Multicultural Education: Piecing Together the Puzzle

When a child opens his (or her) first puzzle and the pieces fall to the ground, it may seem very confusing. What are they to do with this pile of shapes in front of them? It often takes a parent to explain to them that all the different pieces fit together into one whole picture. Although every piece is different and unique, when they are all put into their place they form one whole picture. In the same way, teachers can teach multiculturalism in the classroom. Although every member of our society is unique, with different cultural backgrounds, we all fit together to form one unit.

As stated by Noel (1995), Understanding our own identity and the culture of our community requires knowledge and recognition of our cultures and communities and how they have shaped us (p. 267). By adding a multicultural component to their curriculums, teachers can help students see how each individual fits into the big picture. There are, however, arguments against multicultural education (Banks, 1995). For example, some critics believe that multicultural education is directed toward only minority groups, thus discriminating against middle class, white, heterosexual males.

Others believe that multiculturalism is against Western and democratic ideals. A final argument is the claim that multiculturalism will divide our presumably united nation. Although critics of multicultural education may feel they have valid arguments against the issue, I feel that the goals of multicultural education make it an important part of the curriculum that every student should experience. I agree with Wurzel (1988) and Noel (1995) when they stress awareness as a key component to multiculturalism.

Students must become aware of their own culture and how they are similar and different from others. Awareness also involves an understanding of issues involving differences in culture and a knowledge of which of these issues are present in their community. After becoming aware of these issues, students often react emotionally. With an awareness of the richness and variety of cultures in their community and a personal emotional reaction, students can take social action, another goal of multicultural education (Noel, 1995).

Noel says that students would take action aimed at positive multicultural change(p. 272). I feel that these goals are proof that the arguments against multicultural education are invalid (Banks, 1995). Multiculturalism promotes positive change for persons of all cultures. It involves not only teaching majority groups about minorities, but also teaching minority groups about the majority groups. It has its base in democratic ideals such as equality, freedom, and justice.

Multiculturalism will unite our divided nation into one unit which will have no mainstream culture, but any diverse subcultures which will cooperate for the good of everyone, not just the majority or the minority. I feel very strongly that multiculturalism should be included in all curricula. My school experience (until college) didnt include multicultural perspectives and I feel as if I missed out on some important things. I often feel a little clueless when confronted with situations involving people different from me.

Without some knowledge of our surroundings, how can we be expected to survive in society? This question reveals one of the purposes of education, survival. Learning about the other people who share our community is an essential part of this survival in modern society. Multiculturalism becomes increasingly important as our society becomes more diverse. In the past (Lynch, 1989), efforts to provide multicultural content to students have, as critics feared, created more diversity and tension among groups. However, more recent methods are aimed at creating relations based on commonalities.

Lynch (1989) suggests providing a basis of common knowledge, skills, and insights about the things that all human societies should hold in common (p. 43). Stressing similarities will unify groups with differences. Davidman (1994) defines the goals of multicultural education as: (1) educational equity; (2) empowerment of students and their parents; (3) cultural pluralism in society; (4) … understanding and harmony in the classroom, school, and community; (5) an expanded knowledge of various cultural and ethnic groups; and (6) the development of students, parents, and practitioners… ided by an informed and inquisitive multicultural perspective (p. 2).

Just as the goals stated by other crusaders for multiculturalism, Davidsons goals follow a specific order and stress knowledge, understanding, and equality. I believe that it is very necessary and completely conceivable for our education systems to move toward a multicultural curriculum. By following the goals I have mentioned, we can finally understand how the many pieces of our society fit together into one big picture.

Education and Egalitarianism in America

The American educator Horace Mann once said: “As an apple is not in any proper sense an apple until it is ripe, so a human being is not in any proper sense a human being until he is educated. ” Education is the process through which people endeavor to pass along to their children their hard-won wisdom and their aspirations for a better world. This process begins shortly after birth, as parents seek to train the infant to behave as their culture demands.

They soon, for instance, teach the child how to turn babbling sounds into language and, through example and precept, they try to instill in the child the attitudes, values, skills, and knowledge that will govern their offspring’s behavior throughout later life. Schooling, or formal education, consists of experiences that are deliberately planned and utilized to help young people learn what adults consider important for them to know and to help teach them how they should respond to choices. This education has been influenced by three important parts of modern American society: wisdom of the heart, egalitarianism, and practicality… greatest of these, practicality. In the absence of written records, no one can be sure what education man first provided for his children. Most anthropologists believe, though, that the educational practices of prehistoric times were probably like those of primitive tribes in the 20th century, such as the Australian aborigines and the Aleuts. Formal instruction was probably given just before the child’s initiation into adulthood — the puberty rite — and involved tribal customs and beliefs too complicated to be learned by direct experience.

Children learned most of the skills, duties, customs, and beliefs of the tribe through an informal apprenticeship — by taking part in such adult activities as hunting, fishing, farming, toolmaking, and cooking. In such simple tribal societies, school was not a special place… it was life itself. However, the educational process has changed over the decades, and it now vaguely represents what it was in ancient times, or even in early American society.

While the schools that the colonists established in the 17th century in the New England, Southern, and Middle colonies differed from one another, each reflected a concept of schooling that had been left behind in Europe. Most poor children learned through apprenticeship and had no formal schooling at all. Those who did go to elementary school were taught reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion. Learning consisted of memorizing, which was stimulated by whipping. The first “basic textbook,” The New England Primer, was America’s own contribution to education.

Used from 1690 until the beginning of the 19th century, its purpose was to teach both religion and reading. The child learning the letter a, for example, also learned that “In Adam’s fall, We sinned all. ” As in Europe, then, the schools in the colonies were strongly influenced by religion. This was particularly true of the schools in the New England area, which had been settled by Puritans and other English religious dissenters. Like the Protestants of the Reformation, who established vernacular elementary schools in Germany in the 16th century, the Puritans sought to make education universal.

They took the first steps toward government-supported universal education in the colonies. In 1642, Puritan Massachusetts passed a law requiring that every child be taught to read. And, in 1647, it passed the “Old Deluder Satan Act,” so named because its purpose was to defeat Satan’s attempts to keep men, through an inability to read, from the knowledge of the Scriptures. The law required every town of 50 or more families to establish an elementary school and every town of 100 or more families to maintain a grammar school as well. Puritan or not, virtually all of the colonial schools had clear-cut moral purposes.

Skills and knowledge were considered important to the degree that they served religious ends and, of course, “trained” the mind. We call it “wisdom of the heart. ” These matters, by definition, are anything that the heart is convinced of… so thoroughly convinced that it over-powers the judgement of the mind. Early schools supplied the students with moral lessons, not just reading, writing and arithmetic. Obviously, the founders saw it necessary to apply these techniques, most likely “feeling” that it was necessary that the students learn these particular values.

Wisdom of the heart had a profound effect of the curriculum of the early schools. As the spirit of science, commercialism, secularism, and individualism quickened in the Western world, education in the colonies was called upon to satisfy the practical needs of seamen, merchants, artisans, and frontiersmen. The effect of these new developments on the curriculum in American schools was more immediate and widespread than its effect in European schools. Practical content was soon in competition with religious concerns.

The academy that Benjamin Franklin helped found in 1751 was the first of a growing number of secondary schools that sprang up in competition with the Latin schools. Franklin’s academy continued to offer the humanist-religious curriculum, but it also brought education closer to the needs of everyday life by teaching such courses as history, geography, merchant accounts, geometry, algebra, surveying, modern languages, navigation, and astronomy. These subjects were more practical, seeing as how industry and business were driving forces in the creation of the United States.

Religion classes could not support a family or pay the debts. By the mid-19th century this new diversification in the curriculum characterized virtually all American secondary education. America came into its own, educationally, with the movement toward state-supported, secular free schools for all children, which began in the 1820s with the common (elementary) school. The movement gained incentive in 1837 when Massachusetts established a state board of education and appointed the lawyer and politician Horace Mann (1796-1859) as its secretary.

One of Mann’s many reforms was the improvement of the quality of teaching by the establishment of the first public normal (teacher-training) schools in the United States. State after state followed Massachusetts’ example until, by the end of the 19th century, the common-school system was firmly established. It was the first rung of what was to develop into the American educational ladder. After the common school had been accepted, people began to urge that higher education, too, be tax supported.

As early as 1821, the Boston School Committee established the English Classical School (later the English High School), which was the first public secondary school in the United States. By the end of the century, such secondary schools had begun to outnumber the private academies. The original purpose of the American high school was to allow all children to extend and enrich their common-school education. With the establishment of the land-grant colleges after 1862, the high school also became a preparation for college; the step by which students who had begun at the lowest rung of the educational ladder might reach the highest.

In 1873, when the kindergarten became part of the St. Louis, Mo. school system, there was a hint that, in time, a lower rung might be added. Practicality allowed this change in the high school system. Schools now needed to ready the students for college — an even higher form of education — instead of preparing them to immediately enter the work force. America’s educational ladder was unique. Where public school systems existed in European countries such as France and Germany, they were dual systems.

When a child of the lower and middle classes finished his elementary schooling, he could go on to a vocational or technical school. The upper-class child often did not attend the elementary school but was instead tutored until he was about 9 years old and could enter a secondary school, generally a Latin grammar school. The purpose of this school was to prepare him for the university, from which he might well emerge as one of the potential leaders of his country.

Instead of two separate and distinct educational systems for separate and distinct classes, the United States provided one system open to everyone… stinctly egalitarian idea. As in mid-19th-century Europe, women were slowly gaining educational ground in the United States. “Female academies” established by such pioneers as Emma Willard (1787-1870) and Catharine Beecher (1800-78) prepared the way for secondary education for women. In 1861, Vassar, the first real college for women, was founded. Even earlier, in 1833, Oberlin College was founded as a coeducational college, and in 1837, four women began to study there. In the mid-19th century there was yet another change in education.

The secondary-school curriculum, that had been slowly expanding since the founding of the academies in the mid-18th century, virtually exploded. But the voice of practicality cried out again. A new society, complicated by the latest discoveries in the physical and biological sciences and the rise of industrialism and capitalism, called for more and newer kinds of knowledge. By 1861 as many as 73 subjects were being offered by the Massachusetts secondary schools. People still believed that the mind could be “trained,” but they now thought that science could do a better job than the classics could.

The result was a curriculum that was virtually saturated with scientific instruction. The mid-19th-century knowledge explosion also modestly affected some of the common schools, which expanded their curriculum to include such courses as science and nature study. The content of instruction in the common school, beyond which few students went, consisted of the material in a relatively small number of books: assorted arithmetic, history, and geography texts, Webster’s American Spelling Book, and two new books that appeared in 1836 the “First” and “Second” in the series of McGuffey’s Eclectic Readers.

Whereas The New England Primer admonished children against sin, the stories and poems in the readers pressed for the moral virtues. Countless children were required to memorize such admonitions as “Work while you work, play while you play. One thing each time, that is the way. ” In the early days, the common schools consisted of one room where one teacher taught pupils ranging in age from 6 to about 13 and sometimes older. The teacher instructed the children separately, not as a group. The good teacher had a strong right arm and an unshakable determination to cram information into his pupils.

Once the fight to provide free education for all children had been won, educators turned their attention to the quality of that education. To find out more about learning and the learning process, American schools looked to Europe. In the 1860s, they discovered, and for about 20 years were influenced, by Pestalozzi. His belief was that the goal of education should be the natural development of the individual child, and that educators should focus on the development of the child rather than on memorization of subject matter that he or she was unable to understand.

Pestalozzi’s school also mirrored the idea that learning begins with firsthand observation of an object and moves gradually toward the remote and abstract realm of words and ideas. The teacher’s job was to guide, not distort, the natural growth of the child by selecting his experiences and then directing those experiences toward the realm of ideas. The general effect on the common schools was to shift the emphasis from memorization of abstract facts to the firsthand observation of real objects. Pestalozzi’s diminishing influence roughly coincided with the rapid expansion of the cities.

By the 1880s the United States was absorbing several million immigrants a year, a human flood that created new problems for the common school. The question confronting educators was how to impart the largest amount of information to the greatest number of children in the shortest possible time. This new, more practical goal of educators and the means through which they attained it were reflected in the new schools they built and in the new teaching practices they adopted. Out of necessity, the one-room common school was replaced by larger schools.

To make it easier and faster for one teacher to instruct many students, there had to be as few differences between the children as possible. Since the most conspicuous difference was age, children were grouped on this basis, and each group had a separate room. To discourage physical activity that might disrupt discipline and interrupt the teaching process, to encourage close attention to and absorption of the teacher’s words, and to increase eye contact, the seats were arranged in formal rows. For good measure, they frequently were bolted to the floor.

It is not surprising, at about this time, when the goal of education was to expedite the transfer of information to a large number of students, that the normal schools began to fall under the influence of Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841). For him, education was neither the training of faculties that exist ready-made in the mind nor a natural unfolding from within. Education was instruction literally a building into the mind from the outside. The building blocks were the materials of instruction the subject matter.

The builder was the teacher. The job of the teacher was to form the child’s mind by building into it the knowledge of man’s cultural heritage through the teaching of such subjects as literature, history, science, and mathematics. Since the individual mind was presumably formed by building into it the products of the collective mind, methods of instruction were concerned wholly with how this was to be done. Herbart’s interest lay in determining how knowledge could be presented so that it would be understood and therefore retained.

He insisted that education must be based on psychological knowledge of the child so that he could be instructed effectively. The essence of his influence probably lay not so much in his carefully evolved five-step lesson plan but in the basic idea of a lesson plan. Such a plan suggested the possibility of evolving a systematic method of instruction that was the same for all pupils. Perhaps Herbart’s emphasis on the importance of motivating pupils to learn whether through presentation of the material or, failing that, through rewards and punishments also influenced the new teaching methods of the 1880s and 1890s.

The new methods, combined with the physical organization of the school, represented the direct opposite of Pestalozzi’s belief that the child’s innate powers should be allowed to develop naturally. Rather, the child must be lopped off or stretched to fit the procrustean curriculum. Subjects were graded according to difficulty, assigned to certain years, and taught by a rigid daily timetable. The amount of information that the child had absorbed through drill and memorization was determined by how much could be extracted from him by examinations. Reward or punishment came in the form of grades.

At the end of the 19th century the methods of presenting information had thus been streamlined. The curriculum had been enlarged and brought closer to the concerns of everyday life. Book learning had been supplemented somewhat by direct observation. And psychological whipping in the form of grades had perhaps diminished any physical whipping. In one respect, however, the schools of the late 19th century were no different from those, say, of the Middle Ages: they were still based on who adults thought children were or should be, not who they really were.

Before the 20th century, the ideas of such men as Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Froebel, and, in the United States, Francis W. Parker (1837-1902) had caused little more than rumblings beneath the floor of the traditional schoolhouse. Because of John Dewey (1859-1952), they gathered force, and in the 1920s and 1930s new and old ideas collided right in the middle of the classroom. Some of the schools, where neat rows of subdued children had sat immobilized in their bolted-down seats listening to a teacher armed with textbook, lesson plan, grade book, and disciplinary ruler, became buzzing places where virtually everything moved, including the chairs.

The children were occupied in groups or worked by themselves, depending on what they were doing. Above all, they were always doing: reading a favorite book, writing, painting, or learning botany by tending, observing, and discussing the plants they were growing. The teacher moved around the room, asking and answering questions, giving a child the spelling of a word he wanted to write or the pronunciation of a word he wanted to read, and in general acting as a helpful guide for the children’s chosen activities. The chattering and noise and activity were signs that the children were excited about and absorbed by what they were doing.

They were, in fact, learning by doing. Dewey maintained that the child is not born with a ready-made faculty called thinking, which needs the exercise of repeated drill to make it as strong as the adult faculty. Nor, he said, is the mind a blank tablet on which knowledge is impressed. Mind thinking or intelligence is, according to Dewey, a developing, growing thing. And the early stages of growth and of knowledge are different from the later stages. The development of the mind begins with the child’s perception of things and facts as they are related to himself, to his personal, immediate world.

A dog is his dog or his neighbor’s dog; it is something furry and warm, something to hug, feed, and play with. The child may recognize the fact that though his neighbor’s dog looks different from his, they are both dogs. When he sees a wolf at the zoo, he may decide that his dog is a nicer and friendlier animal than the wolf. The child’s zoological knowledge is thus organized around his own experiences with particular animals and his perceptions of similarities and differences between those experiences; it is psychologically organized knowledge.

The last step in the growth of intelligence is the ability to organize facts logically, that is, in terms of their relationship to one another. The formulated, logically organized knowledge of the zoologist is that both the wolf and the domesticated dogs belong to the family Canidae, order Carnivora; that the dogs belong to the genus Canis and species familiaris; and that one dog belongs to the sporting breed spaniel, the other to the working breed collie. Presented to the child in this form, however, the study of zoology has no relation to the animals he plays with, feeds, and observes.

His own experience outside of school does not bring the information to life, and the information does not enrich and extend his own experience. It represents another world entirely a world of empty words. All he can do, therefore, is memorize what he reads and is told. He is not developing the power to think. To stimulate the growth of intelligence rather than stifle it, as Dewey saw it, education must begin not at the end but at the beginning of the growth process; that is, with activity that engages the whole child mentally, socially, physically, and emotionally.

In the school, as in his extra-curricular activities, it is the process of doing something that has meaning for the child handling, making, growing, observing. The purpose of the school, however, is not to re-create an environment of relatively random activity but to create an environment where activities are carefully chosen to promote the development of intelligence. Carefully selected and guided, they become nets for gathering and retaining knowledge.

Instead of presenting children with an already packaged study of elementary science, Dewey might well have recommended that they study life in an aquarium. The child’s natural curiosity should lead to such questions as, “Why does the fish move his mouth like that? Is he always drinking? ” His search for the answer will lead his intelligence in the same direction as that taken by the scientist the direction of formulated conclusions based on observation of the phenomenon.

He will be learning the method as well as the subject matter of science; learning to think as a scientist does. Moreover, the inquiry process need not be confined to one narrow area of knowledge but can be guided naturally by the teacher into investigations of fishing and then, conceivably (depending on the maturity of the young learner), of the role of the sea in the life of man. The barriers between “subjects” thus break down as the child’s curiosity impels him to draw upon information from all areas of human knowledge.

Books, films, recordings, and other such tools serve this end. Learning the skills reading, writing, spelling, and arithmetic can be made meaningful to the child more easily if he is not forced through purposeless mechanical exercises, which, he is told, are important as a preparation for activities in later life. He should be led to discover that in order to do something he recognizes to be important right now, he needs certain skills. If he wants to write a letter, he must know how to spell; if he wants to make a belt, he must know how to measure the leather correctly.

Of course, Dewey was not suggesting that in order to learn an individual must restate the whole history of the human race through personal inquiry. While the need for a background of direct experiences is great in elementary school, as children get older they should become increasingly able to carry out intellectual investigations without having to depend upon direct experiences. The principle of experiencing does apply, however, to the elementary phase of all subjects even when the learner is a high-school or college student or an adult.

The purpose is to encourage in the learner a habitual attitude of establishing connections between the everyday life of human beings and the materials of formal instruction in a way that has meaning and application. The measuring and comparative grading of a student’s assumed abilities, processes that reflect the educator’s desire to assess the “results” of schooling, are incompatible with Dewey’s thinking. The quantity of what is acquired does not in itself have anything to do with the development of mind. The “quality of mental process, not the production of correct answers,” he wrote, “is the measure of educative growth.

Because it is a process, learning is cumulative, and cannot be forced or rushed. For Dewey, the educative growth of the individual assures the healthy growth of a society. A society grows only by changes brought about by free individuals with independent intelligence and resourcefulness. The beginning of a better society, then, lies in the creation of better schools. At about the same time that a few pioneering schools of the 1920s were trying to put Dewey’s theories into practice, the “testing” movement, which started in about 1910, was working up steam.

The child had first become the object of methodical scientific research in 1897, when experiments conducted by Joseph M. Rice suggested that drill in spelling did not produce effective results. By 1913 Edward L. Thorndike had concluded that learning was the establishment of connections between a stimulus and a response and that the theory of mental faculties was nonsense. Alfred Binet, in 1905, published the first scale for measuring intelligence. During the 1920s, children began to be given IQ (intelligence quotient) and achievement tests on a wide scale and sometimes were carefully grouped by ability and intelligence.

Many of the spelling and reading books they used, foreshadowing the 1931 Dick and Jane readers, were based on “controlled” vocabularies. After the shock Americans felt when the Soviets launched the first space satellite (Sputnik) in 1957, criticism of the schools swelled into loud demands for renewed emphasis on content mastery. The insistence on cognitive “performance” and “excellence” accomplished four things. It increased competitive academic pressures on students at all levels.

It stimulated serious and sustained interest in preschool education, which manifested itself in various ways from the revival of the Montessori method in the 1960s to the preschool television series Sesame Street in 1969. In addition, it created a new interest in testing, this time in such forms as national assessments of student performance, experiments with programmed materials, and attempts to gauge when children could begin to read. And it stimulated interest in the application of technology and instructional systems to education as a means of improving student instruction. It was practical to open up new avenues of education… United States was in competition with the Soviet Union.

The Space Race was well on its way and America needed to change the way they learned. And practicality was the key. From the 18th century onward, as knowledge of the world increased, new subjects had been added and old ones split up into branches. Later, new combinations of courses resulted from the attempt to put the scattered pieces of knowledge back together again. The purpose was to make knowledge more rational and meaningful so that it could be understood instead of mechanically memorized. It also encouraged young learners to begin to think and inquire as scholars do.

In other words, many of the new programs developed for use in the schools, particularly in the 1960s, stressed the inquiry approach as a means of mastering a body of knowledge and of creating a desire for more knowledge. Resistance to the 1954 United States Supreme Court decision terminating segregation placed the schools in the middle of a bitter and sometimes violent dispute over which children were going to attend what schools. By 1965, when a measure of genuine integration had become a reality in many school districts, the schools again found themselves in the eye of a stormy controversy.

This time the question was not which children were going to what schools but what kind of education society should provide for the students. The goal of high academic performance, which had been revived by criticisms and reforms of the 1950s and early 1960s, began to be challenged by demands for more “humane,” “relevant,” and “pressure-free” schooling. Many university and some high-school students from all ethnic groups and classes had been growing more and more frustrated — some of them desperately so — over what they felt was a cruel and senseless war in Vietnam and a cruel, discriminatory, competitive, loveless society at home.

They demanded curriculum reform, improved teaching methods, and greater stress and action on such problems as overpopulation, pollution, international strife, deadly weaponry, and discrimination. Pressure for reform came not only from students but also from many educators. While students and educators alike spoke of the need for greater “relevance” in what was taught, opinions as to what was relevant varied greatly.

The blacks wanted new textbooks in which their people were recognized and fairly represented, and some of them wanted courses in black studies. They, and many white educators, also objected to culturally biased intelligence and aptitude tests and to academic college entrance standards and examinations. Such tests, they said, did not take into account the diverse backgrounds of students who belonged to ethnic minorities and whose culture was therefore different from that of the white middle-class student.

Whites and blacks alike also wanted a curriculum that touched more closely on contemporary social problems and teaching methods that recognized their existence as individual human beings rather than as faceless robots competing for grades. Alarmed by the helplessness and hopelessness of the urban ghetto schools, educators began to insist on curricula and teaching methods flexible enough to provide for differences in students’ social and ethnic backgrounds. In this way, egalitarianism entered into the education system.

Rather than keeping whites and blacks segregated in the schools, egalitarianists provided a way for the two groups to co-exist equally. In this case, the standards were raised instead of lowered in order to promote this new equality. Previously, whites and blacks studied on very different levels. Unfortunately, blacks were not given the same opportunities as whites were… and they did not receive the attention needed to improve the environment in which they studied.

Things changed, however, when egalitarianists raised the standards to promote equality. Clearly, the American education system has changed drastically over the years. From one-room schoolhouses to acres of college campus… from Pestalozzi to Dewey… from simple religious studies to graduate programs, education has been influenced by many different factors, such as egalitarianism, wisdom of the heart, and most importantly, practicality. “Necessity is the mother of invention”, they say… Just as practicality is the mother of educational reform.

Life in a High School

Cliques are small groups of between two and twelve individuals. Cliques are small enough that the members feel that they know each other better than do people outside the clique. Members of a clique share common activities and friendships. They are social settings in which adolescents hang out, talk to each other, and form closer friendships. Groups of friends, called cliques can be important for social upgrading, but in most cases the enormous power and effects of these cliques can create alienation, exclusion , and destructive results.

In my high school , as well as every other high school in America there are social groups of individuals, called cliques , that effect every individual whether they are an insider or an outsider. Generally there are the cool cliques , the athletic cliques, the freak clique, the skater clique, the smart clique, and the average clique. Almost everyone finds their place in one of these cliques, but there are always a few outsiders who go through high school never knowing where they belong. these are the people who are constantly ridiculed, picked on , and talked about day in and day out.

The effects can be devastating, even deadly. In Littleton, Coloraldo two outcast teenagers came into school one day and began shooting, targeting the athletes and other students who had made their lives awful by ridiculing them constantly. Seniors Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold stormed their suburban Denver school with guns and bombs last April 20, killing 12 students and a teacher before taking their own lives(Kenworthy 1). Augustana University education professor Larry Brendtro explained kids who feel powerless and rejected are capable of doing horrible things(Cohen 4).

A high school student, Jason Sanchez understands why the two outsider snapped by saying If you go to school, and you dont have friends, it drives you to insanity(Cohen 4). So what do these lonely outcast kids do if they are rejected by everyone? Roger Rosenblatt discusses in his article, Welcome to the Works of the Trench Coat , how kids will discover self-worth by hating an enemy(Rosenblatt 1). The kids of Columbine for example look alike; they conceal differences. People who are attracted to clans and cults seek to lose their individuality and discover power and pride in a group.

As individuals , the killers Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, were vulnerable, taunted by the other tribes in school– the cliques, the athletes– as geeks and nerds(Rosenblatt 1). The end result as a young girl involved in the murders reported was , He just put a gun to my head, and he started laughing and saying it was all because people were mean to him last year(Rosenblatt 1). The social warfare of cliques has no limits or boundaries; anything can and will happen. Columbine High School is only one example of how high school cliques can be damaging to teenagers.

At Glen Ridge High School a group of jocks raped a retarded woman. In that attractive upper-middle-class New Jersey suburb, thirteen jocks were present in the basement where the young womans body was penetrated by a baseball bat and a broomstick. The country was sickened by the inhumanity of a bunch of guys who were among the most admired and envied young men in their community and high school (Lefkowitz 653). These star athletes were not even afraid of being punished. They told their friends and schoolmates of the incident not trying to hide it at all.

Athletes are treated as kings of the school. This is not only true for the athletes , but for the cheerleaders too. In the article by Adam Cohen he says While others plod through high school, they glide: their exploits celebrated in the pep rallies and recorded in the school paper and trophy cases(Cohen 2). Another high school student Blake McConnell says that The jocks and the cheerleaders have the most clout, they get out of punishment — even with the police. Joe Blow has a wreck and has been drinking, and he gets the book thrown at him.

The quarterback gets busted, and he gets a lighter sentence ( Cohen 2). How does this prepare the so called stars for the real world whenever they are just an average working man? How does this make the normal and less special students feel? What about the smart people, where is their recognition for all their hard work and success? Cohen noted that assemblies to honor the best students rarely lasted twenty minutes. The school yearbook displayed ten photographs of the most mediocre football player. But the outstanding scholar was lucky to get one grainy photo ( Lefkowitz 654).

This is leaving the impression on many teens that the jocks are superior while everyone else is below them. What kind of lasting impression will this leave on the kids? Lefkowitz stated in her essay, I received hundreds of letters from people, some in their seventies and eighties, who recalled how excluded they felt when their schools anointed one group of guys as leaders(Lefkowitz 654). High school teaches us all many important lessons that stay with us all through our life, and sometimes the lessons inside the classroom are the least of it. High school is a chance for us all to invent ourselves.

High school for me was the best of times, even though when I was still in school and someone told this to me I just thought they were crazy. My senior prom, the football games, the pep rallies, and even the trouble I got into are all memories that I will look back upon for the rest of my life and just think how great life was then. I guess though while I was caught up in all the fun and games of high school I never stopped and noticed all the people being left behind. The people who remember high school as pain and suffering. The outsiders that we all picked on not stopping to realize what we had cost them, the best years of their lives.

Bilingual Education Essay

English only–sink or swim? Yeah right! Instead of English Only Advocates worrying about bilingual education cost in our school system, why not take advantage of the skills our ethnic minorities possess to move our economy forward? They are obviously not thinking clearly, because the benefit of bilinguals, significantly outweigh the bad. To deny our youth the opportunity for upward mobility and skill to become more marketable in a worldwide capacity is inhumane. They believe bilinguals threaten to sap our sense of national identity and divide us along ethnic lines.

They also fear that any government recognition of minority languages sends the wrong message to immigrants, encouraging them to believe they can live in the U. S. A. without learning English or conforming to The American way. That is an overt, racist, and paranoid view, dont you think? The most significant issues that support bilingual education for students ability to assimilate in the mainstream culture are, the development of students linguistic resources and preserve their cultural heritage, contributions to the American economy, and diversity.

The development of a students language and preservation of their culture is essential for the upward mobility of todays youth. There always have been some immigrants who viewed themselves explicitly as the preserver and savior of their languages and heritages. Since the late 1800s, ethnic minorities in America have been consistently characterized as culturally inferior. Their language right has consistently been the subject of political review. Politicians do not have (PCC(SW) Taylor/16603/Mr. Jones/Small Group 2/23 Feb 00 the right to force people to master their language and values just because they are the dominant society.

They should encourage and support students to the attainment of bilingual or multilingual skills. They should also consider that students coming from homes where two or more languages are used will face difficulty in applying while in the school environment. The fact that so few Americans command any other language than English is largely a result of educational failure and cultural inadequacies. The American economy will benefit from bilingual education because historically multilingual personnel are smarter, academic skills are sharper, and their contributions to society are immeasurable.

English is the one language that offers the biggest market, the largest pool of talent, and the greatest probability of being able to communicate with anyone on the planet. Bilingual education is a tool for better education that children whose primary language is not English learn more easily. Industry and Information Technology dance to English lyrics. Students will have no future in the Information Technology field if they cannot command English as an effective medium of communication. Furthermore, good bilingual programs are about more than learning a language.

They should be based on a respect for diversity and multiculturalism, and parents and community must be essential partners. (Rethinking schools Vol 1. 13, #2. ). Over 80% of todays Internet WEB pages, databases and other enhancing computer programs are in English. It is in the best interest of all countries to ensure their children are bilingual and computer literate. Diversity in todays society is essential to the success of this nation. The lack of bilingual personnel has most recently created major problems for U. S. security agencies.

Specifically, Of the more than 500,000 American troops deployed to the Persian Gulf during Operation Desert Storm, the Department of Defense was able to identify just 45 U. S. military personnel with any Iraqi language backgrounds, and only 5 of these were trained in intelligence operations (James Crawfords homepage). The statement above is a perfect example of why it is important to possess the ability to read, write and speak in foreign languages. Those who oppose such diversity really must take timeout to reevaluate their philosophy.

Their views are closed minded, stupid, and most importantly serve to cripple this nations ability to remain a super power. It does not take a rocket scientist to know that multilingual personnel are generally smarter than those who only speak one language. They possess the intelligence to mix in a wide variety of cultures and share their experience with America. So I say again, why not support bilingual education? Bilingual education gives jobs and local power to members of the non-English speaking community. It also reinforces childrens identification with members of their own ethnic group.

The abilities of multilingual personnel should be exploited at all costs. I personally favor maintenance and enrichment of bilingual education. Unfortunately, the opposition of bilingualism has a great influence to change the political viewpoint. Overall we discussed the development of students linguistic resources and preserve their cultural heritage, contributions to the American economy, and diversity. As Equal Opportunity Advisors, we must exhaust every effort to ensure our students regardless of ethnicity are afforded the opportunity to explore preserve their cultural heritage.

Additionally we must push bilingualism to assimilate ethnic minority personnel into the mainstream of society. In other words, it would not impose a substantial benefit on a child to learn subject matter in two languages? No matter what the theoretical conclusions may be on bilingual education, ethnic minorities should be individually consulted and have the final word in deciding for themselves. They should be afforded the opportunity to judge for themselves, if it is in their best interest and the future to take advantage of the possibility of bilingual education for their children.

Argumentative Essay: Educational Reform

Since the early 1980’s, the issue of America’s faltering public school system has become a serious concern. The crisis in K-12 education is one of the biggest challenges facing the nation. There is a great deal of evidence to show this problem. The pathetically low results of American students through international test scores is one obvious fault. Another is the failure of many students to demonstrate their knowledge of basic skills and literacy. It is surprising that such a long time has passed without any sufficient effort put forth to correct the problem.

Even more surprising, is the fact that some deny that such a problem exists. The failure of the nation to adequately educate the students of America has an endless list of negative effects. With the lack of proper education, generations of kids are growing up without the basic, essential knowledge to be able to compete in the workplace. As a result of this, the U. S. stands a chance in losing its superpower reign of the world. Therefore, it is not only a social concern, but also a major economical issue. Another alarming concern is the high rate of student dropouts.

Now, nstead of all students receiving a poor education, some are not getting one at all. The main cause for this is the students’lack of interest in school. So much of the teaching that goes on today is based on rote and memorization. Not all learning can be exciting, and sometimes memorizing things is necessary. Although teachers should find other ways of getting the information to the students. When students are taught like this, they get bored and tired of school, and this is why they dropout. Obvoiusly, if they drop out of school, they probably aren’t going to earn there degree.

However, if more kids do earn heir high school degrees, the country would have less unemployment. More people in the workplace then leads to a stronger and more stable economy. If our society could find a way to keep more kids in school, our country would prosper, and the educational system on a whole, would be much better. Inner-city inequality produces a great deal of problems in all aspects of life. One way it shows up continuously is in education. Although many people realize this problem, nothing is being done to improve it. Statistics show that wealthy school districts offer much better opportunities for their tudents.

This increases the gap in the social status of America by educating the wealthy and leaving the others with the low paying jobs. This could quite possibly wipe out the entire middle class, leaving a huge gap between the upper and lower classes. While we accept inequality as a problem, we have not yet acted upon it seriously enough. Until some serious action is taken, and poorer schools are offered better oppourtunities, the education in America has no chance at becoming better. Of course with such a highly diverse population, all people are not going to agree with each other.

Those people that do not acknowledge the nation’s educational program to be defective must have their own reasons for believing what they do. They might bring up the fact that the educational system has been good enough to make the nation the most powerful country in the world. Therefore, why change something that has produced such excellent results? What they fail to realize, though, is that the other first world countries are constantly trying to catch up with the U. S. So we must take precautions, constantly improve the education, and not take our power for ranted.

Everything we live for was not just handed to us. Our forefathers worked extremely hard to put us where we are today. The world is always evolving and advancing technologically. Therefore, our generations of America must also work hard to keep up with the advances. Unfortunately, we have slipped behind in the area of education. Although we will not find a simple solution to our faulty educational system, something has to be done. What better place to start then accepting the fact that it is the biggest challenge facing the nation today?

Teacher Certification Essay

The whole issue of teacher certification is one of great importance and when discussed must be done in a delicate and thoughtful manner. The reason for this increasing importance is because the education of our nations teachers is important to the creation of an ideal education system, which is one of the goals of our national government and State governments. Over the years the whole educational reform movement has become an increasingly “hot” topic. Reforms in the administration of school systems and in curriculum theory and practice have been asked for and a4re currently being put into effect.

Recently, reform of the education of teachers is being added to the lo9ng list of reforms needed. Many reform activists feel that direct changes need to be made on the methods of training and certifying the teachers of our country. Before looking at the reform movement, however, one must first look at the so called problem of inconsistency in teacher certification. In our country today there is a general consistency among the requirements for state certification of teachers. Most states require their teacher institutions to establish a teacher education program that includes coursework and fieldwork.

The coursework includes those courses that prepare a student to become a professional teacher and those classes that include major and minor fields of specialization. Fieldwork, which is probably the most important of the two forms of requirements, involves the individual interested in being a teacher going out and observing, practicing, and preparing to enter the educational world as an instructor. There is no argument that all schools in every state has these basic requirements of teacher certification.

However, the inconsistency lies within how the numerous institutions go about in teaching these requirements. Each post-secondary school is given the jurisdiction to choose how they are going to go about meeting these basic teacher certification requirements. For example, many states require a different amount of field hours. An inconsistency can also be seen in the various models of teacher education that are used throughout the nation. Two education researchers, Howey and Zimpher conducted a study on this variety of models in 1989. They came up with three different attempts of teacher training.

The first, known as the teachers college model, involves certification students entering a separate school within a university that is a “teachers college”. The second approach is called the liberal arts model by the researchers, and is a method that requires and individual to become specialized in a certain liberal arts subject in order to create “capable and cultured human beings”. The third and final model discussed by Howley and Zimpher is entitled the competency-based model. This method trains individuals in the arts o motivation and understanding.

As one can see by this case study, there have been a variety of approaches to teacher certification. An inconsistency can similarly be detected by looking at the various new and innovative ideas in teacher education. Among these include the alternative route, a topic discussed earlier, and the five-year degree program, and issue to be discussed shortly in this section. Altogether, one could state that there is some inconsistency in teacher certification, and this inconsistency brings about a small problem in the educational spectrum of our world. In my opinion, there is no national and universal set of requirements for teacher certification.

The variety of different methods and forms of teacher education programs is causing an inconsistency in how teachers are being trained nationwide. When this is realized, the whole issue of reforming teacher certification becomes very relevant to our society. As stated earlier, reforms in the training of future teachers are beginning to really be requested by the general public. Various groups have met to discuss the various issues surrounding the reform movement. Among the most notable are the Holmes Group, the Association of American Colleges of Teacher Education (AACTE), the Education Commission of the States (ECS), and Goodlads group.

These various groups and many others have come up with a variety of reforms and new standards that most likely should and will be integrated into the current teacher certification requirements. One certain similarity that all of these recommendations have with each other is that they all call for higher regulations and an increase in the education of future teachers. Many of the group0s called for an increase in providing individuals knowledge on the profession of teachi8ng, and some groups also called for a more intense training in the various fields under a liberal arts education.

Increases in the amount of fieldwork required seems to also be a major issue discussed by the reform groups. The issue of selection under standardized testing was also discussed, with respect to increasing the required SAT/ACT or GRE scores. Finally, the research groups came up with various new ideas involving the creation of professional teaching schools or tiered systems that would require a teacher to go through more training even after they received their bachelors degree. All in all, these reform groups have come up with some very unique and interesting ideas to change teacher certification for the better.

It is the best interest of our nation to make changes in our current teacher education program, for, in this case, change would be for the better. To conclude, I would like to take a brief but in depth look at an innovative idea established by the Maine State Department of Education in conjunction with the University of Southern Maine. This program, entitled the Extended Teacher Education Program, involves future teachers continuing on for a fifth year after completing their undergraduate studies. This fifth year involves the individual taking part in internships.

These internships give the future teachers a chance at more fieldwork in order to gain more experiences before they become full fledged teachers. Nonetheless, the results of the initial year of the program seem to indicate that the idea around this new program is a successful one. Those individuals who took part in the program obtained various skills and understandings that all ideal teachers should have. The excellent outcomes of this program leads one to believe that it might be a good idea to implement this structure nationwide. The idea of creating professional schools for teachers has become a popular one in recent times.

After all if doctors and lawyers have to go to a professional school, then shouldnt teachers as well? In conclusion, the issue of teacher training and certification brings up many questions, especially in reference to reforming. The inconsistent and somewhat outdated education of teachers today needs change, in order to create an ideal educational system. Numerous reforms have been discussed and recommended by various research organizations and now is the time to take action and implement some of these reforms before our education systems continue to fall downwards into the depths of degradation. Change I needed and change must come now.

Multicultural Education: Piecing Together the Puzzle

When a child opens his (or her) first puzzle and the pieces fall to the ground, it may seem very confusing. What are they to do with this pile of shapes in front of them? It often takes a parent to explain to them that all the different pieces fit together into one whole picture. Although every piece is different and unique, when they are all put into their place they form one whole picture. In the same way, teachers can teach multiculturalism in the classroom. Although every member of our society is unique, with different cultural backgrounds, we all fit together to form one unit.

As stated by Noel 1995), Understanding our own identity and the culture of our community requires knowledge and recognition of our cultures and communities and how they have shaped us (p. 267). By adding a multicultural component to their curriculums, teachers can help students see how each individual fits into the big picture. There are, however, arguments against multicultural education (Banks, 1995). For example, some critics believe that multicultural education is directed toward only minority groups, thus discriminating against middle class, white, heterosexual males.

Others believe that multiculturalism is against Western and democratic ideals. A final argument is the claim that multiculturalism will divide our presumably united nation. Although critics of multicultural education may feel they have valid arguments against the issue, I feel that the goals of multicultural education make it an important part of the curriculum that every student should experience. I agree with Wurzel (1988) and Noel (1995) when they stress awareness as a key component to multiculturalism.

Students must become aware of their own culture and how they are similar and different from others. Awareness also involves an understanding of issues involving differences in culture and a nowledge of which of these issues are present in their community. After becoming aware of these issues, students often react emotionally. With an awareness of the richness and variety of cultures in their community and a personal emotional reaction, students can take social action, another goal of multicultural education (Noel, 1995).

Noel says that students would take action aimed at positive multicultural change(p. 272). I feel that these goals are proof that the arguments against multicultural education are invalid (Banks, 1995). Multiculturalism promotes positive change for persons of all cultures. It involves not only teaching majority groups about minorities, but also teaching minority groups about the majority groups. It has its base in democratic ideals such as equality, freedom, and justice.

Multiculturalism will unite our divided nation into one unit which will have no mainstream culture, but many diverse subcultures which will cooperate for the good of everyone, not just the majority or the minority. I feel very strongly that multiculturalism should be included in all curricula. My school experience (until college) didn’t include multicultural perspectives and I feel as if I missed out on some important things. I often feel a little clueless when confronted with situations involving people different from me.

Without some knowledge of our surroundings, how can we be expected to survive in society? This question reveals one of the purposes of education, survival. Learning about the other people who share our community is an essential part of this survival in modern society. Multiculturalism becomes increasingly important as our society becomes more diverse. In the past (Lynch, 1989), efforts to provide multicultural content to students have, as critics feared, created more diversity and tension among groups. However, more recent methods are aimed at creating relations based on commonalities.

Lynch (1989) suggests providing a basis of common knowledge, skills, and insights about the things that all human societies should hold in common (p. 43). Stressing similarities will unify groups with differences. Davidman (1994) defines the goals of multicultural education as: (1) educational equity; (2) empowerment of students and their parents; (3) cultural pluralism in society; (4) … understanding and harmony in the classroom, school, and community; (5) an expanded knowledge of various cultural and ethnic roups; and (6) the development of students, parents, and practitioners… uided by an informed and inquisitive multicultural perspective (p. 2).

Just as the goals stated by other crusaders for multiculturalism, Davidson’s goals follow a specific order and stress knowledge, understanding, and equality. I believe that it is very necessary and completely conceivable for our education systems to move toward a multicultural curriculum. By following the goals I have mentioned, we can finally understand how the many pieces of our society fit together into one big picture.

Fraternaty Hazing Essay

Hazing in universities across the nation has become an increasingly dangerous ritual that is seemingly becoming more difficult to put an end to due to its development into an underground activity. Though a regular activity in the seventies, hazing, a possible dangerous act of initiation to a group, has now become an activity that is banned in thirty-nine states (Wagner 16). However, this ritual has not been stopped or become less severe. In fact it is becoming more dangerous.

Since it has been banned, with many colleges imposing their own penalties against those participating in it, many fraternities and sororities have pursued this activity in an underground fashion. Since these groups have gone underground, some victims of these rituals have been injured and subsequently died. This is due to the hazers not seeking medical treatment for the victims, for fear that they may be fined or charged by police or campus authorities. One estimate states that at least sixty-five students have died between the years of 1978 and 1996 from beatings and stress inflicted during fraternity initiation rites (Greek 26).

Hazing has been defined in the Pennsylvania Hazing Law as any action or situation which recklessly or intentionally endangers the mental or physical safety of a student or which destroys or removes public or private property for the purpose of initiation or admission into or affiliation with, or as a condition for continued membership in, any organization operating under the sanction of or recognized as an organization by an institution of higher education.

The term shall include, but not be limited to, any brutality of a physical nature, such as whipping, beating, branding, forced calisthenics, exposure to the elements, forced consumption of any food, liquor, drug, or other substance, or any forced physical activity which could adversely affect the physical health and safety of the individual, and shall include any activity which would subject the individual to extreme mental stress, such as sleep deprivation, forced exclusion from social contact, forced conduct which could result in extreme embarrassment, or any other forced activity which could adversely affect the mental health or dignity of the individual(Pennsylvania Hazing Law 1).

The importance of this hazing situation is the fact that people are being injured, both physically and mentally, causing death or lifelong trauma. Though it may seem like an easy to control situation, the truth is that it is not easy at all. The only times that these groups, who subject individuals to hazing activities, are caught or penalized is after the damage done to an individual is so horrible as to result in death or hospitalization. The act of hazing may consist of something as subtle as a pledge, one who is trying to become a part of the group, having to answer phones at a fraternity house to extreme hazing such as being severely beat with paddles or even bricks. Since hazing takes many forms, it is hard for the public to realize that these pledges are actually being harmed.

It is especially hard to see the mental abuse aspect of this situation. At times, pledges may be forced to wear humiliating items such as dog collars or diapers. It may look like an innocent prank, and may actually seem humorous, but stunts like this can deeply affect a person emotionally (Scleifer 42). Hazers in Greek societies have also been known to play the buzz-saw game in which a chainsaw is held inches away from a pledge until he/she screams in terror. This practice is used to instill respect, in the form of extreme fear, into the pledges (The Persistent Madness of Greek Hazing 14). Physical hazing, however, is where the most life threatening problems are occurring.

With groups such as Omega Psi Phi of the University of Florida, who whacked its inductees in the heads with boards, beat them with fists, and hit them with bricks, one can only expect catastrophic results. For example, in 1993, the members of Omega Psi Phi beat Joseph J. Snell, a junior at the University of Maryland with such objects as a hammer, a horsehair whip, a broken chair leg, and a brush. Later, Snell was forced to place a space heater next to his face because the group said that his skin was not black enough. Snell was hospitalized due to the incident. He remained scared and despondent after his release. He had even called a suicide hotline because of the mental anguish that was caused (Former Student Wins $375,000 23).

The hurt and confusion of a victim of mental and physical hazing can remain for years after the abuse. Yet, even after all the abuse, members of these organizations continue to feel that because they had to suffer through this act of initiation to get into the group, their successors must also be fall subject to these activities. Naturally, people want and need to be accepted. This is why an individual will go along with the hazing activities. Valerie Eastman, a behavioral science professor at Drury College in Springfield, MO, states You know youre a reasonable person and you just went through this nasty, unpleasant ritual, so you think the group must have been worth it. You try to justify it (Wagner 16).

Though some members in a fraternity or sorority may be against what is happening to these individuals, the codes of secrecy and brotherhood/sisterhood are so strong that they fear to break them and come forward to report these acts (Ruffins 18). Lydia Bradley, a strong advocate of anti-hazing laws and national speaker for placement of these laws, has interviewed students about the act of hazing in college. She reports, Im told that hazing unifies a group, that it is a rite-of-passage, that it builds brotherhood, that it is a tradition, or, the worst reason of all, that I went through it(Bradley 1). It is this type of attitude that hinders the expulsion of the hazing activities. We, as the public, are limited, both in our knowledge of what truly happens in these groups and the ability to stop it, by not personally becoming a member of them.

Though some of the fraternities that have been suspended for acting against these anti-hazing laws, they continue to operate underground and make no effort to change their behavior according to Stocktons Director of Student Development, Tom ODonnell (Kempert 12). As of yet, there are virtually no associations that actively monitor the actions of fraternities and sororities. They are trusted to act in a responsible manner. As stated in Hank Nuwers Broken Pledges: The Deadly Rite of Hazing, What possibly could be expected from a group of adolescents when you leave them alone to govern their own activities (Nuwer 34). One may parallel these activities to those expressed in William Goldings Lord of the Flies to what may happen when such adolescents are left unsupervised to run a members-only organization.

National Fraternities and sororities have neglected their parental responsibilities and have left pledging up to these adolescents. It is important that these actions are stopped by any reasonable means necessary. Since hazing has been a process that virtually all these members had been subject to, they will be reluctant to change. The idea of hazing has been placed in their heads as a test to foster unity, to instill a sense of membership, to promote scholarship, and to build awareness of the specific chapters history (Chenowith 20). Therefor, an alternative must be able to instill these exact qualities. Believers in the supposed benefits of hazing may be more likely to change their opinion if they can envision some alternatives.

In many cases, those who are most vocal against eliminating hazing are those who are bitter and angry about the hazing that they themselves endured, but dont want to eliminate this publicly. They expect others should be abused in order to gain true membership in the group. In this case, specific programs should be established to teach the devastating effects of hazing. A new sanction reduction policy has been established at Richard Stockton College of New Jersey to tackle some of the problems. The fraternities at this college that have been sanctioned for committing violations are now able to participate in a program that will possibly reduce their sanctions.

This OPTIONS program offers students to take one of two four-credit elective courses: The Psychology of Well Being, which explores principles of physical and mental health, or Alcohol 101, which teachers the dangerous effects of alcohol, especially those involved in college situations. Along with this, they had established a Greek self-study committee, through which a Greek Council was formed (Kempert 12).

This will educate students about the dangers they are placing on the pledges and change their ways while offering them the incentive of lowered sanctions at the same time. Incentives seem to be the best way to reach these organizations and hopefully it will subject them to the knowledge of what their actions may cause others. An alternative replacement to hazing activities would be another way to eliminate this problem. They could foster their unity in ways such as involving the whole group in a community charity.

By asking the pledges to involve themselves in charities, or present the group with specific ideas for charitable work, would show the pledges sense of commitment to the group, along with helping to show the public the goodness that can become of these groups (Crothers 50). Instead of making the pledges do chores or excessive exercise, why not promote scholarship by designating study hours.

What better way to prove an organizations worthiness but by setting an example scholastically. These fraternities or sororities could invite leaders of the national groups or advisors to speak at a meeting instead of forcing these pledges to incessantly recite names or worthless facts about the group they are pledging to. Many alternatives are out there; one just has to have the strength to bring it to mention. Of course other solutions such as the undercover spies have been thought of.

But, this would only seem to tear the organization apart and make them more careful in whom the choose as pledges, make them more dangerous and secretive in their activities, and less likely to help someone once they have been injured for fear of getting caught. A combination of incentives, alternatives, and a council to create a forum to discuss these alternatives to the hazing process is the most reasonable solution to this problem. Using otherwise sneaky tactics could only increase the problem and drive it further underground. As stated before, it can be hard to talk members into changes this tradition of the organization, but through time and education they will see its benefits. By performing such alternatives as previously mentioned, the dangerous hazing process will be eliminated and the good-side of these groups will become evident.

Working together on a project, such as one that will help the local community, will bring a sense of accomplishments to the members and a sense of pride to both the community and the institution (Kempert 12). Of course the only way these solutions could come into effect is if the organizations and the institution work together. The school has to realize tha. t, even if there has been no public incidences regarding hazing in their school, hazing probably does exist. It is this thought that should cause them to form some sort of incentive program of their own to counteract it. However, the members also have to take responsibility and go to the school for help in organizing the possible incentives and alternatives.

Neil Postman – Defending Against the Indefensible

Throughout the span of the past few weeks I have traversed the globe, visiting several countries and regions, only to realize that although new methods develop, language as a way of expressing ones self has remained the most effective. Despite this fact, language still has its pitfalls. Neil Postman, in his essay “Defending Against the Indefensible,” outlines seven concepts that can be used to aid a student in better understanding the language as a means of communication. He describes how modern teaching methods leave a student vulnerable to the “prejudices of their elders”, further stating that a good teacher must always be skeptical.

He urges teachers of all subjects to break free from traditional teachings as well as “linguistical tyranny” His first principle regards the process of definition. As I sit in an every day classroom I notice several things. Many, if not all student simply nod their heads while a teacher explains, be it a theory in Math, or a formula in Science. Not once have I encountered a student willing to raise their hand and question the definition, or meaning that a teacher has rambled off to them. Neil Postman states his feelings on this best when he writes, ” It is a form of stupidity when to accept without reflection someone elses definition.

He wants people to realize that definitions are not god given, and that to question the validity is acceptable. Upon looking in a dictionary at any word you will see that all have several meanings. The same may apply to our lives, while one definition may apply to you another may not. The ability to question a definition is a crucial part of communication. For example: in the practice of law a case might call for someone to define the freedom of press, and that very definition may mean two completely different things to two different people.

Postmans first principle was one that I feel needed to be addressed. Too often our teachers impose the same definition they learned, valid, or not. If one is not allowed to defend a definition, especially an unjust one, then communication becomes more difficult. “All the knowledge one could ever attain is by asking questions, so logically these questions should be properly formed. ” Postmans second principle involves the skill of question asking. Simply put, this means that the answer we get depends on the question we ask. How you phrase a question makes all the difference in the world.

A query asked in two separate ways can result in two completely different answers. “A question is the most important tool we have” states Postman. Take scientists for example. Their entire career is based on asking questions, stating a hypothesis, and furthermore, answering them by conducting experiments. Postman calls for the art of question asking to be infused with the current school curriculum, because to often students do not ask questions. When a student arrives at school on the first day they often notice many changes.

Although welcome, these changes sometimes make a student wonder why he or she was not asked if they….. would prefer them. This is the perfect example of how one phrases a question wrong. Although a student might voice their opinion by saying, “I would like a better school” they dont imply in which way they would like to achieve that. Although it was a noteworthy concept, I found it to have many flaws. Postman believes that this concept be put on high priority. He never examines how teachers are to teach this radical way of thinking.

There are other factors in a students high school career, and his ideas are not the only ones that need to be considered. Yet again I find that Postmans third concept is not in my favor either. He says that words previously thought simple to us, such as good, bad, and true, may be completely ignored by the common student. This is due to the fact that words like this have become commonplace causing a student to simply glaze over them. He asks that if vocabulary tests remain, then at least test a student on simple words.

Postman argues that if a student were to see hidden meaning in a word, then they could use it to their defense. It is my belief that Postman may be correct now, what about in the future. If attention were turned to smaller words, then surely our vocabulary will diminish, and the same thing that happened to words such as true, and false, will happen to words such as semantic, and pedagogical. Vocabulary tests should be left as they are. If a student wishes to study words of everyday use, read a book, or watch television.

The next principle was thought provoking as well. The use of a metaphor as a tool in education is rarely used, as Postman notes. “Unless our students are aware of how metaphors shape arguments, organize perceptions, and control feelings, their understanding is severely limited. Postman displays how most political speeches are laced with metaphors, and how teachers methods are shaped by a metaphor. A student who doesnt understand a metaphor, or when it is being applied tends to have a more closed outlook.

A metaphor, used as a communication skill, is best described in a political way. Think of Reagans Voodoo economics, or Bill Clinton building a bridge to the 21st century. Politicians can easily scam an ignorant voter, should one not understand a metaphor. For example: Clinton refers to building a bridge, but does not tell us with which tools he intends to build it with. This particular concept is valid alone for the above reason. Whether you are talking to a teacher or watching television, metaphors need to understand. The fifth concept is that of reification.

This means confusing words with things. We falsely associate simple words with things they dont even resemble. This occurs many times when we communicate. Sometimes used to exaggerate the importance of a detail when telling a story, or trying to increase the appeal of consumer goods. Postman wants reification to be taught in school so students may see the inner workings of it. Reification is a very potent thing in every day life, and the study of reification in school is an admirable thing. Students should be made wary of advertising gimmicks.

Prejudice, Racism and Education

Racism has been a steady problem all through time. One of the most troublesome areas of racism is in places of education. Finding a cure for this would be a major step towards ending racism in general. No one has ever thought of a solution yet, and racism will be strong as long as there isn’t one. It all started back when the colonists traded certain goods for slaves. They had never seen a black person before and thought of them as lower human beings because they did all of the colonists’ work for them. Since blacks were so low, they were never given a good education.

This lack of education continued throughout the centuries. Even in the 1700’s slaves were never taught how to read or write. In the 1800’s everyone’s feelings about slavery, good or bad, culminated in one big war, the American Civil War. During this period, the slaves really tried to break free from their past stereotypes. A small percentage of them taught themselves to read and write and they began to teach others. Some blacks even fought in the Civil War. The most educated were selected and several black units were formed.

Once the North had defeated the South in the war, the slaves were freed from bondage, however, that did not mean hat they would be free from the terrible prejudice that still permeated the country. Schools sprang up in all black areas but were not given the public funding that they needed and deserved. They were usually only one room and very dirty. They were given the oldest and most worn out books and equipment that were available. There weren’t even many teachers who were qualified and were willing to teach at an all black school.

Even though education was instituted for African Americans, which was a step in the right direction, it was a very small step and still didn’t give blacks the education they deserved. This treatment prevailed for many years after the Civil War. A new concept, segregation , evolved and was predominant from the late 1800’s through the first half of the 1900’s. Whites assumed that they were better than black people and didn’t want to be around them in anything they did. For example, in buses, whites were given privileged seating in front; but blacks had to sit in the back.

Moreover, if there were not enough front seats whites could preempt blacks from their back seats. There were separate restrooms, drinking fountains, stores and, of course, schools. Segregation remained the same for many years until one day in 1955 a black woman named Rosa Parks sat down in the front of a bus where all of the white people were sitting. When she was told to move to the back of the bus, she refused to budge. This action set off an uproar among blacks who questioned their rights for the first time. In the 1960’s, the governor of Alabama, George Wallace, was a militant supporter of segregation.

In 1963 two blacks, Vivian Jones and James Hood, sought admission to the traditionally segregated University of Alabama. According to legislation at the time, they had every right to go there; but ince the governor was so anti-black and pro segregation, he didn’t like it one bit. As the two black students prepared to enter the college, George Wallace stood in the doorway, blocking their way addressing the need for segregation. He refused to move, so the national guard was called in to restore order and admit Jones and Hood to the University of Alabama.

This was an important moment in black history because it marked the first time a black person had been admitted into an all white college. Although laws pertaining to civil rights were enacted that ended segregation, hatred and racism still continued; and it appears to be even tronger now than it ever has been. Today there is no legal segregation in colleges but a recent study revealed that most southern colleges remain segregated. In this day and age, there are many diverse ethnic groups and cultural backgrounds that populate the same colleges. With this great amount of people, there is naturally much tension between the many groups.

From this tension arises the hate groups on college campuses. Whether they are against whites, blacks or any other groups, they cause many problems in the steady flow of education. Although everyone has the freedom of speech, even if the majority isagrees with it, they do not have the freedom to do whatever they want to fellow human beings. These hate groups become uncontrollable when they assault or desecrate things that other races value. In October 1995, two black students from Rowan College in New Jersey were beaten on the college campus by a couple of white football players.

The fight occurred at the Study Hall pub when racial slurs were used against the black students. When the black students asked them to quit with the verbal assault, the football players drug them out to the football field and began to beat them until someone saw it happening. It was stopped immediately and the football players were escorted away. The two students suffered minor injuries and have recovered. The football players were kicked off the team and may even be suspended from the college if charges are filed. This is just one example of the racial prejudice in colleges, even in a small college of 9,000 students.

In a larger school the problems are understandably magnified. At Rutgers University in February, the school was racked with controversy. The president of Rutgers, Francis L. Lawrence, was caught saying that black students do worse on the SAT tests because they are enetically inferior to other students, particularly white ones. This incident spurred a protest on the floor of a basketball game between Rutgers and UMass at half-time. Soon hundreds of classmates streamed onto the court, forcing the suspension of the game. The one black woman, who started it, is now known as the Rosa Parks of Rutgers.

Lawrence was not reprimanded for his comments but this shows that even the leaders of schools are not free of prejudice. But, most of the time it does not matter how large the school is, just how many students are involved in the riots. Probably one of the biggest school iots in history was at the University of Massachusetts on October 27, 1986. The World Series had just ended, where the New York Mets beat the Boston Red Sox. Hundreds of students, many of them drunk, came pouring out of their dorms. White Red Sox fans began taunting and shoving black Mets fans.

After a while, a huge mob of 3,000 whites were running all over the campus, chasing and beating anyone they saw who was black. Luckily, only ten of the black students were severely injured, but that was ten too many. Black students now are facing the same oppression in schools as there was many years ago. Groups such as the Nazi skinheads make it very difficult for blacks to get a good education because they are constantly worried about being verbally or even physically assaulted. This, however, could be part of the problem says Shelby Steele, a black professor of English at San Jose State University.

He says that because of black feelings of inferiority, people have exaggerated the level of racism on some campuses and that blacks should try to move on with their lives rather than be pulled down to a lower level of petty fighting. “Instead of demonstrating for a black ‘theme house,’ black students ight be better off spending their time reading and studying. ” This kind of hatred is not peculiar to the colleges alone. Many teenagers who are either in the hate groups or have a lack of faith in equality are made this way through their high schools.

Many high schools are either all black or all white and influence the way that teens think. The all black schools even resemble the schools of old. They have minimal funding and substandard equipment. They are always in the worst neighborhoods and are filled with drugs and violence. In all white high schools, on the other hand, students are not ccustomed to being around blacks. This might be one of the reasons that blacks and whites do not mix well in colleges. In 1994, a principal from an Alabama high school opposed interracial couples’ attending his school’s prom.

The students and parents protested, saying that the kids had the right to take whoever they wanted to prom. Although he was fired as principal, his ideas have left their mark, that students should stay away from other races. He probably isn’t the only principal or authority figure that thinks this way. When students learn this behavior from high school and heir parents they take it on to college with them. When these diverse backgrounds get mixed together in college, many confrontations occur. The movie Higher Learning is a great example of the way many college campuses are today.

There are many groups of students going to the same school, ranging from whites to blacks to Asians and different religions such as Catholics, Jews, Muslims, etc. Of course, there are even hate groups. In the movie, a group of neo-nazis do not want to have anything to do with the blacks or Jews who go to that college. Usually the blacks tend to stay away from he group so as not to be a part of a fight but one can only take so much. There are numerous beatings and verbal assaults against the blacks; and, when they try to fight back the police always take for granted who started the fighting, and arrest the black “troublemakers”.

By the end of the movie, there is a peace march on the campus and the nazis don’t like it. The group persuades one of the members to go to the top of a large building with a gun and open fire on the peace marchers. He does and a black woman ends up getting shot. Her boyfriend runs to the top of the building and proceeds to beat the nazi. The cops find them both, drag the black man off and start to beat him as if he just picked a fight for no reason! As the cops approach the white student, he becomes frightened and sticks the gun in his mouth. He says if they come any closer he will shoot himself.

The movie ends with him actually shooting himself, which goes to show the confusion that most of these people have. Most of them probably don’t even know why they hate, they just know that is what they were brought up to think so it must be right. Obviously that is not the case. Even though this movie was fiction, the type of college campus it portrays is not. These kind of things are happening everywhere, and most of them aren’t even publicized. When one goes to college one would expect to go there to learn but that is not always the case, as often seen on the news.

Although there is widespread violence in college, it does not go unpunished. Many of these beatings and riots that are going on in recent times are broken up by the police before anyone seriously gets hurt. The people who partook in the crimes are usually apprehended and punished for their actions. Some people would say that the offenders are not punished well enough, because here has not been a decline in violence as of late. The court system has done little in improving the life on college campuses. A lot of the cases brought up are simply forgotten about because of “more important matters.

It is just a mere excuse on their behalf to support these kind of racist actions. “University administrators at many campuses prefer to ignore racial incidents or keep them out of the news. ” This kind of thinking is increasing the gap between races and putting more fuel on the fire of racism. This is not always the case, as seen in the Rowan College, Rutgers and UMass events. But, even when they show some action toward ending racism through fair decisions, there is a limit to what they can do. According to the first amendment, the hate groups that are formed do have a right to march, protest and show what they believe in.

There is no law against having a nazi flag or being a skinhead, but there are laws to prevent slander and violence. That is where the human nature of peacemaking comes in to play. Nearly every human wishes deep in their heart for peace on earth, with the exception of those who take part in the hateful actions mentioned before. Past peacemakers such as Martin Luther King Jr. ave struggled and even given their lives for the cause of peace; and because of this, blacks have a lot more rights and a higher acceptance in society than they did 30 or 40 years ago.

But they still do not have the full respect they deserve as fellow human beings, so more work is needed. Although nothing can be done about existing hate groups existence, there is hope for the next generation of people to be a lot more open-minded. The only way for that hope to be realized is if all the people of the nation, and even the world, band together and stop racism before it starts. By educating young children and bringing them up to know the difference between reality and ignorance. Programs are already in place in most schools that are not bias against other races or genders.

If there is a school that is predominantly black or Spanish, courses are set up to meet the needs of the children. Spanish and Spanish History are taught to Spanish children and black culture and history are taught to black children. “Even in colleges, many students are encouraged to take a course in ethnic studies or cultural diversity which are often taught by newly hired minority faculty members. If these children are taught the correct values that should have been taught a long time ago, then they can grow up to be leaders of a new, equal nation that gives everyone an even chance at life and free from hatred.

In the meantime, the laws should be increased against any kind of hate crime, especially in schools. To many of these offenses are slipping through the cracks of the court system without any kind of punishment whatsoever. No form of racial abuse should be tolerated in the slightest and if offenders knew this, then maybe it would mark the beginning of the end of racial injustice. Today’s current status is, sadly to say, very much unchanged from the eighties and early nineties when a lot of the bad incidents occurred. There is still much to be done and hopefully much to look forward to.

I, for one, would like to see an end to all of this violence and hatred that is ripping the country apart. If everyone could put aside their differences and look at their similarities they have with other people, then this world would be a better place. I think it is really unfortunate what is going on with today’s schools. School is supposed to be a place where people are educated and aught so that they would not be ignorant to all areas of learning, not a place where ignorance thrives and real education is only handed out to those who have white skin, or those who are fortunate enough to afford a good college.

No one should have to put up with any form of abuse, especially when they are trying to learn and make something of themselves so that they can have an equal chance for success in the future. Perhaps if everyone would have a positive outlook on this problem in the future, there will be an end to all of the violence and hatred in our nation’s schools and everywhere else that this pestilence exists.

Education And Egalitarianism In America

The American educator Horace Mann once said: “As an apple is not in any proper sense an apple until it is ripe, so a human being is not in any proper sense a human being until he is educated. ” Education is the process through which people endeavor to pass along to their children their hard-won wisdom and their aspirations for a better world. This process begins shortly after birth, as parents seek to train the infant to behave as their culture demands.

They soon, for instance, teach the child how to turn babbling sounds into language and, through example and precept, they try to instill in the child the attitudes, values, skills, and knowledge that will govern their offspring’s behavior throughout later life. Schooling, or formal education, consists of experiences that are deliberately planned and utilized to help young people learn what adults consider important for them to know and to help teach them how they should respond to choices.

This education has been influenced by three important parts of modern American society: wisdom of the heart, egalitarianism, and practicality… e greatest of these, practicality. In the absence of written records, no one can be sure what education man first provided for his children. Most anthropologists believe, though, that the educational practices of prehistoric times were probably like those of primitive tribes in the 20th century, such as the Australian aborigines and the Aleuts. Formal instruction was probably given just before the child’s initiation into adulthood — the puberty rite — and involved tribal customs and beliefs too complicated to be learned by direct experience.

Children learned most of the skills, duties, customs, and beliefs of the tribe through an informal apprenticeship — by taking part in such adult activities as hunting, fishing, farming, toolmaking, and cooking. In such simple tribal societies, school was not a special place… it was life itself. However, the educational process has changed over the decades, and it now vaguely represents what it was in ancient times, or even in early American society.

While the schools that the colonists established in the 17th century in the New England, Southern, and Middle colonies differed from one another, each reflected a concept of schooling that had been left behind in Europe. Most poor children learned through apprenticeship and had no formal schooling at all. Those who did go to elementary school were taught reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion. Learning consisted of memorizing, which was stimulated by whipping. The first “basic textbook,” The New England Primer, was America’s own contribution to education.

Used from 1690 until the beginning of the 19th century, its purpose was to teach both religion and reading. The child learning the letter a, for example, also learned that “In Adam’s fall, We sinned all. ” As in Europe, then, the schools in the colonies were strongly influenced by religion. This was particularly true of the schools in the New England area, which had been settled by Puritans and other English religious dissenters. Like the Protestants of the Reformation, who established vernacular elementary schools in Germany in the 16th century, the Puritans sought to make education universal.

They took the first steps toward government-supported universal education in the colonies. In 1642, Puritan Massachusetts passed a law requiring that every child be taught to read. And, in 1647, it passed the “Old Deluder Satan Act,” so named because its purpose was to defeat Satan’s attempts to keep men, through an inability to read, from the knowledge of the Scriptures. The law required every town of 50 or more families to establish an elementary school and every town of 100 or more families to maintain a grammar school as well. Puritan or not, virtually all of the colonial schools had clear-cut moral purposes.

Skills and knowledge were considered important to the degree that they served religious ends and, of course, “trained” the mind. We call it “wisdom of the heart. ” These matters, by definition, are anything that the heart is convinced of… so thoroughly convinced that it over-powers the judgement of the mind. Early schools supplied the students with moral lessons, not just reading, writing and arithmetic. Obviously, the founders saw it necessary to apply these techniques, most likely “feeling” that it was necessary that the students learn these particular values.

Wisdom of the heart had a profound effect of the curriculum of the early schools. As the spirit of science, commercialism, secularism, and individualism quickened in the Western world, education in the colonies was called upon to satisfy the practical needs of seamen, merchants, artisans, and frontiersmen. The effect of these new developments on the curriculum in American schools was more immediate and widespread than its effect in European schools. Practical content was soon in competition with religious concerns.

The academy that Benjamin Franklin helped found in 1751 was the first of a growing number of secondary schools that sprang up in competition with the Latin schools. Franklin’s academy continued to offer the humanist-religious curriculum, but it also brought education closer to the needs of everyday life by teaching such courses as history, geography, merchant accounts, geometry, algebra, surveying, modern languages, navigation, and astronomy. These subjects were more practical, seeing as how industry and business were driving forces in the creation of the United States.

Religion classes could not support a family or pay the debts. By the mid-19th century this new diversification in the curriculum characterized virtually all American secondary education. America came into its own, educationally, with the movement toward state-supported, secular free schools for all children, which began in the 1820s with the common (elementary) school. The movement gained incentive in 1837 when Massachusetts established a state board of education and appointed the lawyer and politician Horace Mann (1796-1859) as its secretary.

One of Mann’s many reforms was the improvement of the quality of teaching by the establishment of the first public normal (teacher-training) schools in the United States. State after state followed Massachusetts’ example until, by the end of the 19th century, the common-school system was firmly established. It was the first rung of what was to develop into the American educational ladder. After the common school had been accepted, people began to urge that higher education, too, be tax supported.

As early as 1821, the Boston School Committee established the English Classical School (later the English High School), which was the first public secondary school in the United States. By the end of the century, such secondary schools had begun to outnumber the private academies. The original purpose of the American high school was to allow all children to extend and enrich their common-school education. With the establishment of the land-grant colleges after 1862, the high school also became a preparation for college; the step by which students who had begun at the lowest rung of the educational ladder might reach the highest.

In 1873, when the kindergarten became part of the St. Louis, Mo. school system, there was a hint that, in time, a lower rung might be added. Practicality allowed this change in the high school system. Schools now needed to ready the students for college — an even higher form of education — instead of preparing them to immediately enter the work force. America’s educational ladder was unique. Where public school systems existed in European countries such as France and Germany, they were dual systems.

When a child of the lower and middle classes finished his elementary schooling, he could go on to a vocational or technical school. The upper-class child often did not attend the elementary school but was instead tutored until he was about 9 years old and could enter a secondary school, generally a Latin grammar school. The purpose of this school was to prepare him for the university, from which he might well emerge as one of the potential leaders of his country. Instead of two separate and distinct educational systems for separate and distinct classes, the United States provided one system open to everyone… istinctly egalitarian idea.

As in mid-19th-century Europe, women were slowly gaining educational ground in the United States. “Female academies” established by such pioneers as Emma Willard (1787-1870) and Catharine Beecher (1800-78) prepared the way for secondary education for women. In 1861, Vassar, the first real college for women, was founded. Even earlier, in 1833, Oberlin College was founded as a coeducational college, and in 1837, four women began to study there. In the mid-19th century there was yet another change in education.

The secondary-school curriculum, that had been slowly expanding since the founding of the academies in the mid-18th century, virtually exploded. But the voice of practicality cried out again. A new society, complicated by the latest discoveries in the physical and biological sciences and the rise of industrialism and capitalism, called for more and newer kinds of knowledge. By 1861 as many as 73 subjects were being offered by the Massachusetts secondary schools. People still believed that the mind could be “trained,” but they now thought that science could do a better job than the classics could.

The result was a curriculum that was virtually saturated with scientific instruction. The mid-19th-century knowledge explosion also modestly affected some of the common schools, which expanded their curriculum to include such courses as science and nature study. The content of instruction in the common school, beyond which few students went, consisted of the material in a relatively small number of books: assorted arithmetic, history, and geography texts, Webster’s American Spelling Book, and two new books that appeared in 1836 the “First” and “Second” in the series of McGuffey’s Eclectic Readers.

Whereas The New England Primer admonished children against sin, the stories and poems in the readers pressed for the moral virtues. Countless children were required to memorize such admonitions as “Work while you work, play while you play. One thing each time, that is the way. ” In the early days, the common schools consisted of one room where one teacher taught pupils ranging in age from 6 to about 13 and sometimes older. The teacher instructed the children separately, not as a group. The good teacher had a strong right arm and an unshakable determination to cram information into his pupils.

Once the fight to provide free education for all children had been won, educators turned their attention to the quality of that education. To find out more about learning and the learning process, American schools looked to Europe. In the 1860s, they discovered, and for about 20 years were influenced, by Pestalozzi. His belief was that the goal of education should be the natural development of the individual child, and that educators should focus on the development of the child rather than on memorization of subject matter that he or she was unable to understand.

Pestalozzi’s school also mirrored the idea that learning begins with firsthand observation of an object and moves gradually toward the remote and abstract realm of words and ideas. The teacher’s job was to guide, not distort, the natural growth of the child by selecting his experiences and then directing those experiences toward the realm of ideas. The general effect on the common schools was to shift the emphasis from memorization of abstract facts to the firsthand observation of real objects. Pestalozzi’s diminishing influence roughly coincided with the rapid expansion of the cities.

By the 1880s the United States was absorbing several million immigrants a year, a human flood that created new problems for the common school. The question confronting educators was how to impart the largest amount of information to the greatest number of children in the shortest possible time. This new, more practical goal of educators and the means through which they attained it were reflected in the new schools they built and in the new teaching practices they adopted. Out of necessity, the one-room common school was replaced by larger schools.

To make it easier and faster for one teacher to instruct many students, there had to be as few differences between the children as possible. Since the most conspicuous difference was age, children were grouped on this basis, and each group had a separate room. To discourage physical activity that might disrupt discipline and interrupt the teaching process, to encourage close attention to and absorption of the teacher’s words, and to increase eye contact, the seats were arranged in formal rows. For good measure, they frequently were bolted to the floor.

It is not surprising, at about this time, when the goal of education was to expedite the transfer of information to a large number of students, that the normal schools began to fall under the influence of Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841). For him, education was neither the training of faculties that exist ready-made in the mind nor a natural unfolding from within. Education was instruction literally a building into the mind from the outside. The building blocks were the materials of instruction the subject matter.

The builder was the teacher. The job of the teacher was to form the child’s mind by building into it the knowledge of man’s cultural heritage through the teaching of such subjects as literature, history, science, and mathematics. Since the individual mind was presumably formed by building into it the products of the collective mind, methods of instruction were concerned wholly with how this was to be done. Herbart’s interest lay in determining how knowledge could be presented so that it would be understood and therefore retained.

He insisted that education must be based on psychological knowledge of the child so that he could be instructed effectively. The essence of his influence probably lay not so much in his carefully evolved five-step lesson plan but in the basic idea of a lesson plan. Such a plan suggested the possibility of evolving a systematic method of instruction that was the same for all pupils. Perhaps Herbart’s emphasis on the importance of motivating pupils to learn whether through presentation of the material or, failing that, through rewards and punishments also influenced the new teaching methods of the 1880s and 1890s.

The new methods, combined with the physical organization of the school, represented the direct opposite of Pestalozzi’s belief that the child’s innate powers should be allowed to develop naturally. Rather, the child must be lopped off or stretched to fit the procrustean curriculum. Subjects were graded according to difficulty, assigned to certain years, and taught by a rigid daily timetable. The amount of information that the child had absorbed through drill and memorization was determined by how much could be extracted from him by examinations. Reward or punishment came in the form of grades.

At the end of the 19th century the methods of presenting information had thus been streamlined. The curriculum had been enlarged and brought closer to the concerns of everyday life. Book learning had been supplemented somewhat by direct observation. And psychological whipping in the form of grades had perhaps diminished any physical whipping. In one respect, however, the schools of the late 19th century were no different from those, say, of the Middle Ages: they were still based on who adults thought children were or should be, not who they really were.

Before the 20th century, the ideas of such men as Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Froebel, and, in the United States, Francis W. Parker (1837-1902) had caused little more than rumblings beneath the floor of the traditional schoolhouse. Because of John Dewey (1859-1952), they gathered force, and in the 1920s and 1930s new and old ideas collided right in the middle of the classroom. Some of the schools, where neat rows of subdued children had sat immobilized in their bolted-down seats listening to a teacher armed with textbook, lesson plan, grade book, and disciplinary ruler, became buzzing places where virtually everything moved, including the chairs.

The children were occupied in groups or worked by themselves, depending on what they were doing. Above all, they were always doing: reading a favorite book, writing, painting, or learning botany by tending, observing, and discussing the plants they were growing. The teacher moved around the room, asking and answering questions, giving a child the spelling of a word he wanted to write or the pronunciation of a word he wanted to read, and in general acting as a helpful guide for the children’s chosen activities. The chattering and noise and activity were signs that the children were excited about and absorbed by what they were doing.

They were, in fact, learning by doing. Dewey maintained that the child is not born with a ready-made faculty called thinking, which needs the exercise of repeated drill to make it as strong as the adult faculty. Nor, he said, is the mind a blank tablet on which knowledge is impressed. Mind thinking or intelligence is, according to Dewey, a developing, growing thing. And the early stages of growth and of knowledge are different from the later stages. The development of the mind begins with the child’s perception of things and facts as they are related to himself, to his personal, immediate world.

A dog is his dog or his neighbor’s dog; it is something furry and warm, something to hug, feed, and play with. The child may recognize the fact that though his neighbor’s dog looks different from his, they are both dogs. When he sees a wolf at the zoo, he may decide that his dog is a nicer and friendlier animal than the wolf. The child’s zoological knowledge is thus organized around his own experiences with particular animals and his perceptions of similarities and differences between those experiences; it is psychologically organized knowledge.

The last step in the growth of intelligence is the ability to organize facts logically, that is, in terms of their relationship to one another. The formulated, logically organized knowledge of the zoologist is that both the wolf and the domesticated dogs belong to the family Canidae, order Carnivora; that the dogs belong to the genus Canis and species familiaris; and that one dog belongs to the sporting breed spaniel, the other to the working breed collie. Presented to the child in this form, however, the study of zoology has no relation to the animals he plays with, feeds, and observes.

His own experience outside of school does not bring the information to life, and the information does not enrich and extend his own experience. It represents another world entirely a world of empty words. All he can do, therefore, is memorize what he reads and is told. He is not developing the power to think. To stimulate the growth of intelligence rather than stifle it, as Dewey saw it, education must begin not at the end but at the beginning of the growth process; that is, with activity that engages the whole child mentally, socially, physically, and emotionally.

The Debate Over Multicultural Education in America

Cryogenics is a study that is of great importance to the human race and has been a major project for engineers for the last 100 years. Cryogenics, which is derived from the Greek word kryos meaning “Icy Cold,” is the study of matter at low temperatures. However low is not even the right word for the temperatures involved in cryogenics, seeing as the highest temperature dealt with in cryogenics is 100 (C (-148 (F) and the lowest temperature used, is the unattainable temperature -273. 15 (C (-459. 67 (F).

Also, when speaking of cryogenics, the terms Celsius and Fahrenheit are rarely used. Instead scientists use a different measurement called the Kelvin (K). The Kelvin scale for Cryogenics goes from 173 K to a fraction of a Kelvin above absolute zero. There are also two main sciences used in cryogenics, and they are Superconductivity and Superfluidity. Cryogenics first came about in 1877, when a Swiss Physicist named Rasul Pictet and a French Engineer named Louis P. Cailletet liquefied oxygen for the first time.

Cailletet created liquid oxygen in his lab using a process known as adiabatic expansion, which is a “thermodynamic process in which the temperature f a gas is expanded without adding or extracting heat from the gas or the surrounding system”(Vance 26). At the same time Pictet used the “Joule-Thompson Effect,” a thermodynamic process that states that the “temperature of a fluid is reduced in a process involving expansion below a certain temperature and pressure”(McClintock 4).

After Cailletet and Pictet, a third method, known as cascading, was developed by Karol S. Olszewski and Zygmut von Wroblewski in Poland. At this point in history Oxygen was now able to be liquefied at 90 K, then soon after liquid Nitrogen was obtained at 77 K, and because of these dvancements scientist all over the world began competing in a race to lower the temperature of matter to Absolute Zero (0 K) [Vance, 1-10]. Then in 1898, James DeWar mad a major advance when he succeeded in liquifying hydrogen at 20 K.

The reason this advance was so spectacular was that at 20 K hydrogen is also boiling, and this presented a very difficult handling and storage problem. DeWar solved this problem by inventing a double- walled storage container known as the DeWar flask, which could contain and hold the liquid hydrogen for a few days. However, at this time scientists realized hat if they were going to make any more advances they would have to have better holding containers. So, scientists came up with insulation techniques that we still use today.

These techniques include expanded foam materials and radiation shielding. [McClintock 43-55] The last major advance in cryogenics finally came in 1908 when the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerling Onnes liquefied Helium at 4. 2 and then 3. 2 K. The rest of the advances in cryogenics have been extremely small since it is a fundamental Thermodynamic law that you can approach but never actually reach bsolute zero. Since 1908 our technology has greatly increased and we can now freeze sodium gas to within 40 millionths of a Kelvin above absolute zero.

However, in the back of every physicists head they want to break the Thermodynamic law and reach a temperature of absolute zero where every proton, electron, and neutron in an atom is absolutely frozen. Also , their are two subjects that are also closely related to cryogenics called Superconductivity and Superfluidity. Superconductivity is a low-temperature phenomenon where a metal loses all electrical resistance below a ertain temperature, called the Critical Temperature(Tc), and transfers to “… a state of zero resistance,… “(Tilley 11).

This unusual behavior was also discovered by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes. It was discovered when Onnes and one of his graduate students realized that Mercury loses all of its electrical resistance when it reaches a temperature of 4. 15 K. However, almost all elements and compounds have Tc’s between 1 K and 15 K (or -457. 68 (F and -432. 67 (F) so they would not be very useful to us on a day to day basis[McClintock 208- 226]. Then in 1986, J Gregore Bednorz and K. Alex Muller discovered that an oxide of lanthanum, barium, and copper becomes superconductive at 30 K.

This discovery shocked the world and stimulated scientists to find even more “High- Temperature Superconductors”. After this discovery, in 1987, scientists at the University of Houston and the University of Alabama discovered YBCO, a compound with a Tc of 95 K. This discovery made superconductivity possible above the boiling point of liquid Nitrogen, so now the relatively cheap, liquid nitrogen could replace the high priced liquid helium required for cryogenic experiments. To date the highest reported Tc is 125 K, which belongs to a compund made of Thallium, Barium, Calcium, Copper, and Oxygen.

Now, with the availability of high-temperature superconductors, all the sciences including, cryogenics have made extraordinary advances. Some applications are demonstrated by magnetically levitated trains, energy storage, motors, and Zero-Loss Transmission Lines. Also, superconducting electromagnets are used in Particle Accelerators, Fusion Energy Plants, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging devices (MRI’s) in Hospitals. Furthermore high-speed cryogenic computer memories and communication devices are in various stages of research. This field has grown immensely since 1986 as you can see and will probably keep growing.

The second subject related to cryogenics is Superfluidity. Superfluidity is a strange state of matter that is most common in liquid Helium, when it is below a temperature of 2. 17 K. Superfluidity means that the liquid “… discloses no viscosity when traveling through a capillary or narrow slit… “(Landau 195) and also flows “… through the slit disclosing no friction… (Landau 195) That this means is that when Helium reaches this state it can flow, without any friction, through the smallest holes and in between atoms in a compund.

If the top is off the beaker it is also possible for the liquid Helium to flow up the side of the baker and out of the beaker until all the liquid helium is gone. It was then discovered that when any liquid approaches about . 2 K it has almost the exact same properties of superconducting metals, as far as specific heat, magnetic properties, and thermal conductivity. Even though, both superconducting and Superfluidic aterials have similar properties, the phenomenon of Superfluidity is much more complex, and is not completely understood by today’s physicists.

McClintock 103- 107] Cryogenics also consists of many smaller sciences, including Cryobiology, which is “the study of the effects of low-temperatures on materials of biological origin. “(Vance 528) Developments in this field have led to modern methods of preserving blood, semen, tissue, and organs below the temperature that was obtained by the use of liquid nitrogen. Also Cryobiology has led to the development of the cryogenic scalpel which can deaden or destroy tissue with high degree of accuracy, making it possible to clot cuts as soon as you cut them.

So in theory you could one day have surgery without having to deal with any blood. Another field is Cryopumping. Cryopumping is the process “of condensing gas or vapor on a low-temperature surface. “(Vance 339) This is done by extracting gas from a vacuum vessel by conventional methods then freezing the remaining gas on low temperature coils. This process has been useful when trying to simulate the properties that the vacuum in outerspace will have on electronic circuitry.

Cryogenics has also been a part of many modern advances including: The transportation of energy in the form of a liquefied gas. Processing, handling, and providing food by cryogenic means has become a large business, providing both frozen and freeze-dried food. Liquid Oxygen powers rockets and propulsion systems for space research. Liquid Hydrogen is used in high-energy physics experiments. Using cryogenic drill bits so drilling for oil and other gases is easier. Chemical synthesis and catalysis. Better fire fighting fluids. Gas separation. Metal Fabrication.

As you can see by now cryogenics is still a very young science, but in the last ten years it has catapulted to being the backbone of almost every other form of science. However, its full potential will probably not be understood for quite a while. Though, as you can see, if we can grasp the concepts of cryogenics we will have a tool that will allow us to do things ranging from making better drill bits to exploring the universe. The future of cryogenics can best be summed up by Krafft A. Ehricke, a rocket developer, when he said, “It’s centeral goal is the preservation of civilization. “

Academic Discourse Essay

In Peter Elbows, Writing for Teachers, he states, Teachers are one of the trickiest audiences of all, yet they also illustrate the paradox that audiences sometimes help you and sometimes get in your way. A teachers experience can give a student author valuable insight to the development of his writing, while at the same time offer criticism that may prove beneficial. Unfortunately, the relationship between a student and his teacher is a very difficult one that often poses more problems than can be resolved.

In order to become a more proficient writer, a student must be able to write in numerous voices, or at least develop one to use as a platform. In order to find and utilize his voice, an author must be able to specifically identify his audience and then determine the type of discourse that would prove most effective. This can become an impossible task when a student views a teacher as his audience, while the teacher is determined not to be the audience. A teachers decision to be nothing more than a proofreader is based on sound reasoning.

With a teacher as the intended audience, a student will attempt to change his style in order to receive a higher grade. Not only is it uncomfortable for the author to write in a voice not his own, but when a teacher returns his essay, he is certain to be disappointed by his mark. A teacher would find his paper awkward as a result of his unsure voice. This is only more frustrating for the student, who believed that his paper was what the teacher wanted. Furthermore, the student is questioning his own ability to produce an essay that expresses his own beliefs rather than those of his teacher.

The opposite type of student can pose an equally destructive problem. A student who has already developed a strong voice and style of his own may feel forced to impress his teacher. This type of student will often receive a high grade, but when he is required to write a paper for a real audience, he will discover his method no longer works. As Elbow puts it, Teachers are not the real audience. You dont write to teachers, you write for them. To avoid being named as the audience, a teacher often reads papers as an omniscient character.

He may provide his own input at times, but prefers to observe and thus determine the reaction a general reader would have when reading the essay. This general reader is best described as, a creature blessed by intelligence, a certain amount of education (general), and an open mind. (Elbow) Because the general reader and the teacher are so closely connected, there is always confusion (even on the teachers behalf) concerning the opinions of such an ill-defined and vague personality.

Elbow considers this problem and writes, Its hard to argue well or learn about argument when you are unsure who your audience is and what its position on the topic is likely to be. Also in Writing for Teachers, Elbow states, Students discover they get knocked down more when they try their hardest. All but the born fighters learn to hold backto do less than their bestwhen they spar with teachers. This behavior produces many disadvantages. Not only does it eliminate any sense of motivation the student may previously have entertained, but it teaches each author that it is okay, and even acceptable, to turn in work that is less than their best.

This learned behavior is also responsible for the production of bull as described by William G. Perry, Jr. in Examsmanship and the Liberal Arts, To bull- To present evidence of an understanding of form in the hope that the reader may be deceived into supposing a familiarity with content. When a student uses such a technique in his writing, it is hard to believe that he put much effort into his piece and yet, he will most likely be rewarded with a decent grade.

Perry reasons, Perhaps this value accounts for the final anomaly: as instructors, we are inclined to reward bull highly, where we do not detect its intent, to the consternation of the bullsters acquaintances. Perhaps a teachers willingness to accept mediocre work is based on the fact that he thinks the author may not be able to take his criticism. This is nothing short of a friendly consideration on the teachers part, but it is an unnecessary one. Students receive so much criticism from others on a daily basis that a few comments on an essay do nothing to rival.

Harsh as they may seem, these comments are actually helping the student to become a better writer. When the author is asked to write a paper for a real rather than general audience, he will be much more capable because his teacher has given him honest feedback as to how a person would actually react to his essay. Unfortunately, those students whose instructors refuse to provide criticism will never know what parts of their papers to improve upon. Elbow effectively makes his point by stating, the student never gets the experience of learning what actually happens to a real reader reading his words.

How can students get around all of these obstacles and write a paper that appeals to both the teacher and the “general reader? Perhaps this is the intended purpose of writing classes: to teach students to become better versed in writing for many people all at once. For those who may find it difficult to cope with the conflict caused where academic discourse is concerned, Elbow offers some free advice that may prove very helpful. Asking a teacher to provide a more clearly explained set of directions could be very favorable.

Besides the obvious advantages that an increased amount of clarity would furnish, the teacher may also choose to sponsor a class discussion on the exact audience of their papers. Every time an essay is assigned, it would be to both the teachers and the students benefit to consider the topic of the paper and then deduce what disposition a general reader would take on such an issue or event. By clearly defining the audience, the author is not only learning to address his readers, but he is also beginning to realize the relationship between the style of a piece of literature and the audience it attempts to reach.

Probably one of the most effective pieces of advice offered by Elbow is, your teacher is a friend doing you a favornot an employee doing a duty. Much of the reason there is a problem between students and teachers to begin with is the fact that instructors feel insulted when authors turn in their final papers complete with abundant mistakes. A teacher could not be more offended. These educators are willing to give the student their expertise for free, and yet some students treat them as if they are responsible for cleaning up foolish errors that could very easily have been fixed.

Elbow, a teacher himself, lists several pieces of common sense that he expects from his students. First, he expects that each paper be neat and as mistake-free as possible. Next, he asks that each paper be turned in on time. He goes on to mention how important it is to stick to the assignment and not rattle on about topics totally unrelated to that which you are supposed to be discussing. Although no student can be forced to follow each of these requests, if they are disregarded the teacher will undoubtedly become less motivated to try to understand an unclear passage or explain an error in the future.

Much of Elbows advice is sensible and will help the student a great deal if applied correctly. However, several of his suggestions seem impractical. For example, Elbow recommends arranging an alternate assignment with the teacher. Teachers assign different projects because there is a certain skill they want to teach. Although an alternate assignment may indeed be able to offer the same type of learning, there is also the issue of fairness. Other students in the classroom may assume that the teacher is showing favoritism to another student.

Instead of the student being the one to take the initiative to come up with an alternate assignment, the teacher should suggest two or three essay topics that students may choose from. In this way, the teacher is providing a range of questions that ask the student to use the technique the teacher is reinforcing. Then, both teacher and student are satisfied and none of the students suspect that any other is being given special privileges. Elbow also suggests bringing in outside readers as a new audience for the students. Every once in a while, this would be a very beneficial event, however, it would take a large amount of planning to execute.

All of the work that would be put into the organization of such an event seems needless when there is a perfect audience already assembled- classmates. Not only will peers help correct grammatical and structural errors, but by reading others papers, students are learning about other styles of writing and adding these different voices to their own repertoire. There are many problems in the relationship between students and teachers that can be solved simply by introducing classmates as the audience. Obviously, the conflict teachers have within themselves while deciding whether their true reactions are too harsh to relay to their students.

Elbow suggests submitting an evaluation-type form along with the essay, so that both the teacher and the student understand what is expected as far as comments and feedback go. However, even if only half of a teachers students submitted such a form, the workload created would be enormous. The simple and more effective solution is to provide each student with a general evaluation sheet and have each student trade with another classmate so that everyone receives feedback from a real person- not just a general reader.

Receiving feedback such as this aids a student in improving much more than the style in which he presents his material. Elbow states in his article, But if your teacher only tells you what you did wrong you may not be able to fix it no matter how clearly he explains the problem: hes asking for behavior youve never produced before. When students exchange papers, each author is given the chance to explore the different ways of communicating a thought and presenting an idea. Every student has his strong points and every student has his weak points.

So, if there is a particular passage a student needs help with, there is bound to be another student who is strong in that area and could only benefit from helping him. It is one thing to learn something, but quite another to actually explain it to someone else in terms that they are capable of understanding. By doing this both students are learning: one is coming to an even greater understanding of the principle which he is trying to explain, and the other is learning a technique he has never encountered before. The relationship between teachers and students is one that can not be solved easily.

Each teacher is different and has his own methods of conveying information to students. The only practical way to become better at writing for teachers is to get to know the instructor then adjust your own work habits so that both of you can make the most of your time. Overall, this will produce a less stressful working environment and both the teacher and the student will be more willing to accommodate each other. Ultimately, this will resolve the dilemma between the instructor and the author while providing an increased understanding of literary techniques to the student.

Legal Education In The US

There is no undergraduate law degree in the United States; thus, students cannot expect to study law without first completing an undergraduate degree. Basic admissions requirements for American law schools are a Bachelor’s degree in any field and the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT). The American law degree is called the Juris Doctor (JD) and usually requires three years of study. The JD program involves courses in American common and statute law as well as international and business law.

Overseas students who are considering an American JD should note that this program focuses on preparation for US legal ractice. Undergraduate Preparation for Law School No particular subject or major field of study is required at the undergraduate level. Law schools are concerned that applicants have taken courses which develop communication and analytical skills, and that they have exposed themselves to a variety of disciplines.

The Prelaw Handbook (Association of American Law Schools) suggests students study some or most of the following fields but stresses that “well-developed academic ability” is preferable to intense specialization in any one field: economics, social sciences (sociology, sychology, anthropology, political science), computers, accounting, and the sciences. Most pre-law students earn their undergraduate degrees in one of the social sciences, rounding out their general preparation with courses from other disciplines.

All these subjects may be studied at virtually any university. Law schools in the US do not require that students complete their Bachelor’s degree in America, but because of fierce competition for places in law schools, few students are accepted from overseas universities. At the beginning of the final year of undergraduate study, JD applicants should take the LSAT. No knowledge of law is needed to do well on this exam; it is a standardized test of academic aptitude in the areas of reading comprehension and analytical and logical reasoning.

Legal Education Students thinking of law study soon discover that the programs of most law schools have a great deal in common. The choice of one school over another is not easily made on the basis of catalog descriptions of the teaching methods, course offerings, and formal requirements. The similarity is natural, since most American law schools share the aim of educating lawyers for careers that may ake many paths and that will frequently not be limited to any particular state or region.

Although many lawyers eventually find themselves practicing within some special branch of the law, American legal education is still fundamentally an education for generalists. It emphasizes the acquisition of broad and basic knowledge of law, understanding of the functioning of the legal system, and development of analytical abilities of a high order. This common emphasis reflects the conviction that such an education is the best kind of preparation for the diverse roles that law school graduates occupy in American life and for he changing nature of the problems any individual lawyer is likely to encounter over a long career.

Within this tradition some schools combine an emphasis on technical legal knowledge and professional skills with a concern for illuminating the connections between law and the social forces with which it interacts. To promote the first, schools provide students with opportunities for the application of formal knowledge to specific professional tasks, such as intensive instruction in legal research and writing during the first year, clinical education, and courses or seminars focusing on concrete problems of ounseling, drafting, and litigation.

The second concern is reflected in curricular offerings that devote substantial attention to relevant aspects of economics, legal history, philosophy, comparative law, psychiatry, statistics, and other disciplines. Almost all law schools offer students the opportunity to work on law reviews that are published by them but are student run and edited. The law reviews, of varying quality and influence, publish scholarly work as well as work done by law students. Most schools have a moot court program that uses simulated cases for training in brief writing and advocacy.

Prudent pplicants should consider the quality of a school’s faculty and student body and how a school’s view of legal education and its course offerings relate to their own interests and future plans (as to course offerings, more is not necessarily better). Also important are: the character of the school, formal and informal opportunities for joint degrees if the law school is part of a university, library facilities, and placement record. All of these elements, in addition to individual preferences, should be carefully weighed, but no single factor should ever be considered decisive. Graduate Legal Education

To find opportunities for in-depth specialization or comparative legal study, foreign-trained lawyers should look to US graduate law programs. Short-term training programs offered by US law schools can also provide appropriate options for international lawyers and advanced law students. About one-third of the law schools approved by the American Bar Association offer graduate degree programs. Most law schools will consider admitting graduate applicants who have earned the equivalent of a JD in countries other than the United States, though some programs with a specific focus on US systems do not.

Many others require knowledge of a system that is based in English common law (also known as civil law). In the US, graduate law degrees are various permutations of the LLM, the MCL and the JSD. These degrees are post graduate to the JD which is after the undergraduate degree. The LLM is a one-year Master’s degree for American lawyers and for foreign lawyers and/or law graduates from common law countries. The MCL is a one-year Master’s degree for civil law lawyers and graduates.

The JSD is a doctoral degree, and generally law schools will only consider candidates for a JSD if they already have an LLM degree from that same law school. The most appropriate programs for foreign lawyers are the Master of Comparative Law (MCL) and the Master of Comparative Jurisprudence (MCJ). Recognizing that legal systems in many other countries differ from common law as practiced in the US, these programs acquaint lawyers from other countries with US legal institutions and relevant specialties of US law. Another possibility is the Master of Laws (LLM). During the period of study, foreign lawyers receive opportunities to observe courts and governmental agencies in the United States.

Law schools arrange for foreign lawyers entering graduate study to attend an orientation to American law given by: The International Law Institute In general, higher graduate law students are qualified lawyers with several years experience. Some law schools will not consider applicants who do not have a law degree, even though they may be qualified to practice law in their own country. Other American universities do not require a law degree as long as the applicant is qualified to practice in a common law country and, in some cases, has a few years of post-qualification experience.

American law schools do not sually give financial aid to foreign students for post-graduate study. A Master’s degree in law requires one academic year of course work and usually a thesis. Courses are normally selected from the curriculum leading to the first American law degree, the JD, with additional seminars designed for advanced graduate students only. Students may specialize in any area of law in which the university provides courses, or they may choose not to specialize. Some areas of specialization are energy law, environmental law, banking and finance law, intellectual property law, and maritime law.

Generally, but not always, the LLM s geared towards students with a Common Law background, while the MCJ or MCL is intended for students with a Civil Law background. Students are urged to consult law school catalogs for complete information on the programs offered at each institution. Doctoral programs in law are generally intended to prepare graduates for academic careers. They most commonly award the Doctor of Juridicial Science (SJD) or Doctor of the Science of Law (JSD). There is no difference between the courses of study required for these two degree titles.

It is difficult for a foreign-educated lawyer to gain direct admission to a US octoral law program. Some schools admit only those students who have already completed that particular school’s master’s program in law. All are likely to expect the equivalent of a master’s degree in law to have been completed somewhere. Exceptionally strong academic and professional work are required. The minimum residence requirement for doctoral programs in law is usually one academic year. The remainder of the program involves independent research working toward the dissertation, which may take one to three more years.

Most programs also require an oral examination. There are also short-term programs, usually about 30 days in length, which provide visits to US legal institutions. For information about these programs, contact the United States Information Agency (USIA) or the US Agency for International Development (USAID). Degree Abbreviations LLM = Master of Laws MCJ = Master of Comparative Jurisprudence MLS = Master of Legal Studies MCL = Master of Comparative Law JSM = Master of the Science of Law JM = Master of Jurisprudence SJD/JSD/DJS = Doctor of the Science of Law DCL = Doctor of Comparative Law Qualifying to Practice Law in the U.

S. Permission to practice law in the US is granted by the courts of each of the various states. A summary publication “Law Schools and Bar Examinations Requirements” can be obtained from the American Bar Association. For precise details on state bar admissions requirements, the candidate must contact the law examiners in a given state. Many states require bar exam candidates to have an undergraduate degree in any field and an American JD.

Graduation with a JD from an American Bar Association approved law school and the bar exam are both necessary for admission to the bar (i. e. license to practice) in most states. Students wanting information about the practice of law in the US should contact the individual State Bar Associations; addresses may be obtained from: Even if admitted to the bar, it is not likely that a non-US trained lawyer will succeed on the bar examinations.

Not only is a knowledge of state law necessary, but US law relies on precedent rather than strictly on legal code as law does in most other countries, thus increasing the amount of material with which one must be familiar. Qualification for Foreign Lawyers and Law Graduates Some US legal study at an ABA-approved law school is required for a candidate ith foreign credentials to sit the bar exam in most states; the exact amount will be expressed by the state bar examiners in terms of credit hours.

Admission to a JD program would be the most straightforward route towards gaining this credit, and some universities may award partial credit, “advanced standing”, towards the JD if the student has an undergraduate degree in law. Basically state bar examiners require evidence of three qualities in exam candidates: sufficient US legal education gained from an ABA-approved law school, sufficient general education, and sufficient knowledge of local bar requirements. While a bar review course prior to the bar exam is recommended, it is not required.

Bar review courses are usually only about four weeks long and are designed as “crammers” for candidates who have an American law degree. Every American law school’s career office will have information on state bar requirements, and anyone wanting to qualify to practice law in the US should obtain complete information from the state bar association to which he or she will apply. Successful completion of the bar exam does not guarantee one employment, and there is no central body in the US which handles placements for foreign lawyers.

Legal Education In The US

There is no undergraduate law degree in the United States; thus, students cannot expect to study law without first completing an undergraduate degree. Basic admissions requirements for American law schools are a Bachelor’s degree in any field and the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT). The American law degree is called the Juris Doctor (JD) and usually requires three years of study. The JD program involves courses in American common and statute law as well as international and business law.

Overseas students who are considering an American JD should note that this program focuses on preparation for US legal ractice. Undergraduate Preparation for Law School No particular subject or major field of study is required at the undergraduate level. Law schools are concerned that applicants have taken courses which develop communication and analytical skills, and that they have exposed themselves to a variety of disciplines.

The Prelaw Handbook (Association of American Law Schools) suggests students study some or most of the following fields but stresses that “well-developed academic ability” is preferable to intense specialization in any one field: economics, social sciences (sociology, sychology, anthropology, political science), computers, accounting, and the sciences. Most pre-law students earn their undergraduate degrees in one of the social sciences, rounding out their general preparation with courses from other disciplines.

All these subjects may be studied at virtually any university. Law schools in the US do not require that students complete their Bachelor’s degree in America, but because of fierce competition for places in law schools, few students are accepted from overseas universities. At the beginning of the final year of undergraduate study, JD applicants should take the LSAT. No knowledge of law is needed to do well on this exam; it is a standardized test of academic aptitude in the areas of reading comprehension and analytical and logical reasoning.

Legal Education Students thinking of law study soon discover that the programs of most law schools have a great deal in common. The choice of one school over another is not easily made on the basis of catalog descriptions of the teaching methods, course offerings, and formal requirements. The similarity is natural, since most American law schools share the aim of educating lawyers for careers that may ake many paths and that will frequently not be limited to any particular state or region.

Although many lawyers eventually find themselves practicing within some special branch of the law, American legal education is still fundamentally an education for generalists. It emphasizes the acquisition of broad and basic knowledge of law, understanding of the functioning of the legal system, and development of analytical abilities of a high order. This common emphasis reflects the conviction that such an education is the best kind of preparation for the diverse roles that law school graduates occupy in American life and for he changing nature of the problems any individual lawyer is likely to encounter over a long career.

Within this tradition some schools combine an emphasis on technical legal knowledge and professional skills with a concern for illuminating the connections between law and the social forces with which it interacts. To promote the first, schools provide students with opportunities for the application of formal knowledge to specific professional tasks, such as intensive instruction in legal research and writing during the first year, clinical education, and courses or seminars focusing on concrete problems of ounseling, drafting, and litigation.

The second concern is reflected in curricular offerings that devote substantial attention to relevant aspects of economics, legal history, philosophy, comparative law, psychiatry, statistics, and other disciplines. Almost all law schools offer students the opportunity to work on law reviews that are published by them but are student run and edited. The law reviews, of varying quality and influence, publish scholarly work as well as work done by law students. Most schools have a moot court program that uses simulated cases for training in brief writing and advocacy.

Prudent pplicants should consider the quality of a school’s faculty and student body and how a school’s view of legal education and its course offerings relate to their own interests and future plans (as to course offerings, more is not necessarily better). Also important are: the character of the school, formal and informal opportunities for joint degrees if the law school is part of a university, library facilities, and placement record. All of these elements, in addition to individual preferences, should be carefully weighed, but no single factor should ever be considered decisive. Graduate Legal Education

To find opportunities for in-depth specialization or comparative legal study, foreign-trained lawyers should look to US graduate law programs. Short-term training programs offered by US law schools can also provide appropriate options for international lawyers and advanced law students. About one-third of the law schools approved by the American Bar Association offer graduate degree programs. Most law schools will consider admitting graduate applicants who have earned the equivalent of a JD in countries other than the United States, though some programs with a specific focus on US systems do not.

Many others require knowledge of a system that is based in English common law (also known as civil law). In the US, graduate law degrees are various permutations of the LLM, the MCL and the JSD. These degrees are post graduate to the JD which is after the undergraduate degree. The LLM is a one-year Master’s degree for American lawyers and for foreign lawyers and/or law graduates from common law countries. The MCL is a one-year Master’s degree for civil law lawyers and graduates.

The JSD is a doctoral degree, and generally law schools will only consider candidates for a JSD if they already have an LLM degree from that same law school. The most appropriate programs for foreign lawyers are the Master of Comparative Law (MCL) and the Master of Comparative Jurisprudence (MCJ). Recognizing that legal systems in many other countries differ from common law as practiced in the US, these programs acquaint lawyers from other countries with US legal institutions and relevant specialties of US law. Another possibility is the Master of Laws (LLM). During the period of study, foreign lawyers receive opportunities to observe courts and governmental agencies in the United States.

Law schools arrange for foreign lawyers entering graduate study to attend an orientation to American law given by: The International Law Institute In general, higher graduate law students are qualified lawyers with several years experience. Some law schools will not consider applicants who do not have a law degree, even though they may be qualified to practice law in their own country. Other American universities do not require a law degree as long as the applicant is qualified to practice in a common law country and, in some cases, has a few years of post-qualification experience.

American law schools do not sually give financial aid to foreign students for post-graduate study. A Master’s degree in law requires one academic year of course work and usually a thesis. Courses are normally selected from the curriculum leading to the first American law degree, the JD, with additional seminars designed for advanced graduate students only. Students may specialize in any area of law in which the university provides courses, or they may choose not to specialize. Some areas of specialization are energy law, environmental law, banking and finance law, intellectual property law, and maritime law.

Generally, but not always, the LLM s geared towards students with a Common Law background, while the MCJ or MCL is intended for students with a Civil Law background. Students are urged to consult law school catalogs for complete information on the programs offered at each institution. Doctoral programs in law are generally intended to prepare graduates for academic careers. They most commonly award the Doctor of Juridicial Science (SJD) or Doctor of the Science of Law (JSD). There is no difference between the courses of study required for these two degree titles.

It is difficult for a foreign-educated lawyer to gain direct admission to a US octoral law program. Some schools admit only those students who have already completed that particular school’s master’s program in law. All are likely to expect the equivalent of a master’s degree in law to have been completed somewhere. Exceptionally strong academic and professional work are required. The minimum residence requirement for doctoral programs in law is usually one academic year. The remainder of the program involves independent research working toward the dissertation, which may take one to three more years.

Most programs also require an oral examination. There are also short-term programs, usually about 30 days in length, which provide visits to US legal institutions. For information about these programs, contact the United States Information Agency (USIA) or the US Agency for International Development (USAID). Degree Abbreviations LLM = Master of Laws MCJ = Master of Comparative Jurisprudence MLS = Master of Legal Studies MCL = Master of Comparative Law JSM = Master of the Science of Law JM = Master of Jurisprudence SJD/JSD/DJS = Doctor of the Science of Law DCL = Doctor of Comparative Law Qualifying to Practice Law in the U. S. Permission to practice law in the US is granted by the courts of each of the various states.

A summary publication “Law Schools and Bar Examinations Requirements” can be obtained from the American Bar Association. For precise details on state bar admissions requirements, the candidate must contact the law examiners in a given state. Many states require bar exam candidates to have an undergraduate degree in any field and an American JD.

Graduation with a JD from an American Bar Association approved law school and the bar exam are both necessary for admission to the bar (i. e. license to practice) in most states. Students wanting information about the practice of law in the US should contact the individual State Bar Associations; addresses may be obtained from: Even if admitted to the bar, it is not likely that a non-US trained lawyer will succeed on the bar examinations.

Not only is a knowledge of state law necessary, but US law relies on precedent rather than strictly on legal code as law does in most other countries, thus increasing the amount of material with which one must be familiar. Qualification for Foreign Lawyers and Law Graduates Some US legal study at an ABA-approved law school is required for a candidate ith foreign credentials to sit the bar exam in most states; the exact amount will be expressed by the state bar examiners in terms of credit hours.

Admission to a JD program would be the most straightforward route towards gaining this credit, and some universities may award partial credit, “advanced standing”, towards the JD if the student has an undergraduate degree in law. Basically state bar examiners require evidence of three qualities in exam candidates: sufficient US legal education gained from an ABA-approved law school, sufficient general education, and sufficient knowledge of local bar requirements. While a bar review course prior to the bar exam is recommended, it is not required.

Bar review courses are usually only about four weeks long and are designed as “crammers” for candidates who have an American law degree. Every American law school’s career office will have information on state bar requirements, and anyone wanting to qualify to practice law in the US should obtain complete information from the state bar association to which he or she will apply. Successful completion of the bar exam does not guarantee one employment, and there is no central body in the US which handles placements for foreign lawyers.

David Copperfield – Education

In David Copperfield, Dickens champions the importance of a liberal and moral education by drawing from personal experiences and creating starkly contrasting caricatures to exemplify his beliefs and views. Prior to 1870, there were no rules or laws governing school syllabus or teacher conduct. Hence, many schools taught by forcing the students to recite mindlessly from books, discouraging students bright childish imaginations, consequently turning them into little parrots and small calculating machines. Dickens most wholeheartedly deplores this method of teaching, instead encouraging an education that focuses on developing pupils values and morals and teaching them the necessary skills their adult life.

David is first educated informally at home. He learns the alphabet at [his mothers] knee and reads to Peggotty from the Crocodile book, developing his imagination we went into the water and put sharp pieces of timber down their throats. Dickens clearly approves of this sort of education and David says in retrospect that memories of this time recall no feeling of disgust or reluctance [he] walked along a path of flowers. Dickens contrasts the daily drudgery and misery of his education after Claras remarriage; David is betrayed by his own nervousness in front of the dominating Murdstones, upsetting his mother and lowering his self-esteem the more stupid I get. This negative reaction again shows Dickens encouragement of a very different form of education. David is not stupid and it is only the strict and stifling circumstances that make him feel this way. Dickens encourages the reader to feel that if the Murdstones were more liberal and generous in their education of David, the results would be significantly different.

Dickens views on education are conveyed best through the contrast he draws between Betsey Trotwoods firmness and Mr Murdstones. Murdstones firmness overwhelms David, whereas Betseys firmness lays a sound moral foundation for his freedom never be mean in anything; never be false; never be cruel. Avoid these three vices and I can always be hopeful of you. Davids epic journey from London to Dover and his emancipation from the imprisonment of the Murdstone and Grinby factory shows the consequences of these educational methods in a more literal way; David is literally escaping the moral, physical and financial imprisonment of the factory for the freedom to explore and develop his interests.

Dickens further emphasises Davids imprisonment and freedom by the decision-making power he is given by Betsey and Murdstone. Murdstone gives David no choices; he is sent to boarding school, to the factory and the Micawbers without consent. Murdstone gives David no credit and no choice in what happens to him. Miss Betsey on the other hand never forces anything upon David, beyond her sound moral rules. She helps him to choose his school, where he will live and where he will work. Betsey gives David the freedom to explore and develop his interests. This final product of each school shows the benefits of a liberal education. If David had not left the factory, he would have remained nothing more than a bottle cleaner for the rest of his life. With Betsey however, David has the choice and freedom to become whatever he wants.

Dickens uses Uriah Heep to stress the importance of education for life. From the education he receives at the Charity School, he is taught no other way to advance in life besides being devious and deceitful. Dora too, demonstrates the problems of a life without sufficient preparation. From birth, she was expected to be nothing more than a pretty little wife and when she grew up, she is incapable of managing the house and Dickens makes it clear that she is nothing more than a pretty object.

The two schools David attends are also diametrically opposed. Creakle is a ruthless bully, harassing those younger and weaker than himself. He runs Salem House for this very reason, and not because he has any improve the students future chances. Dr Strongs school, however, is as different from Mr. Creakle’s as good is from evil. Dr Strong is a generous character, the idol of the whole school, which he runs to help the boys, not himself. He gives the boys the choice to do what they like and respects them as people, unlike Creakle who barely recognises their existence.

Dr Strong believes in the honour and good faith of the boys, and [has] an avowed intention to rely on their possession of those qualities unless they proved themselves unworthy of it. Creakle, however treats all the boys with immediate suspicion. When he first meets David, he takes him by the ear and threatens him. Dickens again emphasises the importance of good morals as a starting point for an education, using the same MurdstoneTrotwood comparison between Creakle and Strong. Dr Strongs liberal method worked wonders and [David] learnt with a good will, desiring to do it credit whereas, at Salem House, the students were too much troubled and knocked about to learn.

Dickens also contrasts the environments of both schools. At Salem House, David never feels completely at ease. He vigilantly watches Creakles eye during class, always fearful. Even at night, the boys are fearful of Mr Creakle who is often prowling about the passage, ready to beat the boys for disorderly conduct. The fact that David was an exception to the general body [at Salem House], insomuch that [he] steadily pick[ed] up some crumbs of knowledge is Dickens strongest argument against this type of school. At Dr Strongs, however, David is completely comfortable; he describes the pleasant surroundings and the Doctors habits.

Dickens held firm beliefs about important elements of a good education. He attended a strict school run by the most ignorant worst tempered [man] and from his experiences concluded that there is not likely to be much learnt in a school carried on by sheer cruelty. Dickens recognises the importance of a liberal and moral education where the student is free to do what he wants and is encouraged to build a firm moral base for the rest of his life.

Anthem by Ayn Rand: A Review

The novel Anthem by Ayn Rand tells the story of Equality 7-2521, an individual living in a communal society devoid of human individuality. Equality 7-2521 began his life in the Home of Infants and was educated in the Home of Students. He had a keen mind and excelled at his school work; however, he was punished for his achievements because to be in any way superior to others was considered evil. Equality’s hope was to be made a Scholar by the Council of Vocations, but when he reached the age of fifteen, the council assigned him the profession of Street Sweeper. Equality accepted this as his punishment for desiring one profession over another.

Equality worked with the street sweepers until, while working one day, he found an underground tunnel. He spent large amounts of time in his tunnel studying stolen manuscripts and learning about an individualistic society that had obviously disappeared.

Perhaps prompted by these new ideas, Equality violated the conventions of his culture and fell in love with Liberty 5-3000. To show preference for one person over another was a grave transgression, for only those ideas, values, and feelings held by everyone were valid.
When Equality took his discoveries to the World Council of Scholars, the Scholars rejected them because they had not been generated by the group. Equality fled and ran into the Uncharted Forest. Liberty 5-3000 found him in the forest, and together they found a house in the forest and settled there. Through reading books he found in the house, Equality rediscovered a great lost word: I. With their new found individuality, Equality and Liberty took the names Prometheus and Gaea and settled in the house to provide a home for others who might one day follow them.

In Equality’s world, the individual has been destroyed, leaving only the lumbering “group.” Throughout the book, the reader becomes aware of the striking absence of 1st-person pronouns– everything is “we” and “our” instead of “I” and “my”. Individuals are even stripped of personal names and left with the gift of common names followed by numbers (Equality 7-2521, International 4-8818, Union 5-3992, Solidarity 9-6347, Liberty 5-3000). Once Equality -sheds this “nameber” and chooses his own name (read, his own identity), Prometheus, he has become an individual, thus breaking away from the oppressive group.

The common names, incidentally, are another jab at communal societies. “Equality” implies that all men in the group-centered society are equal; if this is true, then why is Equality sweeping the streets at the direction of a handful of his “equals?” “International” implies the cooperation of many different groups of people, when, in the reality Rand presents, all people (regardless of ability) are lumped together and are drawn upon (seemingly) at random.

In addition to non-personal nomenclature, repercussions of communal living are also seen in other areas of society. In Anthem, education promotes, not excellence, but mediocrity. If a student falls behind, that student is worked with in order to bring him/her up to the other students’ level. However, should a student begin to excel (as Equality did), that student is harshly disciplined. Equality was taught that to be different from one’s peers was bad, but to be superior was a sin. Rand makes a statement about the dangers of communal education. Teachers have no incentive to challenge the faster children, or are so busy catering to the class’s slow-learners, that the more intelligent students can left in the cold.

In Anthem, though, this is as much to perpetuate the ruling class (assigning free-thinkers to sweep streets pretty much takes away the danger of revolution) as it is to reinforce the group-centered belief of “no one is more equal than everyone else.” With the decline in education and the practice of seemingly random job-assignments especially to that of “scholar” position), technology has stagnated, and much of it has been lost. Fundamentally, this goes to prove that, without the creativity and innovation of individuals, nothing will ever improve. Once again, this is exemplified by Equality’s re-discovery of electricity and the rather militant reaction incurred therein by the ruling class. Through this, Rand is conveying the message that, in a group-oriented society, there is no motivation to innovate, to create, to improve —- only to BE and do what is expected (after all, one would not want to be better than one’s brother …)

There were some positive repercussions of a group-oriented society (beyond that the streets were oh-so-spotless). With the decline of technology, nature had reclaimed much of the Earth. Forests and mountains were wild, mysterious places humans actually feared to tread, which caused many plants and animals to re-thrive. Also, social ills such as crime, war and poverty were eliminated. Rand, however, obviously sees group-oriented living as stealing one’s identity, as regressive in terms of human development, and as constricting one’s thoughts and mind.

Through her exploration of Equality’s world in Anthem, Rand criticizes and comments upon many social issues. Such commentary may relate to the occurrences in the late Twentieth Century. The apparent theme of individuality within Anthem applies itself naturally to a number of issues, with a direct example involving contemporary education. While in the Home of the Students, Equality’s direct statement that ‘We…were not happy in those years [because] the learning was too easy” casts a negative light upon the educational system of Rand’s time, as well as the current educational system. Additionally, the clause, “This is a great sin, to be born with a head that is too quick” illustrates the idea that the school systems, by placing too heavy of a focus upon those needing assistance, inevitably draw down those with a higher intelligence because of negligence.

In contemporary time, this particular Rand criticism best falls upon schools operating along strict grade levels with few programs for advancement. Consequently, “average,” lowest-common-denominator schools produce a crop of students who generally hover around the average achievement levels, as well as a minority of gifted students who do not achieve their potential. One may understand the retarding nature of this educational process in Rand’s description of Equality’s life in the tunnel, as he “in…two years of reading scholarly manuscripts has learned more than he had learned in the ten years of the Home of the Students.”

A secondary criticism of Rand’s writing centers around the status of her perception of civil government. First, one may apply Rand’s description of the Council of Vocations and its means of choosing citizens’ occupations to critique the process of government in the contemporary American system. Equality relates the process of occupation choice, as he notes that “if the Council [says] “‘Cook,'” the Students so assigned go to work….” However, in the event that the Council chooses someone as a Leader, those students live in the Home of the Leaders, wherein the citizens study to “become candidates and be elected to the City, State, and World Council.” Such a means of choosing candidates and eventual representatives of the government may constitute an oligarchic structure that effectively restricts those who may operate the governmental structures.

In the American socio-political culture, such a criticism may hit hardest upon party selection and occupational representation. With minor exceptions in 1992 and 1968, the Republican and Democratic party selections have dominated the electoral results in Presidential and Congressional contests. As a consequence, a favorable comparison may exist between the Council’s choices and each of the two parties’ nominees. Additionally, a certain limiting factor with regards to electoral victors has existed in the occupational realm, as lawyers have significantly comprised the population of both Houses and the Presidency.

Second, one may utilize Rand’s description of the encounter between Equality and the Council of Scholars to hurl critical analyses at the concept of cultural and religious traditions. As Rand makes clear throughout the work, each person undertakes his action for the purpose of serving the common good, with the World Council representing such utmost good. Through the decrees of the World Council, society holds such scientific beliefs as “the earth is flat and that the sun revolves around it” and that one bleeds a man to cure his ailments. Because of such Medieval beliefs, Equality’s discovery of electricity becomes a revolutionary concept in his and the Council of Scholars’ minds.

As Equality describes his discovery to the Scholars, one of them remarks that “‘What is not thought by all men cannot be true,” while another states that “What is not done collectively cannot be good.” Such a practice of relying upon a set doctrine naturally inhibits the society’s growth of technology to the point that all of those within the society, including Equality, fear a simple “Uncharted Forest”. From the context of the past, Rand appears to compare the experiences of Galileo and the Roman Catholic Church to the experiences of Equality. Within a more contemporary context, one may visualize such reliance upon a specific doctrine impeding the growth of technology in the issues of cloning, the RU-487 capsule, and the medical use of marijuana. In each case, the traditional mainstays of the society affect the growth of a possibly beneficial development.

Overall, Ayn Rand’s Anthem is a short and rather simple introductory exploration of the theme of communal living versus individualism. While her narrative only briefly scratches the surface of this and other social themes, it is a good starting point for a consideration of the role of man in society.

Building an Ethical School

When reflecting on what I have read in the book Building an Ethical School by Robert J. Starratt, and the information obtained from my current Ethics and Social Responsibilities class, I feel I have an abundance of valuable information that will guide me in creating an ethical school environment when I am a school leader.

When I think of an ethical school, I envision a school where all members of the school make decisions based on what is right and good. I read once in an article that real leaders concentrate on doing the right thing, not on doing things right. I believe this. If a leader comes to a decision doing the “right” thing, they are also usually doing things right. Having a responsibility to everyone involved in the school community, it is often not clear what is right or wrong or which perspective is right. This is the struggle that school leaders encounter on a daily basis.

As the leader of a school, it will be my responsibility to ensure that all students have the opportunity for a quality education in a safe learning environment. In meeting this responsibility, I feel that it is imperative to not only be concerned with the academics of a school, but to also focus on the creation or sustaining of a school that is ethical. When talking about being the leader of an ethical school, I am talking about being the leader of a school where the administration, teaching staff, clerical & custodial staff, students and parents engage in ethical behavior on a consistent base. Their ethics should be the principles that guide them in making the right or proper decisions.

In the creating of an ethical school, it is the responsibility of the principal to be the focal point of ethical decision making. If the principal acts in an ethical manner there will most likely be a “trickle down effect” causing those under him/her to also act ethically. The principal must ensure that his/her assistant principals are acting ethically and that they are ensuring that the teaching staff is acting ethically. The teaching staff must make sure to act ethically toward their students and in return that the students are acting ethically.

When all the leaders of a school act ethically, it will facilitate the students acting ethically. “When youngsters encounter various teachers throughout the school day who model ethical values, when ethical concerns are discussed in various subjects across the curriculum, when multiple opportunities are present to practice the ethic of caring, the ethic of justice and the ethic of critique, when guidance counselors, coaches and moderators of student activities all consistently speak about ethical concerns, when the school corridors are hung with posters which reflect ethical values of self-respect, loyalty and honesty, and when the school and the home express consistent concern over ethical issues, the message is pretty hard to ignore.” ( Starrat )

In my opinion there are several attributes that a school leader must possess in order to run an ethical school. They should be honest, respectful and fair. If a principal makes his/her decision based on these three qualities, and demands that the entire school body also possesses these qualities, there will be a great foundation to an ethical school.

Before writing this paper, I took an Ethical Orientation self-test. The perspective presented in the self-test was based on material from the course as it related to standard five of the ISLLC (Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium) standards. Standard five reads: Acting with integrity, fairness, and in an ethical manner. The purpose of the self-test was to provide me with an assessment of my understanding of ethical principles as they relate to my professional actions. After taking the self-test I was more aware of areas that I would need to concentrate on or work more on when becoming a principal, if I wanted to truly establish an ethical school. The self-test was a tool to guide me in being a more ethical leader. There were several statements that I responded with an answer of “1” or at least I wanted to answer “1” but was actually too embarrassed to write down the number one.

One of the statements read: “I attempt to live my private life in unison with my professional responsibilities so that people consider me an ethical person.” I answered “1” to that statement which meant that my actions never agree with that statement. To me, my opinion was that my profession and personal life are completely separate and should not intertwine. Therefore, there was no need to live my life in unison with my professional responsibilities so people would think I was an ethical person. In reality, my profession is a large part of who I am and as an educational leader I definitely want to be an ethical leader.

In conclusion, I should always or frequently attempt to live my life in unison with my professional responsibilities because in actuality my profession and my personal life are intertwined. I also discovered from the self-test that I need to me more aware of the importance of parents and local community members and the positive contributions they may be able to make when setting up an ethical school. There were many ethical principles that I was very aware of and my actions always complied with.

If I was a new principal and I was creating a school setting that was ethical, the first thing I would do is obtain the Code of Ethics for educators and the Student Code of Conduct. I would review them very carefully making sure I was fully aware of all information. One of the summer meetings that I would have with my assistant principals would be exclusively on the Code of Ethics for educators and the Student Code of conduct. During this meeting I would distribute both documents to them explaining my intentions of running an ethical school. I would explain to them that I would expect them to follow the Educators Code of Ethics. I would make them aware of their importance in accomplishing this difficult endeavor, and explain to them my beliefs about being honest, respectful and fair.

The assistant principals would be responsible for distributing the Student Code of Conduct to each student that they were responsible for. Each assistant principal would conduct a meeting with their students, reviewing the Code of Conduct. The Code of Conduct would have to be brought home and reviewed, being signed by the student and the parent/guardian. The purpose for distributing the Student Code of conduct to all students, which had also has to be signed by parents, is to provide the student and parent of the expectations of their behavior and the possibly consequences of misconduct.

Affirmative Action in Higher Education A Solution to Structural Racism

It seems as if the roaring debate over affirmative action has again emerged. Much of the debate centers about education. Critics appear to believe that a policy to aggressively counter discrimination against minority groups is no longer necessary and, further, serves only to create unfair privileges. My paper will investigate the question of affirmative action in schooling for minorities in order to address the issue of affirmative action in college admissions.

What is the evidence that supports arguments for or arguments against affirmative action policies in college admissions? Affirmative action is defined in Websters dictionary as “a policy or program for correcting the effects of discrimination in the employment of education of members of certain groups. ” There are many different types of advantage policies that no one seems to question. For example, there are many students who get privileges at universities because their parents or relatives are alumni.

No one pickets or rallies against this practice. Minority groups are trying to keep affirmative action in order to compensate for the lack of demographic and economic balances within the population of educational systems. A major crisis facing American higher education today is the rapidly declining number of Blacks successfully graduating from institutions of higher education at all levels– 2-year and 4-year colleges, graduate schools, and professional schools.

Many educators, political leaders, civil rights groups, and other concerned organizations have expressed alarm in recent years about the drop in the percentage of Black high school graduates who go on to 4-yeart colleges and beyond. “Although more Blacks are obtaining high school diplomas, the number of Black high school graduates, ages 18 to 25 years old, who enrolled in college fell from 33. % in 1976 t 26. 1% in 1985” (Lang, Barriers to Blacks, p. 510; U. S. Bureau of the Census, 1987). To some extent this decline in Black college enrollment reflects an overall national decline in college enrollment.

Yet, the enrollment of the traditionally underrepresented minorities has been increasing. Even more devastating is the fact that the graduation rate of Blacks from 4-year colleges, graduate schools, and professional schools has dropped drastically as well. What are the reasons for this situation? What can or needs to be done in order to change these trends? What are the potential consequences if these trends are not changed? Part of the problem is encouraging Black youths to make the transition from high school to college.

The more crucial concern, however, “is getting Black youths through college to graduation and into and graduate from graduate and professional schools” (Wilson, The Black Community in the 1980s, p. 459). To begin addressing these pertinent questions, it is necessary to examine some factors that are affecting Blacks in higher education in recent years. Recent research clearly shows that the higher attrition rates of Black students are largely attributable to their socio-economic background and to certain peculiar characteristics of higher education institutions.

Yet, “it has also become clear that when socio-economic factors are controlled, the attrition rate of Blacks after enrolling in college is not strikingly different from that of Whites” (David, Achievement and Ascription in Admission to an Elite College, p. 371). This points directly to the significance of institutional factors on the attrition of Black Students after college enrollment. The research literature (Astin, 1975, 1982; Christoffel, 1986) further provides specific explanations for the disproportionately large attribution for Black students.

Those factors include the academic preparation of Black students for higher education, the availability of family resources and access to institutional financial-aid resources, and the institutional barriers to access, enrollment, and retention. Why does equal opportunity in higher educational institutions continue to be a problem for minorities? Why do the retention and graduation rates for Blacks continue to decline? And, what are viable options for improving the access and retention of minorities in institutions of higher education?

These are some of the major questions that must be addressed in a systematic research agenda. “The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s was in part a struggle to gain for minorities equal access to the nations institutions of higher learning” (Lang, Barriers to Blacks, p. 14). Yet, over a quarter of a century later, minorities are still underrepresented, as students, faculty, and staff, at predominately White colleges and universities across the country. The inequitable status of minorities in higher educational institutions continues has generated considerable scholarly debate over the last few years.

It was during the administration of President John F. Kennedy that significant programs were initiated to provide federal financial aid for minority students to pursue a college education. During the early 1960s, the federal government instituted such programs as the National Defense Educational Act (NDEA), the National Defense Student Loan program (NDSL), and work-study programs that made it easier for minority students (especially Blacks) to have the financial support necessary to attend college for the first time in the nations history” (Lang, Barriers to Blacks, p. 15).

Other programs followed in the mid and late 1960s, such as the Basic Education Opportunity Grants program (BEOG) and the Equal Opportunity Grants (EEOP). Both of these programs provided direct loans or grants to low-income and minority students who qualified for college admissions and enrollment. Because of these programs, these students began to enroll en masse in colleges and universities across the nation. By the mid-1970s the enrollment of Black students had reached its historic peak.

The predominately Black colleges and universities felt the initial effects and reaped the benefits of these programs. The attack on affirmative action began with the Reagan/Bush administration decision to not enforce certain federal policies on affirmative action. During this era, “substantial reallocations were made in federal student aid programs, with a significant impact because most minority college students depend on some form of federal financial aid” (Wilkerson, The Masks of Meritocracy and Egalitarianism, p. 65).

The decrease in federal support for minority student financial-aid programs has certainly hurt the access of minority students to institutions of higher learning. Furthermore, their generally inferior socio-economic status continues to be severe deterrents to obtaining a higher education. For example, “approximately 31. 5% of Blacks and other non-Hispanic minority families in the U. S. live below the poverty level” (Wilson, The Black Community in the 1980s, p. 456). Similarly, about 28% of Hispanic families live below the poverty level (U. S. Bureau of the Census, 1985, 1987).

The results suggest that affirmative action policies implemented by colleges during the 1960s and early 1970s were successful in encouraging the enrollment of Black students. Increased funding of scholarship award programs would provide a mechanism for reversing the recent downward trend in minority enrollment in institutions of higher education. The aforementioned statistics have serious implications for family resources available to support the funding of higher education and for the preparedness of minority students to succeed in college once they get accepted.

Minority families, in general, earn substantially less than White families in the United States. Thus, fewer families resources are available to provide exposure to as many learning experiences for minority children outside of school. “Considering the general poorer quality of public secondary schools in minority neighborhoods, minority students would be less adequately prepared t score as high on college entrance tests as white students” (White, Two Views of Standardized Testing, p. 335).

Yet, scholars seldom consider this when they debate the lower level of minority students performance on college entrance exams. Nevertheless, there are sufficient data available to show that when the college entrance test scores of minority and White students of similar socio-economic status and background are compared, their scores are relatively comparable” (White Two Views of Standardized Testing, p. 340). This supports the argument that the lack of financial resources, family situations, and other social and economic factors results in minority students being less prepared for college success.

A blatant fallacy is the notion that low college entrance scores, or college entrance scores themselves, are the best measures and predictors of intelligence. These scores measure best what one has already learned both in and out of school, not ones intellectual capability or capacity to learn. In a recent report, Orfield and Paul (1988) concluded that four major issues are clearly linked to the declining admission and retention rates of minority students in higher education.

According to Lang, these issues include: * segregation in primary and secondary schools *Increasing costs of higher education *Inadequate assistance to unprepared students *Lack of commitment to equal opportunity by institutions of higher education. Continuing segregation of minority students in primary and secondary schools with poor facilities affects every aspect of student preparedness. Orfield and Paul (1988) compared majority White schools to schools where more that five out of six students were from minority backgrounds.

In most cases, the minority schools had: *Teachers with fewer advanced degrees, and degrees from less prestigious or less selective colleges *Fewer resources for counseling those students who relied more on counselors for course decisions and for making college choices Wider differences in scores on achievement tests The gap that is widening between the learning experiences of minority students and their non-minority counterparts can also be attributed to the continuing segregation in primary and secondary schools. This comes from tracking, less enriching curricula and academic programs, and ultimately less preparation and capability for college entry” (Wilkerson, The Mask of Meritocracy and Egalitarianism, p. 65).

Scholars generally recognize the deteriorating conditions of the inner-city schools that most minority students attend. There appears to be an unspoken agreement among higher educational institutions (especially predominately White institutions) to ignore this factor when evaluating students for admission.

The philosophy of these institutions is to attract and admit the best prepared students they can find” (David, Achievement and Ascription in Admission to an Elite College, p. 380). Thus, these institutions look upon redemption and development programs or other programs that address the needs of under-prepared students as automatically lowering the standards, tarnishing the image, and damaging the reputation of their fine institutions.

Admittedly, there is still a gross lack of commitment on the part of institutions, state and federal agencies, and higher education leaders to improve the access of minorities to higher education” (Lang, Barriers to Blacks, p. 518). During the past decade, there has been noticeable decline in national sentiment favoring equal opportunity, fairness, and a commitment to the concerns of the disadvantaged and disenfranchised. Since academic institutions are microcosms reflecting the larger society, this attitude has obviously trickled down to them as well.

Higher education administrators and scholars alike know that the direction within academic institutions permeates form the top downward. Thus, if the boards of trustees and chief academic officers at these institutions “were to commit themselves to equal opportunity and direct their underlings to carry out their directives, minority access would improve as well” (Wilson, The Black Community in the e1980s, p. 339). Because Civil Rights enforcement became essentially non-existent in the 1980s, institutions view this relaxed mood of the federal government as an endorsement of its non-commitment to equal access and opportunity for minorities.

Orfield and Paul (1988) characterize this scenario perfectly by stating that “where there is no commitment there can be only token response or none at all” (p. 61). In addressing the need for minority student retention and access, one solution lies outside of national legislation and policy-making. If diversity is truly one of the goals of higher education, then the need for change should first be realized by these institutions. We can legislate actions, but we cannot legislate attitudes and commitments. It is the attitude and commitment of institutions that need to be changed.

Most institutions have had affirmative action and equal opportunity policies for more than twenty years; and now they are trying to take these programs away. Very basic issues still need to be addressed, and indeed some new policy-making may be appropriate. In the meantime, much can be done to improve the access and retention of minorities in higher education. “Colleges and universities can begin by strengthening their linkages with elementary and secondary schools in inner-city areas, where the greatest minority populations reside” (Wilson, The Black Community in the 1980s, p. ).

Atwell (1988) points out that higher education institutions are obligated t o work with these schools, not to rescue the students or share great wisdom, but because their futures are inextricably tied to each other. When colleges and universities have exemplary programs to pilot, they are already available for elementary and secondary schools. If these institutions would begin to take their model programs to inner-city areas, improvements could begin toward the preparation of minority students for college work.

The ultimate problem is that too many higher education institutions, and the public resources that support them, exist only for the elite upper classes while few exist for the masses. In the end, society pays double. Because we fail to fully overcome the burden of historic exclusionary and discriminatory racial practices in the educational system, we fail to fully use and develop our most valuable national resource, our human resource. Minority student access and retention are educational processes they are not merely programs.

The success of these programs should not be measured by the mere numbers of minority students being enrolled in and graduating from colleges. They should be measured by structural changes in institutions designed to accommodate the diversity of skills, cultural backgrounds, adeptness, and historical legacies that minorities bring with them to school. This is what affirmative action does. It enables minorities to start at the same level at which Whites begin. They should also be measured by the articulation and realization of the institutions commitment to minority access and success.

Brown v Board of Education

On the seventeenth day in May 1954 a decision was made which changed things in the United States dramatically. For millions of black Americans, news of the U. S. Supreme Court’s landmark decision in Brown v. Board of Education meant, at last, that they and their children no longer had to attend separate, and almost universally unequal, schools. Brown v. Board of Education was a Supreme Court ruling that changed the life of every American forever.

In Topeka, Kansas, a black third-grader named Linda Brown had to walk one mile through a railroad switchyard to get to her black elementary school, even though a white elementary school was only seven blocks away. Linda’s father, Oliver Brown, tried to enroll her in the white elementary school, but the principal of the school refused. Brown went to McKinley Burnett, the head of Topeka’s branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and asked for help.

The NAACP was eager to assist the Browns, as it had long wanted to challenge segregation in public schools. Other black parents joined Brown, and, in 1951, the NAACP requested an injunction that would forbid the segregation of Topeka’s public schools (NAACP). The U. S. District Court for the District of Kansas heard Brown’s case from June 25-26, 1951. At the trial, the NAACP argued that segregated schools sent the message to black children that they were inferior to whites; therefore, the schools were unequal.

The Board of Education’s defense was that, because segregation in Topeka and elsewhere pervaded many other aspects of life, segregated schools simply prepared black children for the segregation they would face during adulthood. The board also argued that segregated schools were not necessarily harmful to black children; great African Americans had overcome much more than just segregated schools and became very successful. The request for an injunction pushed the court to make a difficult decision.

On one hand, the judges agreed with the Browns; saying that: “Segregation of white and colored children in public schools has a detrimental effect upon the colored children… A sense of inferiority affects the motivation of a child to learn” (The National Center For Public Research). On the other hand, the precedent of Plessy v. Ferguson allowed separate but equal school systems for blacks and whites, and no Supreme Court ruling had overturned Plessy yet.

Because of the precedent of Plessy, the court felt “compelled” to rule in favor of the Board of Education (Cozzens). Brown and the NAACP appealed to the Supreme Court on October 1, 1951. Their case was combined with other cases that challenged school segregation in South Carolina, Virginia, and Delaware. The Supreme Court first heard the cases on December 9, 1952, but failed to reach a decision. The judges had to decide whether or not the writers of the Fourteenth Amendment had desegregated schools in mind. The court ruling eventually came to be unanimous.

The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court asked this question in the decision read on May 17, 1954: “Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities and other tangible’ factors may be equal, deprive children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? ” (The National Center for Public Research). They struck down the “separate but equal” doctrine of Plessy for public education saying that it “has no place”, ruled in favor of the plaintiffs, and required the desegregation of schools across America (The National Center For Public Research).

On that Monday in May, the high court’s ruling that outlawed school segregation in the United States generated urgent news flashes on the radio and frenzied black. One swift and unanimous decision by the top judges in the land was going to end segregation in public schools. Southern politicians reacted with such fury and fear that they immediately called the day “Black Monday. ” South Carolina Gov. James Byrnes, who rose to political power with passionate advocacy of segregation, said the decision was “the end of civilization in the South as we have known it. ”

Georgia Gov. Herman Talmadge struck an angry tone. He said Georgia had no intention of allowing “mixed race” schools as long as he was governor. He touched on Confederate pride from the days when the South went to war with the federal government over slavery by telling supporters that the Supreme Court’s ruling was not law in his state; he said it was “the first step toward national suicide. ” The Brown v Board of Education decision should be regarded, he said, as nothing but a “mere scrap of paper” (Patterson). Southern whites were in strong support of segregated schools.

Newspapers for black readers reacted with satisfaction. “The Supreme Court decision is the greatest victory for the Negro people since the Emancipation Proclamation,” said Harlem’s Amsterdam News. A writer in the Chicago Defender explained, “neither the atomic bomb nor the hydrogen bomb will ever be as meaningful to our democracy,” and Thurgood Marshall, the NAACP lawyer who directed the legal fight that led to Brown v Board of Education, predicted the end of segregation in all American public schools by the fall of 1955 (Patterson).

This decision was one of life changing proportions for all Americans but for black people it was also one huge step toward equality and eventually total freedom. However, ten years after the decision very little school integration had taken place. True to the challenging words of segregationist governors, the Southern states had hunkered down in a massive resistance campaign against school integration. Some Southern counties even closed their schools instead of allowing blacks and whites into the same classrooms.

In other towns, segregationist academies opened, and most if not all of the white children left the public schools for the racially exclusive alternatives. Some parents of white children chose to pay for private school tuition in order to maintain segregation. In most places, the governors, mayors, and school boards found it easy enough to just ask for more time before integrating schools (Patterson). Many southerners were so racist they would do anything not to go to a school with black children. This extremely slow approach worked.

In 1957, President Eisenhower had to send troops from the 101st Airborne into Little Rock just to get nine black children safely into Central High School. In response to this Arkansas closed all public high schools for two years (Patterson). Only in the late 1960s, under the threat of losing federal funding, did large-scale school integration begin in Southern public schools. In many places, in both the North and the South, black and white students did not go to school together until a federal court ordered school children to ride buses across town to bring the races together (Cozzens).

Today, a study by the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University finds that the percentage of white students attending public schools with Hispanic or black students has steadily declined since 1988. In fact, the report concludes that school integration in the United States is “lower in 2000 than in 1970, before busing for racial balance began. ” In the South, home to the majority of America’s black population, there is now less school integration than there was in 1970.

The Harvard report concluded, “At the beginning of the 21st century, American schools are now 12 years into the process of continuous re-segregation. ” Today, America’s schools are so heavily segregated that more than two-thirds of black and Hispanic students are in schools where a majority of the students are not white. Also today, most of the nation’s white children attend a school that is almost 80 percent white (NAACP). Hispanics are now the most segregated group of students in the nation because they live in highly concentrated clusters.

Fifty years later, the Brown v Board of Education decision looks different. The real impact of the legal, political, and cultural eruption that changed America is not exactly what it first appeared to be. Segregated housing patterns and an increase in the number of black and Hispanic immigrants have concentrated minorities in poverty-stricken areas of big cities and created a new reality of public schools segregated by race and class. Today, it is hard to even remember America before Brown v Board of Education because the ruling completely changed the nation.

Before the Brown v Board of Education decision, the federal government lent its power to enforcing the laws of segregation under an 1896 Supreme Court ruling that permitted “separate but equal” treatment of blacks and whites. Blacks and whites who tried to integrate factories, unions, public buses and trains, parks, the military, restaurants, department stores, and more found that the power of the federal government was with the segregationists. Before Brown v Board of Education, the federal government had struggled even to pass a law banning lynching (Cozzens).

But after the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public schools was a violation of the Constitution, the federal attitude toward enforcing second-class citizenship for blacks shifted on the scale of a change in the ocean’s tide or a movement in the plates of the continents. Once the highest court in the land said equal treatment for all did not allow for segregation, then the lower courts, the Justice Department, and federal prosecutors, as well as the FBI, all switched sides (Patterson). They didn’t always act to promote integration, but they no longer used their power to stop it.

An irreversible shift had begun, and it was the direct result of the Brown v Board of Education decision. The change in the attitude of federal officials created a wave of anticipation among black people, who became alert to the possibility of achieving the long-desired goal of racial equality. The year after the Brown v Board of Education case, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man on a racially segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama. That led to a year long bus boycott and the emergence of massive, nonviolent protests for equal rights.

That same year, a 27 year-old man by the name of Martin Luther King Jr. emerged as the nation’s prophet of civil rights for all Americans (NAACP). Kings grandfather had earlier led the protests resulting in Atlanta’s first black high school and his father was a minister and community leader as well. King encouraged others to organize peaceful protests. In 1960 a group of black college students rose to King’s challenge and organized a sit-in at a local Woolworth’s lunch counter designated “whites only” in Greensboro, South Carolina.

News reports of the sit-in and the resultant harassment the students endured, inspired a sit-in movement that spread across the nation to combat segregation (Patterson). Black Americans were taking full and long awaited advantage of the Brown v Board of Education decision. Stand like Rosa Parks became more common. Blacks were determined to get their freedom and were stopping at nothing to get their word heard. This change in black and white attitudes toward race also had an impact on culture. Churches began to grapple with the Christian and Jewish principles of loving thy neighbor, even if thy neighbor had a different color skin.

Major league baseball teams no longer feared a fan revolt if they allowed more than one black player on a team. Black writers, actors, athletes, and musicians, ranging from James Baldwin to the Supremes and Muhammad Ali, began to cross over into the mainstream of American culture (Cozzens). The other side of the change in racial attitudes was white support for equal rights. College-educated young white people in the 1960s often defined themselves by their willingness to embrace racial equality. Bob Dylan sang about the changing times as answers “blowing in the wind.

Movies like “Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner” found major audiences among all races, and previously all-white private colleges and universities began opening their doors to black students (Cozzens). The resulting arguments over affirmative action in college admissions led to the Supreme Court’s 1978 decision in the University of California v Bakke case, which outlawed the use of quotas, and its recent ruling that the University of Michigan can take race into account as one factor in admitting students to its law school. The court has also had to deal with affirmative action in the business world, in both hiring and contracts (Patterson).

All of these questions were a result the questions of equality in the Constitution raised by the Brown v Board of Education decision. However, the most important legacy of the Brown v Board of Education decision, by far, is the growth of an educated black middle class. The number of black people graduating from high school and college has soared since Brown v Board of Education, and the incomes of blacks have climbed steadily as a result. Home ownership and investment in the stock market among black Americans have rocketed since the 1980s.

The political and economic force of that black middle class continues to bring America closer to the vision of racial equality that Dr. King might have dreamed of 50 years ago. The Supreme Court’s May 17, 1954, ruling in Brown v Board of Education remains a landmark legal decision. This decision is huge not only because it changed the history of America forever but also because it was a huge step for blacks in the United States. This decision would eventually lead to the full freedom of blacks in America. Brown v Board of Education is the “Big Bang” of all American history in the 20th century.

Multicultural Education Essay

America has long been called “The Melting Pot” due to the fact that it is made up of a varied mix of races, cultures, and ethnicity’s. As more and more immigrants come to America searching for a better life, the population naturally becomes more diverse. This has, in turn, spun a great debate over multiculturalism. Some of the issues at stake are: who is benefiting from education, and how to present material in a way so not to offend a large number of people. In the 1930’s several educators called for programs of cultural diversity that encouraged ethnic and minority students to study their own heritages.

This is not a simple feat due to the act that there is a lot of diversity within individual cultures. A look at a 1990 census shows that the American population has changed noticeably in the last ten years, with one out of every four Americans identifying themselves as black, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, or American Indian (Gould 198). The number of foreign born residents also reached an all time high of twenty million, easily passing the 1980 record of fourteen million.

Most people, from educators to philosophers, agree that an important first step in successfully joining multiple cultures is to develop an understanding of each others ackground. In 1980, Stanford University came up with a program – later known as the “Stanford-style multicultural curriculum” which aimed to familiarize students with traditions, philosophy, literature, and history of the West. The program consisted of 15 required books by writers such as Plato, Aristotle, Homer, Aquinas, Marx, and Freud. By 1987, a group called the Rainbow Coalition argued the fact that the books were all written by DWEM’s (Dead White European Males).

They felt that this type of teaching denied students the knowledge of contributions by people of color, women and other oppressed roups. In 1987, the faculty voted 39 to 4 to change the curriculum and do away with the fifteen book requirement and the term “Western” for the study of at least one non-European culture and proper attention to be given to the issues of race and gender (Gould 199). This debate was very important because its publicity provided the grounds for the argument that America is a racist society and to study only one culture would not accurately portray what really makes up this country.

Defenders of multicultural education argue that it offers students a balanced appreciation and critique of other ultures as well as our own (Stotsky 64). While it is common sense that one could not have a true understanding of a subject by only possessing knowledge of one side of it, this brings up the fact that there would never be enough time in the current school year to equally cover the contributions of each individual nationality. This leaves teachers with two options. The first would be to lengthen the school year, which is highly unlikely because of the political aspects of the situation.

The other choice is to modify the curriculum to only include what the instructor (or school) feels are the most important ontributions, which again leaves them open to criticism from groups that feel they are not being equally treated. A national standard is out of the question because of the fact that different parts of the country contain certain concentrations of nationalities. An example of this is the high concentration of Cubans in Florida or Latinos in the west. Neverless, teachers are at the top of the agenda when it comes to multiculturalism.

They can do the most for children during the early years of learning, when kids are most impressionable. By engaging students in activities that follow the lines of their multicultural urriculum, they can open up young minds while making learning fun (Pyszkowski 154). Students are not the only ones who can benefit from this type of learning. Teachers certainly will pick up on educational aspects from other countries. If, for instance, a teacher has a minority student from a different country in their classroom every year, the teacher can develop a well rounded teaching style that would in turn benefit all of the class.

Teachers can also keep on top of things by regularly attending workshops and getting parents involved so they can reinforce what is being taught in the classroom at the child’s home. While generally opposed to the idea, Francis Ryan points out that “Multicultural education programs indeed may be helpful for all students in developing perspective-taking skills and an appreciation for how ethnic and minority traditions have evolved and changed as each came into contact with other groups” (Ryan 137).

It would certainly give people a sense of ethnic pride to know how their forefathers contributed to the building of the American society that we live in today. It is also a great feeling to know that the nation can change what is felt to be wrong, in order to build a better system for our hildren. Minorities would benefit from learning the evolution of their culture and realizing that the ups and downs along the way do not necessarily mean that their particular lifestyle is in danger of extinction. Some opponents feels that the idea of multiculturalism will, instead of uniting cultures, actually divide them.

They feel that Americans should try and think of themselves as a whole rather than people from different places all living together. They go even further to say that is actually goes against our democratic tradition, the cornerstone of American society (Stotsky 64). In Paul Gannon’s article “Balancing Multicultural and Civic Education Will Take More Than Social Stew”, he brings up an interesting point that “Education in the origins, evolution, advances and defeats of democracy must, by its nature, be heavily Western and also demand great attention to political history (Gannon 8).

Since both modern democracy and its alternatives are derived mostly from European past, and since most of participants were white males who are now dead, the choices are naturally limited. If we try to avoid these truths or sidestep them in any way, we cannot honestly say we are giving an accurate description of our history. Robert Hassinger agrees with Gannon and adds that we cannot ignore the contributions of DWEM’s for the simple fact that they are just that.

He thinks that we should study such things as the rise of capitalism or ongoing nationalism in other countries, but should not be swayed in our critical thinking by the fact the some people will not feel equally treated or even disrespected (Hassinger 11). There certainly must be reasons why many influential people in our history have been DWEM’s, and we should explore these reasons without using race and sex alone as reasons for excluding them from our curriculum. When conflicts arise with the way we do things, we should explore why rather than compromise in order to protect a certain group’s feelings.

Francis Ryan warns that trying to push the subject of multiculturalism too far would actually be a hindrance it interferes with a student’s participation in other groups, or worse yet, holds the child back from expressing his or her own individuality. He gives a first hand example of one of his African-American students who was afraid to publicly admit his dislike for rap music because he felt ethnically obligated as part of his black heritage (Ryan 137). While a teacher can be a reat help in providing information about other cultures, by the same note, that information can be just has harmful if it is incomplete.

In order for students to be in control of their own identity, they must have some idea of how other look at these same qualities. Children must be taught to resolve inner-conflicts about their identity, so that these features that make us unique will be brought out in the open where they can be enjoyed by all instead of being hidden in fear of facing rejection from their peers (Ryan 136). Teachers need to spend an equal amount of time developing each students individuality so hat they don’t end up feeling obligated to their racial group more than they feel necessary to express the diversity that makes America unique.

Most immigrant come to America for a better way of life, willing to leave behind the values of their mother countries. Instead of trying to move the country that they came from into America, immigrants need to be willing to accept the fact that America is shared by all who live here, and it is impossible to give every citizen an equal amount of attention. If we are not willing to forget some parts of our heritage in favor of a set of well rounded values, then a fully integrated America will never be possible. There certainly is no easy answer to the problem of multicultural education.

Proponents will continue to argue the benefits that unfortunately seem to be too far out of reach for our imperfect society. The hard truth is that it is impossible for our public school system to fairly cater to the hundreds of nationalities that already exist, let alone the hundreds more that are projected to arrive during the next century. In order for us to live together in the same society, ewe must sometime be willing to overlook parts of our distant past in exchange for a new hope n the future. Our only chance is to continue to debate the issue in order to hope for a “middle of the road” compromise.

One particularly interesting solution is that we could study the basics of how America came about in the most non-biased way possible, not concentrating on the race and sex of our forefathers as much as what they made happen, at least during the elementary and high school years. This would leave the study of individual nationalities, which are themselves major contributing factors, for people to do at home or further down the line in their education, where they can focus on tradition nd beliefs to any extent the want without fear of anyone feeling segregated.

In order for us to function as a whole, we need to start thinking of America in terms of a whole. With just a basic understanding of other cultures, and most importantly, the tools and background to think critically and make our own decisions not based on color, sex, religion, or national origin, but on information that we were able to accurately attain through the critical thinking skills we were taught in school, we would be better equipped to work at achieving harmony in a racially varied country.

What is Technology Education

I asked myself nearly a year ago. I was at the time involved in Industrial Technology with a concentration in Drafting & Design. Unchallenged and bored with that particular field of study, I searched for something new, but yet somewhat the same. I saw a flyer posted in Flanagan Hall at my former stomping ground, East Carolina University, that said teachers were desperately needed at local high schools. Some of the subjects they needed teachers in included: Electronics, Wood Shop, Auto Mechanics, Computer Applications, and the one that caught my eye the most, Drafting & Design.

The flyer said all you needed to teach middle and high school in these particular subjects was a BS in Industrial Technology (but teacher certification was a plus was noted in the fine print). I did some research on Technology Education and did some personal reflection if this was a career I was really interested in. “It sure beats a 9 to 5 job,” I thought, “and it cant be monotonous because every day you do something new especially in the type of teaching Id like to pursue, Drafting & Design. ”

Over the weekend I did some more research on a professional organization that is directly related to my field, Industrial Technology Education Association (ITEA). ITEA is a large, in fact the largest, professional educational association devoted to enhancing technology education through experiences in our schools (K-12). ITEA covers individuals and institutions throughout the world with the primary membership in North America. More than forty thousand technology educators in the United States alone represent ITEA.

The corporate members of ITEA are comprised of leading technology companies. ITEA’s mission is to advance technological means for all people. ITEA tries to meet the professional needs and interests of members as well as to improve public understanding of technology education and its contributions. ITEA conducts various professional development programs and holds an annual conference. This conference is the largest technology education show of exhibits and educational sessions in the world. Wow!

Some publications the Industrial Technology Education Association compose include the following: The Technology Teacher, Technology and Children, and The Journal of Technology Education. There are ten committees that organize the aspects of technology education. These committees of ITEA also sponsor dozens of meetings, conferences, and exhibits each year. They also sponsor an active honor and awards program that identifies outstanding teachers and programs (K-12) from states, provinces and countries that are affiliated with the Association.

ITEA also presents award certificates and supports other programs that recognize outstanding efforts in the technology teaching profession. The last thing I want to mention here is that ITEA performs a strong public policy program, frequently providing information to the government, local and national agencies & associations, and other special interest groups that deal with technology education.

The Association attempts to provide an understanding of the importance of technology education to the future growth and welfare of all nations. ITEA provides many professional services that are available to teachers. As stated before, the Industrial Technology Educational Association provides a variety of publications and videos. This material leads the teachers by providing teaching directions, instructional ideas, and networking opportunities.

Dorm Life Essay

educDorm life at Bowling Green State University is like most other colleges. Students that live in the dorms are known to become very close, often walking to classes together, playing sports, and staying up late for all night study sessions. The students that live in the dorms are in some sense, a society. Every person has a responsibility. Sometimes, if any one person does not complete what they are responsible for, the whole society has to pay. There can be many problems in a dorm. Students playing music too loud in their rooms after quiet hours, and not respecting others are examples of problems that only affect one or two people.

Problems like leaving the hall a mess and leaving trash in the bathroom are problems that affect the whole dorm. By leaving trash in the hallway or in the bathrooms, the student runs the risk of being fined from the custodial services for having to take out the room trash. These fines are extremely harsh. At one point, a floor would be fined $11 for a custodial worker to have to pick up a pizza box. Other problems include plates, silverware, and trays from the dining hall winding up in the hallway, leaving the bathroom a mess, and vomiting.

The whole floor is charged with this fine if the actual culprit isnt found. Durham 2 Dorm policy is to fine the students on the floor that the incident occurred on. These fines can become quite excessive, sometimes exceeding $500 per semester. A student cannot receive his or her final grades for the year unless these fines are paid in whole. This brings up the question, Is it right for all the students on the floor to be fined if only one or a few of the residents went against the rules? Should a few bad apples ruin the whole bunch? I think not.

I feel that someone should address the problem by holding monthly, if not weekly meetings to inform the students that they need to take their trash out instead of placing it in the bathroom. Students need to be told that trays and all other silverware and plates need to be returned to the dining hall. Repetition is the key. If the solution is pounded and pounded into the students heads, then they will begin to obey. A hall director could also keep the students thinking by reminding them how much the floor owes, and what their share is.

Constant reminders will deter the students from breaking the rules. Another, the idea of Terri Capellman, graduate hall director of Compton Hall in the Kreischer Quad at BGSU, is to install cameras to catch the violators in the act. The sight of a camera watching the hallway would be enough to prevent trash being left in the hallway, potential acts of vandalism and theft. Either of these two potential solutions would work, but have we confronted the real question? Who should pay for all the damage that occurs in the residence halls? If there is an emergency after the hour of 12 a. to 8 a. m. on a Thursday, Friday, Saturday, or Sunday night, then an Emergency Maintenance custodian has to come and Durham 3 fix the problem.

This person is of course paid for their overtime. An emergency maintenance custodian can be called in at any time of the night. If an emergency maintenance custodian is needed, then they are paid for 4 hours of regular time, no matter how long they stay there. The starting wage for a full time custodian is $9. 93/hour. (Payroll Office Statistic) This means that the custodian was paid at least $39. to come in and clean up something that could have taken ten minutes to clean up such as broken glass.

The students on the violating floor are charged for this salary. The custodians may say that the wages they are given for coming in at unacceptable hours of the night are legit. They seem extreme to me. I think that the custodians should of course be paid extra for coming in at such late hours, but maybe not as much as is said. A reasonable wage for an emergency maintenance custodian is $30. Keep in mind that the $9. 93 is a starting wage, and since we are at a state funded university, those wages get raised in no time.

A good pay for an emergency maintenance custodian would be $19. 86/hour. This is double what they make during the day and there is no additional cost for time that is not spent on working. A solution to the whole emergency maintenance deal is to have one of the night guards or an on duty resident advisor clean up the mess. There are always three night guards on duty from the hours of 12 a. m. to 4 a. m. The job of these people is to check in residents coming in after the hour of midnight. Does the front desk really need 3 people doing the work of two?

Durham 4 An on duty RA that has nothing to do could also be a possible solution for the cleanup. On most nights the on duty RA has nothing to do, but they are being paid for doing it. Put them to work. Trash and trays left in the hallway are not the only things that a custodian might have to clean up. As you may know, drinking is quite common among college students. If a resident were to puke due to the consumption of too much alcohol after the hour of 12 a. m. then once again the emergency maintenance custodian would have to be called once again.

All of these violations do not make hall directors happy. They are the ones that control the budgets of the residence halls. If too much money is being spent in one area of the dorm, then the students have to pay. If there is a complaint of trash or trays in one of the bathrooms, then the students have to pay. Why should all the residents have to pay for something that one person did? According to the BGSU student handbook, the policy is this way because the students are the ones that know who is committing all these violations.

When the students see others committing a violation of the rules, they should take action by telling the person politely that the fine for what he or she is doing will be assessed to the whole floor. If the violator is outnumbered, he or she might feel pressured to obey the wishes of his or her peers. In conclusion, it should be shown that the individual student should not be fined for something that one of their peers did. I have given a few solutions of how to cut costs for the residence halls so the students do not have to be fined as much.

I understand that someone has to pay for the damage that is made but I also think that it should be the person or persons that commit the crime. I am a college student and my floor has already accumulated well over $2000 dollars so far this school year. I feel that it is not fair that I have to pay for something that I didnt do. Pop cans, Styrofoam cups and trays make the dorm look like a junkyard. The ultimate thing that needs to happen is the students need to take responsibility for their own actions.

High School And Education

Some People say that the world has many opportunities, some say that you cant get anywhere unless you are born to some certain class of people. Some even say that it is pure fate that brings you where you are going to be and what you get is what you get and you cant do anything about it. I think that people decide their own fates and it doesnt matter who was your parents or how much money you have. I think that your education is the most important thing that you can have in life it can bring you many things like; advancement, family, stability, a career, and of course

In many countries your job is already decided when you are born because of what your parent does for a living and their stature in society. That is many people say that the United States is the land of opportunity, you can do what ever you want with your life as long as you earn it and have the right qualifications. You can decide weather you want to continue after high school and education or get a minimum wage job. Many people take that right for granted and they put off college until they after they have a family and get settled with out knowing that their family will ake up the rest of their lives.

People who are from other countries who move to take advantage of this right we take for granted understand the purpose of a higher education. Advancement is inevitable no matter what you do you will have to be going forward in some way. Weather your advancement is to a new position in your job or a whole knew career, even if all you are doing is going to the next day you are advancing. I think that if you want to decide where you are going to advance to you have to have a good education.

If you dont have a good ducation you are going to play life like that lottery, you may go to a better job where you get better money or you can get fired because they want someone with more education. You never know what can happen to you in the next week or even the next day. Family is one of my biggest priorities in life besides my education. The future, that is how I look at family. Either you can teach your kids about higher education by example or by your mistakes.

You also need a higher education for a family because you need to manage the bills and keep up ooks on your finances. If you have no education and a bad job you will never have your own home. You will not be able to provide for your children or yourself as well as you would if you A career is the goal of most people in the world, but sometimes I think that there are not enough available for all the people who want one, so if you want to get one you will have to work foe it and prove yourself to be worthy of the job you desire. So that requires a higher education.

With a career you have all the things that I have mentioned available to you. You can even get your own business and be your own boss. You can save money and plan for retirement, you can start a college fund for your children so they can get a higher education as well. Knowledge is the key to the world. It is the factor between man and beast, between who you are and who you want to be. Knowledge is what having a higher education is all about. If you had all the knowledge in the world you would be undefeatable. No one could stand in you way.

You need knowledge to teach others how to become what they want to be, you can teach the next eneration who will take care of what you have worked your whole life for and if you have knowledge you will teach them right and trust that they wont destroy your dreams. When the people say that the world has many opportunities I think that they are correct. The world does have many opportunities, people just have to work for them. It is not fate that decides what you are going to be or where you are going. People decide their own fate and take advantage of the opportunities that they choose.

I think that fate is just something that people who are lazy and want the world to come to them thought up. They really had no plans on getting a higher education or actually working for what they wanted in life, so they thought up an idea to soothe their conscience in thinking that there was no problem with not working for what you need to achieve in life. Or maybe fate is something that people with a lucky streak thought up because they had no other explanation for their fortune and they had to give it a label.

Stability is very important to many people, some people travel all around the country moving from house to house never knowing where they will live the following months. All because they keep losing their jobs to people who have gone on and achieved a higher education. To the employer a person with a higher education is more of an asset to the company and they are willing o sacrifice their current employees to obtain their services. So when you have a higher education the employer is less willing to sacrifice your services and you will be guaranteed a job or a long time.

With an on going job you will continue to learn the skills needed and you will continue to grow as an employee, thus creates stability. Through a higher education you can achieve allot of things such as , advancement, Family values, a successful career, and vast knowledge of the world around you to make you aware of the future and the things that will come to be. Even if you believe in fate you can say that if you dont get a higher education you will have the fate of a unsuccessful person and be destined not to have the life you have always dreamed.

Education And The World Citizen

Education seems to be becoming more and more of a controversial subject not only among government, but also with school boards, teachers, parents, and even the students. Some of this controversy is attributed to the normal routine things such as starting times, funding for clubs and sports, and more recently the rise of violence in the schools, as well as outcries from the church for the return of religion in the schools. However, people of todays society are even more confused by the recent additions of new subjects not only the college curriculum but also in the curriculum of grade schoolers as well.

These additions include the study of non-western cultures, the study of women and ethnic minorities in the U. S. , and finally the study of human sexuality. In addition, people are wondering what exactly education has to do with being a world citizen? Is the life experience enough to become a world citizen? According to Nussbaum, a world citizen can be understood in two ways, the first being the strict of the two is the ideal of citizen whose primary loyalty is to human beings the world over, and whose nationalityare considered distinctly secondary (1).

An example that one could use to paint a picture of this type of world citizen could be Ghandi or Mother Teresa who both put others, no matter their race or gender, above themselves. The second way is much more relaxed and states that however we order our varied loyalties, we should still be sure that we recognize the worth of human life wherever it occurs and see ourselves as bound by common human abilities and problems to people who lie at a great distance from us (2). An example that fits this description could be Princess Di or the Reverend Jesse Jackson. But, how exactly does one become this so-called world citizen?

In The Old Education and the Think-Academy, Nussbaum gives us three of the numerous steps needed in order to become a good citizen. Nussbaum tells us that there are three essential ingredients for becoming a world citizen, the first being the critical examination of ones self, which is simply examining your life, where you have been and where you are going. The second of these is to see oneself as not just a citizen but as a group. Nussbaum is simply telling us that to often we get so wrapped up in our labels that we tend to forget that we are all human beings, and that we are all connected to one another.

The last ingredient is that of the narrative imagination, which is the ability think about situations in an objective manner by putting yourself in someone elses shoes. But, the question still remains what is the importance of education versus lifetime experience in becoming the good citizen? According to Martha Nussbaum, educating the young has everything to due with becoming a world citizen. A prevailing theme that seems to occur in Martha Nussbaums literary essays entitled The Old Education and the Think-Academy and Socratic Self-Examination seems to be the equality of all whether it be in everyday life or in education.

We are now trying to build an academy in which women, and members of religious and ethnic minorities, and lesbian and gay people, and people living in non-Western cultures can be seen and also heard, with respect and love, both as knowers and as objects of studyan academy in which the world will be seen to have many types of citizens and in which we can all learn to function as citizens of that entire world, (3)is the statement Nussbaum uses to make the point that equality is needed in todays education.

Imagine an academy in which one can learn about all aspects of life with the freedom to question and explore? A teachers task, according to Socrates, was to provoke people into thinking for themselves, rather than to teach them anything they did not already know. Nussbaum proves this to be true when she tells us about the University of Chicago and how the chain-link fence out back of the law school parking lot marks the line between the university campus and the impoverished black community that surrounds it. )Nussbaum, being a philosopher, a scholar, a teacher, as well as a student, appears more than sufficiently equipped to deal with the educational aspect of a person. Nussbaum, as well as Socrates, tend to think that the educational background of the student as well as the curriculum they are taught effect the outcome of the student as far as becoming a world citizen is concerned.

According to the World Citizen Organization, a world citizen is an inhabitant that embraces all considerations… aware of the Global Learning Framework; including perspective awareness, health of planet awareness, systems awareness, being involved being prepared, and a life-long learner aware of the inter-connectedness of all things; oneness, aware of environmental inter-relatedness of the four E’s: economics, energy, ethics, and health, having a preferred worldview (5).

It would seem that there is a unifying theme amongst all of this that the world citizen is simply a well-rounded person who simply takes the time to learn about, and understand others. Without education though, one cannot obtain the proper tactics needed in order to question and understand not only ones own culture, but also the many diverse cultures that exist on our planet.

Using Study Guides As A Teaching Aid

A study guide is a teaching aid designed to help students develop reading skills needed to enhance their comprehension of the material is the textbook. Study guides can be very helpful to students who have low comprehension skills. A study guide will ensure that the student will focus their attention on what is important for them to learn. The study guide has to be relevant to the test that will be given. Many teachers will assign a specific reading for the class and many of the students may not adhere to the teacher’s request.

A study guide will reinforce the reading material. A study guide that is prepared without the answers will force a student to do the reading. A study investigated the use of study guides as instructional tools and compared the effectiveness of study guides with and without analogies. Seventy-four undergraduate students in three upper division education classes studied three passages about three obscure religions (Manichaeism, Jainism, and the Druze religion) with and without the aid of two types of studyguides.

One study guide analogized the religions to Christianity, and one did not employ analogies. Both study guides were written in multiple-choice, short answer, and essay format. Within each class, students were randomly divided into three groups for comparison, and each subject was given all three passages to study in different sequences, studying one passage per treatment condition. Results revealed a significant interaction between text and treatment, but with a small effect size.

Results also revealed: (1) that the Manichaeism text produced scores significantly different from the combination of Druze and Jainism scores across all three treatments; (2) that the Manichaeism study guide treatments produced scores significantly different from those of the other two treatments; and (3) that the Druze analogical study guide treatment produced scores significantly different from those of the other treatments, but that the Jainism analogical study guide treatment was not significantly different from the other two treatments.

A study explored whether the use of a study guide would improve students’ comprehension of content area material. Two groups of students in an eighth grade social studies class were involved: students in the control group received the usual instruction–the chapter was read orally and discussed in class–while students in the experimental sample were given a study guide, skimmed the material silently, and worked on the exercises in groups of two or three. A posttest on history revealed no statistically significant differences between the scores of the two groups.

How ever, since both time and the amount of material were limited and since no information is available regarding the reliability of the method used, the results of this study can be applied only to these two samples. Reading in the content areas from grades four through twelve requires the integration of new knowledge with what is already known,that involves sophisticated skills. Content area teachers must be aware of, model, and teach those reading and study skills that help students to better comprehend their reading assignments.

Some strategies that have been used successfully to train students to acquire information on their own include the use of prediction guides, advance organizers, graphic organizers, study guides, and glossing. In most of the studies that I read, the use of a study guide improved most of the test scores. Study guides are a useful tool that can be used in any content area to enhance a students learning. The idea behind study guides is that students can use them as models of how to plan their own scheme of work. They are meant to primarily to be an initiation to self-direction.

A survey was administered to 10th-grade regular biology students to diagnose the cause for low achievement on chapter tests. Survey results verified teacher suspicion that students did not read textbook assignments when designated as homework and, as a consequence, this deficiency contributed to low achievement scores. A treatment included requiring additional homework in the form of a teacher-prepared Reading Study Guide (RSG) that accompanied each chapter and had to be completed while students read the assignments.

To complete the individualized RSG, students were unable to skim the material but, instead, had to read the assignments thoroughly. Upon completion of the RSG, a pretest was administered and learning activities relative to the chapter objectives were presented, followed by a posttest. Cloze test results indicated improvement in student ability levels. Posttest scores increased significantly and the overall grade average on the RSG surpassed expectations.

During treatment, cloze test results disclosed that student ability levels were not equivalent to reading stanine levels. Overall results provided evidence that Reading Study Guides Was an excellent resource when used with students who have the potential to improve learning skills and increase achievement levels. The RSG treatment was successful as it highlighted course objectives, outlined important concepts and information, was used to study for tests, and encouraged students to read homework assignments.

Sex Education In Public Schools: To Be Or Not To Be

Sex education in public schools has been a controversial issue in the United States for over a decade. With the HIV and teen pregnancy crises growing, sex education is needed. Some of the American public believe that sex education should be taught at home by the children’s parents. They feel that sex education programs in schools do not put an emphasis on abstinence and encourages children to have sexual intercourse. American culture is very sexually oriented. Sex can be seen all over the media. Charles Krauthammer stated, “Sex oozes from every pore of the culture and there’s not a kid in the world who can avoid it”(Bender).

After being faced with sex on an everyday basis, the independent teens of today will make their own decisions on whether or not to have sex. The important thing is to make sure that they know all aspects of it. Reality-based sexuality education gives young people an understanding of positive sexuality. I t also provides sexual health information and skills on decision making(What). Subjects include sexual development, reproduction, relationships, affection, intimacy, body image and gender roles(What ).

Successful sex education programs have several high points. The high points include exercises to encourage the appraisals of values, and skills in which students are taught how to negotiate while in sexual situations (” What type” ) The majority of this nation favors sexuality education in public schools. Surveys show that eighty-nine percent of the citizens support it(What). Should the other eleven percent of the country be able to decide upon what the children of the United States learn and not learn in public schools?

The eleven percent’s only argument against sex education is that they feel that sex education encourages teens to experiment with sex. This reasoning is based on absolutely nothing. There is no evidence that proves that sex education causes anything negative. This country is a democracy. A study conducted on teens in Sweden and the Netherlands showed that teens in those countries were just as sexually active, but the teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease rate was much lower.

Researchers say this is due to sex education that begins in elementary school and continues on(Bender p. 13). Only ten percent of American school-age youth participate in a comprehensive program lasting at least forty hours(deMauro p. 89). Teens in America also score low on questionnaires based on sexual knowledge(Gordon p. 45). With all the knowledge and resources at its fingertips, the U. S. could teach the same kind of classes that are being conducted in Sweden and the Netherlands.

Some also feel that sex education should be taught at home by parents. That’s fine, except there is no guarantee that kids will be taught. In a formal survey of 8,000 college students over 12 years, fewer than eighty percent had received a meaningful sex education from their parents(Gordon). An informal survey [SEE APPENDIX ONE] of one hundred students at Hotchkiss High School showed that only fourteen percent had been spoken to by their parents about abstinence and/or contraception(Teen).

Many children feel that parents are the least informative source for information concerning birth control and sexually transmitted diseases(Griffith p. 68). With no guarantees and the children’s view of their parents’ knowledge, “Generation X” could be put at a higher risk if parents were left to educate their children on sexuality. Since 1981, the year the HIV epidemic began, adolescents have been accounted for twenty percent of new infections(Humm p. 142). HIV stands for human immunodificiency virus(Bender p. 13).

It is a blood borne virus that is transmitted when a person comes into contact with infected body fluid. This includes unprotected sex. Condoms made of latex is one way to protect against contracting the virus if the person chooses to have sex. Only a small number of teens infected with HIV actually know they have it(Humm p. 143). If teens take risks of having unprotected sex with their partner because they are sure” their partner” doesn’t have the virus, they are putting themselves at an even greater risk and the HIV crisis could grow.

Fifty-seven percent of U. S. teens have sex by age seventeen and usually with more than one partner(Humm p. 144). Sex education could teach young people exactly how risky unprotected sex is and the possible consequences. The opponents of sex education believe that it does not enhance human life. How can that be so when it can help save lives? There are also many myths about the HIV virus such as it is a “homosexual disease” and an”IV drug user’s disease”. Sex education could also inform students that everyone can be infected.

Teen pregnancy is also a problem in the U. S. The Alan Guttmacher Institute stated that 1. 2 million teens become pregnant each year(Bender p. 13). This could be caused by the children’s lack of knowledge. Less than one in seven teens use protection the first time they participate in intercourse(Gordon p. 46). Every day three thousand teenage girls become pregnant(Strausberger p. 144). The Alan Guttmacher Institute suggests that sex education helps reduce teen pregnancy by encouraging sexual responsibility(Edelman p. 149).

The American Heritage Dictionary

A fraternity, as defined by the The American Heritage Dictionary is “a chiefly social organization of male college students, usually designated by Greek letters. “(pg. 523) This definition, however, is very limited and leaves plenty of space for short sighted people to believe the stereotype conveyed by the popular media, where fraternity members are depicted as drunks who accomplish nothing either scholastically or socially.

Unfortunately, both this definition and media portrayals fail to mention the fact that membership in a fraternity is a life-long experience that helps its members evelop social, organizational, and study skills during college, and that teaches true, everlasting friendship. As a matter of fact, fraternities have a long tradition of high academic achievement, and most of our nation’s presidents were members of a Greek association. According to Irving Klepper, the first fraternity (Phi Beta Kappa) was founded for “social and literary purposes” at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia on December 5th 1776.

After half a century of existence, it became and has since remained a scholarship honor society. Throughout the nineteenth century, many new fraternities were ounded, but none of these were permanent. Then, in 1825, the Kappa Alpha Fraternity (now Kappa Alpha Society) was born at Union College. Two years later, Sigma Phi and Delta Phi had been founded at the same college, constituting the so-called Union Triad which was, in a large measure, the pattern for the American Fraternity system.

By the end of the nineteenth century there were over thirty general fraternities in this country (pg. 18). Today’s fraternities still have all the characteristics and precepts of the their past fraternities: “the charm and mystery of secrecy, a ritual, oaths of fidelity, a grip, a otto, a badge, a background of high idealism, a strong tie of friendship and comradeship, and urge for sharing its values through nationwide expansion. ” (Klepper pg. 18) In addition, today’s fraternities help their members develop many skills which are used in and out of college.

During membership in a fraternity, one must learn leadership skills, because the chapter has to be run in a business-like manner and because it embraces different offices (President, Vice-President, Treasurer, Scribe, etc.. ) which are held by its members. These offices closely resemble the ones of real business. Additionally, since membership in a raternity is seen as a great achievement by other Greek associations’ members, every brother must be able to uphold that office at any time. Organization is a must for every member of a fraternity.

Fund raising activities and community service always have a high priority in every chapter, and each member is required to organize and/or take part in many of these activities as a pledge, a brother and an alumnus. This helps individuals within the group to develop organization and planning. In addition, since the fraternity might be located in a house, each brother must learn household organization for his brothers well being. Fraternities are famous for their energetic social gatherings (parties) which require all of their members to be socially active and outspoken when the occasion calls for it.

This helps fraternity members develop very strong social skills. Since the act of one member reflects over the acts of all the others, self-control and awareness of actions are mandatory. In addition, when the brothers live in fraternity houses, this adds to the development of social skills in the way that a member must be able to deal and live with different kinds of people in different situations. Since there are people of different scholastic levels in a raternity, the member of the fraternity have access to a great deal of knowledge on many different school subjects.

It is normal for fraternities to organize study groups regularly during the school year and especially before exams. In addition, members might also use the opinion and advice of other members about the faculty in their favor, and most fraternities keep test files and other such study aids available for the benefit of their members. Most fraternity members are also eligible to receive a number of different scholarships and awards based on academic excellence, leadership, and personal achievement which can contribute to oth the resume and the self-esteem of the person receiving such an honor.

Fraternities are also well known for their support toward their community. In fact, other than the usual, chapter-run projects, many chapters require their associate members to organize and participate in their own community service project before they can be initiated into full membership. This helps the fraternity to enhance their image, increase their popularity and their members’ awareness toward the community. It is common for some fraternity members to stay active after graduating from college. In this way they can help the hapter in many ways and especially as “advisor of the real world.

It is also a positive experience for the graduate member, who will be able to keep in contact with the new and old members of his chapter. As Sidney S. Suntag wrote “I know of no better way to keep young than to associate with young people”(pg. 15). Even if some members are not able to remain active, the chapter can always count on them, since the spirit of fraternal brotherhood never dies. It is common for fraternities to build their houses and fund their activities with the support of their alumni. The number of alumni for a given fraternity in ny urban area can range from a few dozen to several thousand.

But the most important gift a fraternity can offer is a true and everlasting friendship that transcends the normal bonds between friends and ties them together as brothers for life. It is something no other organization can offer, and the bond that is formed between fraternity brothers is felt throughout the whole organization and not just local chapters. This explains why, when greeks of the same fraternity meet is felt like a reunion between blood brothers. Clearly, a feeling of comradeship is present not only within each fraternity, but between all of the members of Greek rganizations.

This can only lead to positive relations with the Greek community of a college or university, which is always fairly numerous at those institutions which have Greek organizations. As Brian Abramson stated in his interview, “If you look at any Greek organization at Florida International University, or any other College or University, you can find a catalogue of services which that organization provides for the benefit of the greater community through the service projects which it conducts every semester. ” Tau Epsilon Phi, for example, participates in Bowling for Kids’ Sake every Spring, a radition which began several years ago.

Every fraternity has its own special philanthropy, as well as other public service projects which that fraternity takes part in from time to time. In fact, cooperating in public service not only provides the members of the brotherhood with valuable connections in the community, but it also serves to strengthen the bonds of brotherhood which hold the members together. To keep true to the feeling of brotherhood in a fraternity, every member must be trustworthy and at the same time must be able to trust every other member which makes the bond of brotherhood even stronger.

Unfortunately, a lot of people overlook fraternities during college because of the ominous, ever-present rumors about hazing. This image is also a part of the popular stereotype of fraternity members. Hazing, as defined by the Fraternity Executive Association is “Any action taken or situation created, intentionally, whether on or off fraternity premises to produce mental, or physical discomfort, embarrassment, harassment or ridicule. “(pg. 48) As John P. Nykolaiszyn puts it, “If anyone is caught hazing, not only can fines be imposed upon the individuals, but conviction and even jail time could result.

Organizations which practice hazing also run the risk of losing their charter and being closed down. As Mr. Nykolaiszyn states in his letter to the editor, “While some organizations may choose to haze and humiliate the people who try to rush them, that is in no way an accurate portrayal of all Greeks. ” He goes on to point out the fact that, “Greek life is not just about partying and drinking. Greek life helps to build character, self-esteem and life long friendships. “(12) It is indeed very sad that many people are stuck with the “Animal House” view of fraternities and avoid looking into what fraternities are really all about.

Education and Egalitarianism in America

The American educator Horace Mann once said: “As an apple is not in any proper sense an apple until it is ripe, so a human being is not in any proper sense a human being until he is educated. ” Education is the process through which people endeavor to pass along to their children their hard-won wisdom and their aspirations for a better world. This process begins shortly after birth, as parents seek to train the infant to behave as their culture demands.

They soon, for instance, teach the child how to turn babbling sounds into language and, through example and precept, they try to instill in the child the attitudes, values, skills, and knowledge that will govern their offspring’s behavior throughout later life. Schooling, or formal education, consists of experiences that are deliberately planned and utilized to help young people learn what adults consider important for them to know and to help teach them how they should respond to choices. This education has been influenced by three important parts of modern American society: wisdom of the heart, egalitarianism, and practicality… e greatest of these, practicality.

In the absence of written records, no one can be sure what education man first provided for his children. Most anthropologists believe, though, that the educational practices of prehistoric times were probably like those of primitive tribes in the 20th century, such as the Australian aborigines and the Aleuts. Formal instruction was probably given just before the child’s initiation into adulthood — the puberty rite — and involved tribal customs and beliefs too complicated to be learned by direct experience.

Children learned most of the skills, duties, customs, and beliefs of the tribe through an informal apprenticeship — by taking part in such adult activities as hunting, fishing, farming, toolmaking, and cooking. In such simple tribal societies, school was not a special place… it was life itself. However, the educational process has changed over the decades, and it now vaguely represents what it was in ancient times, or even in early American society.

While the schools that the colonists established in the 17th century in the New England, Southern, and Middle colonies differed from one another, each reflected a concept of schooling that had been left behind in Europe. Most poor children learned through apprenticeship and had no formal schooling at all. Those who did go to elementary school were taught reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion. Learning consisted of memorizing, which was stimulated by whipping. The first “basic textbook,” The New England Primer, was America’s own contribution to education.

Used from 1690 until the beginning of the 19th century, its purpose was to teach both religion and reading. The child learning the letter a, for example, also learned that “In Adam’s fall, We sinned all. ” As in Europe, then, the schools in the colonies were strongly influenced by religion. This was particularly true of the schools in the New England area, which had been settled by Puritans and other English religious dissenters. Like the Protestants of the Reformation, who established vernacular elementary schools in Germany in the 16th century, the Puritans sought to make education universal.

They took the first steps toward government-supported universal education in the colonies. In 1642, Puritan Massachusetts passed a law requiring that every child be taught to read. And, in 1647, it passed the “Old Deluder Satan Act,” so named because its purpose was to defeat Satan’s attempts to keep men, through an inability to read, from the knowledge of the Scriptures. The law required every town of 50 or more families to establish an elementary school and every town of 100 or more families to maintain a grammar school as well. Puritan or not, virtually all of the colonial schools had clear-cut moral purposes.

Skills and knowledge were considered important to the degree that they served religious ends and, of course, “trained” the mind. We call it “wisdom of the heart. ” These matters, by definition, are anything that the heart is convinced of… so thoroughly convinced that it over-powers the judgement of the mind. Early schools supplied the students with moral lessons, not just reading, writing and arithmetic. Obviously, the founders saw it necessary to apply these techniques, most likely “feeling” that it was necessary that the students learn these particular values.

Wisdom of the heart had a profound effect of the curriculum of the early schools. As the spirit of science, commercialism, secularism, and individualism quickened in the Western world, education in the colonies was called upon to satisfy the practical needs of seamen, merchants, artisans, and frontiersmen. The effect of these new developments on the curriculum in American schools was more immediate and widespread than its effect in European schools. Practical content was soon in competition with religious concerns.

The academy that Benjamin Franklin helped found in 1751 was the first of a growing number of secondary schools that sprang up in competition with the Latin schools. Franklin’s academy continued to offer the humanist-religious curriculum, but it also brought education closer to the needs of everyday life by teaching such courses as history, geography, merchant accounts, geometry, algebra, surveying, modern languages, navigation, and astronomy. These subjects were more practical, seeing as how industry and business were driving forces in the creation of the United States.

Religion classes could not support a family or pay the debts. By the mid-19th century this new diversification in the curriculum characterized virtually all American secondary education. America came into its own, educationally, with the movement toward state-supported, secular free schools for all children, which began in the 1820s with the common (elementary) school. The movement gained incentive in 1837 when Massachusetts established a state board of education and appointed the lawyer and politician Horace Mann (1796-1859) as its secretary.

One of Mann’s many reforms was the improvement of the quality of teaching by the establishment of the first public normal (teacher-training) schools in the United States. State after state followed Massachusetts’ example until, by the end of the 19th century, the common-school system was firmly established. It was the first rung of what was to develop into the American educational ladder. After the common school had been accepted, people began to urge that higher education, too, be tax supported.

As early as 1821, the Boston School Committee established the English Classical School (later the English High School), which was the first public secondary school in the United States. By the end of the century, such secondary schools had begun to outnumber the private academies. The original purpose of the American high school was to allow all children to extend and enrich their common-school education. With the establishment of the land-grant colleges after 1862, the high school also became a preparation for college; the step by which students who had begun at the lowest rung of the educational ladder might reach the highest.

In 1873, when the kindergarten became part of the St. Louis, Mo. school system, there was a hint that, in time, a lower rung might be added. Practicality allowed this change in the high school system. Schools now needed to ready the students for college — an even higher form of education — instead of preparing them to immediately enter the work force. America’s educational ladder was unique. Where public school systems existed in European countries such as France and Germany, they were dual systems.

When a child of the lower and middle classes finished his elementary schooling, he could go on to a vocational or technical school. The upper-class child often did not attend the elementary school but was instead tutored until he was about 9 years old and could enter a secondary school, generally a Latin grammar school. The purpose of this school was to prepare him for the university, from which he might well emerge as one of the potential leaders of his country. Instead of two separate and distinct educational systems for separate and distinct classes, the United States provided one system open to everyone… istinctly egalitarian idea.

As in mid-19th-century Europe, women were slowly gaining educational ground in the United States. “Female academies” established by such pioneers as Emma Willard (1787-1870) and Catharine Beecher (1800-78) prepared the way for secondary education for women. In 1861, Vassar, the first real college for women, was founded. Even earlier, in 1833, Oberlin College was founded as a coeducational college, and in 1837, four women began to study there. In the mid-19th century there was yet another change in education.

The secondary-school curriculum, that had been slowly expanding since the founding of the academies in the mid-18th century, virtually exploded. But the voice of practicality cried out again. A new society, complicated by the latest discoveries in the physical and biological sciences and the rise of industrialism and capitalism, called for more and newer kinds of knowledge. By 1861 as many as 73 subjects were being offered by the Massachusetts secondary schools. People still believed that the mind could be “trained,” but they now thought that science could do a better job than the classics could.

The result was a curriculum that was virtually saturated with scientific instruction. The mid-19th-century knowledge explosion also modestly affected some of the common schools, which expanded their curriculum to include such courses as science and nature study. The content of instruction in the common school, beyond which few students went, consisted of the material in a relatively small number of books: assorted arithmetic, history, and geography texts, Webster’s American Spelling Book, and two new books that appeared in 1836 the “First” and “Second” in the series of McGuffey’s Eclectic Readers.

Whereas The New England Primer admonished children against sin, the stories and poems in the readers pressed for the moral virtues. Countless children were required to memorize such admonitions as “Work while you work, play while you play. One thing each time, that is the way. ” In the early days, the common schools consisted of one room where one teacher taught pupils ranging in age from 6 to about 13 and sometimes older. The teacher instructed the children separately, not as a group. The good teacher had a strong right arm and an unshakable determination to cram information into his pupils.

Once the fight to provide free education for all children had been won, educators turned their attention to the quality of that education. To find out more about learning and the learning process, American schools looked to Europe. In the 1860s, they discovered, and for about 20 years were influenced, by Pestalozzi. His belief was that the goal of education should be the natural development of the individual child, and that educators should focus on the development of the child rather than on memorization of subject matter that he or she was unable to understand.

Pestalozzi’s school also mirrored the idea that learning begins with firsthand observation of an object and moves gradually toward the remote and abstract realm of words and ideas. The teacher’s job was to guide, not distort, the natural growth of the child by selecting his experiences and then directing those experiences toward the realm of ideas. The general effect on the common schools was to shift the emphasis from memorization of abstract facts to the firsthand observation of real objects. Pestalozzi’s diminishing influence roughly coincided with the rapid expansion of the cities.

Why The Study Of History Is So Important In Today’s Curriculums

Many students wonder why the study of history is so important in today’s curriculums. A simple answer to that is, one cannot proceed without knowledge of the past, or to say that one learns from others mistakes as well as their own. This being true, another reason to study history is to see, not only our mistakes so we may learn, but also to see the good influences that molded the world and culture we live in. The ancient civilizations of the Greeks, Hebrews and Romans contributed to our modern civilization, not just the eastern-European but western civilization as well.

Those cultures and civilizations shaped eastern-European culture which intern shaped our western culture, so for us to truly study our cultural history we must revert back to the values and ideals of these first civilizations. Our modern western culture is intellectual with a strong central government and mostly monotheistic in religion. How did we come to be like this? How can we learn about those ancient cultures? By their literature mostly. The literature of a culture directly reflects the society in which it is written.

By analyzation of ancient poems, stories, myths, and folklore we can decipher the basis of many cultures. The ancient Greek civilization suffered a period in which little to no learning took place called, “the dark age of Greece. ” Through this dark age came a body of oral epic poetry in which tales were told and passed down generation to generation. This oral epic poetry helped shape the later Greeks in that the heroes of this poetry became the emulation of Greek society. As seen in the work Oedipus the King.

Oedipus possessed all the characteristics that were sought after in their society such as being highly respected, knowledgeable and he was the king of the land. However, the Greeks didn’t overlook the fact that everybody was human and septable to failure. “From that day on we called you king we crowned you with honors, Oedipus, towering over all-mighty king of the seven gates of Thebes. Bu now to hear your storyis there a man more agonized? More wed to pain and frenzy? Not a man on earth, the joy of your life ground down to nothing”(631-632).

This quote summarizes the Greek tragedy, that a man so high in social standing can fall so low. The Greeks used stories such as this to portray to their society that nobody is above the struggle of life and to urge the people to lead good lives and to strive for the embodiments that they wish to posses. In this culture the Greeks were polytheistic with one god being more powerful than the others (Zeus). This polytheistic viewpoint was not adopted into our modern religions and has almost become comical among our society.

The Greek culture, for the most part, was unorganized and their concepts of multiple gods reflect the chaos in which they lived. The Hebrew concept of religion on the other hand, though revolutionary in its time, withstood the test of time and is seen throughout modern cultures. The Hebrew concept of monotheism, the belief in one god, shaped their culture as it does many modern cultures. “Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him: but I will maintain mine own ways before him. He also shall be my salvation: for an hypocrite shall not come before him”(80).

This quote from Job displays the monotheistic views of the Hebrews and the underlying faith in one god, which is a great microcosm of the Hebrew culture. Unlike the Greek concept of religion, monotheism reflected a world that was beautiful and kind, a concept that was better received in our desperately optimistic culture. Ancient Rome’s donation to western culture is seen everyday, and will continue to be seen for many years. Rome was the most powerful nation the world had ever seen, it ruled most of the known world and conquered nations at will.

One aspect of the Roman Empire that is most respected today is the fact that the Roman’s didn’t destroy any cultures, they built on them. Taking ideas and technology from each nation and shaping it all into one very diverse society made it possible for us to see the Roman influence everyday. What we now call a “Roman influence” is really an influence of every culture Rome conquered. From their roads, aqueducts, laws, government and religion the Roman society is very much like our modern western society.

Their values and ideals are reflected in their laws and government. They were a conservative culture in which “their highest words of commendation were manliness,’ industry,’ [and] discipline. ‘” (6). “the portals of Augustus’ house and keeps a close watch on the Roman crown of oak leaves”(902). This quote from Ovid’s Metamorphoses refers to the Roman polytheistic religion by referring to the laurel tree which was sacred to Apollo, one of the many gods in the Roman religion.

We see all these characteristics of these nations directly through the literature that each nation left behind. We can read into a culture simply by reading their works. Now famous works are dissected and analyzed not just for their literary genius but also to gain incite into the culture which inspired them. By reading such works as Job, Ovid’s Metamorphoses, and Oedipus the King we gain knowledge and insight into the culture and times in which they were written, and with this insight we can decipher how their culture helped shape or own.

The Increase in Enrollment in Historically Black Colleges and Universities

In the world we live in today a person can almost choose any college or university they want to to continue their education upon graduation from high school. It really doesn’t matter if it is a four year, two year, or technical school, there is a school for any person in any major. What draws a person to attend one certain kind of school compared to another? In this case why is there an increase in Black students attending Black colleges in the past decade?

One might say, “Well how can you tell that more students are getting into these colleges, rather than these schools accepting an increased number of students each year? ” These are all important questions to ask, and there are numerous reasons and causes for schools to increase the number of students they allow and the number of students wanting to attend these colleges. I have an older brother and an older sister who both attend a historically black college (HBCU), Central State University in Wlberforce, Ohio. I have always had a lifelong dream of attending an HBCU.

In fact I was accepted to both Virginia Union in Richmond and North Carolina A&T in Greensboro before I was accepted into Wright State University. My main reason for wanting to attend these schools was the history that they have and the way they made me feel when I went for visits. Those are my personal reasons for wanting to attend these schools, but there are more than personal reasons people are starting to have a higher interest in attending these schools. For the past three years my church back home in Columbus has held an annual Black College Tour.

It is designed to garner the interest of the young people at my church and all around Columbus in HBCU’s. I was a student the first year and a chaperone the last two. In visiting these schools one can find that the administration at these colleges and universities do anything they can to get you admitted to these schools. Almost all of them are rated among the best schools in the nation, too. These are no small time schools. Some students are finding it easier to go to HBCU’s because of the recent Supreme Court rulings on Affirmative Action.

They feel that it will be harder for them to have an equal chance of being accepted to non Black colleges and universities. Most of those people don’t want to put up with all the mess that goes on in those universities today, where even still, in 1997, people are admitted because of physical appearances and not mental capabilities (“Straight Talk” 122 123). Speaking in those terms people just do not want to deal with downright racism. Some HBCU’s in areas with lots of non Black colleges usually have increased enrollment due to past histories and events that happened at the schools.

An example was in Florida in 1988. Incidents of racism on the major White college campuses caused a 19 percent increase at Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, another HBCU. It was recorded as the largest increase in enrollment of any of the colleges in the state. Of the 1,876 coeds in the system, 1,327 were enrolled at Florida A&M, while the other universities enrolled the rest (“Racism” 22). Even now Florida A&M has increased enrollment at the school. They reported about 100 more freshman in this year’s class than last year’s (Geraghty A46).

There are some students who are starting to attend HBCU’s because of their feeling of deprivation of black culture in their lives. In an article in The Black Collegian last year, a young man, only referring to himself as “The Invisible Man” to readers, wrote to the editor about attending an HBCU after having gone to predominantly White schools all of his life. He chose to attend a Black school because, “I felt very intimidated by my ignorance of Black history, culture, language, and everything else that I have missed in my previous education” (qtd. in Parker 21).

After attending his first semester in school, “Invisible Man” found he was what he called a “Cultural Zombie. ” He chose to stay at the school to educate himself about the culture that he was left in the cold by his family. He says his family is Black, but never emphasized being black and the culture that comes with it. One thing he say’s he has learned from his unnamed school is who he is and his role as an African American male (Parker 21). The one main cause for increased enrollment in HBCU”s is the attention students get from people they feel understand them.

Most Black colleges have that “hospitality factor” that a person can”t get on a bigger campus. Even the bigger Black universities recognize this helps students achieve better. Black students are beginning to realize that the students who attend these colleges display greater gains in academic achievement, higher rates of Bachelor’s Degree attainment, greater social integration, and higher occupational aspirations than those Black students who attend predominantly White institutions.

Blacks at HBCU”s report being accepted, encouraged, and engaged in all aspects of campus life, unlike Black students on White campuses, who report often feeling alienated and marginal (McDonough 10). An example of the “hospitality factor” I referred to earlier is from a tiny Black school in east Texas called Jarvis Christian School. In an article in The Chronicle of Higher Education, Pam Taylor, a senior at the school said, “If your discouraged and you don’t know if you can keep going your teachers are there to pick you up” (Managan A8).

I’ve got spring fever bad right now, and I can call my teacher and she”ll talk me into getting to class. I can talk to her about anything schoolwork, men, anything,” she continued (Managan A8). It does not happen just when you get there either. Administrators at Tennessee State and Florida A&M say that an important technique in keeping their enrollment numbers up has been to call students who have been admitted and talk to them about what the university has to offer (Geraghty A46).

Even though HBCU’s represent less than 4 percent of all U. S. colleges, they enroll 20 percent of all Black undergraduates and present about 33 percent of all African American Baccalaureate degrees. All of this despite predictions in the 1960’s that improved access at predominantly White schools would indicate the end of HBCU’s. Enrollments at these schools has been consistently up since 1976, and in the period between 1987 1991 alone, Black college enrollment rose about 10,000 students per year (McDonough 10 11).

All of this goes to show that because of social, political, and economic causes in the world today, these figures are tiny compared to what’s projected to happen. And as more and more Black students become aware of what these colleges have to offer them, whether it be personal or financial, some of these predominantly White schools will be aching for Black students, from which we might see the beginning of a new trend, the plan to terminate or try to totally segregate Historically Black Colleges and Universities.

The role of processes in schools in producing different educational achievement among pupils from different social groups

Differential educational achievement is unquestionable affected by different social groups however this is not the only factor that affects the educational success of students. Members of working class place a lower value on education, they place less emphasis on formal education as a means to personal achievement, and they see less value in continuing school beyond the minimum leaving age. They place a lower value on achieving higher occupational status, when evaluating jobs they place emphasis on stability, security and immediate economic benefits and tend to reject the risks and investments involved in aiming for high status occupations.

Job horizons tend therefore to be limited to a good trade. Manual and non-manual jobs account for differences in outlook and attitude, middle-class occupations provide an opportunity for continuous advancement in income and status but this is not the case for manual workers. They reach full earning capacity relatively quickly and are provided fewer opportunities for promotion. This would therefore affect the attitude of parents and this attitude and outlook on life would be passed on to the next generation. Pupils from working class origins would be socialized in certain situations, e. fatalism, immediate gratification, present time orientation and collectivism.

Parental interests in their children education effects school achievement, middle class parents express interest in their children progress, they are more likely to want their children to do well and stay at school beyond the minimum leaving age level and so will encourage them to do so. Middle class children also tend to receive greater stimulus from their parents in the early years, which forms a basis for high achievement in the educational system.

Different social groups have different life experiences and chances, the habitats of each group will be different and will lead individuals to make certain choices regarding behaviour. Through up bringing and education, people learn to be able to express good taste; those with legitimate taste can mix in the most culturally advantaged circles. This gives students with higher-class backgrounds more chance of success in education. Social inequality is reproduced in the educational system and as a result is legitimated, and is particularly effective in maintaining the power of the dominant classes.

Social class is not the only thing that affects educational achievement. Ethnicity has been seen to affect the educational attainment of pupils; research by Drew (1995) found that Afro-Caribbean males were at the bottom of each class group in terms of attainment. West Indian females, suffered from initial disadvantages at school but tend to do better than white students when the time comes to take GCSEs. Fuller suggests that the reason for this is that they may wish to present a cool’ positive self image to boys and friends but realise the importance of getting good qualifications.

Indian, Chinese and African-Asian students tend to do very well in the educational system, there is strong emphasis on self-improvement through education within these cultures and many of the children have professional backgrounds, providing support, appropriate role models and material advantages. Teachers perceive their culture more positively than West Indian males, as they tend to take fewer GCSEs and get poorer grades than any other group, are over represented in special schools for children who have behavioral or learning difficulties.

These students tend to get expelled or suspended up to four times more often than their white counterparts. The length of time immigrants spend in Britain affects their educational attainment, older siblings educated here, are able to help their younger brothers and sisters. Material deprivation has been used as a reason for differential educational achievement; certain groups have less money than others and so are not able to make the most of their educational opportunities.

These students may lack time or space at home to do schoolwork, may be unable to raise the funds for educational trips and may not have access to essential educational materials like books, computers and the Internet. They may experience ill health and have to work part-time to support their studies, or have to care for younger siblings. As most ethnic minorities tend to be working-class, these material disadvantages translate in to educational disadvantages in the same way as they do for working class pupils.

Governments have attempted to reduce the material disadvantages faced by working class pupils through positive discrimination; this takes the form of programs of compensatory education, which plough more resources into poorer areas. Cultural disadvantages may affect educational achievement; middle class people, many of whom are white, mostly control the education system. Those that share these characteristics may be viewed in a more positive light and are more likely to succeed in the tests and exams created to Asses their abilities. The 11+ tests was criticised for middle-class bias.

Being able to unscramble an anagram such as ZOMRAT’ to form the name of a famous composer MOZART’ is much easier for a child familiar with anagrams (because their parents do crosswords) and classical composers (because they have seen the names on CD covers in their parents music collection. ). Many working class and ethnic minority pupils may feel undervalued and demotivated by an educational system that does not recognize their qualities, which are based on their class or ethnic culture. West Indian underachievement has been blamed on the high numbers of one-parent families in Afro-Caribbean communities.

Some politicians have suggested that due to the fact that many of these families are female headed, West Indian boys, in particular lack the discipline of a father figure and this is used to account for the high number of west-Indian boys in special schools. On the flip side for girls in such families, the role model provided by a strong independent single mother is a motivating influence and this helps to explain their success in education. Much research into language has identified class difference in spoken and written language, which disadvantages working class pupils.

The middle class succeed not because of a greater intelligence but because the language they use is the preferred mod of communication. Working class pupils normally use restricted code and this restricts their communications skills, whereas the middle class normally uses elaborated code and its meanings tend to be universalistic, and are not tied down to a specific context. Formal education is conducted in terms of an elaborated code and so places working class pupils at a disadvantage because they are limited to restricted code. Middle class pupils therefore have a higher success rate, as their subculture is closer to the dominant culture.

Working class pupils are unable to grasp the concepts and meanings that are embedded in the grammar, accent, tone, and delivery of teachers, and so working class students have an in-built barrier to learning in schools. Language has also been seen as a problem for West Indian children as they are more likely to speak with different dialects of English, and children from other ethnic groups may come from a home where a language other than English is spoken. This language difference may cause a problem when doing schoolwork and when communicating with the teachers, leading to disadvantages at school.

The idea of cultural capital is used by Marxists to explain cultural influences on educational success. Bordieu suggests that middle-class culture is as valuable in educational terms as material wealth. Schools are middle-class institutions run by the middle class and so obviously will favour students who come from middle-class backgrounds. The forms of knowledge, values, ways of interacting and communicating ideas that middle class children possess are developed further and rewarded by the education system.

Working class and ethnic minority children may lack these qualities and so do not have the same chances to succeed. Ball et al 1994 showed how middle class parents are able to use their cultural capital to play the system as to ensure that their children are accepted into the schools of their choice. The strategies they use include attempting to make a good impression with the head-teacher on open days, and knowing how to mount an appeal if their child’s application is unsuccessful at a particular school.

Ball also shows how ethnic minority parents are at a disadvantage when trying to get their children into better schools, especially if the parents are born abroad as they may not have only little if any knowledge of how the British education system. They may not be confident in their English skills to negotiate the system. Interactionists however use the theory of labeling’ as the main reason for differential educational achievement. Labeling theories suggest that teachers judge pupils not by their ability or intelligence but by the characteristics that relate to class, gender and ethnicity, such as attitude, appearance and behaviour.

Becker showed how teachers saw the ideal pupil’ as someone who conforms to middle-class standards of behaviour. Rosenthal and Jacobsen reported on pupils’ results’ in intelligence tests to their teachers, the names of the high flyers were in fact picked at random and bore no relation to any test results. However the pupils success at the end of the year equated to their fake test results, teachers had some how communicated their expectations to the pupils and they had responded, creating a self-fulfilling prophecy.

The teachers perceived these students as happier and better adjusted than the rest of the class. Those students that had not been named high flyers but had improved in performance against their expectations were described as showing undesirable behaviour. Afro- Caribbean boys often have the label of unruly, disrespectful and difficult to control applied to them, Gillborn found that these pupils were more likely to be given detention than other pupils.

The teachers interpreted the dress and manner of speech of afro-Caribbean pupils as representing a challenge to authority, in perceiving they were being treated unfairly the pupils responded according to their labels. Wright found that there is considerable racism in the classroom, teachers also seemed to lack sensitivity towards aspects of culture and displayed open disapproval of their customs and traditions. This affected the students involved and made them feel less positive towards the school, and also attracted hostility from other pupils who picked up on the teachers’ comments and attitude towards the Asian pupils.

Teachers made little effort to ensure they pronounced names correctly, causing embarrassment and unnecessary ridicule; finally Asian and Afro Caribbean pupils were victims of racism from white pupils. Some sociologists argue that the content of what is taught in school, the curriculum, actually disadvantages working class pupils, the knowledge that they encounter at school does not connects with their own cultural experience. Working – class experience is almost invisible in the school curriculum.

History tends to deal with ruling classes, such as kings, queens and politicians rather than the vast majority of ordinary people. Coard showed how the content of education largely ignored black people; the people who are acclaimed tend to be white people, whilst black culture, music and art are largely ignored. He argued that this led to low self-esteem among black pupils, this suggestion was criticised by both Swann Report and Stone who noted that despite feeling discriminated against by some teachers, West – Indian children have been able to sustain an extremely high positive self image.

Multicultural education has been brought in to address this problem, but has been criticised for focusing too much on the external factors and not enough on the real problem of racism. Ethnic minority languages still do not have the same status as European languages and schools are still required to hold Christian services. The curriculum has been criticised for being ethnocentric, emphasizing white middle-class culture at the expense of others. There is no doubt that sociologists have identified a full range of social influences on educational attainment.

No educationalist now relates achievement purely to individual’s intelligence or attitude, however the relative importance of these social influences is unclear. There are many other factors that influence the educational achievement of students, ethnicity, gender, the curriculum, labeling, however all these will link in with the social class of the students. This overwhelmingly shows that social groups impact tremendously on educational attainment.

Evaluation of Irma N. Guadarrama’s Article – Realizing Democratic Ideals

Bilingual education has been a controversial issue for over 25 years since the government became involved in 1968. That year President Lyndon Johnson signed Title IIV of the ESEA (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) which encouraged schools to establish bilingual education programs. The main debate has been in the political arena between liberals and conservatives and usually stems from where the financial responsibility should lie and how much native language LEP (limited English proficient) students should retain. Because bilingual education is such a heated issue, it is not difficult to find articles on this topic.

In fact, I have found that there is an abundance of written opinions on either side, for bilingual education or against, to support whichever opinion you may acknowledge as your own. At a 1995 conference in Washington, DC, several experts gathered to discuss bilingual education in depth. The speeches given at the conference were compiled into a book, The Failure of Bilingual Education, and cover many different topics relating to bilingual education. Irma N. Guadarrama, a professor of bilingual education at the University of Texas at Houston, was one of the featured speakers.

She was a bilingual education teacher for many years in the public school system in Texas and also has a PhD in Curriculum and Instruction from the University of Texas, Austin. In her speech, “Realizing Democratic Ideals with Bilingual Education”, Guadarrama attempts to relate bilingual education to democracy. Although the beginning of her article was confusing and difficult to understand, I thought that the majority of 2 Irma’s paper did an excellent job arguing her opinion and counter arguing the opposing opinion in her five main points.

The first couple of pages in Guadarrama’s article attempted to xplain why she believes bilingual education is directly related to democracy. It is difficult for me to describe exactly what she was trying to say because I was so thoroughly confused by her words. She made statements such as, “bilingual education . . . also mirrors democracy in action”, and “we must address . . . it’s political justification in playing an essential role in our democratic society. ” (41) Never in her introductory paragraphs did she fully explain what she meant by these statements or give any support that helped to clarify what she was saying.

In paragraph five, I was completely baffled by her words. She seemed to be trying to define some terms such as cultural democracy, which she said is “freedom of self-expression”, and cultural conformity, which to her was “sacrificing one’s own culture”. She then went on to compare her definitions to other’s opinions, with cultural democracy meaning, “an irresponsible construct that contradicts democratic ideas”, and cultural conformity as “containment within boarders of another’s culture, in which self-expression is inhibited. ” (41) I have no idea what she was talking about.

She expressed herself with large, obscure vocabulary to sound more ntelligent but instead came off as pompous. I found that each paragraph in the first two pages of Guadarrama’s article were very confusing and, instead of appealing to the general public, were written only for other arrogant professors to comprehend. In contrast to the confusing nature of the start of Guadarrama’s speech, I thought that the second part was very well organized and used suitable arguing and counter arguing methods. She broke down each subject by number and proceeded to discuss each topic in depth.

Her first point of discussion was on the research done on bilingual education. She used the counter arguing techniques of acknowledging and refuting perfectly to show the weakness in the 3 opposing argument. She stated that, “opponents of bilingual education still rely on research findings as the main weapon in their efforts to disclaim its legitimacy. However,” she continued, “neither supporters nor opponents of bilingual education are satisfied with the results of the effectiveness of bilingual education research” (42-43).

She then went on to sight specific studies such as Bilingual Education Reform in Massachusetts by Rossell and Baker, and Forked Tongue: The politics of Bilingual Education by Rosalie Porter, that opponents of bilingual education tend to use as support for their opinion. To refute Rossell and Baker’s study, Guadarrama stated that they are “irresponsible and shortsighted (43)” because they used “only circumstantial knowledge (43)”.

In the same vein, Guadarrama said of Porter’s study that “(her) strongest arguments, . . . , are substantiated at an emotional level rather than a factual one. (43) Overall her opinion of bilingual education research was this: “… it’s important to recognize that the serious problem with many empirically- based research designs in bilingual education s their over-reliance on single indices to measure effectiveness, and miss some of the program’s most significant successes, i. e. , the affective gains of students. ” (43) I thought she was successful at poking holes in their methods of research and bringing up sound questions to the validity of their results. The next topic of Guadarrama’s article was on the relationship between learning theory and bilingual education.

This section was probably the weakest of all of her arguments. Although she has some personal experience with bilingual education as a student and a teacher, she had no utside, concrete evidence to support her opinion on this subject. Guadarrama believes that “Native-language-based instruction is aligned with learning theory, and a crucial component of bilingual education, contributes to the pedagogy that encompasses both the students’ culture and language … “. In other words, she believes that non-native speaking 4 students need to be proficient in reading their first language before a second language is introduced.

The problem with her theory is that it takes several more years for students taught in their native language to learn English than for the students who are taught in English. In Rosalie Porter’s speech, The Politics of Bilingual Education Revisited, which was also given at the bilingual education conference, she confirms this idea when she said that “[Complaints over bilingual education are typically voiced in these terms], ‘We have been using native-language teaching for our LEP kids for eight, ten, or twelve years, with bilingual teachers and textbooks, but it is working very poorly.

Our students are not learning English for years . . ‘” (Porter 36). Guadarrama did concede that for bilingual education to be truly effective the teachers must have the proper ducation with adequate knowledge and experience (44). Unfortunately, Guadarrama really had no evidence to support her opinions and therefore, this section’s argument was very weak. Section three, “Understanding the Role Others’ Perspectives of Language Play in Bilingual Education” and four, “Understanding the Basic Premises of Bilingual Education and Beyond”, of Guadarrama’s article, I believe, were successful in using both examples and counter arguing to support and clarify the topics.

Section 3 began with Guadarrama’s opinion that “those who oppose bilingual education, . . . reflect a misconstrued nderstanding of language” and that there are several ways to gain a “better understanding of language and second-language learning” (44). I liked how she used an example from history to prove her point that “people shape the language, not the other way around” (45). She cited information from historians regarding Quebec citizens’ struggle for an “identity” in the 18th century after the English gained domination over the French in North America.

What many observers fail to see,” Guadarrama suggested, “is that people’s identity is not only a way of life but a way of defining oneself in historical terms . . . “(45). I thought that in section four, on the other hand, Guadarrama used the 5 counter arguing technique of refuting successfully when she stated, “The issue is not so much whether students will learn English, because we know they will, but rather whether they will achieve academic success and engage as contributing members of our society in meaningful, productive ways” (45).

These methods of arguing and counter arguing definitely helped clarify her opinion and helped me to follow these topics more effectively. Finally, in the fifth section of this article, Guadarrama brought clarity to her original subject, bilingual education in relation to emocracy. This portion, unlike the introduction, was much more clear especially when she said: “But (bilingual education’s) goals and objections are deeply rooted in the democratic ideals in our institutions of education.

It helps students learn English and facilitates their academic success; it nurtures and promotes bilingualism; it promotes harmony among people by fostering understanding; and in the long run, it cuts government costs because students who receive a meaningful education say in school, graduate from high school, and perhaps even college. Bilingual education affords tudents the opportunity to participate as fully as possible in our democracy. (46)

In this section, she also conceded to the fact that there are still many flaws in implementing many bilingual programs, but she felt that these problems where more closely related to operational aspects rather than philosophy. (46) This last part of Guadarrama’s article brought her opinion into focus for me because of the clear and simple examples she used to support her argument. In conclusion, my main complaint about this article was Guadarrama’s use of large, academic vocabulary in the introduction that made her sound ore pompous than intelligent.

But after wading through her arrogant overture, I thought that her thoughts came across more 6 clearly within her five main points. Also, in the introduction, she seemed to use more personal opinion and conjecture, but as her main points unfolded, she began using examples and statistics as well as her personal, authoritive experience to aid her argument which left me with a better overall perspective and knowledge of her subject. In my opinion, Guadarrama should stick to writing for other academic scholars or , at least, learn to simplify her word choices to appeal to a broader audience.

Bilingual Education Essay

With Hispanics making up more than fifty percent of the language minority population of the United States (cited in Winster, Diaz, Espinosa, & Rodriguez, 1999), Spanish remains the most prevalent target language in U. S. bilingual programs Christian, 1996). There are more than thirty million language minority individuals that reside in the United States, with an estimated projection of forty million by the end of the century (Fitzgerald, 1993). Christian (1996) indicates that there is a growing concern for the target language maintenance and development.

With English being as powerful and ominant as it is, the minority language is fighting for its very survival especially with adolescent students. The students must negotiate between their bilingual system and other complex systems such as peer interactions, self-esteem, and the education system itself as a whole to keep the minority language alive (Soto, 1992). Societal attitudes towards two languages by native English speakers are attributed to the lack of progress in Spanish (Graham & Brown, 1996). The debate about the benefits of bilingual education in the United States has continued for more than twenty years

During this time the focus has been to help those students identified as being L. E. P. or limited in English proficiency by obtaining the best programs that will help them succeed in school (Medina & Escamilla, 1994 ). One of the major sources of controversy in the field of bilingual education is when to move students into English-language instruction ( Gersten & Woodward, 1995 ), and which types of programs with which types of children are most effective in facilitating English language acquisition and/or native language maintenance (August & Hakusta, 1997; Garcia et al, 1995; Hakusta & Gould. 987; cited n Winster. Diaz. Espinosa. & Rodriguez. 1999).

Two-way bilingual programs The earliest two-way programs began in the 1960’s and 1970’s. “Immersion programs were a radical educational experiment when they were first introduced” (Genesse, 1994). It has only been over the past decade that there has been greater interest in the two-way immersion model. The increasing interest in the two-way immersion model is most likely due to the convergence of bilingual education research. It has indicated that extended native language development has positive educational outcomes for language minority students.

Research on the most effective forms of bilingual education (usually in terms of English achievement) suggests that two-way programs may be the best. Two-way bilingual education has been described in a National study as “the program with the highest long-term academic success” (Thomas & Collier, 1997, p. 52). “Two-way bilingual education programs show strong potential for high academic achievement by lessening social distance and unequal social status relations between majority and minority language students”(Gonzalez & Maez. 95).

The students’ success in these programs is undoubtedly due to a number of factors. These include opportunities for linguistic minority students to assume strong peer leadership roles in the classroom, an emphasis on grade- level academic instruction in both languages, sustained support for and use of multicultural curricula, and opportunities for non-English-speaking parents to form close partnerships with the school staff as well as with other parents

Students are learning through two languages in programs that aim to develop dual language proficiency along with academic achievement. Because the two-way model promotes and language minority students in the same classroom, it has begun to receive attention of the national. state. and local levels as an effective way to educate language minority and majority students Lindholm, 1992; Christian, 1996).

My Own Educational Philosophy

My own philosophy of education is rather difficult for me to explain. There are many parts of our educational system that I disagree with. The problem is that I see far too many problems, yet offer few answers. Todays educational systems seem so trendy and political. It almost seems like we should not get comfortable with any one way of doing things because policies and procedures change so often. My own philosophy is one that many people have heard of, If its not broken, then dont fix it!. This is simple, Upon reading some of the different philosophical views towards education, I ound many really good ideas.

Each philosophy is presented very attractively. And why not? The people who set forth these particular ideas were very passionate about what they believed in. Unfortunately, we could all debate about the different philosophical views of education until we are blue in the face. This still doesnt actually make any one opinion, better than any of the others. We all have opinions, what we need is common ground between them. Hopefully, that is what my educational philosophy stands for. The metaphysics, or nature of reality, of my philosophy starts with the subjects we study in school. Subjects should be functional to todays world.

Our educational system is far more diverse today than it has ever been, and our subject matter should reflect that. The reality of the subjects studied in school, should also reflect upon the reality in each students environment. Reality can change, because environments change. Textbooks and literature become somewhat obsolete after a while because our culture changes so rapidly. That is not to say that classic pieces of literature are not of use in the classroom, but each literary product presented in the classroom should hold some information that is elatively useful for all of the students.

When considering metaphysics in the classroom, I believe that religion is something for outside of the classroom. There are far too many religious beliefs in the world to accommodate all of them, so that is an area best left alone. This leaves plenty of time for other areas of development. If it is the wish of a family to have religion addressed in the classroom, then there are certain specialized schools that do just that. I believe it is the responsibility of the church to educate their youth in these areas. Lastly, writing skills are important to the metaphysics of my educational hilosophy.

Writing is a necessity in order to accurately document events and opinions. Distinguishing the difference between fact and fiction can be quite difficult. But a strong foundation of writing skills make identifying reality, that much easier. The epistemology, or nature of knowledge, in my philosophy is much like that of the pragmatists. I believe that interaction with the environment is a key part of education. Education should extend outside of the classroom. Life is a constant learning process in itself. If we compared how much time we learn in classrooms to the amount we learn out f them, there is no comparison.

If an environmental science class is learning how to use a compass in the woods, then that is exactly what they should do, literally. Another part of my epistemology is problem solving. Once again I find myself siding with the pragmatist view. There are many people who are book smart, but not so many of those people can practically apply that knowledge. Todays system praises short term memory. Far too many subjects are taught and then forgotten. If we desire to retain information then it must be useful and interesting to us. Knowledge has definitely taken a ack seat to the test score.

It is very possible to obtain an A, in a subject but not actually learn anything about it. Todays society values grades, not knowledge. They are The axiology, or the nature of values, is also a very sensitive area to touch upon. Moral values, for the most part, should be taught at home. Ethics are an important part of education (plagiarism, dishonesty, etc. ). If ethical values are going to be worthwhile, then they must be part of life outside of the classroom as well. If the gap between ethics outside of school differs greatly from that of ethics inside the classroom, the learning rocess can be greatly hindered.

A perfect example, in my mind, is the recent tragedy at Columbine high school in Colorado. The students who went into school with their guns smoking, were obviously far beyond ethical principles, and did not know of any other The aesthetics of values is a much more simple area of education than morals. This should be entirely up to the student. If a student has seriously considered the material presented, then perhaps appreciation for the beauty of nature and art is possible. The teacher is simply a facilitator in this situation.

Teachers must also be careful not to ead students in any certain direction with their appreciation, but rather let the students Society as a whole will lead students in a certain direction, because it is society as a whole that decides what is right or wrong. We learn right from wrong through trial and error. Once again I seem to side with the pragmatists in believing that values depend on all of the variables present during that particular time or setting. If a person cannot conform to the norms of society when it comes to morals, or any other area, then that person will end up being an outcast or undesirable.

I think that natural consequences should be the penalty for not having morals. Either you conformingly exist, or you cease The logic of my philosophy is simply to approach education logically. For example, it does not make sense that students must pass a comprehensive exam in Massachusetts in order to graduate from high school. I cant wait to hear about the student who aces the SATs, but flunks the MCAS. Besides, there is no way to test and measure life skills, which are a large part of a successful life after high school. Students should develop those skills throughout the course of their lives.

Logic is also a key part of communication. Education should help students develop a strong verbal and written competency, as these are important parts of real life. It would be logical for school to be more like real life in order not to create some kind of sheltered fantasy land (schools) in which students hide from the world. Strong communication skills will help the progress of society. And that is one of the important roles of school, isnt it? It prepares our youth to be productive and successful members of Lastly, school must be logical in order for students to completely invest in it.

If tudents do not see the need or usefulness for education, then they will be less likely to benefit from it. Too many students drop out of school because the problems in their lives do not seemingly have the chance of being solved with or without an education, so In conclusion, we as a society must make school an enriching experience for our children. We can do this by supporting the schools and contributing to the process of bettering lives outside of school. When there are less distractions outside of the classroom, there are in fact more learning opportunities presented within it, for everyone.

Turkish Education Essay

Education is the act or process of providing knowledge skills or competence by a formal course of instruction or training. Through out history societies have sought to educate their people to produce goods and services, to respond effectively and creatively to their world, and to satisfy their curiosity and aesthetic impulses. To achieve reliable knowledge and to think systematically. Over the course of human history education has appeared in many forms, both foreclosed and informal. Major thinkers have always recognized the educational value of intellectual exploration and of concrete experimentation.

Most societies have attempted to standardized the behavior of their members. These societies have apprenticeship systems by which the young have learned to imitate the beliefs and behaviors of a given group. Teachers have worked within schools of thought cults, monasteries and other types of organizations to shape desired convictions, knowledge and behavior. Such philosophical and religious leaders as the Buddha, Confucious, Pythagoras, Jesus, Moses, Muhammad and Karl Marx instructed their disciplines through informal education.

Turkish State and Turkish Society give great importance to the education since the Turkish Republic was established in 1923. The fall of Ottoman Empire at the end of the first world war and the foundation of the republic after the successful conclusion of the war of independence are two important factors which have made the existence of the new Turkish Society possible. The great desire of this society which is adopted in the social and economic fields to the general life conditions of western civilizations is to work for the benefit of mankind while enjoying all the privileges of civilized life within the family of Nations.

In order to reach this goal, it has above all been necessary to establish an educational system in all its stages in such a way as to diffuse its light to all classes of the population. Bases of the Turkish Education leans to the last years of the Ottoman Empire. The road towards modern education was charted by Selim III and Mahmud II and was followed with accelerated speed by their successors.

In the 1876 constitution, educational reforms had been mentioned for the first time EFor education continued to be regarded as the necessary foundation for the reorganization of the empire and the creation of a cadre of new leaders to maintain itI As one contemporary writer put it EThe solution of the Esick manI was not through extermination but through educationI. Educational reorganization and westernization were seen as a necessary condition in the general movement towards the social and political modernization of the Ottoman State and Society.

The Tanzimat Period was characteristics by attempts to set up a modern administrative framework and a grade system of schools different in many respects from traditional institutional arrangements. Except his trial to bring back autocracy to the Ottoman State he was successful he had faith in the value of education. The constitution of 1876 provided that all schools should be under government supervision and the first stage of education should be compulsory under the young Turk regime another attempt was made to reform the system of primary education.

In 1913 a new law enforced, aimed at public support at primary schools and better organization of the program of study IProvisory Primary Education Law (Tedrisati iptidai Kanunu) consists compulsory and free six year education in public schools and limitation of class size not more than fifty pupils. High institutions such as Galatasaray, Daruccafaka, Mlkiye and istanbul University was established in this period. The war years were hesitation period for education like the other institutions. Budget of every institution were being transferred to war.

After the war in embarking upon the task of building a new nation , Ataturk and his Associates coceived of education as the most important foundation. In the emerging ideology of Ataturkism, education was inevitably bound up with political , economic and cultural independence and with breaking the shackles of traditional beliefs and outlooks; it was the means of creating national feelings , creating the consensus necessary to sustain a free national state training new Turkish leaders and paving the way towards a dynamic and modern society .

Knowledge an science were regarded as power and as the leverage in transforming and uplifting the entire society. Ataturk made several statements on the important role assigned to education. In 1921 , he said that Iour national system of education should be something different from the old and something that grow out of our own nation. A national genius can only be developed through our national culture. I Mustafa Kemal Ataturk placed the future of republic squarely in the hands of the schools an the younger generation ; whom he expected ever to preserve and defend the national independence of the Turkish Republic.

On the March 3 1924 ‘Tevhid-I Tedrisat Kanunu’ (law of unification of institutions) was declared. Which provided that all educational institutions are able to be placed under the control of the Ministry of Education. This eased to control the religious schools. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk layed the foundation of Turkish Educational System by reorganizing the educational system . ( Primary school , Middle School, Lycee . Technical and vocational Schools. ). In 1928 Latin alphabet had been accepted and afterwards national schools was established. Every body between ages 16 and 45 attend to these schools.

Village Institutions had been established by the head of Ministry IHasan Ali YcelI but was closed by the government saying that village institutes were training communist. After the death of Atatrk development of education slow down till the military makes coup detat after 1960Is by the encouragement of the military new reading and writing mobilization started and the final point reached in the educational reform is the compulsory eight year education. Turkey entered the 21st century depending on the calendar year but the same cannot be said for education.

Education is still in the 20th century. This situation is because of the problems that Turkish Education System faces. These problems can be solved by some precautions. First of all population of Turkey is 70 million which is quiet much compared to the western countries and it is still increasing however in western countries population rates are decreasing. For example in Greece in 1986 population was 10 million and today they are still 10 million, This situation ease education in western countries .

The young population is educated in good conditions and the excess budget is used for the education of adults and as a result the education the education level of the whole population increases which is an indicator of the development of a country. Today in Turkey not every youth is going to school. The young population rate is very high besides that immigration to cities increase the demand of education which affect the quality of education. In order to solve the problem of population the most valid method is wide spreading family planning to every part of the country.

By this method there can be a decrease in the rates of population increase in Turkey. Industrialization of the provinces can be another method which can reduce the immigration rate and change the way of immigration from cities back to villages. Opening the village institutions again (which were closed in 1940Is) can contribute to the industrialization of the provinces. Secondly, Education System of Turkey is not well organized basic education (which is seen as the most important part of education by the experts )is insufficient, The type of system based on memorisation bring success for only the exam period not for his or her all life.

The mass student(Which reaches millions today)waiting for entering university is another disgrace for the Turkish Education system. One other problem of education system is the limited profession education . Importance of Profession education can be seen when comparing Japan and Turkey. Both countries were in very bad conditions after the World Wars. Japan was even worse. When we compare the two countries today we see that Japan is much more developed than Turkey and controlling the electronic and automotive industries as a result of the giving importance to profession education.

In order to solve the problems of Education System a reform must be enlivened in basic education by taking reforms of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk as prototypes. The reforms must cover all the teachers and employees. Besides that new universities must be built in order to lessen the amount of mass student waiting for entering university. Expecting from the state to built universities would be merciless business man should help the state economically but the restricted budget of the government cannot be an excuse for not building universities because universities are much more necessary than bridges ,government buildings or nuclear weapons.

Thirdly, the economic crisis that paralysis every institution in Turkey makes the situation of education more difficult. Government hardly pays the salaries of teachers in addition to that expose to protests because of the low salaries. The government hardly paying salaries does not allot any budget for the restoration and improvement of the old technology with the new ones, In the east part of Turkey there are still villages in which they use materials such as maps, desks etc. which was are more than 50 years old.

One other factor is the poor families which are unable to have their Child’s education because of poverty and this situation creates an unequality of education because in other hand wealthy families are sending their children to private schools and courses. In order to solve the economical problem government should find new resources and this may happen by decreasing the budget of army, sports ministry etc. Lastly terror is another problem that affects the quality of education most of the lecturers do not want to go to East of Turkey by saying that there is terror and they do not have the life security.

In reality they are right everyday in newspapers and television programs people see tens of people dying in one day terrorists bombing schools, killing teachers. If government is not effective on stopping the terror in the east the only solution can be making extra payments for teachers that are going east. In conclusion Turkish Education has many problems in connection to the other problems in other institutions such as terror, population increase and economic trouble but these problems are not impossible to solve.

The Debate Over Multicultural Education in America

America has long been called “The Melting Pot” due to the fact that it is made up of a varied mix of races, cultures, and ethnicities. As more and more immigrants come to America searching for a better life, the population naturally becomes more diverse. This has, in turn, spun a great debate over multiculturalism. Some of the issues under fire are who is benefiting from the education, and how to present the material in a way so as to offend the least amount of people. There are many variations on these hemes as will be discussed later in this paper.

In the 1930’s several educators called for programs of cultural diversity that encouraged ethnic and minority students to study their respective heritages. This is not a simple feat due to the fact that there is much diversity within individual cultures. A look at a 1990 census shows that the American population has changed more noticeably in the last ten years than in any other time in the twentieth century, with one out of every four Americans identifying themselves as black, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, or American Indian (Gould 198).

The number of foreign born residents also reached an all time high of twenty million, easily passing the 1980 record of fourteen million. Most people, from educators to philosophers, agree that an important first step in successfully joining multiple cultures is to develop an understanding of each others background. However, the similarities stop there. One problem is in defining the term “multiculturalism”. When it is looked at simply as meaning the existence of a culturally integrated society, many people have no problems.

However, when you go beyond that and try o suggest a different way of arriving at that culturally integrated society, Everyone seems to have a different opinion on what will work. Since education is at the root of the problem, it might be appropriate to use an example in that context. Although the debate at Stanford University ran much deeper than I can hope to touch in this paper, the root of the problem was as follows: In 1980, Stanford University came up with a program – later known as the “Stanford-style multicultural curriculum” which aimed to familiarize students with traditions, philosophy, literature, and history of the West.

The program consisted of 15 required books by writers such as Plato, Aristotle, Homer, Aquinas, Marx, and Freud. By 1987, a group called the Rainbow Coalition argued the fact that the books were all written by DWEM’s or Dead White European Males. They felt that this type of teaching denied students the knowledge of contributions by people of color, women, and other oppressed groups.

In 1987, the faculty voted 39 to 4 to change the curriculum and do away with the fifteen book requirement and the term “Western” for the study of at least one non-European culture and proper ttention to be given to the issues of race and gender (Gould 199). This debate was very important because its publicity provided the grounds for the argument that America is a pluralistic society and to study only one people would not accurately portray what really makes up this country.

Proponents of multicultural education argue that it offers students a balanced appreciation and critique of other cultures as well as our own (Stotsky 64). While it is common sense that one could not have a true understanding of a subject by only possessing knowledge of one side of it, his brings up the fact that there would never be enough time in our current school year to equally cover the contributions of each individual nationality. This leaves teachers with two options.

The first would be to lengthen the school year, which is highly unlikely because of the political aspects of the situation. The other choice is to modify the curriculum to only include what the instructor (or school) feels are the most important contributions, which again leaves them open to criticism from groups that feel they are not being equally treated. A national standard is out of the question because of the fact hat different parts of the country contain certain concentrations of nationalities. An example of this is the high concentration of Cubans in Florida or Latinos in the west.

Nonetheless, teachers are at the top of the agenda when it comes to multiculturalism. They can do the most for children during the early years of learning, when kids are most impressionable. By engaging students in activities that follow the lines of their multicultural curriculum, they can open up young minds while making learning fun. in one first grade classroom, an inventive teacher used the minority students to her dvantage by making them her helpers as she taught the rest of the class some simple Spanish words and customs.

This newly acquired vocabulary formed a common bond among the children in their early years, an appropriate time for learning respect and understanding (Pyszkowski 154). Another exciting idea is to put children in the setting of the culture they are learning about. By surrounding children in the ideas and customs of other cultures, they can better understand what it is like to be removed from our society altogether, if only for a day. Having kids dress up in foreign clothing, ample foods and sing songs from abroad makes educating easier on the teacher by making it fun for the students.

A simple idea that helps teachers is to let students speak for themselves. Ask students how they feel about each other and why. This will help dispel stereotypes that might be created in the home. By asking questions of each other, students can get firsthand answers about the beliefs and customs of other cultures, along with some insight as to why people feel the way they do, something that can never be adequately Students are not the only ones who can benefit from this type of earning. Teachers certainly will pick up on educational aspects from other countries.

If, for instance, a teacher has a minority student from a different country every year, he or she can develop a well rounded teaching style that would in turn, benefit all students. Teachers can also keep on top of things by regularly attending workshops and getting parents involved so they can reinforce what is being taught in the classroom at home. The New York State Social Studies Review and Development Committee has come up with six guidelines that they think teachers should mphasize in order to help break down ethnic barriers.

These steps are as First, from the very beginning, social studies should be taught from a global perspective. We are all equal owners of the earth, none of us are more entitled than others to share in its many wealths or misfortunes. The uniqueness of each individual is what adds variety to our everyday life. Second, social studies will continue to serve nation building purposes. By pointing out the things we share in common, it will be easier to examine the individual things that make us different. Third, the curriculum must strive to be informed by the most up to date scholarship.

The administrators must know that in the past, we have learned from our mistakes, and we will continue to do so in the future. By keeping an open mind, we will take in new knowledge and different Fourth, students need to see themselves as active makers and changers of culture and society. If given the skills to judge people and their thoughts fairly, and the knowledge that they can make a difference, students will take better control of life in the future. Fifth, the program should be committed to the honoring and ontinuing examination of democratic values as an essential basis for social organization and nation building.

Although the democratic system is far from perfect, it has proven in the past that it can be effective if we continue to put effort into maintaining it while leaving it open for change. Sixth, social studies should be taught not solely as information, but rather through the critical examination of ideas and events rooted in time and place and responding to social interests. The subject needs to be taught with excitement that sparks kids interest and motivates them to want to take lace in the shaping of the future of our country (NYSSSRADC 145-47).

In order to give a well rounded multicultural discussion, as James Banks explains, teachers need to let students know how knowledge reflects the social, political, and economic context in which it was created. Knowledge explained by powerful groups in society differs greatly from that of its less powerful counterparts (Banks 11). For example, it should be pointed out how early Americans are most often called “pioneers” or “settlers” in social studies texts, while foreigners are called “immigrants”.

They should realize that to Native Americans, pioneers were actually the immigrants, but since the “pioneers” later went on to write the textbooks, it is not usually described that way. By simply looking at the term “western culture” it is obvious that this is a viewpoint of people from a certain area. If students are aware that to Alaskans, the west was actually the south, they can realize the bearings of how the elite in society determine what is learned. By not falling victim to these same misconceptions, students can better make unprejudiced decisions about those around them.

Another important aspect tudents need to realize is that knowledge alone isn’t enough to shape a society. The members themselves have to be willing to put forth the time and effort and show an interest in shaping their society in order for it to benefit all While generally opposed to the idea, Francis Ryan points out that “Multicultural education programs indeed may be helpful for all students in developing perspective-taking skills and an appreciation for how ethnic and minority traditions have evolved and changed as each came into contact with other groups” (Ryan 137).

It would certainly give people a sense of ethnic ride to know how their forefathers contributed to the building of the American society that we live in today. It is also a great feeling to know that we can change what we feel is wrong to build a better system for our children. Minorities would benefit from learning the evolution of their culture and realizing that the ups and downs along the way do not necessarily mean that their particular lifestyle is in danger of extinction. Some opponents feel that the idea of multiculturalism will, instead of uniting cultures, actually divide them.

They feel that Americans should try nd think of themselves as a whole rather than people from different places all living together. They go even further to say that it actually goes against our democratic tradition, the cornerstone of American society (Stotsky 64). In Paul Gannon’s article Balancing Multicultural and Civic Education will Take More Than Social Stew, he brings up an interesting point that “Education in the origins, evolution, advances and defeats of democracy must, by its nature, be heavily Western and also demand great attention to political history (Gannon 8).

Since both modern democracy and its lternatives are derived mostly from European past, and since most of the participants were white males who are now dead, the choices are certainly limited. If we try to avoid these truths or sidestep them in any way, we cannot honestly say we are giving an accurate description of our history. Robert Hassinger agrees with Gannon and adds that we cannot ignore the contributions of DWEM’s for the simple fact that they are just that.

He thinks that we should study such things as the rise of capitalism or ongoing nationalism in other countries, but should not be swayed in our critical hinking by the fact that some people will not feel equally treated or even disrespected (Hassinger 11). There certainly must be reasons why many influential people in our history have been DWEM’s, and we should explore these reasons without using race and sex alone as reasons for excluding them from our curriculum.

When conflicts arise with the way we do things, we should explore why rather than compromise in order to protect a certain Francis Ryan warns that trying to push the subject of multiculturalism too far would actually be a hindrance if it interferes with a students articipation in other groups, or worse yet, holds the child back from expressing his or her own individuality. He gives a first-hand example of one of his African-American students who was afraid to publicly admit his dislike for rap music because he felt ethnically obligated as part of his black heritage (Ryan 137).

While a teacher can be a great help in providing information about other cultures, by the same note, that information can be just as harmful if it is incomplete. In order for students to be in control of their own identity, they must have some idea of how others look at these same qualities. Children must be taught to resolve inner-conflicts about their identity, so that these features that make us unique will be brought out in the open where they can be enjoyed by all instead of being hidden in fear of facing rejection from their peers.

Teachers need to spend an equal amount of time developing each students individuality so they don’t end up feeling obligated to their racial group more than they feel necessary to express the diversity that makes As Harlan Cleveland points out, many countries still feel that the predominant race must be the one in power. For instance, try to imagine a Turkish leader in Germany, or anyone but a Japanese in control of Japan (Cleveland 26). Only in America is there such a diverse array of people in power from county officials all the way up to the make up of people in our Supreme Court.

However, although we have made many advances culturally that other countries haven’t, we still have yet to see an African-American, Latino, or for that matter, a woman as head of our country. With increasing awareness of other cultures though, these once unheard of suggestions are making their way even closer to reality. Another way to look at the issue is that most non-Western cultures have few achievements equal to Western culture either in the past or present (Duignan 492). The modern achievements that put America ahead of other countries are unique to America because they were developed here.

Many third-world countries still practice things that we have evolved from many years ago, such as slavery, wife beatings, and planned marriages. We are also given many freedoms that are unheard of in other countries. Homosexuality is punished severely in other lands, while we have grown to ealize that it is part of the genetic makeup of many people and they cannot Most immigrants come to America for a better way of life, willing to leave behind the uncivilized values of their mother countries.

Instead of trying to move the country that they came from into America, immigrants need to be willing to accept the fact that America is shared by all who live here, and it is impossible to give every citizen an equal amount of attention. If we are not willing to forget some parts of our heritage in favor of a set of well rounded values, then a fully integrated America will never be possible. There certainly is no easy answer to the problem of multicultural education. Proponents will continue to argue the benefits that unfortunately seem to be too far out of reach for our imperfect society.

The hard truth is that it is impossible for our public school system to fairly cater to the hundreds of nationalities that already exist, let alone the hundreds more that are projected to arrive during the next century. In order for us to live together in the same society, we must sometimes be willing to overlook parts of our distant past in exchange for a new hope in the future. Our only chance is to ontinue to debate the topic in order to hope for a “middle of the road” compromise.

One particularly interesting solution is that we could study the basics of how America came about in the most non-biased way possible, not concentrating on the race and sex of our forefathers as much as what they made happen, at least during the elementary and high school years. This would leave the study of individual nationalities, which are not themselves major contributing factors, for people to do at home or further down the line in their education, where they can focus on tradition and beliefs to any extent hey want without fear of anyone feeling segregated.

In conclusion, in order for us to function as a whole, we need to start thinking of America in terms of a whole. With just a basic understanding of other cultures, and most importantly, the tools and background to think critically and make our own decisions not based on color, sex, religion, or national origin, but on information that we were able to accurately attain through the critical thinking skills we were taught in school, we would be better equipped to work at achieving harmony in a varied racial country.

Sex Education Essay

Just say no, or say nothing at all. Either live by the word of the Christian God, or live with disease and unsupportable families. In current abstinence-only sexual education, this is the choice the nation gives to young people about their private sexuality. Clear concise facts have given way to horrifying lectures of the fictional evils of sexual behavior that falls outside the lines drawn by the right wing and the Pope. These tactics do not educate and only damage adolescents and their budding sexuality.

By perpetuating an archetype of sexual innocence they only accomplish a spreading of sexual ignorance. Comprehensive sexuality education in every school would end the inefficacy of abstinence until marriage programs and resolve the many sexual problems facing the youth of today. The state of teenage sexuality in America right now is a dismal thought. Young people lack the most basic information, like how to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In a number of states it is illegal for educational professionals to give students such information.

This leads to American youths being some of the most sexually uniformed in the modern world. These suffocating laws, designed by right wing radicals, prevent schools from addressing the topic even if it is in the best interest of the student. In a report by the respected American Health Consultants, Inc. , it is said that, “Among the seven in 10 public school districts that have a district wide policy to teach sexuality education, 86% of them require that abstinence be promoted as the preferred or only option for teens.

Abstinence-only sex education forbids dissemination of any positive information about contraception, regardless of whether students are sexually active or at risk of pregnancy or disease. David Landry, senior research associate at the Alan Guttmacher Institute in New York City tells, “What this is saying is that at least one-third of students are receiving information about contraception that is extraordinarily limited, where either discussion of contraception is barred altogether or the emphasis is on its ineffectiveness in preventing pregnancy and guarding against sexually transmitted diseases” (American).

This concealment of data will only impair young people for whom it is difficult to find accurate information by conferring with either their parents or peers. Besides the problem of school districts skirting the issues of safe sex and pregnancy prevention, students are completely unaided in understanding the complexities of sexuality beyond mere intercourse, because these topics are considered too controversial, even though they are the topics most applicable to many students lives.

As many as one in two school programs do not discuss more controversial topics, such as abortion and sexual orientation, in their sex education curricula” (American). Adolescents need the whole story on sexuality; deleting all sections that could perchance, in the remotest context, affront someone, leaves unanswered questions and a nebulous comprehension of sexuality. Those who believe that teenagers need to know nothing more than what is currently taught should have a look at the latest research.

In his research summary “The Necessity of Comprehensive Sexuality Education In The Schools” John P. Elia reports that teenagers recount that the sex education they have received in school is inadequate and “frequently at odds with what … hey want to know in terms of sexuality and relationships”. Specifically, surveyed adolescents in Liana Clark’s article “Beyond The Birds & The Bees: Talking To Teens About Sex” in Patient Care, say they want to know more about how to prevent AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (47%), how to use birth control (32%), where to get birth control (28%), and how girls get pregnant (22%).

Lack of knowledge in these areas is evident not only in survey but also in medical research. Teenagers comprise the largest age group with STDs because they are largely ignorant about these diseases. Ferdinand M. De Leon, noted sexuality researcher explains that, “The first time many hear of chlamydia is when they learn they have it”. No one can protect himself or herself from a threat they don’t even recognize.

In fact, some 31 percent of teen girls were completely unprotected the last time they had sex contributing to the 3 million teens (about 1 in 4 sexually experienced teens) that acquire an STD every year (Teen). Many of these STDs can be cured, or at least alleviated by modern medicine; however, pregnancy and teenage motherhood are not so easily coped with. As sexually active teenagers who do not use contraceptives have a 90% chance of becoming pregnant within one year (Teen), a teen not using birth control unquestionably needs to become quickly educated about it.

Despite these damning statistics, the overall U. S. teenage pregnancy rate declined 17% between 1990 and 1996, but these declines should fuel only optimism and not complacency, because the number of pregnancies in females younger than 20 years in the United States continues to approach 1 million per year; “More than three quarters of these pregnancies are assumed to be unintended” Hellerstedt) and more than half of these pregnancies (56% of 905,000 teenage pregnancies) ended in births (Teen).

Having a child to care for at such a young age is likely to ruin the life of, or at least terminate the hopes of, any teenage girl. In “Kids Having Kids”, a 1996 report from the Robin Hood Foundation, it is revealed that only “30 percent of girls who become pregnant before age 18 will earn a high-school diploma by the age of 30, compared with 76 percent of women who delay child bearing until after age 20. And 80 percent of those young, single mothers will live below the poverty line, receive welfare, and raise children who are at risk for many difficulties as they grow to adulthood” (McIlhaney).

Without comprehensive sex education the academic and professional lives of too many young people, will be cut short, too many unwanted children will be born into unstable homes, and too many otherwise healthy people will suffer the pain and humiliation of preventable sexually transmitted diseases. With the sexual health of our nation’s youth in such dire conditions, new courses of action must be taken. Unsurprisingly, subjugating the sexual behavior of the nations teens is unfeasible and frighteningly fascist.

America’s youth must lower their STD and pregnancy rates by personal decisions, but not without any help. Education is the best help they can be given. Repeatedly, sex education (especially the comprehensive variety) has shown to immediately reduce unwelcome pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, and immediately increase contraceptive and condom use in program participants. A recent study by the Alan Guttmacher Institute found that, “young women who receive contraceptive education the same year they become sexually active are 70 to 80 percent more likely to use a birth-control method’ (Teen).

Despite this near doubling in contraceptive use, some strong conservatives fear that arming youth with the knowledge to protect themselves from disease will cause them to become sexually frivolous, hopping from one drunken orgy to another night after night. This notion is utterly preposterous. Comprehensive sexuality education does not promote promiscuity or even advance the onset of intercourse. In fact it actually delays intercourse and decreases numbers of sexual partners.

Through researching an analyzing numerous independent studies, Charles W. Henderson came to the conclusion that, “Of 47 studies that evaluated interventions, 25 reported that sexuality education neither increased nor decreased sexual activity and attendant rates of pregnancy and STDs. Seventeen reported that [it] delayed the onset of sexual activity, reduced the number of sexual partners, or reduced unplanned pregnancy and STD rates. Only three studies found increases in sexual behavior associated with sexuality education Hence, little evidence was found to support the contention that sex education promotes promiscuity.

These findings have been proven to work on larger scales than even the most well funded studies. Northern Europe, particularly the Netherlands, has used comprehensive sexuality education for countless years with spectacular results. Jim Farrow, director of adolescent medicine at the University of Washington describes this, “In northern Europe, which is no less sexually active, STDs are a fraction of what they are in the U. S. , because the message there is ‘we recognize you’re sexually active and be responsible. ‘ Here it’s just say ‘no, you’re too young.

So they do it on the spur of the moment and they’re unprepared. ” (De Leon) Teen pregnancy rates are also lower by this education program. Mischa Heeger of the Rutgers Foundation reiterates that, “With the lowest teenage pregnancy rate in Europe (8. 4 per 1,000 girls between 15 and 19), the Netherlands deserves attention They know their children are going to have sex, and they are ready to prepare them and to speak with them about their responsibility Contraceptives are widely used the pill is freely available” (Valk).

Sexuality education is clearly working and the best means to improve the nation’s sexual well being. Ignoring studies and statistical fact that prove that sex ed is beneficial to students, anti-comprehensive sex education protesters claim that sexuality education does not belong in the schools because it is simply too “hot” of a topic to be introduced into the public school system. They say such matters are to be “handled in the home”. As nice as it would be to have every parent calmly sit down with his or her children and impartially discuss where to obtain contraception and what an orgasm is, this is not reality.

When sexuality is left to be discussed at home, it is left undiscussed. Parents and adolescents may feel uncomfortable conversing about such topics or erroneously feel that it unnecessary. “Parents engage in denial of sexual activity” (De Leon). Of course, not talking about such issues does not merely leave a void of sexual ignorance in a young person’s mind. Adolescents have questions, and when there is no adult to answer these questions “many learn about sexuality on the streets, picking up incorrect and inadequate information” (Elia). The mass media also dispenses inadequate information.

Adolescents view between “1,900 and 2,400 sexually related images on television annually” (Elia). Many of these messages are inaccurate, contradictory, and confusing. Without sexuality education, these teens have no means of conferring about the images they see with anyone other than friends, who know little more than they do, perpetuating misinformation. Yet still, there are those that persist that teaching comprehensive sexuality education, with it’s emphasis on safe sex rather than unattainable Christian ideals, is immoral, and that abstinence is the only word educators should ever say in response to sexual queries.

In our pluralistic society, a religious group’s moral convictions should not be taught as the norm in public schools. Schools should give the facts– not a sermon. As Michael McGee, vice president for education at the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, declares in response to comments on immorality of sex before marriage, “Our message has to be that it is immoral to deprive people of information that can save lives” (Motamed). In seeking to impose their values, abstinence proponents are marshaling arguments that fly in the face of both science and human experience.

Abstinence-only advocates contend that they want to send kids into the world with strong characters and good values. Despite arguments by such groups that they seek to teach a “core” set of ethical values, the nature of the values that are stressed betrays a cramped pluralism. These right-wing radicals are a loud minority-not the average person. Studies show that the majority of parents do not want abstinence-only education for their children. The average parent wants comprehensive sex ed for their children.

Steve Rabin of The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation made some significant findings in the Foundation’s latest sex ed opinion poll, “84% of parents want sex-ed classes to teach kids how to get and use birth control,” and “Four out of five parents want teachers to discuss abortion with their kids, and three out of four want them to discuss sexual orientation” (Parents). Sexuality education needs to be changed to fit the desires and needs of society for a comprehensive sexuality education. For more than a century, public schools have had a limited approach to sexuality education.

At best, instruction has been restricted to lessons about sexual anatomy, reproductive physiology, and sexually transmitted diseases. Comprehensive sexuality education, addressing health, development, desire, alternative sexualities, and relationships, is “conspicuously absent in more than 90 percent of schools nationwide” (Elia). Traditional topics such as sexual health, human development, and abstinence are discussed, but not exclusively. This approach more accurately reflects the complexity of sexuality.

As Debra W. Haffner, M. P. H. President of The Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) states, “SIECUS supports abstinence education. But SIECUS does not support teaching young people only about abstinence” (McIlhaney). In this realistic approach to helping young people come to understand sexuality, masturbation, and sexual desire will be discussed as normal occurrences. Currently, in many abstinence-only programs, teachers are instructed to say nothing more about masturbation other than it is something some people do and others don’t, further muddling a youth’s perception of their sexual selves.

It is important to help students become sexually self-aware, and have alternate sexualities discussed openly, as they may be examining their own sexuality. Often homosexuality and bisexuality are forbidden subject matter in a sex ed classroom. Although teachers may never verbalize it, students leave the classroom with an understanding that heterosexuality is simply better than other sexual identities because the latter are not discussed.

To pretend that [sexuality] differences do not exist is unfair to students, who will eventually find themselves with individuals possessing a variety of beliefs regarding sexual relationships” (Elia). Furthermore, to ignore such differences is unfair to students who differ from the “norm,” and causes them to feel invisible and unappreciated. Bisexuals, gays, lesbians, or those who simply do not fit typical gender-role stereotypes are discriminated against and physically and verbally abused in the schools. Sexuality education could address discrimination, and encouraging tolerance, if not acceptance, of these people.

This multidimensional approach, teaching students that sexuality is something of the body and the mind, would be a significant benefit to the social and emotional well being of adolescents. For far too long, Sex Ed has been taught in only the most physical terms, the earliest programs merely speaking to the boys about nocturnal emissions and to the girls about menstruation. “Physical education teachers were responsible for teaching sexuality education–not because they had special training but because usually the only time during the school day when students were segregated by sex was in gym class.

Having gym teachers teach sexuality education symbolically linked sexuality solely to the hysical aspects of life and reinforced the notion that sexuality was a physical thing, frequently foreclosing exploration of broader issues (Elia). ” Schools need to release this myopic perspective, and educate students an unbroken view of sex, covering the emotional aspects of sexuality. Sex ed is not merely biology and physicality. Instructing students on sexuality through only description and function of reproductive organs is like teaching a Driver’s Ed class by explaining the internal combustion engine.

Included in discussion of the emotional side of sex, relationship and personal skills would be taught. Acquiring these skills would help students manage intimate and sexual relationships. “Many of these skills are likely to be transferable to other aspects of students’ lives” (Elia). For example, communication and conflict-resolution techniques can be applied to relationships with employers, friends, relatives, lovers, and others. With combined schooling on reproduction and abstinence as well as intimacy and desire, comprehensive sexuality education is, in the end, a method that works.

As Debra W. Haffner, M. P. H. , further states, The World Health Organization published a review of 35 studies of sexuality-education programs. It found that the most effective programs for preventing teen pregnancy address both abstinence and contraception More than 110 organizations — including the American Medical Association, the American Public Health Association, and the YWCA of the USA, the National Council of Churches, and the National School Boards Association — support a comprehensive approach to sex education (McIlhaney).

Comprehensive Sex Ed works because it is inclusive, whereas abstinence-only approaches are exclusive. Any approach to education that excludes students who are not typical is ineffective. Abstinence-only education does not work. In fact, it has never worked. Abstinence-only programs tend to rely on lectures as the main educational strategy, substitute slogans for discussion, and exaggerate the consequences of sexual behavior to scare young people into abstaining. Proponents these fear-based programs make broad claims that are completely unproven.

They argue that if you tell young people to abstain from sexual intercourse, they will. They promise that these “just say no” programs will keep teenagers from developing “too serious” relationships, from being emotionally hurt, from experimenting with intimacy and sexual behaviors, and, of course, from getting pregnant and contracting a sexually transmitted diseases. There is no reason to believe that these claims are true. Charles Morrison, family living and sexuality educator for Portland schools states, “To preach pure abstinence and nothing else is irresponsiblethe research is clear, abstinence programs don’t work.

If they did, we wouldn’t have to invent the birth control pill” (Ferriss) Research on abstinence-only education would probably disturb most of its supporters. Not only is the method completely ineffective, it actually increases STD rates and teen pregnancy. “About 50% of school districts in the South have abstinence-only policies when some of the highest rates of STDs and teen pregnancy occur in the South” (Shelton). And, astoundingly, the results of some abstinence-based programs have actually boomeranged in the opposite direction of the program’s goal of celibacy.

A recent $5 million abstinence-only initiative in California not only did not increase the number of young people who abstained, but actually resulted in more students having sexual intercourse after having participated in the course. ” (McIlhaney) The explanation for this is unclear, but perhaps the students discredited educator’s message from the lack of believability in their claims. Abstinence education relies more on scare tactics to frighten young people away from sex, rather than helping them come to their personal feelings on sexuality.

These scare tactics, are not merely limited to exaggerations of the truth, but often consist of complete, unqualified lies. For example, the Guttmacher Institute revealed, “Some abstinence-only programs have distributed information stating that HIV can pass through latex condoms. Even though they’ve been told that this is absolutely false, they continue to disseminate it,” (Shelton). Students, viewing this information as coming from a definitive authority source, would never think to check up on the information, and so will forever walk through life fearing their next sexual encounter.

Facing Reality, an abstinence-only program, includes a litany of the consequences of premarital sex, including: “inability to concentrate on school, shotgun weddings, selfishness, poverty, loss of faith, fewer friendships formed, loss of self-mastery, difficulty with long-term commitments, aggression toward women, loss of honesty, depression, and death” (McIlhaney). Considering that four out of five Americans have had their first intercourse as teenagers (Teen) the country must be a pretty bleak place to the average abstinence proponent.

So bleak that new federally endorsed abstinence-only sexuality education uidelines have just been released. These guidelines assert the following warped statements, “*The only way to prevent out-of-wedlock pregnancy and STDs is by sexual abstinence *Monogamy within the context of marriage is the socially expected standard for sexual conduct *Sexual expression outside of marriage will probably have detrimental mental and physical effects” (Elia).

It is troubling that this program requires adults to tell young people that a mutually faithful monogamous relationship in the context of marriage is the standard of human sexual activity in the United States. This “information” clearly is not true. The vast majority of Americans begin having sexual relationships before marriage. 74 million American adults are classified as single because they have delayed marriage, decided to remain single, are divorced, or have entered into gay partnerships (McIlhaney).

The majority of these adults are involved in sexual behavior and most of them would take offense at students learning this new federal “standard. ” The claims of abstinence-only programs are based on neither science nor human experience. Most young people engage in sexual relationships without negative physical, social, or emotional consequences, and most teen-agers who have intercourse do so responsibly” (Haffner). It is time for those afraid of their own and other’s sexuality to stay out of young adult’s beds.

Teenagers are sexually adults and are not to be “protected” from their own desires. Some abstinence-only supporters say that teens are not ready for sexual intercourse. How can they make one-size-fits-all decisions for so varied a population on such an incredibly personal matter? Perhaps the only reason some feel that teens are nprepared for the natural advent of their sexuality is that we simply do not prepare them for it. “Much of the current curricula give students the impression that sexual expression is reserved for adults; minors engaging in sexual activities are “playing with fire.

Fluidity of sexual expression, the language of sexual intimacy, and the creativity of human sexual response are sorely missing in traditional sexuality education programs” (Elia). This projection of sexuality, as something that is very, very bad for adolescents, will only lead to future sexual dysfunction. Because adolescents are only told “No, no, no! whether they are 12 or 18 from these abstinence-only groups, sexuality becomes viewed as dirty, unwanted, and unnatural.

It is not healthy for a human being to think their inherent sexual feelings are scourge to be wiped out. The psychological damage caused by this is so detrimental to a person, that some members of religions with particularly severe beliefs about sexuality have been known to commit suicide out of self-disgust. Although this is an extreme, “without sexuality education, many people will likely continue to feel badly about their own sexuality and about sexuality in general” (Elia).

These negative feelings will stay with them even after marriage, when they are finally “allowed” to have sex. Secretly, this may be the goal of some abstinence programs where many of the lecturers have had terrible, horrifying, and painful sexual experiences, forever perverting their view of sex. Sex is not a tragedy within the majority of persons’ lives. Sexuality is not a pollutant, and people are not to be cleansed of it as such. Most people are sexual. It is wrong for abstinence proponents to tell people, regardless of their age, to expulse these feelings.

For many people abstinence is simply not a reasonable request, like the family doctor requesting you remove cheese from your diet. Sexuality is inborn. People say that adolescents are not or should not be sexual, but holding hands, hugging, kissing, and even being attracted to (having a “crush” on) somebody are all sexual behaviors and are all behaviors common to adolescents, and even children. Influential child behaviorist B. D. Schmitt explains that, “By age 4, most children develop a healthy sexual curiosity.

In normal sexual development between ages 3 and 5, children commonly undress together and look at each other’s genitals”. With such child sex play prevalent and expected, why do we demand that upon reaching puberty, the most sexually preoccupied time of a person’s life, all sexuality should cease? It is mystifying that there are those who would support this backward principle, which throughout the whole of human experience, there is so much evidence against. The fact is, that most American young people have their first sexual intercourse during their teenage years (Haffner).

Commonly, “40 percent of ninth-graders and 45 percent of tenth-graders have engaged in sexual intercourse” (Elia), an activity they are likely to repeat, regardless of abstinence training. These youth need education on contraception and STD prevention, to stop their sexual experiences from becoming negative ones. Abstinence is just not relevant to sexually active students’ lives. Furthermore, says Charles Morrison, sexuality education specialist, “the message would alienate students already engaged in sex. Ferriss).

Stressing that abstinence is the only certain way to avoid pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases may even cause greater harm by indirectly encouraging teens who are sexually active to dismiss condoms and other forms of protection as useless. As said by Dr. Jocelyn Elders, former Surgeon General of the United States “Abstinence is a good thing, and it works for many of our youthHowever, I am not willing to just throw away those other youths for which it does not work for one reason or another. Stryker)

And for these same youths, for whom abstinence will not work, an abstinence until marriage policy means life long celibacy. As with many right wing, religiously inspired programs, abstinence only education completely ignores those who do not travel down the beaten path. Students often are taught with the assumption that they will eventually settle down into a heterosexually based, monogamous, nuclear family and produce children. Homosexuals, estimated to be somewhere between 3 to 10 percent of the population, will never be married.

In an abstinence-only sexuality education class these persons aren’t even recognized. Essentially, this approach conveys the message that bisexuals, gays, and lesbians are not fully sexual human beings. Also caused by the strong emphasis on marriage in these programs, those heterosexuals who choose not to marry are made to feel like social misfits and failures. Sexually active homosexuals and unmarried heterosexuals are not failures; it is the abstinence-only program supporters, refusing to acknowledge individualism and alternate lifestyles that have failed them.

The adolescents of this generation have all been failed, regardless of sexual activity. Educators and politicians have refused to enlighten them about one of the greatest elements of being human and have instead sheltered them from the very information that could literally save their lives. These are crimes without punishment, but crimes that can be rectified. Comprehensive sexuality education can better both the sexual and nonsexual aspects of future students lives, without dictating how they should see their sexual lives. There is a way to protect without oppressing.

Educational System in Turkey

Education is the act or process of providing knowledge skills or competence by a formal course of instruction or training. Through out history societies have sought to educate their people to produce goods and services, to respond effectively and creatively to their world, and to satisfy their curiosity and aesthetic impulses. To achieve reliable knowledge and to think systematically. Over the course of human history education has appeared in many forms, both foreclosed and informal. Major thinkers have always recognized the educational value of intellectual exploration and of concrete experimentation.

Most societies have attempted to standardized the behavior of their members. These societies have apprenticeship systems by which the young have learned to imitate the beliefs and behaviors of a given group. Teachers have worked within schools of thought cults, monasteries and other types of organizations to shape desired convictions, knowledge and behavior. Such philosophical and religious leaders as the Buddha, Confucious, Pythagoras, Jesus, Moses, Muhammad and Karl Marx instructed their disciplines through informal education.

Turkish State and Turkish Society give great importance to the education since the Turkish Republic was established in 1923. The fall of Ottoman Empire at the end of the first world war and the foundation of the republic after the successful conclusion of the war of independence are two important factors which have made the existence of the new Turkish Society possible. The great desire of this society which is adopted in the social and economic fields to the general life conditions of western civilizations is to work for the benefit of mankind while enjoying all the privileges of civilized life within the family of Nations.

In order to reach this goal, it has above all been necessary to establish an educational system in all its stages in such a way as to diffuse its light to all classes of the population. Bases of the Turkish Education leans to the last years of the Ottoman Empire. The road towards modern education was charted by Selim III and Mahmud II and was followed with accelerated speed by their successors.

In the 1876 constitution, educational reforms had been mentioned for the first time For education continued to be regarded as the necessary foundation for the reorganization of the empire and the creation of a cadre of new leaders to maintain it As one contemporary writer put it The solution of the sick man was not through extermination but through education. Educational reorganization and westernization were seen as a necessary condition in the general movement towards the social and political modernization of the Ottoman State and Society.

The Tanzimat Period was characteristics by attempts to set up a modern administrative framework and a grade system of schools different in many respects from traditional institutional arrangements. Except his trial to bring back autocracy to the Ottoman State he was successful he had faith in the value of education. The constitution of 1876 provided that all schools should be under government supervision and the first stage of education should be compulsory under the young Turk regime another attempt was made to reform the system of primary education.

In 1913 a new law enforced, aimed at public support at primary schools and better organization of the program of study Provisory Primary Education Law (Tedrisat ptidai Kanunu) consists compulsory and free six year education in public schools and limitation of class size not more than fifty pupils. High institutions such as Galatasaray, Daruafaka, Mlkiye and stanbul University was established in this period. The war years were hesitation period for education like the other institutions. Budget of every institution were being transferred to war.

After the war in embarking upon the task of building a new nation , Ataturk and his Associates coceived of education as the most important foundation. In the emerging ideology of Ataturkism, education was inevitably bound up with political , economic and cultural independence and with breaking the shackles of traditional beliefs and outlooks; it was the means of creating national feelings , creating the consensus necessary to sustain a free national state training new Turkish leaders and paving the way towards a dynamic and modern society .

Knowledge an science were regarded as power and as the leverage in transforming and uplifting the entire society. Ataturk made several statements on the important role assigned to education. In 1921 , he said that our national system of education should be something different from the old and something that grow out of our own nation. A national genius can only be developed through our national culture. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk placed the future of republic squarely in the hands of the schools an the younger generation ; whom he expected ever to preserve and defend the national independence of the Turkish Republic.

On the March 3 1924 `Tevhid-I Tedrisat Kanunu` (law of unification of institutions) was declared. Which provided that all educational institutions are able to be placed under the control of the Ministry of Education. This eased to control the religious schools. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk layed the foundation of Turkish Educational System by reorganizing the educational system . ( Primary school , Middle School, Lycee . Technical and vocational Schools. ). In 1928 Latin alphabet had been accepted and afterwards national schools was established.

Every body between ages 16 and 45 attend to these schools. Village Institutions had been established by the head of Ministry Hasan Ali Ycel but was closed by the government saying that village institutes were training communist. After the death of Atatrk development of education slow down till the military makes coup detat after 1960s by the encouragement of the military new reading and writing mobilization started and the final point reached in the educational reform is the compulsory eight year education.

Turkey entered the 21st century depending on the calendar year but the same cannot be said for education. Education is still in the 20th century. This situation is because of the problems that Turkish Education System faces. These problems can be solved by some precautions. First of all population of Turkey is 70 million which is quiet much compared to the western countries and it is still increasing however in western countries population rates are decreasing. For example in Greece in 1986 population was 10 million and today they are still 10 million, This situation ease education in western countries .

The young population is educated in good conditions and the excess budget is used for the education of adults and as a result the education the education level of the whole population increases which is an indicator of the development of a country. Today in Turkey not every youth is going to school. The young population rate is very high besides that immigration to cities increase the demand of education which affect the quality of education. In order to solve the problem of population the most valid method is wide spreading family planning to every part of the country.

By this method there can be a decrease in the rates of population increase in Turkey. Industrialization of the provinces can be another method which can reduce the immigration rate and change the way of immigration from cities back to villages. Opening the village institutions again (which were closed in 1940s) can contribute to the industrialization of the provinces. Secondly, Education System of Turkey is not well organized basic education (which is seen as the most important part of education by the experts )is insufficient, The type of system based on memorisation bring success for only the exam period not for his or her all life.

The mass student(Which reaches millions today)waiting for entering university is another disgrace for the Turkish Education system. One other problem of education system is the limited profession education . Importance of Profession education can be seen when comparing Japan and Turkey. Both countries were in very bad conditions after the World Wars. Japan was even worse. When we compare the two countries today we see that Japan is much more developed than Turkey and controlling the electronic and automotive industries as a result of the giving importance to profession education.

In order to solve the problems of Education System a reform must be enlivened in basic education by taking reforms of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk as prototypes. The reforms must cover all the teachers and employees. Besides that new universities must be built in order to lessen the amount of mass student waiting for entering university. Expecting from the state to built universities would be merciless business man should help the state economically but the restricted budget of the government cannot be an excuse for not building universities because universities are much more necessary than bridges ,government buildings or nuclear weapons.

Thirdly, the economic crisis that paralysis every institution in Turkey makes the situation of education more difficult. Government hardly pays the salaries of teachers in addition to that expose to protests because of the low salaries. The government hardly paying salaries does not allot any budget for the restoration and improvement of the old technology with the new ones, In the east part of Turkey there are still villages in which they use materials such as maps, desks etc. which was are more than 50 years old.

One other factor is the poor families which are unable to have their Child’s education because of poverty and this situation creates an unequality of education because in other hand wealthy families are sending their children to private schools and courses. In order to solve the economical problem government should find new resources and this may happen by decreasing the budget of army, sports ministry etc. Lastly terror is another problem that affects the quality of education most of the lecturers do not want to go to East of Turkey by saying that there is terror and they do not have the life security.

In reality they are right everyday in newspapers and television programs people see tens of people dying in one day terrorists bombing schools, killing teachers. If government is not effective on stopping the terror in the east the only solution can be making extra payments for teachers that are going east. In conclusion Turkish Education has many problems in connection to the other problems in other institutions such as terror, population increase and economic trouble but these problems are not impossible to solve.

Bilingual Education Is Beneficial To Students Abilities To Assimilate In The Mainstream Culture

English only–sink or swim? Yeah right! Instead of English Only Advocates worrying about bilingual education cost in our school system, why not take advantage of the skills our ethnic minorities possess to move our economy forward? They are obviously not thinking clearly, because the benefit of bilinguals, significantly outweigh the bad. To deny our youth the opportunity for upward mobility and skill to become more marketable in a worldwide capacity is inhumane. They believe bilinguals threaten to sap our sense of national identity and divide us along ethnic lines.

They also fear that any government recognition of minority languages sends the wrong message to immigrants, encouraging them to believe they can live in the U. S. A. without learning English or conforming to The American way. That is an overt, racist, and paranoid view, dont you think? The most significant issues that support bilingual education for students ability to assimilate in the mainstream culture are, the development of students linguistic resources and preserve their cultural heritage, contributions to the American economy, and diversity.

The development of a students language and preservation of their culture is essential for the upward mobility of todays youth. There always have been some immigrants who viewed themselves explicitly as the preserver and savior of their languages and heritages. Since the late 1800s, ethnic minorities in America have been consistently characterized as culturally inferior. Their language right has consistently been the subject of political review. Politicians do not have (PCC(SW) Taylor/16603/Mr. Jones/Small Group 2/23 Feb 00 the right to force people to master their language and values just because they are the dominant society.

They should encourage and support students to the attainment of bilingual or multilingual skills. They should also consider that students coming from homes where two or more languages are used will face difficulty in applying while in the school environment. The fact that so few Americans command any other language than English is largely a result of educational failure and cultural inadequacies. The American economy will benefit from bilingual education because historically multilingual personnel are smarter, academic skills are sharper, and their contributions to society are immeasurable.

English is the one language that offers the biggest market, the largest pool of talent, and the greatest probability of being able to communicate with anyone on the planet. Bilingual education is a tool for better education that children whose primary language is not English learn more easily. Industry and Information Technology dance to English lyrics. Students will have no future in the Information Technology field if they cannot command English as an effective medium of communication. Furthermore, good bilingual programs are about more than learning a language.

They should be based on a respect for diversity and multiculturalism, and parents and community must be essential partners. (Rethinking schools Vol 1. 13, #2. ). Over 80% of todays Internet WEB pages, databases and other enhancing computer programs are in English. It is in the best interest of all countries to ensure their children are bilingual and computer literate. Diversity in todays society is essential to the success of this nation. The lack of bilingual personnel has most recently created major problems for U. S. security agencies.

Specifically, Of the more than 500,000 American troops deployed to the Persian Gulf during Operation Desert Storm, the Department of Defense was able to identify just 45 U. S. military personnel with any Iraqi language backgrounds, and only 5 of these were trained in intelligence operations (James Crawfords homepage). The statement above is a perfect example of why it is important to possess the ability to read, write and speak in foreign languages. Those who oppose such diversity really must take timeout to reevaluate their philosophy.

Their views are closed minded, stupid, and most importantly serve to cripple this nations ability to remain a super power. It does not take a rocket scientist to know that multilingual personnel are generally smarter than those who only speak one language. They possess the intelligence to mix in a wide variety of cultures and share their experience with America. So I say again, why not support bilingual education? Bilingual education gives jobs and local power to members of the non-English speaking community. It also reinforces childrens identification with members of their own ethnic group.

The abilities of multilingual personnel should be exploited at all costs. I personally favor maintenance and enrichment of bilingual education. Unfortunately, the opposition of bilingualism has a great influence to change the political viewpoint. Overall we discussed the development of students linguistic resources and preserve their cultural heritage, contributions to the American economy, and diversity. As Equal Opportunity Advisors, we must exhaust every effort to ensure our students regardless of ethnicity are afforded the opportunity to explore preserve their cultural heritage.

Additionally we must push bilingualism to assimilate ethnic minority personnel into the mainstream of society. In other words, it would not impose a substantial benefit on a child to learn subject matter in two languages? No matter what the theoretical conclusions may be on bilingual education, ethnic minorities should be individually consulted and have the final word in deciding for themselves. They should be afforded the opportunity to judge for themselves, if it is in their best interest and the future to take advantage of the possibility of bilingual education for their children.

Creating a Learning Environment

We spent a great deal of time discussing learning styles during our first class periods specifically as relating to adult learning. The focus of this class as evidenced by the title College Teaching is geared towards the teaching of college students who typically are going to be in the under-30 age bracket. As potential college-level and adult education teachers, I believe we also need to consider the particular motivations of the college students in addition to their learning styles. The motivations may be very different and may not be necessarily age related.

Although one certainly cannot customize the class to accommodate the expectations of all class members I do believe it is necessary to understand these specific motivations. It could be that their attendance is due to simply an interest in the subject, a desire to get away from their normal environment, to meet a work requirement or for professional advancement or they just want the social interaction that an adult learning environment provides. Is it possible that at the higher college levels and graduate levels that the measurement of the amount of learning that took place during the course could be directly related to this motivation?

Seeking to understand this motivation is something that I feel is rarely addressed at the college level and in most adult education environments to which I have been exposed. Perhaps teachers should seek an understanding or at the very least an articulation by the student what his or her expectations are of the class and the teacher and a real assessment by both as to the purpose of the students presence in the class. Once again, I understand that as teachers we cannot always take into account everyones expectations but at the very least we can challenge the students to think about why they are there and what they expect to learn.

In a way this is taking them through the experiential learning cycle prior to the start of the class. The challenge to the students would be to articulate what they expect to do with what they will be learning how they intend to apply the experience of the class they are about to undertake. Perhaps too many times the students come to the classroom with the expectation that the teacher has 100% responsibility to teach the students. There is very little prior thought as to why they are here, what they expect to learn and what they will do with what they learned other than to meet some educational requirement be it degree or work related.

What we as teachers ARE 100% responsible for is understanding how to fully engage our students in the class and then how to apply that understanding. I feel the real key to effective teaching at the college and adult education level is to move them towards taking full responsibility for their own learning. We have to move them towards a high level of self-direction in their own educational process by the empowerment that comes from this full engagement and the acceptance of the responsibility I spoke about.

As evidenced by the activities during our first two class sessions I believe this class will address the idea of engaging the students. We have discussed several tools that can be used to address different learning styles what I think is the overall goal that is being expressed here is that we as teachers become facilitators of learning rather than lecturers. What I have experienced in my brief exposure to adult education in my current job is that the greatest learning may actually take place among the students rather than between student and teacher. The concepts presented so far in this class address this idea of teacher as facilitator.

What I am hearing with the discussions on learning styles and our initial discussions on the purpose of education is that we as teachers must create the appropriate learning environment rather than simply be presenters of material and then quantitative assessors of the intellectual intake. We are hear to facilitate the learning process the actual teaching is done by the students in the classroom. The discussion that is generated by the concepts presented allows the students to think out loud, so to speak, and thus provide them the opportunity to give and receive feedback on how they are processing the information provided by the teacher.

This is where true learning occurs, I believe. That is when the student can be affirmed or confronted about ideas in other words, for true learning to occur the teacher must challenge the students to think by creating an environment that encourages thinking and interaction. Perhaps a measure of a teachers effectiveness is the ratio of how much the teacher talks versus the students. Another thought occurred to me during our first class meetings in which it was mentioned that in our early years we are more concerned with acquisition of skills.

Thus college level teachers tend to present the material and evaluate the learning that occurred based on the content that was presented. I did wonder though whether the notion that younger college students are more concerned with acquisition of skills is the result of what they indeed want or is it that most elementary and secondary education is geared towards that type learning. Is it possible that younger college students have been conditioned to accept that type of teaching style? As young children we are constantly asking Why?. We are questioning the process more than the actual content.

Do we develop teaching methods at that level to address the need to understand why something works the way it does or are we more concerned with filling the young student with content? After all, how can you evaluate how much learning has taken place and thus validate and quantify our effectiveness as teachers if you cannot measure the content level? Maybe as children we are more process-oriented than currently thought but we force them into a particular learning mode by presenting them with a teaching style that is more suited to the teacher than the student.

Are children really more focused on the concrete rather than the abstract or is that the way they have been taught to learn? Perhaps this will be addressed later in the class (or maybe it has been and my antennae were not up! ) but I also wondered whether there is validity in considering if learning styles can also be gender-based. I have heard that studies of early childhood education show that teachers tend to adopt their teaching style to fit preconceived notions of males and females. For example, teachers tend to make girls raise their hands to answer questions while boys are typically allowed to shout them out.

Also there are stereotypes that say boys are good at science and math and girls are good at verbal and reading comprehension skills. In my brief experience in the world of adult learning I have also observed that men tend to be more black/white and right/wrong oriented whereas women are more apt to see the gray areas and the subtleties behind every question. Men understand that there may be a diversity of opinion on issues and even respect everyones right to their opinion but in the end feel that there is only one possible answer to every question.

These differences may very well fit into the learning styles we have already discussed but I do question whether there are differences that need to be explored as it relates to gender. My overall first impression from the class is that I see that we as teachers need to understand the complexity of our responsibility as educators. Full engagement of students is critical to their success and ours. We need to get out of our traditional boxes and notions that teachers only teach. What I am learning is that we must consider student motivations and the way our students process information if we are truly going to be great educators.

Antiracism, Multiculturalism, and Interracial Community

In Antiracism, Multiculturalism, and Interracial Community: Three Educational Values for a Multicultural Society, reprinted in Gary E Kessler, Voices of Wisdom: A Multicultural Philosophy Reader, Fourth Edition, (Belmont CA: Wadsworth, 2000, pp25-31), Lawrence A. Blum argues that there are a plurality of values that one would want taught in schools and families, and are essential to a program of value education for a multicultural society (Blum, p25). He supports his argument by identifying the values, which are antiracism, multiculturalism, an interracial community, and creating persons as individuals.

Blums purpose is to clear up any predisposed misconceptions readers may have had about multiculturalism in order to perfect the multicultural society, using the readers as advocates. Blum seems to be targeting an audience of educators who may desire the multicultural society, but are unsure of how to attain it. I do agree with Blums concept on a plan for educating to develop for a multicultural society; however I do not feel as though he understands that it is a much tougher task than just identifying values, because they must be instilled.

Philippine Education Essay

Philippines, republic in the western Pacific Ocean, made up of the Philippine Islands and forming in physical geography a part of the Malay Archipelago. Situated about 1210 km (about 750 mi. ) east of the coast of Vietnam, the Philippines is separated from Taiwan on the north by the Bashi Channel. The republic is bounded on the east by the Philippine Sea, on the south by the Celebes Sea, and on the west by the South China Sea.

The country comprises about 7100 islands, of which only about 460 are more than 2. 6 sq. m (more than 1 sq. mi. ) in area. Eleven islands have an area of more than 2590 sq. m (more than 1000 sq. mi. ) each and contain the bulk of the population. These islands are Luzon, Mindanao, Samar, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Mindoro, Leyte, Cebu, Bohol, and Masbate. The total area of the Philippines is about 300,000 sq. km (about 115,830 sq. mi. ). Manila is the capital and largest city of the Philippines. This geographical condition of the Philippines made it very accessible and very easy to penetrate by foreign people.

It may be said that the Filipinos are intelligent, with retentive memory, quick perception, and talents for art and science. They also are gentle, riend] y, and cheerful people, noted for their courtesy and hospitality. Filipinos are famous not only for their warm hospitality, but also for their close family ties. The parents work hard and sacrifice much for their children; in return, the children love and respect them and take good care of them in their old age. Filipinos owing to their beautiful country are passionately romantic.

They are ardent in love, as they are fierce in battle. They are born poets, musicians and artists. Filipinos are a liberty-loving and brave people. They valiantly resisted the Spanish, American and Japanese invaders of their ative land. They rank among the bravest people of the world. Filipino courage has been proven in the Battle of Mactan (1521), in the Battle of Tirad Pass (1899), in the battle of Bataan, Corregidor, Bessang Pass during World War II, and in many other battlefields. Gratitude is another sterling trait of the Filipinos.

They are grateful to those who have granted them favors of who are good to them. Their high sense of gratitude is expressed in the phrase Utang na loob (debt of honor). Filipinos are cooperative. They value the virtue of helping each other and other people. They cherish the ancestral trait of ayanihan, which means cooperation. In rural areas, when a man is building, repairing or transferring a house to another place, the neighbors come to help him. Foreign writers assert that the Filipinos are indolent. In reality they work hard in the face of very adverse conditions.

They work on the farms from sunrise to sunset, though not from noon to 3 p. m. due to the scorching heat. They work hard in the sugarcane and pineapple plantations in Hawaii, the fruit orchards of California, the fish canneries of Alaska, and in the oil wells of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and other Arab countries of the Middle East. Finally, the Filipinos are noted for their durability and resiliency. Through the ages they have met all kinds of calamities–revolts, revolutions, wars, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons and epidemics.

Unlike the Polynesians of Oceania and the Indians of North Central and South Americas, they did not vanish by contact with the white race. They can assimilate any civilization and thrive in any climate. Against the adversities of life or nature, they merely bend, but never break. They possess the formidable durability of the narra tree and the resiliency of the bamboo.

Excavations in archeological sites have proven that during prehistoric times, the native Negritos came in contact with Malays and Indonesians who left their ancestral home in Southeast Asia by crossing the seas in their sailboats (balangay), and settled the Philippine archipelago. Inter-racial marriages took place among them and out of these racial mixtures emerged the Filipino people. The early Filipino Malay ancestors brought with them their culture–food and drinks, community ife, government and laws, language and literature, religion, customs and traditions and arts and sciences.

They left their cultures to their descendants, as the Filipino Malayan inheritance. In the course of the centuries, long before the Spaniards colonized the Philippines in the 16th century; the native Filipinos came in contact (by commerce) with Hindus from India, the Chinese and the Arabs whose civilizations were much older and more advanced than those of Spain and other Western countries. As a result of these early contacts with these great Asian people, the Filipino native culture and way of life (Malayan Heritage) were enriched.

The cultural influences of both India and Arabia came indirectly to Philippine shores through Malaysia, while the Chinese cultural influence came direct from China. In subsequent years, the Filipinos intermarried, not only with the Indians, Chinese and Arabians, but also with the Spaniards, the Americans, the Japanese, the British, the French, the Germans, and other peoples of the world. Today, it may be said that the bloods of the East and the West meet and blend in Filipino veins. It must be noted that during the first two and a half centuries (1565-1828) Spain ruled the country through

Mexico. The viceroy of Mexico governed the country in the name of the Spanish king. During this period the famous Manila-Acapulco trade existed. And many Mexicans–colonial officials, missionaries, soldiers, and traders–came to the Philippines. They introduced plants and animals, industries, songs and dances, customs and traditions into the country. Moreover, many of them married Filipino women. So it came to pass that Filipino acquired a Mexican heritage. After 333 years of Spanish rule, the Americans conquered the country and like Spain, America imposed her culture upon the people.

During four decades of U. S. ule (1898-1935), the people acquired the American heritage, which included democracy, popular education, the English language and Protestant Christianity. Beneath the veneer of Hispanic, Mexican and American heritage, the people, in heart and in spirit, are Asians. They are Asian in race and in geography with an indestructible Asian heritage. The warmth and natural hospitality of the nation’s 66,000,000 Filipinos today, is known throughout the world. The 11 cultural, linguistic and racial groups endow the Filipino people with varying customs and traditions.

In spite of their diversity, Filipinos have basically wo dominant traits: a love of family and a strong religious faith. Filipinos came from a mixture of Asian, European, and American peoples–the Negritos, Indonesians, Malays, Chinese, Indians, Arabs and other Asians; The Spaniards, British and other Europeans; the Mexicans and Americans of South and North America. According to Dr. H. Otley Beyer, noted American anthropologist, the racial ancestry of Filipinos is as follows: Malay – 40%; Indonesian – 30%; Chinese – 10%, Indian (Hindu) – 5%, European & American – 3%, and Arab – 2%.

When the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines, the indios (natives) had reached different levels of political development, including simple communal groups, debt peonage (often erroneously described as slavery) and proto-feudal confederations. The Spaniards imposed a feudal system, concentrating populations under their control into towns and estates. During the first two centuries of their occupation, the Spaniards used the Philippines mainly as a connecting point for their China-Acapulco (Mexico) trade.

The country’s economic backwardness was reinforced by Roman Catholicism, which was practiced in a form hat retained many pre-colonial elements such as animism while incorporating feudal aspects of the colonizers’ religion such as dogmatism, authoritarianism and patriarchial oppression. The Spaniards were never able to consolidate political control over the entire archipelago, with Muslims and indigenous resisting the colonizers most effectively. Among the groups that were subjugated, there were numerous localized revolts throughout the Spanish occupation.

In the 19th century, the Philippines was opened to world trade, allowing the limited entry of liberal ideas. By the late 19th century, there was distinct Filipino nationalist movement that erupted into a revolution in 1896, culminating with the establishment of Asia’s first republican government in 1898. Spain laid the foundation for a feudal health care system. The religious orders built charity hospitals, often next to churches, dispensing services to the indio. Medical education was not extended to the indio until late in the 19th century, through the University of Santo Tomas.

This feudal system of the rich extending charity to the poor persists to this day among many church-run as well as non-sectarian institutions. (1898-1946) The first Philippine Republic was short-lived. Spain had lost a war with the United States. The Philippines was illegally ceded to the United States at the Treaty of Paris for US$20 million, together with Cuba and Puerto Rico. A Filipino-American War broke out as the United States attempted to establish control over the islands. The war lasted for more than 10 years, resulting in the death of more than 600,000 Filipinos.

The little-known war has been described by historians as the “first Vietnam”, where US troops first used tactics such as strategic hamleting and scorched -earth policy to “pacify” the natives. The United States established an economic system giving the colonizers full rights to the country’s resources. The Spanish feudal system was not dismantled; in fact, through the system of land registration that favored the upper Filipino classes, tenancy became more widespread during the US occupation. A native elite, including physicians trained in the United States, was groomed to manage the economic and political system of the country.

The U. S. also introduced western models of educational and health-care systems that reinforced elitism and a colonial mentality that persists to this day, mixed ith the Spanish feudal patron-client relationship. Militant peasant and workers’ groups were formed during the U. S. occupation despite the repressive situation. A movement for Philippine independence, involving diverse groups, continued throughout the occupation. A Commonwealth government was established in 1935 to allow limited self-rule but this was interrupted by the Second World War and the Japanese occupation.

The guerilla movement against Japanese fascism was led mainly by Socialists and communists, known by their acronym, HUKS. Shortly after the end of the Second World War, flag independence was regained although the U. S. imposed certain conditions, including the disenfranchisement of progressive political parties, the retention of U. S. military bases and the signing of economic agreements allowing the U. S. continued control over the Philippine economy. The Spanish and American colonization had instituted in our minds the values and characteristics that we possess at the present time.

Individuals regard their success or failure as to luck, fate, God, or the spirits, expressed by the phrase Bahala na (“What will be, will be”). HIYA Filipinos will go to great lengths to avoid causing others shame (hiya). To be criticized as walang hiya (shameless, insensitive) is a potent censure. UTANG NA LOOB A debt of gratitude, honor, or blood, this term literally means “inner debt” or “heart debt”. Filipinos live within a network of two-way obligations: requesting and accepting a favor implies a willingness to repay it.

Closely linked with the desire for social acceptance and approval, pakikisama (conformity, camaraderie) manifests itself in-groups of all kinds and ages regardless of class. To maintain pakikisama, Filipinos will yield to group opinion, subjugate ill-feeling beneath a pleasant demeanor, avoid speaking arshly or saying “No” directly, and will only criticize or reprimand very tactfully. AMOR PROPIO Filipinos are very sensitive to criticism, insults, and hurt feelings, whether real or imagined, and they can become implacable enemies for reasons that Westerners would deem trivial.

Hiya, utang na loob, and pakikisama all affect an individual’s amor propio (self-esteem). It demands conformity to approved behavior patterns. It can also lead to showing off, especially in the presence of peers and subordinates. And because of the colonization of many countries in the Philippines, the Filipino’s developed values that made them closer to their fellow-Filipinos and made them a Nation-loving people. THE FAMILY Filipino families are much closer than those of the West. The environment is highly personalized.

Children are brought up to be polite, cooperative, modest, and religious. Communal feeling is encouraged. Upon marrying, newlyweds usually set up their own home, but family ties remain strong. The husband is nominally head of the household, but the wife runs the home and manages the finances. They make important decisions together. FAMILY OBLIGATIONS Sharing both good fortune and crisis, the clan operates as isciplinary mechanism, placement agency, and social assistance program. It provides its members with tremendous security, so that to be poor in the Philippines is somewhat different from poor in the West.

In the absence of a public welfare system, the clan eases the impact of illness or unemployment. When a Filipino needs help, he can depend on his family; likewise, he can be called upon to help others in need. There’s a great deal of sharing. Unlike Westerners, who draw strength from independence, Filipinos like the security of this interdependence existence, with its close bonds bred of mutual esponsibility. KINSHIP The family is enlarged through marriage. Filipinos count blood relatives down to fourth cousins, and the relatives of in-laws are considered family.

Filipinos place great emphasis on personal loyalty, and the network of allegiance and reciprocal obligation extends to society as a whole. Powerful patrons provide material help, employment, influence, and protection, and are repaid with personal services ranging from specific tasks to political support. THE FILIPINA It has been suggested that Filipino women are “more equal” within their society han Western women are in theirs, a status which predates colonial times. Women in the Philippines maintain a very high profile in public life, from the president down to barangay level.

Filipinos by nature dislike doing things alone, whether at work or leisure. Bayanihan is the communal spirit that enables Filipinos to come together and help each other at a moment’s notice in times of need. HIERARCHY Polite forms of address are used toward those of higher social rank, elders, and strangers. In conversation, a Filipino continually shifts from high to low status, depending on whom he’s talking to. In Pilipino, it’s common for “my poor and insignificant self” to address “your honored and exalted self”. Awareness of rank and status is reflected in the universal use of titles, e. g.

Attorney Anolin, Mayor Quilala, Doctor Albino. The Filipino way of doing things is heavily centered on relationships. Trust (tiwala) is a key element of camaraderie. Filipinos don’t feel comfortable in impersonal situations. In business and politics, this personalized approach too often leads to nepotism, cronyism, and favoritism; ability and merit are often secondary. Behavior depends on what thers will think, say, or do, whenever they’ll be pleased or displeased. It’s aimed at maintaining “face,” smooth interpersonal relationships, group affiliations, and a strong personal alliance network.

Typical Western frankness is considered tactless. In distasteful situations, they avoid confrontation by using respectful language, soft voice, gentle manner, and indirect approaches such as employing intermediaries, euphemisms, allusions, ambiguous expressions, and oblique comments. In common with other peoples, acculturation has marked the history of the Philippines. Our ancient cultural heritage is esult of the interplay and interpenetrating of diverse natural influences. To the credit of our ancestors, they borrowed the cultures of other peoples but improved on it as they adapted to their everyday life.

They used the foreign culture to enrich the existing one. Each generation made its own imprint, and the resulting culture is uniquely our own. Jocano(1965), our leading anthropologists, stated this idea that-“Each passing generation leaves part of wisdom and experience for the succeeding generation to learn to use in adjusting itself to the changing modes of time. ” This is the reason why we Filipinos embraced the cultures of the western colonizers such as the Spaniards and the Americans, because it is like an instinct that we need to embrace their culture in order to adapt and to survive along with their dominance over our race.

The three centuries of the Spanish occupation that contributed Christianity, have affected all aspects of life. Spanish culture developed the intellectual capacity of the Filipino and brought about the flowering of the arts and sciences. Spanish influences were felt in literature and music, and the sciences like pharmacy, medicine, and engineering. Spain established the first niversity, the University of Sto. Tomas in 1911. She introduced the art of printing in the country, brought to the Filipino the Castillan language, which enabled young Filipinos to seek education in Europe, and make progress in the technology available to them.

Mass education and the Democratic way of life may be considered America’s greatest contributions to the Philippines. Some critics, political and social, view the American influence as resulting in the development of American Imperialism, in the Filipino’s being trained to depend on imported products and to view anything foreign as their own. In short, the Filipino developed a colonial mentality. The Americanization of Pepe and Pilar (peddled as modernization) transformed consumption habits towards a preference for US products, or for that matter, anything imported.

Education and Egalitarianism in America

The American educator Horace Mann once said: As an apple is not in any proper sense an apple until it is ripe, so a human being is not in any proper sense a human being until he is educated. Education is the process through which people endeavor to pass along to their children their hard-won wisdom and their aspirations for a better world. This process begins shortly after birth, as parents seek to train the infant to behave as their culture demands.

They soon, for instance, teach the child how to turn babbling sounds into language and, through example and precept, they try to instill in the child the attitudes, values, skills, and knowledge that will govern their offspring’s behavior throughout later life. Schooling, or formal education, consists of experiences that are deliberately planned and utilized to help young people learn what adults consider important for them to know and to help teach them how they should respond to choices.

This education has been influenced by three important parts of modern American society: wisdom of the heart, egalitarianism, and practicality… e greatest of these, practicality. In the absence of written records, no one can be sure what education man first provided for his children. Most anthropologists believe, though, that the educational practices of prehistoric times were probably like those of primitive tribes in the 20th century, such as the Australian aborigines and the Aleuts. Formal instruction was probably given just before the child’s initiation into adulthood — the puberty rite — and involved tribal customs and beliefs too complicated to be learned by direct experience.

Children learned most of the skills, duties, customs, and beliefs of the tribe through an informal apprenticeship — by taking part in such adult activities as hunting, fishing, farming, toolmaking, and cooking. In such simple tribal societies, school was not a special place… it was life itself. However, the educational process has changed over the decades, and it now vaguely represents what it was in ancient times, or even in early American society.

While the schools that the colonists established in the 17th century in the New England, Southern, and Middle colonies differed from one another, each reflected a concept of schooling that had been left behind in Europe. Most poor children learned through apprenticeship and had no formal schooling at all. Those who did go to elementary school were taught reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion. Learning consisted of memorizing, which was stimulated by whipping. The first basic textbook, The New England Primer, was America’s own contribution to education.

Used from 1690 until the beginning of the 19th century, its purpose was to teach both religion and reading. The child learning the letter a, for example, also learned that In Adam’s fall, We sinned all. As in Europe, then, the schools in the colonies were strongly influenced by religion. This was particularly true of the schools in the New England area, which had been settled by Puritans and other English religious dissenters. Like the Protestants of the Reformation, who established vernacular elementary schools in Germany in the 16th century, the Puritans sought to make education universal.

They took the first steps toward government-supported universal education in the colonies. In 1642, Puritan Massachusetts passed a law requiring that every child be taught to read. And, in 1647, it passed the Old Deluder Satan Act, so named because its purpose was to defeat Satan’s attempts to keep men, through an inability to read, from the knowledge of the Scriptures. The law required every town of 50 or more families to establish an elementary school and every town of 100 or more families to maintain a grammar school as well. Puritan or not, virtually all of the colonial schools had clear-cut moral purposes.

Skills and knowledge were considered important to the degree that they served religious ends and, of course, trained the mind. We call it wisdom of the heart. These matters, by definition, are anything that the heart is convinced of… so thoroughly convinced that it over-powers the judgement of the mind. Early schools supplied the students with moral lessons, not just reading, writing and arithmetic. Obviously, the founders saw it necessary to apply these techniques, most likely feeling that it was necessary that the students learn these particular values. Wisdom of the heart had a profound effect of the curriculum of the early schools.

As the spirit of science, commercialism, secularism, and individualism quickened in the Western world, education in the colonies was called upon to satisfy the practical needs of seamen, merchants, artisans, and frontiersmen. The effect of these new developments on the curriculum in American schools was more immediate and widespread than its effect in European schools. Practical content was soon in competition with religious concerns. The academy that Benjamin Franklin helped found in 1751 was the first of a growing number of secondary schools that sprang up in competition with the Latin schools.

Franklin’s academy continued to offer the humanist-religious curriculum, but it also brought education closer to the needs of everyday life by teaching such courses as history, geography, merchant accounts, geometry, algebra, surveying, modern languages, navigation, and astronomy. These subjects were more practical, seeing as how industry and business were driving forces in the creation of the United States. Religion classes could not support a family or pay the debts. By the mid-19th century this new diversification in the curriculum characterized virtually all American secondary education.

America came into its own, educationally, with the movement toward state-supported, secular free schools for all children, which began in the 1820s with the common (elementary) school. The movement gained incentive in 1837 when Massachusetts established a state board of education and appointed the lawyer and politician Horace Mann (1796-1859) as its secretary. One of Mann’s many reforms was the improvement of the quality of teaching by the establishment of the first public normal (teacher-training) schools in the United States.

State after state followed Massachusetts’ example until, by the end of the 19th century, the common-school system was firmly established. It was the first rung of what was to develop into the American educational ladder. After the common school had been accepted, people began to urge that higher education, too, be tax supported. As early as 1821, the Boston School Committee established the English Classical School (later the English High School), which was the first public secondary school in the United States.

By the end of the century, such secondary schools had begun to outnumber the private academies. The original purpose of the American high school was to allow all children to extend and enrich their common-school education. With the establishment of the land-grant colleges after 1862, the high school also became a preparation for college; the step by which students who had begun at the lowest rung of the educational ladder might reach the highest.

In 1873, when the kindergarten became part of the St. Louis, Mo. hool system, there was a hint that, in time, a lower rung might be added. Practicality allowed this change in the high school system. Schools now needed to ready the students for college — an even higher form of education — instead of preparing them to immediately enter the work force. America’s educational ladder was unique. Where public school systems existed in European countries such as France and Germany, they were dual systems. When a child of the lower and middle classes finished his elementary schooling, he could go on to a vocational or technical school.

The upper-class child often did not attend the elementary school but was instead tutored until he was about 9 years old and could enter a secondary school, generally a Latin grammar school. The purpose of this school was to prepare him for the university, from which he might well emerge as one of the potential leaders of his country. Instead of two separate and distinct educational systems for separate and distinct classes, the United States provided one system open to everyone… a distinctly egalitarian idea. As in mid-19th-century Europe, women were slowly gaining educational ground in the United States.

Female academies established by such pioneers as Emma Willard (1787-1870) and Catharine Beecher (1800-78) prepared the way for secondary education for women. In 1861, Vassar, the first real college for women, was founded. Even earlier, in 1833, Oberlin College was founded as a coeducational college, and in 1837, four women began to study there. In the mid-19th century there was yet another change in education. The secondary-school curriculum, that had been slowly expanding since the founding of the academies in the mid-18th century, virtually exploded.

But the voice of practicality cried out again. A new society, complicated by the latest discoveries in the physical and biological sciences and the rise of industrialism and capitalism, called for more and newer kinds of knowledge. By 1861 as many as 73 subjects were being offered by the Massachusetts secondary schools. People still believed that the mind could be trained, but they now thought that science could do a better job than the classics could. The result was a curriculum that was virtually saturated with scientific instruction.

The mid-19th-century knowledge explosion also modestly affected some of the common schools, which expanded their curriculum to include such courses as science and nature study. The content of instruction in the common school, beyond which few students went, consisted of the material in a relatively small number of books: assorted arithmetic, history, and geography texts, Webster’s American Spelling Book, and two new books that appeared in 1836 the First and Second in the series of McGuffey’s Eclectic Readers.

Whereas The New England Primer admonished children against sin, the stories and poems in the readers pressed for the moral virtues. Countless children were required to memorize such admonitions as Work while you work, play while you play. One thing each time, that is the way. In the early days, the common schools consisted of one room where one teacher taught pupils ranging in age from 6 to about 13 and sometimes older. The teacher instructed the children separately, not as a group. The good teacher had a strong right arm and an unshakable determination to cram information into his pupils.

Once the fight to provide free education for all children had been won, educators turned their attention to the quality of that education. To find out more about learning and the learning process, American schools looked to Europe. In the 1860s, they discovered, and for about 20 years were influenced, by Pestalozzi. His belief was that the goal of education should be the natural development of the individual child, and that educators should focus on the development of the child rather than on memorization of subject matter that he or she was unable to understand.

Pestalozzi’s school also mirrored the idea that learning begins with firsthand observation of an object and moves gradually toward the remote and abstract realm of words and ideas. The teacher’s job was to guide, not distort, the natural growth of the child by selecting his experiences and then directing those experiences toward the realm of ideas. The general effect on the common schools was to shift the emphasis from memorization of abstract facts to the firsthand observation of real objects. Pestalozzi’s diminishing influence roughly coincided with the rapid expansion of the cities.

By the 1880s the United States was absorbing several million immigrants a year, a human flood that created new problems for the common school. The question confronting educators was how to impart the largest amount of information to the greatest number of children in the shortest possible time. This new, more practical goal of educators and the means through which they attained it were reflected in the new schools they built and in the new teaching practices they adopted. Out of necessity, the one-room common school was replaced by larger schools.

To make it easier and faster for one teacher to instruct many students, there had to be as few differences between the children as possible. Since the most conspicuous difference was age, children were grouped on this basis, and each group had a separate room. To discourage physical activity that might disrupt discipline and interrupt the teaching process, to encourage close attention to and absorption of the teacher’s words, and to increase eye contact, the seats were arranged in formal rows. For good measure, they frequently were bolted to the floor.

It is not surprising, at about this time, when the goal of education was to expedite the transfer of information to a large number of students, that the normal schools began to fall under the influence of Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841). For him, education was neither the training of faculties that exist ready-made in the mind nor a natural unfolding from within. Education was instruction literally a building into the mind from the outside. The building blocks were the materials of instruction the subject matter.

The builder was the teacher. The job of the teacher was to form the child’s mind by building into it the knowledge of man’s cultural heritage through the teaching of such subjects as literature, history, science, and mathematics. Since the individual mind was presumably formed by building into it the products of the collective mind, methods of instruction were concerned wholly with how this was to be done. Herbart’s interest lay in determining how knowledge could be presented so that it would be understood and therefore retained.

He insisted that education must be based on psychological knowledge of the child so that he could be instructed effectively. The essence of his influence probably lay not so much in his carefully evolved five-step lesson plan but in the basic idea of a lesson plan. Such a plan suggested the possibility of evolving a systematic method of instruction that was the same for all pupils. Perhaps Herbart’s emphasis on the importance of motivating pupils to learn whether through presentation of the material or, failing that, through rewards and punishments also influenced the new teaching methods of the 1880s and 1890s.

The new methods, combined with the physical organization of the school, represented the direct opposite of Pestalozzi’s belief that the child’s innate powers should be allowed to develop naturally. Rather, the child must be lopped off or stretched to fit the procrustean curriculum. Subjects were graded according to difficulty, assigned to certain years, and taught by a rigid daily timetable. The amount of information that the child had absorbed through drill and memorization was determined by how much could be extracted from him by examinations. Reward or punishment came in the form of grades.

At the end of the 19th century the methods of presenting information had thus been streamlined. The curriculum had been enlarged and brought closer to the concerns of everyday life. Book learning had been supplemented somewhat by direct observation. And psychological whipping in the form of grades had perhaps diminished any physical whipping. In one respect, however, the schools of the late 19th century were no different from those, say, of the Middle Ages: they were still based on who adults thought children were or should be, not who they really were.

Before the 20th century, the ideas of such men as Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Froebel, and, in the United States, Francis W. Parker (1837-1902) had caused little more than rumblings beneath the floor of the traditional schoolhouse. Because of John Dewey (1859-1952), they gathered force, and in the 1920s and 1930s new and old ideas collided right in the middle of the classroom. Some of the schools, where neat rows of subdued children had sat immobilized in their bolted-down seats listening to a teacher armed with textbook, lesson plan, grade book, and disciplinary ruler, became buzzing places where virtually everything moved, including the chairs.

The children were occupied in groups or worked by themselves, depending on what they were doing. Above all, they were always doing: reading a favorite book, writing, painting, or learning botany by tending, observing, and discussing the plants they were growing. The teacher moved around the room, asking and answering questions, giving a child the spelling of a word he wanted to write or the pronunciation of a word he wanted to read, and in general acting as a helpful guide for the children’s chosen activities. The chattering and noise and activity were signs that the children were excited about and absorbed by what they were doing.

They were, in fact, learning by doing. Dewey maintained that the child is not born with a ready-made faculty called thinking, which needs the exercise of repeated drill to make it as strong as the adult faculty. Nor, he said, is the mind a blank tablet on which knowledge is impressed. Mind thinking or intelligence is, according to Dewey, a developing, growing thing. And the early stages of growth and of knowledge are different from the later stages. The development of the mind begins with the child’s perception of things and facts as they are related to himself, to his personal, immediate world.

A dog is his dog or his neighbor’s dog; it is something furry and warm, something to hug, feed, and play with. The child may recognize the fact that though his neighbor’s dog looks different from his, they are both dogs. When he sees a wolf at the zoo, he may decide that his dog is a nicer and friendlier animal than the wolf. The child’s zoological knowledge is thus organized around his own experiences with particular animals and his perceptions of similarities and differences between those experiences; it is psychologically organized knowledge.

The last step in the growth of intelligence is the ability to organize facts logically, that is, in terms of their relationship to one another. The formulated, logically organized knowledge of the zoologist is that both the wolf and the domesticated dogs belong to the family Canidae, order Carnivora; that the dogs belong to the genus Canis and species familiaris; and that one dog belongs to the sporting breed spaniel, the other to the working breed collie. Presented to the child in this form, however, the study of zoology has no relation to the animals he plays with, feeds, and observes.

His own experience outside of school does not bring the information to life, and the information does not enrich and extend his own experience. It represents another world entirely a world of empty words. All he can do, therefore, is memorize what he reads and is told. He is not developing the power to think. To stimulate the growth of intelligence rather than stifle it, as Dewey saw it, education must begin not at the end but at the beginning of the growth process; that is, with activity that engages the whole child mentally, socially, physically, and emotionally.

In the school, as in his extra-curricular activities, it is the process of doing something that has meaning for the child handling, making, growing, observing. The purpose of the school, however, is not to re-create an environment of relatively random activity but to create an environment where activities are carefully chosen to promote the development of intelligence. Carefully selected and guided, they become nets for gathering and retaining knowledge.

Instead of presenting children with an already packaged study of elementary science, Dewey might well have recommended that they study life in an aquarium. The child’s natural curiosity should lead to such questions as, Why does the fish move his mouth like that? Is he always drinking? His search for the answer will lead his intelligence in the same direction as that taken by the scientist the direction of formulated conclusions based on observation of the phenomenon.

He will be learning the method as well as the subject matter of science; learning to think as a scientist does. Moreover, the inquiry process need not be confined to one narrow area of knowledge but can be guided naturally by the teacher into investigations of fishing and then, conceivably (depending on the maturity of the young learner), of the role of the sea in the life of man. The barriers between subjects thus break down as the child’s curiosity impels him to draw upon information from all areas of human knowledge.

Books, films, recordings, and other such tools serve this end. Learning the skills reading, writing, spelling, and arithmetic can be made meaningful to the child more easily if he is not forced through purposeless mechanical exercises, which, he is told, are important as a preparation for activities in later life. He should be led to discover that in order to do something he recognizes to be important right now, he needs certain skills. If he wants to write a letter, he must know how to spell; if he wants to make a belt, he must know how to measure the leather correctly.

Of course, Dewey was not suggesting that in order to learn an individual must restate the whole history of the human race through personal inquiry. While the need for a background of direct experiences is great in elementary school, as children get older they should become increasingly able to carry out intellectual investigations without having to depend upon direct experiences. The principle of experiencing does apply, however, to the elementary phase of all subjects even when the learner is a high-school or college student or an adult.

The purpose is to encourage in the learner a habitual attitude of establishing connections between the everyday life of human beings and the materials of formal instruction in a way that has meaning and application. The measuring and comparative grading of a student’s assumed abilities, processes that reflect the educator’s desire to assess the results of schooling, are incompatible with Dewey’s thinking. The quantity of what is acquired does not in itself have anything to do with the development of mind. The quality of mental process, not the production of correct answers, he wrote, is the measure of educative growth.

Because it is a process, learning is cumulative, and cannot be forced or rushed. For Dewey, the educative growth of the individual assures the healthy growth of a society. A society grows only by changes brought about by free individuals with independent intelligence and resourcefulness. The beginning of a better society, then, lies in the creation of better schools. At about the same time that a few pioneering schools of the 1920s were trying to put Dewey’s theories into practice, the testing movement, which started in about 1910, was working up steam.

The child had first become the object of methodical scientific research in 1897, when experiments conducted by Joseph M. Rice suggested that drill in spelling did not produce effective results. By 1913 Edward L. Thorndike had concluded that learning was the establishment of connections between a stimulus and a response and that the theory of mental faculties was nonsense. Alfred Binet, in 1905, published the first scale for measuring intelligence. During the 1920s, children began to be given IQ (intelligence quotient) and achievement tests on a wide scale and sometimes were carefully grouped by ability and intelligence.

Many of the spelling and reading books they used, foreshadowing the 1931 Dick and Jane readers, were based on controlled vocabularies. After the shock Americans felt when the Soviets launched the first space satellite (Sputnik) in 1957, criticism of the schools swelled into loud demands for renewed emphasis on content mastery. The insistence on cognitive performance and excellence accomplished four things. It increased competitive academic pressures on students at all levels.

It stimulated serious and sustained interest in preschool education, which manifested itself in various ways from the revival of the Montessori method in the 1960s to the preschool television series Sesame Street in 1969. In addition, it created a new interest in testing, this time in such forms as national assessments of student performance, experiments with programmed materials, and attempts to gauge when children could begin to read. And it stimulated interest in the application of technology and instructional systems to education as a means of improving student instruction.

It was practical to open up new avenues of education… e United States was in competition with the Soviet Union. The Space Race was well on its way and America needed to change the way they learned. And practicality was the key. From the 18th century onward, as knowledge of the world increased, new subjects had been added and old ones split up into branches. Later, new combinations of courses resulted from the attempt to put the scattered pieces of knowledge back together again. The purpose was to make knowledge more rational and meaningful so that it could be understood instead of mechanically memorized. It also encouraged young learners to begin to think and inquire as scholars do.

In other words, many of the new programs developed for use in the schools, particularly in the 1960s, stressed the inquiry approach as a means of mastering a body of knowledge and of creating a desire for more knowledge. Resistance to the 1954 United States Supreme Court decision terminating segregation placed the schools in the middle of a bitter and sometimes violent dispute over which children were going to attend what schools. By 1965, when a measure of genuine integration had become a reality in many school districts, the schools again found themselves in the eye of a stormy controversy.

This time the question was not which children were going to what schools but what kind of education society should provide for the students. The goal of high academic performance, which had been revived by criticisms and reforms of the 1950s and early 1960s, began to be challenged by demands for more humane, relevant, and pressure-free schooling. Many university and some high-school students from all ethnic groups and classes had been growing more and more frustrated — some of them desperately so — over what they felt was a cruel and senseless war in Vietnam and a cruel, discriminatory, competitive, loveless society at home.

They demanded curriculum reform, improved teaching methods, and greater stress and action on such problems as overpopulation, pollution, international strife, deadly weaponry, and discrimination. Pressure for reform came not only from students but also from many educators. While students and educators alike spoke of the need for greater relevance in what was taught, opinions as to what was relevant varied greatly.

The blacks wanted new textbooks in which their people were recognized and fairly represented, and some of them wanted courses in black studies. They, and many white educators, also objected to culturally biased intelligence and aptitude tests and to academic college entrance standards and examinations. Such tests, they said, did not take into account the diverse backgrounds of students who belonged to ethnic minorities and whose culture was therefore different from that of the white middle-class student.

Whites and blacks alike also wanted a curriculum that touched more closely on contemporary social problems and teaching methods that recognized their existence as individual human beings rather than as faceless robots competing for grades. Alarmed by the helplessness and hopelessness of the urban ghetto schools, educators began to insist on curricula and teaching methods flexible enough to provide for differences in students’ social and ethnic backgrounds. In this way, egalitarianism entered into the education system.

Rather than keeping whites and blacks segregated in the schools, egalitarianists provided a way for the two groups to co-exist equally. In this case, the standards were raised instead of lowered in order to promote this new equality. Previously, whites and blacks studied on very different levels. Unfortunately, blacks were not given the same opportunities as whites were… and they did not receive the attention needed to improve the environment in which they studied.

Things changed, however, when egalitarianists raised the standards to promote equality. Clearly, the American education system has changed drastically over the years. From one-room schoolhouses to acres of college campus… from Pestalozzi to Dewey… from simple religious studies to graduate programs, education has been influenced by many different factors, such as egalitarianism, wisdom of the heart, and most importantly, practicality. Necessity is the mother of invention, they say… Just as practicality is the mother of educational reform.

The Topic Of Standardized Testing In Schooling

When first introduced to the topic of standardized testing in schooling, and how it affects us as students, I was completely neutral on the subject. After more careful consideration and evaluation of both sides of the issue, I have decided that I agree more with the advocate who says that standardized testing is a negative component of the whole “educational experience. ” Standardized test scores are used to assess schools that are failing or succeeding and as well to provide a supposed concise picture of the skills and abilities of the students.

Tests are intended to help schoolteachers, dministrators, the community (parents, taxpayers, etc. ), and politicians evaluate each individual school or a particular students success. These evaluations then are used to label either the school or child as a success or a failure. These tests are as well used to make decisions regarding the way the students are to be instructed and student placement. In theory, test scores looked at over time will reveal how much progress schools have made in their efforts to maintain or raise academic standards.

All that can be reliably predicted at the outset, however, is that the tests will easure the ability of schools to maintain high scores or raise inadequate scores, with the question “has the student learned more then to fill in the circle? ” in the end. The standardized tests rely on memory; fill in the bubble multiple-choice answers that is suppose to measure the student’s achievement. Apparently, these tests will help to identify a student’s weakness or strengths, but the problem with it is that it doesn’t measure other important qualities a student has.

Other qualities include their writing techniques, or evaluation of real world situations. At best, standardized tests offer a snapshot of performance relative to other students, schools, or to a set body of factual knowledge. Test scores can be biased by a number of factors: test design, test conditions, student preparation, scoring accuracy of test content, student disabilities or special needs, student readiness on the day of the test. Test scores should not be sole basis for making decisions about placement in programs or changes in curriculum for any child.

Those decisions should be made on the basis of: observation in the classroom; evaluation of day-to- ay class work; homework assignments; meetings with parents; observation of student change and growth throughout the school year. To state what is at stake based on standardized testing can also be combined with what ways these tests can be biased against certain groups. Standardized tests can be biased against certain groups such as students from low-income and minority-group backgrounds which are more likely to be retained in grade, placed in a lower track, or put in special or remedial education programs when it is not necessary.

They are more likely to be iven a watered-down or “dummied-down” curriculum. This only ensures they will fall further and further behind their peers. On the other hand, children from white, middle and upper income backgrounds are more likely to be placed in “gifted and talented” or college preparatory programs where they are challenged to read, explore, investigate, think and progress rapidly. So clearly the future of a students academic career is at stake, which in turn reflects how the student will also succeed in life. Common practices of how standardized testing can be abused are rather atrocious.

Examples include retaining a child in grade or withholding a students high-school diploma solely on the basis their score on a test, or relying on test scores to determine whether a teacher or school should be funded or rewarded. Low performing students are being retained excessive number of years before pivotal testing to ensure the students are properly prepared to take the tests. Some low performing students are being suspended and even expelled before testing day, or reclassified as exempt from testing because they are determined to be either Special Education or

Limited English Proficient. These have been common practices among schools to prevent low scoring students from these tests. Other abuses are teachers in urban areas are being forced to “teaching to the test” by teaching students only those things they know will be tested. They are spending hours memorizing facts, drilling on test strategies and rehearsing test protocols. These students are being denied the opportunity to learn subject areas other than those tested.

This is leading to teachers and other personnel to compromise their ethics by cheating on standardized ests just to get the overall scores up. Many schools feel the need to do this because they fear having federal and state aid cut backs on money they already do not have to schools that do not show improvement. Through all the research I have done with this controversial issue it is hard to find anyone other the politicians who have mandated these tests that are in favor of them. Also after mandating such programs many after a sprint to the finish are left without funding or long-term goals.

It seems we are looking for a quick fix to our educational problems in America, and hat it isn’t easy to fix something that has had a half-century to fall apart and into decay. The funny part of that is that the people designing and mandating these tests do not realize or should I say do not have children in the low performing schools. The problem lies at the student’s inability to learn, because certain schools particularly poverty- stricken urban and rural areas don’t have resources they need. They just do not have enough money for the support and resources schools need in order for students to perform well.

Students attending affluent schools have a etter chance of scoring higher than those students who attend urban schools because they have more money, better teachers, and more resources. The people who mandate these tests seem to be in a cloud where they want all students to perform as well as the elitists without giving them the same advantages to all, only the same tests. It was also interesting to see that some of the views of other nations that have surpassed us on the education rankings and how they are amazed by our use of standardized testing and wonder why we use these tests.

Fs For Society or For Students

The American education system has been taking some serious hits recently. In an article entitled What Our Education System Needs Is More Fs, Carl Singleton suggests that students are merely attending class, but do not complete an acceptable level of learning. Teaching levels are of low quality and impersonal in nature with an emphasis on passing the students from their classroom to the next without ensuring their level of learning meets the minimum requirements. By a widespread issuing of Fs, we as a society must look at the cause and effect aspect this will produce. Giving Fs will not solve the problems Singleton suggests, but create new ones. Society must be prepared to deal with the results of more Fs by understanding how it affects the family, student, and schools themselves.

As part of his argument for sending home more Fs, Singleton feels that this would force parents to take time out and help children improve their grades. Many parents do not play an integral role in encouraging good study habits by allowing their children to watch television as opposed to doing homework. By sending home Fs, this would force the parent to address the issue, take away privileges, and become more active in the education process. According to Singleton, the responsibility of failing children belongs at home with the parents.

It is a noble idea to have parents spend more time with their children and a core value that many politicians promote, but the reality of this situation does not always leave enough room for parent involvement. Singleton must realize that the majority of school-aged children are products of single-parent families, multi-family households, or dual working parents. The report card in the mail with a barrage of Fs will only create a hostile environment between the parent and child. The over-worked, over-stressed parent will yell at the child and could potentially discourage the childs willingness to work harder on achieving better grades. As mentioned earlier, this is the cause and effect issue at hand regarding parents and Fs.

Assigning Fs does not leave total responsibility on the parents. This would also force principals, school boards, and voters to come to terms with cost as a factor in improving our educational system. Singleton suggests that with the reality of failing students will come the obvious need to spend more money in bringing these students up to a passable level. One way or another, says Singleton, they will learn the material.

School systems across America are in need of additional funding to run a program that is adequate for todays students. Keep this in mind next time you answer your door to a neighbor kid or your friend in the next cubicle over asks you to buy some candy to help support the school programs. When you start to send home Fs, the school board becomes aware of problems in the school system, but so do upset parents who contact their district council members. Before you know it, the school is on the 10:00 oclock news for having children that do not meet the minimum standards of education. The reputation of the school is at stake. Yet again, cause and effect of Fs as related the school systems.

Lets also consider the adolescent child who struggles with daily personal battles of trying to fit in. Social pressures are beyond what adults can really understand. True, we have already traveled that road, but to an adolescent, this is new territory where self-esteem, self-awareness, and self-efficacy dominate their total existence. Giving an F to the child and holding them back from their peers who advance to the next grade level will only destroy their personal value system. Take it even further and consider the anger and embarrassment the child will feel from his family. I am sure that a small percentage of parents will see the F as a warning flag and will be prompted into action, but not a large enough percentage to deem the widespread giving of Fs as a solution.

I do not mean to say that we should continue to pass students who do not meet the standards to save face, but that careful consideration should be enforced with a student who doesnt meet the standards. This calls for more awareness at the elementary levels. Perhaps we should reduce the number of students per teacher, address the overpopulation issues many school systems face, or provide more direct attention to students who show signs of struggling through the assignments. By encouraging parents early on to be proactive in their childs education will also reduce the amount of failing students that just get passed through the system. Finally, a reevaluation of the teaching styles should be addressed. We need teachers who will motivate our children, challenge their thinking, and tap into their creativity.

As previously stated, giving Fs will not solve the problems Singleton suggests, but create new ones. Society should be prepared to accommodate childrens needs of education by supporting the education systems, the family, and the students. We need to focus on the big picture of not failing our students, but help them learn. Until we reach that level of understanding, our students will not be deserving of the Fs we will.

Teacher Certification Essay

The whole issue of teacher certification is one of great importance and when discussed must be done in a delicate and thoughtful manner. The reason for this increasing importance is because the education of our nation’s teachers is important to the creation of an ideal education system, which is one of the goals of our national government and State governments. Over the years the whole educational reform movement has become an increasingly “hot” topic. Reforms in the administration of school systems and in curriculum theory and practice have been asked for and a4re currently being put into effect.

Recently, reform of the education of teachers is being added to the lo9ng list of reforms needed. Many reform activists feel that direct changes need to be made on the methods of training and certifying the teachers of our country. Before looking at the reform movement, however, one must first look at the so called problem of inconsistency in teacher certification. In our country today there is a general consistency among the requirements for state certification of teachers. Most states require their teacher institutions to establish a teacher education program that includes coursework and fieldwork.

The coursework includes those courses that prepare a student to become a professional teacher and those classes that include major and minor fields of specialization. Fieldwork, which is probably the most important of the two forms of requirements, involves the individual interested in being a teacher going out and observing, practicing, and preparing to enter the educational world as an instructor. There is no argument that all schools in every state has these basic requirements of teacher certification.

However, the inconsistency lies within how the numerous institutions go about in teaching hese requirements. Each post-secondary school is given the jurisdiction to choose how they are going to go about meeting these basic teacher certification requirements. For example, many states require a different amount of field hours. An inconsistency can also be seen in the various models of teacher education that are used throughout the nation. Two education researchers, Howey and Zimpher conducted a study on this variety of models in 1989. They came up with three different attempts of teacher training.

The first, known as the teacher’s college model, involves certification students entering a separate chool within a university that is a “teacher’s college”. The second approach is called the liberal arts model by the researchers, and is a method that requires and individual to become specialized in a certain liberal arts subject in order to create “capable and cultured human beings”. The third and final model discussed by Howley and Zimpher is entitled the competency-based model. This method trains individuals in the arts o motivation and understanding.

As one can see by this case study, there have been a variety of approaches to teacher certification. An inconsistency can similarly be detected by looking at the various new and innovative ideas in teacher education. Among these include the alternative route, a topic discussed earlier, and the five-year degree program, and issue to be discussed shortly in this section. Altogether, one could state that there is some inconsistency in teacher certification, and this inconsistency brings about a small problem in the educational spectrum of our world. In my opinion, there is no national and universal set of requirements for teacher certification.

The variety of different methods and forms of eacher education programs is causing an inconsistency in how teachers are being trained nationwide. When this is realized, the whole issue of reforming teacher certification becomes very relevant to our society. As stated earlier, reforms in the training of future teachers are beginning to really be requested by the general public. Various groups have met to discuss the various issues surrounding the reform movement. Among the most notable are the Holmes Group, the Association of American Colleges of Teacher Education (AACTE), the Education Commission of the States (ECS), and Goodlad’s group.

These various groups and many others have come up with a variety of reforms and new standards that most likely should and will be integrated into the current teacher certification requirements. One certain similarity that all of these recommendations have with each other is that they all call for higher regulations and an increase in the education of future teachers. Many of the group0s called for an increase in providing individuals knowledge on the profession of teachi8ng, and some groups also called for a more intense training in the various fields under a liberal arts education.

Increases in the amount f fieldwork required seems to also be a major issue discussed by the reform groups. The issue of selection under standardized testing was also discussed, with respect to increasing the required SAT/ACT or GRE scores. Finally, the research groups came up with various new ideas involving the creation of professional teaching schools or tiered systems that would require a teacher to go through more training even after they received their bachelor’s degree. All in all, these reform groups have come up with some very unique and interesting ideas to change teacher certification for the better.

It is the best interest f our nation to make changes in our current teacher education program, for, in this case, change would be for the better. To conclude, I would like to take a brief but in depth look at an innovative idea established by the Maine State Department of Education in conjunction with the University of Southern Maine. This program, entitled the Extended Teacher Education Program, involves future teachers continuing on for a fifth year after completing their undergraduate studies. This fifth year involves the individual taking part in internships.

These internships give the future teachers a chance at more fieldwork in order o gain more experiences before they become full fledged teachers. Nonetheless, the results of the initial year of the program seem to indicate that the idea around this new program is a successful one. Those individuals who took part in the program obtained various skills and understandings that all ideal teachers should have. The excellent outcomes of this program leads one to believe that it might be a good idea to implement this structure nationwide. The idea of creating professional schools for teachers has become a popular one in recent times.

After all if doctors and lawyers have to go to a professional school, hen shouldn’t teachers as well? In conclusion, the issue of teacher training and certification brings up many questions, especially in reference to reforming. The inconsistent and somewhat outdated education of teachers today needs change, in order to create an ideal educational system. Numerous reforms have been discussed and recommended by various research organizations and now is the time to take action and implement some of these reforms before our education systems continue to fall downwards into the depths of degradation. Change I needed and change must come now.

Paulo Freire’s “Pedogogy of the Oppressed”

Based on the demands of our educational system, our society is forced to conform to the level of education that they want us to be at. This educational distortion is beneficiary to the educator’s realm and the way of governing education . We are seen as merely objects rather than subjects and are fed only facts/information that the educator only wants us to memorize not actually comprehend it or even ask questions or give our opinions to given facts/information.

This is what makes the educator the oppressor and us the oppressed. Paulo Freire’s “Pedogogy of the Oppressed” deals with the concept of oppression in the school system and suggests an alternative method of education. There is an absolute need for students to “Tear down the wall” (Pink Floyd) of conformity in education and express their individuality. Education in itself can be a contradiction. The teacher (oppressor), is there to educate/teach the student (oppressed) but is he really?

As Freire indicates “Narration (with the teacher as narrator) leads the students to memorize mechanically the narrated content. Worse yet, it turns them into “containers,” “receptacles” to be “filled” by the teacher. The more completely she fills the receptacles, the better a teacher she is. The more meekly the receptacles permit themselves to be filled, the better students they are. ” (67). He also goes on to say “Education thus becomes an act of depositing, in which the students are the depositories and the teacher is the depositor.

Instead of communicating, the teacher issues communiques and makes deposits which the students patiently receive, memorize, and repeat. “(67), and he refers to this as the “banking system” where the student goes “only as far as receiving, filing, and storing the deposits. “(68). This “banking system” method of teaching, really is not teaching the student(oppressed), but rather they are given facts/information by the teacher(oppressor) that they do not fully understand, and so there really is no learning.

Also the “banking concept” holds the student down because he is told what to learn, and he is not allowed to work to his full capacity. It is because if this that the student lacks “creativity, transformation, and knowledge in this (at best) misguided system. “(68). If this type of educational method keeps on, then there will be no change, therefore the minds will be filled with facts/information that the student will not always understand.

This “banking concept” method of education also keeps a restraint to knowledge for the student to a certain level because it doesn’t give the student initiative, motivation, and drive to actually go out and want to learn. In other words this isn’t the way to go about education. As Freire states “This solution is not (nor can it be found in the banking concept. On the contrary, banking education maintains and even stimulates the contradiction through the following attitudes and practices, which mirror oppressive society as a whole:”(68).

Debate For Bilingual Education

To begin with, I will start with the definition of bilingual education, which is: non-English speaking students being taught subjects in their native-language by bilingual instructors usually in self contained classrooms. Back in the 1960s, there was a large influx of immigrants when the United States started permitting more Hispanics, Asians, and Africans into the country. Because of this immigrant population boom, in 1968, Congress passed, and President Lyndon B. Johnson signed, Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which encouraged local schools to establish bilingual programs.

In 1974, Title VII was revised to add federal funding for teacher training, development of programs, and materials. There are several approaches for teaching bilingual education but the two most popular are transitional and two-way. Transitional bilingual education is the most common method used in schools today and teaches students non-language subjects like science and math in their native language for a limited period while the student learns English, and reading is taught in both languages.

Once students reach the desired skill level in English, they are moved into mainstream classes. Experts agree that students who are proficient readers in their native language do much better when learning a new language and that is the theory behind Transitional bilingual education. Two-way bilingual education, on the other hand, mixes non-native English-speaking students with roughly an equal number of native speakers in the same classroom where, generally, students are taught in one language in the morning and another in the afternoon.

In this situation, both native English speakers and non-English speakers become bilingual and test scores show that these students do better overall in school. In this debate we will be addressing bilingual education as it specifically applies to California schools. Since the 1970s, because of an abundance of low paying farm worker jobs available in Californias agricultural industry, immigrants from Mexico and Cuba have been steadily moving to California legally and illegally.

In 1986, The Immigration Reform and Control Act made it possible for approximately 1. illion long-term illegal immigrants in California to regularize their status, and with this new sense of security, they sought to move their families to California without negative legal repercussions. In the 1980s alone, the states population of limited English proficient students grew by 150% and grew another 40 percent from 1990 1995. California now enrolls more than 45% of the nations immigrant student population and has the huge responsibility for teaching these students English.

The main problem with bilingual education in California is the lack of federal funding needed to finance successful programs. Unfortunately, funding is being cut year after year by conservative lawmakers who do not support bilingual education and who believe that it is the states responsibility to fund these programs. Irma Guadarrama, a professor of bilingual education at the University of Texas at Houston said that in order for bilingual education to be successful, qualified teachers and sufficient materials are absolutely required.

Of course these things are impossible to obtain without funding, of which California is already spent. This is obvious when you note that in California, schools are only receiving $42 per student for bilingual education programs in comparison to $361 per student in New York and $1,581 per student in Florida. In 1992, Congress chose to withhold $812 million dollars in previously approved federal funding to help heavily impacted states such as California and each year more and more funds are cut instead of increased to meet the growing need for bilingual education.

Federal funding is absolutely necessary, especially for schools in California with an abundance of immigrant students, so that they are able to hire more bilingual teachers, build and restore schools and help support additional immigrant programs. Without this financial assistance, there will likely be a significant failure at helping these young immigrants to become a viable part of American society. Instead they will become a drain on other resources such as Welfare, Unemployment and the Criminal Justice System.

Graduate Admissions Essay

“These are the houses of cats and dogs. There are no doors or windows so the animals can come and go as they please” is what my father used to tell me when I would ask about the bombed out buildings by our apartment in Beirut, Lebanon. Eighteen years have passed since the last time I tasted the best hot chocolate I have ever had, used sign language when playing with my Lebanese friends and slept in the bath tub of our house during a night of bombings.

Eighteen years ago I embarked on a journey of discovering and learning about the way cultures interact, mingle and clash. A diplomat’s child, every four years I followed my parents to a new country in a new town with new people speaking a new language. I spent the majority of my early years longing for a less unpredictable life, for friends and a country to belong to. Not until my teenage years did I realize how much wealth of knowledge I can derive from my unusual nomadic life.

Thus I proceeded into turning the reasons for days of inconsolable crying as a child into the bright guiding lights of my adulthood. My sensitivity to cultures, easiness with foreign languages and prompt adaptability to various social environments were in fact invaluable assets to be nurtured, treasured and finally taken advantage of. College in the U. S. proved to be the best suited place for such an undertaking. There I gave in to my fascination with the great mix of different faces and their unique and exotic lives.

The combination of classes such as International Communication and Global Perspectives and the diversity of my environment deepened my interest in the way individuals and societies define themselves through their relationship with others. I particularly enjoyed the topic of Contemporary Fundamentalism which stimulated my natural inclination to “penetrate” cultural norms and analyze the religious and social underpinnings of conflict. Since childhood this acute awareness towards my surroundings is best expressed in writing, an approach, I used all throughout my education.

In my sophomore year at Plattsburgh State I was invited to participate in the Phi Kappa Phi Essay Contest carrying the theme “Why is there a need now, as much as ever, for cross-cultural intellectual engagement? ” After witnessing the horrible consequences of the Lebanese Civil War and the economic and political instability of post-communist Eastern Europe, I felt that I was qualified to provide a view on the subject. My essay won the first prize. I played with the thought of pursuing a graduate degree in International Relations long before I had received my Bachelors diploma.

My internship at the Council on Foreign Relations, however, was the decisive factor to turn graduate school dreams into concrete objectives. My daily interaction with writers, policy analysts and international affairs experts, was enriching in both didactic and professional terms. There, I performed extensive research on several major international affairs topics covered in Foreign Affairs and thus significantly sharpened my writing, editing and organizational skills.

At the end of my internship I decided to pursue an advanced degree in International Affairs. A year of working experience in the field of international conflict resolution, however, will allow me to be a valuable contribution to any program, not only academically and intellectually but also professionally. In August 2006 I will be traveling to Kyoto , Japan where five hundred religious leaders will converge as participants in the “Eighth World Assembly on Religion and Peace: Confronting violence and advancing shared security”.

True to my commitment and extensive interest in the topics of conflict transformation, peace building and sustainable development, as Program Associate, I am currently greatly involved in the pre-Assembly organizational efforts of Religions for Peace (RfP). This present engagement with RfP has further confirmed my conviction to embark on a professional path in the non-profit field with an emphasis on projects of conflict mitigation in the Middle East. I am particularly interested in exploring the relationship between religious fundamentalism and cultural norms and their implication on global political and economic instability.

My career goals, however, require not only a bright mind and a dose of worldliness, but also a strong academic preparation in the subject of conflict resolution. While I have a gift for analyzing trends and transcending cultural and political barriers, a Master in International Relations from the Yale Center for International and Area Studies (YCIAS) will allow me to acquire the most important skill of all: the problem – solving ability to bring about real results based on solid knowledge and expertise.

At the YCIAS I will be able to take advantage of the flexibility of the program and thus develop a specialized concentration in International Conflict Resolution with an emphasis on the Middle East. By selecting from YCIAS ‘ broad variety of courses and hence equally balancing the study of theory and practice, I will strengthen my analytical and research skills and subsequently make more informed decisions about my future professional trajectory.

Furthermore, through courses in international economics I plan on building solid training in quantitative work to be added to my largely humanitarian background. When visiting The Yale Center for International and Area Studies in October, 2005 and speaking to several current students, I was left with a feeling of belongingness and the certainty that my multicultural background, intellectual capacity and professional resoluteness render me the kind of graduate student the YCIAS wants to attract.

Eighteen years have elapsed since the first seeds of my interest in conflict resolution were planted in a country where dogs and cats co-existed more peacefully than Muslims and Christians did. The YCIAS possesses the right combination of factors so to allow those seeds to grow and flourish. With great anticipation and enthusiasm I am looking forward to devising ways to eradicate the reasons for international conflict along side my peers at the International Relations Program at Yale.