Kamikaze Pilots

During World War II in the Pacific, there were pilots of the Japanese Imperial Army and Navy who made suicide attacks, driving their planes to deliberately crash into carriers and battle- ships of the Allied forces. These were the pilots known as the Kamikaze pilots. Because right-wing organizations have used the Kamikaze pilots as a symbol of a militaristic and extremely nationalistic Japan, the current Japanese respond to the issue with ignorance and false stereotypes and with generally negative and unsympathetic remarks.

However, the Kamikaze fighters added a new wrinkle to navel warfare. Kamikaze expressed their feelings and thoughts about the missions through haiku poems. In many of the haiku that the Kamikaze pilots wrote, the Emperor is mentioned in the first line. According to those who have lived through the early Showa period (1926-1945), the presence of Emperor Showa was like that of a god and he was more of a religious figure than a political one (Scoggins 276-277). In public schools, students were taught to die for the emperor.

By late 1944, a slogan of Jusshi Reisho meaning “Sacrifice life,” was taught (Morimoto 148-151). Most of the pilots who volunteered for the suicide attacks were those who were born late in the Taisho period (1912-1926) or in the first two or three years of Showa. Therefore, they had gone through the brainwashing education, and were products of the militaristic Japan. In 1944 the General Staff had considered mounting organized suicide attacks, (Ikuta 25) “suicide attacks” had been made since the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (Shinbusha 266) Two types of suicide attacks had been made.

The first was an organized attack which would, in 90% of the cases, result in the death of the soldiers. However, if the plan had worked on the battlefield as it did in theory, there was some possibility that the soldiers would survive (Ibid 49). The other type of suicide attack that had been made was completely voluntary, and the result of a sudden decision. This was usually done by aircraft. The pilots, finding no efficient way to fight the American aircraft, deliberately crashed into them, and caused an explosion, destroying the American aircraft as well as killing themselves (Ikuta 35-42).

Because these voluntary suicide attacks had shown that the young pilots had the spirit of dying rather than being defeated, by February, 1944, the staff officers had started to believe that although they were way below the Americans in the number of aircraft, battleships, skillful pilots and soldiers, and in the amount of natural resources (oil, for example), they were above the Americans in the number of young men who would fight to the death rather than be defeated. By organizing the “Tokkotai,” they thought it would also attack the Americans psychologically, and make them lose their will to continue the war (Ibid 28).

The person who suggested the Kamikaze attack at first is unknown, but it is often thought to be Admiral Takijiro Onishi. However, Onishi was in the position to command the first Shinpu Tokubetsu Kogekitai rather than suggest it (Kusayanagi 48) In October, 1944, the plans for the organized suicide attacks became reality. Having received permission from the Minister of the Navy, Admiral Onishi entered Clark Air Base prepared to command the first organized suicide attacks (Shinbun 25-33).

Onishi had not thought the organized suicide attacks to be an efficient tactic, but that they would be a powerful battle tactic, and he believed that it would be the best and most beautiful place for the pilots to die. Onishi once said, “if they (the young pilots) are on land, they would be bombed down, and if they are in the air, they would be shot down. That’s sad… Too sad… To let the young men die beautifully, that’s what Tokko is. To give beautiful death, that’s called sympathy” (Kusayanagi 28). This statement makes sense, considering the relative skills of the pilots of the time.

By 1944, air raids were made all over Japan, especially in the cities. Most of the best pilots of the Navy and the Army had been lost in previous battles. Training time was greatly reduced to the minimum, or even less than was necessary in order to train a pilot. By the time the organized suicide attacks had started, the pilots only had the ability to fly, not to fight. Although what happens to the pilot himself in doing the suicide attack is by no means anywhere near beauty, to die in such a way, for the Emperor, and for the country, was (at the time), honorable.

One thing that was decided upon by the General Staff was that the Kamikaze attacks were to be made only if it was in the will of the pilot himself. It was too much of a task to be “commanded” (Ikuta 43-44). The first organized suicide attack was made on October 21, 1944 by a squadron called the Shinpu Tokubetsu Kogekitai (Shinbun 48-51). Tokubetsu Kogekitai was the name generally used in the Japanese Imperial Navy and Army. The public had known them as the Tokkotai, the abbreviated form. Tokkotai referred to all the organized suicide attacks. Shinpu is what is better known as Kamikaze (52).

The captain of the first attack was to be Captain Yukio Seki (49). According to the subcommander of the First Air Fleet, Tamai, who brought the issue up to Captain Seki, the Captain had in a short time replied “I understand. Please let me do it” (48). According to another source, the reply that Captain Seki gave was, “Please let me think about it one night. I will accept the offer tomorrow morning” (Mori 626-627). The document which seems to have the most credibility is the book, The Divine Wind by Captain Rikihei Inoguchi and Commander Tadashi Nakajima.

According to this account a graduate of the Naval Academy, Naoshi Kanno, was originally nominated as the leader of this mission. However, he was away from Mabalacat on a mission to mainland Japan. Therefore, to take Kanno’s place Captain Seki was chosen, and was called to Commander Tamai’s room at midnight. After hearing of the mission, it appears, Seki remained silent for a while, then replied, “You must let me do it” (Inoguchi 32). Captain Seki agreed to lead the first Kamikaze attack, and, on October 25, 1944 during the battle off Samos, made one of the first attacks, on the American aircraft carrier Saint Lo (Shinbun 56).

Twenty-six fighter planes were prepared, of which half were to escort and the other half to make the suicide mission. That half was divided into the Shikishima, Yamato, Asahi and Yamazakura (Inoguchi 32). The youngest of the Kamikaze pilots of the Imperial Army was 17 years old, and the oldest, 35 (Kosaka 43-44). Most of them were in their late teens, or early twenties. As the battle in Okinawa [April to June 1945] worsened, the average age of the pilots got younger. Some had only completed the equivalent of an elementary school and middle school combined. Some had been to college.

There was a tendency for them not to be first sons. The eldest sons usually took over the family business. Most were therefore the younger sons who did not need to worry about the family business. Most of those who had come from college came in what is called the Gakuto Shutsujin. This was when the college students’ exemption from being drafted into the military was lifted, and the graduation of the seniors was shifted from April 1944 to September 1943 (Shimabarra 85). Many of these students were from prestigious colleges such as Tokyo, Kyoto, Keio, and Waseda Universities.

These students from college tended to have more liberal ideas, not having been educated in military schools, and also were more aware of the world outside of Japan. All the pilots involved in the “Okinawa Tokko” had been trained in/as one of the following: The Youth Pilot Training School, Candidates for Second Lieutenant, The Imperial Army Air Corps Academy, Pilot Trainee, Flight Officer Candidates, Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet, Pilot Training Schools, or Special Flight Officer Candidate (Ikuta 134).

Since the Kamikaze attacks were to be made only if the pilots had volunteered, and could not be “commanded,” there were two methods to collect volunteers. One was for all pilots in general, and another was for the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet (College graduates) only. The former was an application form, and the latter was a survey. The survey asked: “Do you desire earnestly/wish/do not wish/to be involved in the Kamikaze attacks? ” They had to circle one of the three choices, or leave the paper blank. The important fact is that the pilots were required to sign their names (Kusayanagi 32).

When the military had the absolute power, and the whole atmosphere of Japan expected men to die for the country, there was great psychological pressure to circle “earnestly desire” or “wish. ” The Army selected those who had circled “earnestly desire. ” The reason that the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet had to answer such a survey rather than send the applications at their own will was probably because the military had known that the students who had come from college had a wider vision, and would not easily apply for such a mission.

For the regular application, the Army was confident that there would be many young pilots who would apply. They were correct. Every student of the 15th term of the Youth Pilot Training School had applied. Because there were so many volunteers, the military had decided to let the ones with better grades go first (Naemura 146). There are several factors which made so many young pilots volunteer for such a mission. Extreme patriotism must have been one factor for sure. Added to that, there was the reverence for the Emperor, a god.

Some say that it was generally believed that if one died for the emperor, and was praised in Yasukuni Shrine, they would become happy forever (Araki 43). The pilots were, as a matter of fact, not radical nor extremely patriotic, but were the average Japanese of the time. It was a dream for the young boys of late Taisho period and early Showa to serve in the military, especially in the Air Force, as a career. Not all pilots who wanted to become Kamikaze pilots could become one.

Although this may sound strange, there were so many volunteers to make the suicidal and fatal attacks, that the military, to be fair, had to let the ones with the better grades go earlier. Because of the aura that had covered Japan, the young pilots of 18 and 19 were eager to go. Those of the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadets who had their own thoughts like Second lieutenants Suzuki, Uehara, and Anazawa were able to separate their personal life from what was required of them to do for the war.

They felt the responsibility to go. In any case, it seems that they were all optimistic. They volunteered, believing their death might save their family, the ones they loved, and Japan. However, as a student investigating fifty years after the events, it was not possible for me to understand exactly how the pilots had felt towards their mission. The overall picture in this paper, is that the Kamikaze missions had a huge effect in Japanese naval warfare.

The Nuremberg trials

During World War II the Allies were determined that both Hitler and the men around him should be punished for starting World War II and the crimes they had committed while they were waging it. These crimes included the extermination of the Jewish people of Europe known as the Holocaust or the Shoah. After some debate it was decided that the fairest way to proceed was the public trial of the men and organizations who committed At the most famous of these, the Nuremberg Trial, , and that had been organized to carry out the Nazi programs, were placed on trial for their crimes.

Martin Bormann was tried in bsentia. Additionally Robert Ley was charged as a defendant but committed suicide before the trial, and Gustav Krupp, who was named in the indictments, was found to be medically unfit to stand trial. Many of the leading Nazis, such as Hitler, Himmler, and Goebbels, were not present at the Nuremberg Trial because they has committed suicide at The first step was to agree upon the rules for the trial. They adopted a of the four Allies (the United States, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union).

The defendants were given the right to be represented by counsel, call witnesses, and present evidence in their wn behalf. They were not given the right to a jury trial which was part of the law only in Great Britain and the United States. Finally, after all the evidence was presented, the defendants were permitted to make statements to the court without being sworn or The next step was the , a statement of the charges against each defendant.

The Allies charged the defendants with four types of crimes: conspiracy against peace, crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. The Allies stated that the Nazis, when they started the war, had deliberately broken the treaties that Germany had signed. The Holocaust was included as part of the crimes against humanity. Not all of the defendants were charged under all counts of the indictment. Doenitz, Raeder, and Schacht were not accused of participating in the Holocaust.

The trial was held before a panel of judges selected by the Allies called the and presided over by a British judge named Lord Lawrence. The Allies presented their evidence which consisted almost entirely of the words and documents of the Nazis themselves. During the investigation that led up to the trial, the U. S. and British investigators had discovered iterally tons of documents which proved the charges against the defendants. The decision was made, therefore, to rely on the words of the defendants themselves in the trial. Certain witnesses were presented to flesh out the evidence.

This is especially true in the case against the concentration camps where witnesses ranging from a member of the French parliament — who had been imprisoned as a slave laborer at Auschwitz — to an American army officer who had been imprisoned at Buchenwald testified. Several Nazi officers also testified about how the Holocaust occurred. Although the French and the Soviets were originally supposed to present the case on the crimes against humanity, the Americans and British had presented a lot of evidence about the Holocaust when they presented evidence.

In fact, by the time the Soviets started to present their case one of the judges, Lord Birkett of Great Britain, was restless because he thought the testimony was unnecessary — the case had been proven over and over again. The final phase of the trial was the defendants’ cases. The defendants actually took more time in the court than the prosecutors. Although the defenses varied most either stated hat they not involved in the Holocaust or did not know it was happening. All of the defendants testified at length and presented witnesses.

One of the most important witnesses about the Holocaust, Rudolf H (or “Hoess”), the commandant of Auschwitz, was actually called as a witness for the defense. The judges had a hard time deliberating about whether the defendants were guilty and what punishments should be meted out to those who were guilty. The French judge, DeVabres, was not convinced that any of the defendants should be found guilty on the charge of conspiracy because that concept was not found in French or German law. In the final , three defendants, Von Papen, Schacht, and Fritzche, were acquitted entirely.

Eleven others were acquitted of some of the charges against them and Hess was acquitted of the charges of participating in the Holocaust and other war crimes. Twelve of the defendants were sentenced to death. Bormann was never found and Goering committed suicide. The others were hung on October 16, 1946. The Nuremberg Trial was the only trial of Nazi war criminals that was conducted by an international tribunal. Later, other Nazi war criminals were placed on trial, many in the ame court-room where the Nuremberg Trial had occurred. Each of these trials, however, was conducted by a single country.

The Americans, for example, tried the defendants who had performed cruel medical experiments on prisoners; the British tried the men who had run Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. The trials continued for several years until the American, British, and French turned the work over to German courts. As late as 1965, defendants were still being tried in Germany for the crimes they committed during the Holocaust. The Nuremberg trials were more controversial when they happened then they are today. It was a new idea and new procedures had to be established.

Some were uncomfortable with the idea of trying men for starting the war when there had never been a trial like this before. Others have been bothered by the death sentence given to Julius Streicher and the light sentence given to Albert Speer. Today there are very few legal scholars who accept the technical arguments about whether the trial should have been held. Even those reputable scholars who disagree base their objections on their legal philosophy. All agree that the Tribunal took its job seriously and gave the defendants a fair trial.

The Beginning of World War II

At daybreak on the first day of September, 1939, the residents of Poland awakened to grave news. A juggernaut force of tanks, guns, and countless grey-clad soldiers from nearby Germany had torn across the countryside and were making a total invasion of the Poles homelands. Germanys actions on that fateful morning ignited a conflict that would spread like a wildfire, engulfing the entire globe in a great world war. This scenario is many peoples conception of how World War II came about. In reality, the whole story is far more detailed and complex.

The origins of war can be traced as far back as he end of the first World War in 1919, when the Treaty of Versailles placed responsibility for that terrible war squarely on Germany. Years later, in the Far East, Japanese ambition for territory led the nation to invade Manchuria and other parts of nearby China, causing hostilities to flare in the Pacific Rim. Great Britain, the United States, and many other nations of the world would all be drawn into battle in the years to come, and each nation had its own reason for lending a hand in the struggle.

Although Germany was the major player in World War II, the seeds of war had already been planted in the Far East years before onflict in Europe. On September 18, 1931, the powerful Japanese military forces began an invasion of the region known as Manchuria, an area belonging to mainland China. This action broke non-aggression treaties that had been signed earlier. It also was carried out by Japanese generals without the consent of the Japanese government. In spite of this, no one was ever punished for the actions. Soon after the assault on China, the Japanese government decided it had no choice but to support the occupation of Manchuria.

By the next year the region had been completely cut off from China (Ienaga 60-64). Because of the Japanese offensive in China, the League of Nations held a vote in October to force Japan out of the captured territory. The vote was passed, 13 to 1, but Japan remained in control of Manchuria. A second vote, taken in February, 1933, a formal disapproval of the Japanese occupation, was passed 42 to 1. Instead of expelling Japan from the area of Manchuria, it caused the nation to formally withdraw its membership in the League of Nations the next month (Ienaga 66).

Now unrestrained by the recommendations of the League of Nations, Japan continued its intrusion onto Chinese soil. By 1937 Japan had moved military forces into Beijing, Shanghai, and Nanjing, as well as other regions of China. By 1940, Japanese seizure of territory had spread to deep inside Southeast Asia and even parts of Australia (Sutel et al). Also in 1940, the Triparte Pact was signed, allying Japan, Germany, and Italy into a powerful force that stretched halfway around the planet. The association with Hitler and Germany unified the war in the Pacific and the war in Europe.

Japan was now fully involved in what came to be known as World War II. As warfare raged in the Pacific Rim, a chain of events was unfolding that would roduce catastrophic results. The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 held Germany fully accountable for the tragedy of World War I. The nation was stripped of large areas of land, its armaments, as well as its dignity. In addition, the reparations that were to be paid to the allied nations virtually destroyed the economy of Germany. The resentment of the treaty burned in the hearts and minds of Germans for years afterward.

In 1933, a man by the name of Adolf Hitler was elected Chancellor of Germany after working his way up the ladder of government. By speaking against the Treaty of Versailles and making romises of a better life to the German people, Hitler gained the support of his fellow countrymen, and he easily won the election. Almost immediately after Hitler took office he began securing his position in power. Hitler took steps to eliminate all opposition, including political parties and anyone else who spoke out against him. The death of President Hindenburg in 1934 clinched his high standing, and he in effect became dictator of Germany.

Hitler held the titles of Head of State, Commander in Chief of German military forces, Chancellor, and Chief of the Nazi Party (Elliott 57). There was no uestion of his supremacy. With his empire established, Hitler took steps to rearm Germany, leading the nation down the road to war. In violation of the Treaty of Versailles and a naval treaty signed with Great Britain, Hitler rebuilt the nations army and naval forces. By 1935 the ranks of the army had swelled to over 500,000 and production of arms and ammunition had resumed (73). Also, the Rhineland, a region in western Germany next to France, was reoccupied by military units.

This region had been demilitarized after World War I, and the Treaty of Versailles forbade occupation of the area. In spite of the violations of treaty after treaty, little was done by the world powers to control the renewed German militarism. With the stage now set, Hitler set his plan for conquest into motion. Beginning in 1938, Hitler used threats and political maneuvering to overthrow the government of nearby Austria. His next target was Czechoslovakia. In March of 1939, the nation was overtaken after Hitler threatened a bombing of Prague if his army met resistance on its invasion of the country (80).

With the conquest of Europe well underway and his reich expanding rapidly, Hitlers power and nfluence was growing greater each day. He now planned to add Poland to his list of accomplishments and further extend the German empire. The threat of Russia backing the Poles to defend against an attack was neutralized when Germany and Russia signed a nonaggression pact saying that the two nations would not go to war. Great Britain sternly warned Germany that an attack on Poland would be considered an act of war. Hitler fearlessly ignored the warnings, and his operation swung into action.

In the early morning hours of September 1, 1939, German forces mobilized and swarmed into Poland. The old-fashioned Polished cavalry was devastated in the assault, as they stood no chance against the mighty Panzer tanks that rolled through the country with frightening speed. Two days after the attack, Britain and France joined in a declaration of war against Germany. Their belated reactions, however, could not save the army of Poland. In a battle that raged for nearly a month, the Polish army was eventually cornered in the capital city of Warsaw.

After a brutal siege of the city, the valiant countrymen of Poland had no choice but to surrender to the overwhelming German force. The point of no return had been crossed, and Europe had fallen into the clutches of war for the second time in the century. Great Britain still remembered the horrors of World War I, and when Germany began to renew its sense of militarism, Britain was hesitant to start another war. Instead of using force, the British leaders, including prime minister Neville Chamberlain, sought a diplomatic solution to conflicts.

When Germanys ambitions were to capture the area known as Sudentland, in Czechoslovakia, Chamberlain held several meetings with Hitler and other nations, desperately rying to prevent an armed conflict with Germany. Chamberlain believed that by granting Hitlers demands, he could avoid a war with Germany (Elliot 73-74). He was sorely mistaken. Even after all the negotiation and bargaining, Hitlers forces eventually overtook the entire nation of Czechoslovakia by force. When it became clear that Hitler next planned an invasion of Poland, Great Britain had no choice but to issue a threat of war if Germany went through with the operation.

The threat was simply disregard, and the attack on Poland was carried out as planned. On September third, 1939, two days after the Polish invasion began, Chamberlain gave a speech in which he finally stated that, “This country is at war with Germany…”(Wernick 8). The joint declaration of war on Germany with France became official the same day. In spite of efforts to avoid combat, the fears of the British people had come true on that day. The United States of America, like Great Britain, had hoped to avoid bringing the horrors of war to its people.

For many years after the development of tensions in Europe and the Far East, the leaders of the U. S. had done nearly everything possible to remain eutral. For them, too, the memories of World War I were still fresh in mind. Although the U. S. did participate in such affairs as the temporary peace treaty that prevented the capture of Shanghai by the Japanese, the U. S. was determined to prevent the need for its troops to be placed in the way of danger(Ienaga 66). And so it would have remained, if it were not for one incident that would change the lives of many in the United States.

The morning of Sunday, December 7, 1941 began as any other day in Pearl Harbor, a U. S. naval base in Hawaii. At 7:49, the Japanese leet of carriers that had been making its way toward the Hawaiian Islands sprang into action. Wave after wave of Japanese aircraft screamed into the harbor and pounced on the American fleet as it sat helpless (Ienaga 136). No one saw the attack coming, so defense to the brutal assault was minimal. In the aftermath of the carnage, the final tallies shocked the nation. Five U. S. battleships and ten warships had been destroyed, and three more battleships were severely damaged.

The human death toll was also high. Over 2,400 American soldiers were slaughtered in the strike. Franklin D. Roosevelt wasted no time in reacting to the attack on Pearl Harbor. By the afternoon of December 7th, Roosevelt had ordered protection for Washington D. C. , major cities along the western coast, major bridges, and dozens of other security precautions in the event of another wave of enemy aggression (Bailey 20). The next day, Roosevelt delivered a speech to congress asking for a declaration of war. The beginning of the speech would become famous in American history.

Yesterday, December 7, 1941 – a date which will live in infamy, the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately ttacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan… (23) Less than an hour after Roosevelt gave his powerful speech, congress voted to declare war on Japan. The declaration was signed by Roosevelt himself at 4:10 that afternoon (23). In the space of only two days, the United states had gone from a neutral spectator to a major participant in World War II. The United States, Great Britain, Germany, and Japan were four of the largest countries that became heavily involved in the second world war.

But, many more nations played smaller roles in the event. For instance, Italy was an ally of Germany and Japan, having signed the Triparte Pact in 1940. But, the Italians were less than essential to Hitlers domination of Europe, and Benito Moussolini, dictator of Italy, suffered many humiliating defeats at the hands of the allies (Keegan et al). Another country that played a role in the war in Europe was the U. S. S. R. Once considered neutral in the war because of a nonaggression treaty with Germany, the Soviet Union was drawn into the fighting on June 22, 1941, when the German offensive code-named Operation Barbarossa began.

The German forces planned to attack the Soviets at three points – Leningrad, Moscow, and Stalingrad, and was expected to be completed in 6 weeks. The Russians proved tenacious, however, and defended their capital and country with great effort, eventually halting the German advance. France was a third major European state that was caught up in the chaotic beginnings of World War II. Allied with Great Britain, France joined in the battle of Europe after the invasion of Poland in 1939. Unfortunately, Hitlers forces eventually invaded France, ending their ability to fend off the attacks of the Axis powers.

Germanys invasion of Poland in late 1939 is considered the major event that set World War II in motion. But, like many other events in history, there is more to the story. Dozens of smaller occurrences pushed the world closer and closer to the brink of war over a period of many years. The results of each of these incidents culminated in total warfare that turned half of the world into a battleground. Several major countries were plunged into chaos and disorder, and the scars and horrible memories of the nightmare that was World War II are something that can never be erased or forgotten.

World War II – The Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles faltered to heal the bitter mess that formed between countries in World War I. It left Germany in a terrible position and gave them a desire for dictatorship. Germany had been ordered to disarm its military and put strict rules on when and how the Germans could rearm. In 1931, Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany. He later rejected the treaty and establish military conscription. Mussolini also became dictator of Italy, while this was occurring. He decided to invade Ethiopia in 1935. Since Ethiopia had lesser power than that of Italys, they became under complete Italian control.

The news of Germanys rearmament soon reached France. Hitler then became interested in joining the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in order to protect its security. He then pushed his plan for lebensraum and annexed Austria by force in 1938. Following this, Hitler threatened Czechoslovakia, ordering persecution of the German minorities there. Hitler and Mussolini agreed to the Germans occupation of Sudentenland in September 1938. Then in March 1939, peace broke down when Hitler conquered the rest of Czechoslovakia. He soon afterward started to make orders to Poland, but they resisted at every turn. Notwithstanding the conflict with Britain and France, Hitler decided to invade Poland. In return, Great Britain and France declared war on Germany on September 3, 1939.

Hitler made an announcement to start a pact with the Soviet Union. As the Germans occupied Poland, the Soviets invaded the eastern part of the country with plans to take Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania in 1940. They also took Finland in 1941 and disgrace the Russian military.

Japan was also changing things in the Pacific. They had plans to conquer China and expand the Japanese Empire into southeast Asia. As this was happening, the Germans took on an approach of blitzkrieg, or lightening war. Since the Germans had no old weapons to deal with, they could easily outfit their troops with the best of weapons.

Hitler then attempted to gain air control over the British Royal Air Force and prepare for an invasion, but the British successfully defeated the German air forces. Overturned with his downfall to take Britain, Hitler turned to the Soviet front, but was defeated as well in 1942.

In 1941, the Japanese thought it was the right time to expand into Greater East Asia. The attacks on Pearl Harbor and the Philippines brought the United States into the war and turned the war for the Allies. The Allies overthrew the Axis powers from Africa by May 1943. The Allies also invaded at Normandy in June 1944. Meanwhile, the Soviets were pushing the German army into German areas. Finally, Germany surrendered on May 7, 1945.

The end of World War II came when the atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, when the Japanese finally decided to surrender on August 14, 1945. WWII was the most shattering and widespread war ever fought on the planet. Fatalities gathered into tens of millions for every side.

Effects of the WWII Atomic Bombs

When the atomic bomb went off over Hiroshima on Aug. 6th, 1945, 70,000 lives were ended in a flash. To the American people who were weary from the long and brutal war, such a drastic measure seemed a necessary, even righteous way to end the madness that was World War II. However, the madness had just begun. That August morning was the day that heralded the dawn of the nuclear age, and with it came more than just the loss of lives.

According to Archibald MacLeish, a U. S. poet, “What happened at Hiroshima was not only that a scientific breakthrough . . . ad occurred and that a great part of the opulation of a city had been burned to death, but that the problem of the relation of the triumphs of modern science to the human purposes of man had been explicitly defined. ” The entire globe was now to live with the fear of total annihilation, the fear that drove the cold war, the fear that has forever changed world politics. The fear is real, more real today than ever, for the ease at which a nuclear bomb is achieved in this day and age sparks fear in the hearts of most people on this planet. According to General Douglas MacArthur, “We have had our last chance.

If we do not devise some greater and more equitable system, Armageddon will be at our door. ” The decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japanese citizens in August, 1945, as a means to bring the long Pacific war to an end was justified-militarily, politically and morally. The goal of waging war is victory with minimum losses on one’s own side and, if possible, on the enemy’s side. No one disputes the fact that the Japanese military was prepared to fight to the last man to defend the home islands, and indeed had already demonstrated this determination in previous Pacific island campaigns.

A weapon originally developed to contain a Nazi atomic project was available that would spare Americans hundreds of thousands of causalities in an invasion of Japan, and-not incidentally-save several times more than that among Japanese soldiers and civilians. The thousands who have died in the atomic attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were far less than would have died in an allied invasion, and their sudden deaths convinced the Japanese military to surrender. Every nation has an interest in being at peace with other nations, but there has never been a time when the world was free of he scourge of war.

Hence, peaceful nations must always have adequate military force at their disposal in order to deter or defeat the aggressive designs of rogue nations. The United States was therefore right in using whatever means were necessary to defeat the Japanese empire in the war which the latter began, including the use of superior or more powerful weaponry-not only to defeat Japan but to remain able following the war to maintain peace sufficiently to guarantee its own existence. A long, costly and bloody conflict is a wasteful use of a nation’s resources when quicker, more decisive means re available.

Japan was not then-or later-the only nation America had to restrain, and an all-out U. S. invasion of Japan would have risked the victory already gained in Europe in the face of the palpable thereat of Soviet domination. Finally, we can never forget the maxim of Edmund Burke: “The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is that good men do nothing. ” The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor brought us into a war which we had vainly hoped to avoid. We could no longer “do nothing” but were compelled to “do something” to roll back the Japanese militarists.

Victims of aggression have every right both to end the aggression and to prevent the perpetrator of it from continuing or renewing it. Our natural right of self defense as well as our moral duty to defeat tyranny justified our decision to wage the war and, ultimately, to drop the atomic bomb. We should expect political leaders to be guided by moral principles but this does not mean they must subject millions of people to needless injury or death out of a misplaced concern for the safety of enemy soldiers or civilians.

President Truman’s decision to deploy atomic power in Japan evealed a man who understood the moral issues at stake and who had the courage to strike a decisive blow that quickly brought to an end the most destructive war in human history. Squeamishness is not a moral principle, but making the best decisions at the time, given the circumstances, is clear evidence that the decision maker is guided by morality. The atomic bomb was considered a “quick” and even economical way to win the war; however, it was a cruel and unusual form of punishment for the Japanese citizens.

The weapon that we refer to as “quick” was just the opposite. On one hand, it meant a quick end to he war for the United States, and on the other hand, a slow and painful death to many innocent Japanese. According to a book called Hiroshima Plus 20 the effects of radiation poisoning are horrific, ranging from purple spots on the skin, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, bleeding from the mouth, gums, and throat, weakened immune systems, to massive internal hemorrhaging, not to mention the disfiguring radiation burns.

The effects of the radiation poisoning continued to show up until about a month after the bombing. In fact the bomb also killed or permanently damaged fetuses in the womb. Death and destruction are always a reality of war; however, a quick death is always more humanitarian. When this powerful nation called the United States dropped the bomb, we sent out the official “go ahead” for the rest of the world that nuclear weapons were a viable means of warfare. We unofficially announced that it was O. K. to bomb women, children, and elderly citizens.

The thought that atomic weapons are needed to keep the peace is exactly the idea that fueled the cold war. Albert Einstein said in a speech, “The armament race between the U. S. A. and U. S. S. R. , riginally supposed to be a preventative measure, assumes hysterical character. On both sides, the means of mass-destruction are perfected with feverish haste . . . The H-bomb appears on the public horizon as a probably attainable goal. Its accelerated development has been solemnly proclaimed by the president.

In short, according to Hiroshima Plus 20, by now, the military has at least 50, 000 nuclear warheads in storage and ready with a handful of people in charge of them. In the words of James Conant, President of Harvard, “The extreme dangers to mankind inherent in the proposal wholly outweigh any military advantage. Has the atomic bomb introduced “the fear of total annihilation …that has forever changed world politics”? That seems to be the main point of the argument against dropping the atomic bomb on Japanese cities in August, 1945.

Yet this judgment completely abstracts from the concrete circumstances in which the decision was made-a world exhausted by war; an implacable, cunning and ruthless enemy; hundreds of thousands of casualties in an allied invasion of Japan; permanent strategic considerations; and the like. In other words, the reply fails to meet the argument for dropping the bomb and hanges the subject from “the immediate decision to the long-term consequences of the decision.

But even if one grants the point about fear of annihilation, it is not clear that the world has fundamentally changed nor that the whole world is always in danger of nations from time immemorial. For example, ancient Rome sacked Carthage, plowed it under and salted the earth. Medieval and modern religious wars have annihilated millions. More recently, there was Hitler’s genocidal six-million-death “final solution to the Jewish problem,” and the Communists’ ten of millions f mass murders continue to this day.

All this has been done without benefit of nuclear power. Gen. MacArthur’s comments came at the beginning of the atomic or nuclear age, and while the source and the judgment deserve respect, experience has shown that nuclear power in Western hands deterred a third world war and ultimately caused the collapse of the greatest threat to world peace since World War II, namely, the Soviet Union.

But even during the much-decried “arms race” of the Cold War years, both East and West refined their crude nuclear technology to suit the requirements of waging war, e. targeting the enemy’s missiles, aircraft and submarines, rather than putting all their eggs in the nuclear annihilation basket. War is a terrible thing but the fear of annihilation will curb even the greatest tyrants’ bloodlust. In short, fear is part of the human condition and those peaceful nations which learn to live with the destructive potential of nuclear power are capable of great good. Great evil is more likely to be the result of unchecked nuclear power in hands of lawless nations. As ever, peace and safety depend upon military power being in the right hands.

The Beginning of World War II

At daybreak on the first day of September, 1939, the residents of Poland awakened to grave news. A juggernaut force of tanks, guns, and countless grey-clad soldiers from nearby Germany had torn across the countryside and were making a total invasion of the Poles homelands. Germanys actions on that fateful morning ignited a conflict that would spread like a wildfire, engulfing the entire globe in a great world war. This scenario is many peoples conception of how World War II came about. In reality, the whole story is far more detailed and complex.

The origins of war can be traced as far back as he end of the first World War in 1919, when the Treaty of Versailles placed responsibility for that terrible war squarely on Germany. Years later, in the Far East, Japanese ambition for territory led the nation to invade Manchuria and other parts of nearby China, causing hostilities to flare in the Pacific Rim. Great Britain, the United States, and many other nations of the world would all be drawn into battle in the years to come, and each nation had its own reason for lending a hand in the struggle.

Although Germany was the major player in World War II, the seeds of war had already been planted in the Far East years before onflict in Europe. On September 18, 1931, the powerful Japanese military forces began an invasion of the region known as Manchuria, an area belonging to mainland China. This action broke non-aggression treaties that had been signed earlier. It also was carried out by Japanese generals without the consent of the Japanese government. In spite of this, no one was ever punished for the actions. Soon after the assault on China, the Japanese government decided it had no choice but to support the occupation of Manchuria.

By the next year the region had been completely cut off from China (Ienaga 60-64). Because of the Japanese offensive in China, the League of Nations held a vote in October to force Japan out of the captured territory. The vote was passed, 13 to 1, but Japan remained in control of Manchuria. A second vote, taken in February, 1933, a formal disapproval of the Japanese occupation, was passed 42 to 1. Instead of expelling Japan from the area of Manchuria, it caused the nation to formally withdraw its membership in the League of Nations the next month (Ienaga 66).

Now unrestrained by the recommendations of the League of Nations, Japan continued its intrusion onto Chinese soil. By 1937 Japan had moved military forces into Beijing, Shanghai, and Nanjing, as well as other regions of China. By 1940, Japanese seizure of territory had spread to deep inside Southeast Asia and even parts of Australia (Sutel et al). Also in 1940, the Triparte Pact was signed, allying Japan, Germany, and Italy into a powerful force that stretched halfway around the planet. The association with Hitler and Germany unified the war in the Pacific and the war in Europe.

Japan was now fully involved in what came to be known as World War II. As warfare raged in the Pacific Rim, a chain of events was unfolding that would roduce catastrophic results. The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 held Germany fully accountable for the tragedy of World War I. The nation was stripped of large areas of land, its armaments, as well as its dignity. In addition, the reparations that were to be paid to the allied nations virtually destroyed the economy of Germany. The resentment of the treaty burned in the hearts and minds of Germans for years afterward.

In 1933, a man by the name of Adolf Hitler was elected Chancellor of Germany after working his way up the ladder of government. By speaking against the Treaty of Versailles and making romises of a better life to the German people, Hitler gained the support of his fellow countrymen, and he easily won the election. Almost immediately after Hitler took office he began securing his position in power. Hitler took steps to eliminate all opposition, including political parties and anyone else who spoke out against him. The death of President Hindenburg in 1934 clinched his high standing, and he in effect became dictator of Germany.

Hitler held the titles of Head of State, Commander in Chief of German military forces, Chancellor, and Chief of the Nazi Party (Elliott 57). There was no uestion of his supremacy. With his empire established, Hitler took steps to rearm Germany, leading the nation down the road to war. In violation of the Treaty of Versailles and a naval treaty signed with Great Britain, Hitler rebuilt the nations army and naval forces. By 1935 the ranks of the army had swelled to over 500,000 and production of arms and ammunition had resumed (73). Also, the Rhineland, a region in western Germany next to France, was reoccupied by military units.

This region had been demilitarized after World War I, and the Treaty of Versailles forbade occupation of the area. In spite of the violations of treaty after treaty, little was done by the world powers to control the renewed German militarism. With the stage now set, Hitler set his plan for conquest into motion. Beginning in 1938, Hitler used threats and political maneuvering to overthrow the government of nearby Austria. His next target was Czechoslovakia. In March of 1939, the nation was overtaken after Hitler threatened a bombing of Prague if his army met resistance on its invasion of the country (80).

With the conquest of Europe well underway and his reich expanding rapidly, Hitlers power and nfluence was growing greater each day. He now planned to add Poland to his list of accomplishments and further extend the German empire. The threat of Russia backing the Poles to defend against an attack was neutralized when Germany and Russia signed a nonaggression pact saying that the two nations would not go to war. Great Britain sternly warned Germany that an attack on Poland would be considered an act of war. Hitler fearlessly ignored the warnings, and his operation swung into action.

In the early morning hours of September 1, 1939, German forces mobilized and swarmed into Poland. The old-fashioned Polished cavalry was devastated in the assault, as they stood no chance against the mighty Panzer tanks that rolled through the country with frightening speed. Two days after the attack, Britain and France joined in a declaration of war against Germany. Their belated reactions, however, could not save the army of Poland. In a battle that raged for nearly a month, the Polish army was eventually cornered in the capital city of Warsaw.

After a brutal siege of the city, the valiant countrymen of Poland had no choice but to surrender to the overwhelming German force. The point of no return had been crossed, and Europe had fallen into the clutches of war for the second time in the century. Great Britain still remembered the horrors of World War I, and when Germany began to renew its sense of militarism, Britain was hesitant to start another war. Instead of using force, the British leaders, including prime minister Neville Chamberlain, sought a diplomatic solution to conflicts.

When Germanys ambitions were to capture the area known as Sudentland, in Czechoslovakia, Chamberlain held several meetings with Hitler and other nations, desperately rying to prevent an armed conflict with Germany. Chamberlain believed that by granting Hitlers demands, he could avoid a war with Germany (Elliot 73-74). He was sorely mistaken. Even after all the negotiation and bargaining, Hitlers forces eventually overtook the entire nation of Czechoslovakia by force. When it became clear that Hitler next planned an invasion of Poland, Great Britain had no choice but to issue a threat of war if Germany went through with the operation.

The threat was simply disregard, and the attack on Poland was carried out as planned. On September third, 1939, two days after the Polish invasion began, Chamberlain gave a speech in which he finally stated that, “This country is at war with Germany… “(Wernick 8). The joint declaration of war on Germany with France became official the same day. In spite of efforts to avoid combat, the fears of the British people had come true on that day. The United States of America, like Great Britain, had hoped to avoid bringing the horrors of war to its people.

For many years after the development of tensions in Europe and the Far East, the leaders of the U. S. ad done nearly everything possible to remain neutral. For them, too, the memories of World War I were still fresh in mind. Although the U. S. did participate in such affairs as the temporary peace treaty that prevented the capture of Shanghai by the Japanese, the U. S. was determined to prevent the need for its troops to be placed in the way of danger(Ienaga 66). And so it would have remained, if it were not for one incident that would change the lives of many in the United States.

The morning of Sunday, December 7, 1941 began as any other day in Pearl Harbor, a U. S. naval base in Hawaii. At 7:49, the Japanese fleet of carriers that had been making its way toward the Hawaiian Islands sprang into action. Wave after wave of Japanese aircraft screamed into the harbor and pounced on the American fleet as it sat helpless (Ienaga 136). No one saw the attack coming, so defense to the brutal assault was minimal. In the aftermath of the carnage, the final tallies shocked the nation. Five U. S. battleships and ten warships had been destroyed, and three more battleships were severely damaged.

The human death toll was also high. Over 2,400 American soldiers were slaughtered in the strike. Franklin D. Roosevelt wasted no time in reacting to the attack on Pearl Harbor. By the afternoon of December 7th, Roosevelt had ordered protection for Washington D. C. , major cities along the western coast, major bridges, and dozens of other security precautions in the event of another wave of enemy aggression (Bailey 20). The next day, Roosevelt delivered a speech to congress asking for a declaration of war. The beginning of the speech would become famous in American history.

Yesterday, December 7, 1941 – a date which will live in infamy, the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately ttacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan… (23) Less than an hour after Roosevelt gave his powerful speech, congress voted to declare war on Japan. The declaration was signed by Roosevelt himself at 4:10 that afternoon (23). In the space of only two days, the United states had gone from a neutral spectator to a major participant in World War II. The United States, Great Britain, Germany, and Japan were four of the largest countries that became heavily involved in the second world war.

But, many more nations played smaller roles in the event. For instance, Italy was an ally of Germany and Japan, having signed the Triparte Pact in 1940. But, the Italians were less than essential to Hitlers domination of Europe, and Benito Moussolini, dictator of Italy, suffered many humiliating defeats at the hands of the allies (Keegan et al). Another country that played a role in the war in Europe was the U. S. S. R. Once considered neutral in the war because of a nonaggression treaty with Germany, the Soviet Union was drawn into the fighting on June 22, 1941, when the German offensive code-named Operation Barbarossa began.

The German forces planned to attack the Soviets at three points – Leningrad, Moscow, and Stalingrad, and was expected to be completed in 6 weeks. The Russians proved tenacious, however, and defended their capital and country with great effort, eventually halting the German advance. France was a third major European state that was caught up in the chaotic beginnings of World War II. Allied with Great Britain, France joined in the battle of Europe after the invasion of Poland in 1939. Unfortunately, Hitlers forces eventually invaded France, ending their ability to fend off the attacks of the Axis powers.

Germanys invasion of Poland in late 1939 is considered the major event that set World War II in motion. But, like many other events in history, there is more to the story. Dozens of smaller occurrences pushed the world closer and closer to the brink of war over a period of many years. The results of each of these incidents culminated in total warfare that turned half of the world into a battleground. Several major countries were plunged into chaos and disorder, and the scars and horrible memories of the nightmare that was World War II are something that can never be erased or forgotten.

M1 Garand Rifle

I am doing this report on the M1 Garand for Mr. Walker 182’s History Class. The Garand is a fascinating World War II semi-automatic rifle. In the sub-sections below I will describe the developement history of the gun, the service history, and info on different versions. I wanted to add diagrams of the M1 rifle but the pictures are copyrighted and I was not able to download but the diagrams could be found at http://www. chestnutridge. com/gchart. asp Development History The origins of the United States Rifle, Caliber.

30, M1 begin around August, 1900, when Captain O. B. Mitcham wrote to the Chief of Ordnance at Springfield Armory about “the question of automatic small arms is now being taken up seriously in Europe. ” Not much was done by the U. S. Army until just before and during the U. S. entered the World War I. Many rifles were tested, most of which were tested were attempts to convert the M1903 rifle from bolt-action to semi-automatic. It was during this time that John Garand, then a young man of 30, moved to New York City from Canada after the United States entered World War I. After learning of the arms problem, he decided to try to make a rifle and got financial backing from John Kewish.

Garand’s first rifle was built and tested before Hudson Maxim, who suggested the rifle be presented before the Naval Consulting Board. Governmental officials then determined Garand’s rifle had merit and arranged to pay Garand $35. 00 per week for his services, with Kewish paying the other $15. 00 per week of Garand’s pay. This arrangement later caused Kewish to claim Garand cheated him of his share when the M1 rifle was adopted eighteen years later. After his first design was turned down by the military, Garand was transferred to Springfield Armory in November, 1919.

During the next five years, Garand created many rifle designs, but they all had one thing in common: the primer of the spent cartridge was used to operate the rifle’s action. When the military changed the design of the M1906 cartridge, Garand could no longer use this operating principle. It was at this time when John Pedersen arrived with a new design in a totally new caliber, . 276. Pedersen was an expert of his day in weapons design, so the military then ordered Garand to build his rifle design around the new . 276 caliber.

Between 1927 and 1931, the military held many tests to see if either Garand’s design or Pedersen’s was better. While the military argued against the . 276 caliber, Garand’s . 276 caliber design was recommended for adoption on January 4, 1932. On February 25, 1932, the Army Chief of Staff, General Douglas MacArthur, put an end to the caliber issue, stating “this change will introduce an element of chaos, confusion and uncertainty which, when magnified under war conditions, would more than counteract the beneficial effect of any semi-automatic rifle.

With this statement, MacArthur ordered the development of a . 30 caliber rifle. This did not delay Garand’s work because he had already developed a design to fire the . 30 caliber on his own time in anticipation of such an event. Two more years would pass before the rifle was adopted as the United States Rifle, M1 on January 9, 1936. The United States became the first country in history to adopt a semi-automatic rifle as its standard military rifle after this event. Problems beset the M1 as it was first being issued.

They occurred in the area where expanding gases of the fired bullets were tapped from the barrel to operate the rifle and the rifle suffered stoppages after firing only seven of the eight rounds in its clip. The M1’s early performance problems gave it such a bad reputation that after the 1939 National Matches, the National Rifle Association was able to get Congress to look at the problem. A major redesign was ordered on October 26, 1939 and Garand redesigned the rifle to operate with gases tapped from a gas port just below the barrel.

In July, 1940, the Army demonstrated the revised M1 before Congressional officials, allowing them to fire the rifle for themselves. Senator Ernest Lundeen, a former infantry officer and the M1 rifle’s biggest critic, fired 27 consecutive bull’s-eyes at 300 yards, convincing all at the event the M1 was the best design available. In November, 1940, the United States Marine Corps adopted the M1 as its standard service rifle. A year later, the M1 was being fired in battle for the first time after the United States entered World War II.

Between 1942 and 1945, Springfield Armory and Winchester Repeating Arms built just over 4 million M1 rifles. Also during the war, two major design changes were proposed for the M1 to create a handier rifle for airborne and armored troops. The first was the M1E5 had a shorter barrel (18″ compared to the standard 24″) and a folding stock to reduce its overall length and weight. Only one was ever built. The second was the T26, which had an 18” barrel, but the standard length stock. Only about 150 were built. As with the M1903, the M1 rifle spawned sniper variations.

The M1C and the M1D, standardized in July and September, 1945 respectively, both mounted the telescope used on the rifle to the left to allow the top-loading M1 to be reloaded, but differed in the way the telescope was mounted to the rifle. Neither was truly successful in the sniping role. The June 25, 1950 North Korean invasion of South Korea caught the United States small arms production establishment totally unprepared. No M1 Rifles had been manufactured since August 1945, but during this interconflict period, Springfield Armory had refurbished and prepared various types of World War II small arms for long term storage.

In June 1950, Springfield Armory prepared to resume M1 Rifle production. This process included the acquisition of machinery, physical plant layout, updating engineering drawings, and the hiring and training of a production labor force. Over six months passed before Springfield Armory produced its first M1 rifle. To supplement Springfield Armory, the Ordnance Department decided to contract for additional M1s with Harrington & Richardson Company(H&R) of Worchester, Massachusetts and International Harvester Company’s(IHC) Evansville(Indiana) Works plant. Contracts were signed in early 1952.

IHC had never produced any type of small arms before, but was chosen primarily due to its geographic location. There was widespread concern about the dense concentration of defense-related industries on the East Coast of the United States. U. S. military planners determined these facilties were venerable to Soviet manned bomber or missile attack, therefore, defense production facilties should be dispersed throughout the middle sections of the United States. With no prior firearms manufacturing experience, IHC required a great deal of assistance from Springfield Armory personnel.

The assistance included using Springfield Armory-supplied receivers to meet initial contract delivery schedules. IHC did not produce stocks, handguards or barrels. Stocks and handguards were supplied by the S. E. Overton Company, South Haven, Michigan. All IHC M1 rifles were fitted with barrels produced by the Line Material Company (LMR) of Birmingham, Alabama. IHC small arms manufacturing inexperience and start-up difficulties resulted in the delivery of only 6,904 M1 Rifles between 1 July 1952 and 30 June 1953.

And for reasons which are not entirely clear, H&R also got off to a slow start. In Fiscal Year 53, HRA delivered only 500 M1 Rifles, but produced its own stocks and barrels. An armistice was signed on July 27, 1953, which officially ended the Korean War. Both World War II and 168,500 newly manufactured Springfield Armory M1 Rifles, were available in sufficent numbers to equip all United Nations troops. The probability of any IHC or HRA produced M1 Rifles being used to arm United Nations troops prior to July 27, 1953 is highly unlikely.

With the 1955 sale of its Evansville plant to Whirlpool Corporation, IHC ceased M1 Rifle production and in 1955, H&R closed its lines as well. Springfield Armory continued M1 Rifle production into 1956, but on a reduced schedule. In 1952, the Marine Corps rebuilt most of its existing M1C sniper rifles, using upgraded telescopes and mounts, calling the result the MC-1. Between the years 1953 and 1963, Springfield Armory new-built and modified existing M1 rifles into nearly 45,000 M1 National Match rifles. On 17 May 1957, the adoption of the United States Rifle, Caliber 7. mm, M14 officially marked the end of production of the M1 rifle.

But a shortage of M14 and M16 rifles during the Vietnam War prompted the U. S. Navy to have a special chamber insert built to allow the M1 to use NATO-standard 7. 62mm M80 Ball ammunition and first standardized the rifle as the M1E14, then later as the Rifle, 7. 62mm, Mk2 Mod 0. Service History The M1 was affectionately nicknamed the Garand, after its designer. The rifle proved to be accurate, durable, rugged and reliable. The only problems with the rifle came from the use of its clip.

The clip held only eight rounds in a staggered grouping. The rifle could not be “topped up” in the middle of battle because of the way the clip operated. After the last round was fired from the rifle, the clip ejected with a distinctive sound. Other than these small problems with the rifle the M1 was exceptional. The M1 Rifle was also distributed to several nations under many American military assistance programs. During the Vietnam War , the M1 served as a training rifle for troops inducted into the U. S. Army. It still serves in the training rifle role for the U. S. Navy .

The M1 was the main rifle of many military reserve units until the mid-1970’s for example, the M1 was seen in the hands of Illinois National Guard troops during confrontations between Guardsmen and demonstrators outside the 1968 Democratic National Convention complex, when it was replaced by the M16. To this day, the M1 also fulfills a ceremonial role with all branches of the military, in color guard and honor guard units. Like its predecessor, the M1903, the M1 rifle served this nation very well during times of conflict and peace.

Pearl Harbor Essay

The recent terrorist attacks on September 11th in Washington and New York City caused the greatest loss of life in a domestic incident of war since Pearl Harbor. Many Americans felt the September 11th events were similar to the surprise attack by the Japanese in 1941 on the United States on Pearl Harbor. The United States is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the East, the Pacific Ocean to the West and is bordered by two friendly nations, Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. Attacks on United States soil have therefore been rare.

Both the World Trade Center and Pearl Harbor were, however, surprise attacks that resulted in a great loss of life and changed the course of history. Prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States was an isolationist country and coming out of the Great Depression. There was a war raging in Europe in 1939 that involved many United States allies. Hitler’s German troops were attacking France, Poland, Great Britain and other European countries. Despite the attacks on these United States allies, citizens in the United States wanted to remain neutral.

Meanwhile, in the Pacific, Japan had invaded China and Indochina and was making preparations for broader war. As late as December 1941, Americans thought that the United States Government should stay out of World War II and not interfere with European and Asian affairs (Gailey 29). On the morning of December 7, 1941 Japan launched a surprise attack against the United States and its Pacific Fleet based in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii–“A day which will live in infamy”. The United States immediately entered the war and changed the course of the 20th century.

Pearl Harbor is a land-locked harbor on the Southern coast of the Oahu Island in Hawaii. It is West of Honolulu. Pearl Harbor is one of the largest and best natural harbors in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Close by are many United States military installations. They include the Chief US Pacific Naval Base, Hickam Airforce Base, Pearl Harbor Naval Air Station and Camp H. M. Smith, which is headquarters of the United States Pacific Command. The United States gained territorial rights in Hawaii in 1887 when the Hawaiian monarchy permitted a coaling and repair station for United States ships.

The United States annexed Hawaii as a territory in 1900, which is when Pearl Harbor was made a United States naval base. Harbor improvements and fortifications were later added after the Berlin Pact was signed in 1940 by the Axis nations (Pearl Harbor, 2001). Relations between Japan and America had been difficult since the United States acquired Hawaii in 1900, and some authors believe that the Pearl Harbor attack was the result of a rivalry between the United States and Japan which had lasted almost half a century (Gailey 1).

Japan was pursuing imperialistic plans in Asia and the Pacific, and had invaded China and Korea during the 1930s. In 1937, Japan intentionally sunk a United States ship on the Yangtze River in China, killing three and wounding eleven Americans. President Roosevelt wanted to stop Japan’s aggression and quickly moved to end trading key supplies with Japan. President Roosevelt froze all Japanese assets in the United States and placed an oil embargo on Japan (Renzi 5-13). The embargo greatly angered the Japanese Government, which felt that war with the United States was now inevitable (Bahrenburg 2).

The Japanese followed two strategies in response to the actions of the United States. One was to negotiate to get the oil embargo lifted and the other was to prepare for war. The Japanese were expecting the United States to ultimately declare war on Japan as Japan invaded countries throughout the Pacific, but not be willing to fight long and hard enough to win the war (World War II, 2001). In 1939, World War II began with Germany attacking France, Poland and other European countries, with Great Britain coming to their defense.

Prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States had been able to keep out of World War II even while focusing on the war in Europe and greatly supporting Great Britain against Germany and Italy. International policy of the United States in 1941 was to deal with “Europe first” because Germany posed a bigger threat to the United States than Japan did. The United States could not stay out of the war that began in Hawaii, its major Pacific territory, when 360 Japanese planes attacked the United States Pacific Fleet (Bahrenburg 12).

Unknown to anyone, the plans for the attack on Pearl Harbor had been in the works for a very long time. Japan’s purpose in attacking Pearl Harbor was to knock the United States Pacific Fleet out of action long enough for Japan to continue to invade countries in the Pacific. Japanese Admiral Nagumo’s 1st Air Fleet had begun forming at Hitokappu Bay in November 1941. This task force consisted of 33 ships, including 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 11 destroyers, 3 submarines and several tankers.

On November 26th the Japanese Fleet headed for Pearl Harbor. United States observers, who had been watching the movements of the Japanese Fleet, had lost track on November 16th of the Japanese ships on radar. The Japanese Fleet encountered very bad weather on its voyage, but this actually helped the Japanese because it kept the fleet undetected. On December 2nd, the Japanese Fleet was given the authorization from Tokyo to attack when ready. Prior to the attack, Japanese and American diplomats were negotiating in last minute efforts to avoid war.

The Japanese diplomats were unaware of the planned attack, and even met with the United States representatives in Washington the morning of the attack (Layton 199). On December 7th, the Japanese Fleet reached launch position 180 miles North of Pearl Harbor. The attack came without any formal declaration of war. At 5:30 a. m. two Japanese scout planes flew high over Pearl Harbor. These flights were spotted on United States radar but were assumed by the United States that these planes were just friendly flights. A little before 6:00 a. m. , the Japanese launched the first wave of the assault.

The first wave consisted of 180 airplanes, and only one was lost in the first launch. The second wave was launched soon after the first with no casualties. The Japanese now had 351 airplanes speeding towards Pearl Harbor. The first bombs of the Japanese attack fell on Kaneohe Naval Air Station at 7:47 a. m. That morning fortunately over half of the United States Pacific Fleet was out at sea, including all of the United States aircraft carriers (Brief Overview of the Attack, 7 July 2001). There were 9 American battleships in Pearl Harbor that morning as well as a number of destroyers and cruisers.

As torpedoes ripped through battleship row, diesel oil poured into the harbor. The thick oil made swimming almost impossible for the sailors who survived the bombs. Once the diesel oil became ignited, clouds of black smoke raised everywhere. By 8:35 a. m. the first wave of the Japanese attack had finished its work. The first attack left most of the United States Pacific Fleet burning in the harbor: battleships Maryland and Tennessee damaged, Arizona destroyed, Oklahoma capsized, California and West Virginia resting at the bottom of the harbor.

The battleship Nevada was the only survivor after the first wave of the attack. By 9:00 a. m. the second wave of Japanese planes arrived. Nevada quickly became a target for the second wave’s attack. The Japanese used specially designed torpedoes for the attack on battleship row, which had been designed in anticipation of the shallow waters of Pearl Harbor. By now American anti-aircraft guns were trying to put up some sort of defense. The final target of the attack was the flagship, Pennsylvania. Oil was pouring out into the water. The oil was ignited and destroyers Cassin and Downes exploded.

Hickam Field was also the site of another Japanese surprise attack. Eighteen American bombers and fighters were destroyed or damaged. A few U. S. fighters got into the air and made themselves known. Twenty-nine Japanese aircraft were shot down by American pilots and by ground fire from military installations on Oahu (Brief Overview of the Attack, 7 July 2001). By 10 a. m. the Japanese attack was over. Tank farms and shore installations were left untouched (Renzi 45).

Nineteen United States naval vessels were sunk or severely damaged. 8 United States aircraft were destroyed on the ground. United States military casualties amounted to 2,280 killed and 1,109 wounded. 68 American civilians were also killed in the attack (Pearl Harbor, 2001). The Japanese lost only 29 of 351 planes launched in this attack. Some people believe that the attack on Pearl Harbor was ultimately a suicide mission for the Japanese in the long run (Renzi 45). On December 8, 1941 the United States and Great Britain declared war on Japan (Weintraub 629). Japan promptly declared war on the United States and Great Britain.

Germany and Italy declared war on the United States on December 11th even though Hitler wanted to avoid a war with America. Americans were so surprised by the attack on Pearl Harbor, that they believed that there had been a serious breakdown in the United States intelligence. The United States had been watching the developments of the Japanese Fleet prior to the attack but somehow the United States lost track of them. The United States authorities had broken the Japanese diplomatic code and had learned late in the evening of December 6th that war with Japan was imminent and an attack could be on the way.

A warning from Washington to Pearl Harbor was sent but because of delays in transmission, the warning arrived after the raid had begun. The attack on Pearl Harbor was the first surprise attack on the United States in modern history. “Remember Pearl Harbor” became a rallying cry for Americans during World War II (Pearl Harbor, 1986). It made Americans even more determined to go kill the enemy. The surprise attack on September 11th similarly made Americans more determined to defeat the enemy.

World War II – The Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles was a violation of Wilsons ideals. The Treaty is one of the most important agreements (or disagreements) that shaped 20th century Europe socially and physically. Woodrow Wilson on January 22, 1917 in an address to the United States Senate called for a peace without victors, but the Treaty signed by the participating nations was everything but that. The blame for the war was placed on Germany and justified the reparations that were outlined by the treaty for the war.

The terms of the treaty were very harsh to the Germans and they took on great resentment. It was a fragile peace agreement that would be used as fuel to keep hostilities going 20 years later. When the details of the treaty were published in June 1919 most Germans were horrified. Germany had not been allowed to the Peace Conference and was told to accept the terms or else. Most Germans however, had believed that the Treaty would be lenient because of Wilson’s Fourteen Points.

Many people in other lands thought that the treaty was a way of making legal the punishment on the Germans and this was in violation of Wilsonian idealism. The peacemakers should have been able to set aside hatred that was built up from the past in order to come up with a more proper and fair settlement. Instead of doing this, they placed the blame on the Germans by forcing them to pay for reparations they couldn’t afford, insulting them with the accusation of guilt from the war and taking away their territory.

The treaty would only intensify the hatred felt by all the parties involved in the treaty and heighten German nationalism. This was a poor beginning for democracy in Germany and for Wilson’s New World. President Woodrow Wilson had hopes for a New World. For Wilson, the war had been fought against autocracy. A peace settlement based on liberal-democratic ideals, he hoped, would get rid of the foundations of war. None of Wilson’s hopes seemed better than the idea of self-determination — the right of a people to have its own state, free of any foreign domination.

In particular, this goal meant the return of Alsace and Lorraine to France which had been lost to Germany in the Franco-Prussian war, the creation of an independent Poland, the changing of the frontiers of Italy to include Austrian lands where Italians lived, and an opportunity for Slavs of the Austro- Hungarian Empire to form their own states. Several of the clauses of the Treaty were thought to be very harsh. It was going to be almost impossible to pay the reparations. In fact, the German government gave up after only one year, and the War Guilt Clause seemed very unfair.

How could Germany be the only country to blame for the war? After all it had started when a Serbian shot an Austrian. It was felt that Germany had been simply made a scapegoat by the other countries for all that had happened. Looking back it is clear that the Treaty of Versailles created more problems than it actually solved. The treaty broke up empires and changed boundaries. The Germans lost territory and other countries tried to weaken Germanys military potential and strengthen their own to compensate for the destruction of their lands caused by the Germans.

The Germans were unanimously against the Treaty of Versailles. They viewed the terms of the treaty as humiliating and merciless, designed to keep Germany militarily and economically weak. To the Germans, the Treaty of Versailles was not the beginning of the New World that Wilson had promised, but a horrible crime. At the end of World War I, the victorious Allies met in Paris to draw up the peace conditions. Although the Allies had varying expectations and demands, they did agree that Germany should have the burden of responsibility for causing the war.

Germany was severely penalized under the terms of the treaty. However, the League of Nations couldnt to enforce Germany’s compliance, which increased international tensions. The new German Republic struggled and their economy continued to fall. Although 27 nations attended the Peace Conference, the leaders of the United States, Great Britain, France, and Italy strongly dictated the peace terms. Even though each agreed that Germany should assume the financial burden of putting Europe back together, the “Big Four” had different expectations and demands, which they sought.

France demanded a harsh settlement that would eliminate Germany as a potential military threat and it wanted their land back. Italy specifically wanted more territory to add to its empire. Great Britain wanted to keep its strong navy and thought it would be in Europes best interest to help restore the German economy. Finally, the United States sought the League of Nations to be an international committee to break up future conflicts and Wilson was pushing his 14 Points. The fact that Germany was made responsible for ALL the reparations helped to break apart international relations.

The Allies were counting on Germany to pay their war debts. They hoped to use that money to help their own economic problems. The League of Nations was not very effective in forcing Germany to make payments, because it lost credibility when the United Stated didnt join. The new German republic was in a constant state of instability because new radical groups were emerging left and right, trying to attain power. The continuing economic decline worsened the struggle, leaving the German people discouraged and desperate.

The conclusions of the war included the following; Germany was forced to reduce its army to 100,000 men, reduce the navy to 6 warships and was not allowed to have any submarines, destroy all of its air force, give land to Belgium, France, Denmark and Poland, hand over all of its colonies, agree to pay reparations to the Allies for all of the damage caused by the war, put no soldiers or military equipment within 30 miles of the east bank of the Rhine, and accept all of the blame for the war (War Guilt Clause. ) Italy was given the two small areas of Istria and the South Tirol.

The Adriatic coast was made part of a new country called Yugoslavia, which included Serbia and Bosnia. Other new countries were created; Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland were formed from land lost by Russia. Czechoslovakia and Hungary were formed out of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Allies also gave Germany a new form of government based on proportional representation. It was meant to prevent Germany from being taken over by a dictatorship, but it led to the creation of more than thirty political parties; none of them was big enough to form a government on its own.

Aware that a harshly treated Germany might seek revenge, engulfing the world in another destruction, Wilson insisted that there should be a “peace without victory. ” A fair settlement would encourage Germany to work with the Allies in building a new Europe. To preserve peace and to help remake the world, Wilson urged the formation of a League of Nations. What was most significant about the Treaty of Versailles was that it did not solve the German problem.

Germany was left weak but unbroken — its industrial and military power was only temporarily taken away and its nationalist feelings have intensified. The real danger in Europe was German unwillingness to accept defeat or surrender their longtime dream of expansion. In conclusion, had the Allies Powers listened to President Wilson’s hopes for a new world and to his famous Fourteen Points, the settlement would have been peaceful and the Germans would not have been humiliated as they have been and would have no reason to want to seek revenge.

Life Experiences In Farewell To Manzanar

The book, Farewell to Manzanar was the story of a young Japanese girl coming of age in the interment camp located in Owens Valley, California. Less than two months after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which stated that the War Department had the right to declare which people were a threat to the country, and move them wherever they so pleased1. Since the West Coast had a large number of Japanese immigrants at the time, it was basically an act that authorized the government to remove Japanese residing on the West Coast away from their homes and put them in these interment camps.

As harsh as it may sound, the interment camps were nothing like the famous Nazi interment camps of World War 2. The residents enjoyed relatively comfortable living situations compared to German interment camps, and lived fairly comfortable lives, when compared to the German camps. However, it was still rough, as many families were separated. Farewell to Manzanar is the story of one girl making the difficult transition to womanhood, at a difficult time, at a difficult location. Two of the main life lessons that Jeannie learned during her stay at Manzanar dealt with the issues of her identity of an American against her Japanese heritage, and also with school.

During her time at Manzanar, Jeannie was surrounded by almost exclusively Japanese people, and did not have much exposure to Caucasians, or people of other races. Therefore, she did not know what to truly expect when she went out into the “school world” outside of Manzanar. She had received some schooling while in Manzanar, however, the American schools were drastically different from the schools inside of Manzanar. While inside Manzanar, Jeannie learned more skills in the fine arts, such as baton twirling, and ballet. The “hard” subjects were taught, but she doesn’t mention as much about them as she does about baton twirling, ballet, and Catechesis.

The schools at Manzanar were not much until the second year. The first year, volunteers taught the schools, and resources were pretty scarce.1 However, in the second year, teachers were hired, and the number of available supplies increased. One key thing that Jeannie remembers about her Manzanar schooling was her participation in the yearbook, and also with the Glee Club1. The Glee Club gave her a sense of belonging, which is crucial to girls at her age. The psychological scars that the interment process left on Jeannie often left her feeling like she didn’t belong with the crowds, or with the other children. Even more shocking was the fact that she accepted these feelings as perfectly normal. Also distinct about her schooling at Manzanar was the fact that she felt very prepared to enter American schools. This shows how she was eager to be a part of mainstream American cultures, even though she may not have been welcome.

Jeannie’s experience in American schools was drastically different from her experience at Manzanar. She had problems making friends because the parents of the other children would not allow their children to befriend a Japanese girl.1 For Jeannie, the first thing an American girl said to her, “Gee, I didn’t know you spoke English”1 defined people’s attitudes toward her and other Japanese peoples at that time in history. However, most of the other children slowly accepted her, regardless of her race. On the opposite end of the spectrum, most of the parents and some of the teachers were very unreceptive to Jeannie for the simple fact that she was Japanese.

This fact very much disappointed her, and she directly stated that when she said “From that point on, part of me yearned to be invisible. In a way, nothing would have been nicer for no one to see me.”1 However, she was not excluded from all activities, as she was an active participant in athletics, scholarship, yearbook, newspaper, and student government. Her participation in these organizations made her feel like she was a small part of American culture, however she never truly felt like a part of American culture because of the fact that a few attitudes kept her from joining all organizations she was interested in.

One crucial experience that made Jeannie feel like she was not truly wanted was the experience of trying to be the carnival queen for her high school. Jeannie utterly amazed the audience with her looks, and the majority of the students had voted for her. However, several teachers didn’t want to be embarrassed by having a Japanese girl represent their school, so they tried to stuff the ballot box. Even though she still won, this experience had given her a reality check of sorts. Even though she was allowed into the clubs and schools of the Americans, Jeannie never felt like she was a total part of American culture.

One of the things that Jeannie struggled most with was what her cultural identity truly was. She wanted to grow up as the other children around her, which were Americans, were allowed to live, however, her father wanted her to grow up as a traditional Japanese woman. The carnival queen issue was a very crucial example of this struggle. Jeannie wore a low cut sarong, which showed off her body, to the queen tryouts, and garnered large amounts of applause in the process. However, both her and her Papa questioned whether or not this conflicted with her racial traditions.

In Papa’s words, “Modesty is important. A graceful body is important. You don’t show your legs all the time. You don’t walk around like this.”1 He also accused her of wanting to marry a hakajin2 boy, which was an almost unbearable thought to Papa. No matter how thrilled she was to be the queen, she struggled with the fact that she was pretending to be of a culture which she did not belong to. She was dressed as an American, acting as an American, even though she was of Japanese descent. Under Papa’s orders, she signed up for odori class, however, she performed terribly and was basically kicked out of class by the instructor.

Jeannie Wakatsuki lived a very diverse life, as she was subjected to both life inside of an interment camp and American high school. Attending American high school is a character shaping experience, and even more so for someone of a minority race or gender. The experience lets them know where their race stands among others, and if they will be completely accepted in the “outside world”. Unfortunately for Jeannie, she was not totally accepted by others throughout her life, and that left psychological scars on her. However, she came out of these experiences a better and more well rounded person, so they were not totally negative for her. A note of interest is that she ended up marrying a non-Japanese person, possibly due to her growing up and maturing around non-Japanese. The book Farewell to Manzanar fully illustrates her thoughts and feelings throughout this process.

Farewell To Manzanar: Review

In spring of 1942, immediately after the United States entered war with Japan, the Federal government instructed a policy where hundreds of thousands of people of Japanese ancestry were evacuated into relocation camps. Many agree that the United States government was not justified with their treatment towards the Japanese during World War II. This Japanese-American experience of incarceration is believed to be unconstitutional, demonstrating racism and causing social and economic hardships for the evacuees.

The location of one of the camps in California, Manzanar, was representative of the atmosphere of racial prejudice, mistrust, and fear, that resulted in American citizens being uprooted from their homes, denied their constitutional rights, and with neither accusation, indictment, nor conviction, moved to remote relocation camps for most of the duration of the war (Daniels et al., 1986, p.148). As the Japanese people were being removed from the West Coast, it was obvious that some economic loss would occur. In a movement of this kind…it was probably inevitable that some mistakes would be made and that some people would suffer (qtd. In Daniels et al., 1986, p.163).

After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the Japanese lost a lot of money and personal property through forced, panic sales. Failure to protect the property of aliens by the Department of Justice, during their evacuation, resulted in distress and anguish for the Japanese people. The evacuees were required to signed a property form stating that no liability or responsibility shall be assumed by the Federal Reserve Bank…for any act or omission in connection with its [the propertys] disposition (qtd. In Thomas, 1946, p. 15).

This policy encouraged the liquidation of property and led many Japanese merchants and businessmen to sell their property at ridiculous prices or to place them in storage at their own expense and risk. Buyers were unwilling to pay reasonable prices for their properties because they were fully aware of the fact that a sale would have to be made, at any price, if the owner wanted to receive some kind of profit from it. Many buyers took advantage of this situation. In addition, the use of land and crops, previously owned by the Japanese in America, underwent some changes as a result of the evacuation of Japanese owners, farmers, and labor.

Evacuee farmers were in the worst bargaining position possible. Even though Japanese Americans were allowed to continue their farming activities, farming was a disadvantage of the evacuees. One reason for this was the fact that farming operations required payment for sprays, fertilizers, labor, and other farm necessities. Unfortunately, because of the evacuation, Japanese farmers did not have these resources and made it impossible to harvest crops. This led to the destruction of their crops. Landlords, creditors, and prospective purchasers were ready to take advantage of the adverse bargaining position of Japanese evacuees, even at the cost of serious loss of agricultural production (Thomas, 19046, p. 17).

This critical episode in Americas evolution brought about racism in which a minority group was being mistreated. Once the United States found itself at war with Japan, Japanese Americans were considered the enemy aliens. World War II was a race war(qtd, in Daniels et al., 1986, p. 81), and America felt it had to protect itself and keep apart these enemy aliens. The isolation and segregation of Japanese immigrants from the life of the general American community were repeatedly emphasized during World War II. Japanese and Japanese Americans were constantly being singled out on the basis of their ethnicity.

On February 19, 1942, ten weeks after the Pearl Harbor tragedy, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, authorizing the exclusion of all people of Japanese ancestry from the West Coast of the United States and relocating them into concentration camps. It is revealed that not the military necessity but primarily racial prejudice provoked such unprecedentedly drastic measures, indiscriminately applied to the whole national group (Klimova). Prior to their forced evacuation, racial bias of the American white majority toward the Japanese minority aroused the feelings of distrust and fear, and led Japanese Americans to live within their own communities, before they were forcefully removed.

During the early 1900s, before World War II began, the success and achievements of the Japanese in America aroused feelings of jealousy and resentment among the Caucasian population. This resentment led to the myth of yellow peril (Klimova). According to this myth, the supreme mission of Japanese Americans was to establish ascendance over the whites by driving them first, out of business, and then, out of country (Klimova). Most Americans believed the nation had been pushed around by a slanted-eyed people to whom [it felt] racially superior (qtd. In Daniels et al., 1986, p. 80).

Ineligibility to citizenship was a constant reminder of another form of racial prejudice of the dominant group. An example of such bigotry is a statement made by a racist politician, saying once a Jap always a Jap (qtd. in Daniels et al., 1986, p. 81). In other words, this American, having similar beliefs to many other politicians during that time, believed that you cannot turn a person of Japanese ancestry into an American. According to this false belief, no matter how loyal a Japanese American may be to the United States, there is still a chance of disloyalty, due to their dual citizenship (Klimova).

Therefore Japanese Americans were not able to become, or remain, American citizens. Their ineligibility of American citizenship is another factor of the American governments injustice towards Japanese people, led by racial animosity. The imprisonment of Japanese Americans against their will in internment camps was also unconstitutional. The victims of Executive Order 9066, including all American citizens of Japanese descent, were prohibited from living, working, or traveling on the West Coast of the United States. Similarly, Japanese immigrants, pursuant to Federal law and despite long residence in the United States (Smith, 1995, p. 292), were not permitted to become American citizens. In addition, it was unconstitutional to evacuate only citizens of Japanese descent.

The confinement of the evacuees after they had been removed had no military justification. According to Ex parte Endo, the evacuation case was held that there was no authority to detain a citizen, absent evidence of a crime (Smith, 1995, p. 369). To relocate some one hundred thousand alien and American-born Japanese, to expose them to threats and violence, and to involve them beatings and murder cannot be excused or justified. Exposed to such harsh living conditions such as dirty barracks and unsanitary bathrooms, many evacuees agreed that they cant live like this.

Animals live like this (qtd. in Houston, 1973, p. 26). Over seventy thousand American citizens, without benefit of criminal charges, incrimination, or trial, without the benefit of any hearing at all, and in the guise of national security and military necessity, were forcibly uprooted from their homes and forced to endure years of imprisonment in Americas concentration camps (Daniels et al., 1886, p. 184). As a result, the unlawful confinement of Japanese Americans was unconstitutional because it clearly violated their freedom rights.

The job of the Courts to resolve doubts, not create them (qtd. in Daniels et al., 1986, p. 184). Emotionally, politically, and racially charged, the issue of the Japanese-American relocation during World War II is an event that cannot be justified. Economic discrimination and social segregation imposed by Americans caused the Japanese- American wartime tragedy. The Executive Order 9066 was not justified by military necessity, because its historical causes, which shaped its decisions, were racial prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership.

Ignorance of Japanese American contributed to a policy conceived in haste and executed in an atmosphere of fear and anger at Japan (Daniels et al., 1986, p. 5). A grave injustice was done to American citizens and resident aliens of Japanese ancestry who, without individual review or any probative evidence against them (Daniels et al., 1986, p. 5), were excluded, removed, and detained by the United States. Furthermore, economic losses, racism, and unconstitutionalism were all key factors which explain the United States governments injustification towards the forced evacuation of Japanese Americans. Manzanar is symbolic of a tragic event in American history, an event that reminds us that a democratic nation must constantly guard and hinor the concept of freedom and the rights of its citizens (Daniels et al., 1986, p. 148).

Bibliography

Daniels, Roger, Sandra C. Taylor, and Harry H.L. Kitano. Japanese Americans: From Relocation to Redress. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1986.
Houston,m Jeanne Wakatsuki and James D.. Farewell to Manzanar. New York: Bantam, 1973.
Klimova, Tatiana A. Internment of Japanese Americans: Military Necessity or Racial Prejudice? 17 Oct. 1999
Smith, Page. Democracy on Trial: the Japanese American Evacuation and Relocation in World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Thomas, Dorothy Swaine. The Spoilage. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1946.

Farewell to Manzanar: Book Report

In the true story “Farewell to Manzanar” we learn of a young girl’s life as she grows up during World War II in a Japanese internment camp. Along with her family and ten thousand other Japanese we see how, as a child, these conditions forced to shape and mold her life. This book does not directly place blame or hatred onto those persons or conditions which had forced her to endure hardship, but rather shows us through her eyes how these experiences have held value she has been able to grow from.

Jeanne Wakatsuki was just a seven year growing up in Ocean Park, California when her whole life was about to change. Everything seemed to be going fine, her father owning two fishing boats, and they lived in a large house with a large dining table which was located in an entirely non-Japanese neighborhood. The surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese was the moment Jeanne’s life was critically altered. This started WWII and all Japanese were seen as possible threats to the nations safety.

It is not difficult to see, but difficult to justify this view, and therefore Jeanne Wakatsuki, just a child, was now seen as a monster. Her father was immediately arrested and taken away, being accused with furnishing oil to Japanese subs off the coast. And now, Jeanne left without a father, her mother was trapped with the burden of Jeanne’s rapidly aging grandmother and her nine brothers and sisters. Too young to understand, Jeanne did not know why or where her father had been taken.

But she did know that one very important part of her was gone. Jeanne’s father was a very strong, military-like, proud, arrogant, and dignified man. He was the one who was always in control, and made all the decisions for the family. He grew up in Japan, but left at the age of seventeen, headed for work in Hawaii, and never again went back. Leaving his own family behind and never contacting them ever again. But now it was time for Jeanne’s family to do something. They found refuge at Terminal Island, a place where many Japanese families live either in some transition stage or for permanent residents.

Jeanne was terrified. ” It was the first time I had lived among other Japanese, or gone to school with them, and I was terrified all the time.” Her father, as a way of keeping his children in line, told them, “I’m going to sell you to the Chinaman.” So when Jeanne saw all these Japanese kids she assumed she was being sold. They were soon given 48 hrs. to find a new place to stay. Again they found refuge in a minority ghetto in Boyle Heights, Los Angeles. But then the government issued Executive Order 9066 which gave the War Dept. power to define military areas in the western states.

Anyone who could possibly threaten the war effort (Japanese) were going to be transported to internment camps. As Jeanne boarded the Greyhound bus someone tied a number tag to her collar and one to her duffel bag. So, for now on all families had numbers to which they could be identified. No longer people, but animals hearded off to some unknown place. This was to be their destiny for the rest of the war, and long after. Being a child, Jeanne was too young to comprehend what all this really meant. She knew that her dad was away and her family was moving a lot. At first, for Jeanne this seemed exciting, like an adventure, since she had never been outside of L.A. before. Jeanne is a Nissei, a natural born citizen of the United States. But, again this really didn’t mean much to her.

What could she do, and what could she know? Up to this point her life had been relatively simple. As a 7-yr. old one doesn’t really no much of life anyway! This was soon to change for her, as she is now being forced into a world guarded behind barbed wire. Manzanar, located near Lone Pine, California was the camp Jeanne’s family, kept together only by an effort made by Jeanne’s mother, was assigned to. The conditions were raw, cold, windy and unfriendly. In a sense a metaphor for Jeanne, their treatment, and the unstable condition of her family and life. 10,000 Japanese shoved into a quarter mile piece of dust-land surrounded with barbed wire, and guard towers.

The living quarters were shabbily constructed wooden barracks which didn’t provide any shelter from the blistering cold wind and the dry dust. Not quite a concentration camp, but not quite adequate either. At first Jeanne actually didn’t mind the situation that much. She referred to as like camping. But for the adults and her older brothers and sisters, including one newlywed couple sharing a barrack with a family with two young kids, it was hell. 6-8 people sharing a 15 by 20 foot space with a cot, two army blankets, and a stove which didn’t work very good. “Animals don’t even live like this,” was a comment made by Jeanne’s mother after her oldest brother Woody tried to ease their mama’s pain.

As months rolled by and their father still imprisoned at Fort Lincoln, Montana Jeanne began to notice her life changing. Japanese families had always been very tight units and this was beginning to break down. As a family they would always eat together, but the conditions of the mess halls to eat at and Jeanne’s Grandmother unable to make the walk to dinner, this tradition ended. Adults ate seperately from the children, and this in itself begins to break down the structure and unity of the family. The parents lost control over their children. The barracks were too small for any in-home activity and the children were forced, not like they objected, to be outside all the time.

The housing units were strictly for coming home at night to sleep in. This break down of family structure forced the kids to find alternate ways of occupying themselves, rather than having parental guidance or some type of authority to watch over them. After nine months Jeanne’s father finally returned. Jeanne admitted that she really didn’t think about him that often. When he arrived no one rushed to greet or hug him, only after a brief hesitation did Jeanne approach and serve as the entire family’s welcome home party. They Were silent because he seemed to be a changed man. He was again using the cane he had carved years back which he used to extend a type of military authority over everyone.

Before being imprisoned, as I said, he had great dignity, but now seemed to have lost that. He had lost it because all his loyalty and honor was repeatedly questioned there. Drinking began to take control of him and he never would leave the barracks. He brewed his own rice wine and brandy, and became a drunken tyrant. Jeanne was never aware that her mother and father used to fight the way they did there. Because she always had a room to escape to. She began to despise her father and his authority. Jeanne was discovering new things, and before her father’s return became seriously interested in Catholicism.

She loved all the women martyr stories, and possibly could relate to them or to some aspect in them. But before she could get baptized her father had come back and exercised his control over it, and wouldn’t allow it. He told her that their family was Buddhist and that she was to young to even understand what Catholicism was. Even though they never practiced the religion only celebrated a few holidays. She was confused and wanted acceptance in any way she could find it. She took up the baton and became very skilled at it. But her father criticized this activity, saying she should not try to become American, but rather take up some traditional Japanese activity, like Odori dancing.

Even though he himself left that life behind him in Japan to move to America. He could not expect his children growing up in America to only do Japanese things, even though this place they were trapped in wasn’t what America should be for them. She began to desire the outside world. It was where everything was, but couldn’t be reached. She would see things in the Sears Roebuck catalogue and dream of that place out there that has all these things. She even referred to this catalogue as the same as God. She was now aware that this place she was in was not where she should be. Manzanar became to her and her family their home. They had food, clothes, and shelter.

It had become their world all rolled up within a quarter mile, with baton lessons, dance, schools, religion, and even a band. But the war was ending and the camps due to close in December, 1945. Where were they to go and what were they to do? These questions frightened her and her parents. There were no answers. How could a government take everything away, put us in camps, then let us loose with nothing? And how were they to be treated once they were out there. Fearing the stories they heard that earlier released internees had been beating or even killed. But when they finally left it was different. They expected people lining the streets with guns, or billboards reading “go home you dirty Japs” on them. They were put up in a housing compound in Cabrillo.

It was small but her mom now could cook and the cold winds didn’t get in. Jeanne enrolled in Jr. high school, and her mother got a job at a cannery. Her father refusing to stoop that low didn’t find a job for a long time. Her first experience on the outside of Manzanar had the lurking of all her fears of not being accepted. When asked to read in class as the new student, she stood up and read well. Then a girl said something that haunts her to this day. “Gee I didn’t know you could speak English.” This remark made by a white girl, whom she became friends with later, made her realize that this is how things were going to be. They weren’t going to beat or injure her, they were going to see she has slanted eyes and assume that she is different.

She only wanted acceptance. And realized that it was going to happen unless she proved something to them. She did. Since she had taken baton at Manzanar she made the marching band as majorette. The first Japanese majorette ever at her school. Then on to win beauty queen in high school. These things made her feel accepted, one of the others. But she was denying the fact that she was doing this for them not completely for herself. She realized this when she was walking down the isle to receive her carnival queen award. A kind of revelation hit her that none of this really mattered any more, and wished she had taken Odori classes like her father wanted her to.

I think this revealed that she had finally found herself among all these other people and didn’t have to be the same as them, she could now be her, for herself. Nearly 30 yrs. Later when she herself was married and had 3 children of her own was she able to accept that part that over the years she tried to forget. She said that she was always putting off trips to Manzanar because she was afraid it might have the same effect on her as it did when she was young. That feeling of inferiority and nothingness in this world she had always been a part of.

She used to hate herself for the way white people would get to her with one little comment like “Oh! You speak English,” that she would feel completely foreign in her world. When she finally visited the ruins of Manzanar she “no longer wanted to lose or have those years erased. Having found it, I could say what you can really say when you’ve truly come to know a place: Farewell.” This says it all. She had finally been able to see that Manzanar was one giant stepping stone she had climbed, and that gave her worth, so she could feel at peace with herself. Her life had really begun at Manzanar, but she isn’t about to let it end there. In conclusion, this story was well written and I could sympathize with every trial and tribulation she encountered.

Some may say she didn’t value her Japanese heritage enough or was pitying herself for being Japanese. But she, in my view is a hero because she took everything that was imposed on her and endured through it. She was able to accept herself through a kind of spiritual growth, which was both revelational, and inspirational. I only hope that one day I can make some sense of the things gone wrong in my life, or at least grow from them. Jeanne is a woman now, who as a child was thrown around in a racial roller coaster, and can accept herself as an important part of society and life, rather than needing others to accept it for her.

Catch-22: A War Comedy

The novel, Catch-22, is a comedy about soldiers during World War II. However, this comic scenes and phrases are quite tragic when they are thought about, as most things related to war are, which makes this comedy completely absurd. The best way to represent this idea is through the characters in the book, specifically, Yossarian, Huple, and Natelys whores kid sister and the events that occur with their thoughts and their actions.

Clearly, the main character and one whose life is chiefly described, is Yossarian. Yossarian has a slightly sick sense of humor and way of looking at things. In the first chapter, Heller tells us that letters sent by the soldiers had to be reviewed in order to prevent any secret information going out to the public, or, even worse, to the enemy. Yossarian, from lack of anything better to do, censors all the letters.

Sometimes he crosses out everything but a, an and the, sometimes adjectives, whatever he feels like that day. For his final gag he signs these letters as Washington Irving to totally confuse the readers of these letters. This is funny, however it is ultimately tragic. These are the letters that every wife, mother and daughter runs to the mailbox for in order to see that their husbands, fathers and sons are all right. This is a letter that could say: Honey, Im coming home, or I love you.

When I come home I want to marry you. These letters could change the whole lifestyle of so many people and Yossarian alone is tampering with them. The absurdity of that is immense. A gag of slightly higher consequence occurred in Chapter 12, when Yossarian decided to move the bomb line over Bologna. What I believe is the most ridiculous in the whole process was his reason for doing it. Everyone did not want to go on this mission to capture Bologna.

They prayed the rain would never go away, or that the bomb line would mysteriously move, anything just mot to go on this mission. Clevinger, in disbelief at the stupidity of these men, tells Yossarian: They really believe that we wouldnt have to fly that mission tomorrow if someone would only tiptoe up to the map in the middle of the night and move the bomb line over Bologna. Can you imagine? So Yossarian figures Why not?. As hysterical of a joke as this may be, an important city that was taken by the enemy had to be bombed, and now everybody thinks that it was captured already.

This joke could have and may have lead to the deaths of innocent people, which is yet not only absurd but is also catastrophic. Two character that, for me, expressed the highest, but the most true absurdity in life are Huple and Natelys whores kid sister. These two characters have one thing in common. They both want to be adults too fast. Huple is only fifteen, and lied about his age to get into the army. The kid sister is twelve years old, but wants to be just like her older sister and seduce men. However the absurdity of this is not at all that they want to become older, because everyone at that age does.

The absurdity is that the things they want to do as adults are the things that most adults resent most about being adults. The last thing most men want to do is to be drafted, and the last thing that most women want to do is to become a prostitute in order to support themselves. It is clear that Joseph Heller does not write in a certain pattern visible in the works of other writers.

He has his own unique way of expressing the absurdity of the universe in a comic way. This style, in my mind, is very commendable because he makes us laugh, yet understand the meaning and maybe even seriousness of the idea he is trying to get across. The alternative would be to write a tragic novel about men at war which really would not grab the readers attention as comedies do and as this book did.

Joseph Heller’s Catch-22: Short Review

Joseph Heller satirizes, among other matters, red tape and bureaucracy in his first novel, Catch-22. The novel concerns itself with a World War II bombardier named Yossarian who suddenly realizes the danger of his position and tries various means to extricate himself from further missions. Yossarian is driven crazy by the Germans, who keep shooting at him when he drops bombs on them, and by his American superiors, who seem less concerned about winning the war than they are about getting promoted.

Heller spent eight years writing Catch-22, is a former student at three universities–New York, Columbia and Oxford–and a former teacher at Pennsylvania State College. From 1942 to 1945 he served as a combat bombardier in the Twelfth Air Force and was stationed on the island of Corsica where he flew over 60 combat missions. That experience provided the groundwork for this novel. (Way, 120) (Usborne)

The protagonist and hero of the novel is John Yossarian, a captain in the Air Force and a lead bombardier in his squadron, but he hates the war. During the latter half of World War II, Yossarian is stationed with his Air Force squadron on the island of Pianosa, near the Italian coast and the Mediterranean Sea.

(Heller) The squadron is thrown thoughtlessly into brutal combat situations and bombing runs on which it is more important for them to capture a good aerial photograph of an explosion than to destroy their target. Their colonels continually raise the number of missions they are required to fly before being sent home so that no one is ever sent home.

Heller’s satire targets a variety of bureaucrats, the military-industrial complex, and the business ethic and economic arrangements of American society. Humor rising out of the crazy logic of modern warfare hits squarely on the mark. (Hicks 32). The following passage demonstrates the humor and enlightens the reader about the book’s title and the major cause of

Yossarian’s problems:
Yossarian looked at him soberly and tried another approach. ” Is Orr crazy?”
“He sure is,” Doc Daneeka said.
“Can you ground him?”
“I sure can. But first he has to ask me to. That’s part of the rule.”
“Then why doesn’t he ask you to?”
“Because he’s crazy, ” Doc Daneeka said. ” He has to be crazy to keep flying combat missions after all the close calls he’s had. Sure, I can ground him. But first he has to ask me to.”
“That’s all he has to do to be grounded?”
“That’s all. Let him ask me.”
“And then you can ground him?” Yossarian asked.
“No. Then I can’t ground him.”
“You mean there’s a catch?”
“Sure there’s a catch,” Doc Daneeka replied. “Catch-22. Anyone who wants to get out of combat duty isn’t really crazy.”

Most of the supporting characters in Catch-22 are cardboard figures that are only distinctive to the reader by their inane obsessions. Each lives with a particularly contorted view of the war in which he believes that he can function in the world as he pleases and that his dealings will achieve his objectives. (Kennard 83) The fantastically powerful mess officer, Milo controls an international black market syndicate and is revered in obscure corners all over the world.

He ruthlessly chases after profit and bombs his own men as part of a contract with Germany. Milo insists that everyone in the squadron will benefit from being part of the syndicate, and that “everyone has a share.” The ambitious, unintelligent colonel in charge of Yossarian’s squadron, Colonel Cathcart, wants to be a general. He tries to impress his superiors by bravely volunteering his men for dangerous combat duty whenever he gets the chance. He continually raises the number of combat missions required of the men before they can be sent home.

Lieutenant Milo Minderbinder, the mess officer, is the supreme champion of the profit motive and free enterprise. He knows how to buy eggs for 7 cents and to sell them at a profit for 5 cents. He contrives with Axis agents to bomb his own airfield when the Germans make him a reasonable offer: cost plus 6 per cent.

He does this because he desperately needs more funds in his misguided quest to corner the Egyptian cotton market. Milo’s loyalties lay in general with capitalistic enterprise and specifically with M & M Enterprises. He lives by the principle that “what’s good for the syndicate is good for the country,” despite the diametrically opposed arrangement of his position and his philosophy. (Seltzer 298-99)

Colonel Cathcart tries to scheme his way ahead; he thinks of successful actions as “feathers in his cap” and unsuccessful ones as “black eyes.” For example, as the commanding officer, he keeps raising the number of missions a man has to fly before becoming eligible for leave back to the US, and this number keeps increasing as the men keep going out and coming back from their bombing runs. The reasoning behind this is sound: experienced pilots have a better chance of surviving and accomplishing their mission than do green airmen.

However, his motivation is not. Yossarian and his friends endure a nightmarish, absurd existence defined by bureaucracy and violence: they are inhuman resources in the eyes of their blindly ambitious superior officers. Because Cathcart cannot identify for sure what the higher headquarter generals think and because they themselves loathe and oppose each other, Cathcart’s “feathers” keep turning into “black eyes.” (Lindberg 231-258)

Still, no one but Yossarian seems to realize that there is a war going on; everyone thinks he is crazy when he insists that millions of people are trying to kill him. Yossarian is unique because he takes the whole war personally–rather than being swayed by national ideals or abstract principles, Yossarian is furious that his life is constantly in danger, and not as a result of his own misdeeds. His powerful desire to live has led him to the conclusion that millions of people are out to get him, and he has decided either to live forever or, ironically, die trying. In the end, he takes a possibly morally suspect, but psychologically honest choice left to him by deserting to Sweden. (Merrill 139-52)

Yossarian loses his nerve for war. He is placed in ridiculous, absurd, desperate, and tragic circumstances–he sees friends die and disappear, his squadron bombed by its own mess officer, and colonels and generals who bravely volunteer their men for the most perilous battle. The paradoxical law called Catch-22, the mechanism behind this military’s abnormalities, haunts him. In the end, Yossarian decides to save his own life by deserting the army; he turns his back on the dehumanizing cold machinery of the military, and ultimately, and finally, rejects the rule of Catch-22.

Works Sited:

Heller, Joseph. Catch-22. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1961
Hicks, Granville. “Medals for Madness.” Saturday Review. 44.40 (October 7, 1961)
Kennard, Jean E. “Joseph Heller: At War with Absurdity.” MOSAIC IV/3 (University of Manitoba, 1971)
Lindberg, Gary. “Playing for Real – The Confidence Man in American Literature.” Oxford University Press (1982)
Merrill, Robert. “The Structure and Meaning of Catch-22. Studies in American Fiction. 14.2 (1986)
Seltzer, Leon F. “Milo’s ‘Culpable Innocence’: Absurdity as Moral Insanity in ‘Catch-22.'” Papers on Language and Literature. 15.3 (1979)
Usborne, David. “Joseph Heller, Master of Black Satire.” Independent News. (Dec 14, 1999): 2pp. Online. Internet. Feb 12 2000. Available: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/World/Americas/heller141299.shtml
Way, Brian. “Formal Experiment and Social Discontent: Joseph Heller’s Catch 22.” The Penguin Companion to American Literature. Ed. Malcolm Bradbury, Eric Mottram, and Jean Franco.

Cannery Row by John Steinbeck: Review

John Steinbeck is a writer who experienced the pain of the Second World War and though it is true that many who have read his work have negatively criticized his writing, many have also embraced his work in acceptance and appreciation. Yet, showing his true colours, Steinbeck writes about his childhood in Monterey in a classical book called Cannery Row.

This is perhaps the most humorous of all which he has written, especially since it was written during the war when most people believed authors should have been writing about the hellfire around them. The opening line of Cannery Row sums up his intent of the entire novel in a sentence, the style of his writing deceptively simple. Steinbeck writes with purpose about the loneliness that never leaves and the values of common man, and in his book significant insights about life are presented to the reader.

In the first line of the Cannery Row, Steinbeck spells out what he would be telling in his tale of life, mapping out his artistic terrain. “Cannery Row in Monterey in California is a poem, a stink, a grating noise, a quality of light, a tone, a habit, a nostalgia, a dream.” (5) The second and third nouns, “…a stink, a grating noise…” acknowledge the physical attributes of Monterey. When the Monterey plants were in operation, the fumes were so noxious that in 1936 the mayor of Pacific Grove told the city attorney to sue Monterey (5): “…a poem…a nostalgia, a dream.” Susan Shillinglaw, in an introduction to a copy of Steinbeck’s Cannery Row, states an interpretation of the meaning of the book, summarized to combine the real and the imagined:

In this first sentence seven nouns flow from art to life to art, just as the rest of that introductory chapter enumerates[1] the locations, activities, and persons of the Row and then subsides into the metaphor that contains them, the tide pool; just as the early chapters lean in to peer closely at inhabitants of the Row and the later ones draw back to capture the shimmering whole in the parties, and in the last chapter, in the art of poetry. (vii- xxvii)

Steinbeck invites “an expansion of the physical events” with his first sentence, the line a key that opens the door to his novel. (Swisher, The Parable of the Pearl 100)

John Steinbeck’s style of writing is illusively simple yet so deeply intricate. Each simile and each metaphor is so vividly weaved with imagery it is difficult to not picture it. A hilarious image of a simile is Steinbeck’s description of Lee Chong as he takes his post behind the cigar counter in his grocery store. “His fat delicate hands rested on the glass, the fingers moving like small restless sausages.” (10) Another simile describes Doc the morning after his second successful party. “Doc awakened very slowly and clumsily like a fat man getting out of a swimming pool.” (184) Being a scientist, specifically a marine biologist, Steinbeck brings out his love for life in Cannery Row with imagery. The descriptive and realistic narrative of Steinbeck’s text appeals to the reader, bringing them out of their world and into Steinbeck’s world. (31):

Doc was collecting marine animals in the Great Tide Pool on the tip of the Peninsula. It is a fabulous place: when the tide is in, a wave-churned basin, creamy with foam, whipped by the combers that roll in from the whistling buoy on the reef. But when the tide goes out the little water world becomes quiet and lovely. The sea is very clear and the bottom becomes fantastic with hurrying, fighting, feeding animals. Crabs rush from frond to frond of the waving algae. Starfish squat over mussels and limpets, attach their million little suckers and then slowly life with incredible power until the prey is broken form the rock. And then the starfish stomach comes out and envelops its food. Orange and black speckled and fluted nudibrancs slide gracefully over the rocks, their skirts waving like the dresses of Spanish dancers.

Proving his simply complicated writing, Steinbeck includes metaphors like the one at the beginning of his second chapter that summarizes the meaning of his book in metaphorical terms. “The Thing becomes the Word and back to Thing again, but warped and woven into a fantastic pattern. The Word sucks up Cannery Row, digests it and spews it out, and the Row has taken the shimmer of the green world and the sky- reflecting seas.” Cannery Row contains a lengthy metaphorical parable in a charming chapter about a gopher who builds a beautiful home on a perfect site, where there are no cats and no traps and perfect drainage, but where he waits in vain for a mate to appear, and so finally has to leave his paradise and go seek a mate where there are traps and other dangers, for that is what females want.

Edward F. Rickets was a marine biologist and Steinbeck’s closest friend for 18 years until he died in 1948. Steinbeck looked up to him and his work. He was “different from anyone and yet so like that everyone found himself in Ed.” He was a man whose “mind had no horizons. He was interested in everything…never moralized in any way.” (Shillinglaw, vii-xxvii) Ricketts fits the part of Doc in Cannery Row, known by everyone, liked by everyone. As he originally assumed Doc’s place, Steinbeck essentially made Ricketts the narrator of his novel, so that the reader sees as Steinbeck sees as Ricketts sees. Steinbeck makes his home world renown, weaving “strands of Steinbeck’s non- teleological acceptance of what ‘is,’ his ecological vision, and his own memories of a street and the people who made it home. Steinbeck’s art gave this street its form, its identity, and a name that stuck: In 1957 the city of Monterey changed the name of Ocean View Drive to Cannery Row.” (Shillinglaw, Introduction vii-xxvii)

When Steinbeck wrote Cannery Row, he wrote it for the soldiers who asked him to write about something other than the dreary war:

The cannery whistles scream and all over the town men and women scramble into their clothes and come running down to the Row to go work. They come running to clean and cut and pack and cook and can the fish. The canneries rumble and rattle and squeak until the last fish is cleaned and cut and cooked and canned and then the whistles scream again and the dripping, smelly, tire wops and Chinamen and Polasks, men and women straggle out and drop their ways up the hill into the town and Cannery Row becomes itself again-quiet and magical. (Steinbeck, Cannery Row 5-6)

Steinbeck wrote the book to show the world his life. The last year of World War Two was the year Cannery Row was published and was the peak of Monterey’s canning factories when 237,00 tons of sardines were processed. In 1946, the number decreased to 142,000 tons and, in 1947, it dropped to 31,000 tons of processed sardines, an 87 per cent decline in two seasons. All sardine factories eventually closed down, the last one closing in 1973 after canning squid for a number of years. This was a big part of living near the Monterey Bay, but Steinbeck wrote not to tell of the famous canneries or the people who worked in them.

Cannery Row is entirely based on the life of the townspeople after the canneries close and the workers go home for the day. “The ‘hour of pearl,’ he so often reminds us, is a ‘little era of the rest…when time stops and examines itself.’ ” (Shillinglaw, Introduction vii-xxvii) It’s about the life of the city ‘behind the scenes,’ beneath the fame; it’s about what makes it original and distinctive, setting it apart from the world’s busy life. Cannery Row is, using Steinbeck’s metaphor, a tide pool teeming with life after the ocean of commerce recedes. “And each cycle insists that place is defined by the interaction of inhabitants and their environment.” (Shillinglaw, Introduction vii-xxvii)

The reader peers into Steinbeck’s tide pool and finds Mack and the Boys, Doc, Dora Flood, Lee Chong, Henri (the dramatic artist), and most of all finds the interdependence subconsciously overtaking the town. Using the gopher parable in the last chapter, Steinbeck contrasts the books’ acceptance of life that is to what it was or what one wants life to be. Susan Shillinglaw writes in the introduction to a copy of Cannery Row, “Here the writer, like his scientist hero [Doc/Ricketts], scrutinizes what IS, not what might be. Cannery Row is Steinbeck’s purest non- judgmental, ‘non-teleological’ text.” (vii-xxvii) The reader must take the many fragments of Cannery Row and piece them together so to find an artistically bound whole of life.

A key component to Cannery Row that makes known to the reader that it is a reality is the loneliness that hovers over the Row. Cannery Row is the story of a “group of self-determined social outcasts-‘the boys,’ they are called–…inhabiting a deserted house which serves as office and binder of their fellowship.” Mack and the Boys try to throw a surprise party for Doc and his kindness to them but end up destroying Doc’s house while they await his return, pulling a black gloom rumours that have become of the incident over them, the intent of their actions totally disregarded. Charles Walcutt comments in an essay, “Their irresponsible doings are presented farcically and with gusto.” (Swisher, Cannery Row-A Farce 46-47)

Mack and the boys live extremely opposite form Doc, with his ‘classical’ music and his scientific research, yet invariably find themselves simultaneously closer to him than to anyone else they know. Yet Doc balances their irresponsibility with understanding. He digs deeper, always aware of but not looking at the superficial appearance of others, perceptive of the connections of life in Cannery Row. He listens to Mack’s admission of failure and links with Frankie, a shy boy unwanted because of his clumsiness and dirtiness. He is a lonely man with no wife or children, yet he befriends everyone.

Of the forty-five characters addressed in the novel, three, almost four characters have committed suicide. One very apparent incident occurs when the watchman of Dora’s Bear Flag Restaurant tries to join the jubilant group of Mack and the boys, wishing to be noticed, but was rejected and thus self-assured of his loneliness and his uselessness, and killed himself in the Greek cook’s kitchen. Another was the Josh Billings tale was the first contemplated of the Monterey stories that reveals Steinbeck’s sense of rejection in Monterey. Cannery Row was developed since 1939, seriously written in 1944 during World War II, and was completed mostly by Steinbeck’s own loneliness and longing for his new wife while overseas in Europe on assignment as a war correspondent-a journalist reporting news from a war zone.

Jackson Benson, Steinbeck’s biographer, suggested that Cannery Row was Steinbeck’s ‘war novel’, but largely because of the omission of life’s reality. Steinbeck suppresses the war. He writes of his self-loss, his California home, his sustaining friend Ricketts, and of “certainty in a meaningful world.” (Shillinglaw, Introduction vii-xxvii) With all the action-adventure fragments of the lives in Cannery Row, the book is also a sombre one, carrying the energies of Steinbeck’s war experience. Deliberately veiled in meaning is the visionary mode: the Chinaman’s eyes open to a plain of desolation; Henri, the artist who dreamt of agonizing death; and “near the outer barrier between ocean and littoral[2]”, Doc peers queasily at the haunting beauty of a drowned girl. (Steinbeck, Cannery Row 105) Loneliness always finds its way through life, and Cannery Row was no exception.

Arms and the Man by George Bernard Shaw

Arms and the Man is one of George Bernard Shaws successfully written plays that have become predominant and globally renowned. Shaws play leads itself to two themes that people can relate to, which are the importance of war and the essentials to true love and marriage. These themes are interwoven, for Shaw believed that while war is evil and stupid, and marriage desirable and good, both had become wrapped in romantic illusions which led to disastrous wars and also to unhappy marriages.1 The theme of war applies itself into the plot within the first few pages of the melodrama, when the Bulgarians are at war with the Serbs. Romance is portrayed by the humorous and ironic relationships of Raina, Sergius and Bluntschli. Unfortunately, due to societys lack of comprehension and failing to learn from our past errors, we are destined to repeat the majority of them. Another act of ignorance found in this play is the attitude of the Petkoffs towards their material advantages and their possessions of wealth, bringing them personal superiority.
Arms and the Man is “as fresh and up-to-date today” as when Shaw first produced his play in 1894.2

War is an unfortunate condition that exists when a group feels its vital interests are at stake and seeks to impose its beliefs or control on a rival group through the use of overt force. Shaw was a socialist and an ardent pacifist.3 He did not agree to the idea of war, and he wrote about it to warn us, future generations, not to commit the same crime. The romantic view of war (he held) is based on the idealistic notation that men fight because they are heroes, and that the soldier who takes the biggest risks wins the greatest glory and is the greatest hero.4 Raina had imagined war as an exciting sport; after talking with Captain Bluntschli, one of the defeated, she now sees it as a dreadful reality.5 Sergius, too, has learned something of the realities of war, and is so disgusted by them that he has sent in his resignation, saying Soldieringis the cowards art of attacking mercilessly when you are strong, and keeping out of harms way when you are week.6 This theme of war helps Shaws Arms and the Man to continue as a fresh and current play, as it was in 1894. The battle of Slivnica was remarkable mainly for its surprise ending wherein the Bulgarians defeated the invading Serbians much more by good luck than good management, and went to ally themselves with Austrian Hungary thereby bringing World War I one small step closer.7 Many other wars have taken place since then, and yet man has still to learn that war is not the answer.

The romance in the play is portrayed by the humorous and ironic relationships of Raina, Sergius and Bluntschli. In Arms and the Man Raina Petkoff intends, at the time the play opens, to become the wife of Major Sergius Saranoff, who is then away fighting the Serbs. News has come home to Raina and her mother that Sergius has ridden bravely at the head of a victorious cavalry charge, and Raina rejoices because she can now believe that her affianced is just as splendid and noble as he looks! That the world is really a glorious world for woman who can see its glory and men who can act its romance! In the opening scene of the play, after adoring Sergius portrait, Raina goes to bed murmuring My hero! My hero! This is a romantic view of life, but then reality suddenly breaks in upon her.8 An enemy solider, Captain Bluntschli the “chocolate-cream soldier”, escaping from gunfire in the Bulgarian countryside, scales the balcony of a mountain estate and lands in the bedroom of a young woman wh…..ose father and fiancé are fighting on the front. He is desperate through exhaustion and fear, and Raina sneers at him. Nevertheless, when the pursuers come to search the house, Raina hides the fugitive and denies having seen him. She also feeds him chocolates, they are his passion; he carries them like all professional soldiers, he says into war instead of bullets. Bluntschli is Shaws affectionate parody of a Swiss pragmatist, level-headed and unemotional. It amuses Shaw to discombobulate him by placing him, initially, in a situation where his reasonableness cannot help him much. Raina no longer thinks of war as a romantic game, nor does she any longer think of marriage as the mating of a beautiful heroine and a ornamental and fickle Sergius. She takes as her husband the plain Bluntschli, whose common sense and six hotels in Switzerland will give her stability and comfort. The realities of love and marriage become one of the most frequent themes in Shaws plays throughout the remainder of his long life.9 The complexities of love and marriage has not changed much over the years. For example, love and relationships were just as obscure in 1894 as they are in 1998. This makes Shaws play recent and the issues it deals with are understandable.

Shaw believed that it was foolish to act as though the possession of wealth, or any other material advantages, is a sign of personal superiority. People may not any longer think it impressive to have an electric bell in the house, but there are countries nowadays where families with television sets and motor cars feel just as stupidly proud as the Petkoffs did with their bell and library.10 Many people world-wide today consider themselves above others and look down on those with less materialistic possessions, as if they were inferior. Having more materialistic possessions and wealth does not necessarily mean it will bring you happiness, this is not the reality of life at all. As a mater of fact, those with less materialistic treasures tend to live a happier and peaceful life. This is because their efforts are not concentrated on wealth but rather on family and friends who support each other. Money and wealth can control a person to become greedy and require more. It is much better to live a life of harmony and peace, blessed for what to have, than to live worrying about the things that you do not have. That is a lesson Shaw is trying to teach us. We should learn from the Petkoffs and acquire a better attitude towards life and its materialistic treasures. “If history repeats itself, and the unexpected always happens, how incapable must Man be of learning from experience?” George Bernard Shaw.

Furthermore, Arms and the Man is “as fresh and up-to-date today” as when Shaw first produced his play in 1894. Shaws play leads itself to two themes that people can relate to, which are the importance of war and the essentials to true love and marriage.

The theme of war applies itself into the plot within the first few pages of the play, when the Bulgarians are at war with the Serbs. Romance is portrayed by the humorous and ironic relationships of Raina, Sergius and Bluntschli. Shaw believed that it was foolish to act as though the possession of wealth, or any other material advantages, is a sign of personal superiority. Moreover, Arms and the Man is a successful play and will continue to prosper due to the nature of its themes, war and romance being contemporary with todays society. Perhaps Shaw’s best ability might have been his ability to attract attention to himself, his ideas, and his works. This ability never failed him.

Rise Of The Superpowers

It is often wondered how the superpowers achieved their position of dominance. It seems that the maturing of the two superpowers, Russia and the United States, can be traced to World War II. To be a superpower, a nation needs to have a strong economy, an overpowering military, immense international political power and, related to this, a strong national ideology.

It was this war, and its results, that caused each of these superpowers to experience such a preponderance of power. Before the war, both nations were fit to be described as great powers, but it would be erroneous to say that they were superpowers at that point. To understand how the second World War impacted these nations so greatly, we must examine the causes of the war. The United States gained its strength in world affairs from its status as an economic power. In the years before the war, America was the worlds largest producer. In the USSR at the same time, Stalin was implementing his five year plans to modernise the Soviet economy.

From these situations, similar foreign policies resulted from widely divergent origins. Roosevelts isolationism emerged from the wide and prevalent domestic desire to remain neutral in any international conflicts. It commonly widely believed that Americans entered the first World War simply in order to save industrys capitalist investments in Europe. Whether this is the case or not, Roosevelt was forced to work with an inherently isolationist Congress, only expanding its horizons after the bombing of Pearl Harbour. He signed the Neutrality Act of 1935, making it illegal for the United States to ship arms to the belligerents of any conflict.

The act also stated that belligerents could buy only non-armaments from the US, and even these were only to be bought with cash. In contrast, Stalin was by necessity interested in European affairs, but only to the point of concern to the USSR. Russian foreign policy was fundamentally Leninist in its concern to keep the USSR out of war. Stalin wanted to consolidate Communist power and modernise the country’s industry. The Soviet Union was committed to collective action for peace, as long as that commitment did not mean that the Soviet Union would take a brunt of a Nazi attack as a result. Examples of this can be seen in the Soviet Unions attempts to achieve a mutual assistance treaty with Britain and France.

These treaties, however, were designed more to create security for the West, as opposed to keeping all three signatories from harm. At the same time, Stalin was attempting to polarise both the Anglo-French, and the Axis powers against each other. The important result of this was the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact, which partitioned Poland, and allowed Hitler to start the war. Another side-effect of his policy of playing both sides was that it caused incredible distrust towards the Soviets from the Western powers after 1940. This was due in part to the fact that Stalin made several demands for both influence in the Dardanelles, and for Bulgaria to be recognised as a Soviet dependant.

The seeds of superpowerdom lie here however, in the late thirties. R.J. Overy has written that stability in Europe might have been achieved through the existence of powers so strong that they could impose their will on the whole of the international system, as has been the case since 1945. At the time, there was no power in the world that could achieve such a feat. Britain and France were in imperial decline, and more concerned about colonial economics than the stability of Europe.

Both imperial powers assumed that empire-building would necessarily be an inevitable feature of the world system. German aggression could have been stifled early had the imperial powers had acted in concert. The memories of World War One however, were too powerful, and the general public would not condone a military solution at that point. The aggression of Germany, and to a lesser extent that of Italy, can be explained by this decline of imperial power.

They were simply attempting to fill the power vacuum in Europe that Britain and France unwittingly left. After the economic crisis of the 1930s, Britain and France lost much of their former international standing–as the world markets plummeted; so did their relative power. The two nations were determined to maintain their status as great powers however, without relying on the US or the USSR for support of any kind. They went to war only because further appeasement would have only served to remove from them their little remaining world standing and prestige.

The creation of a non-aggression pact between the Soviet Union and Germany can be viewed as an example of imperial decline as well. Stalin explained the fact that he reached a rapprochement with Germany, and not one with Great Britain by stating that the USSR and Germany had wanted to change the old equilibrium England and France wanted to preserve it. Germany also wanted to make a change in the equilibrium, and this common desire to get rid of the old equilibrium had created the basis for the rapprochement with Germany.

The common desire of many of the great European powers for a change in the world state system meant that either a massive war would have to be fought; or that one of the great powers would need to attempt to make the leap to superpower status without reaping the advantages such a conflict could give to the power making the attempt. Such benefits as wartime economic gains, vastly increased internal markets from conquered territory, and increased access to resources and the means of industrial production would help fuel any nations drive for superpowerdom. One of two ways war could have been avoided was for the United States or Russia to have taken powerful and vigorous action against Germany in 1939. Robert A. Divine, holds that superpowerdom gives a nation the framework by which a nation is able to extend globally the reach of its power and influence.

This can be seen especially as the ability to make other nations (especially in the Third World) act in ways that the superpower prefers, even if this is not in the weaker nations self interest. The question must then be raised, were the United States and Russia superpowers even then, could coercive, unilateral actions taken by them have had such significant ramifications for the international order? It must be concluded that, while they were not yet superpowers, they certainly were great powers, with the incredible amount of influence that accompanies such status. Neither the United States nor the Soviet Union possessed the international framework necessary to be a super power at this time.

It is likely that frameworks similar to Nato or the Warsaw Pact could have been developed, but such infrastructures would have necessarily been on a much smaller scale, and without influence as the proposed Anglo-American (English speaking world) pact was. At this time, neither the United States nor Russia had developed the overwhelming advantages that they possessed at the end of the war. There are several factors that allowed them to become superpowers: a preponderance of military force, growing economies, and the creation of ideology-backed blocs of power.

The United States, it seems, did not become a superpower by accident. Indeed, Roosevelt had a definite European policy that was designed from the start to secure a leading role for the United States. The US non-policy which ignored Eastern Europe in the late thirties and forties, while strongly supported domestically, was another means to Roosevelts plans to achieve US world supremacy. After the war, Roosevelt perceived that the way to dominate world affairs was to reduce Europes international role (vis–vis the United States, as the safest way of preventing future world conflict), the creation of a permanent superpower rivalry with the USSR to ensure world stability.

Roosevelt sought to reduce Europes geopolitical role by ensuring the fragmentation of the continent into small, relatively powerless, and ethnically homogenous states. When viewed in light of these goals Roosevelt appears very similar to Stalin who, in Churchills words, Wanted a Europe composed of little states, disjointed, separate, and weak. Roosevelt was certain that World War Two would destroy continental Europe as a military and economic force, removing Germany and France from the stage of world powers. This would leave the United States, Great Britain, and the USSR as the last remaining European world powers.

In order to make it nearly impossible for France to reclaim her former world position, Roosevelt objected to De Gaul taking power immediately after the war. Roosevelt defended the Allies right [to] hold the political situation in trust for the French people. He presented General Eisenhower control of France and Italy for up to a year, in order to restore civil order. As British foreign minister Anthony Eden stated, … Roosevelt wanted to hold the strings of Frances future in his hands, so that he could decide that countrys fate. It seems inexcusable that Roosevelt desired to hold an allys nation in trust, comparable to Italy, who was a belligerent.

It could be argued, however that they were taking the reigns of power, not from the resistance, but from the hands of the Vichy French. It might be asked why Roosevelt did not plot the fall of the British Empire as well. A cynical answer to this is that Roosevelt understood that the United States was not powerful enough to check the Soviet Unions power in Europe by itself. It made sense that because the United States and Britain are cultural cousins, the most commodious solution would be to continue the tradition of friendliness, set out in the Atlantic Charter earlier. As far as economic or military competition, Roosevelt knew that if he could open the British Empire to free trade it would not be able to effectively compete with the United States.

This is because an imperial paradigm allows one to sell goods in a projectionist manner, finding markets within the Empire. This allows a nation to have restrictive tariffs on imports, which precludes foreign competition. A nation, that is primarily concerned with finding markets on the other hand, is in a much better position for global economic expansion, as it is in its interest to pursue free trade. The more generous, and likely the correct interpretation is that Roosevelt originally planned to have a system of three superpowers, including only the US, the UK, and the USSR.

This was modified from the original position which was formed before the USSR joined the allies, that held for Great Britain to take a primary role in Europe, and the United States to act as a custodial in Asia. Later, after it was seen that either the Germans or the Russians would dominate Eastern Europe, the plan was forced to change. The plan shifted from one where the US and Great Britain would keep order in Europe, to one where Great Britain and the USSR would keep order in Europe as local superpowers, and the US would act as an impartial, world wide mediator. Roosevelt hoped for the creation of an Anglo-American-Russo world police force.

However, Roosevelt, underestimated the power of the Russian ideology. He believed that the Russians would back away from communism for the sake of greater stability and union with the West. Roosevelt saw the Soviet Union as a country like any other, except for her preoccupation with security (the safety corridor in Eastern Europe that Stalin insisted on), but he thought that that this could be explained by the cultural and historical background of Russia. It was not thought unreasonable to request a barrier of satellite states to provide a sense of security, given that Russia and the USSR had been invaded at least four times since 1904.

It was felt that granting the Soviet Union some territory in Eastern and Central Europe would satisfy their political desires for territory. It was only after experiencing post World War II Soviet expansion, that the Soviet quest for territory was seen to be inherently unlimited. Roosevelt felt that the position in Eastern Europe, vis–vis the Soviet Union, was analogous to that of Latin America, vis–vis the United States. He felt that there should be definite spheres of influence, as long as it was clear that the Soviet Union was not to interfere with the governments of the affected nations.

The reason that Roosevelt did not object to a large portion of Eastern Europe coming under the totalitarian control of the Soviet Union was that he believed the weakness in the Soviet economy caused by the war would require Stalin to seek Western aid, and open the Russians to Western influence. Many historians feel that Roosevelt was simply naive to believe that the Soviet Union would act in such a way. Arthur Schlesinger saw the geopolitical and ideological differences between the United States and the Soviet Union. He stressed however, the ideological differences as being most important.

The two nations were constructed on opposite and profoundly antagonistic principles. They were divided by the most significant and fundamental disagreements over human rights, individual liberties, cultural freedom, the role of civil society, the direction of history, and the destiny of man. Stalins views regarding the possibility of rapprochement between the USSR and the West were similar. He thought that the Russian Revolution created two antipodal camps: Anglo-America and Soviet Russia. Stalin felt that the best way to ensure the continuation of communist world revolution was to continually annex the countries bordering the Soviet Union, instead of attempting to foster revolution in the more advanced industrial societies.

This is the underlying reason behind the Soviet Unions annexation of much of Eastern Europe, and the subjugation of the rest. The creation of the Soviet bloc in Eastern Europe did not come as a total surprise. Roosevelt thought that Americas position after the war, vis–vis the rest of the world, would put him in a very good position to impose his view of the post-war world order. The Joint Chiefs of Staff however, predicted that after the German defeat, the Russians would be able to impose whatever territorial settlement they wanted in Central Europe and the Balkans.

World War II caused the USSR to rapidly evolve from a military farce, to a military superpower. In 1940 it was hoped that if the Soviet Union was attacked, that they could hold off the Germans long enough for the West to help fight them off with reinforcements. In 1945 the Soviet Army was marching triumphantly through Berlin. Was this planned by Stalin in the same way that Roosevelt seems to have planned to achieve world supremacy? The answer to this question must be a somewhat ambivalent no. While Stalin desired to see Russian dominance in Europe and Asia if possible, he did not have a systematic plan to achieve it. Stalin was an opportunist, and a skilful one.

He demanded that Britain and America recognise territory gained by the Soviet Union in pacts and treaties that it had signed with Germany, for instance. Stalins main plan seemed to be to conquer all the territory that his armies could reach, and create to socialist states within it. From this it can be seen that one of the primary reasons for the superpower rivalry was Roosevelts misunderstanding of the Soviet system. Roosevelt and his advisors thought that giving the Soviet Union control of Central and Eastern Europe, would result in the creation of states controlled somewhat similar to the way in which the United States controlled Cuba after the Platt Amendment.

The State Department assumed that the USSR would simply control the foreign policy of the satellite nations, leaving the individual countries open to Western trade. This idea was alien to Soviet leaders. To be controlled by the Soviet Union at all was to become a socialist state; freedom to decide the domestic structure, or how to interact with the world markets was denied to such states. Stalin assumed that his form of control over these states would mean the complete Sovietization of their societies, and Roosevelt was blind to the internal logic of the Soviet system which in effect required this. Roosevelt believed that the dissolution of Comintern in 1943, along with the defeat of Trotsky, meant that Stalin was looking to move the Soviet Union westward in its political alignment.

While Stalin might have been primarily concerned with socialism in one country, communist revolution was a paramount, if deferred policy goal. Roosevelts desire for a favourable post-war settlement appears to be naive at first glance. The post war plan that he had created was dependant upon the creation of an open market economy, and the prevailing nature of the dollar. He was convinced that the Soviet Union would move westward and abandon its totalitarian political system along with its policy of closed and internal markets. When seen from such a perspective, Roosevelts agreement to let the Soviet Union dominate half of Europe does not seem as ludicrous.

His fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of the Soviet state can be forgiven, once it has been allowed that an apparently peaceful nature was apparent at the time, and that it had existed for a relatively short time. While the United States wanted to eschew isolationism, and set and example of international co-operation in a world ripe for United States leadership, the Soviet Union was organising its ideals around the vision of a continuing struggle between two fundamentally antagonistic ideologies. The decisive period of the century, so far as the eventual fate of democracy was concerned, came with the defeat of fascism in 1945 and the American-sponsored conversion of Germany and Japan to democracy and a much greater degree of economic liberalism.

Such was the result of America attempting to spread its ideology to the rest of the world. The United States believed that the world at large, especially the Third World, would be attracted to the political views of the West if it could be shown that democracy and free trade provided the citizens of a nation with a higher standard of living. As United States Secretary of State James F. Byrnes, To the extent that we are able to manage our domestic affairs successfully, we shall win converts to our creed in every land. It has been seen that Roosevelt and his administration thought that this appeal for converts would extend into the Soviet sphere of influence, and even to the Kremlin itself.

The American ideology of democracy is not complete without the accompanying necessity of open markets. America has tried to achieve an open world economy for over a century. From the attempts to keep the open door policy in China to Article VII of the Lend-Lease act, free trade has been seen as central to American security. The United States, in 1939, forced Great Britain to begin to move away from its imperial economic system. Cordell Hull, then Secretary of State, was extremely tough with Great Britain on this point. He used Article VII of the Lend-Lease, which demanded that Britain not create any more colonial economic systems after the war.

Churchill fought this measure bitterly, realising that it would mean the effective end of the British Empire, as well as meaning that Great Britain would no longer be able to compete economically with the United States. However, Churchill did eventually agree to it, realising that without the help of the United States, he would lose much more than Great Britains colonies. American leadership of the international economy–thanks to the institutions created at Bretton Woods in 1944, its strong backing for European integration with the Marshall Plan in 1947 and support for the Schuman Plan thereafter (both dependent in good measure on American power) created the economic, cultural, military, and political momentum that enabled liberal democracy to flourish in competition with Soviet communism.

It was the adoption of the Marshall Plan that allowed Western Europe to make its quick economic recovery from the ashes of World War II. The seeds of the massive expansion of the military-industrial complex of the early fifties are also to be found in the post war recovery. Feeling threatened by the massive amount of aid the United States was giving Western Europe, the Soviet Union responded with its form of economic aid to its satellite counties. This rivalry led to the Western fear of Soviet domination, and was one of the precursors to the arms-race of the Cold War.

The foundation for the eventual rise of the Superpowers is clearly found in the years leading up to and during World War II. The possibility of the existence of superpowers arose from the imperial decline of Great Britain and France, and the power vacuum that this decline created in Europe. Germany and Italy tried to fill this hole while Britain and France were more concerned with their colonial empires. The United States and the Soviet Union ended the war with vast advantages in military strength. At the end of the war, the United States was in the singular position of having the worlds largest and strongest economy.

This allowed them to fill the power gap left in Europe by the declining imperial powers. Does this, however, make them Superpowers? With the strong ideologies that they both possessed, and the ways in which they attempted to diffuse this ideology through out the world after the war, it seems that it would. The question of Europe having been settled for the most part, the two superpowers rushed to fill the power vacuum left by Japan in Asia. It is this, the global dimension of their political, military and economic presence that makes the United States and the USSR superpowers. It was the rapid expansion of the national and international structures of the Soviet Union and the United States during the war that allowed them to assume their roles as superpowers.

Bibliography

Aga-Rossi, Elena. Roosevelts European Policy and the Origins of the
Cold War Telos. Issue 96, Summer 93: pp.65-86.

Divine, Robert A. The Cold War as History Reviews in American History.
Issue 3, vol. 21, Sept 93: 26-32.

Dukes, Paul. The Last Great Game: Events, Conjectures, Structures.
London: Pinter Publishers, 1989

Le Ferber, Walter. The American Age: US Foreign Policy at Home and
Abroad 170 to the Present. New York: W.W. Norton Company, 1994.

Morrison, Samuel Elliot. The Two-Ocean War. Boston, MA: Atlantic
Little, Brown, 1963.

Overy, R.J. The Origins of the Second World War. New York: Longman
Inc, 1987.

Ovyany Igor. The Origins of World War Two. Moscow: Novosti Press
Agency Publishing House, 1989.

Smith, Tony. “The United States and the Global Struggle for Democracy,”
in America’s Mission: The United States and Democracy in the Twentieth
Century (New York: Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1995)
[http://epn.org/tcf/xxstru 03.html.] 1995

Strik-Strikfeldt, Wilfried. Against Stalin and Hitler. Bungay,
Suffolk: Richard Clay (The Chaucer Press), 1970.

1. Overy R.J. The Origins of the Second World War (Longman: New York) 1987 p.7 Overy pp. 88-89
2. Overy p .8
3. Ovsyany, Igor. The Origins of World War Two (Novosti Press Agency: Moscow) 1989 pp. 31-34.
4. Overy p. 70
5. Overy p. 85
6. Overy p. 89
7. Overy p. 91
8. Aga-Rossi p. 81
9. Divine, Robert A. “The Cold War as History” Reviews in American History, Sept 93, vol 21. p. 528.
10. Aga-Rossi, Elena. “Roosevelt’s European Policy and the Origins of the Cold War” Telos Summer 93. Issue 96 pp. 65-66
11. Aga-Rossi p. 66
12. Aga-Rossi p. 69
13. Aga-Rossi p. 72
14. Aga-Rossi p. 73
15. Aga-Rossi p. 77
16. Aga-Rossi p. 70
17. Divine p. 528
18. Aga-Rossi p. 80
19. Aga-Rossi p. 68
20. Aga-Rossi pp. 74-75
21. Aga-Rossi p. 79.
22. Aga-Rossi p. 83.
23. Tony Smith, “The United States and the Global Struggle for Democracy,” in America’s Mission: The United States and Democracy in the Twentieth Century (New York: Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1995)
[http://epn.org/tcf/xxstru 03.html.] 1995
24. Dukes, Paul. The Last Great Game: Events, Conjectures, Structures (Pinter Publishers: London) 1989 p. 107.
25. Le Ferber, Walter. The American Age: US Foreign Policy at Home and Abroad 170 to the Present. (W.W. Norton Company: New York) 1994 p. 417-418.
26. Tony Smith, “The United States and the Global Struggle for Democracy,” in America’s Mission: The United States and Democracy in the Twentieth Century (New York: Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1995)

Kamikaze Pilots Essay

During World War II in the Pacific, there were pilots of the Japanese Imperial Army and Navy who made suicide attacks, driving their planes to deliberately crash into carriers and battle- ships of the Allied forces. These were the pilots known as the Kamikaze pilots. Because right-wing organizations have used the Kamikaze pilots as a symbol of a militaristic and extremely nationalistic Japan, the current Japanese respond to the issue with ignorance and false stereotypes and with generally negative and unsympathetic remarks.

However, the Kamikaze fighters added a new wrinkle to navel warfare. Kamikaze expressed their feelings and thoughts about the missions through haiku poems. In many of the haiku that the Kamikaze pilots wrote, the Emperor is mentioned in the first line. According to those who have lived through the early Showa period (1926-1945), the presence of Emperor Showa was like that of a god and he was more of a religious figure than a political one (Scoggins 276-277). In public schools, students were taught to die for the emperor.

By late 1944, a slogan of Jusshi Reisho meaning “Sacrifice life,” was taught (Morimoto 148-151). Most of the pilots who volunteered for the suicide attacks were those who were born late in the Taisho period (1912-1926) or in the first two or three years of Showa. Therefore, they had gone through the brainwashing education, and were products of the militaristic Japan. In 1944 the General Staff had considered mounting organized suicide attacks, (Ikuta 25) “suicide attacks” had been made since the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (Shinbusha 266) Two types of suicide attacks had been made.

The first was an organized attack which would, in 90% of the cases, result in the death of the soldiers. However, if the plan had worked on the battlefield as it did in theory, there was some possibility that the soldiers would survive (Ibid 49). The other type of suicide attack that had been made was completely voluntary, and the result of a sudden decision. This was usually done by aircraft. The pilots, finding no efficient way to fight the American aircraft, deliberately crashed into them, and caused an explosion, destroying the American aircraft as well as killing themselves (Ikuta 35-42).

Because these voluntary suicide attacks had shown that the young pilots had the spirit of dying rather than being defeated, by February, 1944, the staff officers had started to believe that although they were way below the Americans in the number of aircraft, battleships, skillful pilots and soldiers, and in the amount of natural resources (oil, for example), they were above the Americans in the number of young men who would fight to the death rather than be defeated. By organizing the “Tokkotai,” they thought it would also attack the Americans psychologically, and make them lose their will to continue the war (Ibid 28).

The person who suggested the Kamikaze attack at first is unknown, but it is often thought to be Admiral Takijiro Onishi. However, Onishi was in the position to command the first Shinpu Tokubetsu Kogekitai rather than suggest it (Kusayanagi 48) In October, 1944, the plans for the organized suicide attacks became reality. Having received permission from the Minister of the Navy, Admiral Onishi entered Clark Air Base prepared to command the first organized suicide attacks (Shinbun 25-33).

Onishi had not thought the organized suicide attacks to be an efficient tactic, but that they would be a powerful battle tactic, and he believed that it would be the best and most beautiful place for the pilots to die. Onishi once said, “if they (the young pilots) are on land, they would be bombed down, and if they are in the air, they would be shot down. That’s sad… Too sad… To let the young men die beautifully, that’s what Tokko is. To give beautiful death, that’s called sympathy” (Kusayanagi 28). This statement makes sense, considering the relative skills of the pilots of the time.

By 1944, air raids were made all over Japan, especially in the cities. Most of the best pilots of the Navy and the Army had been lost in previous battles. Training time was greatly reduced to the minimum, or even less than was necessary in order to train a pilot. By the time the organized suicide attacks had started, the pilots only had the ability to fly, not to fight. Although what happens to the pilot himself in doing the suicide attack is by no means anywhere near beauty, to die in such a way, for the Emperor, and for the country, was (at the time), honorable.

One thing that was decided upon by the General Staff was that the Kamikaze attacks were to be made only if it was in the will of the pilot himself. It was too much of a task to be “commanded” (Ikuta 43-44). The first organized suicide attack was made on October 21, 1944 by a squadron called the Shinpu Tokubetsu Kogekitai (Shinbun 48-51). Tokubetsu Kogekitai was the name generally used in the Japanese Imperial Navy and Army. The public had known them as the Tokkotai, the abbreviated form. Tokkotai referred to all the organized suicide attacks. Shinpu is what is better known as Kamikaze (52).

The captain of the first attack was to be Captain Yukio Seki (49). According to the subcommander of the First Air Fleet, Tamai, who brought the issue up to Captain Seki, the Captain had in a short time replied “I understand. Please let me do it” (48). According to another source, the reply that Captain Seki gave was, “Please let me think about it one night. I will accept the offer tomorrow morning” (Mori 626-627). The document which seems to have the most credibility is the book, The Divine Wind by Captain Rikihei Inoguchi and Commander Tadashi Nakajima.

According to this account a graduate of the Naval Academy, Naoshi Kanno, was originally nominated as the leader of this mission. However, he was away from Mabalacat on a mission to mainland Japan. Therefore, to take Kanno’s place Captain Seki was chosen, and was called to Commander Tamai’s room at midnight. After hearing of the mission, it appears, Seki remained silent for a while, then replied, “You must let me do it” (Inoguchi 32). Captain Seki agreed to lead the first Kamikaze attack, and, on October 25, 1944 during the battle off Samos, made one of the first attacks, on the American aircraft carrier Saint Lo (Shinbun 56).

Twenty-six fighter planes were prepared, of which half were to escort and the other half to make the suicide mission. That half was divided into the Shikishima, Yamato, Asahi and Yamazakura (Inoguchi 32). The youngest of the Kamikaze pilots of the Imperial Army was 17 years old, and the oldest, 35 (Kosaka 43-44). Most of them were in their late teens, or early twenties. As the battle in Okinawa [April to June 1945] worsened, the average age of the pilots got younger. Some had only completed the equivalent of an elementary school and middle school combined. Some had been to college.

There was a tendency for them not to be first sons. The eldest sons usually took over the family business. Most were therefore the younger sons who did not need to worry about the family business. Most of those who had come from college came in what is called the Gakuto Shutsujin. This was when the college students’ exemption from being drafted into the military was lifted, and the graduation of the seniors was shifted from April 1944 to September 1943 (Shimabarra 85). Many of these students were from prestigious colleges such as Tokyo, Kyoto, Keio, and Waseda Universities.

These students from college tended to have more liberal ideas, not having been educated in military schools, and also were more aware of the world outside of Japan. All the pilots involved in the “Okinawa Tokko” had been trained in/as one of the following: The Youth Pilot Training School, Candidates for Second Lieutenant, The Imperial Army Air Corps Academy, Pilot Trainee, Flight Officer Candidates, Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet, Pilot Training Schools, or Special Flight Officer Candidate (Ikuta 134).

Since the Kamikaze attacks were to be made only if the pilots had volunteered, and could not be “commanded,” there were two methods to collect volunteers. One was for all pilots in general, and another was for the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet (College graduates) only. The former was an application form, and the latter was a survey. The survey asked: “Do you desire earnestly/wish/do not wish/to be involved in the Kamikaze attacks? ” They had to circle one of the three choices, or leave the paper blank. The important fact is that the pilots were required to sign their names (Kusayanagi 32).

When the military had the absolute power, and the whole atmosphere of Japan expected men to die for the country, there was great psychological pressure to circle “earnestly desire” or “wish. ” The Army selected those who had circled “earnestly desire. ” The reason that the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet had to answer such a survey rather than send the applications at their own will was probably because the military had known that the students who had come from college had a wider vision, and would not easily apply for such a mission.

For the regular application, the Army was confident that there would be many young pilots who would apply. They were correct. Every student of the 15th term of the Youth Pilot Training School had applied. Because there were so many volunteers, the military had decided to let the ones with better grades go first (Naemura 146). There are several factors which made so many young pilots volunteer for such a mission. Extreme patriotism must have been one factor for sure. Added to that, there was the reverence for the Emperor, a god.

Some say that it was generally believed that if one died for the emperor, and was praised in Yasukuni Shrine, they would become happy forever (Araki 43). The pilots were, as a matter of fact, not radical nor extremely patriotic, but were the average Japanese of the time. It was a dream for the young boys of late Taisho period and early Showa to serve in the military, especially in the Air Force, as a career. Not all pilots who wanted to become Kamikaze pilots could become one.

Although this may sound strange, there were so many volunteers to make the suicidal and fatal attacks, that the military, to be fair, had to let the ones with the better grades go earlier. Because of the aura that had covered Japan, the young pilots of 18 and 19 were eager to go. Those of the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadets who had their own thoughts like Second lieutenants Suzuki, Uehara, and Anazawa were able to separate their personal life from what was required of them to do for the war.

They felt the responsibility to go. In any case, it seems that they were all optimistic. They volunteered, believing their death might save their family, the ones they loved, and Japan. However, as a student investigating fifty years after the events, it was not possible for me to understand exactly how the pilots had felt towards their mission. The overall picture in this paper, is that the Kamikaze missions had a huge effect in Japanese naval warfare.

Susan Griffin’s “Our Secret”

Susan Griffin’s “Our Secret” is an essay in which she carefully constructs and describes history, particularly World War II, through the lives of several different people. Taken from her book A chorus of Stones, her concepts may at first be difficult to grasp; however David Bartholomae and Anthony Petrosky say that, “Griffin writes about the past – how we can know it, what its relation to the present, why we should care. In the way she writes, she is also making an argument about how we can know and understand the past…” (pg. 844) Griffin strikes all of these aspects in her essay.

What is most compelling about the essay, however, is the way Griffin incorporated personal, family, and world history into a chilling story of narrative and autobiography, without ever losing the factual evidence the story provided. The chapter reads like an entire novel, which helps the audience to understand the concepts with a clear and complete view of her history, not needing to read any other part of the book. Two other authors, Richard Rodriguez, and Ralph Ellison, who write about their experiences in life can possibly be better understood as historical texts when viewed through the eyes of Griffin.

Rodriguez explores his own educational history in his essay “The Achievement of Desire” and Ralph Ellison depicts his own journeys and personal growth in his essay, “An Extravagance of Laughter”. Both essays, which when seen through Susan Griffin’s perspective, can be reopened and examined from a different historical view, perhaps allowing them to be understood with a more lucid view of history and what it is really about. What is history? Many believe that history is what is read in textbooks, or what is seen on the news.

If Susan Griffin were asked that question, she would probably argue that history is much more than that. It is about the minds and souls of the people who went through the historical event, not simply what happened. In her essay, Griffin incorporates stories of people from totally different backgrounds, and upbringings, including herself, all to describe their account of one time period. Each person’s history is somehow connected with the next person’s, and each story contributes equally to the larger view of history. Griffin inputs three types of histories in her text; personal, family and world history.

In her personal history, she describes her life, and her childhood, which intertwines with her family history. However, she not only talks about her histories, she talks about the histories of the other characters in the essay to bring across the larger world history. One of the technique’s that Griffin uses to help the audience understand her concepts, is explaining two other story lines while telling her main story. The first one is a description of a cell. Throughout the essay, italicized sentences explaining the intricacies of a cell are placed seemingly randomly between passages.

The description begins with a nucleus, and as the story progresses, so does the nucleus. Griffin tells what happens to the nucleus, and how the inner-workings of the nucleus develops into a cell, which gives rise to many cells, which will eventually become an embryo. He other story line, also italicized sentences, goes through the making and beginning of missiles. Later in the essay, Griffin explains how the one missile develops into a bigger and more effective missile. These separate story lines are placed within the story to explain that everyone has a background, and a past.

The background and past are factors in developing the present and future; and certain characters in the story had a tendency to try to forget their past, not realizing that there is no escape from it. Griffin illustrates this technique most vividly with Heinrich Himmler, a prominent Nazi figure during WWII. In great detail, she describes Himmler’s childhood, and the harshness of his father. As Griffin traces Himmler’s life, it is evident that there is always a marker, or base from his childhood and father, approaching the conclusion that a childhood can affect the decisions made later in life.

At no time does she condone any of his actions; Griffin merely does this to help provide an understanding of how such behavior develops. The art of this technique being effective, however, is that Griffin interconnects all three stories so that the audience can grasp her concepts, and possibly incorporate those histories as well. In reading Susan Griffin, doors may be opened up to understand other authors and texts, with regard to it being a historical text. Richard Rodriguez is one author that already goes through history, but from an educational standpoint.

He discusses his childhood, and how coming from a working-class family influenced his process of learning. In his essay, he examines quite a bit of his family history, and his personal history as well. In speaking of his family history, Rodriguez traces back to his parents in Mexico, and their move to America, and the struggle to keep their standards of living in America. He also explains what is was like growing p in a Mexican-American household. Incorporated with his family history, his personal history has a lot to do with his family as well.

Rodriguez began to not like his background and roots at an early age. In many ways, he wanted to discard the Mexican persona and develop and keep an American one. Griffin talks about this subject in “Our Secret”. Griffin could be considering what could happen when Rodriguez tries to shed being Mexican, “ At a certain age we begin to define ourselves, to choose an image of who we are. I am this and not that, we say, attempting thus to erase whatever is within us that does not fit our idea of who Rodriguez hides himself behind an image of what he thinks he should be, but not who he really is.

He even has a central theme of a “scholarship boy”, a concept which he did not surmise. One aspect of his essay, perhaps not seen before, is the combining of his family and personal history into his world history. Both his family and personal history are already interlocked with world history with his family’s migration to America, ironically around the same time that Susan Griffin talks about. And while the war was not in the America’s, they must have had to endure racism, and hardships in coming to the United States.

Another author that can be looked at through Griffin’s eyes in a historical perspective is Ralph Ellison’s “Extravagance of Laughter”. What is interesting about looking at these two essays is that not only the histories, but a lot of the major themes as well are in both essays. Ellison has a vast personal history, and surrounding that is world history, however there is not a lot of evidence of family history. His personal history begins with his journey from the South to the North in the early nineteenth century.

He talks of accounts of racism he encountered in both places, which falls into the larger picture of world history. His remembrances of those racist happenings were occurring throughout the country at that time. Ellison incorporates so much personal history with world history that it becomes difficult to distinguish which is personal history, and which is world history. One of the themes that stay current throughout both essays, however, is constant effort to hide the truth. Ellison had a difficult time admitting and realizing his true place in society.

He wore “masks” to cover how he really felt, to accommodate whatever situation he was in. When Griffin talks about places in the family, she speaks of masks as well. She said, I think of it now as a mask, not an animated mask that expresses the essence of the inner truth, but a mask that falls like dead weight over the human face, making flesh a stationary object. (pg. 323) Both Ellison and Griffin felt trapped in this mask, and it took only self-revelation in both authors to free themselves of that mask. The revelation hit Ellison during a play and Griffin after learning about her family..

All three authors of these essays are in a sense, historians. They wrote about events that are in history, which makes the essays about history. However, these are all great works, and are being used to help explore the ways of writing history. Thus, in the context of which they are being used, they are all history. Themes about finding the truth within the self are current throughout works, and different types of histories are explored; making these text much more than just about history; they have become history.

Ralph Ellison once said, The way [one] expresses both the agony of life and the possibility of conquering it through is the sheer toughness of the spirit. They fall short of tragedy only in that they provide no solution, offer no scapegoat but the self…” (pg. 143) Each author demonstrates the toughness of the spirit, and provide no solution, as history never does. It is up to the individual to decide whether history will repeat itself, or whether or not a scapegoat will be found. However, Griffin, Rodriguez, and Ellison all did their part in providing possible solutions. …for history.

A man named Adolph Hitler

In the Second World War, a man named Adolph Hitler, the leader of the infamous Nazi regime, had a plethora of things on his mind. From guarding the stricken land of Poland against Soviet advancement, to making sure the western shores of the Atlantic Ocean in France were closely guarded, Hitler had much to worry about. Unfortunately, it was during Hitlers reign when a most horrible atrocity took place. Adolph Hitler was born on April 20th, 1889 in a small hamlet named Braunau Am Inn, just across the border from German Bavaria. Hitlers childhood was often riddled with abuse and physical beatings.

His family lived in a small farmhouse with 10 other people. Because of this, Adolphs older brother, Alois, ran away from home. As a child, Hitler was fascinated with art. He begged his father to let him attend a classical secondary school, but his father would have nothing to do with it. He insisted that his son follow in his footsteps as a civil servant. As a result, Hitler, in his first year of civil school, failed miserably, claiming he did so on purpose to spite his father. Around the age of 13, Hitler, as a result of living on the German-Austrian border, became interested in German nationalism.

A few years later, after his fathers death, 18-year-old Adolph decided it was time to try his luck in art, and moved to Vienna. After failing miserably in art, he became interested in politics. At the time, the mayor of Vienna, Karl Lueger, was an anti-Semite and Jew hater. Even though Hitler still had a few Jewish friends, the messages from Lueger began to sink in (Gilber 24). Hitler left Austria at the age of 24 years old, partly to leave the Austrian empire which he had started to hate, and, in part, to avoid required military service. At this time, it was 1914, and World War I had broken out.

Hitler found a sense of pride and belonging in the German army during The War. He was not a great soldier, but was stoic, and was awarded with the Iron cross at the end of the war. After the war, Hitler became increasingly anti-Semitic, which won the attention of his superiors (Gilber 37). At the end of 1919, the German army had Hitler, now age 30, look into an organization called the German Workers Party. Soon after, Hitler joined and became head of propaganda. The party fiercely attacked Communism, and was heavily anti-Semitic. As more and more people feared Communist revolution in Germany, the more and more people joined the party.

In 1920, Hitler modified a common ancient symbol to form the swastika, or twisted cross, as a symbol for his party. He then changed the name of the party to the National Socialist German Workers Party, or, in the shortened German form, the NAZI party (Keegan 65). By 1921, the Nazi party had over 3000 members, mostly drawing in large numbers of ultra-conservatives from Munich. In late 1921, Hitler traveled to Berlin to try and find more members for his party, but quickly returned, for the members of his party had signed a coup, which attempted to try and overthrow Hitler.

Offended, Hitler resigned his position, only to be asked to join again two weeks later. He knew the party was nothing without him (Gilber 54). Between 1921 and 1923, Germany had collapsed into financial ruin. Germany was presented with a 33 billion dollar bill, as reparations as a result of World War I. Inflation hit the roof, and the economy was finished. It took 4 billion marks to buy a loaf of bread. Life savings were completely wiped out. As a result, riots broke out. These riots incited extremist political groups into action, quickly bringing Germany to the brink of chaos.

In 1923, the Nazis had a party population of 55,000 members, far more than any extremist group vying for power. Hitler, knowing this, devised a plan, in which the Nazis would kidnap the leaders of the Bavarian government, and hold them at gunpoint until they accepted Hitler as their leader. The kidnapping was supposed to take place at a beer hall in Munich, for there was a party, and the guests of honor were the officials in the Bavarian government. On November 8th, 1923, SA troops (Hitlers personal bodyguards), under the direction of Hermann Goering, burst into the beer hall.

Hitler fired a shot to the ceiling, and demanded everyone silent. He made his way to the podium, and proclaimed, the National Revolution has begun! The Bavarian and Reich governments have been removed, and a provisional government formed (Gilber 76). Of course, none of this was true, but the people in the beer hall did not know the difference. Hitler ordered the 3 Bavarian officials to a back room, and proclaimed I have four bullets in this gun: three for you gentlemen, and one for me. (Gilber 77). The three gentlemen finally succumbed to the Nazi government.

They then went out to the podium in the beer hall, and publicly announced their loyalty to Hitler. All four, including Hitler then sang Deutschland uber Alles, the song of the Nazis. Hitler couldnt have been more pleased. Hitler left the beer hall in pure happiness. This proved to be a fatal mistake for Hitler, for after he left the hall, the revolution fizzled into nothing, he was captured, tried for treason, and, on November 21st, 1923, Hitler was put in jail for five years (Gilber 79). While in jail, Hitler funneled all of his hatred-driven energy into a book, titled Mein Kampf.

Hitler originally wanted to title his autobiography Four and a Half Years of Struggle Against Lies, Stupidity, and Cowardice, yet Hitlers publisher knew better. In the book, Hitler rambled from one subject to the next, one minute blaming the Jews for Germanys loss in World War I, and the next, talking about his future ambitions. It clearly made no sense. In 1925, Hitler was released from prison for being good, and arranged a meeting with the Prime Minister of Bavaria. The intent of the meeting was to ask the Prime Minister to lift the recently imposed ban on the Nazi party in Germany.

Yet, again, though, Hitler started to rant and rave during the meeting about Communism, and again threatened to rip apart Germanys government. Because of this, Hitler was banned from public speaking in Germany for 2 years, and the ban was not lifted (Gilber 98). During this two year period, Hitler reorganized the Nazi party, because he needed to have a smooth transition, if, in fact, he took control of the Reich government. In 1928, Hitler met Joseph Goebbels, a Nazi member, and quickly made him chief propaganda man. With Goebbels working hard making posters, billboards, signs, Hitler gained more and more support.

In 1929, the American stock market crashed, and Hitler felt that it was time to seize the power he had wanted. The stock market crash in America affected Germany just as much, because America was still giving Germany help financially from the First World War. Because America needed money so badly, they forced Germany to pay back all of the loans at once. This drove Germany into an even greater economic despair. For some reason or another, Hitler attracted the wealthy, aristocratic families of Germany by his dynamic speeches. Because of this, these families decided to give Hitler private financial help in order to keep the party alive.

At the end of 1929, Hitler had 100,000 total devoted members in his Nazi party, yet he would need to do much more to achieve any high-end position (Source #3) The Great Depression also split up the German Parliament, or Reichstag. No one had any idea how to fix the economic problems in Germany, so, in retaliation, President Hindenburg ordered the Reichstag dissolved at once, and a new election be held. In this new election for the Reichstag, the Nazi party gained over 6,000,000 votes, giving them 18 percent of the popular vote, and 107 seats in the Reichstag. This was achieved because of great parades and meetings arranged by Goebbels.

Hitler told crowds what they wanted to hear, using his over-bearing speaking voice (Source #3). In 1931, Hitler was having serious personal problems. His mistress, named Geil, was tired of someone always escorting her around. So, when Hitler told her not to leave a hotel room when he went away on a speaking tour, she shot herself through the heart. Hitler was a broken man. One man once said that at Christmas that year, he was dining at Hitlers home in the Bavarian mountains, and ham was served. Hitler was disgusted at the sight of the ham saying, eating the ham is like eating a corpse, and he never ate meat again.

This depression, though, did not stop Hitler from running up against President Hindenburg for the Presidency of Germany in 1932. Hitler lost the first round of the Presidency, but since there was no majority vote, another vote was cast. Hitler lost again, and lost the majority. Even though they lost, the Nazis had gained great popularity, and the present government of Germany was unstable, at best (Keegan 87). On July 17th, 1932, also called Bloody Sunday, Hitler marched over 400,000 SA and SS troops into a heavily Communistic part of Germany. Bullets were exchanged, and 19 Communists were dead, along with 300 wounded.

Later that month, another vote was taken. This time, Hitler won 37 percent of the vote, giving the party majority in the Reichstag. Hitler demanded Hindenburg give him Chancellor ship. The President refused, and only offered him vice-Chancellor ship. Hitler was outraged. Before the new Nazi government ousted him, the Chancellor ordered that the Reichstag be dissolved, and elections held again. Rumor got out that the Chancellor that was currently in office was backstabbing the President. Not wanting this, Hindenburg immediately made Hitler Chancellor (Keegan 101).

The next election was supposed to take place on March 5th, 1933. Hitlers officials came up with a master plan, which would insure Hitler a victory. The night before, the Nazis helped a Communist arsonist burn down the Reichstag building, and the next day, the Nazis blamed it on the Communists. Because of this, the voters voted in favor of Hitler, giving him 44% of the votes, and full dictatorial powers. He had finally won. The reign had begun. Hitler wasted no time, persecuting anyone political that was anti-Nazi. As early as 1934, two prisons were built strictly for political prisoners.

These prisons, or concentration camps, were set in Germany, and named Dachau (1934) and Buchenwald (1935). Laws were made which restricted the rights of non-Aryan people. To Hitler, an Aryan person was of German dissent, with blonde hair and blue eyes. These non-Aryans included Roma, Gypsies, and especially, Jews. Jews were not allowed to own any business or trade. Jews could not be bankers. Other laws were put into place, which stated that Jews could not leave the country, yet this law was not fully enforced until 1939. Anyone against the Nazis was arrested. The terror was forming.

In 1935, Hitler, in violation of the Versailles treaty, marched SS troops into the Rhineland. Under the Versailles treaty, the Rhineland would not be touched or remilitarized by the German army, unless the Allies granted proper authority. Later in the year, the army marched into the Saar, a region rich in mineral and coal deposits. This land too, was not to be touched, yet the Allies did not do anything about it. In early 1936, Hitler marched his troops south, into Czechoslovakia, and demanded that the area in northern Czechoslovakia, called the Sudetenland, be given to him.

Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain of Britain heard about Hitlers doings and demanded to see him at once. He and Hitler had a meeting in a railroad car, where they discussed the partitioning of Czechoslovakia. Chamberlain used the policy of appeasement, giving Hitler the Sudetenland, in exchange for Hitlers word that he would not advance any farther into Czechoslovakia. Hitler agreed, and the Sudetenland was his. Later on in the year, Hitler broke his promise with Chamberlain, and took over the entire country of Czechoslovakia. Chamberlain was enraged, but did nothing about it (Gilber 113).

In 1937, Germany met with the Austrian Prime Minister to discuss a possible alliance. A pact, or anschluss was made with Austria, saying Germany would not advance onto Austrian soil. This, in part, made Germany and Austria one large country, with Hitler as the dictator. Hitlers first move of anti-Semitism against the Jews came in November of 1938. One night, SS troops from all over attacked Jewish communities in Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Austria. The SS destroyed shops, businesses, synagogues, and anything else they deemed to be Jewish.

Large amounts of Jews were deported to different concentration camps in the Reich, where they were subjected to unusually brutal treatment. From then on, the Jews of Europe were in a constant state of panic. In July of 1939, Hitler and his top advisors were planning an invasion of Germanys eastern neighbor, Poland. They felt that they should expand eastward. On August 31st, 1939, a group of Polish nationalists violently invaded a radio tower on the border of Germany and Poland. Three German men were killed because of the break-in. Hitler heard about this and was enraged. The next morning, at 7:00, September 1st, 1939, 1. illion troops plunged over the Polish border.

Tanks, airplanes, and heavy guns were also employed. This German blitzkrieg or lightning war was unbearable. The Polish air force was immediately destroyed. The Polish army fought a losing battle against the German force, fighting back with old rifles and men on horseback. Within 3 days, Great Britain had declared war on Germany. The next day, France, staying loyal to its ally, declared war on Germany. This was the very spark plug, which ignited World War II (Source #4). Now, Hitler had two wars: one against the Allies, and the other against the Jews.

He really wanted to get rid of the Jews of the Europe. Ever since he lived in Vienna, with Karl Lueger as mayor, Hitler had developed a strong hatred for Jews. Now, one question loomed: What should the Nazi Party do to get rid of the Jews? This was the question that occupied Hitler’s mind. Hitler did not come up with the solution to the \”Jewish question\” himself, he had trustworthy people working on the solution for him. Hermann Goering, Hitlers Luftwaffe general and second hand man, was given the job of planning the master plan without drawing the world’s attention to the killing that would take place (Source #5).

At first, nobody knew about the plan to exterminate the Jews besides Hitler and his very close advisors. Slowly, the news got out and other government officials gradually became aware of what was going on. The whole Nazi government soon knew about the plan that Hitler was trying to carry out. The first major step towards the Final Solution came when Goering ordered the evacuation of all Jewish people to ghettos that were sealed off from the rest of the world. There were many different ghettos that the Jewish people evacuated to, located throughout Nazi-controlled territories.

Some, like the ghetto of Lodz, held 230,000 Jews within their limits. Other ghettos, such as Warsaw, held up to 500,000 Jews and Poles. The conditions in these ghettos went from bad to worse. The people inside the walls were treated terribly. They suffered from malnutrition, exhaustion, and sickness. Goering had every ghetto strategically placed near railroad lines so he could easily accomplish the final goal, which became to destroy the Jewish people. Once the Nazis had rounded up all of the Jewish people, they had each ghetto report its population, financial assets, and the occupation of every person held within.

The Nazis confiscated the Jews’ assets in order to finance the ghettos. During that time, Goering came up with one way of destroying the Jews. He formed the Einsatzgruppen, which was a group of Waffen SS, which went around Eastern Europe, mass killing people. The Waffen SS would have the Jews line up along side a large mass grave, which they would make them dig. They would then be cut down with machine gun fire, and their bodies would fall into the grave. The SS would then bury the evidence. When the SS leader Heinrich Himmler witnessed one of these executions, he ordered a new, \”humane\” method to be developed for killing.

These mass executions were the second step towards carrying out the Final Solution (Gilber 135-137). Soon, a new form of execution was used on the Jewish people. They would be loaded into trailers and told they were being relocated. This trailer was a sealed compartment and was attached to the exhaust pipe of the truck that was towing it. This way, the Jewish people would be dead after a short drive to the gravesite, where their bodies would be thrown into a large ditch that had been pre-dug by Jewish slave labor. The truck would then return to the ghetto to get more Jews.

When the ditch was filled, they would kill the slave laborers, throw them on top, and once again, bury or burn the evidence. This form of execution was deemed inefficient because at most, only 25 people could be killed per trip. Plus, there was the unpleasant task of carrying the bodies from the truck to the burial site (Keegan 113). The next form of execution was the use of large gas chambers. The first camp to experiment with the use of gas chambers was at Brandenburg, which was a former prison. Euthanasia of the sick and disabled was easily carried out here.

Patients were lead into what appeared to be shower rooms, but were really hermetically sealed chambers connected to cylinders of carbon monoxide. The Nazis would turn on the gas and in about 25 minutes, all of the people inside the large shower room would be dead. Families of the patients were then notified that their loved ones had died from either heart failure or pneumonia. The bodies were then cremated at a very large crematorium inside the prison (Source #3). When Hitler realized how efficient the prison was at Brandenburg, he ordered that many of the existing concentration camps be fitted with gas chambers.

The town of Oswiecim (Auschwitz) in Poland was selected to be the main death camp for Jewish people. Rudolf Hoess was chosen to be the Kommandant of Auschwitz and to instructed to oversee the killing that went on there. As Himmler told Hoess, \”The Fuhrer has ordered the Final Solution of the Jewish question. We, the SS, have to carry out this order… I have therefore chosen Auschwitz for this purpose. \” (Gilber 138). With this came the order for ghettos to be evacuated and the Jewish inhabitants be brought to Auschwitz to be put to death. By the end of the Second World War, Auschwitz could process over 9,000 bodies each day.

At first, the Nazis used carbon monoxide as they had in the Euthanasia centers, and at a camp called Chelmno, in which great vans were constructed with carbon monoxide tubes, to kill the Jews. Soon, experiments in 1941 found that Zyklon-B, a common industrial strength plant disinfectant, killed people much quicker than the carbon monoxide. Less Zyklon-B was needed to kill the same number of people as carbon monoxide. On January 20th, 1942, the Nazi leaders met at the Wannsee Conference to coordinate how to finish carrying out the Final Solution.

This conference also let many of the military leaders of the Nazi party know the details about the plan for the Jews. At the conference, the fate of over eleven million Jews was discussed. Evacuations of Jews to designated areas and where they were to be exterminated was planned among the military leaders. Plans for every country’s Jewish population in Europe were laid out. The SS did not want the Jews to reappear after the exterminations were finished because a few Jews had survived. A series of four camps were to be built for extermination purposes only.

The names of these camps were Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and Chelmno (mentioned earlier). These camps were all located in Eastern Poland, for reasons of conspicuousness. The prisoners would immediately be processed on arrival at these camps. Yet, these camps all used carbon monoxide gas, which was very inefficient (Keegan 149). To get rid of the evidence of the genocide that was happening, the Nazis had slave labor units dig up the mass graves throughout Europe and burn the bodies, or what was left of the bodies, effectively destroying all of the evidence of the mass killings.

These special units worked throughout the year of 1943. The same would happen when a concentration camp was shut down or moved: everything would be burned, bulldozed, and cleaned. Trees would then be planted, making it seem as if nothing had ever been there. This is one reason that it was very hard to confirm the mass executions that were reportedly going on in Europe. When the Jews arrived at the death camps, their valuables were immediately confiscated. This included all gold, silver, or items of any worth.

These items were then sent to soldiers on the front lines to reward them for their hard work. By September 26, 1942, over 800 boxcars had left Auschwitz with confiscated items headed towards the SS Headquarters of the Economic Administration. Soldiers even sorted through the bodies of the freshly gassed Jews looking for gold teeth, which they would pull out of the body’s mouth with a set of pliers. The hair was even cut off the heads of the women and was used to stuff mattresses and cushions. Clothes and artificial limbs were also taken from the Jews before they were put to death.

The Nazis would then send the clothes to German families, and give the artificial limbs to German soldiers who needed them (Source #5). To get the Jews to the concentration camps, the SS loaded them onto boxcars pulled by trains. For this, the ghettos were placed near railroad tracks. Although when the ghettos were first made, the purpose of the placement so near the railroad tracks was to make it very easy for the SS to transport the Jewish prisoners wherever they were needed. Hitler knew that eventually he would move the Jews in masses from certain areas of Europe.

The death camps became the locations he intended to move the Jewish population to. The location of these ghettos made it simple to quickly move a huge number of Jews from one area of Europe to another. Many of the Jews died on the way to the camps due to lack of oxygen, water, and food. These bodies were usually thrown out of the boxcars when the train stopped. When the Jews arrived at the concentration camps, they were either killed immediately or made to work in a forced labor camp until they were to weak to work any longer, and then they were executed (Source #4).

The Nazis encountered almost no resistance when they loaded the boxcars with Jews to send them to their deaths. This was because none of the Jewish people knew what awaited them at the end of the line. The Jews were told that they were simply being relocated. A good part of the time, the Jews were even allowed to bring a few items on board with them, to reassure them that they were sincerely being moved to another part of Europe. In the end, the Nazis would kill the Jews and steal their possessions. Rarely did a Jew escape this death. Because of this, word about the death camps RARELY ever made it to the isolated ghettos.

By the end of the Second World War, many nations had become controlled by Germany and were forced to conduct the operations Hitler was employing against the Jews. Romania, Italy and Hungary all participated and aided the Germans, only because they were forced to, and threatened that if they didnt participate, they would also meet their death (Gilber 198). The reason the Allies did not try to stop or interfere with Hitler’s Final Solution was mostly because they did not have any proof he was carrying it out. The Allies knew Hitler was moving people in large amounts, but they did not know where or why.

The first inspection of a concentration camp was in June of 1944. The Red Cross inspected Theresienstadt, a camp in German-occupied Czechoslovakia that was thoroughly prepared by the Nazis before their arrival. The Red Cross gave the camp a good report. This hindered the rumors of mistreatment and mass execution in the Nazi-controlled areas. The camps were slowly liberated one by one as the Allied forces pushed from both sides of Germany. In the concentration camps, soldiers from the Allied nations often found thousands of emaciated, starving Jews among piles of dead bodies the stench of death was imminent and over-bearing (Source #5)

Even in the last hours of the war, the Nazis tried to carry out Hitler’s Final Solution. As the Allies approached Auschwitz, the guards forced the 25,000 Jews to evacuate the compound and walk over 100 miles in the snow, barefooted. Most of these prisoners ended up in the Buchenwald camp, in Germany, much farther west of the advancing Soviet army. Eventually these prisoners were liberated, but many died on the long trek. On May 1st, 1945, World War II was over, with Germany signing an unconditional surrender. The day before though, Hitler and his wife, Eva Braun, committed suicide by consuming cyanide capsules (Keegan 198).

In conclusion, The Nazi regime’s solution to the problem of what to do with the Jews was to try and kill every last one of them. At first, Hitler took it slow, but as the war progressed, the insanity grew, and so did Hitlers plot. He was out of control. What it comes down to is that Hitler walked the fine line between genius and insanity. His speeches were brilliant, but the results were weak and poor. His idea about the Holocaust was skewed. Was this a man without any morals? This is a question that will continue to plague mankind for history.

Events Leading Up To The Bombing

Before entering World War II, Japan had many other problems to deal with. It had begun to rely more and more for raw materials (especially oil) from outside sources because their land was so lacking in these. Despite these difficulties, Japan began to build a successful empire with a solid industrial foundation and a good army and navy. The military became highly involved in the government, and this began to get them into trouble. In the early 1930’s, the Japanese Army had many small battles with the Chinese in Manchuria. The Japanese Army won a series of battles, and Manchuria became a part of the Japanese Empire.

In 1937, the conflicts began again with the Chinese in the area near Beijing’s Marco Polo Bridge. Whether or not these conflicts began inadvertently or whether they were planned is unknown. These led to a full-scale war known as the second Sino-Japanese War. This was one of the bloodiest wars in world history and continued until the final defeat of Japan in 1945. In 1939, World War II was beginning with a string of victories by German forces. Germany’s success included defeats of Poland and France along with bombings of England.

Many of the European nations hat Germany now controlled had control over important colonial empires such as the East Indies and Singapore in Southeast Asia. These Southeast Asian countries contained many of the natural resources that Japan so desperately needed. Now that these countries were worried about matters over in Europe, Japan felt that it could seize some of them. At the same time in the United States, President Franklin D. Roosevelt wanted to halt the expansion of Germany and Japan, but many others in the government wanted to leave the situation alone.

The United States began to supply materials to the countries at war with Germany and Japan, but it wanted to remain neutral to prevent and overseas war. Meanwhile, Germany, Italy, and Japan formed the Axis Alliance in September of 1940. Japan was becoming desperate for more natural resources. In July of 1941, Japan made the decision to secure access to the abundance of the much-needed resources in Southeast Asia. It was afraid that it could not defeat the larger and stronger Western powers. It needed to build up its armies in order to stay in the war.

It also had to worry, though about the United States’ reaction to their plans to seize Southeast Asia. Japan began their seizure with southern Indochina. The United States was in strict opposition to Japan’s plans, and began their reaction with an embargo on the shipment of oil to Japan. Oil was necessary to keep Japan’s technology and military progressing. Without it, Japan’s industrial and military forces would come to a stop in only a short time. Japan’s government viewed the oil embargo as an act of war. Throughout the next few months of 1941, the United States tried to come to some kind of resolve with Japan to settle their differences.

Japan wanted the United States to lift the oil embargo and allow them to attempt a takeover of China. The United States refused to lift the embargo until Japan would back off of their aggression with China. Neither country would budge on their demands, and war seemed to be inescapable. The United States regarded Japan’s adamant refusal to budge on their stance as a sign of hostility. They too realized that war was inevitable. They responded to this potential war with Japan by adding to the military forces stationed in the Pacific. General Douglas MacArthur and his ground forces in the Philippines began to organize into a formidable army.

The B-17 was just arriving at many air force bases throughout the country, and was a great confidence to MacArthur upon its arrival. MacArthur became so confident in his forces stationed in the Philippines that on December 5,1941, he said, “Nothing would please me better than if they would give me three months and then attack here. ” The most powerful and most crucial part of American defense in the Pacific Ocean was that of the U. S. Pacific Fleet. Usually, this fleet was stationed somewhere along the West Coast of the United States, and made a training cruise to Hawaii each year.

With war looming, the U. S. Pacific Fleet was moved to the Pearl Harbor naval base in Hawaii. This was the perfect location for the American forces in the Pacific because of its location, halfway between the United States West Coast and the Japanese military bases in the Marshall Islands. The Pacific Fleet first arrived at Pearl Harbor naval base on April 2, 1940, and was scheduled to return to the United States mainland around May 9, 1940. This plan was drastically changed because of the increasing activity of Italy in Europe and Japan’s attempt at expansion in Southeast Asia.

President Roosevelt felt that the presence of the Pacific Fleet in Hawaii would stop any Japanese attempt at a strike on the United States. Admiral James O. Richardson of the Pacific Fleet was in full opposition to the long stay at Pearl Harbor. He felt that the facilities were inadequate to maintain the ships or crews. Admiral Harold R. Stark, Chief of Naval Operations, was the one who originally made the decision to extend the crew’s stay in Hawaii; and, in spite of Admiral Richardson’s complaints, he maintained that the Pacific Fleet must stay there to keep the Japanese from entering the East Indies.

Richardson felt that the Japanese would realize the military disadvantages of being stationed at Pearl Harbor, and would be quick to act on the situation. All of Richardson’s objections, in meetings with both the Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox and the President, got him nothing but a dismissal shortly thereafter. On November 12,1940, British torpedo bombers launched an attack on the Taranto harbor in Italy severely crippling the Italian Fleet.

This sent worry into United States government officials who were afraid that the same thing could happen to Pearl Harbor. On November 22, Admiral Stark suggested to Richardson the idea of placing anti-torpedo nets in Pearl Harbor. Richardson replied that they were neither necessary nor practical. On February 1,1941, Richardson was officially replaced by Admiral Husband E. Kimmel. Kimmel also did not like the idea of his fleet at Pearl Harbor; but, after seeing what had happened to Richardson, he was very quiet about his objections.

The Pacific Fleet was to be used as a defensive measure to direct Japan’s attention away from Southeast Asia by: (a) capturing the Caroline and Marshall Islands, (b) disrupting Japanese trade routes, and (c) defending Guam, Hawaii, and the United States mainland. Kimmel was supposed to prepare his fleet for war with Japan. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, commander-in-chief of Japan’s Combined Fleet, had to be careful of his country’s position in the Pacific. If he concentrated his forces too much in the pacific islands, then the mainland would be more susceptible to attack from Europe and even the United States.

Yamamoto devised a plan that involved an opening blow to the United States Pacific Fleet at the same time as their offensive against British, American, and Dutch forces in Southeast Asia. He planned to cripple the United States while he quickly conquered much of Southeast Asia and gathered their natural resources. He hoped that his attack against the Pacific Fleet would demoralize the American forces and get them to sign a peace settlement allowing Japan to remain as the power in the Pacific.

A month after the British attack on Taranto harbor, Yamamoto decided that if war with the United States were unavoidable he would launch a carrier attack on Pearl Harbor. In January of 1941, Yamamoto first began to commit to this strategy by planning out his attack and showing it to other Japanese officials. Yamamoto developed the following eight guidelines for the attack:

(1) surprise was crucial, (2) American aircraft carriers there should be the primary targets, (3) U. S. rcraft there must be destroyed to prevent aerial opposition, (4) all Japanese aircraft carriers available should be used, (5) all types of bombing should be used in the attack, (6) a strong fighter element should be included in the attack for air cover for the fleet, (7) refueling at sea would be necessary, and (8) a daylight attack promised best results, especially in the sunrise hours.

Many of Japan’s Navy General Staff was in opposition to Yamamoto’s plan, but they continued to prepare for the attack. All of the necessary training was given to troops, and all of the fighters and submarines were prepared. .

Post WW II and Japan

World War II took place beginning at 1939 and ending in 1945. Japan was the last opposing country to surrender to the US Allies on September 2nd, 1945. Ending the long, horrific seven-year war. Upon Japan’s admitted defeat, the U. S. invaded and took occupation of the country for seven years. Though assumed to be a distressing circumstance and expected total domination, it was a benefit to Japan, for the United States to take control of them, rather than being a disadvantage. The occupation helped the recovery and development of Japan’s economy and also clarified understanding between the two countries.

When the United States took control of Japan during late summer of 1945, it proved to be a milestone for the entire world. Never before had one advanced nation attempted to reform the supposed faults of another advanced nation from within (Reischauer 221). Both countries were uneasy, complaining the regarded issue at first. For the Americans, the very notion of democratizing Japan represented a stunning revision of the propaganda they had imbibed during the war. When the media had routinely depicted all Japanese as children, savages, sadists, madmen, or robots.

In the most pervasive metaphor of dehumanization, they were portrayed in word and picture as apes, or “monkey-men” (Dower 213). There was much hatred for the Japanese by the American people, because of the negative depiction of them by the media and the remembrance of the bombing of Pearl Harbor by the Japanese that drove the U. S. to declare war on Japan in the first place. Many Americans displayed extreme prejudice for the Japanese people calling them “jaundiced baboons” or the more unsophisticated racial term, “Jap.

The United States viewed Japan as a collapsing nation that needed strict guidance from them in order to change into the correct form of government. For the first time in history, Japan was a conquered nation. The slogan, which Japan used to cope during the occupation, was “enduring the unendurable. ” For some Japanese people, the U. S. occupation seemed like more of the same totalitarian leadership as of the emperor, therefore was indifferent to the new order. The rest feared that the Americans would be vengeful, cruel conquerors.

The wildest rumors circulated about the expected rape and looting, and many women left town and retreated to the country (Morton 204). Many Japanese people still felt bitter about the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which they tried to exploit the immorality of it by writing books, bashing the U. S. President Truman and the Americans. However, the U. S. government during the occupation period censored it. Surprisingly, the American occupation wasn’t such an unpleasant experience the Japanese anticipated it to be.

The occupation proved to be an important, constructive phase of Japanese history, a veritable rebirth, comparable only to the Meiji Restoration (Reischauer 222). What the Japanese expected the U. S. to be a vindictive and relentless sovereignty, were basically friendly and fair-minded people. The Japanese, for their part, were far from the fanatical fighters the Americans had come to know on the battlefield, and proved to be a docile, disciplined, cooperative people at home (Reichauer 222).

The United States dominating of Japan transformed the brutal war charged with overt racism into an amicable peace in which the issue of race seemed to have disappeared. The army of occupation became an undisputed figure of authority, and the government and its people obeyed without question. Since militarism and authoritarianism lead Japan into disaster, many Japanese believed that the democratic rule the Americans eulogized must be the correct way of governing. They enthusiastically accepted Western influences instead of sticking to traditional values.

The suffering, which the Japanese experienced during the war, made most turn away from any form of militarism in abhorrence. Upon discovering that they were detested in other Asian and Western countries, they wanted to change their self-image for the better. They no longer see themselves as a proud and powerful nation, but longed for lasting peace. The United States was in the process of making Japan into a democracy in the fullest sense. American General Douglas MacArthur was the Supreme Commander of Allied Powers.

He was chosen to be the leader of the military occupation of Japan. MacArthur thought that his primary task was to reform Japan, not to punish it. Since America’s ultimate goal was democratization, MacArthur took careful steps necessary to meet that standard. First he needed demobilization, demilitarization, decentralization, and “demythification” of Japan (Perez 150). General MacArthur took proper precautions of disarming over three million Japanese soldiers, democratizing most of the functions of Japanese government and destroying the myth of imperial divinity.

The rapid economic growth of Japan after World War II can be attributed, to a large degree, to the influence of American business ideals and the financial backing to allow Japanese industry to enter into the technological age. Most historians emphasize the key role that the U. S. government played in the creation of postwar Japan. Experts on Japanese history are more skeptical of U. S. influence, when researching Japanese government and business records. At any rate, by the late 1940’s, Japan and the U. S. together paved the way such that by the 1970’s, Japan was made one of the world’s most productive and stable societies.

Although they are currently considered trusted allies, they are also fierce rivals of economic competitiveness. The occupation, however, did not always go smoothly. Cultural Differences at times divided American and Japanese officials. Military and civilian officials often clashed over objectives and bureaucratic issues. The United States pulled back some of their ambitious reformist goals to instead sought to make Japan a strong ally. Stressing of friendship rather than dictatorship helped win favor from many of the Japanese officials.

In September 1951, Japan signed the treaty of peace in San Francisco with fifty-one other nations. Thus formally ending the occupation. Japan renounced all claims to neighboring territories and promised to conduct reparation negotiations with afflicted nations. Japan addressed that their country will no longer take any participation of war and declared them to be neutral. They would only have a small army and navy to protect themselves from any hostilities, if which needed, the United States promised to give military assistance. The U. S. d Japan also concluded a security treaty that allowed the stationing U. S. Forces in and around Japan.

The process of changing from enemies to allies by the United States and Japan is certainly an impressive achievement. Due to the aid and influences contributed by the United States, Japan is now a peaceful, fully restored nation that has improved beyond expectations. The economy is one of the best in the world, and there is no longer any hostility between the two nations. America helped Japan restore its economy and society to build it into a better nation that it is today.

Oral Report D-Day

World War II was one of the largest and most violent wars in the history of mankind. Frank Vinci, my grandfather, was in that war and he is still alive today to tell about it. He has now reached the age of seventy-eight, but he still vividly remembers countless details of the war. Frank was born and raised in Rockford, Illinois and graduated from West High School in 1943. Shortly after graduation, he was drafted into the United States Army. Frank was actually one of the soldiers that ran up on the bloody shores of Normandy Beach.

Although his battalion was not the first unit to arrive at the Beach, he was met with gunfire amongst other things that are too unbearable to talk about. He is considered one of the lucky soldiers who went overseas and came back home to tell about it. In February of 1943 Frank Vinci was drafted into the army, he had no idea that almost one year later he would have to join many Americans in one of the greatest and largest naval invasions in history. Frank’s reaction was mixed though, it was his first time leaving the comforts of Illinois, and yet he wanted to do his part for his country.

This was a very patriotic view that many young Americans had during the war. Some historians would argue that an immature man would rather die nobly for a cause, as opposed to a mature man who lives so that he can live the rest of his life humbly. Frank Vinci was no immature man though, he is considered by everyone that knows him to be a hero of World War II. He wasn’t the only one that was drafted in his area though; almost all of his friends from high school were drafted into the armed forces. So after he was drafted into the Army, Frank said all of his goodbye’s and left home for training.

He was to be trained at camp Grant. During the war Frank kept a journal of all his thoughts and the events that took place. He wrote, “The vital thing for me now living in the Army was to be picked for the medical corp. but no luck. If I had gone in the Medical Corp. I would have had my Basic Training here in Rockford. We were at Camp Grant for three days and during that time we couldn’t leave the compound. Imagine 3 miles from home and not being able to go home. Well on the 4th day they loaded a bunch of us on a troop train, destination unknown. ” Camp Grant was a medical training facility for the Army.

Frank wasn’t training to be a medic in the war though, it was common to have many destinations that seemed unnecessary in the war, but in fact, they were all linked together. From Camp Grant he was shipped to Fort McClellan, Alabama. At this fort he underwent what he refers to as the “hardest training he’d ever had in his life. ” He had been “in hell” so to speak for three and a half months. He did numerous pushups, was woken up in the middle of the night to run 5 miles, and he underwent what all the men in training referred to as “bib whacking” which was field training.

In this field training he fired a gun for the first time in his life, and he had other numerous training with weapons at that time. He was allowed to come home on the weekends during training and he continued to stay in touch with his family throughout the entire war. The letters that were transferred between him and his family were very personal, he said that his family helped him greatly throughout the war, and they all appreciated what he was doing for his country. Even though Frank’s mother was grief stricken due to the fact that her son had to go to war, she also had a greater respect for Frank.

After the intensive training was complete at Fort McClellan, he was shipped to Camp Shinango, Pennsylvania. At this Camp he was given his assignment, Frank referred to it as “Debarkation for an overseas assignment”, which suggested that Frank would finally be able to serve his country. After Camp Shinango, Frank went to Camp Kilmer, New Jersey. “We landed and then went to Camp Kilmer, New Jersey to await our mustering out. I was assigned to the mustered out at Camp Grant Rockford, Il. If you didn’t think I was a happy boy, I couldn’t wait.

We were at Kilmer about a week and then put on troop train. A troop train is an experience in itself. They are train coaches and 2 people assigned to each seat. Breakfast is coffee and a doughnut, lunch is a sandwich and pop, and dinner is a box lunch. Once we landed at the New York Harbor, we boarded the Queen Mary. ” Once called the “inevitable ship” the Queen Mary has managed to see the passing of seven decades. To this day the Queen Mary has gone back and forth through the Atlantic Ocean 1001 times. Each individual room in the Queen Mary was described as a work of art.

But Frank’s journal states otherwise, “They told us that there were 19,000 people on that boat and I believe I was assigned to a state room that during peace time would sleep 4 at the most. Well all the furniture was gone and on all 4 walls they had cots 5 high from floor to the ceiling, well guess who had the bottom cot, me. Well sleeping on these cots you couldn’t even turn around or sleep on our side there was no room. Well I took my blankets and pillow and slept in the bath tub and it wasn’t bad. Well with all the people on board they could only serve breakfast and dinner.

Breakfast started at 6am and went till 11am. Dinner started at 3pm and went till 8pm, I don’t know how they managed to do it. ” It took the ship four days to get to Scotland, and from there he went to Sheffield Barracks in England. “You know we left. New York Harbor but we never saw the Statue of Liberty. ” While in England he was assigned to the 29th infantry division. Throughout this whole time he traveled by train, boat, and of course when he was in his battalion he traveled by marching and trucks. In May of 1944 he was sent to Qualmus, England.

In this city he went to the port that the allies used for mostly all of the preparations and the launching for the June 6th invasion of Normandy Beach otherwise known as D-Day. It was very difficult for Frank to talk about the Normandy Beach invasion. He said that the scenes on the beach from the movie Saving Private Ryan were an accurate depiction of how the beach looked and what it was like overall. Although he wasn’t one of the first groups to land at the beach, he still described it as a hostile environment. “Running up on the beach was one of the hardest things I’ve ever done in my life” he said.

Frank was on the bloody beach for about eight hours before he was able to proceed forward with his battalion. Then while preceding forward his battalion was on the line for forty-four straight days until they were relieved. He described it as walking forward as if you didn’t know when the enemy was going to strike or if the enemy was right next to you or a mile away. He recalls wearing the same clothes for forty-four days in a row and he said that he was lucky enough to have an opportunity to wash his sock once in a while. He said, “In fact that’s probably why the Germans stayed away from us because we smelled so bad.

This technique must have worked because Frank wasn’t injured while proceeding with his battalion. Once there was a breakthrough at St. Lowes he was relieved for about seven days. During these seven days he washed his clothes, had leisure time with his battalion, and was able to regroup mentally from those forty days of proceeding. After that his battalion went south to the peninsula of Breath France to capture a port and block it off from a German division. They were once again in a bloody battle and Frank also prevailed once again.

After they captured the port they continued to proceed north again. Throughout this whole time Frank wore wool issued uniform, and he carried a M1 rifle, this rifle was used throughout several wars and is quite effective. He said that as the war you progressed you were lucky enough to pick up a carbine from someone who fell, which was a lighter rifle, and sometimes, you could obtain a 45 pistol. His journal stated, “K, a box similar to a cracker jack box in fact the same size, the outside of the box was brown covered with a special wax so it wouldn’t get wet.

You carried the “K” rations in your backpack. Inside of the box was a small can like a tuna can and for breakfast it contains egg and ham. Each box also had a little can opener and 2 packages of soda crackers. Also in the box was a package of instant coffee a small pack of cigarettes containing 4 cigarettes that was our breakfast “K” ration. The supper “K” ration was the same thing except in the can they had like Devilled Ham. To eat the “K”rations you would open the can using the lid as a handle put it over a small fire and cook it the same with the water for your coffee.

Sometimes we would build the fires in our helmet, you didn’t want too big a fire under combat conditions. “C” rations were a treat they were a can about the size of a Campbell soup can, they had chili, ham and beans, Spam meat. We had no hat meals during these field trips. ” On Thanksgiving Day 1944 he was in a foxhole and a shell hit and he was wounded. The injuries he had were a concussion and he had shrapnel in his leg from the explosion. Then he was sent to Liege, Belgium, and through there he was sent to a hospital in England.

He stayed at this hospital till late January of 1945 until he was then well enough to proceed back to his outfit. It took him two months to get back to his outfit in March of 1945. Frank worked himself up the military ladder all the way from private (newbie) to a staff sergeant. He was in Germany at the time and he proceeded north to the Alps River in early May. His outfit stopped when they reached the river though because the Russians were allocated to capture Berlin. From there he waited until the Russians actually did capture Berlin and then, of course, the war was over.

But he was not just shipped straight home, he was assigned to be part of an occupation force in Germany and his division stayed there till January 19, 1946. Frank recorded in his journal, “After the war was over our Division was assigned to occupation Duty. Our company was assigned to repatriating prisoners of war who were mostly Polish. Housing them, feeding them, taking care of their medical needs, and trying to group them up with their relatives or friends. It was quite an experience. ” Then his outfit continued on their way home by boarding a merchant marine ship on January 1.

Frank compared the amount of time it took to travel; the Queen Mary took four and a half days to cross the Atlantic. While the merchant marine ship took nineteen days to cross, he saw the Queen Mary pass four times. The reason for this was that one of the engines on the merchant marine ship had difficulties and due to this the ship was only being pushed across the Atlantic by one engine. He mentioned that the Queen Mary was a much better ship as far as the looks and luxury feel. Aboard the Queen Mary he was on one of the last classic ocean liners that still exists today.

Aboard the merchant marine ship it wasn’t terrible but it was no Queen Mary. When his outfit got back to the United States they proceeded to Camp Kilmer, and from Camp Kilmer they boarded a train on their way to Camp Grant where he was discharged in 1946. While in Camp Grant, which was within 3 miles of Rockford, he asked his sergeant if he could go home because he had already been discharged. His sergeant said,”I don’t think you’d be able to do that”, but he left anyway and met his parents at the front gate around 12:30 at night.

He said that just about every night after the war was over he was going out with his friends and getting reacquainted because of the lost time from the war. Frank was out of the army for about a week until his old job, American Cabinet, asked him to come back to work. So he had a week off after the war and then he was back to work. He was 20 years old when he went into the war and he just turned 24 when he got back from the war. “Looking back being 19 years old everything you did was something new, doing something for your country at the time of war.

At American Cabinet Frank was assigned the job of lead man, but he left that job to go work at National Lock to be an expediter. One of his greatest regrets was not returning back to school after the war. He said that education is one of the most valuable tools that you can rely on. Although he didn’t continue his education after high school, he still believes in schooling. “After I was home a couple of days it was party time and all of your old friends and of course you were living it up.

One thing I craved in the Army and during the time I was gone was a Coney Island Hot Dog. I went down to State Street and ordered three of them and sat there and ate them, wow were they good. I think I could have about a dozen. ” “You know as teenagers we don’t really think too well. My mom used to tell me why don’t you send home part of your pay and we will save it for you and when you have enough for down payment on a house we will purchase it for you. Being 19 years old and not knowing if you ever would come home, saving money was the last thing I planned on doing.

Oh, how very dumb and stupid I was for not listening to my mom, she was the smartest person I ever knew but I didn’t find out till I was too late. I wish I could have had some of her wisdom so that I could have passed onto my children, I love her very, very much. How I wish I could have done more for her and caused her less worry. How I wish I could say to mom, “Look at my beautiful Family, hey mom look, I didn’t turn out so bad. ” I think maybe she would have been a little proud of her baby as she so often called me. Where was I?? ” Frank Vinci is one of the bravest men I know.

He not only is a World War II veteran he is also one of the best grandparents I’ve come to know and love. He has overcome many hardships in a short time period, and he should be commended for everything he has done for not only he in years past, he should feel proud for who he is as a person and what he has accomplished. “After 3 years of war and being overseas for 3 years. I don’t see why the Vietnam Vets make such a fuss over not being welcomed home. While we were overseas I not only met 3 people from Rockford, I made a connection with war and friendship. ” He is a great person and he has stories to share.

Veterans Women In World War II

During World War II Hitler was skulking around Europe pretending to save Germany, military minds in Washington were stonewalling women’s organizations, patriotic pressures, and anyone who had the temerity to suggest that women should be in the military. The politicians, in typical gerrymandering fashion, made flimsy promises of considering an auxiliary of sorts while quietly hoping it would all go away and secretly trying to figure out how to stop it. Fortunately Congresswoman Edith Nourse Rogers and Eleanor Roosevelt thought otherwise.

Congresswoman Rogers introduced a bill on May 28 th, 1941, to establish a Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps for service with the Army of the United States. By virtue of its being an auxiliary corps there was no hint of full military status for women. While several government departments cooperated, the Bureau of the Budget continued to stall in spite of pressure from Mrs. Roosevelt, General Marshall and other interested parties and groups. By late November of 1941 there was still no definitive action. At this point General Marshall literally ordered the War Department to create a womens corps. An incident in the Pacific reinforced this order.

Four days after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and twenty three years after the idea of women in the military was born, the Bureau of the Budget stopped objecting, planners began to plan and cooperation suddenly became the watchword. The bill was amended, reintroduced, stuck in committees, and stalled. The search was on for a director, a training center and the appropriate equipment. The military men in charge of logistics searched for ideas for no regulations existed. Finally on May 14th 1942 the bill to “Establish a Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps” became law and Oveta Culp Hobby, wife of the former governor of Texas, was named director.

While bills were being bandied around Congress, women were being trained at the first WAAC Training Center in Fort Des Moines, Iowa. With a nudge from Eleanor Roosevelt, the Navy got its act together and began authorizing a Womens Naval Reserve and the Marine Corps Womens reserve. The Coast Guard followed soon after. The first director of the WAVES – Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service – was Lt Commander Mildred McAfee, President of Wellesley College. The SPARS, which came from the Coast Guard motto Semper Paratus – always ready, were led by Lt Commander Dorothy C. Stratton.

The Marine Corps Womens Reserve was headed by Major Ruth Cheyney Streeter. The WAAC was changed to the WAC establishing it as a part of the Army and not an auxiliary by a second bill in July of 1943, signed in to law by President Roosevelt. While all this politicking was going on the first WAAC contingent was serving at the Allied Forces Headquarters in Algiers, North Africa. By January of 1944 the first WACs arrived in the Pacific and in July of 1944 ,WACs landed on the beach at Normandy. There were over one hundred thousand women in uniform at this point in time. Nurses were already serving in England and Egypt.

Women continued to serve overseas through 1945 and at one point there were over 2000 WACs serving in North Africa alone. From there women were sent to Italy to serve with the 5th Army and these women moved all over Italy during the Italian campaign handling the communications; they earned commendations, bronze stars and the respect of their fellow soldiers as they sloughed through mud, lived in tents, dived into foxholes and dugouts during the Anzio air raids. During the battle on Anzio, six Army Nurses were killed by the German bombing and strafing of the tented hospital area.

Four Army Nurses among the survivors were awarded Silver Stars for extraordinary courage under fire. In all, more than 200 Army Nurses lost their lives during World War II. Toward the end of the war in Europe the European Theater boasted over eight thousand WACs stationed across England, France, and Germany in cities like Berlin, Frankfurt, Wiesbaden, and Heidelberg. If you’re wondering where were the women of the Navy, Marines and Coast Guard, ironically regulations did not permit them to serve overseas until the war was almost over.

But Navy Nurses were serving on board hospital ships, in air evacs, and every place from Australia to the Pacific. During WWII A young woman from Baltimore, Virginia Hall, went to work for the French as an agent and was so successful that the Nazis began an all out hunt for her. By the winter of 1941, the Nazis were about to arrest her, but she escaped on foot over the Pyrenees Mountains into Spain. This was no easy task for Virgina Hall had lost her leg in a hunting accident earlier and wore a wooden leg at the time. Not content to rest she trained as a radio operator and then transferred to America’s OSS.

In November 1943, disguised as an elderly milk maid, she returned to France and resumed her espioniage duties. Virginia was hunted by the Gestapo. They circulated a wanted poster with the warning, “the woman with the limp is one of the most valuable Allied agents in France and we must find and destroy her”. But her elaborate disguise fooled the Germans and she painstakingly taught herself how to walk without a limp. Virginia collected and sent invaluable intelligence and coordinated air drops in support of D-Day. She also trained and led maquis resistance groups in guerilla warfare and sabotage.

After the war Virginia Hall was awarded America’s Distinguished Service Cross in a simple ceremony… the only American civilian women to receive the DSC. She was also awarded the the MBE, the Member of the British Empire, for her courageous efforts. Virginia Hall continued to work for the OSS, later the CIA, until her retirement in 1966. As the war escalated in the Pacific, women were sent to New Guinea, Leyte, and Manila in the Phillipines, as well as the China-Burma-India theater. Over 5000 women served in the Southwest Pacific area.

Army nurses served throughout the Pacific in increasing numbers between 7 December 1941 and the end of the war. Nurses were stationed on the islands of Guadalcanal, New Guinea, Saipan, Guam, and Tinian. A Japanese suicide plane bombed the hospital ship USS Comfort off Leyte Island. In the attack 6 nurses, 5 medical officers, 8 enlisted men, and 7 patients were killed, and 4 nurses were wounded Sixty-seven Army nurses were imprisoned in Santo Tomas lnternment Camp for three years. They were liberated and evacuated to a convalescent hospital on Leyte in 1944.

Although suffering from malnutrition and beriberi, they recovered from their ordeal. Nurses received 1,619 medals, citations, and commendations during the war, reflecting the courage and dedication of all who served. Sixteen medals were awarded posthumously to nurses who died as a result of enemy fire. Thirteen flight nurses died in aircraft crashes while on duty. Sixteen women received the Purple Heart , awarded to soldiers injured due to enemy action. The Bronze Star was awarded to 565 women for meritorious service overseas. Over 700 WACs received medals and citations at the end of the war.

Countless women served in all branches of the service stateside and relieved or replaced men for combat duty overseas. Women performed admirably in every conceivable job imaginable including the dedicated WASPS who flew military aircraft to destination bases, suffered casualties, and yet were denied full miltary status. Finally the war ended. However, with demobilization thoughts of women as an integral part of the miltary were not on the minds of the powers that be… even though four hundred thousand women gave a part of their life to their country… suffering not only the hardships of war but the cutting edge of public opinion.

Dicks’ Androids and Scotts’ Replicants

Philip K. Dick has written over fifty novels, and is considered among some of the greatest experimental writers of the 1950s and ’60s, such as; William Burroughs, J. G. Ballard, and Thomas Pynchon. (Star 34) He has written science- fiction and regular fiction. His fiction usually spoke of people trying to figure out who they are, or what they are supposed to be. He is best known, however, for his work in science-fiction, and this represents the majority of his work. He has, also, won awards for two of his science-fiction novels. He won the Hugo Award for best novel in 1962 for The Man in the High Castle and the John W. Campbell Memorial Award for best novel of the year in 1974 for Flow My Tears, The Policeman Said (Brians 1). An opera has been based on one of P. K. D. later novels, Valis (Brians 1). One of his short stories, We Can Build It For You, was made into a movie recently.

The movie was Screamers, starring Peter Weller. He has also had two of his novels, We Can Remember It for You Wholesale (Total Recall), Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (Blade Runner), made into movies. Of the two, Blade Runner (B. R. ) has had the greatest impact. B. R. , however, differs greatly from Dicks’ original novel, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (D. A. D. O. E. S. ) Blade Runner was released in 1982 under the direction of Ridley Scott, who also made another sci-fi classic, Alien. The film begins in the city of Los Angeles. The year is 2019. The city of Los Angeles is overpopulated, teeming with all sorts of humans. Japanese ADs are all over the place. The Japanese input was strictly the director, Ridley Scot’s. Scott saw the future world being controlled by the Japanese. Philip K. Dick did not mention this. The planet is recovering from World War III, although I’m not sure they actually say this.

In the book, the war is clearly tated and was called World War Terminus. The effects of the radiation has mutated some people. Only the ones who had not been disfigured or altered genetically by radiation from the nuclear bombs could emigrate, (leave the planet earth). Some, who were perfectly healthy chose to stay, however. They stayed because they were stubborn and wanted to die on the planet they were born on. The chickenheads had to stay, it was law. Chickenheads is Dicks term for the disfigured or the genetically altered. They are also referred to as specials.

There are no chickenheads in the movie. None of this is made clear n the movie, but this is what is explained in the novel. The ones who do emigrate to other planets receive one free worker to help them with their settling of a new home. The worker is not human. It is an android. In the movie they are called replicants or skin-jobs. These are the newest versions of androids, which were created by the Rosen Association. They are Nexus-6. Nexus-6 mimic humans in every way, except in one thing, they have no empathy. Empathy is the ability to feel for another.

For example, if you cared for a puppy that was beaten, skinned, and then left to die, that care would be empathy. Androids don’t have this trait. They would watch the puppies’ skin be removed without a blink in their eyes. They can pretend to feel, but they’d have to know first there was something disturbing about the skinning of a puppy. The nonexistent empathy of replicants is never discussed in the movie, but it is pretty obvious in the way they kill or try to kill. This lack of empathy scared many humans on earth, so a law was passed that didn’t allow androids on the planet.

In the novel, this is where the bounty hunters come in. Their job is to retire (kill) the androids, who have somehow escaped to earth or just were never eeded out from the other humans. You might be wondering why I said bounty hunter instead of blade runner? Well, the term blade runner is never used in the novel. Apparently, Ridley Scott wanted a specific name for the people who hunted down the androids. He didn’t want to just call them bounty hunters. Scott was told of a William Burroughs book named Blade Runner: The Movie. The book was never a movie.

Burroughs just had that in the title. Scott liked the way blade runner sounded, so he bought the rights of the Burroughs novel (Blackwood). That is how he came up with the title and a name for the hunters of the replicants. The way a blade runner can know if an android is a human or not is through the Voight-Kampff test. This is shown in the movie, although not used as much as in the novel. The test consists of the tester setting up several scenarios and seeing the testes’s responses. The responses are measured through dilation in the eyes and the blushing of cheeks.

The blushing is recorded by a device that is placed on your face and the dilation of the eye; by a laser that shines in your eye. An example of something that Deckard or whoever was administering the test would say was: “You are watching an old movie on TV, a movie from before the war. It shows a banquet in progress; the guests are enjoying raw oysters. ” “Ugh,” Rachel said; the needles swung swiftly. “The entree,” he continued, “consists of boiled dog, stuffed with rice. ” The needles moved less this time, less than they had for the raw oysters. “Are raw oysters more acceptable to you than a dish of boiled dog? Evidently not. (Dick 45) A human would react more to the dog than raw oysters. This showed that this particular subject, Rachael Rosen, was an android. It wouldn’t just be one question though, it would be many. All would be something along these lines, though. After, he found out for sure; the android, ( or in the ovie: replicant), would be retired. The Voight-kampff test is only shown at the beginning of the movie when Dave Holden is administering the test to Polokov, a replicant. The main character of the novel and movie is Rick Deckard . Deckard is played by Harrison Ford. He is a blade runner (bounty hunter) that has come out of retirement.

Rick is hired to track down four androids: Roy Baty, Pris, Luba, and Polokov. The original number of replicants had been five, but one of his colleagues, Dave Holden, had already retired one. The name of the retired replicant is never mentioned. The original five had killed their human masters n another planet, stolen a ship, and illegally come to earth. In D. A. D. O. E. S. , the original number of androids is eight and Holden retires two, leaving six for Deckard. Holden was only able to kill one; because he is paralyzed by Polokov, while administering the Voigt-Kampff test.

This, also, is what happens in the novel: Polokov shoots a laser through Holdens’ back. So, Deckards’ search begins, and the hunt for the replicants’ (androids) is on. The remaining part of the film, is Deckard tracking down and killing the renegade replicants. When first released, B. R. was not a commercial success. (Star 39) Some udiences members loved it, but others didn’t think it was so great. The box office showed the latter: not very good. The film made little money. But, one thing that almost all people did enjoy from the film was the scenery and the visionary background.

The set designs were wonderful. Roger Ebert, a critic of the Chicago Sun-Times said, ” It looks fabulous, it uses special effects to create a new world of it’s own, but it is thin in its human story” (Ebert 1) Ebert gave it an overall rating of three stars. His opinion, though, summed up the majority opinion of the few people who went and saw it at the theater. The pecial effects and background were great, but the plot was weak. It was just another action film, with a lot of violence; nothing unique about it. Even though the movie did not make money at first; over the years, it would become a cult classic.

The late interest was most likely sparked by a new version that would be released years after the original release of the movie. The version, Blade Runner: The Director’s Cut, was what the director, Ridley Scott, originally wanted (Scott). Apparently, the original movie that came out at theaters in 1982 had been tainted by Hollywood producers, with editing (Berry 16). They said the film was too confusing and didn’t have a happy ending. “Preview audiences found this ending too ambiguous and bleak” (Smith 2) You have to have a cheesy happy ending in Hollywood.

The 1982 release has Deckard and Rachael, (a replicant that is an exact copy of the daughter of the President of The Rosen Association; he falls in love with her), at the end, riding off into the country. Supposedly, these scenes were out takes from The Shining (Smith 2) The producers didn’t like Scotts ending. In Scott’s ending, Deckard and Rachael enter an elevator, and then the movie abruptly ends. Too unhappy. The producers also thought the movie was too confusing and not clear, so they added a voice-over; someone narrating the story (Berry 16).

The narrator was Deckard (Harrison Ford). Blade Runner: The Director’s Cut, returns the original scenes. The happy ending is gone, and there is no more voice-over. This changed the effect of the movie. In the 1982 release it gave you the feel of an old Bogart movie. In the new version, a new mood is brought out, and a better effect is created. The narration was totally unnecessary. The movie becomes more enjoyable.

The followers of B. R. grows; as the sparks of interest touch them with his improved movie. This is how the director had originally created it. B. R. should have been released this way, originally. Proof of this is shown just in this newfound interest. Remember, the movie originally bombed at the box office, but now people loved it. The second director’s cut, however, would fan those sparks of interest up into flames. There had been rumors, that in the original screenplay, it was quite obvious that Deckard was a replicant. Deckard, the replicant hunter, was a replicant himself! Blade Runner: The Directors Cut II confirmed this rumor. Evidence is plentiful that Deckard was actually a replicant himself.

First, is the glowing eyes (Bitnet 22) When he(Deckard) goes to meet The President of The Rosen Association to discuss the knowledge of any replicants on earth, there is a replicant owl and if you watch when the owls’ head turns, you can see an orange glow in its; eyes. The glow is also in Rachael eyes, and can be seen in Roys’ when he is first introduced in the movie. Later, if you watch closely, you can see that same glow in Deckards eye in a scene where he is talking to Rachel of someday someone will hunt her down. When he turns his head, you can see the glow. You have to be watching extremely close to notice it, and it he

Post-War Insanity

This is a novel somewhat in the telegraphic schizophrenic manner of tales of the planet Tralfamadore, where the flying saucers come from. Insanity is a major theme in Kurt Vonneguts life and in turn his novels tend to be a release for his thoughts of mental illness. Vonneguts characters tend to embody him or at least characteristics of himself. His characters generally suffer from mild insanity and therefore hints that Vonnegut himself is possibly mildly insane. In each of his novels there are characters that are highly related to Vonnegut such as Kilgore Trout, Billy Pilgrim, and Eliot Rosewater.

Each of these characters appear in different novels to help develop the plot and continue the relative theme. The theme of insanity is what dominates the novel Slaughterhouse-Five, and is what ties all aspects of the tale together. In the novel Slaughterhouse-Five there is a character that is identical to Vonnegut. His name is Billy Pilgrim. Both were in the American army and became prisoners of war. Also, they both witnessed the fire-bombing of Dresden, Germany. Dresden was destroyed on the night of February 13, 1945, Billy Pilgrim began. We came out of our shelter the next day.

Slaughterhouse-Five 179) Billy is a thin frail boy who joined the Army so he would become a man, like the author. World War II attracted them both because they realized that it was an important time in history. With the horrors of war Pilgrim went into quasi- insane state hes described as bearded in a blue toga and silver shoes, with his hands in a muff (Slaughterhouse-Five 149). This description is after they got off of a POW train on a balmy Dresden day. Vonnegut also has this character become unstuck in time or on a more realistic level, he has lashbacks, even though Pilgrims flashbacks flash him to the future as well as the past.

His future is to Tralfamadorian Zoo; Tralfamadorians are little green men, the Tralfamadorians, as a sort of appeasement to his capture, gave Pilgrim a beautiful wife. This flash-forward was most likely just a science fiction writers fantasy. His real future is as a Ilium, New York optometrist. His unsticking in time is just a symptom of Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome. It appears in both Pilgrim and Vonnegut, and later in Rosewater. Which lead to the ever-present flashbacks nd trips to a future space zoo. Pilgrim also has problems distinguishing the past, present, and future.

On top of that he doubts his own judgement. He had fallen asleep at work. It had been funny at first. Now Billy was starting to get worried about it, about his mind in general. He tried to remember how old he was, couldnt. He tried to remember what year it was. He couldnt remember that either. (Slaughterhouse-Five 56) These flashbacks are told later in better detail, for he was simultaneously on foot in Germany in 1944 and riding his Cadillac in 1967. Germany dropped away, and 1967 became bright and clear. Slaughterhouse-Five His flashbacks happened at any time, even while driving, indicating a severe case of Post- Traumatic Stress Syndrome. Apathy is also a major problem with the traumas of war.

This apathy could be related to the apathy experienced after war or its following flashbacks. Many things do not concern Billy Pilgrim as he has disassociated himself from the world. He no longer lives in what we refer to as reality. both found life meaningless, partly because of what they had seen in the war. Slaughterhouse-Five 101) Common day life has become too difficult to deal with, hence the lack of emotion Billy has.

In dealing with this post-war trauma, Billy becomes unstuck in time. He mentally travels through time to a place where he more is more comfortable being. He avoids all touch with reality. Eliot Rosewater is another Vonnegut alter ego. His vague description is that of a lonely, drunken, World War II veteran, who comes from an affluent family. In Slaughterhouse-Five he objects to the annihilation of Dresden by speaking through a British POW who is telling the American POWs who are oing to Dresden, You neednt worry about bombs, by the way. Dresden is an open city.

It is undefended, and contains no war industries or troop concentrations of any Importance. (Slaughterhouse-Five146) Rosewater and Vonnegut both suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome but only Rosewater was hospitalized for it. He later becomes a drunk after the war but he also finds enlightenment through the writings of Kilgore Trout and the company of Billy Pilgrim. Billy and Eliot Rosewater become good acquaintances during their time together in the mental hospital. As Eliot sits in he hospital he tries to become friendly with Pilgrims mother, even though she thinks hes a hideous man.

Rosewater also turns Pilgrim onto Kilgore Trout and that in turn opened up a whole new realm of understanding for Pilgrim. It was Rosewater who introduced Billy to science fiction, and in particular the writings of Kilgore Trout. (Slaughterhouse-Five 100) The best Vonnegut alter ego is Kilgore Trout. He is the neer-done-well, loser of many Vonnegut books. He is a very significant part of the writing process. He embodies much about what Vonnegut has to say about himself and ow he thinks he is perceived.

He perceives himself, most likely in the beginning of his career, as a hack science fiction writer, who will never make it as a serious writer and will only be published as pornography filler. It is Trouts books themselves that enlighten Billy. He feels as if he is not the only one to get unstuck in time. This enlightenment enables Billy to feel more at ease with how he sees his life will fold out. A major recurrence in the novel Slaughterhouse-Five is the repetition of the phrase So it goes. If you notice, this comes after every death there is in the ovel.

On page 210, the first five paragraphs emphasize just how often this quote is replayed. Also, this quote is showing the removal of Billy from the situation. Many people would find these occurrences extremely traumatising, but for Billy he just withdraws from the entire scenario. This enables him to continue life without dealing with everyday pain and suffering. Kurt Vonnegut through his three main literary self-portraits vents his mental illness. Not only does he do that, but also he gives us insightful tid-bits of knowledge and advice that will help us later in life.

His honesty and straightforward manner help the relieving process for Vonnegut or any author who uses writing as a catharsis. His need to rejuvenate himself from all his post- war trauma is a perfect example of a form of insanity. Kurt Vonnegut uses all of his novels to express all the emotions built up from years of suppression. He uses the theme of insanity in all of his pieces of works to convey to the public how he identifies himself. Insanity is the ruling force in Slaughterhouse-Five and the passage on page 210 is the decisive force in portraying

Salvador Manuchin

General systems theories emerged in the biological and social sciences following World War II. This led to the conceptualization of the individual as an interdependent part of larger social systems. Systemic therapy does not focus on how problems start, but rather on how the dynamics of relationships influence the problem. The therapist’s goal is to alter the dynamics of the relationships rather than to focus only on the behavior or internal dynamics of individuals.

For example, if a child is having temper tantrums, attention would be given to the stage of family development, the quality of communication between its members, and the clarity and flexibility of family roles. In the family, the executive subsystem is that of the parents; the sibling subsystem is that of the children. Invisible boundaries–unspoken rules about who does what with whom–are drawn around each (and around the immediate family itself) so that each subsystem can carry out its family-stabilizing tasks while remaining connected to the others.

One of the most common family problems is a weak boundary between subsystems. A woman making several calls a day from work to instruct her teenagers on how to dress for school, what to say when they turn in homework, and so forth indicates over-involvement with the sibling subsystem; a man who calls or visits his mother every time he argues with his wife shows a weak boundary between the immediate and extended families.

In therapy it’s quite common to see a little boy suddenly make everyone laugh at precisely the moment the therapist is asking the uncomfortable parents how their marriage is going. Without knowing it, the boy, usually prompted by some subtle signal from his parents, protects the family by taking the heat off them and their fragile relationship. The therapist, seeing the family operating as a whole (self-preservation through distraction) rather than as isolated individuals (Mom, Dad, the son), might then comment.

In alcoholic families the member who drinks controls the whole family with his/her behavior. His/Her unavailability, bad health, violence, unpredictability, and self-contempt distort every interaction between family members. The whole family learns to adapt itself to his/her drinking with maneuvers like denial, bailing him out of jail if he drinks and drives, calling in sick for him if he’s hung over, walking carefully when he’s drunk and angry, unconsciously nominating one child to stand in for him and parent the family.

Family therapists use the term IP, meaning Identified Patient, because a dysfunctional family member generally means a destabilized family system. Whatever its components, unresolved stress between parents reverberates down through all family interrelations and normally results in coalitions, emotional parent-child alignments against the other parent and perhaps other children. For example a mom is a verbally abusive, so when she explodes, dad and brother console one another and perhaps agree that she’s nuts.

A linear approach would emphasize mom’s upbringing and lack of anger management skills and thereby ignore the coalition process itself and reinforce its tendency to scapegoat, whereas a systems approach would focus on the present-time context of mom’s explosions, looking at the interactions leading up to it and encouraging dad and mom to work out new, non-escalating ways to talk and negotiate. Perhaps the couple could enter into couples therapy, rather than blaming her or him or failing to confront, and thus defuse alliances forming elsewhere in the family.

When a couple in session argues about how it started, the therapist can let them know that there is more interest in where it’s going: “How will you resolve this here? ” With specific reference to alcoholics, many have inherited biological and family stresses and have low self-esteem and other dynamics which can all play a part. What counts for the alcoholic isn’t looking for causes so much as cutting the feedback circles that maintain drinking.

A good clinician will refer the client to AA, consider hospitalization, assess for suicidal intent, advise a physical, ask about weapons in the home, and work on both family and individual levels with interventions aimed at interactions (arguments, nagging, money problems, abuse) that presently maintain the alcoholism. A typical situation as described by Neil Jacobson in 1995, an un-intense family with a cool emotional atmosphere unconsciously selects a member to turn up the heat; brother and sister start fighting.

This turns into an argument between the parents, the drama escalates, and then, before it gets too hot, a child who plays the role of family ambassador calms everybody down. In that family, the bias, the emotional level setting, is too low. Many drug and alcohol counselors know that when one member of the family stops drinking or using, the family will subtly try to push him back into his old vices, not because they want him sick, but because families, like other organisms, naturally resist changes that might further destabilize the system.

So one day the husband says to his abstaining wife, “Why not skip your AA meeting tonight so we can catch a movie? ” Or the mother of a teen who’s quit using congratulates him on finding a job, in a restaurant with a bar and grill. Introducing positive feedback (system-changing) loops into these families might include warning them about enabling, relapses and resistance to change and examining what family members gain from having a malfunctioning member (control?

A scapegoat? Distraction from other conflicts? Someone to rescue? ). Constructive intensity might re-calibrate the bias and make explosions unnecessary. Battery normally begins with emotional or verbal abuse (name-calling, shouting, intimidation, shaming) and escalates over the years from pushing and shoving to beatings and even murder. Abuse gives rise to more abuse, violence to more violence: destructive synergy.

In theory of constructive synergy, however, a batterer uses a batterer’s group to learn and master rage-control techniques; those enhance his self-esteem; his wife praises his efforts and trusts him more; he feels good about that and shows her more empathy; the two get problems out on the table instead of hiding them; both grow; their affection deepens; their children carry the resulting relationship blueprint into their own relationships.

Therapists begin this process by helping clients consciously relate and capitalize on growth-producing thoughts, feelings, and interactions (“Now that you stopped drinking, he feels safer telling you about his sadness; you empathized, so he is listening to you more often and with greater care… good work! How will you keep this going? “) Even twins eventually take different roads, grow into individuals with their own insights and values, habits and preferences. Jacobson, 1995) Consciousness guarantees that what we choose to make of our original conditions is more important than the conditions themselves. The abuse survivor who owns the pain moves on; the one who won’t becomes a chronic victim and will probably get into re-victimizing situations. Therapists who realize this assume that a client can and should take full responsibility for the work of healing no matter how dangerous or abusive that client’s environment may have been.

Families are likeliest to be conflicted and symptomatic when key horizontal transitions like marriage, the birth of children, children going to school, children moving away from home, changes of jobs, et cetera coincide with a resurfacing of stressors like old emotional baggage. For example, a workaholic husband driven to succeed by high internalized standards (Rogers’s “conditions of worth”) that equate esteem with production (vertical stressor) puts in even more overtime to stuff the loneliness he feels when his eldest son leaves for college (horizontal stressor). Jacobson, 1995) Worried about his health, escalating stress, and increasing distance from her, his wife suggests that they see a family therapist. Part of the therapeutic agenda would include giving the family tools for negotiating the “empty nest syndrome” while helping the husband get in touch with his mourning, examine his expectations of himself, and reconnect with his family.

Teaching family members how to use “I” statements and listen empathically demonstrate first-order changes that enhance the family’s current functioning. Coaching a widow through the loss of her husband, helping a couple let go of the last child to leave the nest, and restructuring an alcoholic family to eliminate drinking are second-order changes that alter the family fundamentally, bringing it to an entirely new structure and psychological place.

Yes, there really are families–and extended families and neighborhoods and even companies–that work this way: members are clear about what to expect from one another and neither intrude nor distance themselves, they speak openly and affectionately to one another, they know who’s in charge of what, they know and can talk about what is permitted and what is not, their roles and favorites are flexible and changing, and they feel comfortable and safe getting problems and hurt feelings out in the open where everyone can work on them. When enough families succeed at this, perhaps the systemic impact on whole nations will become irresistible.

To what extent were the 1920s a break form the traditions of the pre-war era?

The 1920s sandwiched as they were between the horror of World War 1 and the untold misery of the great depression, remain firmly in peoples mind as the period of prosperity and where life was free and easy owing to modern technological advances in Australia. After the war we achieved a great sense of national pride. This was mainly seen through what we had accomplished as a young country. We survived the depression of the 19th Century, the influenza epidemic, federation and finally the war.

In the 1920s the cities had electricity for the first time, motor cars replaced the old horse and carriage, the odd plane flew overhead, and the role of women radically changed. The greatest change taking place was the way people dressed and behaved which was a break from the traditions of the pre-war era. The great suffering of the war was over and gave way to a new era of materialism and consumerism resulting in people enjoying themselves After WW1 Australians saw the need to expand and grow. This idea can be best described in the words of the Prime Minister, Stanley Bruce, Men, Money, Markets.

Australians saw the need to increase the population to stop the traditional fears of Asians (the Yellow Peril) and Bolshevism (Communism). The population increase was for defensive purposes. Another slogan aimed at the great fear of communism was Keep the Reds Out of Australia. So great was the fear of communism that the church had stood against it and said that it was Godless and attacked the principles of democracy. Money, Markets was seen by the improving and expanding of our country infrastructure and also to start using our primary industry to its full potential.

Once the excitement of both the war and influenza epidemic had died down the 1920s was a release of tensions and traditions. Both the employer and the worker had more money and were willing to spend. Through technological advances life was getting much better for most Australians. The use of electricity brought new appliances such as washing machines, fridges, stoves, irons, radios, gramophones and also vacuum cleaners. These while revolutionary were quite expensive. Transport was another major change. Automobiles had increased form 37,000 btw to an incredible 300,000 in the 20s.

Aviation had also been furthered due to brave pioneers such as, Charles Ulm and Charles Kingsford Smith, Hinckler, and Flysh and McGuinness who had started Qantas. Another improvement in transport was that of electric trams. This made travel from town to town easier and therefore changed family life. The role of women had changed dramatically in the 1920s. They were now able to, in some degree, express themselves and have a greater say in society. This gravely changed traditions. Australia was once a very male orientated society and women were not held in high regard to make decisions.

However during the war women proved themselves by carrying out the male jobs in factories and ensuring the functioning of the country. They unfortunately did receive less pay than their male counterparts. In 1921 with the induction of Edith Cowan into the parliament women were taken seriously. Her induction onto parliament was great because women were only allowed to vote in 1902. The common trend btw (before the war) was that women took on domestic duties such as teaching, nursing and the domestic duties.

From the 1920s and onward the traditional role was gone and women were seen in all areas of employment. This trend to see women on the workforce was not entirely common and most women kept their roll of wife and mother. Perhaps the biggest break in tradition was that of fashion. Many groups apposed the changes, however did little to stop it. Btw womens fashion was characterized by a lower neckline, a slim waistline which was achieved by wearing ill-fitting and uncomfortable corsets, large hats and a principal of covering up.

In the 1920s people were outraged to see hair cut and bobbed, hems lifted above the knee, faces bearing make-up, long stockings and high heels. Women also started smoking and drinking in public, which was a sin in itself, and also driving! This was shocking to elder people in society. The traditions before the war were thrown out the window and women lived a less restrictive lifestyle. During the 1920s many changes questioned the previous morals and traditions. People who opposed this social change were called wowsers.

These people came from a strong religious background that believed in traditions. They went out of their way to stop the deeming of society. Unable to change womens fashion, they were able to enforce a 6 oclock still. The still prevented alcohol form being sold after 6pm. Entertainment had changed lives and as a result traditions. Australian entertainment was influenced by world trends, mainly America. As the mobility of the population increased so too did their desire for new forms of entertainment, such as going to the flicks on Saturday night at the local flea house.

By the end of the 1920s most suburbs and large country towns boasted one or more theaters. This activity was hugely popular and a part of everyday life. This replaced previous traditions for entertainment. This revolution did not end with picture theatre. The 1920s were the era of jazz, dances and cabarets. Wowsers viewed the dances as immoral and unethical. Also a form of entertainment was sport. Due to the advances in technology, mainly electric trams allowed Australians to move to and from sports grounds and beaches.

The issue of beaches was a heated topic of debate in the 1920s. Btw (before the war) there was very strict laws regarding the beach. Surfing, for the early part of the century, was illegal and the act of going to the beach was to paddle at the edge of the water and the only items of clothes removed was shoes and sox. Just prior to the war there was laws passed to only allow single sex beaches. In the 1920s the wowsers once again was angered because woman and men were bathing in the same beaches. The compromise was that men and women had to wear costumes covering form elbow to knee.

The 1920s were a prosperous era that brought happiness and excitement to the people of Australia. Not only in the last 50 years have we survived through a depression, federation, population increase and the brutal effects of the war, but we had also advanced as a country with a strong sense of pride. The 1920s were a revolutionary part of history. For the people it was a great break in tradition and they were free and enjoying themselves. This break in tradition, while it was good for the country came to an end in October 1929 with the crash of the New York Stockmarket.

World War II: A Violation

The Treaty of Versailles was a violation of Wilsons ideals. The Treaty is one of the most important agreements (or disagreements) that shaped 20th century Europe socially and physically. Woodrow Wilson on January 22, 1917 in an address to the United States Senate called for a peace without victors, but the Treaty signed by the participating nations was everything but that. The blame for the war was placed on Germany and justified the reparations that were outlined by the treaty for the war.

The terms of the treaty were very harsh to the Germans and they took on great resentment. It was a fragile peace agreement that would be used as fuel to keep hostilities going 20 years later. When the details of the treaty were published in June 1919 most Germans were horrified. Germany had not been allowed to the Peace Conference and was told to accept the terms or else. Most Germans however, had believed that the Treaty would be lenient because of Wilson’s Fourteen Points.

Many people in other lands thought that the treaty was a way of making legal the punishment on the Germans and this was in violation of Wilsonian idealism. The peacemakers should have been able to set aside hatred that was built up from the past in order to come up with a more proper and fair settlement. Instead of doing this, they placed the blame on the Germans by forcing them to pay for reparations they couldn’t afford, insulting them with the accusation of guilt from the war and taking away their territory.

The treaty would only intensify the hatred felt by all the parties involved in the treaty and heighten German nationalism. This was a poor beginning for democracy in Germany and for Wilson’s New World. President Woodrow Wilson had hopes for a New World. For Wilson, the war had been fought against autocracy. A peace settlement based on liberal-democratic ideals, he hoped, would get rid of the foundations of war. None of Wilson’s hopes seemed better than the idea of self-determination — the right of a people to have its own state, free of any foreign domination.

In particular, this goal meant the return of Alsace and Lorraine to France which had been lost to Germany in the Franco-Prussian war, the creation of an independent Poland, the changing of the frontiers of Italy to include Austrian lands where Italians lived, and an opportunity for Slavs of the Austro- Hungarian Empire to form their own states. Several of the clauses of the Treaty were thought to be very harsh. It was going to be almost impossible to pay the reparations. In fact, the German government gave up after only one year, and the War Guilt Clause seemed very unfair.

How could Germany be the only country to blame for the war? After all it had started when a Serbian shot an Austrian. It was felt that Germany had been simply made a scapegoat by the other countries for all that had happened. Looking back it is clear that the Treaty of Versailles created more problems than it actually solved. The treaty broke up empires and changed boundaries. The Germans lost territory and other countries tried to weaken Germanys military potential and strengthen their own to compensate for the destruction of their lands caused by the Germans.

The Germans were unanimously against the Treaty of Versailles. They viewed the terms of the treaty as humiliating and merciless, designed to keep Germany militarily and economically weak. To the Germans, the Treaty of Versailles was not the beginning of the New World that Wilson had promised, but a horrible crime. At the end of World War I, the victorious Allies met in Paris to draw up the peace conditions. Although the Allies had varying expectations and demands, they did agree that Germany should have the burden of responsibility for causing the war.

Germany was severely penalized under the terms of the treaty. However, the League of Nations couldnt to enforce Germany’s compliance, which increased international tensions. The new German Republic struggled and their economy continued to fall. Although 27 nations attended the Peace Conference, the leaders of the United States, Great Britain, France, and Italy strongly dictated the peace terms. Even though each agreed that Germany should assume the financial burden of putting Europe back together, the “Big Four” had different expectations and demands, which they sought.

France demanded a harsh settlement that would eliminate Germany as a potential military threat and it wanted their land back. Italy specifically wanted more territory to add to its empire. Great Britain wanted to keep its strong navy and thought it would be in Europes best interest to help restore the German economy. Finally, the United States sought the League of Nations to be an international committee to break up future conflicts and Wilson was pushing his 14 Points. The fact that Germany was made responsible for ALL the reparations helped to break apart international relations.

The Allies were counting on Germany to pay their war debts. They hoped to use that money to help their own economic problems. The League of Nations was not very effective in forcing Germany to make payments, because it lost credibility when the United Stated didnt join. The new German republic was in a constant state of instability because new radical groups were emerging left and right, trying to attain power. The continuing economic decline worsened the struggle, leaving the German people discouraged and desperate.

The conclusions of the war included the following; Germany was forced to reduce its army to 100,000 men, reduce the navy to 6 warships and was not allowed to have any submarines, destroy all of its air force, give land to Belgium, France, Denmark and Poland, hand over all of its colonies, agree to pay reparations to the Allies for all of the damage caused by the war, put no soldiers or military equipment within 30 miles of the east bank of the Rhine, and accept all of the blame for the war (War Guilt Clause. ) Italy was given the two small areas of Istria and the South Tirol.

The Adriatic coast was made part of a new country called Yugoslavia, which included Serbia and Bosnia. Other new countries were created; Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland were formed from land lost by Russia. Czechoslovakia and Hungary were formed out of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Allies also gave Germany a new form of government based on proportional representation. It was meant to prevent Germany from being taken over by a dictatorship, but it led to the creation of more than thirty political parties; none of them was big enough to form a government on its own.

Aware that a harshly treated Germany might seek revenge, engulfing the world in another destruction, Wilson insisted that there should be a “peace without victory. ” A fair settlement would encourage Germany to work with the Allies in building a new Europe. To preserve peace and to help remake the world, Wilson urged the formation of a League of Nations. What was most significant about the Treaty of Versailles was that it did not solve the German problem.

Germany was left weak but unbroken — its industrial and military power was only temporarily taken away and its nationalist feelings have intensified. The real danger in Europe was German unwillingness to accept defeat or surrender their longtime dream of expansion. In conclusion, had the Allies Powers listened to President Wilson’s hopes for a new world and to his famous Fourteen Points, the settlement would have been peaceful and the Germans would not have been humiliated as they have been and would have no reason to want to seek revenge.

Pearl Harbor: Isolationism

It is a common held belief that America has historically been a nation driven by the ideology of isolationism. The best cases for these arguments are through our unwillingness to participate in either world war. The lynch pin being the events that happened in Pearl Harbor. I will try to dispel this theory in my essay. On December 7th, 1941 war was forced upon America by the Japanese assault on Peal Harbor, and declarations of war by Germany and Italy four days later.

It is a myth that Franklin D. Roosevelt was anxious to bring America into the war, and was prevented from doing so by the overwhelming isolationist spirit of the American people. The evidence shows that FDR was primarily concerned with his domestic policies and had no wish to join in a crusade against Nazism or totalitarianism or indeed against international aggression. He took no positive steps to involve the United States in the conflict. The war came as much a surprise-and an unwelcome surprise-to him as anyone else.

There is a persistent myth that he was forewarned about the Japanese aggression at Pearl Harbor, and did nothing to stop it, being anxious that American participation in the global conflict should be precipitated by the unprovoked act of aggression. That all kinds of warnings were in the air at the time is clear. But an objective survey of all the evidence indicates that Pearl Harbor came as a real and horrifying shock to all the members of the Roosevelt administration, beginning with the President himself.

It is also a myth, however, that Americas unwillingness to engage in World War Two-the polls show that around 80 percent of the adult population wanted America to stay neutral until the Pearl Harbor assault-sprang from a deep sense of isolationism, which was Americas pristine and natural posture in world affairs. This myth is so persistent that it has led in the 1990s to a demand to return to isolationism, as though it were Americas destiny and natural preference. So it is worth examining in a longer historical context.

There is nothing unique, as many Americans suppose, in the desire of a society with a strong cultural identity to minimize its foreign contacts. On the contrary, isolationism in this sense has been the norm wherever geography has made it feasible. A characteristic example of a hermit state is Japan, which tried to use its surrounding seas to pursue a policy of total isolation. China, too, was isolationist for thousands of years, albeit an empire at the same time. The British were habitually isolationist even during the centuries when they were acquiring an empire embracing a quarter of the worlds surface.

The British always regarded the English Channel as a cordon sanitaire to protect them from what they saw as the Continental disease of war. The Spanish too were misled by the Pyrenees, and the Russians by the Great Plains, into believing that isolationism was feasible as well as desirable. The United States, however, has always been an internationalist country. Given the sheer size of the Atlantic (and the Pacific), with its temptation to hermitry, the early colonists and rulers of the United States were remarkably international minded.

The Pilgrim Fathers did not cut themselves off from Europe, but sought to erect a City on a Hill precisely to serve as an example to the Old World. The original Thirteen Colonies had, as a rule, closer links with Europe than with each other, focusing on London and Paris, rather than on Boston or Philadelphia. Benjamin Franklin had perhaps a better claim to be called a cosmopolitan than any other figure on either side of the Atlantic. He believed strongly in negotiations and in mutually advantageous treaties between nations.

Americas ruling elite was always far more open towards, interested in, and knowledgeable about the world (especially Europe) than the French-Canadians to the north and the Spanish- and Portuguese-Americans to the south. Despite the oceans on both sides, the United States was from the start involved with Russia (because of Oregon and Alaska), China (because of trade), Spain, Britain, and other European powers. Isolation in a strict sense was never an option, and there is no evidence that the American masses, let alone the elites, favored it, especially once immigration widened and deepened the ties with Europe.

It is true that the United States, through most of the 19th century, was concerned with expanding its presence in the Americas rather than with global policies. But exponents of America First, like John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and the Manifest Destiny chorus, were imperialists rather than isolationists. Between the two world wars, America sometimes appeared , in theory as well as in practice, isolationist, and much of the tragedy of World War Two is attributed to this.

But, despite rejection of the League, America was certainly not isolationist in the 1920s, though its intervention in international affairs was not always prudent, particularly in the Pacific. American interest in Asia had grown steadily throughout the 19th century, and it was not only, or indeed not primarily, commercial. It was religious and cultural too. There was something in Asian culture, it had been argued, that persuaded Americans that they had a mission to intervene and change it for the better.

An American idealogy that the United States is the greatest country and therefore other countries benefit by our cultural bombardment (coca-cola and nike for instance). By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 American missionaries in Siam, Burma, Japan and Korea, and, above all, China. The one Asian country which resisted Americanization was Japan, and it symbolized this rejection of American cultural notions (though not its technology) by building an ocean going navy on a large scale. The United States did nothing to prevent the development of hostile US-Japanese relations.

There were reasons for this. In the early 20th century California introduced race laws to prevent the settlement of Japanese immigrants and from 1906-8 the mass migration from Japan had been halted. American policy in the 1920s tended not merely to perpetuate Japanese-American hostility but to poison the relationship between Japan and Britain too. At Versailles, Wilson antagonized the Japanese by refusing to write a condemnation of racism(which had bearings on the situation in California) into the covenant of the League.

Under President Hoover, the American government continued to play a world role, with the object of preserving peace. But its actions were usually counterproductive. Hoover refused to veto the Smoot-Hawley tariff, which destroyed Japans American trade, 15 percent of its exports. That combined with the London treaty, which it signed reluctantly, completed Japans alienation from the West, and determined its rulers, or at any rate the military cliques which in effect ran Japanese army and naval policy, to go it on their own.

There followed the 1931 Japanese occupation of Manchuria and, in 1933, Japans departure from the League of Nations. Hoover made no positive moves to oppose Japanese expansion. When Roosevelt took over, he made matters worse. Hoover had helped to plan a world economic conference, to be held in London June 1933. It might have persuaded the have not powers like Japan and Germany that there were alternatives to fighting for a living . But on July 3 Roosevelt canceled it.

Thereafter the United States did indeed move into isolation, though it was not the only great and civilized power to do so in the 1930s. Nor was its move out of want but necessity. Among the victors of World War One, fear of a second, which would invalidate all their sacrifices, was universal. In the United States, the Depression, coming after nearly seventy years of dramatic economic expansion which had made it the richest and most powerful country on earth, abruptly reduced half the population to poverty.

In August 1935 Roosevelt passed the first Neutrality Act, which kept the U. S. officially and globally out of the war. This allowed America to rebuild its internal infrastructure, without having the glaring inevitability of war present in congress and the public eye. Roosevelts administration became infected by the spirit of isolationism, not out of national idealogy or arrogance, but out of panic at a nation and populace that now found its self bankrupt and desperate.

Roosevelt showed himself as lacking in leadership as Baldwin and Chamberlain in Britain, or Daldier in France. It is permissible to speculate that Theodore Roosevelt, with his clearer ideas of Americas responsibilities to the world, and his warmer notions of democratic solidarity, would have been more energetic in alerting the American people to the dangers which threatened them and the need for timely preparation and action, thereby saving countless American lives, and prodigious quantities of U. S. treasure.

As it was, not until November 17, 1941, after repeated confrontations with German submarines in the North Atlantic, and the actual torpedoing of the US destroyer Reuben James, did Congress amend the Neutrality Acts to allow US merchant ships to arm themselves and to carry cargo to belligerent ports. This was only three weeks before Pearl Harbor ended the tragic farce of American neutrality. Thus the United States was finally drawn into the war for the survival of democracy and international -6- law at a time and place not of its own choosing, but of its enemys.

Roosevelt had no real belief that Pearl Harbor was ever going to be bombed. The Japanese war preparations were a characteristic combination of breathtaking efficiency and inexplicable muddle. Gen. George Marshall, FDRs principal military advisor, had repeatedly assured the President that Oahu fortress complex, which included Pearl Harbor, was the strongest in the world and that a seaborne attack was out of the question. The plan of attack on Pearl Harbor, which involved getting a gigantic carrier force unobserved over thousands of miles of ocean, was the most audacious and complex scheme of its kind in history.

Nothing like it had ever been conceived before, in extent and complexity, and it is no wonder that Marshall discounted its magnitude and FDR brushed aside such warnings as he received. The Second World War was not started in secrecy and deceit. Roosevelt was not an ideologist, who saw salvation in forcing an isolationist country into international affairs. He was a President fraught with the problems of a panicked, economically debacled country. His entire focus was on the regrowth of the American infrastructure.

The fickle attitude of Japan, a country that occilated between threats of war and neutrality, between military and civilian control, were not taken seriously in leu of more prevalent problems. This is not to say, either, that the U. S. itself was a populace of isolationists. America had grown wealthy through international trade and exports, but the devastating implications of a war on an already strained people was too much. America joined the war, initially, in retaliation to the threat of war. It was forced, inadvertently, into war, not by Presidential conspiracy to overturn isolationist feelings, but out of self-defense.

Espionage in World War II

Many of us can remember playing childhood games when we were younger. One of my personal favorites was hide and seek. My favorite part of the game was when I was hiding and tried to watch where the seeker looked while he or she searched. Of course I could have been caught, but it wasn’t a big deal at the time. What would happen though if the seeker didn’t know who he was looking for, but knew someone was hiding? How would he go about finding the person? Further more how much more could the person accomplish if they were hiding right in front of them, but the seeker did not know?

Well it may sound a little off, but that was basically the game of espionage. Spies would try to conceal themselves by gathering information at the same time. During times of war it was critical to keep your movements, plans, and technology secret so that enemies could not be prepared or be one-step ahead. Therefore spies would be a very influential on outcomes of wars. One of the wars that the USA needed espionage help was in WWII. Not only did they need to get information but have counter intelligence to keep secrets away from Germany and their allies. Espionage helped the US during WWII in the defeat of Germany and their allies.

Spies during WWII were intended to provide the basis for an accurate assessment of other nations’ intentions and military capabilities. [Richelson, 103] In such a war a successful surprise attack could leave a victim staggered and ready for a knockout blow. [103] That meant it was critical for the USA to stop espionage from telling their moves and having their spies tell them about the planned attacks of the Axis Powers. This would help the USA to pull off critical assaults on Germany such as D-Day. But before the beginning of the end of the war came many other obstacles to be overcome by the US.

At the beginning of the war all the major combatants had a place in code breaking establishments, all of which would experience explosive growth during the war. [173] These agencies would then go on to provide critical information during the war to provide information needed to combat the Axis. One of the most important needs for espionage was in the deciphering of the ENIGMA. [176] This was used to code and decode German messages sent and received between commanders and such. [176]

It was very hard to decipher the ENIGMA because of the way it was set up. 176] What made it so difficult to decipher was the process by which a letter in an original message was transformed into a different one for the transmitted message. [176] The process involved, among other things, three motors in each machine that were chosen from a set of five. [176] Each of them had twenty-six settings, and a plugboard, which connected the keyboard letters to the lampboard letters. [176]

For example the first time the L key was pressed a B might light up, but because the rotors turned further entries of L on the board would not produce another B but rather other letters. 176] US intelligence along with help from other countries was eventually able to make a duplicate machine that would help them in decoding messages. [177] Without help from espionage in this instance the US and their allies would be susceptible to unknown attacks and movements of armies without having a chance to prepare for it.

Here to the use of American Espionage was evident in the fight against its oppressors. Without proper deciphering of messages the battles could have been altered for the side of the Axis. One particular instance in which the US used intelligence to gain an advantage when going to be attacked was the battle of Midway.

The US intercepted an encrypted message from a Japanese Admiral and revealed the date in which the attacks were scheduled. [O’Toole, 388] Therefore the US was able to have a task force waiting for the Japanese when they arrived. [389] It was said that Midway marked the turning point of the war for the pacific. [389] Again the use of Espionage provided huge results for American’s throughout the war with the Axis. Another importance of espionage in the war was that the Axis powers didn’t know that the Allies intercepted their communications. 392] Also, the British intercepted many messages that were given to the US as well. [392] The agreement they came upon to share intelligence was called the BRUSA. [392] This actually helped join the espionage together to use personnel along with technology of each other together with providing security for the operations. [392] Again the intelligence agencies of the USA helped them in winning the war by combining efforts with their allies.

Ultra intelligence played a vital role in every major allied operation in the European, North African, and Mediterranean theatres of the war. 393] For example, it showed the Germans were not prepared for American landings in North Africa in November of 1942. [393] Also it disclosed movement of German forces instantaneously after the landings. [393] As historian Ronald Lewin wrote: Ultra was a fundamental for strategic deception—fundamental for knowing in advanced which of the enemy’s forces were stationed where (the order of battle): fundamental for observing immediately his secret reactions to any attempt to deceive: and fundamental for monitoring any redeployment of his troops which might confirm that he had been taken in. [393]

One of the most important uses for Ultra was support in anti-submarine warfare in the Battle of the Atlantic. [394] They used intercepted information to capture the naval Enigma machine from U-110 in May 1941. [394] It helped to guide anti-submarine forces to the German U-boats. [394] Again Espionage from the US produces striking results in the battles that could’ve easily gone the other way without the information that was provided by the intelligence. The US did not just use their spies against the Germans though. After all, the Japanese were that ones that attacked us to bring us into the war.

A man by the name of William F. Friedman played a significant role in the world of American Espionage. [Volkman, 74] After working to decode ciphering machines in World War I, Friedman looked to break the code of the Japanese ciphering machine named PURPLE. [76] To do this Friedman worked with a the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) to come up with a ciphering machine of their own that was considered unbreakable. [75] It took him a while, but after working seven days a week, for twelve hours a day, for four months and finally cracked the machine. 75] This was the beginning of something huge for the Americans because they had a great deciphering man in Friedman. Friedman’s group of mathematicians and intelligence was called the Magicians. [77] Throughout the war they helped decipher many Japanese originated messages that were critical military moves. [81] One of the greatest moves Friedman made was in the interception of the fortifications of Normandy, which made D-Day possible. [81]

His efforts led to the creation of a counterpart of PURPLE that allowed the USA to decipher its’ messages. 81] The Magicians and Friedman played a major role in making the defeat of Japan and Germany possible by deciphering messages and creating counterparts to cipher machines. Another help that USA Espionage did in the war was because it could show evidence of military moves. One of the greatest moves it foretold was that Germany was going to attack Russia. [Richelson, 113] It was recorded that Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden summoned Maisky, an Ambassador of resent German redeployments of forces towards Russian and informed him of this:

In the past forty-eight hours the information reaching us had become more significant. The troop concentrations might be for the purpose of a war of nerves, or they might be for the purpose of an attack on Russia . . . but we were bound to consider in the light of this very formidable build-up, that conflict between Germany and Russia was possible. [113] Of course there was an attack on Russia by Germany, but the Soviets were not completely unprepared thanks to our intelligence’s work. 113] Our spies had a work as great as the troops that fought in the war, because they also put themselves on the line in the other countries to support the war behind the scenes. Their contributions helped the US in preparing other countries for attacks that would soon after ally themselves with them. The attack on Pearl Harbor was a major part of the war.

Although intelligence helped maintain our strength in the war, its’ mistakes helped us make it into the war. Intelligence historian David Kahn observed this: Intelligence officers could have perhaps have foreseen the attack if the United States, years before, had instituted spies into high level Japanese military and naval circles, flown regular aerial reconnaissance of the Japanese navy, put intercept units aboard ships sailing close to Japan to pick up naval messages hat greatly expanded codebreaking unit might have cracked. . . . The intelligence failure at Pearl Harbor was not one of analysis but of collection. ” [122] Although it was not necessarily a mistake, the attack, according to Historian David Kahn could have been either known of or prevented. [123]

Some of the various information that was critical for the US to acquire was provided by their counterspies. [124] These spies were used as agents against those who stole information that would help the Axis in their wins, just as the USA used their own Espionage to their advantage so would their enemies. Keeping their information was a critical point so that Germany was not able to know that the Allied Powers knew of their plans. Some of the transmitting had to stop because of the danger of counterspies. [131] Unfortunately for the Axis, the US continued to work throughout the hostility of counterspies and had success. Johnson, 123]

One critical part of intelligence was to keep the atomic bomb a secret. [Richelson, 134] Not only from the Axis, but Russia was trying to spy on the US’s attempts as well. [134, 135] The FBI and the CIA did much work in the defeat of these spies by arresting them, searching houses for documents and such. [140] This part of the US Espionage was critical for if the Atomic bombs plan were wrecked the war could’ve gone on longer, or if the technology had fallen into the hands of the Axis the war could have turned into a different scenario.

Throughout many different other battles the US had information on various military movements of the Axis because of the share of there information with the British. [O’Toole, 392] British intelligence had some information the US did not have against the Axis which proved very useful against their enemies. [393] British intelligence became of much use to the US throughout the world war and they intern continue to give there espionage information to them as well. This boded for a greater advancement in espionage because each of the countries best combined for great possibilities in that field. 395] Again, when USA intelligence ran into some trouble they continue to help with their efforts in winning the war by sharing and receiving information from the British. Perhaps the greatest contributions of the espionage in the USA were when the assault on D-Day took place.

A plan finally arose after many days of scheming. [Richelson, 154] It was called JEDBURGH. [154] The plan basically took many three manned teams that would infiltrate the area once the invasion began and started to gather intelligence, while others linked up with the masquisards. 154] They then continued to tell of German military movements, decipher intercepted messages and told airplanes where to drop the weapons that were needed to upend the German defense plans. [154] Additional sabotage operations forced Germans to communicate by radio and they became easier to intercept and decipher. [155] Espionage was needed to make this monumental assault a success for the Allies. During the war, the spies continued there hiding, while the Germans began to seek them. Americans came out with the upper end in the war.

Espionage helped prepare defenses, win battles, and warn other allied powers of attacks of the Axis. On all accounts it seems that the USA could not have won the war without the help of their Espionage. Whether it be deciphering messages, recording military movements, or finding other spies, American espionage played a major role in the defeat of Germany and their allies during World War II. American Espionage stood up to the dangers that a soldier faced in battle and did not back down when their country needed them, even if it meant dying to keep a secret.

World War II: Pearl Harbor

Pearl Harbor were not awaken by the familiar sound of a bugle but by gunfire and explosions. This attack led to other events in World War II such as, America’s involvement in the war and the dropping of the Atom Bomb at Hiroshima. Between the years of 1920 and 1940 dictators came to power in Germany, Italy, and Japan. The first country to have a dictatorship was Italy. Thier dictator was Benito Mussolini. He became dictator in 1922. Mussolini organized and founded the Fascist party before he became dictator. After thier loss in World War I Germany had severe problems with thier economy.

Adolf Hitler and his political party the Nazis promised they would end Germanies problems if Hitler became dictator. The Germans made Hitler thier dictator in 1933. Italy and Germany decided to become allies in 1939. They called themselves the Axis Powers. Japan joined the Axis Powers in 1940. The emperor of Japan at the present time was Emperor Hirohito. After he joined with the Axis Powers he started taking over countries, cities, and island in and around Japan that belonged to countries who opposed the Axis Powers. Joseph Stalin, the ruler of Russia at the present time, sided ith Hitler until Hitler double crossed him and tried to take over Russia.

After the double cross Stalin decided to side with the Allies. The Allies were the countries that were opposed to the Axis Powers. These countries were Britain, France, the U. S. A. , and Russia. The three leaders of the Allied Powers were Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin. After World War II started Japan grew angry with the U. S. A. because they were helping China by sending them war supplies. Japan didn’t like this because China was the main target of Japanese attacks.

As a result of this Japan decided to take a “peace” trip to the U. S. A. . They made the trip in November of 1941. During this “peace” trip Japan made three proposals to the government. These proposals were, to stop aiding China, to stay out of Asian affairs, and to begin shipping oil to Japan right away or Japan would attack the U. S. A. . President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the government of the United States didn’t carry out these proposals. As a result of this Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on the morning of December 7, 1941 at 7:55 AM.

The reason they attacked that arly was because Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the person in control of the Japanese warships in that area, knew most of the troops at Pearl Harbor would be asleep. The main planes Japan used for the attack were bombers. The number of bombers used was 350. Six aircraft carriers are what these planes were carried on. They chose to use bombers because thier primary objective was to destroy as many ships as possible. They did have one squadron of fighter planes in each wave, however. The reason they did this was because Yamamoto predicted that the troops at Pearl Harbor would be able to a launch a few planes.

There were two waves of planes. The first wave of planes were to destroy as many capital ships as possible. Capital ships are ships that are powerful. The planes that were still up and running after the first wave were to join in the second wave. The second wave of planes were to destroy whatever was left after the first wave of planes finished thier mission. These were mostly carrier ships and submarines that were surfaced. During this attack exactly ten major command ships were destroyed. Some of the ships that were destroyed were the U. S. S. Arizona, the Pennsylvania, the Maryland, and the West Virginia.

The major results off the bombing of Pearl Harbor were the involvement of the United States in World War II. The second major result was the dropping of the Atom Bomb at Hiroshima in Japan. Harry S. Truman was the president who dropped the bomb on Japan because F. D. Roosevelt died shortly before that happened. Before he died he gave a speech about what happened at Pearl Harbor. In this speech he said, “Yesterday December 7,1941-a date witch we live in infamy [total disgrace]-the United States of America was deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan… ”

That was nly part of the speech ,however. The U. S. S.. Arizona which was one of the most badly damaged ships because of the attack had a memorial made for it. After the bombing American soldiers use the phrase “Remember Pearl Harbor” to raise thier spirits during the remainder of the war. Pearlharbor On December7, 1941 the U. S. troops stationed on the island of Pearl Harbor were not awaken by the familiar sound of a bugle but by gunfire and explosions. This attack led to other events in World War II such as, America’s involvement in the war and the dropping of the Atom Bomb at Hiroshima.

Between the years of 1920 and 1940 dictators came to power in Germany, Italy, and Japan. The first country to have a dictatorship was Italy. Thier dictator was Benito Mussolini. He became dictator in 1922. Mussolini organized and founded the Fascist party before he became dictator. After thier loss in World War I Germany had severe problems with thier economy. Adolf Hitler and his political party the Nazis promised they would end Germanies problems if Hitler became dictator. The Germans made Hitler thier dictator in 1933. Italy and Germany decided to become allies in 1939. They alled themselves the Axis Powers. Japan joined the Axis Powers in 1940. The emperor of Japan at the present time was Emperor Hirohito. After he joined with the Axis Powers he started taking over countries, cities, and island in and around Japan that belonged to countries who opposed the Axis Powers. Joseph Stalin, the ruler of Russia at the present time, sided with Hitler until Hitler double crossed him and tried to take over Russia. After the double cross Stalin decided to side with the Allies. The Allies were the countries that were opposed to the Axis Powers. These countries were Britain, France, the U.

S. A. , and Russia. The three leaders of the Allied Powers were Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin. After World War II started Japan grew angry with the U. S. A. because they were helping China by sending them war supplies. Japan didn’t like this because China was the main target of Japanese attacks. As a result of this Japan decided to take a “peace” trip to the U. S. A. . They made the trip in November of 1941. During this “peace” trip Japan made three proposals to the government. These proposals were, to stop aiding China, to stay out of Asian affairs, nd to begin shipping oil to Japan right away or Japan would attack the U. S. A. . President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the government of the United States didn’t carry out these proposals.

As a result of this Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on the morning of December 7, 1941 at 7:55 AM. The reason they attacked that early was because Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the person in control of the Japanese warships in that area, knew most of the troops at Pearl Harbor would be asleep. The main planes Japan used for the attack were bombers. The number of bombers used was 350. Six aircraft carriers are what these lanes were carried on. They chose to use bombers because thier primary objective was to destroy as many ships as possible. They did have one squadron of fighter planes in each wave, however. The reason they did this was because Yamamoto predicted that the troops at Pearl Harbor would be able to a launch a few planes. There were two waves of planes.

The first wave of planes were to destroy as many capital ships as possible. Capital ships are ships that are powerful. The planes that were still up and running after the first wave were to join in the second wave. The second wave of planes were to destroy hatever was left after the first wave of planes finished thier mission. These were mostly carrier ships and submarines that were surfaced. During this attack exactly ten major command ships were destroyed. Some of the ships that were destroyed were the U. S. S. Arizona, the Pennsylvania, the Maryland, and the West Virginia. The major results off the bombing of Pearl Harbor were the involvement of the United States in World War II. The second major result was the dropping of the Atom Bomb at Hiroshima in Japan.

Harry S. Truman was the president who dropped the bomb on Japan because F. D. Roosevelt died shortly before that happened. Before he died he gave a speech about what happened at Pearl Harbor. In this speech he said, “Yesterday December 7,1941-a date witch we live in infamy [total disgrace]-the United States of America was deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan… ” That was only part of the speech ,however. The U. S. S.. Arizona which was one of the most badly damaged ships because of the attack had a memorial made for it. After the bombing American soldiers use the phrase “Remember Pearl Harbor” to raise thier spirits during the remainder of the war.

World War II: Problem of evil

After the World War II and the Holocaust, many Jewish and Christian people were left wondering why God would let such a thing happen. Many felt estranged, as if God had somehow abandoned them in their most desperate time of need. The world needed an explanation as to why God would let such a thing happen to his so-called “children”. This need for an explanation of why evil exists in a world that is supposed to have been created by an all-powerful and all-loving God has plagued religious believers for centuries. Because of this need, many scholars have sought out explanations.

This search for an answer to the problem of evil has resulted in many theodicies, or defenses of God in view of the existence of evil. One such defense is known as the free will defense. The free will defense attempts to combat the problem of evil by rationalizing that evil is the result human action and therefore, God is not to be held accountable for it. This essay will discuss both the strengths and weaknesses of the free will defense. Before we can discuss the free will defense, we must define the different types of evil that exist.

Philosophers distinguish between two types of evil that exist in this world, natural evil and moral evil. Natural evils are those evils that occur that are outside of our control, or more simply put, the evils exist in nature. These evils include natural disasters like earth quakes, floods, and tornados. They also include other forms of “chance” occurrences that are out of our control. Moral evils, on the other hand, are the evils that are in the control of humans and result from human action. They include things such as murder, rape, theft, etc.

Evil, both natural and moral, creates many problems and contradictions regarding the existence of God. One such problem that has been created by the existence and abundance of evil in the world can be summed up into one logical argument: God is supposed to be all-loving and all-powerful, but how can he be all-loving and all-powerful and at the same time allow the existence of evil and suffering in this world. This is essentially the idea behind the problem of evil for many believers. It is also the basis for the argument that many disbelievers use to disprove the existence of God.

There are many approaches taken by theologians to answer the problem mentioned above. The free will defense, in particular, is one of the most popular approaches. This approach makes its argument by attacking the purposed idea that an all-loving and all-powerful God cannot exist in a world where evil exists and is in abundance. The argument says that when God created humans, he gave us was the ability to choose our course of actions for ourselves. He did this because He wanted us to have the ability to choose on our own between right and wrong, good and evil, and believing in Him or not.

God could not create humans without giving them free will. If He had done so, then humanity’s faith in God and their actions of piousness would mean nothing. We would essentially be robots. That is why God gave us free will, despite knowing that it would result in evil, suffering, and the questioning of his existence. The argument goes on to state that since humanity has free will, they are responsible for their own actions. The evil that exists in this world and the bad things that result from it are a direct result of human action.

Humanity may be tempted by the appeal of evil, but regardless of this, it is still humanity’s choice of whether or not to choose to commit evil. If humanity does indeed choose to commit evil, it is their fault, not God’s. Therefore, humanity is held accountable, not God, for the presence of evil in the world, because the choice to sin was made by humanity alone. Regarding the free will defense, some philosophers and theologians, like Ediegar Burkovitz, believe that while God is not held accountable in the here and now, he is held accountable in the afterlife.

God may not be responsible for the evil that we create in this world, but He is responsible for giving us free will. God knew that humanity was bound to choose evil, because we are imperfect, and therefore, He is in some way responsible. All the innocent people that suffered because of the evil acts of others must be compensated in the afterlife for being faithful to God, in spite their suffering. This is why some believe that for the free will defense to work, there must be a dimension beyond time and history where all suffering finds its course. Biblical support of the free will defense can be seen in the story of Adam and Eve.

In story of Genesis, God created a perfect world for Adam and Eve to live in, The Garden of Eden, where they had no need for want or sin. Adam and Eve might have had no need to sin, but God gave them the ability to choose their actions for themselves. Both Adam and Eve were tempted by the Devil to rebel against God’s commands and chose to sin. They made this choice of their own accord. This example of the Original Sin shows that when God first created humanity, He valued moral independence so highly that He gave humanity a sense of free will, despite knowing that they might choose to commit evil.

It also reinforces the idea that humanity is responsible for its plight and the existence of evil in the world today. The free will defense is such a popular theodicy because it has such a logical way of explaining evil. It forces humanity to hold itself accountable for the evil that exists in the world and it gives good reasons for why this evil exists. As the logic goes, God could not eliminate evil without at the same time rendering it impossible to accomplish other goals that are important to Him.

Certainly, for God to create human beings that are capable of sustaining a personal relationship with Him, they must be beings that are capable of freely loving Him and following His will without coercion. Unfortunately, the logic of the argument fails when approached from certain angles. The free will defense provides a good explanation as to why moral evil exists in the world, but in order for the free will defense to work, it must adequately explain not only moral evil, but natural evil as well. This is where the free will defense is weakest.

Some might argue that there are evil forces in the world that cause natural evil, and because of this God is not responsible for these evils. There is no proof, however, that such evil forces exist, so this argument fails. Others argue that humans indirectly cause natural evil, for example, floods caused due to deforestation. However, this argument fails too, because there are countless other natural evils that are not caused in any way by humans, like hurricanes or tornados. Natural evils that exist in the world are not the result of human action, but that of nature, which is attributed to God.

The free will defense essentially fails to free God of the responsibility of natural evil; therefore, the free will defense cannot adequately answer the problem of natural evil since natural evil is not the result of human action. The free will defense is not entirely infallible when applied to moral evil either. One philosopher who has found flaw in this argument is John Mackie. Mackie’s argument is that, “If God has made men such that in their free choices they sometimes prefer what is good and sometimes what is evil, why could he not have made men such that they always freely choose the good? Religion’s response to this argument is that if God had done this then it would still limit humanity’s free will by not allowing humanity the ability to choose the bad in addition to the good.

Mackie responds by saying that the church contradicts itself when it says that free will cannot exist in such a state because when the church seeks “a happier or more perfect state of affairs than now exists…they are explicitly recognizing the possibility of a state of affairs in which created beings always freely choose the good. By this logic, Mackie is able to prove that it was indeed possible for God to create a world in which suffering does not exist in such abundance.

Therefore, God is in some way accountable for the suffering that exists in this world, because he could have prevented it and still maintained free will. The free will defense is a very functional way of approaching evil in this world. It allows people to logically understand and accept the fact that evil is able to exist in a world that an all-knowing and all-powerful God created. This defense is not infallible; in fact, it has several flaws and critics.

It does, however, adequately answer the problem of evil for many believers. It might not be able to turn the disbeliever into a believer, but it will provide assurance for those who feel doubt in their religious faith because of the abundance of evil that exists in the world. Theodicies are an important thing for the believer. The believer must know that God is just, all-loving, and all-powerful, for his faith the be strong, and I believe, despite the inconsistencies in the argument, that the free will defense does indeed assure these things.

Before World War II

Before World War II broke out the world took a wild ride during Hitlers rise to power. The entire world didnt think that he would become as powerful as he became. Hitler achieved his power by relying on the nerviness of the world to sit back and allow him to do what he wanted. The world was too concerned about the political, economic and militant to busy worrying about the Germans who where thinking about ruling the world. Before and during the war, the world was concerned about the economic system. Ever since World War I, the world countries have been in and out of depressions, no one anted another war.

The United States, which was in the Greatest Depression of all, was its a big problem itself. The US didnt want war, especially after the last one they fought with huge causalities and huge amounts of money spent. The citizens of the US didnt want another war because they knew that another war would cause another depression and that was something that the people didnt want. Even thought the war would create jobs, and put the economy back into a war boom, the American public didnt want to have to deal with the downsides of a war.

The major downside being the huge economic toll it would take on the government, which would be fighting on two oceans on different sides of the world. It would become very costly to maintain war and win too. The world also had enormous political concerns. The US was in a period of major and they wanted no part of anything else in the world, except the Western Hemisphere. With Germanys rise of Nazism, the world responded with fascist parties popping up in every nation across the world. Hitler has spread his beliefs into every county in the entire world, xactly what he wanted.

These parties responded to every action that their leader took; they helped him scout out a specific country and infiltrate that countrys government. These parties believe in Hitler and did whatever he told them to do, including in the United States. After the countries realized Hitlers power they all formed different alliances. The Germans allied with Italy and Japan. The US allied with Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union. It seemed as though each day another country would sign up with either side.

Sometimes, even, countries would agree not to fight each. The pre-war and during the war, militaries from all countries fought a war with superior equipment than in the last war. With the invention of the plane, tank, machinegun spread war supplies all over the globe and allowed each country to empower itself. The US prepared for war by passing a series of congressional acts that enabled the war budget to increase dramatically. These acts also allowed for the US to help other countries without actually engaging in the war.

The US supplied Great Britain with supplies and ships ithout ever declaring war on Germany. Germanys invention of the Blitzkrieg they attacked nations and conquered them in single days. No nation had ever seen tactics like this before, and they worked for Hitler. Hitlers air force was the best in the world; he had the most planes with the best pilots. They were unstoppable. Japans increase in military power proved itself with the bombing of Pearl Harbor in December. Japan showed off its massive air force that dominated and destroyed the majority of the United States Navy fleet.

Pearl Harbor

Pearl Harbor was certainly one of the most dramatic turning points in United States history, with all the elements that go along with an epic drama: heroes, villains, propaganda and conspiracy theories. It propelled the country from an isolationist continent into the spotlight on the world stage. World War II changed the way the world viewed the United States and how Americans viewed themselves. As a result of Pearl Harbor and the war the United States accepted the predominant world leadership role.

The tragedy of Pearl Harbor shocked and united the American people into a singular purpose and goal to a greater extent than any other event before or since. As Americans awoke on a lazy Sunday morning in paradise, little did they know that within a few short minutes their lives would be changed forever. Sailors, Soldiers and Airmen watched in horror as the United States fleet including the mighty dreadnoughts burned and sank to the bottom of the shallow blue harbor.

The calamity incited mass chaos and confusion. Numerous false rumors were spread including that Japanese paratroopers were invading Hawaii and that follow-on assaults were imminent. Above all, no one knew how to react since this was the first time since the War of 1812 that Americans were attacked on their own soil. As the nation was just recovering from the Great Depression, with optimism in the horizon the American people really had no desires to involve themselves in foreign wars.

However President Franklin Roosevelt was aware of the actions taking place in Europe and Asia and could foresee the United States inevitable danger to the free world if the United States didn’t take a stand in the war. While Americans favored neutrality the United States administration knew that it would only be a matter of time until the United States would enter the war. The convenient timing of Pearl Harbor allowed Roosevelt’s unhindered pursuit of his interventionist agenda.

This along with certain details, such as the lack of aircraft carriers at Pearl Harbor, led some to believe Roosevelt had forewarning of the attack and intentionally provoked the Japanese to open the backdoor to war. Twenty three hours after the initial aggression, Roosevelt declared war and ensured that, “This day will live in infamy” in his address to Congress. In the end Americans pulled through and became their own heroes; Admiral Yamamoto’s made a prophetic remark shortly after December 7, “I fear all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve”.

Winning WWII Americans a newfound confidence and reinforced the united in United States. World War II was a period of lost innocence and immense social growth for the United States. The nation was exposed to the horrors of total war and matured as a dominant world power. It’s intriguing to imagine what course history may have taken if Japan had made a different choice on December 7, 1941. Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor was certainly one of the most dramatic turning points in United States history, with all the elements that go along with an epic drama: heroes, villains, propaganda and conspiracy theories.

It propelled the country from an isolationist continent into the spotlight on the world stage. World War II changed the way the world viewed the United States and how Americans viewed themselves. As a result of Pearl Harbor and the war the United States accepted the predominant world leadership role. The tragedy of Pearl Harbor shocked and united the American people into a singular purpose and goal to a greater extent than any other event before or since. As Americans awoke on a lazy Sunday morning in paradise, little did they know that within a few short minutes their lives would be changed forever.

Sailors, Soldiers and Airmen watched in horror as the United States fleet including the mighty dreadnoughts burned and sank to the bottom of the shallow blue harbor. The calamity incited mass chaos and confusion. Numerous false rumors were spread including that Japanese paratroopers were invading Hawaii and that follow-on assaults were imminent. Above all, no one knew how to react since this was the first time since the War of 1812 that Americans were attacked on their own soil.

As the nation was just recovering from the Great Depression, with optimism in the horizon the American people really had no desires to involve themselves in foreign wars. However President Franklin Roosevelt was aware of the actions taking place in Europe and Asia and could foresee the United States inevitable danger to the free world if the United States didn’t take a stand in the war. While Americans favored neutrality the United States administration knew that it would only be a matter of time until the United States would enter the war.

The convenient timing of Pearl Harbor allowed Roosevelt’s unhindered pursuit of his interventionist agenda. This along with certain details, such as the lack of aircraft carriers at Pearl Harbor, led some to believe Roosevelt had forewarning of the attack and intentionally provoked the Japanese to open the backdoor to war. Twenty three hours after the initial aggression, Roosevelt declared war and ensured that, “This day will live in infamy” in his address to Congress.

In the end Americans pulled through and became their own heroes; Admiral Yamamoto’s made a prophetic remark shortly after December 7, “I fear all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve”. Winning WWII Americans a newfound confidence and reinforced the united in United States. World War II was a period of lost innocence and immense social growth for the United States. The nation was exposed to the horrors of total war and matured as a dominant world power. It’s intriguing to imagine what course history may have taken if Japan had made a different choice on December 7, 1941.

How did Hitler persecute the minority groups of Germany so that he could create his perfect Aryan society?

During Hitler’s time in power minority groups in Germany and in Europe were tortured, tormented, exiled and killed. Hitler persecuted various minority groups because he thought they had no place in his master race. Hitler had a vision of a master race called the “Aryan race” which he planned to purify and become world dominators. Hitler decided that to make this master race he would have to exterminate all the minorities which did not fit under the Aryan race. Examples of these minorities are the Jews, Gypsies, Homosexuals, handicapped and anyone who he believed to be asocial or defective.

Not only did Hitler persecute these groups in Germany, as he started invading other countries he persecuted the minorities in those countries as well. Some of the most affected countries were Poland, Holland, Austria and France. Hitler’s persecution of Minority groups was an issue that affected Europe as a whole. What was Hitler’s view of a master race? In Hitler’s book Mein Kampf Hitler divides humans into categories based on physical appearance, establishing higher and lower orders, or types of humans.

At the top, according to Hitler is the Germanic man with his fair skin, blond hair and blue eyes. Hitler refers to this type of person as an Aryan. He asserts the Aryan is the supreme form of human, or master race. “All the human culture, all the results of art, science, and technology that we see before us today, are almost exclusively the creative product of the Aryan… ” (http://www. bofhlet. net/tasteless/13/kampf. htm). This direct quote gives an excellent view of Hitler’s belief.

Hitler used powerful propaganda techniques to convince not only the German people, but countless others, that if they eliminated the people who stood in their way and the egenerates and racially inferior, they – “the great Germans” would prosper (http://www. holocaustforgotten. com/romgypsies. htm). Hitler gave the title degenerates and racially inferior to the Jews and other minority groups. Although the Aryan race was superior there were still people within the Aryan race who were considered a burden to the society and were taken away and treated as one of the minorities.

These people were normally the disabled and mentally ill and although they were of Aryan decent they were persecuted just like the minorities because of their individualities. There were many different groups of people who were persecuted by the Nazis, but by far the largest group was the Jews. There are many different suggestions of why Hitler hated the Jews, one being that his mothers doctor was a Jew and when he couldn’t save her, Hitler blamed his mother’s death on the Jews and another that he heard voices in his head telling him to save Germany form the Jews (War Time leader series: Adolf Hitler.

Learning essentials, Victoria), however this video source does seem to mix fact and opinion making assumptions of what was on Hitler’s mind. The fact is that the Jews were chosen for annihilation because of their race. Even though Jews are defined by religion, Hitler saw the Jewish people as a race that he believed needed to be completely annihilated (http://www. holocaustforgotten. com/romgypsies. htm). This source is also supported by many other historical writings.

Hitler said it was the Jews who are engaged in a conspiracy to keep this master race from assuming its rightful position as rulers of the world, by tainting its racial and cultural purity and even inventing forms of government in which the Aryan omes to believe in equality and fails to recognize his racial superiority. For Hitler and committed Nazis the Jews were the arch-enemy. Persecution began with a boycott of Jewish businesses and professionals on April 1, 1933, allegedly in response to “atrocity propaganda” by Jews abroad.

The campaign to destroy world Jewry continued, and endless trains took millions of Jews to extermination camps. On the Night of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht, November 9-10, 1938) throughout Germany, Jewish synagogues were torched, Jewish businesses and dwellings ransacked, Jews beaten up, in ome cases killed, and thousands sent to concentration camps. With the war against the Soviet Union in June 1941, the SS deployed “task forces” (Einsatzgruppen) behind German lines, who systematically massacred hundreds of thousands of Jews.

In the winter of 1941 to 1942, the SS began the systematic murder of Jews through the use of gas, first through exhaust fumes in vans and then in gas chambers in six death camps: Chelmno, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Auschwitz-Birkenau and Majdanek. This continued until the end of 1944. The total Jewish death toll from ill treatment, shooting, nd gas has been estimated at between 5 million and 6 million (Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 2003. 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved). While some individuals dispute these figures, their factual basis is accepted in nearly all history texts.

Although The Jews were heavily persecuted there are many other minorities that were persecuted as well and should not be forgotten. These groups are the homosexuals, gypsies, mentally ill and the handicapped. Hitler had planned to persecute the homosexuals but it was not until 1933 when Hitler ad become supreme legal authority of the Third Reich that the active persecution of gays had begun. One of the biggest issues regarding the persecution of the homosexuals was Hitler’s persecution of Ernst Rohm, head of the SA (storm troopers).

Rohm’s army was growing ever strong and Hitler knew that he could not maintain power without the help of Rohm and his army so Hitler came to Rohm’s defence by saying, “His private life cannot be an object of scrutiny unless it conflicts with basic principles of the National Socialist ideology” (http://www. infopt. demon. co. uk/nazi. htm). When Rohm’s army grew to 500,000 men by 1932, Hitler saw a threat and decided that Rohm’s private life did conflict with the parties ideologies.

On June 30th, 1934 Hitler made his move on Rohm and his army which came to be known as the “The Night of Long Knives”. A group of Hitler’s men barged into a party that the SA were having and shot some men on the spot while 200 other SA leaders were rounded up and taken to Berlin where they were massacred. Rohm was taken to Stadelheim prison in Munich by order of Himmler and Goring, given a gun a told to kill himself. He refused saying, “Let Adolf do his dirty work”. They shot him down (http://www. infopt. demon. co. uk/nazi. htm).

These quotes seem plausible but the source maybe biased as it appears to be from a gay activist’s perspective. On that same day Hitler ordered the elimination of all homosexuals from the army in fear that they had started a secret order within the army. Although the Night of the Long Knives marks the beginning of the slaughtering of gays, the year before (1933) began the persecutions. On February of that year all gay bars and hotels were banned. On March 3rd nudism was banned. March 7th the West Germany city Administration began its ampaign against homosexuals, Jews, Negroes, and Mongols.

November 13th the Hamburg City Administration asked the Head of Police to pay special attention to transvestites and to deliver them to the concentration camps if necessary (http://www. infopt. demon. co. uk/nazi. htm). The Gypsies were persecuted like the Jews for being “racially inferior and degenerate”. The gypsies were also seen as being asocial which added to their worthlessness to the Nazis vision of a master race. It was because of this view, as an asocial race, that the gypsies were sterilized.

This terilization occurred so that they were not able to reproduce, and therefore in the long run the gypsies would eventually become an extinct race. Like the Jews, the Gypsies were also moved into special areas set up by the Nazis. Half a million Gypsies, almost the entire Eastern European Gypsy population, was wiped out during the Holocaust (http://www. holocaustforgotten. com/romgypsies. htm) Forced sterilization was the forerunner of the systematic killing of the mentally ill and the handicapped. Hitler made a law that allowed doctors to kill people who were suffering from an incurable illness.

This program was called Euthanasia and was as a euphemism used by the Nazis as their true goal was to exterminate the mentally ill and handicapped which would cleanse the Aryan race. Originally the patients were killed by lethal injection, but carbon monoxide proved to be a more efficient method of killing as gas chambers could be disguised as showers complete with fake nozzles in order to deceive victims.

This method carried on through the war and was later inserted into the extermination camps and many more were built in Poland for use later in the war (http://www. us- srael. org/jsource/Holocaust/disabled. tml). This evidence is very clear and consistent and is believed to be true in many historical texts. However the website is made from the perspective of a US-Israel organization.

Hitler’s persecution of minority groups spread to other countries as well. Poland was severely affected as it was great agricultural land close to Germany filled with strong healthy farmers. Hitler forced the Polish Jews into Ghettos and imprisoned the people of Poland inside their own land. Blonde haired children were Germanized and taken back to Germany to be rained as Nazi supporters. (http://www. holocaustforgotten. om/fivmil. htm) Holland was invaded by Germany because they were considered to be the “superior” racial composition of the Dutch people, certifiably 100% Aryan; German interbreeding with the Dutch could in fact improve the racial purity of the new German super-nation (http://www- lib. usc. edu/~anthonya/war/holnazi. htm).

An example of a minority persecuted in Holland is Anne Frank. Anne Frank was one of the Jewish victims of Nazi persecution during the Second World War. After Nazi Germany invaded the Netherlands in 1940, increasingly evere anti-Jewish measures began there (http://www. hannels. nl/amsterdam/annefran. html). The information found on Anne Frank is from a Dutch website which summarises her factual account and which is a well recognised source of information of the effects of Hitler’s regime on Holland and on her as one individual. In conclusion, because of Hitler’s vision of a master race, so many innocent people were persecuted all over Germany and Europe. Hitler committed genocide so that everyone could be the same without differences. By doing this he took away the one thing that makes a person, their individuality.