concept in philosophy of mind was, therefore, de (virtuosity). One classic formulation identified de as embodied, inner dao. De though “inner,” was more a set of dispositions than a mental content. The link seemed to be that when we learn a daos content, it produces de. Good de comes from successful teaching of a dao. When you follow dao, you need not have the discourse “playing” internally.

We best view it as the behavioral ability to conform to the intended pattern of actionthe path (performance dao). It would be “second nature. ” We may think of de, accordingly, as both learned and natural. We can distinguish Chinese thought from Indo-European thought, then, not only in its blending affective and cognitive functions, but also in its avoiding the nuts and bolts of Western mind-body analysis. Talk of “inner” and “outer” did distinguish the psychological from the social, but it did not mean inner was mental content. The xin has a physical and temporal location and consists of dispositions to make distinctions in guiding action.

It is not a set of inherently representational “ideas” (mental pictograms). Similarly, we find no clear counterpart to the Indo-European conception of the faculty of reason. Euclidean method in geometry and the formulation of the syllogism in logic informed this Indo-European concept. Absent this apparatus, Chinese thinkers characterized the heart-mind as either properly or improperly trained, virtuous, skilled, reliable, etc. Prima facie, however, these were social standards threatened circularity. The heart-mind required some kind of mastery of a body of practical knowledge.

Chinese thinkers explored norm realism mainly through an innatist strategy. Innatists sought to picture the heart-minds distinctions as matching “norms” or “moral patterns” implicit in the natural stasis or harmony of the world. Historical Developments: The Classical Period Confucius indirectly addressed philosophy of mind questions in his theory of education. He shaped the moral debate in a way that fundamentally influenced the classical conception of xin (heart-mind). Confucius discourse dao was the classical syllabus, including most notably history, poetry and ritual.

On one hand, we can think of these as “training” the xin to proper performance. On the other, the question of how to interpret the texts into action seemed to require a prior interpretive capacity of xin. Confucius appealed to a tantalizingly vague intuitive ability that he called ren (humanity). A person with ren can translate guiding discourse into performance correctlyi. e. , can execute or follow a dao. Confucius left open whether ren was innate or acquired in studythough the latter seems more likely to have been his position. It was, in any case, the position of Chinas first philosophical critic, the anti-Confucian Mozi.

Again concern with philosophy of mind was subordinate to Mozis normative concerns. He saw moral character as plastic. Natural human communion (especially our tendency to “emulate superiors”) shaped it. Thus, we could cultivate utilitarian behavioral tendencies by having social models enunciate and act on a utilitarian social discourse. The influence of social models would also determine the interpretation of the discourse. Interpretation takes the form of indexical pro and con reactionsshi (this:right:assent) and fei (not this:wrong:dissent).

The attitudes when associated with terms pick out the reality (object, action, etc. ) relevant to the discourse guidance. We thus train the heart-mind to make distinctions that guide its choices and thereby our behaviorspecifically in following a utilitarian symbolic guide. Utilitarian standards also should guide practical interpretation (execution or performance) of the discourse. At this point in Chinese thought, the heart-mind became the focus of more systematic theorizingmuch of it in reaction to Mozis issues. The moral issue and the threat of a relativist regress in the picture led to a nativist reaction.

On the one hand, thinkers wanted to imagine ways to free themselves from the implicit social determinism. On the other, moralists want a more absolute basis for ethical distinctions and actions. Several thinkers may have joined a trend of interest in cultivating the heart-mind. Mencius theory is the best known within the moralist trend. He analyzed the heart-mind as consisting of four natural moral inclinations. These normally mature just as seeds grows into plants. Therefore, the resulting virtues (benevolence, morality, ritual, and knowledge) were natural.

Mencius thus avoided having to treat the ren intuition as a learned product a social dao. It is a de that signals a natural dao. This view allowed Mencius to defend Confucian ritual indirectly against Mozis accusation that it relied on an optional and, thus, changeable tradition. Mencius strategy, however, presupposed that a linguistic dao could either distort or reinforce the heart-mind’s innate program. In principle, we do not need to prop up moral virtue educationally. Linguistic shaping, other than countering linguistic distortion, therefore, ran an unnecessary risk.

It endangered the natural growth of the moral dispositions. The shi (this:right:assent) and fei (not this:wrong:dissent) dispositions necessary for sage-like moral behavior should develop “naturally. ” His theory did not imply that we know moral theory at birth, but that they develop or mature as the physical body does and in response to ordinary moral situations. The heart-mind functions by issuing shi-fei (this-not this) directives that are right in the concrete situations in which we find ourselves. It does not need or generate ethical theory or hypothetical choices.

The xins intuitions are situational and implicitly harmonious with nature. A well-known advocate with the natural spontaneity or freedom motivation was the Taoist, Laozi. He analyzed the psychology of socialization at a different level. Learning names was training us to make distinctions and to have desires of what society considered the appropriate sort. Both the distinctions and the desires were “right” only according to the conventions of the language community. Learning language not only meant losing ones natural spontaneity, it was and subjecting oneself to control by a social-historical perspective.

We allowed society to control our desires. His famous slogan, wu-wei, enjoined us to avoid actions motivated by such socialized desires. We achieve that negative by forgetting socially instilled distinctionsby forgetting language! His implicit ideal had some affinities with that of Mencius except that his conception of the “natural” realm of psychological dispositions was considerably less ambitious in moral terms. Interpreters usually suppose that he assumed there would be a range of natural desires left even if socialized ones were “subtracted.

These would be enough to sustain small, non-aggressive, agrarian villages. In them, people would lack the curiosity even to visit neighboring villages. This “primitivism” still requires that there is a natural level of harmonious impulses to action, but not nearly enough to sustain Mencius unified moral empire. The LATER MOHISTS became skeptical of the neutral status of these allegedly “natural” heart-mind states. They noted that even a thief may claim that his behavior was natural. They watered down the conventionalism of Mozi by appealing to objectively accessible similarities and differences in nature.

Our language ought to reflect these clusters of similarity. They did little epistemology especially of the senses, but supposedly, like Mozi, would have appealed to the testimony ordinary people relying on their “eyes and ears. ” Others (See ZHUANGZI) insisted that any apparent patterns of similarity and difference were always perspectival and relative to some prior purpose, standards or value attitude. Linguistics did shape heart-mind attitudes but neither reliably or accurately carves the world into its real parts. The Later Mohists had given a cluster of definitions of zhi (to know).

One of these seemed close to consciousnessor rather to point to the lack of any such concept. Zhi was the capacity to know. In dreaming the zhi did not zhi and we took (something) as so. They analyzed the key function of the heart-mind as the capacity to discriminate linguistic intention. Zhuangzi takes a step beyond Laozi in his theory of emotions. Zhuangzi discusses the passions and emotions that were raw, pre-social inputs from reality. He suggested a pragmatic attitude toward themwe cannot know what purpose they have, but without them, there would be no reference for the “I.

Without the ‘I’, there would be neither choosing nor objects of choice. Like Hume, he argued that while we have these inputs and feel there must be some organizing “true ruler,” we get no input (qing) from any such ruler. We simply have the inputs themselves (happiness, anger, sorrow, joy, fear). We cannot suppose that the physical heart is such a ruler, because it is no more natural than the other organs and joints of the body. Training and history condition a hearts judgments. Ultimately, even Mencius shi-fei (this-not this) are input to the xin.

Our experience introduces them relative to our position and past assumptions. They are not objective or neutral judgments. XUNZI also concentrated on issues related to philosophy of mind though in the context of moral and linguistic issues. He initiated some important and historically influential developments in the classical theory. His most famous (and textually suspect) doctrine is “human nature is evil. ” While he clearly wanted to distance himself from Mencius, the slogan at best obscures the deep affinity between their respective views of human nature and mind.

Xunzi seems to have drawn both from the tradition advocating cultivating heart-mind and from the focused theory of language. This produced a tense hybrid theory that filled out the original Confucian picture on how conventions and language program the heart-mind. Xunzi made the naturalism explicit. Human guiding discourse takes place in the context of a three-tier universetian (heaven-nature) di (earth-sustenance) and ren (the social realm). He gave humans a special place in the chain of nature,’ but not based on reason.

Animals shared the capacity for zhi (knowledge). What distinguishes humans is their yi (morality) which is grounded on the ability to bian (distinguish). Presumably, the latter ability is unique among animals with knowledge because it is short-hand for the ability to construct and abide by conventionsconventional distinctions or language. One of Xunzis naturalistic justifications for Confucian conventional rituals is economic. Ritual distinctions guide peoples desires so that society can manage scarcity. Only those with high status will learn to seek scarce goods.

His departure from Mencius thus seems to lie in seeing human morality as more informed or “filled-out” by historical conventional distinctions. These are the products of reflection and artifice, not nature. However, in other ways Xunzi seems to edge closer to Mencius. He also presents ritual as part of the structure of the worldimplicit in the heaven-earth natural context. One natural line of explanation is this: while thought creates the correct conventions, nature sets the concrete conditions of scarcity and human traits that determine what conventions will be best for human flourishing. Historical Developments: Han Cosmology

The onset of the philosophical dark age, brought on by Qin Dynasty repression followed by Han dynasty policies resulted in a bureaucratic, obscurant Confucian orthodoxy. The Qin thus buried the technical ideas informing philosophy of mind along with the active thinkers who understood them. The ontology of the eclectic scholasticism that emerged was essentially religious and superstitious. It was, however, overtly materialist (assuming Qi (ether, matter) is material). So the implicit philosophy of mind of the few philosophically inclined thinkers during the period tended toward a vague materialism.

The Han further developed the five-element (five phases) version of materialism. They postulated a correlative pentalogy linking virtually every system of classification that occurred to them. The scheme included the organs of the body and the virtues. Interpretation and analysis of “correlative” reasoning is a controversial subject. From here, the mental correlations look more like a frequency selection from the psychological lexicon than a product of philosophical reflection, observation or causal theory. The Yin-yang analysis also had mental correlates.

Following Xunzi, Orthodox Han Confucians tended to treat qing (reality:desires) as yin (typically negative). The yang (value positive) counterpart was xing (human moral nature). The most important development of the period was the emergence a compromise Confucian view of minds role in morality. It eventually informed and dominated the scholastic Neo-Confucianism of the much later Sung to Qing dynasties. The small book known as the Doctrine of the Mean gave it an influential formulation. It presents the heart-mind as a homeostasis-preserving input output device. The heart-mind starts in a state of tranquillity.

The account leaves open whether this is a result of ideally structured moral input, resolution of inner conflicts, or the absence of (distorting) content. Xunzis view of the empty, unified and still mind seems the proximate ancestor of the latter aspect of the view. The vagueness, conveniently, makes Mencius doctrines fit it as well. The input is a perturbation from the outer world. The output, the heart-minds action-guiding response, restores harmony to the world and the inner state to tranquillity. If the inner state prior to the input is not tranquil, the response will not restore harmony to the real situation.

Han Confucianism filled out this cosmic view of this black-box interaction between heart-mind and world harmony using qi materialism. Qi is a rather more a blend of energy and matter than pure mattertranslations such as “life-force” bring out an essential connection with vitality. This makes it more appropriate for a cosmology that links the active heart-mind with the changing world. Qi was the single constituting element of spirits and ghosts as well. Wang Chungs skeptical, reductive application of qi theory focused on shen (spirit-energy). He did not view its consequences for heart-mind as particularly iconoclastic.

It still lacked a notion of “consciousness” independent of zhi (know). (Our zhi, he argued, stops when we are asleep and so almost certainly it does when we are dead. ) His arguments that nature had no intentional purposes illustrated his reductive behaviorismif it has neither eyes nor ears, then it cannot have zhi (purposes or intentions). This argument would hardly make sense if he had the familiar Western concept of consciousness. Similarly, he argues that the five virtues are in the five organs so when the organs are dead and gone, the virtues disappear with them.

Historical Developments: Buddhist Philosophy of Mind The next developments are related to the introduction of Buddhist mental concepts into China. Most accounts credit a movement dubbed “Neo-Taoism” with “paving the way” for this radical change in philosophy of mind. Wangbis Neo-Taoist system was explicitly a cosmology more than a theory of mind, but interpretations tend to read it epistemically. Wangbi addressed the metaphysical puzzle of the relation of being and non-being. (See YOU-WU) He postulated non-being as the “basic substance. ” Non-being produced being.

He dubbed this obscure relationship as “substance and function. ” Interpretations almost inevitably explain this on the analogy to Kants Noumenon and Phenomenon. As noted, Wangbi had few epistemological interests, but the analysis did have implications for heart-mind theory. He applied the metaphysical scheme to his Confucian slogan”Sage within, king without. ” The mind was empty “within” while the behaviors were in perfect conformity with the Confucian ritual dao. This tilts the Taoist tradition toward the “emptiness” reading of the black-box analysis of heart-mind.

Wangbi also placed li (principle) in a more central explanatory position. This paved the way for its use in translating Buddhisms sentence or law-like dharma. It played roles in both Buddhist epistemology and theory of mind. In sparse pre-Han usage, li was objective tendencies in thing-kinds. (Intuitionists and naturalists took them to be the valid norm for that kindspecies relative bits of dao. ) Wangbi gave it a more essentialist reading in the context of the Book of Changes. He postulated a li guiding the mixtures and transformations of yin and yang.

One should be able to bypass the complexity of the system by isolating and understanding its li. Buddhism introduced revolutionary changes into Chinese heart-mind conceptual scheme. The original Indo-European religion probably originated the familiar Western phenomenalism (consciousness, experience-based mentalism). Indian philosophy came complete with the familiar Western sentential analyses, mental content and cognitive emphasis (belief and knowing-that). It even mimicked the subject-predicate syllogism and the familiar epistemic and metaphysical subjective-objective dualism.

It introduced a semantic (eternal) truth predicate into Chinese thought along with a representational view of the function of both mind and language. Reason/intellect and emotion/desire formed a basic opposition in Buddhist psychological analysis. An inner idea-world parallels (or replaces) the ordinary world of objects. Soul and mind are roughly interchangeable and familiar arguments for immortality suggest both metaphysical dualism and mental transcendence or superiority over the physical. It conceptually links reality (knowledge, reason) to permanence and appearance (illusion, experience) to change.

A universal chain of causation was a central explanatory device and a mark of dependence and impermanence. Two caveats are in order, however. First, although Buddhism introduced a dualist conceptual scheme, many schools (arguably) denied the dualism so formulated and rejected any transcendent self. Second, it is unclear how well the philosophy of mind was generally understood and whether much of it actually “took” in China. One of the early and notoriously unsuccessful schools was the “Consciousness only” school (translated as “Only Heart-mind”) which translated the idealism of Yogacara Buddhism.

The Yogacara analysis was Hume-like in denying that anything linked the infinitesimal “moments of awareness” into a real self. Scholars tend to blame its demise, however, as much on its objectionable moral features (its alleged Hinayana or elitist failure to guarantee universal salvation) as on its conceptual innovations. The most successful schools were those that seemed to eschew theory of any kindlike Zen (Chan) or Pure Land Buddhismor those that opted for intuitive, mystical simplicity (Tian Tai and Hua Yen).

The most important conceptual legacy of Buddhism, therefore, seems to be the changed role and importance of the character li (principle). In Buddhism it served a wide range of important sentential and mental functions. It facilitated the translation of law, truth, and reason. Neo-Confucianism would take it over (with notoriously controversial implications) as key concept in its philosophy of mind. Historical Developments: Neo-Confucianism Neo-Confucianism is a Western name for a series of schools in which philosophy of mind played a central role.

Scholars (somewhat controversially) present these schools as motivated by an anti-foreignism that sought to resurrect indigenous classical systems. These had lain dormant for six-hundred odd years when the freshness of Buddhism started to attract the attention of China’s intellectuals. Resurrecting Confucianism required providing it with an alternative to Buddhist metaphysics. For this, they drew on ch’i metaphysics, the black-box homeostasis preserving analysis of heart-mind, Wang Pi’s and Buddhism’s li and Mencius’ classical theory of the inherent goodness of heart-mind.

The intricacies of Neo-Confucian systems are too rich to analyze in detail here. The earliest versions focused on the notion of qi linkage between the heart-mind and the world influenced by our action. They characterized the tranquil state of the black-box as void. The school of li criticized that analysis as too Zen-like. (This was a typical and damning charge to participants in this movement, although a Zen period in ones development of thought was a common pattern among Neo-Confucians. ) The li school insisted that any adequate account of heart-mind had to give it an original moral content.

It did this by postulating an interdependent and inseparable dualism of li and qi. The li permeates the heart and all of reality, which is composed of qi. The most tempting (and common) elaboration uses the Platonic distinction of form and content, but that analysis teeters on the edge of incoherence. The school fell back on dividing the human mind from some transcendental or metaphysical Tao-mind. This made it dubious as a theory of mind at allin the ordinary sense. It essentially became a metaphysics in which heart-mind was a cosmic force.

One way of understanding the motivation that drove the otherwise puzzling metaphysical gymnastics links philosophy of mind and ethics. Neo-Confucians were searching for the metaphysical system such that anyone so viewing the cosmos and one’s place in it would reliably do what was right. The goal was having the metaphysical outlook of the sage. The criterion of right and wrong was that the sage’s mind would so judge it. If we could replicate the outlook, we would be sage-like in our attitudesincluding both beliefs and motivations.

The effect on motivation and behavior was more important than the theoretical coherence of the system. The complexity of moral choice and human motivation required so many perturbations into their account of the proposed system that it became an almost infinitely flexible rationalization for intuitionism. Mencian optimism about innate heart-mind dispositions proved an uncomfortable legacy. If human nature and the heart-mind are innately and spontaneously moral, it was unclear why we require such mental gymnastics to cultivate and condition the dispositions.

They portrayed the li as inherently good in all things, but somehow humans, alone in all of nature, might fail to conform to its own natural norms. The attempt to explain this via the li qi dualism flounders on the metaphysical principle that the dualism pervades all things. Despite this well known (and intractable) Confucian problem of evil, the school again became the Medieval orthodoxy. Office holding required being able to parrot the view in considerable detail to show their moral character. The school of Heart-mind was a rebellion against that orthodoxy.

We best understand this rival as a species of normative, objective idealism. It saw the actual heart-mind as li and therefore inherently good. The xin projects that li onto the world in the act of categorizing and dividing it into types. Thus our normative, (phenomenal) world is good but that good is a function of the mind. Moral categorization and action are a simultaneous and combined responses of the heart-mind to the perturbations or the disharmonies we encounter. The analysis of mind is functionalthere is no goodness of the

On Narcissism: Psychological Theories and Therapeutic Interventions in the Narcissistic Disorders

Understanding the Narcissistic Phenomenon The so called narcissistic personality disorder is a complex and often misunderstood disorder. The cardinal feature of the narcissistic personality is the grandiose sense of self importance, but paradoxically underneath this grandiosity the narcissist suffers from a chronically fragile low self esteem. The grandiosity of the narcissist, however, is often so pervasive that we tend to dehumanize him or her. The narcissist conjures in us images of the mythological character Narcissus who could only love himself, rebuffing anyone who attempted to touch him.

Nevertheless, it is the underlying sense of inferiority which is the real problem of the narcissist, the grandiosity is just a facade used to cover the deep feelings of inadequacy. The Makeup of the Narcissistic Personality The narcissists grandiose behavior is designed to reaffirm his or her sense of adequacy. Since the narcissist is incapable of asserting his or her own sense of adequacy, the narcissist seeks to be admired by others. However, the narcissists extremely fragile sense of self worth does not allow him or her to risk any criticism.

Therefore, meaningful emotional interactions with others are avoided. By simultaneously seeking the admiration of others and keeping them at a distance the narcissist is usually able to maintain the illusion of grandiosity no matter how people respond. Thus, when people praise the narcissist his or her grandiosity will increase, but when criticized the grandiosity will usually remain unaffected because the narcissist will devalue the criticizing person. Akhtar (1989) [as cited in Carson & Butcher, 1992; P. 271] discusses six areas of pathological functioning which characterize the narcissist.

In particular, four of these narcissistic character traits best illustrate the pattern discussed above. ” (1) a narcissistic individual has a basic sense of inferiority, which underlies a preoccupation with fantasies of outstanding achievement; (2) a narcissistic individual is unable to trust and rely on others and thus develops numerous, shallow relationships to extract tributes from others;(3) a narcissistic individual has a shifting morality-always ready to shift values to gain favor; and (4) a narcissistic person is unable to remain in love, showing an impaired capacity for a committed relationship”.

The Therapeutic Essence of Treating Narcissism The narcissist who enters therapy does not think that there is something wrong with him or her. Typically, the narcissist seeks therapy because he or she is unable to maintain the grandiosity which protects him or her from the feelings of despair. The narcissist views his or her situation arising not as a result of a personal maladjustment; rather it is some factor in the environment which is beyond the narcissists control which has caused his or her present situation.

Therefore, the narcissist expects the therapist not to cure him or her from a problem which he or she does not perceive to exist, rather the narcissist expects the therapist to restore the protective feeling of grandiosity. It is therefore essential for the therapist to be alert to the narcissists attempts to steer therapy towards healing the injured grandiose part, rather than exploring the underlying feelings of inferiority and despair. Differential Psychological Views of Narcissism The use of the term narcissism in relation to psychological phenomena was first made by Ellis in 1898.

Ellis described a special state of auto-erotism as Narcissus like, in which the sexual feelings become absorbed in self admiration (Goldberg, 1980). The term was later incorporated into Freuds psychoanalytic theory in 1914 in his essay On Narcissism. Freud conceptualized narcissism as a as a sexual perversion involving a pathological sexual love to ones own body (Sandler & Person, 1991). Henceforth, several psychological theories have attempted to explain and treat the narcissistic phenomenon.

Specifically, the most comprehensive psychological theories have been advanced by the psychodynamic perspective and to a lesser extent the Jungian (analytical) perspective. Essentially, both theories cite developmental problems in childhood as leading to the development of the narcissistic disorder. The existential school has also attempted to deal with the narcissistic problem, although the available literature is much smaller. Existentialists postulate that society as a whole can be the crucial factor in the development of narcissism.

The final perspective to be discussed is the humanistic approach which although lacking a specific theory on narcissism, can nevertheless be applied to the narcissistic disorder. In many ways the humanistic approach to narcissism echoes the sentiments of the psychodynamic approach. The Psychodynamic Perspective of Narcissism The psychodynamic model of narcissism is dominated by two overlapping schools of thought, the self psychology school and the object relations school. The self psychology school, represented by Kohut, posits that narcissism is a component of everyones psyche.

We are all born as narcissists and gradually our infantile narcissism matures into a healthy adult narcissism. A narcissistic disorder results when this process is somehow disrupted. By contrast the object relations school, represented by Kernberg, argues that narcissism does not result from the arrest of the normal maturation of infantile narcissism, rather a narcissism represents a fixation in one of the developmental periods of childhood. Specifically, the narcissist is fixated at a developmental stage in which the differentiation between the self and others is blurred.

Kohuts Theory of Narcissism Kohut believes that narcissism is a normal developmental milestone, and the healthy person learns to transform his or her infantile narcissism into adult narcissism. This transformation takes place through the process which Kohut terms transmuting internalizations. As the infant is transformed into an adult he or she will invariably encounter various challenges resulting in some frustration. If this frustration exceeds the coping abilities of the person only slightly the person experiences optimal frustration.

Optimal frustration leads the person to develop a strong internal structure (i. e. , a strong sense of the self) which is used to compensate for the lack of external structure (i. e. , support from others). In the narcissist the process of transmuting internalizations is arrested because the person experiences a level of frustration which exceeds optimal frustration. The narcissist thus remains stuck at the infantile level, displaying many of the characteristics of the omnipotent and invulnerable child (Kohut, 1977).

Kernbergs Theory of Narcissism Kernbergs views on narcissism are based on Mahlers theory of the separation-individuation process in infancy and early childhood. Mahlers model discusses how the developing child gains a stable self concept by successfully mastering the two forerunner phases (normal autism and normal symbiosis) and the four subphases (differentiation, practicing, rapprochement, and consolidation) of separation-individuation. Kernberg argues that the narcissist is unable to successfully master the rapprochement subphase and is thus fixated at this level.

It is essential, however, to understand the dynamics of the practicing subphase before proceeding to tackle the narcissists fixation at the rapprochement subphase. The practicing subphase (age 10 to 14 months) marks the developmental stage at which the child learns to walk. The ability to walk gives the child a whole new perspective of the world around him. This new ability endows the child with a sense of grandiosity and omnipotence which closely resemble the narcissists behavior. However, reality soon catches up with the child as the child enters the rapprochement subphase (age 14 to 24 months).

At this stage the child discovers that he or she is not omnipotent, that there are limits to what he or she can do. According to Kernberg if the child is severely frustrated at this stage he or she can adapt by re-fusing or returning to the practicing subphase, which affords him the security of grandiosity and omnipotence (Kernberg, 1976). The Preferred Psychodynamic model The Psychodynamic literature in general tends to lean towards the object relations school because of the emphasis it places on a comprehensive developmental explanation (i. e. the use of Mahlers individuation-separation model).

Nevertheless, the theory of Kohut has left a deep impression on Psychodynamic thinking as is evident by the utilization of many of his concepts in the literature (i. e. Johnson, 1987; Manfield, 1992; and Masterson, 1981). Therefore in the remainder of the Psychodynamic section a similar approach will be taken, by emphasizing object relations concepts with the utilization of the occasional Kohutian idea. The Emergence of the Narcissistic Personality According to Kernberg and the object relations school the crisis of the rapprochement subphase is critical to the development of the narcissistic personality.

The individual who is unable to successfully master the challenges of this stage will sustain a narcissistic injury. In essence the narcissistic injury will occur whenever the environment (in particular significant others) needs the individual to be something which he or she is not. The narcissistically injured individual is thus told “Dont be who you are, be who I need you to be. Who you are disappoints me, threatens me angers me, overstimulates me. Be what I want and I will love you” (Johnson, 1987; P. 39). The narcissistic injury devastates the individuals emerging self.

Unable to be what he or she truly is the narcissistically injured person adapts by splitting his personality into what Kohut terms the nuclear (real) self and the false self. The real self becomes fragmented and repressed, whereas the false self takes over the individual. The narcissist thus learns to reject himself or herself by hiding what has been rejected by others. Subsequently, the narcissist will attempt to compensate for his or her deficiencies by trying to impress others through his or her grandiosity. The narcissist essentially decides that “There is something wrong with me as I am.

Therefore, I must be special” (Johnson, 1987; P. 53). The Narcissists View of Others Just as the individual becomes narcissistic because that is what the environment needed him or her to be, so does the narcissist view others not as they are, but as what he or she needs them to be. Others are thus perceived to exist only in relation to the narcissists needs. The term object relations thus takes on a special meaning with the narcissist. “We are objects to him, and to the extent that we are narcissistic, others are objects to us.

He doesnt really see and hear and feel who we are and, to the extent that we are narcissistic, we do not really see and hear and feel the true presence of others. They, we, are objects… I am not real. You are not real. You are an object to me. I am an object to you” (Johnson, 1987; P. 48). It is apparent than that the narcissist maintains the infantile illusion of being merged to the object. At a psychological level he or she experiences difficulties in differentiating the self from others. It is the extent of this inability to distinguish personal boundaries which determines the severity of the narcissistic disorder (Johnson, 1987).

Levels of Narcissism The most extreme form of narcissism involves the perception that no separation exists between the self and the object. The object is viewed as an extension of the self, in the sense that the narcissist considers others to be a merged part of him or her. Usually, the objects which the narcissist chooses to merge with represent that aspect of the narcissists personality about which feelings of inferiority are perceived. For instance if a narcissist feels unattractive he or she will seek to merge with someone who is perceived by the narcissist to be attractive.

At a slightly higher level exists the narcissist who acknowledges the separateness of the object, however, the narcissist views the object as similar to himself or herself in the sense that they share a similar psychological makeup. In effect the narcissist perceives the object as just like me. The most evolved narcissistic personality perceives the object to be both separate and psychologically different, but is unable to appreciate the object as a unique and separate person. The object is thus perceived as useful only to the extent of its ability to aggrandize the false self (Manfield, 1992).

Types of narcissism Pending the perceived needs of the environment a narcissist can develop in one of two directions. The individual whose environment supports his or her grandiosity, and demands that he or she be more than possible will develop to be an exhibitionistic narcissist. Such an individual is told you are superior to others, but at the same time his or her personal feelings are ignored. Thus, to restore his or her feelings of adequacy the growing individual will attempt to coerce the environment into supporting his or her grandiose claims of superiority and perfection.

On the other hand, if the environment feels threatened by the individuals grandiosity it will attempt to suppress the individual from expressing this grandiosity. Such an individual learns to keep the grandiosity hidden from others, and will develop to be a closet narcissist. The closet narcissist will thus only reveal his or her feelings of grandiosity when he or she is convinced that such revelations will be safe (Manfield, 1992) Narcissistic Defense Mechanisms Narcissistic defenses are present to some degree in all people, but are especially pervasive in narcissists.

These defenses are used to protect the narcissist from experiencing the feelings of the narcissistic injury. The most pervasive defense mechanism is the grandiose defense. Its function is to restore the narcissists inflated perception of himself or herself. Typically the defense is utilized when someone punctures the narcissists grandiosity by saying something which interferes with the narcissists inflated view of himself or herself. The narcissist will then experience a narcissistic injury similar to that experienced in childhood and will respond by expanding his or her grandiosity, thus restoring his or her wounded self concept.

Devaluation is another common defense which is used in similar situations. When injured or disappointed the narcissist can respond by devaluing the offending person. Devaluation thus restores the wounded ego by providing the narcissist with a feeling of superiority over the offender. There are two other defense mechanisms which the narcissist uses. The self-sufficiency defense is used to keep the narcissist emotionally isolated from others. By keeping himself or herself emotionally isolated the narcissists grandiosity can continue to exist unchallenged.

Finally, the manic defense is utilized when feelings of worthlessness begin to surface. To avoid experiencing these feelings the narcissist will attempt to occupy himself or herself with various activities, so that he or she has no time left to feel the feelings (Manfield, 1992). Psychodynamic Treatment of the Narcissist The central theme in the Psychodynamic treatment of the narcissist revolves around the transference relationship which emerges during treatment. In order for the transference relationship to develop the therapist must be emphatic in understanding the patients narcissistic needs.

By echoing the narcissist the therapist remains silent and invisible to the narcissist. In essence the therapist becomes a mirror to the narcissist to the extent that the narcissist derives narcissistic pleasure from confronting his or her alter ego. Grunbergers views are particularly helpful in clarifying this idea. According to him “The patient should enjoy complete narcissistic freedom in the sense that he should always be the only active party. The analyst has no real existence of his own in relation to the analysand. He doesnt have to be either good or bad-he doesnt even have to be…

Analysis is thus not a dialogue at all; at best it is a monologue for two voices, one speaking and the other echoing, repeating, clarifying, interpreting correctly-a faithful and untarnished mirror” (Grunberger, 1979; P. 49). The Mirror Transference Once the therapeutic relationship is established two transference like phenomena, the mirror transference and the idealizing transference, collectively known as selfobject transference emerge. The mirror transference will occur when the therapist provides a strong sense of validation to the narcissist.

Recall that the narcissistically injured child failed to receive validation for what he or she was. The child thus concluded that there is something wrong with his or her feelings, resulting in a severe damage to the childs self-esteem. By reflecting back to the narcissist his or her accomplishments and grandeur the narcissists self esteem and internal cohesion are maintained (Manfield, 1992). There are three types of the mirror transference phenomenon, each corresponding to a different level of narcissism (as discussed previously).

The merger transference will occur in those narcissists who are unable to distinguish between the object and the self. Such narcissists will perceive the therapist to be a virtual extension of themselves. The narcissist will expect the therapist to be perfectly resonant to him or her, as if the therapist is an actual part of him or her. If the therapist should even slightly vary from the narcissists needs or opinions, the narcissist will experience a painful breach in the cohesive selfobject function provided by the therapist.

Such patients will then likely feel betrayed by the therapist and will respond by withdrawing themselves from the therapist (Manfield, 1992). In the second type of mirror transference, the twinship or alter-ego transference, the narcissist perceives the therapist to be psychologically similar to himself or herself. Conceptually the narcissist perceives the therapist and himself or herself to be twins, separate but alike. In the twinship transference for the selfobject cohesion to be maintained, it is necessary for the narcissist to view the therapist as just like me (Manfield, 1992).

The third type of mirror transference is again termed the mirror transference. In this instance the narcissist is only interested in the therapist to the extent that the therapist can reflect his or her grandiosity. In this transference relationship the function of the therapist is to bolster the narcissists insecure self (Manfield, 1992). The Idealizing Transference The second selfobject transference, the idealizing transference, involves the borrowing of strength from the object (the therapist) to maintain an internal sense of cohesion.

By idealizing the therapist to whom the narcissist feels connected, the narcissist by association also uplifts himself or herself. It is helpful to conceptualize the idealizing narcissist as an infant who draws strength from the omnipotence of the caregiver. Thus, in the idealizing transference the therapist symbolizes omnipotence and this in turn makes the narcissist feel secure. The idealization of the object can become so important to the narcissist that in many cases he or she will choose to fault himself or herself, rather than blame the therapist (Manfield, 1992).

The idealizing transference is a more mature form of transference than the mirror transference because idealization requires a certain amount of internal structure (i. e. , separateness from the therapist). Oftentimes, the narcissist will first develop a mirror transference, and only when his or her internal structure is sufficiently strong will the idealizing transference develop (Manfield, 1992). Utilizing the Transference Relationship in Therapy The selfobject transference relationships provide a stabilizing effect for the narcissist.

The supportive therapist thus allows the narcissist to heal his or her current low self esteem and reinstate the damaged grandiosity. However, healing the current narcissistic injury does not address the underlying initial injury and in particular the issue of the false self. To address these issues the therapist must skillfully take advantage of the situations when the narcissist becomes uncharacteristically emotional; that is when the narcissist feels injured. It thus becomes crucial that within the context of the transference relationship, the therapist shift the narcissists focus towards his or her inner feelings (Manfield, 1992).

The prevailing opinion amongst Psychodynamic theorists is that the best way to address the narcissists present experience, is to utilize a hands-off type of approach. This can be accomplished by letting the narcissist take control of the sessions, processing the narcissists injuries as they inevitably occur during the course of treatment. When a mirror transference develops injuries will occur when the therapist improperly understands and/or reflects the narcissists experiences.

Similarly, when an idealizing transference is formed injuries will take the form of some disappointment with the therapist which then interferes with the narcissists idealization of the therapist. In either case, the narcissist is trying to cover up the injury so that the therapist will not notice it. It remains up to the therapist to recognize the particular defense mechanisms that the narcissist will use to defend against the pain of the injury, and work backwards from there to discover the cause of the injury (Manfield, 1992).

Once the cause of the injury is discovered the therapist must carefully explore the issue with the narcissist, such that the patient does not feel threatened. The following case provides a good example of the patience and skill that the therapist must possess in dealing with a narcissistic patient. “… a female patient in her mid-thirties came into a session feeling elated about having gotten a new job. All she could talk about is how perfect this job was; there was no hint of introspection or of any dysphoric affect.

The therapist could find no opening and made no intervention the entire session except to acknowledge the patients obvious excitement about her new job. Then, as the patient was leaving, the therapist noticed that she had left her eyeglasses on the table. He said, “you forgot your glasses,” to which she responded with an expression of surprise and embarrassment saying, “Oh, how clumsy of me. ” This response presented the therapist with a slight seem in the grandiose armor and offered the opportunity for him to intervene.

He commented, “You are so excited about the things that are happening to you that this is all you have been able to think about; in the process you seem to have forgotten a part of yourself. ” The patient smiled with a mixture of amusement and recognition. In this example the patient is defending throughout the session and in a moment of surprise she is embarrassed and labels herself “clumsy”, giving the therapist the opportunity to interpret the defense (her focus on the excitement of the external world) and how it takes her away from herself” (Manfield, 1992; PP. 8-169).

The cure of the narcissist than does not come from the selfobject transference relationships per se. Rather, the selfobject transference function of the therapist is curative only to the extent that it provides an external source of support which enables the narcissist to maintain his or her internal cohesion. For the narcissist to be cured, it is necessary for him or her to create their own structure (the true self). The healing process is thus lengthy, and occurs in small increments whenever the structure supplied by the therapist is inadvertently interrupted.

In this context it is useful to recall Kohuts concept of optimal frustration. “If the interruptions to the therapists selfobject function are not so severe as to overwhelm the patients deficient internal structure, they function as optimal frustrations, and lead to the patients development of his own internal structure to make up for the interrupted selfobject function” (Manfield, 1992; P. 167). The Jungian (Analytical) Perspective of Narcissism Analytical psychology views narcissism as a disorder of Self-estrangement, which arises out of inadequate maternal care.

However, prior to tackling narcissism it is useful to grasp the essence of analytical thought. The Ego and the Self in Analytical Psychology It is important to understand that the Self in analytical psychology takes on a different meaning than in psychodynamic thought (Self is thus capitalized in analytical writings to distinguish it from the psychodynamic concept of the self). In psychodynamic theory the self is always ego oriented, that is the self is taken to be a content of the ego. By contrast, in analytical psychology the Self is the totality of the psyche, it is the archetype of wholeness and the regulating center of personality.

Moreover, the Self is also the image of God in the psyche, and as such it is experienced as a transpersonal power which transcends the ego. The Self therefore exists before the ego, and the ego subsequently emerges from the Self (Monte, 1991). Within the Self we perceive our collective unconscious, which is made up of primordial images, that have been common to all members of the human race from the beginning of life. These primordial images are termed archetypes, and play a significant role in the shaping of the ego.

Therefore, “When the ego looks into the mirror of the Self, what it sees is always unrealistic because it sees its archetypal image which can never be fit into the ego” (Schwartz-Salant, 1982; P. 19). Narcissism as an Expression of Self-Estrangement In the case of the narcissist, it is the shattering of the archetypal image of the mother which leads to the narcissistic manifestation. The primordial image of the mother symbolizes paradise, to the extent that the environment of the child is perfectly designed to meet his or her needs.

No mother, however, can realistically fulfill the childs archetypal expectations. Nevertheless, so long as the mother reasonably fulfills the childs needs he or she will develop normally. It is only when the mother fails to be a good enough mother, that the narcissistic condition will occur (Asper, 1993). When the mother-child relationship is damaged the childs ego does not develop in an optimal way. Rather than form a secure ego-Self axis bond, the childs ego experiences estrangement from the Self.

This Self-estrangement negatively affects the childs ego, and thus the narcissist is said to have a negativized ego. The negativized ego than proceeds to compensate for the Self-estrangement by suppressing the personal needs which are inherent in the Self; thus “the negativized ego of the narcissistically disturbed person is characterized by strong defense mechanisms and ego rigidity. A person with this disturbance has distanced himself from the painful emotions of negative experiences and has become egoistic, egocentric, and narcissistic” (Asper, 1993; P. ). Analytical Treatment of Narcissism Since the narcissistic condition is a manifestation of Self-estrangement, the analytical therapist attempts to heal the rupture in the ego-Self axis bond, which was created by the lack of good enough mothering. To heal this rupture the therapist must convey to the narcissist through emphatic means that others do care about him or her; that is the therapist must repair the archetype of the good mother through a maternally caring approach (Asper, 1993).

A maternal approach involves being attentive to the narcissists needs. Just as a mother can intuitively sense her babys needs so must the therapist feel and observe what is not verbally expressed by the narcissist. Such a maternal approach allows the narcissist to experience more sympathy towards his or her true feelings and thus gradually the need to withdraw into the narcissistic defense disappears (Asper, 1993).

The Existential Perspective of Narcissism Existentialists perceive narcissism to be a byproduct of an alienating society. It is difficult for the individual to truly be himself or herself because society offers many rewards for the individual who conforms to its rules. Such an individual becomes alienated because he or she feels that societys rituals and demands grant him or her little significance and options in the control of his or her own destiny.

To compensate such an individual takes pleasure in his or her own uniqueness (grandiosity), he or she enjoys what others cannot see and control. Thus, the alienated person “sees himself as a puppet cued by social circumstances which exact ritualized performances from him. His irritation about the inevitability of this is counterbalanced by one major consolation. This consists of his narcissistic affection for his own machinery-that is, his own processes and parts” (Johnson, 1977; P. 141).

The Case For The Polygraph

Homo Sapiens have yearned for a reliable and consistently correct way of finding out if one is telling the truth since ancient times. Early societies used torture. Statements made by a person on the rack were considered especially believable. (Jussim, pg. 65) There was also trial by ordeal, which was based on superstition. For instance, if there were two suspects for one crime, it was thought that the innocent would be stronger in combat and thus vanquish a guilty opponent. This example shows how it was done long ago. The ancient Hindus made suspects chew rice and spit it into a leaf from a sacred tree.

If they couldnt spit, they ere ruled guilty. Although this procedure long predated the modern lie detector, it was based-knowingly or not- on assumptions about psychological stress much like those that support polygraph examinations today. The ancient test depended on the fact that fear makes the mouth dry, so rice would stick in a guilty persons mouth. For the procedure to work, the subject had to believe in its accuracy and, if guilty, had to be anxious about being caught in a lie. (Ansley, pg. 42) The modern polygraph is said to measure the subjects internal blushes in much the same way.

It does not really detect lies-only physiological responses. The theory behind the polygraph is that lying always heightens these responses. When taking the test, subjects are hooked up to a briefcase-sized machine by means of several attachments. usually, a pneumatic tube goes around the chest to measure respiration, a cuff squeezes one bicep to monitor blood pressure, and electrodes are attached to two fingertips to determine the skins resistance to electrical current (which is related to how much the subject is sweating).

An examiner, or polygrapher, quizzes the subject. As the subject answers the questions, the machine draws squiggles on a chart representing physiological esponses, which are supposed to clue the examiner in to the subjects lying, or truthful, ways. Just as the ancient Hindu was betrayed by a dry mouth the modern polygraph subject is said to indicate that he or she is lying by breathing harder or having a racing pulse. (In arriving at a conclusion about a persons deceptiveness, some polygraphers also use their own subjective observations of the persons behavior.

The test will not work, though, if the subject does not believe in the procedure. If the subject doesnt not think the machine can tell the examiner anything, then he or she ont be anxious and wont show the heightened responses that the machine is designed to record. Because of this, the examiner will often use deceptive tricks to impress the subject with the polygraphs alleged accuracy. Modern polygraphy got its start in Chicago in the 1930s, where it was used in criminal justice investigations.

Now it has a wide range of other applications, including screening job applicants and employees, conducting intelligence investigations in federal security departments like the Central Intelligence Agency, and trying to uncover the source of unauthorized disclosures to the press of government documents or information. The strategies used by polygraphers vary from one application of the machine to another. in pre-employment screens, subjects are typically asked a series of about twenty questions. Irrelevant questions like Is your name Fred? serve to put the subject at ease.

Typical relevant questions are: have you ever been convicted of a crime? Stolen from a previous employer? is all the information on your employment application correct? Do you take illegal drugs? This series is repeated, and if physiological responses to particular relevant questions are constantly and significantly higher than responses to thers, the subject is reported as deceptive. Investigations into specific incidents are more complicated. Tin these, relevant questions concern only the alleged wrong doing-for instance, Did you steal the missing $400?

To determine truthfulness, polygraph responses to these questions are compared with responses to other questions- called control questions-that are provocative but do not relate to the incident. The use of polygraphs in the work place greatly increased over the last fifteen years, and now over two million of them are given annually in the United States. Seventy-five percent of them are administered to job applicants. Other tests are given periodically or randomly to employees or as part of an investigation in the wake of a theft or act of sabotage.

Although subjects technically submit to testing voluntarily – generally signing a release saying they are willing to undergo such an examination- they actually have few options. Applicants who refuse a screen are not likely to be hired, and even long-time employees who refuse risk being fired or having their decision held against them in some way. According to the American Polygraph Association (APA), an industry group that romotes lie-detector use, one-fifth off all major U. S. businesses use the machine in some capacity.

The test is most commonly used by firms in which low-level employees handle large sums of cash, such as bans and department stores. But all kinds of concerns have tested their employees- from meat-packing companies to hospitals. Though some companies have in-house polygraph operations, most hire a security firm to do the lie detection for the. Generally, companies using lie detectors make submission to testing a condition of employment. Polygraphs are also sometimes used on state and federal government employees.

The Department of Defense (DOD) uses the polygraph more than any other federal agency except the CIA and the National Security Agency (NSA). The DOD gave 25,000 tests in 1985. The department uses polygraphs for criminal and counterintelligence investigations and to screen people being considered for access to classifies information. The CIA and NSA, which together have about 100,000 employees, screen all job applicants with the machine and also use it in investigations as well as in random checks on employees. No one refusing a pre-employment polygraph will be hired by the CIA or NSA.

In 1979, three-quarters or more of the applicants turned down for CIA jobs were rejected because of their polygraph results. Sometimes the federal government also uses lie detectors to track down the source of unauthorized disclosures, or leaks, to the press. The U. S. Postal Service uses the polygraph more than any other agency not involved in national security. The primary use here is in investigations of mail theft. The Office of Personnel Management strictly regulates pre-employment polygraph programs for many federal agencies. Its rules require that any agency doing screening ave a mission approaching the sensitivity of that of the CIA.

The questions asked in the course of the exam must be narrow, and the agency involved must monitor procedures to prevent abuses or unwarranted invasions of privacy. The rules also require employers to tell the subjects that they have a privilege against self-incrimination and a fight to consult a lawyer before the test, and, in addition, that refusal to submit to a lie detector will not be recorded in employment files. The Defense Department has similar regulations governing polygraph use. Defense employees can refuse lie detectors used in investigations of criminal activities or nauthorized disclosures without suffering adverse consequences.

The Case For The Polygraph In 1976, a southern California commercial bakery was in a bad fix. The retailers who bought its bread were finding pieces of glass and wire in the product, and they were furious. Company officials suspected sabotage. Desperate, they hired Intercept, a Hollywood company specializing in lie detection. Twenty-four hours after two polygraphers arrived, the bakery was back to normal. In the course on an examination, a long-time employee owned up: Angered at being passed over for a promotion, he had done the vengeful deed. Lykken, pg. 2)

In 1978, a gas station in Salt Lake City, Utah, called in Polygraph Screening Service to examine its workers. Two hundred and ninety two dollars in cash had just been discovered missing, and the company had lost another $700 in cash and goods over the preceding month. During a pretest interview-the interview that examiners often give just prior to hookup with the polygraph- a worker confessed to charging customers for gas and then keeping the money instead of ringing it up on the cash register. After this worker was connected to the machine, his charts indicated strong response to queries egarding the missing $290.

He subsequently admitted that he had absentmindedly left the key in the cashbox during a trip to the bathroom. When he next checked the box, the money was gone. These examples, taken from the book A Tremor in the Bloo….. d: Uses and Abuses of the Lie Detector, by professor David Lykken, show the effectiveness and efficiency of the polygraph in solving some problems for employers. Employers are particularly concerned about theft, and some believe the lie detector is the answer. In a study by the U. S. Department of Justice of employees in electronics factories, hospitals, and retail stores, 0% said they stole from the company.

Generally, losses due o theft are passed on in higher prices to customers. Some business groups say employee theft raises the price of consumer goods by as much as 15%. One-third of all business failures are caused by employee theft. The APA argues, The best way to stop employee theft is simply not hire those employees inclined to steal. The best way is also impossible. What the employer must do is set up a screening process that will weed out the obvious security risks. Many experts believe that personnel screening is the most vital safeguard against internal theft.

APA, pg. 21) After passing polygraph screens as applicants, employees can then be polygraphed periodically -say, one every six months- or at random. If a theft occurs nonetheless, the polygraph is a useful tool. not only can it be helpful in tracking down the culprit, it can clear an innocent employee who was incorrectly suspected. The APA says that the majority of companies that adopt the lie detector cut internal theft by over 10%. Further, they get a better idea of whether or not an applicant is honest than they would from traditional means, such as checking references.

Polygraph upporters claim some great success stories: the case of Willoughby Peerless, a large East Coast camera store chain, for instance. Its Philadelphia store, suffering from inventory losses of about 14%, adopted the polygraph. The losses then decreased to 1%. And a representative of the National Association of Convenience Stores testified at a congressional hearing that inventory theft from its 525 member companies could be reduced by half with the help of the lie detector. The APA claims an accuracy rate for polygraphs of between 85 and 90 percent. (Jussim, pg. 1)

Though the procedure is not infallible, its proponents say it is the most ccurate way to get at the truth. Far more accurate than relying on someones unsupported subjective judgment. True, a victim of an inaccurate test may not be hired for a job, but the companies basing their decisions solely on interviews and references make incorrect hiring decisions every day. Polygrapher John Reid boasted, We get better results than a priest does. The APA is opposed to firing an employee or charging a suspect with a crime solely on the basis of lie detector results. It says that most employers wont dismiss workers without some additional evidence.

Identifying Problematic Stress With In Service Oriented Businesses

Work can cause stress and also be affected by it. Stress causes many problems for American businesses today. One of the major sources of stress in a person’s life can be his or her job. Deadlines, problems with coworkers, boss trouble, and long hours can all contribute to feelings of being overwhelmed and helpless. Fortunately, there are ways to combat the stress that the workplace can bring. Often, researchers define stress as the psychological and physiological conditions that a person experiences when they perceive a situation as threatening, harmful, or demanding.

This means that whenever we experience a change in our environment, we may experience stress. Whether we do or not depends on how we perceive the event. So what is stressful for one person might not be for another. Many factors influence how you interpret events including. At a personal level, work stressors are related to depression, anxiety, general mental distress symptoms, heart disease, ulcers, and chronic pain (Sauter, Hurrell, & Cooper, 1989).

Employees who are unable to exert control over their lives at work are more likely to experience work stress and are therefore more likely to have impaired health (see Sutton & Kahn, 1984) In general, job control is the ability to exert influence over one’s environment so that the environment becomes more rewarding and less threatening. Stress can come from many different sources. Stress from your personal life can also compound problems in the workplace. Thus, further research must address problematic stress with-in service oriented businesses in order to promote a productive, less aggravated, sounder, medium in the work place.

In the work place, service oriented jobs can be an extreme workload, not only in terms of number of hours of work expected, but also in terms of the complexity of the work and frequent change in work demands, sometimes associated with rapid advances in technology. Another is ambiguity as to the worker’s rights, responsibilities, status, and goals; with such role ambiguity, the worker may experience a sense of loss control and autonomy on the job. Insufficient resources to accomplish the job and administrative indifference or interference also create stress.

The increased specialization of many jobs results in fragmentation of work. The worker is involved with only one small segment of producing the total product or providing services to the customer, a loss of sense of accomplishment and autonomy may result. Thus, the purpose of this proposal is to identify stressful situations and issues that influence performance in the work place the results of the analysis will be used to enhance understanding of service oriented work stress issues as well as proactive and remedial solutions for aimed at this problem.

Therefore, the study will have practical implications for training in identifying stressful situations and issues that influence performance in the work place. In addition, it will increase our theoretical understanding of the performance reducing stress agents that take place in the service-oriented businesses. Job stress has been recognized as a major cause of health problems at work (Karasek & Theorell, 1990). A work-related problem of increasing concern is known as “burnout”. The topic began to gain attention in the mid-1970s with a book by Freudenberger (1974).

Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary defines stress as “the result produced when a structure, system or organism is acted upon by forces that disrupt equilibrium or produce strain”. In simpler terms, stress is the result of any emotional, physical, social, economic, or other factors that require a response or change. It is generally believed that some stress is okay (sometimes referred to as “challenge”or “positive stress”) but when stress occurs in amounts that you cannot handle, both mental and physical changes may occur.

Stress among employees within a service based business environment has been a study of interest since the early 1960s, researchers have been examining the psychosocial and physical demands of the work environment that trigger stress. Research has identified many organizational factors contributing to increased stress levels: (a) job insecurity; (b) shift work; (c) long work hours; (d) role conflict; (e) physical hazard exposures; and (f) interpersonal conflicts with coworkers or supervisors. Stress in the workplace can have many origins or come from one single event.

It can impact on both employees and employers alike (Canadian Mental Health Association, 1995). The New York-based American Institute of Stress reports that as many as 75 to 90 percent of visits to physicians are related to stress. (Paul J. Rosch, M. D. , F. A. C. P. President, The American Institute of Stress). 43% of all adults suffer adverse health effects due to stress. Stress has been linked to all the leading causes of death, including heart disease, cancer, lung ailments, accidents, cirrhosis, and suicide.

An estimated 1 million workers are absent on an average workday because of stress related complaints. Stress is said to be responsible for more than half of the 550,000,000 workdays lost annually because of absenteeism. (The American Institute of Stress) One context that merits additional attention to the area of identifying stressful situations and issues that influence performance in the work place was the statement from the Xerox Corporation estimates that it costs approximately $1-$1. illion to replace a top executive, and average employee turnover costs between $2,000 – $13,000 per individual. (Paul J. Rosch, M. D. , F. A. C. P. President, The American Institute of Stress).

Problematic stress within the work place is a significant issue that needs extreme attention. The research objective include identifying problematic stress issues with in a service oriented business work environment, as well as solutions for to relive stressful situations.

For example, one problematic stress issue discovered in the service oriented business involved New York, Urban bus drivers endure so much job stress that they suffer from more health risks and medical disabilities than peers in comparable jobs (Cornell University News 2000). The psychosocial stressors included relentless time pressures to be punctual, which were frustrated by the need to drive safely and provide accurate and courteous information to passengers. In addition, bus drivers felt stressed by the risk of physical assault and problems of unruly passengers.

One way organizations addressed this issue was by reducing traffic congestion, driving impediments and time pressures by regulating that private vehicles give way to buses, broadening roads in problem areas, changing routes to prevent sharp turns and “bottlenecks,” extending separate bus lanes, reducing number of bus stops, automating some traffic lights to turn green with oncoming busses, and improving routes. In addition, the researchers reduced passenger questions by implementing an automated passenger information system. Drivers who participated in the project reported reduced stress on the job and lighter workloads.

The researchers found these drivers used significantly fewer drugs to cope with job stress, showed significantly fewer psychosomatic symptoms, and had lower blood pressure and heart rates than before the intervention. Thus, this proposed study will extend our understanding of work related stress in a service-oriented business between employees and managerial personal, through examinations of actual experiences. Inductive analysis and interpretation of the results will be used to construct a theoretical model of work-oriented stress, identifying both problematic issues and strategies for reducing stress within the work place.

In accomplishment, this objective will provide heuristic value for further elaboration of Identifying problematic stress with in service-oriented businesses. The purpose of this study is to Identify problematic stress with in service-oriented businesses. Data collected will rely on interviews with employees and managers in service oriented businesses with in the Stockton area. Access to participants will be facilitated by personal referrals. An extensive list of local organizations, which may be interested in participating in this study, has been compiled based on the researcher’s personal and professional affiliations.

Interviews will begin with an ethics statement, which informs the participant of the purpose of the study, assures them that their participation is voluntary, and provides them with a guarantee of individual and organizational anonymity. The interview will then process with open ended questions designed to ascertain the participants experience and background, as well as their specific role responsibilities and details of their service oriented job experiences.

Interview participants will provide descriptions of recalled problems that result to stress. These will include a description of what actually occurred, with a comparison of what they thought should have occurred. Towards the end of the interview, the researcher will reiterate key points of the problematic communication situations and ask the participant for the kind of advice they would offer for dealing with these issues in service oriented jobs.

The One Truth of Reality

The one single truth of reality is not measured or distinguished — it is the ultimate paradox. The journey by which one achieves this truth can be a journey of increasing realizations of paradoxes, and finally, freedom from the bubble of limitation of a mind that would perceive such paradoxes as paradoxes in the first place. Truth is the same as spiritual feeling. Of spiritual perception. Of clear perception. Of freedom of the mind. Freedom of the soul. Freedom of the Heart. It is ultimate love and empathy. The end of struggle. Fully knowing the truth is to be enlightened.

Fully realizing the truth is having transcended the distortions of the Machine (see The Machine at my web site given below). Truth means complete fulfillment and true happiness. Truth is impossible to change or destroy — doing so contradicts the very nature of a single truth from which all things seen through distorted perception stem. Finding truth (and thus everything that it is) is the ultimate subconscious goal of all struggling. The search for truth, the want of truth, paradoxically, most often leads to illusion and darkness and pain. This is the case for the general spiritual state of umanity in the late Twentieth Century.

In this way, truth, freedom, love, clear perception, purity, transcendence, and enlightenment are all the very same thing. During the journey, one will no doubt see many facets of truth and see them as separate, distinguished, or part of a duality; but in time, one will see how they all link up and ultimately, how everything is a part of the same thing, and how perceiving everything in terms of truth is transcendence of distinguishment and knowing the truth; and in this way, being enlightened, free, and fulfilled — attaining the ultimate happiness.

Transcendent of the Measurable What is perceived tangibly through the primary five senses (sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell) contradicts the nature of truth which is actually transcendent of all distinguishments in the “more tangible” environment. When a person focuses on what he (or she) sees and reacts to it and especially seeks to control his environment, he lives in a dualistic (or polyistic) state wherein lives his struggle to find non-struggle and peace and fulfillment. The illusion is what is sensed through these five senses and having perceived this as something different from something else.

Thus, simply, the illusion is distinguishment — such things as evil and good, cold and hot, white and black. When these things are reacted to and conformed to by behavior in some way, it indicates a mind in a limited bubble, bound by the illusion of duality — and in this way, not privy to ultimate truth; and in this way, not free, subconsciously lonely, and in the dark — all, obviously, to varying degrees with each person, depending on how much, for whatever reason, he focuses on his duality and reacts to it.

In what I refer to as the “Mindscape”, where what is inherently consciousness is ree of the struggles of the illusion of a distinct self and self-protection and fulfillment, there is the plane that is transcendent of perception based in the “tangible” or more “physical”. This place is like an infinite blue sky that is as infinitely large as it is small. In perception of this is a place where consciousness dwells, a place beyond time, beyond space; thus there is no time, and no space.

All reality is held in a expanse of nothingness wherein everything within it touches everything else. Total knowledge is here — it is the realization of one truth, it is what to more muddled perceptions might be eferred to as omnipotence, enlightenment; and when perceived is perceived means to communicate telepathically, to know clairvoyantly and prophetically, and to control and manipulate the various tangible (physical) and non-tangible “distinguishments” that are the reality on the “! ower” planes.

To a perceiver focused on the distinguishments, and on the illusions of time and space, such phenomena of the mind appear miraculous; but they are only the result of some “total spiritual”, and mentally-free perception in an individual. (These things can be manifested in limited ways by a person who does not embody totally clear erception, but has some sense into it, intuitively, in some way or another, through perception of his own feelings.

Because every person is a “distinguishment” coming from the upper planes, including the Mindscape, because all minds are inherently from it, a part of it, and actually — it, then every person has the perception of this through feeling and being, through the very subtle feeling in the life of one’s cells that the mind can perceive and be one with and react to as a spider may sense to the tugging on his web; and in this case, the strands of the web — strands that ave no length, and do not come and go in time — are the spiritual-essence and interconnectedness that runs through all people and all things, thus providing to the subtle perceiver information concerning all things and all happenings, and a connection with all this, in the same substance.

Spiritual Influence Because the mind or consciousness is inherently the essence of the Mindscape, and because what it is in the lesser planes are the products of the upper planes, the mind essentially ultimately has “control” and influence over the lower planes. This “power” only comes through total self-awareness, the freedom of the ind from the struggles of the body and the confusion of symbolic darkness in the psyche, or what can been referred to as an “enlightened” state — a state of pure spiritual fulfillment and freedom (a state of being in harmony with and as perceived by the mind). In this way, people have control of and react to in powerful, deeply- subconscious (spiritual) ways the things in their environment. In this way, everything around a person is actually an extension, and expression, or is perceived as what it is by his mind.

The complex structure and struggle surrounding his non-enlightened state makes itself evident in the environment nd these things can be interpreted symbolically, or interpreted as expressions of a force (the spiritual essence, the upper “planes”), and thus the force is represented through him. There is the feeling of pain and spiritual isolation (which is isolation from truth, and thus a feeling of deep loneliness (which is actually the lack of knowledge of self), and without truth — confusion) in interaction with an environment that is an expression of people who struggle against their inherently watery and unresisting spiritual nature and without insight, create a world that is discouraging to spiritual freedom and encouraging of more tangible, leeting, and unstable fulfillment that is a result of confusion (darkness).

In spiritual freedom, which is truth, which is empathy, involvement in this environment can be painful this way in the sensing of the tumultuous and unenlightened state of others. It is painful because in the fact of what we each truly are (the same as beauty), without this fact, without the beauty, honesty, and freedom of this truth, there is the focus on the comparatively trivial, and in fear and lack of insight, there is the discouragement! of truth that would “destroy” illusions through which focus on the trivial and tangible exists. A subtle person can view symbolically all the things around another person, and, knowing it is an ultimate expression of the mind, can have insight into the other.

But this knowledge is just supplemental knowledge to the very direct and subtle perception that is spiritual “information” regarding another person, and which can come in the form of a sensing of one’s own deep feeling regarding the environment. In this way, all truth about the external is not viewed through the primary senses, but is felt through the holistic spiritual sense, and thus is perceived clearly from the symbolic “inside” of a person. Thus, the journey for enlightenment and awareness of all things is a journey into one’s own feelings, and in this, a journey to clear one’s perceptions from the distortions and subjectivism that may be applied in viewing something too “mentally” or on the assumption that knowledge about something comes from the outside of one, and thus the erroneous assumption that it ! come s from something separate from oneself.

The Symbolism of Light As is discussed in The Key to Self-Actualization (visit my web site given below), perceiving one’s own feelings is the nature of spiritual insight, since any erson and anything can be called essentially spiritual — as its fundamental nature is transcendent of the illusions of 4-dimensional reality, and thus transcendent of “normal” or tangibly-perceived reality. The conscious mind may identify and visualize such feelings in terms of symbols (whereas deeply subconsciously (spiritually) things are even less distinctive and more unified). Symbols have deep meaning because they are not static messages, but the embodiment of meaning that may as yet be beyond the perception (understanding) of the individual.

Thus symbols hold some aspect of truth, whether it is erceived or identified or not. Since truth is the equivalent of freedom and fulfillment, and we all seek truth on our deepest level, there can be the illusion of truth, or the illusion of guidance to truth. It can be said that we all seek light, because we all seek truth, so there can be roads to false fulfillment and false spiritual enlightenment by following a light that does not lead to the ultimate light, or the ultimate truth. One of these symbols is the Moon — the indirect light of the sun which has the illusion of being a source of light by itself, and which hangs in a cloak of arkness (the nighttime sky).

Seeking fulfillment through physical comfort, physical satiation, mollification in the struggle of pain and pleasure, the appeasement of the tangible (illusionary) senses, or a false end to confusion (symbolically, a wall, or a barrier — which will serve to block out not only the seemingly endless darkness of night, but the light that may penetrate it as well), means following the feeling or the motivation that is symbolized by moonlight. Developing a dependence (or a structure of perception and habit) on moonlight, then, is transitory and ultimately painful since it is a kind of alse source of light — as it is only an indirect expression of the real source of light.

There is another false light, but more subtly so, that comes in the from of yellow light … his is the illusionary color of sunlight as often seen from an observer on earth partially filtered through the atmosphere. Symbolically, this is warm and comfortable, it is the source of thriving life, and it is symbolic of the well-lit world, thus the world with a greater sense of truth than that of the moonlight. But it, too, is a false light … for the feelings that are appeased through sunlight are still dependent on perceiving the world in terms f distinctions. It is loving life and being afraid of death. It is loving warmth and being afraid of cold. It is loving sunny skies and being uncomfortable under inevitable clouds and rain. And many other things.

To end the struggle for what a person seems to want, as opposed to what he seeks in his deepest level (and thus is the true source for all his more conscious seeking), a person must transcend moonlight and sunlight and find the real light — the white light. This is a feeling of transcendence of the struggle against the environment (a feeling of pure freedom, and pure truth) and other things hich seem separate, but are the same, as partially listed above. White light is, tangibly, all visual light without filter or the repression of any part of the light. It is pure light. All the different colors are then illusions of real light, as they come from but do not embody the white light.

Moonlight, sunlight, the gray from clouds, the silver of rain — they all come from the white light, but they are only part of the picture. This is also profoundly symbolic of the true nature of enlightenment and total awareness that is free of the distinctions between things and aware of their ultimate source in the ranscendent planes, including the Mindscape. The Journey The journey is the process of the growth of awareness and insight into ultimate truth. Eventually, this means awareness beyond simple intellectual facts, but an awareness of one’s truest self, and thus an awareness into the truest nature of everything. Mentally, this can be perceived, just as feelings can be perceived.

To feel free of the struggle of pain and pleasure is to feel the currents of the one’s entire being, and in this know oneself; and in this, know the truth; and in this, be truly free; and given an end to the quest for self there is an end o the deepest loneliness (which ultimately is confusion regarding oneself) and the greatest sense of fulfillment. The goal, then, should be to find and submit oneself completely to, like water, the feelings that may be perceived (visualized or seen) by the mind as white light. This is a journey through the maze of walls that are a result of the struggling of the psyche in the midst of the darkness and confusion. The easiest way to find the way out of a maze is to rise above (transcend) it and, seeing the light of the universe beyond, find a path leading to the exit.

Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis is a system of psychology originated by the Viennese physician Sigmund Freud in the 1890’s and then further developed by himself, his students, and other followers. It consists of activities such as using methods for research into the human mind, a systematic knowledge about the mind, and a method for the treatment of psychological or emotional disorders. Psychoanalysis began with the discovery of “hysteria,” an illness with physical symptoms that occurred in a completely healthy physical body, such as a numbness or paralysis of a limb, loss of voice, or blindness.

This state could be caused by unconscious wishes or forgotten memories. Many women of the 1800s were diagnosed with hysteria, given the disorder was thought to be primarily female. Freud began telling his patients, through interpretations, what was going on inside the unconscious part of their minds, thus helping the unconscious become conscious. Many cases of hysteria were cured this way, and in 1895, Freud, along with another fellow physician, published their findings and theories on the study of hysteria.

In The White Hotel by D. M. Thomas, the character Lisa does not exhibit the above form of hysteria, but rather a manifestation of reality. Her own reality has become too imprisoned, and she escapes it by creating another Lisa that is nothing like her person. The traditional psychoanalytical theory states that all human beings are born with instinctual drives that are constantly active even though a person is not usually conscious of them. Two drives, one for sexual pleasure and the other called aggression, motivate and propel most behaviors in people.

Lisa creates a very intense sexual drive for her fictive person. Readers may speculate that this creation may have been brought about by experiences beginning at birth. In the infant, the libido supposedly first manifests itself by making the act of sucking the thumb an activity with pleasurable sensations in the mouth. Later, according to Freud, similar pleasures are experienced in the anus during bowel movements, and finally these erotically tinged pleasures are experienced when the sexual organ is manipulated.

Thus psychosexual development progresses from the oral through the anal to the phallic stage. During the height of the phallic phase (about ages three to six), Freud notes that these drives focus on the parent of the opposite sex such as in the relations between mother and son or between father and daughter. These drives are known as the so-called Oedipus and Electra complexes. These complexes may also spread to other relationships, such as Lisas viewing of the love affair between her mother and uncle.

However, most societies strongly disapprove of the sexual interests of children, and Lisa never spoke of what she saw to anyone but Freud. She also, in the event of her mothers death, fell subject to a withdrawn father who did not meet her needs for affection and attention as a growing child. This may have helped lead to her repressed sexual “rage. ” Also, taboo on incest rules almost universally. Parents, therefore, influence children to push pleasurable sensations and thoughts out of their conscious minds into the unconscious by a process called repression.

Repression is what Lisa learned most about in her childhood. In this way the mind comes to consist of three parts known as the ego, id, and superego. The ego is mostly conscious and comprises all the ordinary thoughts and functions needed to direct a person in his or her daily behavior. The id is mainly unconscious and contains the instincts and everything that was repressed into it. And finally, the superego is the conscious state that harbors the values, ideals, and prohibitions that set the guidelines for the ego, and punishes the person through feeling of guilt.

Strong boundaries between the three parts keep the ego fairly free from disturbing thoughts and wishes in the id, ensuring effective functioning and socially acceptable behavior. During sleep the boundaries weaken, and disturbing wishes may slip into the ego from the id. This often causes us to manifest in our dreams. Freud interpreted this concept in his first major work, The Interpretation of Dreams.

Something very similar to the weakening of boundaries during sleep may happen during ordinary daytime activities when some impulses from the id manage to cross the repression barrier and cause faulty actions such as “slips” of the tongue. This may occur often if psychologically hurtful experiences during childhood have left the repression too weak, distorted the ego, or strengthened the id too much by over-stimulation. Any kind of psychic trauma may lead to the ego becoming an area of conflict between the intruding id, the threatening superego, and the powerful influences emanating from the surrounding environment.

Furthermore, the damage done to the basic psychological structures by traumatic experiences leaves those structures weakened and with defective functioning. Such outcomes can cause intense anxiety and depression. In order to keep functioning effectively, the ego attempts to maintain control by achieving some sort of compromise between the contending forces. Lisa could not separate her self from her problems, and therefor fell victim to them. Her life was not focused, but she managed to create clarity in the release of her sexual self.

Patients seek psychoanalytic treatment because they suffer from one or more psychological symptoms such as anxiety, depression, sexual inhibitions or manifestations (such as with Lisas conflict), obsessive thoughts, compulsive actions, irrational anger, shyness, phobias, low self-esteem, a sense of being unfulfilled, nervous irritability, and many more. Psychoanalysis does not promise a quick cure but holds hope that through better understanding of oneself and others, one can achieve an correction of symptoms as well as smoother and more effective socialization regarding behavior.

It has been found that many psychological problems originate from painful misunderstandings or outright failures in the child’s relationship to his or her parents. The method of treatment seems simple at first. The patient is instructed to say absolutely everything that comes to mind without censoring anything, a technique that is called free association. This brings about a state of regression in which long-forgotten events and painful encounters are remembered, often with great clarity and intense emotions.

The analyst often can trace the connection between the patient’s current fantasies and feelings about the analyst and the origin of these thoughts and emotions in childhood experiences. These conflicts and traumas, together with the accompanying fears and feelings, are then are interpreted by the analyst. If treatment is successful, the patient learns to recognize the connections between past and present. The combination of insight and the emotional re-experience during the regressed state can cause a reorganization of the psychological structures into more healthfully adaptive patterns.

From the beginnings in the late 19th century, psychoanalytic theory and practice have continued to develop into the present modern practices. Initially, Freud believed that forgotten sexual seductions of children were the cause of neurosis and that remembering the trauma and emotions was therapeutic. He later modified and elaborated his views into the theory of infantile instinctual drives as the motivating force for normal behavior and as the cause of neurosis if repressed.

Continuing research has discovered much evidence that the early relationships between children and parents, have the greatest impact on later psychological development. The influence of the care-givers, especially during infancy, leave a lasting imprint on the personality. Any experience with objects, including persons, that evoke and strengthen the self are “self-object” experiences and are needed by every human being from birth to death in order to sustain a cohesive self.

Absence of or faulty self-object experiences cause a loss of cohesion with the self. Lisas character was a prime candidate for Freuds psychoanalysis. She followed many of the stereotypical guidelines set by Freuds studies. Her reality failed her, so a more vibrant one was created in order to suppress years of secrets, neglect, and the pain from it all. Her character was eventually brought back into a state of reality, but it was too late to “save” her. The true reality that faced her was the grimace of death of her true “self” in the end.

History Of Nature And Nurture

Nature vs. nurture has been discussed by philosophers in the past and by scientists most recently. Philosophers such as Plato argued that all knowledge was inherited through your parent and when you were told something you didn’t learn it you were just reminded of it. Aristotle however argued that all humans were born with a blank slate and built on it with influence from there environment. In the 1700’s the empiricists and the internalists took over the argument. They fought through letters explaining there point of views and denouncing the others. This leads to Pavlov coming up with the idea of behaviorism in the early 1900s.

Behaviorism became the new wave of Psychology and influenced a lean towards the nurture side. It was not effectively argued against until 1928 when Watson published his book. This opened up the floodgates for environmental influences studies. Soon the idea of nurture was the popular excuse for behavior. Studies using animals were the most popular was in which scientists used to prove a theory, or disprove a theory. The newest studies use human twins to prove nature vs. nurture. An age-old question has been asked for generations before us. What is the reasons behind the development of human behavior?

There have been many theories formulated to explain why humans behave the way they do. Explanations vary from demonology to magnetic fluids controlling people’s behaviors. Over time, two theories have remained popular in academic fields such as philosophy and psychology. The surviving theories for behavior stem from physiological and sociological explanations. However, the two explanations have not always been compatible with each other. The famous nature vs. urture debate over human behavior resulted from conflicting views between proponents of the physiological (nature) and sociological (nurture) explanations.

Throughout history, research has swayed popularity back and forth between the theories. Yet, theorists have broken down the line separating nature and nurture. Today, people us both explanations in research to advance the knowledge of human behavior. Thousands of years before the field of psychology, philosophers pondered on human behavior. As early as 350 BC, such philosophers as Plato and Aristotle tried to understand behavior. The question of nature or nurture as the primary drive can be traced to these times. Plato believed behavior and knowledge was due to innate factors.

Author Fiona Cowie states, “The claim that the character of our mental furniture is to a large extent internally rather than environmentally determined found its first substantive defense in the works of Plato… ” (Cowie, 1999, p. 3). Plato theorized, and Descartes later agreed, that all knowledge is present at birth. Plato also believed that the environment played a part in human processes, but he thought it had an unique role. He elieved the environment did not teach people anything new, but its purpose was to remind people of information they already knew (Cowie, 1999).

Although Plato’s views are not supported today, he laid the groundwork for other researchers to follow. On the other hand, philosopher Aristotle theorized a different idea about human behavior. He presented the idea that humans are born into the world with a “blank slate” and people’s behavior and thoughts are due to experience (Ashcraft, 1998). His tabula rasa explanation believed that the environment and experience were the important influences in human behavior. Unlike Plato, Aristotle hypothesized that humans were not born with knowledge, but they acquire it through experience (Ashcraft, 1998).

Aristotle’s idea of the tabula rasa is not believed today. Nevertheless, his belief that the environment was a vital factor in behavior influenced many empiricists throughout history. During the late 1700s, the nature vs. nurture debate began to heat up between philosophers. Internalists (nature) and empiricists (nurture) wrote literature back and forth trying to prove their beliefs and disprove the other’s theories. Two philosophers, G. W. Leibniz and John Locke, were main representatives of their respected explanations. Leibniz promoted the internalism point of view.

Cowie states, “… Leibniz’s position on this issue is, of course, that the tabula is far from rasa: The soul inherently contains the sources of various notions and doctrines, which external objects merely rouse up… ‘ ” (Cowie, 1999, p. 7). Leibniz argued against Locke and other empiricists stated that “… there is no way ideas which come into the mind from outside can be formed into beliefs and judgments without the operation of specific internal echanisms” (Cowie, 1999, p. 17). At the same time, John Locke and his fellow philosophers campaigned for empiricism.

Like Aristotle, the philosophers believed that humans’ thoughts and actions were determined not by innate factors, but by the their unique experiences (Ashcraft, 1998). Locke argued against the internalists by examining different human processes such as logic and reasoning. He would ask how it was possible to use logic and reasoning if people were born with all of the knowledge they would ever acquire (Cowie 1999, p. 19). The contrasting views of he two groups had begun the nature vs. nurture debate, which would linger in the fields of philosophy and psychology for decades.

A point should be made that even though the interalists and empiricists felt strongly about their theories, the explanations were not entirely opposite of each other. Cowie explains, “rhetoric aside, both empiricists and nativists are both internalist and externalists about the origin of what is in our minds”(Cowie, 1999, p. 17). Even Leibniz and Locke stated that the philosophies sometimes were only different by the choices of words they used to describe heir theories. Leibniz once wrote that fundamentally their views were the same about the nature vs. nurture question (Cowie, 1999).

Over the next couple hundred years, popularity was split between nature and nurture. However, in the early 1900s Ivan Pavlov accidentally discovered what eventually became labeled as behaviorism. Behaviorists believed that the environment was the greatest factor in shaping behavior. The theory quickly gained notoriety in psychology and swayed popularity to the nurture side. One of the leaders in behavioral research was John Watson, who is most recognized for is work in conditioning “Little Albert. ” In 1928, Watson published a book that included his idea that infants were like clay.

Watson stated that he could make an infant anything he desired by manipulating the environment (Barnet, 1998). Watson wrote, “Give me a dozen healthy infants… and my own special world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one… and train him to become any type of specialist… “(Amsel, 1989, p. 24). In the 1960s, Skinner also became well known for his research in behaviorism. Most of his work dealt with behavior modification with animals (Amsel, 1989). Probably Skinner’s most famous research is when he conditioned pigeons to guide missiles (Modgil, 1987).

However, Skinner, and others in his field, began to receive scrutiny for ignoring the biology of humans. Yet, Skinner responded by saying, “The objection to inner states is not that they do not exist, but that they are not relevant in a functional analysis” (Modgil, 1987, p. 228). From the 1920s to 1950s, behaviorism and nurturism dominated psychology. The domination did not go without any challenges, and it did not last forever. As arly as 1929, behaviorism came under attack by psychologists who believed genes were the key to human behavior.

To begin, Arnold Gesell questioned the environmental view of Watson. Author Myrtle McGraw states, “Gesell contended that there was nothing one could do through training young infants to accelerate their development; one simply had to wait until the cells of the nervous system ripened'”(McGraw, 1995, p. 264). The biological research continued to build against behaviorism, and its popularity began to decrease. In 1959, the final attack that swayed popularity to the nature side of evelopment originated with Noam Chomsky and other psycholinguists.

Chomsky attacked behaviorism’s scientific empiricism, especially dealing with the acquisition of language (Amsel, 1989). Ashcraft (1998) explains, “… Chomsky argued not only that the behaviorist account of language was seriously wrong and misguided, but that behaviorism was unable in principle to provide useful scientific knowledge of language” (p. 22). In addition, research developments in physiology and new studies involving genetics, such as adoption studies, and studies on twins, popularized genetic influence over environmental.

The most resent studies that have been done on twins and adoption use both identical and faternel twins. This consists in the studying of twins that were separated at birth and grew up in separate homes. Identical twins are 100% genetically similar and offer exact genetic replicas to study, where fraternal twins are the same as any other siblings at 50% similar (Vanderbilt pg6). Some of the final results of these studies show astonishing similarities between identical twins, yet others show little evidence of these similarities.

With fraternal twins there is some similarities but none that are complete evidence of the nature theory. These studies fuel the pot for both the nature and the nurture ideas. The nature vs. nurture debate over the last forty years has reached an agreement that they both influence the development of human behavior. In the 1960s, researchers from both theories began to study the interaction of the genes and the environment (Devlin 1997). Dr. Ann Barnet explains, “Even in an unborn baby, genes and environment interact almost from the moment of conception”(Barnet, 1998, p. ).

The interaction between nature and nurture can be summed up by the statements of Dr. Fausto-Sterling and Dr. Evan Balaban. Fausto-Sterling states, “People want simple explanations for hard-core problems. If there was an antitestosterone drug that we could to inject to make young boys nice… it would be easier and cheaper than transforming schools… or whatever is at the heart of the problem” (Barnet, 1998). However, Balaban replies, “… don’t hold your breath if you think looking for genes to help you understand violence.

I would put my money on some clever environmental manipulations, because in the end you’re going there anyway” (Barnet, 1998, p. 206). The nature vs. nurture debate has produced many research advances in the area of human development. Even though evidence proves that there is an interaction between genes and the environment, people will continue to study the effects of each in development. In these future studies, more groundbreaking advances will be made to aid humans in better understanding human behavior. In the end, that is what both sides of the nature vs. nurture debate intended to accomplish.

What Is Inborn And What Is Learned

The discussion as to whether nature or nurture were the driving force shaping our cognitive abilities, was for a long time considered interminable. In the 18th century, Locke and the English empiricists claimed that individuals were born with a tabula rasa and only experience could establish mind, consciousness and the self. On the continent, Leibniz envisaged the self as a monad carrying with it some knowledge of a basic understanding of the world. Until the 1960s, this dispute was still very vivid in the behavioral sciences: B.

F. Skinner’s school of behaviorism in the USA postulated (as reflexology did earlier) general rules for all types of learning, neglecting innate differences or predispositions. K. Lorenz was one of the protagonists of ethology in Europe, focusing on the inherited aspects of behavior. It was Lorenz who ended the antagonistic view of behavior in showing that there indeed are innate differences and predispositions in behavior where only little learning occurs.

Today, it is largely agreed upon that nature and nurture are intimately cooperating to bring about adaptive behaviors. Probably only in very few cases ontogenetic programs are not subjected to behavioral plasticity at all. Conversely, the possibility to acquire behavioral traits has to be genetically coded for. Today, realising that genes and environment cooperate and interact synergistically, traditional dichotomy of nature vs. nurture is commonly seen as a false dichotomy.

Especially operant conditioning, i. e. e learning of the consequences of one’s own behavior can lead to positive feedback loops between genetic predispositions and behavioral consequences that render the question as to cause and effect nonsensical. Positive feedback has the inherent tendency to exponentially amplify any initial small differences. For example, an at birth negligible difference between two brothers in a gene affecting IQ to a small percentage, may lead to one discovering a book the will spark his interest in reading, while the other never gets to see that book.

One becomes an avid reader who loves intellectual challenges while the other never finds a real interest in books, but hangs out with his friends more often. Eventually, the reading brother may end up with highly different IQ scores in standardized tests, simply because the book loving brother has had more opportunities to train his brain. Had both brother received identical environmental input, their IQ scores would hardly differ.

Judging from just one IQ-test and a genetic analysis, one would come to the conclusion, that the effect of this one little genetic difference created that big difference in IQ-scores. However, knowing the background and history of the two brothers, it is obvious that only the interaction between the genetic difference and the environent created that difference. In theory, one way of quantifying environmental and genetic influences would be to calculate the genetic differences in % basepairs and compare it to the phenotypic difference. However, the question of scale seems amost insolvable.

Differences Between Counseling and Psychotherapy

This paper will attempt to prove that there are several differences between counseling and psychotherapy. While counseling and psychotherapy have several different elements in each, the following information will also attempt to show the reader that there are some areas where the two overlap. At times this was a confusing topic to research. A fine line distinguishes the two topics and one must look hard to see this line.

Definition of Counseling One survey taken by Gustad suggests a definition of counseling where he Counseling is a learning-oriented process, carried on in a simple, one to one social environment, in which a counselor, rofessionally competent in relevant psychological skills and knowledge, seeks to assist the client by methods appropriate to the latter’s needs and within the context of the total personnel program, to learn more about himself, to learn how to put such understanding into effect in relation to more clearly perceived, realistically defined goals to the ‘ end that the client may become a happier and more productive member of his society (1957, p. 36).

In lay terms counseling can be described as a face to face relationship, having goals to help a client to learn or acquire new skills which will enable hem to cope and adjust to life situations. The focus is to help a person reach maximum fulfillment or potential, and to become fully functioning as a person. Definition of Psychotherapy Psychotherapy is the process inwhich a therapists assists the client in re-organizing his or her personality. The therapist also helps the client insights into everyday behavior.

Psychotherapy can be defined as “more inclusive re-education of the individual” (Brammer& Shostrom,1977). The objectives of counseling according to the Committee on Definition, Division of Counseling Psychology, American Psychological Association are to help individuals toward overcoming obstacles to their personal growth, wherever these may be encountered, and toward achieving optimum development of their personal resources” (Arbuckle, 1967).

In a paper written by Dr. T. Millard, it is stated that “Counseling provides clarity and a positive and constructive venue for the individual to sensibly examine the instinctive-emotional and rational (or irrational) motives which determine the drive, content, and even the form of human conduct. This shows the part which counseling plays in a clients treatment.

According to Everett Shostrom (1967) , the goal of psychotherapy is ” o become an actualizer, a person who appreciates himself and others as persons rather than things and who has turned his self defeating manipulations into self fulfilling potentials (p. 9). Shostrom also feels that awareness is the goal of psychotherapy, “The reason is that change occurs with awareness! ” (1967 p. 103). Shostrom feels that awareness is a form of non-striving achieved by being what you are at the moment,l even if what you are means the phony manipulative role that we all play sometimes for external support (1967 p. 103).

Not all therapists feel that there is a distinction between counseling and sychotherapy. C. H. Patterson feels that it is impossible to make a distinction, He feels that the definition of counseling equally applies as well to psychotherapy and vice a versa. Donald Arbuckle (1967) argues that counseling and psychotherapy are identical in all essential aspects. Others believe that there is a distinction. Psychotherapy is concerned with some type of personality change where counseling is concerned with helping individuals utilize full coping potential. IN Donald Arbuckle’s work he included Leona Tyler’s thoughts on the differences between counseling and sychotherapy.

Leona Tyler attempts to differ between counseling and psychotherapy by stating, “to remove physical and mental handicaps or to rid of limitations is not the job of the counselor, this is the job of the therapist which is aimed essentially at change rather than fulfillment (Arbuckle 1967). Differences between counseling and psychotherapy One of the major distinctions between counseling and psychotherapy is the focus.

In counseling, the counselor will focus on the “here and now”, reality situations. During psychotherapy, the therapist is looking into the unconscious or past. A psychotherapist is looking for a connection of past to undealt with problems which are now present in the real world. Donald Arbuckle states, “There is a further distinction to be made. This involves the nature or content of the problem which the client brings to the counselor.

A distinction is attempted between reality-oriented problems and those problems which inhere in the personality of the individual” (1967, p. 145). Counseling and psychotherapy also differentiate when it comes to the level of adjustment or maladjustment of the client. Counseling holds an emphasis on “normals”. One could classify “normals” as those without neurotic problems but those who have become victims of pressures from outside environment. The emphasis in psychotherapy however is on “neurotics” or Counseling can also be described as problem solving where in psychotherapy it is more analytical. In counseling a client may have a situation where they do not have any idea how to handle it.

There are two types of problems, solvable and unsolvable. If the problem is a solvable one, a therapist may help that client by looking at the problem with them and helping the client draw out solutions. When thinking of solutions one must While counseling deals with problem solving, psychotherapy on the other hand deals with the analytical view. Here the therapist would determine the cause of ones behavior from the results of that behavior. An example could be if a spouse was abusing the other spouse it could stem from the abusive spouse’s past. The abusive spouse may have been a victim of abuse as a child, abused in a relationship themselves or even have been a witness to abuse.

The counselor would analyze each act and try to link it to something in Length of treatment also differs between counseling and psychotherapy. Counseling is shorter in duration than psychotherapy. The time spent in counseling is determined by goals set by the client and the counselor. Once these goals are met the client should then be able to go back on their own. Psychotherapy tends to last a while longer.

Sessions range from two to five years. Psychotherapy is more of a comprehensive re-education of the client. The intensity and length of therapy depends on how well the client can deal with all of the new found information. It could take quite sometime for the client to be able to live with these feelings which originated in past xperiences which are usually hurtful ones.

A -psychotherapists also needs time to modify all existing defenses. The setting of treatment also differs between counseling and psychotherapy. A counseling session usually takes place in a non medical setting such as an office. Psychotherapy is the term used more in a medical setting such as a clinic or hospital. Another difference between counseling and psychotherapy has to do with transference. Brammer and Shostrom (1977) state, “The counselor develops a close personal relationship with the client, but he does not encourage or allow strong transference feelings as does the psychotherapist p. 223). The counselor tends to find this transference as interfering with his or her counseling effectiveness.

A psychotherapist might feel that this transference is helpful and the client may be able to see what he is trying to do A counselor may look at transference as “manifestations in an incomplete growing up process”(Brammer & Shostrom 1977), where the psychotherapist interprets these transference feelings as an unconscious nature Resistance is another area of counseling and psychotherapy that tends to differ. Counselors see resistance as something that opposes or goes against problem solving. A counselor tries to reduce this as much ass possible. A psychotherapist on the other hand finds resistance to be very important. If the therapist can understand the clients resistance, he can then understand how to help the client change his or her personality.

Similarities in counseling and psychotherapy While there are clearly many differences between the counseling approach and psychotherapy, there are some similarities between the two. First, each of these are similar in the sense that each client brings with them the assets, skills, strengths and possibilities needed with them to therapy.

Secondly, counseling and psychotherapy are similar in the way that they both use an eclectic approach. The counselors and therapists do not have only one technique, they borrow from all different techniques. Arbuckle argues that” counseling and psychotherapy are in all essential respects identical” (1967, p. 144) He states that the nature of the relationship which is considered basic in counseling and psychotherapy are identical.

Secondly, Arbuckle says that the process of counseling cannot be distinguished from the process of psychotherapy. Third of all he feels that the methods or techniques are identical. Arbuckle lastly states in the matter of goals and or outcomes there may appear to be differences but no distinction is One major similarity between counseling and psychotherapy are the elements which build a person’s personality. Each of these processes deal with attitudes, feelings, interests, goals, self esteem and related behaviors are all which are affected through counseling and psychotherapy. One can see from the material provided that there are several differences between counseling and psychotherapy.

The biggest difference in my opinion is the time factor/ focus faced in each of these approaches. Counseling primarily deals with reality situations versus the unconscious past focus of psychotherapy. Secondly counseling has been described as helping one to develop competencies in coping with life situations where as psychotherapy is a re organization of one’s whole personality. Finally a last distinction is that the counselor deals with life adjustment problems while the psychotherapist deals with past unresolved issues from the family of origin. While there are many distinguishing differences between counseling and psychotherapy, there are some aspects that do spill over into each other.

As one can see by the graph provided (see figure. . 1) there is a section where the two approaches cross paths. One must definitely take a close look at counseling and psychotherapy to distinguish whether or not there is a difference between the two approaches. I found this to be a very confusing topic at times. Just when I thought I had completely grasped a concept I would run across authors such as Arbuckle who speaks of the fact that one can not distinguish counseling from psychotherapy. Luckily, I researched part of this topic using my class notes, to my advantage the lecture on June 15, 1995 discussed the differences between counseling and psychotherapy.

Human Nature vs. Mother Nature

Are you unhappy with your looks? If you are, then you should feel at home as a member of human kind. You can dye your hair and wear colored eye contact lenses. Humankind is the only place where one can receive a ‘boob-job’; or have a tattoo put on your chest and then have it removed when you are ready for a change. An instant, effortless weightloss program? Just step into my office and we will discuss lyposuction. And while we are at it, we should discuss removing thatthing. It just doesn’t become you. As one can see, it seems quite easy in today’s world to redo nature’s intent.

Yes, the field of medical science has greatly advanced within the confines of the past two hundred years or so. Skills and procedures that have been learned during this time can be used in such powerful ways. Anyone can become practically anybody else they choose—just a clip here, slice there, take fat cells from here and add them to there, and voilaa new person. However, Mother Nature as been around for quite a bit longer, and she knows what she is doing—leave her alone! Messing with nature’s intent is dangerous and I wouldn’t go there.

Aylmer Chillingworth, a scientist in Hawthorne’s short story, ‘The Birthmark,’; has married a young woman, a certain Georgianna, despite the fact she possesses a birthmark upon the center of her left facial cheek. Aylmer feels that he has ignored this ‘ugly marking’; long enough and decides he can ‘make her better. ‘; ‘ ‘Geogianna,’said he, ‘has it never occurred to you that the mark upon your cheek might be removed? ”; Of course, Mrs. Chillingworth has grown up from child to woman with this birthmark and she feels nothing of it.

To tell you the truth, it has been so often called a charm’; However, Chillingworth is just being the scientist that he is, and thinks he can fix this ‘visible mark of earthly imperfection. ”; Through many acts of persuasion and begging, Georgianna begrudgingly agrees to undergo the operation of removing the birthmark from her body. However, the operation procedure is dangerous and, once the procedure is over with and Aylmer is happy with his work (‘My peerless bride, it is successful! You are perfect! ), Georgianna dies.

My poor AylmerYou have aimed loftily;Do not repent thatyou have rejected the best that earth has to offer. Aylmer, dearest Aylmer, I am dying. ‘; Is messing with nature’s intent and beauty worth the consequence? That is a question that people deal with everyday. It is true that many changes can be made without the same consequence that Geogianna ended with. A man won’t die because he has the size of his nose reduced. Nor will a woman die because she has the wrinkles that are present around her eyes removed. People have even gone so far as to changing his or her sex to just the opposite!

Is this not perverse against Mother Nature? Messing with nature’s intent is a big deal. Are we, as humans, trying to play God? And why is it that we are constantly changing the look that was created just for us? Is it being unhappy with ourselves? Or is someone else unhappy with the way we look? Yes, it is possible to do these things. It is possible to change your voice or skin color. Just open your vocal shaft and stretch the chords out. And have your skin medically bleached. But why? Just because the cookie jar is left open doesn’t mean you have to eat one.

Freud Meets World

Sigmund Freud, physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist, and father of psychoanalysis, is recognized as one of the most influential thinkers of the twentieth century. Freud articulated the concepts of the unconscious, of infantile sexuality, and of repression. He proposed a tripartite account of the structure of the mind, as part of a radically new therapeutic reference for the understanding of human psychological development, and the treatment of abnormal mental conditions. Freud is also known as the Father of Psychoanalysis.

Psychoanalysis efers to the method of investigating unconscious mental processes, and is also a form of psychotherapy. Not regarding the multiple manifestations of psychoanalysis as it exists today, it can, in almost all respects, be traced directly back to Freuds original work (Brome 12). Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856, at Freiberg in Moravia, which is now a part of Czechoslovakia. He was born into a family full of enough complexity and confusion to give him significant material for his ruminations on the individual mind and its connections with others.

His mother, Amalia, an assertive, good-looking woman, was twenty years younger than her husband Jacob. Freuds father was Jewish, and was said to be a wool merchant. His siblings were two half-brothers, who were already grown-up, which provided a constant reminder of the oddity of his position. His own confusions, hatreds, loves, and desires from this period appear to have had significant impact on his later work on development. The decline of the textile market, and an increase of anti-Semitism in the city, forced his family to relocate to Vienna, the capitol of Austria when he was four.

While in Vienna, Freud developed a liking for the medical field, especially the nervous system, and the works of the mind. He graduated from the medical school of the University of Vienna in 1881. Freud later decided to specialize in neurology, the study Kevin Mechtley 2 and treatment of disorders of the nervous system (Brill V). He left the University, secretly engaged, and found a job at the Vienna Hospital in hopes of earning enough money to get married. While at the hospital, he concentrated on the study of cerebral anatomy and also conducted research on the possible clinical uses of cocaine.

In September 1886 he married Martha Bernays after an engagement of four years. Within a decade the couple had six children, the youngest of whom, Anna, grew up to be her fathers confidante and disciple and later a celebrated psychoanalyst in her own right (Bloom 2). Four years after Freud graduated, he moved to Paris to study under Jean Martin Charcot, a famous neurologist. At the time, Charcot was working with patients who suffered from hysteria. Some of these people had no physical defects, but seemed to be blind or paralyzed.

Charcot believed that their real problem was mental, and that the physical symptoms could be erased by hypnosis. Freud carefully analyzed Charcots work and began to assemble his own thoughts and theories. Freud returned to Vienna in 1886 and began to work specifically with hysterical patients using hypnosis, but found that its beneficial effects did not last long enough for the patient. He set up private practice as a consultant in nervous diseases and became a leading authority on the cerebral palsies of children. He met and collaborated with Josef Breuer, who used a different method with hysterical patients.

Breuer had discovered that when he encouraged a hysterical patient to talk uninhibitedly about the earliest occurrences of the symptoms, the latter sometimes gradually abated. Working with Breuer, Freud developed the idea that many neuroses, or phobias, had their origins in deeply traumatic experiences that occurred in the earlier life of the patient, but were hidden from consciousness. The treatment Freud formulated was to enable the patient to recall the experience to consciousness, and confront it in a deep way, both intellectually and emotionally.

Freud states in the book Freud and His Early Circle, Personify the powers within you, talk to them, and they will be stripped of their dangerous autonomy and brought into a proper relationship with consciousness. (Brome 78). This technique, and the Kevin Mechtley 3 theory from which it is derived, was given its classical expression in Standard Edition: Studies in Hysteria, jointly published by Freud and Breuer in 1895 (Stevenson). Freud gradually formed more ideas about the origin and treatment of mental illness. He devised the term psychoanalysis for both his theories and his type of treatment.

A period of intense work and self-analysis, further inspired by the death of his father, led Freud to his best known publication, The Interpretation of Dreams in 1900, and Psychopathology of Everyday Life in 1901. During this period of rigorous self-analysis, Freud introduced two new theories, including infantile sexuality, and the description on Oedipus complex. When he first began to present his psychoanalytic theories, other physicians reacted with hostility. Other theorists and psychologists disagreed with his new thoughts, and his theory was not well received.

Freud responded to the claims in Freud and His Early Circle, Every time we are laughed at anew, I am more than ever convinced that we are in the possession of something great (Brome 79). It was not until late in the decade, when the first International Psychoanalytical Congress was held at Salzburg, that Freuds importance began to be generally recognized. This was greatly facilitated in 1909, when he was invited to give a course of lectures in the United States, which were to form the basis of his 1916 book Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis.

From this point on, Freuds reputation and fame grew enormously, and he began to reach out to a group of followers, known as Freudians. By 1910, he had gained international recognition. In 1904, Freud began to meet with other physicians, including Alfred Adler, every Wednesday night in his apartment to ponder psychoanalytic questions. The group eventually became the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. His new field began to gain wider acceptance. This period was marked by extensive case studies and theoretical work; as well, he published papers on religion, literature, sculpture, and other non-scientific fields.

As his ideas circulated abroad they attracted the attention of the young Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, whom Freud later privately named as his successor. In 1909, the two journeyed Kevin Mechtley 4 together to the United States to lecture. Their close involvement, however, created tension within the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society. In 1911, Adler and others withdrew from the group. Differences between Freud and Jung caused a gradual estrangement. In 1914, Freud ended their friendship, delivering a powerful statement against both Jung and Adler in The History of the Psychoanalytical Movement.

Also, Totem and Taboo, an application of psychoanalysis to social anthropology, was viewed by some as a denunciation of Jung, and other members of the movement (Brome 78). During the following decade, Freuds reputation continued to grow. He constantly modified his own theories, when he considered that the scientific evidence demanded it, and in 1923, published a revised version of many of his earlier theories. Also in 1923, Freud learned he had cancer of the mouth, and underwent the first of many operations to remove the malignant tumors from his palate.

Although rarely free of pain, he never stopped working. As Freud grew older, his speculative tendencies came more and more into the foreground. His writings entered into the realm of religion and cultural anthropology in attempts to explain society, myth, and religions from a psychoanalytic standpoint. The up-rise of Nazism tore down much of what the Psychoanalytical society had developed. There were massive book burnings of Freuds books which were considered to be Jewish literature. Eventually he was forced to flee from his beloved Vienna to England.

His cancer dehabilitated him so much that he requested his doctor to give him a legal overdose of orphine so that he would die. He died in England at the age of 83 (Stevenson) Some years before Freuds death, Hermann Hesse made this observation about his lifework in The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud: The beautiful and strikingly attractive thing about Freuds writings is the preoccupation of a remarkably strong intellect with questions that all lead into the supra-rational, the constantly renewed, patient, and yet daring attempt of a disciplined mind to capture life itself in the net of pure sciencetoo coarse though that net always is.

The conscientious researcher and lucid Kevin Mechtley 5 ogician, Freud has created for himself a magnificent instrument in a language that is not only intellectualistic, but razor-sharp, with its precise definitions and occasional joy in conflict and derision. Of how many of our scholars can this be said? Although a highly original thinker, Freud was also deeply influenced by a number of factors which overlapped and interconnected with each other to shape the development of his thought.

Both Charcot and Breuer had a direct and immediate impact upon him, but some of the other factors, though no less important than these, were of a different nature. First of all, Freud imself was very much a Freudian. His father had two sons by a previous marriage, Emmanuel and Philip. The young Freud often played with John, the son of Philip, who was his own age. His own self-analysis, which forms the core of his book, The Interpretation of Dreams, originated in the emotional crisis which he suffered with the death of his father, and the series of dreams to which this caused a rise.

This analysis revealed to him that the love and admiration which he had felt for his father were mixed with very contrasting feelings of shame and hate, with which he termed ambivalence. The most revealing was his discovery that he had ften fantasized as a youth that his older half-brother Philip was really his father, and certain other signs convinced him of the deep, hidden meaning of this fantasy. He discovered that he had wished for his real father to die, because he was his rival for the affections and attention of his mother.

This was to become the personal, though by no means exclusive, basis for his theory of the Oedipus complex (Roazen 237). When Freud came up with the theory of Infantile Sexuality, he saw it as a broader developmental theory of human personality. This had its origins in the earlier discovery from Breuer, who said that traumatic childhood events may have devastating effects on an adult Kevin Mechtley 6 individual. This became the general thesis that sexual experiences in childhood were the crucial factors in the determination of the adult personality.

From his account of the instincts that followed from the moment of birth, the infant is driven in his actions by the desire for bodily or sexual pleasure, which is seen by Freud as the desire to release mental energy. Infants gain such release, and derive such pleasure through the act of sucking, that Freud accordingly termed this the oral stage of development. This is followed by a stage in which the pleasure or energy release is the anus, particularly in the act of defecation, and this is accordingly termed the ‘anal’ stage. Then the young child develops an interest in the sexual organs as a site of pleasure, and is named the phallic stage.

The child also begins to develop a sexual attraction for the parent of the opposite sex, and a hatred of the parent of the same sex, which Freud called the Oedipus complex. This, however, gives rise to socially derived feelings of guilt in the child, who recognizes that it can never supplant the stronger parent. In the case of a male, it also puts the child at risk, which he perceives – if he persists in pursuing the sexual attraction for his mother, he may be harmed by the father; specifically, he comes to fear that he may be castrated.

Both the attraction for the mother, and the hatred are usually repressed, and the child usually resolves the conflict of the Oedipus complex by coming to identify with the parent of the same sex (Gay 662). This happens around the age of five, whereupon the child enters a latency period, in which sexual motivations become much less pronounced. This lasts ntil puberty, when mature genital development begins, and the drive for pleasure refocuses around the genital area (Wasner 301). Freud believed that the developmental process for a child is a movement through a series of conflicts.

The successful resolution of this process is then crucial to the mental health of the adult. Many mental illnesses, particularly hysteria, Freud said, can be traced back to unresolved Kevin Mechtley 7 conflicts experienced at this stage, or to events which otherwise disrupt the normal pattern of infantile development. For example, homosexuality is seen by some Freudians as resulting from failure to resolve the conflicts of the Oedipus complex, particularly a failure to identify with the parent of the same sex.

The obsessive concern with washing of hands, and personal hygiene, which characterizes the behavior of some neurotics, is seen as resulting from unresolved conflicts occurring at the anal stage (Wasner 302). Perhaps the most famous theory Freud had, was his tripartite model of the structure of the mind, which has many points of similarity with the account of the mind offered by Plato over 2,000 years earlier. It is termed tripartite because, like Plato, Freud distinguished three structural lements within the mind. He called these the id, the ego, and the super-ego.

The id is the part of the mind that holds the instinctual sexual drives, which require satisfaction. The super-ego is the part which contains the conscience, and the ego is the conscious self created by the interactions between the id and the super-ego. All objects of consciousness reside in the ego, while the contents of the id belong permanently to the unconscious mind. The superego is an unconscious mechanism which seeks to limit the pleasure-seeking drives of the id by the use of restrictive rules. If the external world offers no scope for the satisfaction of the pleasure drive of the id, then an inner confict occurs in the mind.

A failure to resolve this, Freud thought, can lead to later neurosis. A key concept introduced here by Freud, is that the mind possesses a number of defense mechanisms to attempt to prevent conficts from becoming too acute. Repression is one of these mechanisms, which Freud defined as pushing back events into the unconscious. Another mechanism is sublimination, which is channeling the sexual drives into social goals, as in art, science, and poetry. The last mechanism Freud introduced was fixation, which he called the failure to progress beyond one of the developmental stages (Wasner 388).

Kevin Mechtley 8 With his account of the sexual genesis and nature of neuroses, naturally led Freud to develop a clinical treatment for treating such disorders. The aim of this method is to re-establish a harmonious relationship between the three elements of the mind, by resolving unconscious repressed conflicts. The actual method of treatment grew out of the discovery Breuer made earlier in Freuds life. Breuer said that when a hysterical patient was encouraged to talk freely bout the earliest occurrences of the symptoms and fantasies, the symptoms began to disappear, and were eliminated entirely.

The patient would then recall the initial trauma, which caused them to appear. He turned away from his earlier attempts to explore the unconscious through hypnosis, and began to further develop this talking cure (Fonda). He acted on the assumption that the repressed conflicts were buried in the deepest parts of the unconscious mind. Freud got his patients to relax in a position in which they were deprived of sensory stimulation, and even of the presence of the analyst. He then encouraged them to speak freely, preferably without forethought, in the belief that he could uplift the unconscious forces lying behind what was said.

This is the method of free association, which is similar to that involved in the analysis of dreams. In both cases, the super-ego is disarmed, its goal of a screening mechanism is moderated, and material is allowed to filter through to the conscious ego, which would otherwise be completely repressed (Brome 76). After his father died, Freud began going through a period of vigorous self-analysis, in which he began to study dreams, and how they play a part in the unconscious mind. He studied himself and other patients, and began to realize dreams are a key to the lock of the unconscious.

By taking dreams apart piece by piece, he found that the events in the life, even those of many years before, reappear unconsciously in the dream. He began to come up with theories of dream analysis, and years later published the book, The Interpretation of Dreams, which recalled all of Kevin Mechtley 9 his thoughts on dreams, and even some of his own personal dreams with interpretations. He found that dream analysis fit into psychoanalysis and free association. During a session, he ould not only have the patient speak freely without forethought, but would also ask them about their dreams.

He would then analyze the dreams, and with the help of the patient, figure out what the dream held in it that gave the patient the neuroses. The source of these dreams supplies a significant experience which is constantly represented in the dream by allusion to a recent, but indifferent impression (Brill 217). In the book Sigmund Freud, editor Harold Bloom describes the significance of his thinking: In some sense, we are all Freudians, whether we want to be or not. Freud is much more than perpetual fashion; he seems to have become a culture, our culture.

He is at once the principal writer and the principal thinker of our century. If one seeks the strongest authors in the West in our time, most readers would agree upon the crucial figures; Proust, Joyce, Kafka, Yeats, Mann, Lawrence, Eliot, Rilke, Faulkner, Valery, Stevens, Montale, Beckett certainly would be among them. The essential thinkers might constitute a shorter and more controversial canon, whether of scientists or philosophers, and I will not venture to list them here. Freud is unique in that he would dominate the second group and successfully challenge ven Proust, Joyce, and Kafka in the first.

Nor can one match him with any of the religious figures or scholars of the century. His only rivals indeed are Plato, Montaigne, Shakespeare, or even the anonymous primal narrator of Genesis, Exodus and Numbers, called the J writer of Yahwist in biblical scholarship. Sigmund Freud is generally recognized as one of the most influential and authoritative thinkers of the twentieth century. Even today, a century after Freud lived, all of his theories are debated and discussed, and some are still practiced in the psychotherapy field.

Mental Rotation Of Images

The idea of mental imagery has always been a controversial subject in the field of psychology. Many psychologists have argued that such a concept is impossible to measure because it can not be directly observed. Though they are right about this, it is not impossible to measure how quickly mental rotations of images are processed in our brains. Subjects in this experiment were presented two shapes simultaneously, via computer screen, and asked to make judgement, as quickly as possible, as to whether the two shapes presented were the same or mirror images.

Two different shapes were used in this experiment, each given as often as the other. During each trial one shape remained stationary and the other was rotated with varying amounts of 0, 60, 120, and 180 degrees. As the angle of rotation increased reaction times were calculated to see if this had any baring on the speed of the reaction. As predicted, reaction times increased along with angular disparity. Rotation of Mental Images: Measured by Reaction Times There are a limited number of ways to discover and understand how the human mind works and reacts to things.

One can not sit and directly observe the brain and eye working together (James, Schneider & Rodgers, 1994). The concept behind mental rotation of images tries to do this by measuring reaction times as the angular disparity of an object increases. Thus, demonstrating the time it takes for the eye and brain to make a connection when presented with a stimulus. Though our experiment was solely limited to calculating reaction times to mental rotations of images, Wohlschlager and Wohlschlager (1998) took this concept one step further to see if mental object rotation and manual object rotation shared a common thought process in our brain.

Wohlschlager & Wohlschlager (1998) based their ideas for this study on a theory, most impressively demonstrated by Cooper (1976), stating that the resemblance of mental rotation to external physical rotation, calls for a mental process that mimics external physical rotation. However, it is pointed out that there is a principal difference between motion perception and mental rotation. Whereas motion perception is a rather automatic process, mental rotation is strategic and shares some characteristics with voluntary actions (Wohlschlager & Wohlschlager, 1998).

In conducting their experiment Wohlschlager & Wohlschlager (1998) used 66 right-handed psychology students who took part in this experiment to fulfill their course requirement. Of the 66 students 30 took part in the mental rotation condition and 30 in the manual rotation condition. As expected, findings showed that there was in fact a strong relationship between the reaction times of the mental and manual rotations. As the angular disparity of both the mental and manual rotations increased so did reaction times. In almost all cases manual and mental reaction times matched each other.

It was also observed by Wohlschlager & Wohlschlager (1998), that manual object rotation did not always follow the shortest path. Findings showed that in some trials students rotated images the longer way around. Thus, it was concluded that mental processes also rotate things the long way around, since reaction times did not differ much between the two groups, ultimately supporting their original hypothesis. Desrocher, Smith & Taylor (1995) conducted a similar experiment with intentions of measuring reaction times.

Only in this experiment the independent variable was not mental vs. manual rotation, but gender. They were interested in seeing if gender differences played a role in regard to reaction times, when presented with either a letter stimuli or picture stimuli. It has been noted that up to the present time, there have been no major findings that show any significant difference in the way men and woman process letter images. In tests, both men and woman performed equally well (Desrocher, smith & Taylor, 1995).

However, in several experiments conducted measuring reaction times when presented with a picture stimulus, men have been said to out perform woman in almost all cases. Overall, when comparing the reaction times of pictures to letters, picture reaction times are said to be generally greater. In conducting this experiment 20 right-handed subjects were used, 10 male and 10 female. Subjects participated in this study either to earn course credit, or for payment of ten dollars per hour. Three things were concluded from this experiment.

First, picture rotations took longer to perform than letter rotations. Second, there were no sex differences in reaction times for either stimulus presented, and third, there was a linear increase in reaction times as angular disparity of both stimuli sets increased (Desrocher, smith & Taylor, 1995). As predicted this study did replicate some previous findings. However, based on the data from this experiment sex differences did not yield a significant difference in reaction times when presented with the different stimuli.

Concurrent with our data, both of the previously mentioned experiments concluded the same thing; reaction times increased as angular disparity increased. Although the objectives in each experiment were somewhat different, there has been a sufficient amount of evidence to support the hypothesis, that reaction times will increase as the angular disparity of objects increase. Method Participants Ten St. Johns University undergraduate students participated in this experiment to fulfill their Research Method Lab Requirement. Materials Ten IBM computers with color monitors were used in this experiment.

To conduct the experiment, students used custom made Mel Lab Software, designed for experiments in perception, cognition, social psychology and human factors. Procedure The experiment consisted of 10 practice trials and 128 actual trials. In order to move on to the actual test students had to get 8 out of the 10 practice trials correct. Once an 80% accuracy rate was obtained in the practice trial, students were then permitted to move on to the actual test. This experiment used two different images, each appearing randomly, and as often as the next.

During each trial an image was presented on the computer screen along side another. The images were always similar; the two different images were never mixed. As each image appeared students had to decide as quickly as possible if the two images were the same or mirror images. Answers were recorded by either hitting the (1) key, if the images were the same, or hitting the (2) key, if they were mirror images. On each trial one image was rotated in respect to the other in varring degrees of 0, 60, 120, and 180, each rotation occurring randomly and as often as the rest.

Results A One Way ANOVA was conducted to look into the findings presented from this experiment. An F(3,36)=9. 392 p < . 001 was obtained, indicating a statistical significant difference in the data collected. Discussion This study was conducted to see how quickly mental images are processed in our minds by measuring reaction times. Our finding, as well as the findings in the two experiments discussed support the hypothesis that reaction times will increase as the angle of rotation increases.

However, when comparing the reaction times between the four groups of 0, 60, 120, and 180 degrees we see that the statistically significant difference we arrived at did not come from all of the groups. In examining the numbers, we see a strong statistical significance between groups 1 & 2, 1 & 3, and 1 & 4. This would be because of the large difference in the number of degrees rotated. When looking at the difference between groups 2 & 3, 2 & 4, and 3 & 4, we see no statistical significance at all. The difference in rotational degrees was not as large between these groups.

Another aspect of the results that I would like to point out is that our experiment only used 10 subjects, who were not randomly picked. Only 20 subjects were used in the experiment conducted by Desrocher, smith & Taylor (1995). I dont feel that these numbers of subjects (20 and 10) are enough to have conclusive results. In order to get an accurate sample of the population more participants should have been used in both experiments. This one fact may have been the reason why part of the results of Desrocher, smith & Taylor (1995) were not concurrent with other findings.

Although the objectives of the two experiments I discussed were different, result were the same regardless as to what the differences might have been. In all experiment including the one I did, results were concurrent. Findings supported the hypothesis that was set forth: As angular rotation increased, reaction time will also increase. Thus, showing reaction times do serve as an appropriate method for analyzing how quickly the brain reacts to mental rotations of images.