Music Response Models: How do people move to music? This is basic level research of all the processes from music perception and recognition to the effects of rhythm on the way that people dance or move their bodies to music. After sound reaches the eardrum, it sets into motion of a complex combination of mechanical, chemical, and neural events in the cochlea, brain stem, midbrain nuclei, and cortex that result in a percept. The cerebellum plays a role in remembering the “settings” that can be used for synchronizing to music as people hear it, and it can recall these “settings” when people need it.
The basal ganglia are the most important organ as it receives rhythm, tempo, and meter from the music and send the signals to recruit motor control mechanisms in the brain to control the sequencing of movement (Sacks 2006. ) In addition, timing is the key in efficiently learning motor control to master motor activities. Rhythm timing plays an important role in movement timing that is important in learning the appropriate motor control in order to play or move to music (Thaut, M. , & McIntosh, G. 2010. ) Non-Musical Parallel Models: How do people move using motor control?
In a general terms of how people moving using their motor control, basic research includes all of behavior involves of using motor function (e. g. talking, gesturing, walking, moving, etc. ) However, even a simple movement like reaching out to pick up a book can be a complex motor movement to study. Generally, there are many anatomical regions and organs that involve in motor functioning but the most important organ in the brain is the motor cortex, which is located in the frontal lobe that can be used for executive functioning and motor execution.
The primary role of the motor cortex is to generate neural signals, which can control the execution of movement. Signals from the primary motor cortex cross the body midline through the spinal cord to activate skeletal muscles on the opposite side of the body. The explanation for that is that the left hemisphere of the brain controls the right side of the body, and the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body. The amount of brain matter that can be used to any particular body part represents the amount of control that the motor cortex has over that body part.
Other regions of the cortex involved in motor function are called the secondary motor cortices. These regions include the posterior parietal cortex, the premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area (SMA) (Schwerin, S. 2013. ) Music Mediating Models: What are the effects of music when people exercise? In the last decade, the researches on workout music has developed considerably fast. It helps psychologists redefine their ideas about why exercise and music are such an effective pairing for so many people to utilize as well as how music can change the body and mind of people during their physical activities.
In recent researches, people run farther, bike longer and swim faster than usual when listen to music without even realizing that (Schwerin 2013. ) Two of the most important aspects of workout music are tempo or speed which is called rhythm responses. Most people have instincts to synchronize their movements and expressions with music to nod their heads, tap their toes or break out in dance even if they recall that instinct in many situations when listen to music and this applied also when using workout music.
However, the variation of these music instincts can be different from culture to culture or from person to person depend on their background of development (Schwerin 2013. ) In my opinion, agree that when listening to music while working out, I nearly treat music as my workout partner that can provide great synchronizers to my movements, which can also help me to move faster, run longer and provide more motivation, etc. One example is many military ranches chant or sing their military cadences when they go on a long run because timing, pacing, lyrical motivation could minimize personal boredom. Clinical Models: What are the outcomes and effects of music therapeutic on motor rehabilitation for patient with TBI? Music rehabilitation in therapy has been used to stimulate brain functions involved in movement, emotion, speed, cognitions, and sensory recognitions. There are two different outcomes to consider: primary outcomes and secondary outcomes.
Primary outcomes considered are improvement in gait (e. . velocity, cadence, stride length, stride symmetry, stride timing) and improvement in upper extremity function (e. g. hand grasp strength, frequency and duration of identified hand function, spatio temporal arm control). Secondary outcomes considered are communication, mood and emotions, social skills and interactions, pain, behavioral outcomes, activities of daily living, and adverse events. (Bradt, Magee, Dileo, Wheeler, McGilloway 2010) The studies are randomized controlled trial (RCT), which includes several types of music interventions.
These interventions are rhythmic auditory stimulation (RSA) used to aid the execution and movement of gait parameters (Thaut 1997), Music-based Neurological Rehabilitation (MBNR), Standard Care (SC) (Sarkamo 2013), and the other method that therapists are commonly used such as music listening and singing to aid to ease the pain, music improvisations, music compositions, and song discussions to investigate and provide emotional need to enhance the sense of well-being (Kim 2005).
The results for these studies suggest that rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) would be beneficial to improve gait parameters including gait velocity, cadence, stride length, and gait symmetry (Bradt, Magee, Dileo, Wheeler, McGilloway 2010). However, there is insufficient research data to conclude that it would be recommended to use the other music therapy methods to revive the other outcomes.
This includes nearly all of the secondary outcomes (e. g. agitation, mood and emotions, communication, social skills and interactions, pain, behavioral outcomes, activities of daily living, and adverse events). Recommendations for future studies would be more randomized controlled trial (RCT) with larger samples or groups of patients with higher quality design.