The results of the study were that those who used CBT had more reduction in their Schizophrenic symptoms than the BF intervention. This may be due to a variety of influential factors. For example, the “therapists” (nurses) may have been more experienced in their field of nursing than BF; however, they both received training prior to the study. There is also a lack of scientific research showing that BF is more effective in treating Schizophrenic patients. More research is needed in order to prove this point. The BF therapy style was more of a trial-based therapy. Results of the therapy may have varied due to individual biases.
Some individuals prefer one therapy over the other. Environment and stress could have also played a big role in patient responses. For example, the individual could have experienced anxiety or depression earlier in the day; therefore his or her response may have been based on how they were feeling. The individual could have also possibly answered yes or no for every question in the questionnaire in order to go home faster. The result and conclusion of this study was that Researchers found CBT to reduce both negative and positive symptoms that medications failed in reducing.
The reduction in symptoms were also sustained a couple of months after the study. This result supports the claim of CBT treating Schizophrenic Symptoms that was featured in the main newspaper article by New York Times. The sustainment of a reduction in symptoms can ease anxiety and stress in patients and help them function in their daily lives. CBT’s main goal is for negative thoughts to change into positive ones. Individuals with Schizophrenia often have a difficult time with developing relationships because he or she may often be a victim of bullying, are looked down upon, or have delusions that others are after him or her.
Relationships with others also fall apart with those who have Schizophrenia because patients have a tendency to isolate themselves from society. It is important to keep in mind that relationships, specifically familial relationships, can fall apart due to the lack of patience the caregiver has. The caregiver may want to go about his or her own activities instead of spending his or her time with the patient. Depending on the severity of the illness, a vast majority of time could be spent in caring for the patient. This is due to the functional impairment the disorder brings upon the patient.
The second peer-reviewed journal article that I evaluated was an article named Cognitive Model and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Schizophrenia: An overview. The goal of this article was to prove the efficiency of CBT in treating Schizophrenia, along with another model. This article is linked to my main article, as it features and argues for CBT in treating Schizophrenia as well. The efficiency of CBT in treating Schizophrenia is shown by having the therapist integrate his or her knowledge of the disorder, CBT, and the Neuroscience model to form a treatment plan.
After the treatment plan was formed, it was then carried out as an experiment on patients. This was done in order to examine if schizophrenic symptoms were reduced or not. To fully understand why many researchers, psychologists, and I are for CBT in treating Schizophrenia, this particular article breaks down and defines the symptoms Schizophrenic patients may experience. The article first explains that the primary onset of Schizophrenia can be attributed to a combination of genes and one’s environment. This is also seen in other mental disorders, such as Major Depression.
The article then explains and defines the two types of Schizophrenia symptoms, which are positive and negative, as well as listing out what happens in each. Neurobiology plays a major role in Schizophrenia due to the impairment in the regulation of dopamine in Schizophrenic patients. This can affect how the patient is feeling. The article explains that motivation and attention is what the therapist should focus on if he or she hopes in treating his or her patient. Schizophrenic patients tend to have lower levels of confidence than others and may experience depression.
This can be due to a variety of factors, such as the negative voices heard in one’s hallucinations, fear, and isolation. It is vital that a therapist is empathetic and offers support to the patient, rather than being straight forward and realistic as seen in reality therapy. When explaining the symptoms of Schizophrenia, the article also mentions the cognitive aspects of the mental illness, such as what is going on in the mind of a Schizophrenic individual. This provides an illustration and point of view of what the patient is going through.
The symptoms that are described in this article give a therapist the opportunity to develop a specific therapy style tailored to the patient. One of the difficulties that some Schizophrenics face is being feared by others due to various levels of violence exhibited by the individuals. Schizophrenics do not willfully choose to be violent; rather this behavior is delivered to the public because of the delusions and hallucinations that one experiences. The schizophrenic may think he or she is defending his or herself from what he or she sees as a threat.
CBT is what many therapists find to be effective in treating Schizophrenia because it combines cognitive and behavioral therapy styles and targets thinking and behaviors. Cognitive treatments are created in order to reduce negative thoughts and fears. Behavioral treatments are formed in order to help the patient cope with their illness and distract him or her from those negative thoughts and fears. Action planning and the control of pessimistic thoughts can aid in reducing violence in these patients. The article also argues for CBT to be used rather than prescribing anti-psychotics to reduce symptoms.
There are some limitations of CBT and its link to Schizophrenia because it requires more research by professionals in the field of psychology. Research aids in the development of hypotheses and conducting experiments that test a hypothesis. Testing a hypothesis and replicating an experiment can prove the validity of effective treatment for Schizophrenic symptoms. The third and final peer-reviewed journal article that I examined was an article entitled Cognitive Behavior Therapy for People with Schizophrenia. The goal of the article was to inform readers about the recent research of CBT and its link to Schizophrenia.
It also discussed how CBT can be used in the present to treat Schizophrenia. There are some researchers that are skeptical of this particular therapy style and wonder if CBT is truly successful in patient recovery. It is essential to keep in mind that individual patient differences do play a role in the effectiveness of treatment. The article begins with reviewing what has been found in literature concerning CBT and Schizophrenia. All three journal articles have concluded that CBT is a better therapy option in treating positive schizophrenic symptoms than negative ones.
This may be due to the lack of the patient’s will to change. The patient may have specific beliefs of the world around him or her based on his or her delusions. Treating negative symptoms may be more of a challenge because negative symptoms are similar to depression. An example of a negative schizophrenic symptom is withdrawal from society. As a therapist you cannot force your patient to do something he or she does not wish to do. A way to help one’s negative thinking would be to motivate the individual, but the end result is based on the patient’s ability to engage with the therapist.
The next part of the article is an explanation of the theory and techniques of CBT. There are four main techniques that Ann mentions. These techniques that Ann describes include (2009), “Developing a therapeutic alliance based on the patient’s perspective, alternative explanations of schizophrenia symptoms, reducing the impact of positive and negative symptoms, and offer alternatives to the medical model to target medication adherence. ” In order to treat an individual with Schizophrenia, it is vital that the therapist takes note of what the patient goes through.
Alternative explanations of schizophrenic symptoms are needed in order to reduce depression in the patients. The CBT therapist does not want his or her patient to feel guilt because then the individual may persist in withdrawing from society and begin to develop more delusions on the basis of fear. The goal of CBT is for the therapist and patient to connect and to reduce negative behavior and cognitions. The third section of the article argues that although there are medications to treat Schizophrenia, these medications have side effects and many patients view them as worthless or of little help.
The fourth section of the article discusses the impact of negative thoughts in Schizophrenic patients based on the inability to function on their own. People with Schizophrenia feel as if they are a burden on their family since family members often complain about the vast amount of time and energy it takes to care for them. This can lead to social anxiety and prevent patients from having a job, getting a higher education, developing relationships, and has a strong impact on self worth. The solution to negative thinking is having patients think of positive thoughts and happy memories.
These memories and thoughts are then talked over in therapy in order to distract the patient from negative thoughts. The last section of the article emphasizes that CBT does help reduce thoughts of suicide in patients. This is important because helping the patient reduce negative thoughts can prevent not only thoughts of suicide, but the ability to make a plan for suicide. This article is linked to my main article because it explains how CBT reduces negative thinking and why it is a therapy that is specifically tailored to people with Schizophrenia. Some individuals may not like CBT because it requires one to engage in conversation.
Therapists may also hand out homework for the individual to complete in order to monitor behavior. It is important to know that taking medications may have consequences. Side effects of medication can potentially take a toll on one’s health, especially with regards to allergic reactions. While medications do treat symptoms, they may not effectively treat the underlying cause of a mental disorder. Medications can sometimes be just a temporary solution to a mental disorder. Medications are not only expensive, but may not be readily available in some countries.
Therapy allows the patient to express him or herself to the therapist. Unlike a doctor who prescribes medication, a therapist can know information about the body and the mind. Doctors are also in a rush to see many patients while therapists are more flexible and have longer hours with his or her patients. In conclusion, CBT is an ideal therapy style to treat positive schizophrenic symptoms. There are various reasons why individuals with Schizophrenia should try CBT at least once. Firstly, CBT is based on what the patient is experiencing; therefore, it is very individualistic.
CBT tries to put an end to negative thoughts and behavior rapidly in order to prevent hospitalization and social anxiety. There is a strong emphasis on developing relationships. This may help patients let out their frustrations and have opportunities to participate with the community without being labeled and stigmatized. If people with Schizophrenia feel uncomfortable with talking to family members, CBT can help these individuals be open to other individuals and create friendships outside his or her home. More research is needed to prove and show that CBT is efficient in treating negative schizophrenic symptoms.