John F. Kennedy (JFK)

John F. Kennedy ( JFK ) was known throughout the world for his heroic deeds. He has helped many Americans many different ways from saving a mans life and keeping him from drowning, to helping African Americans. He had come from a very political family, and knowing that he felt that he had to carry on the tradition of that after his brother Joe had past away. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts on May 29, 1917, the second oldest in a family of nine children. Although their families had not come to the United States with much oney, both of John Kennedy’s grandfathers became political leaders in Boston.

One of them, John Fitzgerald (for whom he was named), was elected mayor in 1905. John Kennedy’s father, Joseph Patrick Kennedy became a very wealthy businessman, an adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and the United States Ambassador to Great Britain from 1938 to 1940. John Kennedy (his family called him “Jack”) moved to New York when he was ten years old. Since the family spent the summer months at their home in Hyannis, Cape Cod, Jack still lived a good part of his life in Massachusetts. As a boy and a young man, he traveled to other parts of the United States and to other countries.

After graduating from the Choate School in Connecticut in 1935, he went on to Harvard College and graduated in 1940. That same year he wrote a best-selling book, Why England Slept, about some of the decisions which led to World War II. Kennedy described himself as an idealist without illusion . He considered his best quality to be curiosity, and he worst irritability. Kennedys charm, grace, and wit were to a great extent responsible for his immense popularity as president. He remained a bit detached from things in order to counter his extremely sensitive side, for the most part he controlled his temper.

Kennedy met his future wife at a dinner party in Washington, D. C. Jacqueline Lee Bouvier was the daughter of a wealthy Wall Street broker, John V. Bouvier III. She had attended Vassar College and the Sorbonne in Paris. When she met Kennedy, she was a student at George Washington University in Washington. Later, she worked as an inquiring photographer for the Washington Times-Herald. She and Kennedy were married on September 12, 1953. A daughter was still-born on August 23, 1956, and was unnamed. Their daughter Caroline was born November 27, 1957. Their son John F. Jr. , was born on November 25, 1960.

Another son, Patrick Bouvier, was born prematurely August 7th, 1963. He died August 9, 1963. Five years after Kennedy’s death, Mrs. Kennedy married Aristotle Onassis, a Greek millionaire. John F. Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th President on January 20, 1961. In his Inaugural Address, he spoke of the need for all Americans to be active citizens. “Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country,” he said. He also asked the nations of the world to join together to fight what he called the “common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.

One of President Kennedy’s first important actions was creating the Peace Corps. Americans who join the Peace Corps go as volunteers to countries requesting assistance. They serve as teachers and provide help in areas such as farming, health care, and construction. During the next year, Kennedy and Khrushchev set up a “Hot Line,” a special telephone connection between the President’s office in the White House and the Soviet leader’s ffice at the Kremlin in Moscow. They hoped this Hot Line would prevent a war from beginning by mistake.

In August 1963, the United States and the Soviet Union signed a treaty that outlawed nuclear bomb tests in the air, under water, and in outer space. The treaty did not prevent the two countries from building more weapons, but it did protect the world from the harmful effects of nuclear tests. Kennedy also asked the American people to think more about making peace with the Soviet Union. “We all inhabit this small planet,” he said. “We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children’s future, and we are all mortal.

While international issues demanded a lot of attention, Kennedy also had to deal with serious problems here in the United States. In most southern states, schools, buses, restaurants, and other public places were racially segregated. There were separate schools, separate seats on buses, and separate areas in restaurants for whites and for blacks. State and local laws also prevented black Americans from voting. Since the 1950s, many people–black and white–had been working to change these laws. Kennedy called Corretta Scott

King, offering any help, after her husband was taken to jail, for leading the civil rights movement. Many of the African Americans then voted for him. On November 21, 1963, President Kennedy flew to Texas to give several political speeches. The next day, as his car drove slowly past cheering crowds in Dallas, shots rang out. Kennedy was seriously wounded and died a short time later. Within two hours of the shooting, police arrested Lee Harvey Oswald and charged him with the murder. On November 24, a Dallas man, Jack Ruby, shot and killed Oswald before there was a chance to put him on trial.

Although Oswald denied that he shot Kennedy, most of the evidence indicates that he really did. To this day, however, many people disagree about the facts of JFK’s assassination. Some people insist, for example, that there was a second gunman firing at Kennedy, and that he and Ruby were part of a conspiracy. None of these theories have ever been proven. President Kennedy’s death caused enormous sadness and grief among all Americans. Most people still remember exactly where they were and what they were doing when they heard the news of the murder.

Hundreds of thousands of people athered in Washington for the President’s funeral, and millions throughout the world watched it on television. President Kennedy has made many changes in the United States that people may not have realized. He helped people out, not just the world, but also individuals, like the African Americans. He treated people equally, no matter who they were or what color there skin was. As the years have gone by and other Presidents have written their chapters in history, John Kennedy’s brief time in office stands out in people’s memories–for his leadership, personality, and ccomplishments.

Many respect his coolness when faced with difficult decisions–like what to do about the missiles in Cuba. Others admire his ability to inspire people with his eloquent speeches. Still others think his compassion and his willingness to fight for new government programs to help the poor, the elderly and the ill were most important. Like all leaders, John Kennedy made mistakes, but he was always optimistic about the future. He believed that people could solve their common problems if they put their country’s interests first and worked together.

President Kennedy

November 22, 1963. Another shot heard around the world. The assassination of Kennedy is the one of the most trivial events in the history of the United States. Many different people have various opinions to who actually assassinated President John F. Kennedy. Two authors who have written books on the trivial subject of Kennedys assassination are: Jim Garrison who wrote A Heritage of Stone, and Anthony Summers who authored Conspiracy. They both share the idea that Oswald was part of a conspiracy, and similarly they think the assassination was carried out by a powerful group of people.

President Lyndon B. Johnson was appointed to president after the death of J. F. K. and a commission was set-up by him to investigate the assassination. The Warren Commission, after analyzing the events for ten months, reported that Lee Harvey Oswald was not part of any conspiracy, domestic or foreign, to assassinate President Kennedy. The findings of the Warren Commission are questioned in both books and are written about as though the commission was lying about what actually happened. In Anthony Summers book, Conspiracy, he presents to the reader many possible organizations that could be linked to the Kennedy assassination.

Summers does not come out and say whom he thinks killed Kennedy, rather he offers different possibilities and allows the reader to decide. Not even one of his possibilities agrees with the conclusion of the Warren Commission of Oswald not being part of any conspiracy. The organizations he presents, as ones associated with the assassination are the Mafia, the government intelligence agencies and Fidel Castro. Similarly, to the conclusions of the Warren Commission, the writings in the Conspiracy give no definite answer to who actually murdered Kennedy. Primarily, Summers associates the

Kennedy assassination to have been carried out by the Mafia leaders who were affected by the policies of Kennedy. His interviews with mobsters show that it was a probable organization connected with the Kennedy assassination. Summers interviewed Jose Aleman to get information on the feelings of the Florida Mafia boss, Santo Trafficante. During the course of the interview, Aleman spoke about Trafficantes disgust with the Kennedys and their crack down on organized crime. Trafficante was quoted as saying; Kennedys not going to make it to the election. He is going to be hit. (p. 84)

The hit the Mafia boss referred to is a ord that the Mafia uses when they are going to kill someone and the hit could have been when Kennedy was shot to death. Summers also found Ed Becker, a mobster who had testified for the Assassinations Committee and said that Carlos Marcello, the New Orleans Mafia boss, had taken out insurance for President Kennedys death. Becker also testified that the insurance could have been to, Set-up a nut to take the blame. (p. 290). One of the people on the committee said after hearing testifiers, I am now firmly of the opinion that the mob did it.

It is a historical truth. (p. 290). Another organization possibly linked to the ssassination, according to Summers in his book is the government agency called the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. In this possibility, he connects Oswald to the government agencies when he interviewed Senator Schweiker, a committee member, who said that he strongly believed that Oswald was related to the assassination. Summers also found another person who stated that he firmly believes President Kennedy was killed as the direct result of a plot by an element of American intelligence. (p. 96)

A third theory, also presented in the Conspiracy, is that of Castro plotting a plan to kill Kennedy. This theory is possible because Kennedy was an enemy of Castro due to Kennedys theoretical plot to kill Castro. Castro discovered this plan and in retaliation he sent out troops to kill Kennedy before he could kill him. John Roselli who said I was a good friend of Castro and he told me that he had sent troops to the United States confirmed the troops that were sent by Castro. (p. 121). All three theories were well supported by Summers and the decision of what is true he has left up to the reader.

His interviews and his researching show that all his theories have substance to them. Similar to the book Conspiracy, A Heritage of Stone by Jim Garrison also denounces the conclusions made by the Warren Commission and he states that they gave the people unbelievable lies. (p. 19). I believe that the Kennedy assassination was carried out by the force inside the United States government and the assassination is a conspiracy. According to Garrison the inside forces are the only groups that could have done this.

He presents a one sided point of view on the Kennedy assassination and gives no other possibilities for the reader to consider. Undoubtedly, Garrison takes a great amount of time to show the contradictions and faults of the onclusion of the Warren Commission. Through the entirety of the novel, A Heritage of Stone, Garrison discover many secret about the Commission and the information they destroyed or hid away somewhere. He is so specific that he even lists the actual file names that were that were missing from the conclusion of the Commission.

Garrison states There was information given to the Secret Service about Oswald and his past history which was not presented to the Commission to analyze. (p. 93). The main theory, presented by Garrison is that President Kennedys was assassinated by the real power, the CIA. (p. 3) He states that Kennedys plan to abandon military troops in Vietnam and his attempt to end the Cold War put him on a collision course with the CIA. According to Garrison, Kennedy took on a foreign policy that would end the spending of billions of dollars on the military technology that the CIA wanted to advance.

Garrison also used interviews with members in the Warren Commission to support his theory that the Kennedy incident was a government set-up conspiracy. Garrison seems to have believed in his theory greatly and he would do anything to prove this. He did not care about anything else and he hought what he said was true and nothing else. These were one of the flaws in the writing of Garrison in the book A Heritage of Stone. In the above two books, there are many ideas shared by the authors, but there are more that differ in their opinion and writing style.

The both have the theme of Who assassinated President Kennedy and why? however they express this by unique methods. Garrison and Summers also share the idea that the conclusion made by the Warren Commission were flat out lies and there was no substance to what they declared. Both, Garrison and Summers investigated he Kennedy assassination by interviewing people and going to the true sources just in order to find the truth which was not found by the Warren Commission. The two authors also look at the government with suspicions finding evidence of a cover up especially with the CIA and Oswalds real identity.

The primary goals of the authors were to discover the truth and present it to the people. They did not want the government to get away with something by covering it up and create a credibility gap. Clearly, there are many differences to what Garrison writes about and what Summers writes about. On one hand there is Garrison who knows for sure that the CIA planed and did assassinate Kennedy. Whereon the other hand Summers, suggest this as only a possibility with many other theories along with it.

Both authors do put their investigations in their books, but only Garrison shows his stand on what really happened. He only shows one possible theory and tries to drill it into the reader, whereas Summers presents multiple ideas and lets the reader decide. For example, Garrison presents his opinion in his book when he states, I know that the government has their hand behind any big event that goes on in the United States, and I do not want the citizens of this nation to be lied to. (p. 27). Whereas, for example, Summers presents an idea and gives to the reader an interpretation of what it is.

This is one of the greatest differences between Garrison, a strong opinion writer, and Summers, a powerful factual writer. The theories of Summers are more spread apart and are linked from in the Mafia to Fidel Castro. Garrison views the Kennedy assassination as government conspiracy that is trying to be covered up. Anthony Summers sees the cover-up as a possible idea and also presents the theory of Fidel Castro and the Mafia. Jim Garrison is very ingle minded and does not want to perceive any other possibilities even if their as possible as the Mafia connection to the assassination.

Garrisons fault to not include the Mafia possibility shows that does not believe in anything else than what he stated. It is extremely clear that Garrison has a total different approach to the Kennedy assassination than Summers that is strong in its own way. After analyzing the two books, I would say that Conspiracy written by Summers is more powerful than Garrisons A Heritage of Stone. Although Garrisons book is very insightful due to his opinions that were made throughout the ourse of the book, his claims were not as easy to believe.

He was very honest in his writing, which is strength, but his weaknesses were the inability to fully support his theory and one-sided perception of the assassination. However Summers had great strengths that Garrison did not possess. His momentous amount of quotations was believable because it came from a first hand account. The variety of theories presented allowed me to make my own decisions on what I believed. His research and presentation of many possibilities made his book more of an impact on me than did the other by Garrison.

John F. Kennedy – the 35th president of the United States

John F. Kennedy was the 35th president of the United States (1961-1963). He was the youngest person ever to be elected president. Also, He was the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20the century. He served in World War II on PT boat. He also helped to solve the Cuban Missile Crisis and started Peace of Corps to help 3rd world countries better them selves. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president. Therefore, his achievements were limited. He was shot in the head and died within an hour.

Kennedy was born on May 29,1917 in Brookline, Massachusetts. He was the second of nine children of Joseph Patrick Kennedy and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. “The other children in the family were Joseph, Rosemary, Kathleen, Eunice, Patricia, Robert, Jean, and Edward. “(Encarta’ 95). “The Kennedys were an active family. With 11 people in the house, someone was always busy. The children took swimming, sailing, and tennis lessons. “(Potts, Steve – 7). The Kennedy family had long been active in politics. His brothers Robert and Edward Kennedy also entered politics.

Kennedy’s both grand fathers had been active in politics. His father was a self-made millionaire. He served as first chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission and as U. S. ambassador to Great Britain during the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Kennedy’s family called him jack. He and his older brother Joe were strong rivals. Jack was quiet and often shy, but held his owns in fights with Joe. “The boys enjoyed playing touch football. “(The World Book Encyclopedia, 261). His childhood was full of sports, fun and activity.

This all ended when he grew up old enough to leave for school. Kennedy attended elementary schools in Brookline and Riverdale. “In 1930, when he was 13 years old, his father sent him to the Canterbury School in New Milford, Conn. ” (The World Book Encyclopedia, 261). One year later, he transferred to Choate Academy in Wallingford, Coon. He graduated from Choate in 1935 at the age of 18. He was promised a trip to London as a graduation gift but he became ill with jaundice and would have to go to the hospital. He spent the rest of the summer trying to recover.

He was not entirely well when he started Princeton, several weeks later in the fall of 1935. The jaundice returned and he had to drop out of school. Before the next school year began, he told his father he wanted to go to Harvard. He entered Harvard University in 1936. There he majored in government and international relations. At Harvard, he tried to explain in his senior thesis why Britain had not been ready for war. Kennedy began to send his paper to publishers, and it was accepted on his second try. Wilfrid Funk published it under the title Why England Slept. It became a bestseller.

He became a literary sensation. “In the spring of 1941, both John and Joe, Jr. decided to enroll in the armed service. ” (Reevs, Thomas C. , 37)Joe was accepted but John was turned down. He hoped to fight in the WWII but he was rejected by the U. S. Army because of his back trouble and history of illness. He reapplied after five months program of special exercise and was accepted into the Navy as a desk clerk in Washington. He was disgusted and applied for a transfer. Kennedy was sent to Naval Officers Training School at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, in 1941.

Later he was sent for additional training at the Motor Torpedo Boat Center at Melville, Rhode Island. In late April 1943, he was put in command of a PT 109 in the Solomon Islands in the South Pacific. Kennedy saw action in the form of night patrols and participated in enemy bombings. “On August 1, 1943, during a routine night patrol, a Japanese destroyer collided in the darkness with Kennedy’s craft and the PT 109 was sunk. ” (Falkolf, Lucille – 7). Kennedy heroically swam back and forth rescuing his wounded crew. Two were killed in the crash.

The injury once again aggravated his back. Still, Kennedy pushed on swimming from island to island in the South Pacific hoping for a patrol to come by. Kennedy had no idea he had been in the water for eight hours. Finally, an island was spotted that could provided cover from Japanse planes. Kennedy realized that he and the crew must move on. He gathered the crew to move to another island in search of food. Kennedy swam for the next four days along a water route that he knew American ships used. Kennedy was now desperate enough to seek help from natives on a Japanese controlled island.

He persuaded the natives to deliver a message written on the back of a coconut shell to allied forces. “The coconut fell into the hands of allied scouts and a patrol was sent. “(Encarta’ 95) Kennedy and his crew were finally rescued. “For his courage, endurance, and excellent leadership, Kennedy received the U. S. Navy and Marine Corps medal, awarded for heroism not involving conflict with the enemy. “(Encarta’ 95). John soon contracted malaria. He became ill. Then, he returned to the United States for medical. During recovery, Kennedy knew that his brother Joe, Jr. had been killed in action.

Kennedy put his feelings onto paper and a second book was published for the family and close friends. ” (Reevs, Thomas C. , 11). He called it “As We Remember Joe. ” Kennedy’s father had assumed that Joe, Jr. would go into politics. Both of his grandfathers had been active in politics. Now, Kennedy was the oldest Kennedy of his generation. His first chance in politics came when Congressman James Curley from the 11th District of Massachusetts decided to retire. It was his first Congressional seat by a margin of more than two to one. He was placed on the front page of the New York Times and in Time Magazine.

He was often mistaken in Congress as a Senate page or an elevator operator. Later he ran against nine other candidates. He won the primary with 42 percent of the votes. He served three terms in the House of Representatives, during the Democratic Administrations of President harry S. Truman. He supported legislation that would serve the interests of his constituents. He also joined with Republicans in criticizing the Truman administration’s handling of China. Kennedy easily won reelection to Congress in 1948 and 1950. “In 1952 he decided to run against incumbent Republican Senator henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.

Because Kennedy was little know outside his congressional district. ” (Encarta’ 95). He began his campaign two years before the election and met thousands of people throughout Massachusetts. The entire Kennedy family took part in the campaign. Kennedy defeated Lodge by 70, 000 votes. Kennedy married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier on September 12, 1953, at St. Mary’s Catholic Church in Newport, Rhode Island. He had three children. One daughter and two sons. Kennedy’s youngest son died in less than 48 hours after his birth. Kennedy underwent a spinal-disk operation in less than a year after his marriage.

Soon after that, a second back operation was performed. He wrote “Profiles in Courage” during this time. A book of essays on American politicians who risked their careers fighting for just but unpopular causes. It was published in 1956. This book received the Pulitzer Prize in 1957. Many people had known little about Kennedy came to admire him because of the success of “Profiles in Courage. ” In 1957, Kennedy became a member of the powerful Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and he later won a place on the Senate Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor Management Field.

His brother Robert served as chief counsel in the same Committee. In 1958, he spent many of his weekends campaigning for reelection in Massachusetts. “His Margin of victory, 874, 000 votes, was the largest ever recorded in a Massachusetts senatorial contest. ” (Encarta’ 95). Kennedy now began speaking out on foreign affairs. He was a severe critic of France’s refusal to make concessions to its colony, Algeria. He advocated Algerian independence. Kennedy wanted the 1960 Democratic presidential nomination. He began working for it and faced several major obstacles.

Many party leaders considered him too young and too inexperienced for the presidency. Many also doubted that a Roman Catholic could win a national election in a country that was mostly Protestant. Kennedy won most of the larger states in the northeastern United States. “The election drew a record 69 million voters to the polls, but Kennedy won by only 113, 000 votes. “(Encarta’ 95). He won49. 7 percent of the popular vote, and Nixon won 49. 6 percent. Kennedy received 303 electoral votes to Nixon’s 219. Kennedy was inaugurated on January 20, 1961.

In his inaugural address he emphasized America’s revolutionary heritage. “The same… beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe,” Kennedy said. “Let the word go forth from this time and place to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans-born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage-and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.

The words of his address were, “Ask not what your country can do for you- ask what you can do for your country. “(The World Book Encyclopedia, 268). “During Kennedy’s first year in office, the Congress of the United States passed a major housing bill, a law increasing the minimum wage, and a bill granting federal aid to the country’s economically depressed areas. “(Schlesinger, Arthur Meier-17). Kennedy also oversaw a bill creating the Peace Corps. After his initial success with Congress, Kennedy found it increasingly difficult to get his programs enacted into law.

Although the Democrats held a majority in both legislative houses, Southern Democrats joined with conservative Republicans to stop legislation they dislike. With one bill, however, Congress dedicated more than $1 billion to finance sending a man to the moon. The major American legal and moral conflict during Kennedy’s three years in office was in the area of civil rights for black citizens. Although “Kennedy was in no way responsible for the growth of the civil rights movement, he attempted to aid the cause by enforcing existing laws.

He also asked Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would guarantee blacks the rights to vote, to attend public school, to have equal access to jobs, and to have access to public accommodations. “(Schlesinger, Arthur Meier-59). “In the late 1950s and early 1960s the government of Cuba under fidel Castro became increasingly hostile to the United States. When Castro began to proclaim his belief in Communism, many Cubans fled to the United States. ” (Encarta’ 95). In 1961 a secret project begun during the previous administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower culminated.

Under the training of the Central Intelligence Agency, more than 1000 Cuban exiles invaded Cuba at a place called the Bahia de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs). “In Cuba both the bay of pigs occurred, in which U. S. supported rebels revolted in a poorly laid out plan of events that fell out beneath them, and the Cuban Missile Crisis in which the Soviet Republic were building missile silos in Cuba, 100 miles away from Florida. “(Encarta’ 95). The Space Race was in full force with both Russia and the U. S. in competition to reach the moon during this time. The Cuban Missile Crisis was the world’s largest approach to nuclear war.

In 1960 Khrushchev decided to supply Cuba with nuclear missiles that would put the eastern United States within range of nuclear missile attack. In 1962 U. S. spy planes flying over Cuba spotted the first missile. Kennedy demanded that the USSR remove the weapons. United troops prepared to invade Cuba, but after a few tense days Khrushchev promised not to invade Cuba. The United States signed a limited nuclear test ban treaty with Britain and the USSR, outlawing nuclear explosions in the atmosphere or underwater, but allowing them underground. “John F. Kennedy was shot to death by an assassin on Nov. . 1963, as he rode through the streets of Dallas, Texas. ” (The World Book Encyclopedia, 266).

Two shots were fired in rapid succession. One bullet passed through the president’s neck and struck Governor Connally in the back. The other bullet struck the president in the head. His car sped to Parkland Hospital but doctors couldn’t save his life. He was pronounced dead at 1:00 p. m. Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated him. Oswald was charged with the murder and arrested that afternoon. Two days after, Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby shot Oswald while being moved from the city to the county jail.

Millions of television viewers saw Ruby kill Oswald, who was under police guard. On November 24, the body of President Kennedy was carried on a horse-drawn carriage from the White House to the Rotunda of the Capitol. Thousands of people filed past the coffin of the president. The state funeral of President Kennedy was watched on television by millions around the World. He was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Kennedy was the first President to be born in the twentieth century and was very much a man of his time.

He was restless, seeking, with a thirst of knowledge, and he had a feeling of deep commitment, not only to the people of the United States, but to the people of the world. Many of the causes he fought for exist today because of what he did for the rights of minorities, the poor, the very old and the very young. He never took anything for granted and worked for everything he owned. Perhaps Kennedy summed up his life best in his own inaugural speech: “Ask not what your country can do for you, but ask what you can do for your country. “(The World Book Encyclopedia, 268). He was a very loved and respected president and will truly be missed.

The Kennedy Controversy

November 22, 1963, is a day that will forever live in the minds of those who lived that day, and fascinate younger generations to follow. On this date in history one of Americas most prestigious, well-known and respected presidents was shot and killed by an assassins bullet. This single act sent shock waves that paralyzed the country and other nations. Eyes were turned to the United States as everyone held his or her collective breath wondering what was going to happen next. Ike Pappas, a reporter for WNEW in New York, remembers being sent on assignment to Dallas, Texas, to cover the assassination events as they unfolded.

Pappas describes his trip: I ran downstairs, hailed a cab, gave the guy twenty dollars, and took then the most fantastic ride, one of the most fantastic taxi rides ever because if you will recall New York City was in a state of shock with the rest of the world, and the bridges were jammed. The telephonesyou could not make a callyou could not get out of the city, and I just kept giving this guy twenty dollar bills saying, Get there, man, anyway you can. We went over backyards, through laundry, piles of laundries, rushing out to the airport (119).

The government even shutdown all transportation and even closed the Mexican Border (Pappas 120). John Fitzgerald Kennedy, to many, seemed invincible because of his youth and aura of self-confidence (Ward 15). However, even the president knew how vulnerable he was. The night before that infamous day Kennedy was quoted as saying, If anyone wants to shoot a president it is not a very difficult job. All one has to do is get on a high building and a telescope rifle and there is nothing anyone can do (Restin 40). Americas fascination with John F.

Kennedys sudden death has led to many theories as to who really killed John Kennedy. Soon after the chaos from the assassination settled, the nation began to demand answers. On November 29, 1963, President Lyndon Johnson, who was sworn in an hour and a half after Kennedy was pronounced dead, formed a special committee led by Chief Justice Earl Warren to make a thorough investigation into the assassination and report its findings. This report became known as the Warren Commission (The AssassinationAs the Plot Unfolds 71). The Commission defined the indisputable facts of the case.

These facts are that the Presidents car was about to go under an over pass when the first shot was fired. In all there were three shots fired in a matter of seconds. Of the three shots only two found their target. The first bullet to find its target hit the president and Texas Governor John Connelly. The second bullet that hit, struck the president in the back of the head. This was said to be the fatal shot (Warren Commission X). James Restin Jr. described this shot as a water filled balloon spraying everyone in the car with a fine mist of the presidents intelligence (41).

The Warren Commission also named Lee Harvey Oswald as the lone assassin of the president. Oswald was a Marine Corps officer for three years before being undesirably discharged. After his discharge Oswald defected to the Soviet Union only to find out he wanted to come back to the United States. Upon his return to the United States Oswald made no secret of his Communist ties and support for Cuban dictator Fidel Castro (The AssassinationAs the Plot Unfolds). The commission came to its conclusions after establishing a match between the bullets that hit the president and Oswalds rifle.

Furthermore, fibers of Oswalds clothes were found on the rifle butt (The AssassinationAs the Plot Unfolds 68-70). Fifteen years after the Warren Commission published its findings, the House Assassinations Committee published its results from an exhaustive two year reinvestigation. The committee found that there was a 95 percent probability of a conspiracy to kill the president. This conclusion was derived at after scientifically examining the acoustics of a police recording made of the motorcade.

However, shortly after the committee reversed its findings after further examination of the film (Magnuson 44). Discrepancies in eyewitness accounts and other pieces of information have led people to question who shot Kennedy, from where, and if there were any influences by outside organizations that remain the subjects of many conspiracy writers. One theory that has received much attention is one that believes the mafia arranged the murder of the president and the silencing of Oswald by Jack Ruby.

A New Orleans restaurant owner who was allegedly associated with known mobster leader Carlos Marcello over heard one of his employees saying, There is a price on the Presidents head. Somebody will kill Kennedy when he comes down south (Magnuson 42). This theory is also fueled by alleged sightings of Oswald and one of Marcellos associates talking in a bar, taking money under the table, and seeing Oswald traveling with Marcellos men three months before the assassination took place (Magnuson 43).

Why would the Mafia want to kill John Kennedy? Many theorists believe it was because of Kennedys war on organized crime. Furthermore Kennedy was on the Senate Rackets Committee, which was responsible for deporting known mobsters and pursing them legally. Oswald was believed to be the mafias fall guy (Magnuson 43). Another popular theory is one that believes that Oswald was not the lone gunman. In fact, many believe there was a second and possibly a third gunman who fired at the president from the grassy knolw.

Furthermore, investigation by University of Notre Dame law professor G. Robert Blakely have produced twenty people who claimed they heard shots from the grassy knoll (Shenon 21). One individual in particular claims to have witnessed the entire grassy knoll shooting from the over pass which the motorcade was about to pass under. Ed Hoffmans story has been disputed for years. On that infamous day Ed had parked on the overpass to observe the motorcade, when he noticed two suspicious characters behind the fence on the grassy knoll.

These characters became known as the businessman and the railroad man due to their clothing. What Ed witness was the businessman taking aim at the president from behind the fence and then after shooting giving the gun to the railroad man to take apart. Both men, Hoffman says, took off for the railroad tracks never to be seen again (Sloan 11). The day of November 22, 1963, will forever remain in history as one of this nations defining moments. It is one of few memories that people can remember exactly what they were doing when they heard the news.

Americans fascination with the death of our thirty-fifth president has led to over 2,000 volumes of books written on the subject (Ward 15). Due to the discreprencies between eyewitness accounts and federal investigations many conspiracy theories have been developed sparking disputes over who really killed John Kennedy. When Lee Harvey Oswald was killed only forty-eight hours after the president, with him went any opportunity to hear his side of the murder. Quite possible Americans will never really know for sure who killed John F. Kennedy.

The John F. Kennedy Conspiracy

On November 22, 1963 President John F. Kennedy arrived in Dallas to a crowd of excited people lining the streets hoping to get a glimpse of the President. As his motorcade proceeded down Elm Street, Governor Connally’s wife said, “You can’t say that Dallas isn’t friendly to you today Mr. President. ” Upon that, John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States was assassinated. The United States mourned the death of its young and inspiring President.

It has been thirty-seven years since the assassination of John F. Kennedy and many people are still uncertain as to who is actually responsible for his assassination. Through the years there have been numerous theories that the CIA and the FBI were somehow linked to the assassination. Though many would doubt that the presidents own government would conspire to murder him; there are several possible reasons for their potential participation in an assassination plot. The Bay of Pigs was the spark that ignited the devastating fire. 1500 CIA trained anti-Castro expatriates were sent to seize Cuba.

At the critical last moment President Kennedy cancelled the air strikes which were supposed to disable Castros air force. As a result more than 100 of the CIAs men were killed; the remaining agents surrendered. (Morrissey) Kennedy took full public responsibility for the Bay of Pigs disaster though secretly he blamed the CIA. Kennedy fired three of the CIAs top men whom were responsible for the operation: Director Allen Dulles, who was later a member of the Warren Commission (Lifton 176), General Cabell, and Richard Bissel.

After the CIA lost time, effort, nd people in the attempt to secure Cuba, the CIA became hostile and wanted to get rid of Kennedy to prevent him from losing more ground, especially in Vietnam. Adding to the fire were Kennedys secret commitments to pulling out of Vietnam and his threat toSmash the CIA into a thousand pieces and scatter them in the wind (Belzer 79) There were three known attempts on taking JFKs life in the fall of 1963. In late October, Thomas Arthur Vallee was arrested by the secret service in Chicago days before a scheduled visit by Kennedy.

Vallee was discovered to have an M-1 rifle, a handgun, and three thousand rounds of ammunition. Days later, the Secret Service received another threat: Kennedy would be ambushed in Chicago by a Cuban hit squad. The Chicago trip was cancelled without explanation. On November 18, four days before the assassination in Dallas, Joseph Milteer outlined the details for the upcoming Texas attempt to a police informant. None of these threats were forwarded to authorities in Dallas. (Belzer 10) The amounts of activity and suspicious incidents in Dallas on November 22, 1963 are astounding.

The evidence in the third and final attempt on President Kennedys life in Dealey Plaza provides a reason to believe that U. S. government agencies had a role in JFKs death. It all begins on Main Street on which the motorcade was supposed to stay (Garrison 117). The Dallas Morning News featured a detailed map of the planned motorcade route. The motorcade was supposed to take a relatively strait course through Dealey Plaza without passing by the Book Depository. Suddenly, unexpectedly the motorcade veered from the approved route.

This exposed JFK to snipers positioned at the Book Depository, Grassy Knolland the Dal-Tex building. This also caused drivers to slow down to an estimated 10 miles per hour. The Secret Service have had to approve the unexplained changes. (Garrison 117-119) There were many photographers and people videotaping in the Dealey Plaza who captured the devastating moments in which President Kennedy was murdered. Mary Muchmore shot a movie of the final frontal shot into Kennedys head (Belzer 17). Orville Nix shot a video that features flashes from the grassy knoll and an image of what people believe to be a gunman (Belzer 17).

Robert Hughes captured movement from the sixth floor corner window of the Book Depository and the window next to it (Belzer 17). Abraham Zapruder shot perhaps the most famous film of all. His film stemmed evidence that for instance, there was a question based on the timing of the firing sequence taken from his film- as to whether a lone gunman could have fired so quickly with accuracy. Marine sharpshooters tried- and failed (Belzer 15). Other evidence indicated that policemen on the scene turned not toward the Book Depository, but toward Zapruders position neat the grassy knoll.

Zapruder testified that he believed shots came from behind him: on the grassy knoll. None of the films ever made it into the Warren Commission. There was yet another film shot by a lady referred to as the Babushka Lady. This film was shot from a point where the depository windows and the grassy knoll could be seen clearly. The Monday following the assassination two men, whom she believed to be Secret Service or FBI agents, appropriated the film. The men told the Babushka Lady that her film would be useful evidence, and if she turned it over it would be returned within ten days.

The tape was never returned, and the men eventually said it was bad film. (Belzer 19) Another suspicious activity that took place on the tragic day was the presence of the mysterious umbrella man. The umbrella man was in the crowd on the Dealey Plaza sidewalk. He is very noticeable because he is the only one to bring an umbrella on the particularly clear and warm day. In photos before the limousine enters the plaza, the man is shown standing casually with his umbrella closed. But, as the presidents car comes nearer a choreography(Belzer 22) begins.

As JFK draws parallel to the man, the president is hit by the first bullet. The man opens his umbrella pumping it in the air many times then closes it and lowers it. At that same moment his accomplice thrust his right arm into the air in what many researchers believe to be a clenched wrist salute. (Belzer 22) Yet another baffling incident is the lack of Secret Service protection during the motorcade route and the shooting. Secret Service agents actually turned down an offer from the Dallas Police Department for more security.

During the motorcade the service diminished their shield by reducing motorcycle police from eight to four. Once firing began photos and videos show strange lack of reaction from agents riding behind Kennedy. While JFK grasp his throat, Secret Service agents are looking around, two towards Kennedy, two towards the rear except Clint Hill, an agent brought at the last minute by the first lady. No agents move to shield the president from further gunfire. After the first shot was fired Kennedys driver actually brings the car to a halt. (Belzer 46)

Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the murder of President Kennedy. When he was taken into custody, Oswald pleaded that he was set up, he was a patsy (Garrison 70). The evidence surrounding the case of Oswald, and the evidence surrounding the day of the assassination suggest that in fact Oswald was the perfect pasty for the CIA to mold. The CIA had been setting up Oswald since as early as January 1961, the month of Kennedys inauguration. Investigators believe that the CIA had people impersonate Oswald in order to paint the picture that Oswald was a crazed communist assassin.

Before the assassination, Oswald was spotted at the Russian embassy in Mexico, buying a car, at the rifle range (Belzer 67), and giving out pro Castro leaflets in New Orleans. In the intelligence community there is a term used to describe this kind of manipulated behavior designed to create a desired image: sheepdipping. (Garrison 70). It seems that Oswald had been in New Orleans to be sheepdipped under the guidance of Guy Banister and that he had been sent back to Dallas when the mission was accomplished (Garrison 71).

Oddly enough records indicate that the Oswald who enlisted in the Marines was 511, the Oswald who went to Russia was 56 while the dead Oswald measured in at 59 (Belzer 68) At noon, on a street in Dallas, the president of the United States is assassinated. He is hardly dead when the official version is broadcast. In that version, which will be the definitive one, Lee Harvey Oswald alone has killed John Kennedy. The weapon does not coincide with the bullet, nor the bullet with the holes. The accused does not coincide with the accusation: (Galeano 183)Oswald is an exceptionally bad shot, but according to the official version, his acts were those of a champion marksman and Olympic sprinter.

He has fired an old rifle with impossible speed and his magic bullet, turning and twisting to penetrate Kennedy and John Connally, the governor of Texas, remains strangely intact (Stone JFK). Oswald denies it. But no one knows, no one will ever know what he has to say. Two days later he collapses before the television cameras, the whole world witness to the spectacle, his mouth shut by Jack Ruby, a two-bit gangster and minor trafficker in women and drugs. Ruby says he has avenged Kennedy out of patriotism and pity for the poor widow. (Galeano 183)

President Lyndon Baines Johnson set up a committee led by chief justice Earl Warren, to conduct an official investigation into Kennedy’s murder. On 24 September 1964, the Warren Commission finally issued a report of their findings (Gest 28). They concluded that President Kennedy was murdered by a single gunman, Lee Harvey Oswald. (Lifton 12) The Warren Commission was made up of seven LBJ appointed members. Three of them had ties to the CIA or the military elite. The Report concluded that the shots that killed Kennedy were fired from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository building, and no other site.

They further concluded that there was three shots fired in all, and all of them were fired from Lee Harvey Oswald. The Commission stated that there was no conspiracy, domestic or international, and that there was no connection between Jack Ruby and Oswald. However, through the twenty six volumes and the approximately thirteen thousand pages of testimonies and documentary exhibits traces of testimonies from Kennedys physicians, Dallas physicians, eyewitnesses, or civilian films cannot be found.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy In Vietnam

From the 1880s until World War II, France governed Vietnam as part of French Indochina, which also included Cambodia and Laos. The country was under the formal control of an emperor, Bao Dai. From 1946 until 1954, the Vietnamese struggled for their independence from France during the first Indochina War. At the end of this war, the country was temporarily divided into North and South Vietnam. North Vietnam came under the control of the Vietnamese Communists who had opposed France and aimed for a unified Vietnam under Communist rule. Vietnamese who had collaborated with the French controlled the South.

For this reason the United States became involved in Vietnam because it believed that if all of the country fell under a Communist government, Communism would spread throughout Southeast Asia and further. This belief was known as the “domino theory. ” The decision to enter Vietnam reflected America’s idea of its global role-U. S. could not recoil from world leadership. The U. S. government supported the South Vietnamese government. The U. S. government wanted to establish the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), which extended protection to South Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos in case of Communist “subversion.

SEATO, which came into force in 1955, became the way which Washington justified its support for South Vietnam; this support eventually became direct involvement of U. S. troops. In 1955, the United States picked Ngo Dinh Diem to replace Bao Dai as head of the anti-Communist regime in South Vietnam. Eisenhower chose to support Ngo Dinh Diem. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born in Brookline, Mass. , on May 29, 1917. Kennedy graduated from Harvard University in 1940 and joined the Navy the next year. After recovering from a war-aggravated spinal injury, Kennedy entered politics in 1946 and was elected to Congress.

After a hard primary battle, Kennedy won the Democratic presidential nomination on the first ballot at the 1960 Los Angeles convention. With a majority of 118,574 votes, he won the election over Vice President Richard M. Nixon and became the first Roman Catholic president. Kennedy was inaugurated January 20, 1961. January 19, 1961 was President Eisenhower last full day in office. He met with President elect Kennedy to lay out pressing national issues he would have to face. Tensions between the United States and the USSR had mounted after World War II, resulting in the Cold War.

JFK would have to deal with that problem. There was an intense discussion about Laos and Vietnam between Kennedy and Eisenhower. Another problem JFK had inherited was Diem from Eisenhower. Kennedy’s cabinet members were made up of many different thinkers. Dean Rusk, the Secretary of State believed that there was a communist plot to take over the world and it must be stopped. Walt Rostow, the presidential advisor believes that we should use military force to cut off supplies to the Vietcong, have large scale bombings of North Vietnam and accelerate modernization in South Vietnam.

General Maxwell Taylor criticized Eisenhower’s conventional training efforts. McGeorge Bundy, the NSC advisor wanted to attack the Vietcong and North Vietnam if necessary. George Ball believed that Diem regime was corrupt and to create democracy in Vietnam was impossible. That same year in December, the State Department claims in a public report that Vietnam is threatened by a “clear and present danger,” of communist aggression. Kennedy also during that year sent a cable to Robert McNamera and General Maxwell Taylor for a proposed visit to talk to Diem in about Vietnam and Laos.

Taylor and McNamara were sent on a series of trips during 1961-1963 to Vietnam. The Taylor- McNamara report recommended JFK was personally convinced that ground troops shouldn’t go in but his experts said otherwise. The Laotian Crisis occurred during 1961. People saw this as a direct link to the expansion of US activism in Vietnam. JFK’s first decision about Vietnam was a counterinsurgency plan. On January 28, 1961 JFK approves the plan. In April of 1961 the first of 16,000 Green Beret advisors was sent to Vietnam. Kennedy sends 500 military advisors, a total of 1,400.

A problem of this plan was the military was unable to stop communism. By the end of 1961 Kennedy was devoting a lot of resources to the Vietnam problem as well as the entire Southeast Asian region. Kennedy and administration believed that losing Laos would probably mean the loss of all South East Asia. It was also apparent to Kennedy that a communist victory in Laos would pose a threat to the United States. Dec. 1961 JFK implemented the Strategic Hamlet Program. Which was rural pacification. Which was a newer version of Agroville Program under Eisenhower.

This program fortified villages surrounded by barbed wire and guard towers to keep the VC out of schools, community center small hospital, and homes for peasants. In 1962, Kennedy’s expanded intervention policy in South Vietnam received extreme bad press. NY Times ran very critical articles on rising intevension on a remote corner of the world. They began to question the accuracy of ARVN reports. They began to focus on US participation and direction instead of support and training. All this made the US look imperialist as if we were in control, which was not so yet.

The civil rights movement created the climate for protest. As of January 1962, the total military personal in South Vietnam reached a total of 2,646. During this strenuous time for JFK the Cuban Missile Crisis occurs in October, 1962. The Laos negotiation and the Cuban Missile Crisis raised strong doubts about Kennedy’s leadership ability. At the end of 1962 total military personal in South Vietnam reaches heights of 11,300 people. President Kennedy’s did a television interviews on Vietnam September 2 and 9, 1963 on CBS. President Kennedy was asked about what he thinks about Vietnam.

I don’t think that unless a greater effort is made by the Government to win popular support that the war can be won out there. In the final analysis, it is their war. They are the ones who have to win it or lose it. We can help them, we can give them equipment, we can send our men out there as advisers, but they have to win itthe people of Viet-Namagainst the Communists. ” JFK’s third decision and most far-reaching Vietnam decision was to replace Diem in 1963. The new US ambassador to Vietnam, Henry Cabot Lodge favored Diem’s removal.

During this time McNamera tried to convince JFK of necessity of deploying a combat force to S. Vietnam, not only to boost morale but to defend them against Vietcong in the field. But South Vietnamese troops are defeated by a much smaller Vietcong force despite U. S. assistance. In November 1, 1963, Ngo Diem regime came to an end when he died of and unclear cause. It is speculated that he was overthrown and then assassinated by ARVN leaders. US became responsible for the chaos afterward, which led to an increased commitment of US troops. By this time Kennedy was thinking ahead to the presidential campaign of 1964.

Unfortunately Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, TX. Despite trauma of the assassination of the president the nation lied without him. Succeeding to the presidency after Kennedy’s assassination was Lyndon B. Johnson. Johnson had inherited a more dangerous crisis than Eisenhower and Kennedy. And contrary to popular belief Johnson was not oblivious to Vietnam when he became president. LBJ inherited JFK plans and vowed to continue his policies. He also felt he had to take a forceful position on Vietnam so that other Communist countries would not think that the United States lacked purpose.

Kennedy had begun to consider the possibility of withdrawal from Vietnam and had even ordered the removal of 1000 advisers shortly before he was assassinated, but Johnson increased the number of U. S. advisers to 27,000 by mid-1964. The Kennedy advisors viewed JFK as an effective leader of South Vietnam. Some opposition to JFK say he made some critical mistakes in regard to Vietnam. For example, he had a poor strategy. There were multiple options – military could not decide how to win – and they disagreed on what to do. In North Vietnam, there was no front line to stop the influx of supplies.

The neutralization to stop supplies in Laos failed. And we definitely underestimated the enemy. North Vietnam more determined that we thought. There has been much speculation on what JFK would have done in Vietnam had he not been assassinated. Presidential aide Walt Rostow, says that Kennedy intend to withdrawal American military from Vietnam after 1964 election. Dean Rusk on the other hand believed Kennedy would have eventually brought US into war with Vietnam. Robert McNamera having reviewed everything believes that if JFK had lived, he would have pulled us out of Vietnam. Although many disagree with what McNamara says.

And in the fiction movie JFK, by Oliver Stone his version of the Kennedy assassination was that Kennedy had already decided to pull out of Vietnam, and was killed for that reason. So would Kennedy have fallen into the Vietnam War as Johnson did? No one can be sure, and Kennedy supporters can certainly believe that he would have avoided Johnson’s massive commitment -even though he had the same advisors as Johnson and the same desire to prevent a Communist takeover. We will never know for sure what President Kennedy intended to do in Vietnam. All the general public has to go on is speculation from close to JFK.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy

If you have ever had any curiosities about any of the leading figures of American History, from John Quincy Adams to Robert A. Taft, John Fitzgerald Kennedy details for you the accomplishments and personalities of a great cross-section of Americana. Mind you, this book is not a provocative thriller, nor an aloof murder story, but an encyclopedia of sorts, a personal reference. The people that JFK wrote about were truly courageous and intriguing, and upon reading about them, you begin to immediately respect them.

Kennedy on the Nobel Peace Prize for Literature with this book, and with all the credit given to this book, how can one argue with a masterpiece? One great merit of this volume is that its instances of courage are all true, clear and in the last analysis constructive; its heroes- John Quincy Adams, Webster, Houston, Ross of Kansas, George Norris-all exercised their courage in a noble way for large ends. The Foreward was written by Allen Nevins, a great journalist and admirer of the Late Kennedy(The most amazing part being that Kennedy at this time was still a senator! .

With such a lofty opinion of the ex-president, the foreward was very upbeat. It spoke of the differentiations between courage and bravery, the very definition of courage, and even some of the reasons that a few of the men qualified to enter JFK’s profiles. The preface, written by JFK himself, was merely a thank-you to the brave and trail-blazing politicians that preceded him, and to his wife. All in all, there are eight profiles of Kennedy’s most revered men.

The first listed being John Q. Adams. According to JFK, Adams was young, very unsure and yet, determined. Adams received threats in the mail from the federalist party and was prepared to leave any politics he was set to go into. In time, he began a very powerful man, taking part in more important events than anyone else in our history, the most important, of course, being the presidency. The succeeding profile is of Daniel Webster, one of the most powerful orators and statesmen of his time, or any other.

Daniel Webster is familiar to many of us as the battler of Jabez Stone’s soul against the devil in Stephen Vincent Benet’s story. There could be no mistaking that he was a great man, as JFK writes, “He was a great man-he looked like ne, talked like one, was treated like one, and insisted he was one. ” The next profile is of Thomas Hart Benton, a senator from Missouri, a man that used to engage in stand-off’s and shootings. He held all of the people he spoke with in… fear.

He spoke well, and always had a rebuttal to even the most stinging sarcasm. As a matte of fact, Benton tried his hardest to become as fearsome as possible, brushing himself daily with a horsehair brush, giving his skin a very leathery texture. Benton held such a fix in the Capitol that Missouri voted him to stay in office for just over thirty years! Benton tood up for what he wanted to happen, he listened less and less to his people in Missouri, and he became very devoted to winning everything he advocated for.

Perhaps that is why he was considered courageous, that or the pistols he always carried into the Capitol. Thirdly was Sam Houston, governor of both Texas and Tennessee. During his time as a statesman for Texas, it was up to him to bring Texas into statehood, and he accomplished it well. He was dubbed ‘The Magnificent Barbarian” due to his neanderthalic features, and moving orations. He was barnone the most popular statesman of his time, truggling like mad to accomplish all that he had set forth in a long journal to himself.

His passion for his voters, the people, placed him in many high offices, in two different states! His worst mistake that ultimately ended his career was his vote to put an end to slavery, a vote that went against the thoughts of most people in Texas. Next in line was Edmund G. Ross, a young senator from Kansas. Ross was admitted during one of the most turmoil-filled epoch of American History, the time of President Andrew Johnson. Andrew had succeeded Lincoln as president, and was sent into is job to clean up all the hatred shared between the North and the South.

Of course, the South had been conquered, and it was up to Johnson to decide what happens to the South. He firmly believed in Lincoln’s hopes for peace, but the entire congressional body was ready to conquer the South and stake it as a branch of the North. Many radical bills were suggested by the legislators, and almost all of them were vetoed by the president. Nobody liked his opinions, anywhere. Shortly after the vicious struggle to remove Stanton from he position of Secretary of War, the congress drew up the impeachment plans.

Nearly everyone had voted from impeachment, except for a few faithful Senators who believed in Johnson’s purposes. The advocates of impeaching Johnson made life miserable for the few that still had hop e in Johnson. The most stalwart of them was Ross. He gave a few speeches, some of the most compelling and moving speeches ever, that began to make some of the ‘fence-post’ senators switch their opinion. With only one vote to spare, Ross saved the presidency. He was never very powerful afterwards, but his courage to save the president earned him a spot in this book.

President John Fitzgerald Kennedy

From the end of the French and Indian War, there was a sense of unity brewing among the colonies. The colonies had to unite in order to overcome a common foe as expressed in the Albany Plan of Union that called a combined effort of defense throughout the colonies. However, even after the French and Indian War the colonies united once again to face an opponent that could not physically be shot down (A).

The tremendous hole that was left in the pocketbooks of Britains be treasury because of the French and Indian wars as well as previous wars caused a change in the economic policy for the colonies in the form of taxing and the enforcement of pre-existing laws. The collective taxing once again pitted the colonists against a common enemy. By the eve of the Revolution, the colonies knew what they were doing, and had defined their identity as no longer British or Englishmen but as Americans.

Even by 1750, the colonists were already a distinct breed of people. Most were of mixed European background. Whether the colonists defined themselves as Americans at this point does not matter. They were a separate type of people who could be found in no other country (H). Yet, this alone would not be strong enough to define them as Americans just yet. The French and Indian War, though, was a major point in colonial unity. After the French and Indian War, colonists began to think of themselves as Americans rather than British or English.

The heavy debt caused by the French and Indian War and other wars left the British only one option: to tax the colonies. To defeat this, the colonies had to unite. For one colony or one town acting alone would have little or no effect and would result only in defeat and even harsher regulations. After the Stamp act was defeated, the colonies fully realized that their only chance of withstanding British attempts to tax them was to come together.

Despite the collective boycotts of all colonies on British goods, the first real test of the colonial unity came when the Townshend acts were declared. In addition to placing new taxes on tea, glass and paper, it also issued writs of assistance (general licenses to search property). More importantly, however, was the suspension of New Yorks assembly for colonial defiance of the Quartering acts. The colonies did not protest the taxes under the Townshend program because they were indirect taxes paid by merchants, but they did stand up for the closing of the colonial assembly of New York.

The suspension of the colonial assembly of New York had no direct influence on the other colonies, but they showed their unity by still rising up against the Townshend program. Parliament itself was beginning to realize the differences between England and the colonies. Edmund Burke realized that America hardly resembled the towns of England, and that the nature of the colonies forbid them from being blended into the empire of England (B).

England could not let the colonies go after they had fought so many wars to gain them, and they could not just not tax them, thus, making revolution inevitable, but not yet fully seen by both sides. The eve of the revolution marked a distinct integration of the colonies. All North America was now firmly united to defend their liberties against every power on Earth that may attempt to take them away (C). Those in the colonies were either for the colonies actions, or against it. They were united together as patriots or loyalists (D).

The patriots were willing to become self-sufficient. They were willing to donate large amounts of food and goods to other colonies (G). Before the fighting broke out at Lexington and Concord on May 19th, 1775, the colonies were indeed ready to become a self-sufficient body. They had defined themselves as Americans. While they may have been somewhat apprehensive (E) about the conflicts at first, they quickly began to thrust full steam at the British threat. Before the eve of revolution, the colonies had already began to assert themselves as Americans and define their unity.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy

John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected president. He was also the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president. Therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented war. Young people especially liked him. No other president was so popular. He brought to the presidency an awareness of the cultural and historical traditions of the United States.

Because Kennedy expressed the values of 0th-century America, his presidency was important beyond its political achievements. John Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts. He was the second of nine children. Kennedy announced his candidacy early in 1960. By the time the Democratic National Convention opened in July, he had won seven primary victories. His most important had been in West Virginia, where he proved that a Roman Catholic could win in a predominantly Proteezt state.

When the convention opened, it appeared that Kennedy’s only serious challenge for the nomination would come from the Senate majority leader, Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas. However, Johnson was strong only among Southern delegates. Kennedy won the nomination on the first ballot and then persuaded Johnson to become his running mate. Two weeks later the Republicans nominated Vice President Richard Nixon for president and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. , who was ambassador to the United Nations and whom Kennedy had defeated for the Senate in 1952, for vice president. In the fast-paced campaign that followed, Kennedy made stops in 46 states and 273 cities and towns, while Nixon visited every state and 170 urban areas.

Another important element of the campaign was the support Kennedy eceived from blacks in important Northern states, especially Illinois and Pennsylvania. They supported him in part because he and Robert Kennedy had tried to get the release of the civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. King, who had been jailed for taking part in a civil rights demonstration in Georgia, was released soon afterward. The election drew a record 69 million voters to the polls, but Kennedy won by only 113,000 votes. Kennedy was inaugurated on January 20, 1961. In his inaugural address he emphasized America’s revolutionary heritage.

“The same beliefs for which our forebears fought are till at issue around the globe,” Kennedy said. 3″Let the word go forth from this time and place to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americansborn in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritageand unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed and to which we are committed today at home and around the world. ” Kennedy challenged Americans to assume the burden of “defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger.

The words of his address were, “Ask not what your country can do for youask what you can do for your country. ” Kennedy sought with considerable success to attract brilliant young people to government service. His hope was to bring new ideas and new methods into the executive branch. As a result many of his advisers were teachers and scholars. Among them were McGeorge Bundy and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. , both graduates of Harvard. Kennedy’s most influential adviser was Theodore C. Sorenson, a member of Kennedy’s staff since his days in the Senate.

Sorenson wrote many of Kennedy’s speeches and exerted a strong influence on Kennedy’s development as a olitical liberal, 5 a person who believes that the government should directly help people to overcome poverty or social discrimination. The president and Mrs. Kennedy attempted to make the White House the cultural center of the nation. Writers, artists, poets, scientists, and musicians were frequent dinner guests. On one occasion the Kennedy’s held a reception for all the American winners of the Nobel Prize, people who made outezding contributions to their field during the past year.

At the party the president suggested that more talent and genius was at the White House that night than there had been since Thomas Jefferson had last dined there alone. At a meeting with the leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Nikita Khrushchev, Kennedy asked the name of a medal Khrushchev was wearing. When the premier identified it as the Lenin Peace Medal, Kennedy remarked, 6″I hope you keep it. ” On another occasion he told a group of Republican business leaders, 7″It would be premature to ask for your support in the next election and inaccurate to thank you for it in the past. Even in great crises, Kennedy retained his sense of humor.

Kennedy’s first year in office brought him considerable success in nacting new legislation. Congress passed a major housing bill, a law increasing the minimum wage, and a bill granting federal aid to economically depressed areas of the United States. The most original piece of legislation Kennedy put through Congress was the bill creating the Peace Corps, an agency that trained American volunteers to perform social and humanitarian service overseas. The program’s goal was to promote world peace and friendship with developing nations.

The idea of American volunteers helping people in foreign lands touched the idealism of many citizens. Within two years, Peace Corps volunteers were working in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, living with the people and working on education, public health, and agricultural projects. However, after his initial success with Congress, Kennedy found it increasingly difficult to get his programs enacted into law. Although the Democrats held a majority in both houses, Southern Democrats joined with conservative Republicans to stop legislation they disliked.

The Medicare bill, a bill to make medical care for the aged a national benefit, was defeated. A civil rights bill and a bill to cut taxes were debated, and compromises were agreed to, but even the ompromises were delayed. A bill to create a Cabinet-level Department of Urban Affairs was soundly defeated, partly because Kennedy wanted the economist Robert C. Weaver, a black man, to be the new secretary. Southern Congressmen united with representatives from mostly rural areas to defeat the bill. Kennedy did win approval of a bill to lower tariffs and thus allow more competitive American trade abroad.

Congress also authorized the purchase of $100 million in United Nations bonds, and the money enabled the international organization to survive a financial crisis. Further, Congress appropriated more than $1 billion to finance sending man to the moon by 1970 which was accomplished in 1969. The major American legal and moral conflict during Kennedy’s three years in office was in the area of civil rights. Black agitation against discrimination had become widespread and well organized. Although Kennedy was in no way responsible for the growth of the civil rights movement, he attempted to aid the black cause by enforcing existing laws.

Kennedy particularly wanted to end discrimination in federally financed projects or in companies that were doing business with the government. In September 1962 Governor Ross R. Barnett of Mississippi ignored a ourt order and prevented James H. Meredith, a black man, from enrolling at the state university. On the night of September 29, even as the president went on national television to appeal to the people of Mississippi to obey the law, rioting began on the campus. After 15 hours of rioting and two deaths, Kennedy sent in troops to restore order.

Meredith was admitted to the university, and troops and federal marshals remained on the campus to insure his safety. In June 1963, when Governor George C. Wallace of Alabama prevented two blacks from enrolling at the University of Alabama, Kennedy ederalized the Alabama National Guard to enforce the law. The students were enrolled at the university. Three months later, Kennedy again used the National Guard to prevent Wallace from interfering with integration in the public schools of Birmingham, Tuskegee, and Mobile.

Kennedy also asked Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would guarantee blacks the right to vote, to attend public school, to have equal access to jobs, and to have access to public accommodations. Kennedy told the American people, 8″Now the time has come for this nation to fulfill its promises to act, to make a commitment it has ot fully made in this century to the proposition that race has no place in American life or law. ” Public opinion polls showed that Kennedy was losing popularity because of his advocacy of civil rights.

Privately, he began to assume that the South would oppose him in the next election, but he continued to speak out against segregation, the practice of separating people of different races. To a group of students in Nashville, Tennessee, he said, 9 “No one can deny the complexity of the problem involved in assuring all of our citizens their full rights as Americans. But no one can gainsay the fact that the determination to secure those rights s in the highest tradition of American freedom. ” In 1959, after several attempts, a revolution led by Fidel Castro finally overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar.

During the next two years, Castro was to become increasingly hostile to the United States. The new regime’s agricultural reform laws provoked U. S. companies that operated sugar plantations. Companies that were not controlled by Cuban stockholders were not allowed to operate plantations, and sugar production was de-emphasized in favor of food crops. In 1960 the Castro government nationalized, or took ver ownership of, an estimated $1 billion in properties owned by U. S. companies and citizens, and the Eisenhower administration imposed a trade embargo.

When Castro began to proclaim his belief in Communism, Cuba became part of the Cold War, or struggle between the United States and its allies and the nations led by the USSR that involved intense economic and diplomatic battles but not direct military conflict. Many Cubans fled to the United States. During the Eisenhower administration the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had begun to train Cuban exiles secretly for an invasion of Cuba. When Kennedy became president, he approved the invasion. In April 1961 more than 1000 Cuban exiles made an amphibious landing in Cuba at a place called the Bay of Pigs.

Their plan was to move inland and join with anti-Castro forces to stage a revolt simultaneously, but instead Castro’s forces were there to meet the invaders. The revolt in the interior did not happen, and air support, promised by the CIA, never came. The exiles were defeated and the survivors were taken prisoner. On December 25, 1962, 1113 prisoners were released in exchange for food and medical supplies valued at a total of approximately $53 million. Most other Latin American countries had the same bad social, economic, and political conditions that had led to Castro’s success in Cuba.

Many of these nations seemed ripe for a revolution that could easily be exploited by the Communists. Upon taking office, President Kennedy looked for a program that would accelerate change in Latin America by strengthening democratic institutions. In March 1961 he introduced the Alliance for Progress, and in August it was established by the charter of Punte del Este. The Alliance for Progress was to be a Latin American version of the Marshall Plan, the United States plan to fund cooperative, long-term program to rebuild Europe following World War II.

All Latin American nations except Cuba joined the Alliance for Progress, pledging 10″to bring our people accelerated economic progress and broader social justice within the framework of personal dignity and individual liberty. ” The United States promised $20 billion for the first ten years. The Alliance for Progress and President Kennedy’s particular concern for democratic institutions brought the United States renewed popularity in Latin America. On June 3, 1961, in Vienna, Austria, Kennedy and Khrushchev met and eviewed relationships between the United States and the USSR, as well as other questions of interest to the two states.

Two incidents contributed to hostility at the meeting. The first was the shooting down of a U. S. spy plane in Soviet air space, and the second was the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in early 1961. The results of the conference made it clear that Khrushchev had construed Kennedy’s failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion as a sign of weakness. No agreements were reached on any important issues. In fact, the Soviet premier made it clear that the Soviet Union intended to pursue an even ore aggressive policy toward the United States. Kennedy’s last words to Khrushchev in Vienna were, 11″It’s going to be a cold winter.

He reported to the American people that the Soviet premier was a “tough-minded” leader who did not underezd the intentions of the United States. The leaders had spent a “very sober two days. ” In August 1961, to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West, the Communists ordered a wall built on the border between East and West Berlin. West Berlin had been under the control of the United States, France, and Britain since the end of World War II, although the city ay deep inside East Germany, a state that was an ally of the USSR. Kennedy and other Western leaders protested, but the wall was built.

Kennedy had already asked for more military spending and had called up reserve troops for duty in Europe. When East German soldiers began blocking the Allied route through East Germany into Berlin, Kennedy sent a force of 1500 soldiers marching along the route into West Berlin. The troops went uncontested. Communist interference stopped, allowing Allied forces travel to and from Berlin. Amongst other problems President Kennedy faced, none was more serious than this one. The Cuban Missile Crisis was perhaps the world’s closest approach to nuclear war.

In 1960 Soviet Premier Khrushchev decided to supply Cuba with nuclear missiles that would put the eastern United States within range of nuclear missile attack. Khrushchev, when asked, denied that any missiles were being supplied to Cuba, but in the summer of 1962 U. S. spy planes flying over Cuba photographed Soviet-managed construction work and spotted the first missile on October 14. For seven days President Kennedy consulted secretly with advisers, discussing the possible responses while in public his administration arried on as though nothing was wrong.

Finally, on October 22, Kennedy told the nation about the discovery of the missiles, demanded that the Soviet Union remove the weapons, and declared the waters around Cuba a quarantine zone. Kennedy called upon Khrushchev 12″to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations” and warned that an attack from Cuba on any nation in the western hemisphere would be considered an attack by the USSR on the United States itself. At the same time, United States troops were sent to Florida to prepare or invading Cuba, and air units were alerted.

American vessels blockaded Cuba with orders to search all suspicious-looking Soviet ships and to turn back any that carried offensive weapons. For several tense days Soviet vessels en route to Cuba avoided the quarantine zone, while Khrushchev and Kennedy discussed the issue through diplomatic channels. Khrushchev, realizing his weak military position, sent a message on October 26 in which he agreed to Kennedy’s demands to remove all missiles. The following day, before the United States had responded to the first note, Khrushchev sent another, rying to negotiate other terms.

Kennedy decided to respond to the first message, and on October 28, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle and remove the weapons from Cuba and offered the United States on-site inspection. In return Kennedy secretly promised not to invade Cuba and to remove older missiles from Turkey. Kennedy called off the blockade but Cuba, angry at Soviet submission, refused to permit the promised inspection. However, U. S. spy planes revealed that the missile bases were being dismantled. Nuclear war had been avoided. This was perhaps Kennedy’s greatest moment as president. Many felt that both World War

I and World War II had begun because of weak responses to acts of aggression, and Kennedy may have prevented World War III by displaying courage and strength. On November 22, 1963, President and Mrs. Kennedy were in Dallas, Texas, trying to win support in a state that Kennedy had barely carried in 1960. As the motorcade approached an underpass, two shots were fired in rapid succession. One bullet passed through the president’s neck and struck Governor Connally in the back. The other bullet struck the president in the head. Kennedy fell forward, and his car sped to Parkland Hospital. At 1:00 PM, he was pronounced dead.

He ad never regained consciousness. Less than two hours after the shooting, aboard the presidential plane at the Dallas airport, Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th president of the United States. That afternoon, Lee Harvey Oswald, who was employed in the warehouse, was arrested in a Dallas movie theater and charged with the murder. On November 24 the body of President Kennedy was carried on a horse-drawn carriage from the White House to the Rotunda of the Capitol. Hundreds of thousands of people filed past the coffin of the slain president. The grave was marked by an eternal flame lighted by his wife and brothers.

The 1960’s

Many social changes that were addressed in the 1960s are still the issues being confronted today. the ’60s was a decade of social and political upheaval. in spite of all the turmoil, there were some positive results: the civil rights revolution, john f. Kennedy’s bold vision of a new frontier, and the breathtaking advances in space, helped bring about progress and prosperity. however, much was negative: student and anti-war protest movements, political assassinations, and ghetto riots excited american people and resulted in lack of respect for authority and the law.

The decade began under the shadow of the cold war with the soviet union, which was aggravated by the u-2 incident, the berlin wall, and the cuban missile crisis, along with the space race with the ussr.

The decade ended under the shadow of the viet nam war, which deeply divided americans and their allies and damaged the country’s self-confidence and sense of purpose.

Even if you weren’t alive during the ’60s, you know what they meant when they said, “tune in, turn on, drop out.” you know why the nation celebrates Martin luther king, jr.’s birthday. all of the social issues are reflected in today’s society: the civil rights movement, the student movement, space exploration, the sexual revolution, the environment, medicine and health, and fun and fashion.

The Civil Rights Movement

The momentum of the previous decade’s civil rights gains led by rev. Martin luther king, jr. carried over into the 1960s. but for most blacks, the tangible results were minimal. only a minuscule percentage of black children actually attended integrated schools, and in the south, “jim crow” practices barred blacks from jobs and public places. New groups and goals were formed, new tactics devised, to push forward for full equality. as often as not, white resistance resulted in violence. this violence spilled across tv screens nationwide. the average, neutral american, after seeing his/her tv screen, turned into a civil rights supporter.

Black unity and white support continued to grow. in 1962, with the first large-scale public protest against racial discrimination, rev. Martin luther king, jr. Gave a dramatic and inspirational speech in washington, d.c. After a long march of thousands to the capital. the possibility of riot and bloodshed was always there, but the marchers took that chance so that they could accept the responsibilities of first class citizens. “the negro,” King said in this speech, “lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity and finds himself an exile in his own land.” King continued stolidly: “it would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment and to underestimate the determination of the negro. this sweltering summer of the negro’s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality.” when King came to the end of his prepared text, he swept right on into an exhibition of impromptu oratory that was catching, dramatic, and inspirational.

“I have a dream,” King cried out. the crowd began cheering, but king, never pausing, brought silence as he continued, “i have a dream that one day on the red hills of georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.”

“I have a dream,” he went on, relentlessly shouting down the thunderous swell of applause, “that even the state of mississippi, a state sweltering with people’s injustices, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. i have dream,” cried King for the last time, “that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.”

Everyone agreed the march was a success and they wanted action now! but, now! remained a long way off. president kennedy was never able to mobilize sufficient support to pass a civil rights bill with teeth over the opposition of segregationist southern members of congress. but after his assassination, president johnson, drawing on the kennedy legacy and on the press coverage of civil rights marches and protests, succeeded where kennedy had failed.

However, by the summer of 1964, the black revolution had created its own crisis of disappointed expectations. rioting by urban blacks was to be a feature of every “long, hot, summer” of the mid-1960s.

In 1965, King and other black leaders wanted to push beyond social integration, now guaranteed under the previous year’s civil rights law, to political rights, mainly southern blacks’ rights to register and vote. king picked a tough alabama town to tackle: selma, where only 1 of eligible black voters were registered to vote. the violence, the march, the excitement all contributed to the passage of the second landmark civil rights act of the decade. even though there was horrendous violence, rev. king announced that as a “matter of conscience and in an attempt to arouse the deepest concern of the nation,” he was “compelled” to lead another march from selma to montgomery, alabama.

The four-day, 54-mile march started on the afternoon of sunday, march 21, 1965, with some 3500 marchers led by two nobel prizewinners, the rev. Martin luther king, jr. And ralph bunche, then u.n. Under secretary for special political affairs. in the march, whites, negroes, clergymen and beatniks, old and young, walked side by side. president johnson made sure they had plenty of protection this time with 1000 military police, 1900 federalized alabama national guardsmen, and platoons of u.s. Marshals and fbi men.

When the marchers reached the capital of alabama, they were to have presented a petition to then governor george wallace protesting voting discrimination. however, when they arrived, the governor’s aides came out and said, “the capital is closed today.”

About this same time, the term, “black power” was coming into use. it was meant to infer long-submerged racial pride in negroes. Martin luther king, jr. Specifically sought to rebut the evangelists of black power. “it is absolutely necessary for the negro to gain power, but the term black power is unfortunate, because it tends to give the impression of black nationalism. we must never seek power exclusively for the negro, but the sharing of power with white people,” he said.

Unfortunately, the thing that really moved the civil rights movement along significantly was the murder of rev. Martin luther king, jr. In late 1965. cruelty replaced harmony with nightmarish suddenness. rioting mobs in the negro suburb of watts, california, pillaged, burned and killed, while 500 policemen and 5000 national guardsmen struggled in vain to contain their fury. hour after hour, the toll mounted: 27 dead at the week’s end, nearly 600 injured, 1700 arrested, and property damage well over $100 million.

The good that came out of all of this, is that thousands of negroes were flocking to register in the nine counties in alabama, louisiana, and mississippi where the government posted federal examiners to uphold the voting law. in four days, 6,998 negro voters were added to the rolls in counties where there had previously been only 3,857.

In that time of sorrow and guilt when King was murdered, there was an opening for peace between the races that might otherwise never have presented itself. president johnson pleaded, “i ask every citizen to reject the blind violence that has struck dr. King.” he went on to say that to bring meaning to his death, we must be determined to strike forcefully at the consciences of all americans in order to wrest from tragedy and trauma, the will to make a better society.

The Student Movement

Americans who were young in the 1960s influenced the course of the decade as no group had before. the motto of the time was “don’t trust anyone over 30.” another, “tell it like it is,” conveyed a real mistrust of what they considered adult deviousness.

Youthful americans were outraged by the intolerance of their universities, racial inequality, social injustice, the viet nam war, and the economic and political constraints of everyday life and work. one group that formed during this time was s.d.s. (students for a democratic society). opposed to “imperialism,” racism, and oppression, the s.d.s. found the american university guilty of all three. they did do some good at the beginning like organizing northern ghetto dwellers in projects such as chicago’s jobs or income, now (join). but the viet nam war led to a change in their tactics. they became an independent radical force against society. the deluge of disorders made it harder and harder for most americans to keep events in perspective. they tended to forget that most of the nation’s 6,700,000 collegians were studying hard at school and not causing trouble. an underlying pattern emerged in the american university. the university suddenly became a political arena. the students wanted to address the national problems of war, race, and poverty. as a result, the university lost some of its neutrality. students created a new u.s. institution: the political university.

However, another element among youths was also emerging. They were called hippies. this movement marked another response to the decade as the young experimented with music, clothes, drugs, and a “counter-culture” lifestyle. in 1967, hippies preached altruism and mysticism, honesty, joy and nonviolence. they had a child-like fascination for beads, blossoms, and bells, strobe lights, ear-shattering music, exotic clothing and erotic slogans. they wanted to profess “flower power” and love. they were predominantly white, middle-class, educated youths, ranging in age from 17 to 25. Perhaps the most striking thing about the hippie phenomenon, is the way it touched the imagination of the “straight” society. hippie slang entered common usage and spiced american humor. boutiques sprang up in urban and suburban areas to sell the “psychedelic” color clothes and designs that resembled art nouveau.

A major development in the hippie world was the “rural community,” where nature-loving hippie “tribesmen” escaped the commercialism of the cities in an attempt to build a society outside of society. another development was the illicit use of drugs, creating the slogan, “tune in, turn on, drop out.” “better living through chemistry” was another advertising slogan that was a sly joke to the young, but a real worry to their parents.

Marijuana (pot, grass, mary jane, weed) was their favorite preparation. however, some were smoking hash, taking mescaline, peyote, lsd, barbiturates and sedatives. The list goes on and on. and it was only the beginning. Drug use was everywhere. rock musicians used drugs frequently and openly. their compositions were riddled with references to drugs, from the beatles’ “i get high with a little help from my friends” to the jefferson airplane’s “white rabbit.”

Space Exploration

At the end of 1968, americans became the first human beings to reach the moon. seven months later, they were the first to actually walk on the moon. their telecast gave earthbound viewers an unforgettable view of the moon. Astronaut lovell reported, “the moon is essentially grey, no color. we can see quite a bit of detail. the craters are all rounded off.”

On christmas eve, the astronauts of apollo 8 (borman, lovell, and anders) gave their best description of the moon in a most impressive telecast. “this is apollo 8 coming to you live from the moon,” reported borman, focusing his camera on the lunar surface. “the moon is a different thing to each of us,” said borman. “my impression is that it’s a vast, lonely, forbidding-type existence……it certainly would not be a very inviting place to live or work.”

Lovell agreed, but added, “the vast loneliness up here is awe-inspiring, and it makes you realize just what you have back there on earth.”

In apollo 11, the astronauts landed on the moon on july 25, 1969. astronaut neil armstrong called out the word everyone was waiting for…….”houston,” he called. “tranquility base here. the eagle has landed.” all of america was on the edge of their seats. it was a very exciting time; cheers, tears and frantic applause went up around the nation.

“That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind,” became the watchword when u.s. Astronaut armstrong said this as he placed his foot firmly on the fine-grained surface of the moon. after centuries of dreams and prophecies, the moment had come. man broke his terrestrial shackles and set foot on another world. the new view could help man place his problems, as well as his world, in a new perspective. The Sexual Revolution

The medical introduction of the “pill” changed the interaction between the sexes dramatically in 1964. Americans discovered that the freedom from fear of unwanted pregnancy went hand in hand with other kinds of sexual freedom. it became an era in which morals were held to be both private and relative, in which pleasure was being considered almost like a constitutional right rather than a privilege, in which self-denial became increasingly seen as foolish rather than virtuous.

The “pill” is a tablet that contains as little as one thirty-thousandth of an ounce of chemical. it used to cost 1 1/4 cents to manufacture and a month’s supply sold for $2.00, retail. yet, in a mere six years, it changed and liberated the sex and family life of a large segment of the u.s. Population. did the convenient contraceptive promote promiscuity? are americans paying the price today for the decline in morals and values?

The Environment

A book written by rachel carson, silent spring, earned her a reputation not only as a competent marine biologist, but as a gifted writer. the villains in silent spring are chemical pesticides, against which miss carson took up her pen in alarm and anger. many readers were firmly convinced that most of the u.s. Was already laced with poison that would soon start taking a dreadful toll. the only way to fix the situation was to stop using chemical pesticides and let the “balance of nature” take care of the insects.

Another “activist” of the day was lady bird johnson, president johnson’s wife. she envisioned beautification all over america. she is generally credited with inspiring the highway beautification act of 1965.

This is the decade when scientists were becoming more vocal about the ozone layer, pollution, and smoking cigarettes. americans became aware of the dangers they encountered everyday and would perhaps hand down to their children. the federal communications commission voted 6 to 1 to ban cigarette advertising on radio and tv. eventually, with congressional approval, cigarette packages had a new warning on them: “caution: cigarette smoking may be hazardous to your health.”

Medicine and Health

Mistakes made in the past caused great social and health problems to children around the world when it was discovered that using a tranquilizer called thalidomide caused severe birth defects. babies were born with hands and feet like flippers, attached close to the body with little or no arm or leg. as results of using thalidomide became apparent, every compound drug containing thalidomide was taken off the market.
THe 1960’s

Many social changes that were addressed in the 1960s are still the issues being confronted today. the ’60s was a decade of social and political upheaval. in spite of all the turmoil, there were some positive results: the civil rights revolution, john f. Kennedy’s bold vision of a new frontier, and the breathtaking advances in space, helped bring about progress and prosperity. however, much was negative: student and anti-war protest movements, political assassinations, and ghetto riots excited american people and resulted in lack of respect for authority and the law.

The decade began under the shadow of the cold war with the soviet union, which was aggravated by the u-2 incident, the berlin wall, and the cuban missile crisis, along with the space race with the ussr.

The decade ended under the shadow of the viet nam war, which deeply divided americans and their allies and damaged the country’s self-confidence and sense of purpose.

Even if you weren’t alive during the ’60s, you know what they meant when they said, “tune in, turn on, drop out.” you know why the nation celebrates Martin luther king, jr.’s birthday. all of the social issues are reflected in today’s society: the civil rights movement, the student movement, space exploration, the sexual revolution, the environment, medicine and health, and fun and fashion.

The Civil Rights Movement

The momentum of the previous decade’s civil rights gains led by rev. Martin luther king, jr. carried over into the 1960s. but for most blacks, the tangible results were minimal. only a minuscule percentage of black children actually attended integrated schools, and in the south, “jim crow” practices barred blacks from jobs and public places. New groups and goals were formed, new tactics devised, to push forward for full equality. as often as not, white resistance resulted in violence. this violence spilled across tv screens nationwide. the average, neutral american, after seeing his/her tv screen, turned into a civil rights supporter.

Black unity and white support continued to grow. in 1962, with the first large-scale public protest against racial discrimination, rev. Martin luther king, jr. Gave a dramatic and inspirational speech in washington, d.c. After a long march of thousands to the capital. the possibility of riot and bloodshed was always there, but the marchers took that chance so that they could accept the responsibilities of first class citizens. “the negro,” King said in this speech, “lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity and finds himself an exile in his own land.” King continued stolidly: “it would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment and to underestimate the determination of the negro. this sweltering summer of the negro’s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality.” when King came to the end of his prepared text, he swept right on into an exhibition of impromptu oratory that was catching, dramatic, and inspirational.

“I have a dream,” King cried out. the crowd began cheering, but king, never pausing, brought silence as he continued, “i have a dream that one day on the red hills of georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.”

“I have a dream,” he went on, relentlessly shouting down the thunderous swell of applause, “that even the state of mississippi, a state sweltering with people’s injustices, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. i have dream,” cried King for the last time, “that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.”

Everyone agreed the march was a success and they wanted action now! but, now! remained a long way off. president kennedy was never able to mobilize sufficient support to pass a civil rights bill with teeth over the opposition of segregationist southern members of congress. but after his assassination, president johnson, drawing on the kennedy legacy and on the press coverage of civil rights marches and protests, succeeded where kennedy had failed.

However, by the summer of 1964, the black revolution had created its own crisis of disappointed expectations. rioting by urban blacks was to be a feature of every “long, hot, summer” of the mid-1960s.

In 1965, King and other black leaders wanted to push beyond social integration, now guaranteed under the previous year’s civil rights law, to political rights, mainly southern blacks’ rights to register and vote. king picked a tough alabama town to tackle: selma, where only 1 of eligible black voters were registered to vote. the violence, the march, the excitement all contributed to the passage of the second landmark civil rights act of the decade. even though there was horrendous violence, rev. king announced that as a “matter of conscience and in an attempt to arouse the deepest concern of the nation,” he was “compelled” to lead another march from selma to montgomery, alabama.

The four-day, 54-mile march started on the afternoon of sunday, march 21, 1965, with some 3500 marchers led by two nobel prizewinners, the rev. Martin luther king, jr. And ralph bunche, then u.n. Under secretary for special political affairs. in the march, whites, negroes, clergymen and beatniks, old and young, walked side by side. president johnson made sure they had plenty of protection this time with 1000 military police, 1900 federalized alabama national guardsmen, and platoons of u.s. Marshals and fbi men.

When the marchers reached the capital of alabama, they were to have presented a petition to then governor george wallace protesting voting discrimination. however, when they arrived, the governor’s aides came out and said, “the capital is closed today.”

About this same time, the term, “black power” was coming into use. it was meant to infer long-submerged racial pride in negroes. Martin luther king, jr. Specifically sought to rebut the evangelists of black power. “it is absolutely necessary for the negro to gain power, but the term black power is unfortunate, because it tends to give the impression of black nationalism. we must never seek power exclusively for the negro, but the sharing of power with white people,” he said.

Unfortunately, the thing that really moved the civil rights movement along significantly was the murder of rev. Martin luther king, jr. In late 1965. cruelty replaced harmony with nightmarish suddenness. rioting mobs in the negro suburb of watts, california, pillaged, burned and killed, while 500 policemen and 5000 national guardsmen struggled in vain to contain their fury. hour after hour, the toll mounted: 27 dead at the week’s end, nearly 600 injured, 1700 arrested, and property damage well over $100 million.

The good that came out of all of this, is that thousands of negroes were flocking to register in the nine counties in alabama, louisiana, and mississippi where the government posted federal examiners to uphold the voting law. in four days, 6,998 negro voters were added to the rolls in counties where there had previously been only 3,857.

In that time of sorrow and guilt when King was murdered, there was an opening for peace between the races that might otherwise never have presented itself. president johnson pleaded, “i ask every citizen to reject the blind violence that has struck dr. King.” he went on to say that to bring meaning to his death, we must be determined to strike forcefully at the consciences of all americans in order to wrest from tragedy and trauma, the will to make a better society.

The Student Movement

Americans who were young in the 1960s influenced the course of the decade as no group had before. the motto of the time was “don’t trust anyone over 30.” another, “tell it like it is,” conveyed a real mistrust of what they considered adult deviousness.

Youthful americans were outraged by the intolerance of their universities, racial inequality, social injustice, the viet nam war, and the economic and political constraints of everyday life and work. one group that formed during this time was s.d.s. (students for a democratic society). opposed to “imperialism,” racism, and oppression, the s.d.s. found the american university guilty of all three. they did do some good at the beginning like organizing northern ghetto dwellers in projects such as chicago’s jobs or income, now (join). but the viet nam war led to a change in their tactics. they became an independent radical force against society. the deluge of disorders made it harder and harder for most americans to keep events in perspective. they tended to forget that most of the nation’s 6,700,000 collegians were studying hard at school and not causing trouble. an underlying pattern emerged in the american university. the university suddenly became a political arena. the students wanted to address the national problems of war, race, and poverty. as a result, the university lost some of its neutrality. students created a new u.s. institution: the political university.

However, another element among youths was also emerging. They were called hippies. this movement marked another response to the decade as the young experimented with music, clothes, drugs, and a “counter-culture” lifestyle. in 1967, hippies preached altruism and mysticism, honesty, joy and nonviolence. they had a child-like fascination for beads, blossoms, and bells, strobe lights, ear-shattering music, exotic clothing and erotic slogans. they wanted to profess “flower power” and love. they were predominantly white, middle-class, educated youths, ranging in age from 17 to 25. Perhaps the most striking thing about the hippie phenomenon, is the way it touched the imagination of the “straight” society. hippie slang entered common usage and spiced american humor. boutiques sprang up in urban and suburban areas to sell the “psychedelic” color clothes and designs that resembled art nouveau.

A major development in the hippie world was the “rural community,” where nature-loving hippie “tribesmen” escaped the commercialism of the cities in an attempt to build a society outside of society. another development was the illicit use of drugs, creating the slogan, “tune in, turn on, drop out.” “better living through chemistry” was another advertising slogan that was a sly joke to the young, but a real worry to their parents.

Marijuana (pot, grass, mary jane, weed) was their favorite preparation. however, some were smoking hash, taking mescaline, peyote, lsd, barbiturates and sedatives. The list goes on and on. and it was only the beginning. Drug use was everywhere. rock musicians used drugs frequently and openly. their compositions were riddled with references to drugs, from the beatles’ “i get high with a little help from my friends” to the jefferson airplane’s “white rabbit.”

Space Exploration

At the end of 1968, americans became the first human beings to reach the moon. seven months later, they were the first to actually walk on the moon. their telecast gave earthbound viewers an unforgettable view of the moon. Astronaut lovell reported, “the moon is essentially grey, no color. we can see quite a bit of detail. the craters are all rounded off.”

On christmas eve, the astronauts of apollo 8 (borman, lovell, and anders) gave their best description of the moon in a most impressive telecast. “this is apollo 8 coming to you live from the moon,” reported borman, focusing his camera on the lunar surface. “the moon is a different thing to each of us,” said borman. “my impression is that it’s a vast, lonely, forbidding-type existence……it certainly would not be a very inviting place to live or work.”

Lovell agreed, but added, “the vast loneliness up here is awe-inspiring, and it makes you realize just what you have back there on earth.”

In apollo 11, the astronauts landed on the moon on july 25, 1969. astronaut neil armstrong called out the word everyone was waiting for…….”houston,” he called. “tranquility base here. the eagle has landed.” all of america was on the edge of their seats. it was a very exciting time; cheers, tears and frantic applause went up around the nation.

“That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind,” became the watchword when u.s. Astronaut armstrong said this as he placed his foot firmly on the fine-grained surface of the moon. after centuries of dreams and prophecies, the moment had come. man broke his terrestrial shackles and set foot on another world. the new view could help man place his problems, as well as his world, in a new perspective. The Sexual Revolution

The medical introduction of the “pill” changed the interaction between the sexes dramatically in 1964. Americans discovered that the freedom from fear of unwanted pregnancy went hand in hand with other kinds of sexual freedom. it became an era in which morals were held to be both private and relative, in which pleasure was being considered almost like a constitutional right rather than a privilege, in which self-denial became increasingly seen as foolish rather than virtuous.

The “pill” is a tablet that contains as little as one thirty-thousandth of an ounce of chemical. it used to cost 1 1/4 cents to manufacture and a month’s supply sold for $2.00, retail. yet, in a mere six years, it changed and liberated the sex and family life of a large segment of the u.s. Population. did the convenient contraceptive promote promiscuity? are americans paying the price today for the decline in morals and values?

The Environment

A book written by rachel carson, silent spring, earned her a reputation not only as a competent marine biologist, but as a gifted writer. the villains in silent spring are chemical pesticides, against which miss carson took up her pen in alarm and anger. many readers were firmly convinced that most of the u.s. Was already laced with poison that would soon start taking a dreadful toll. the only way to fix the situation was to stop using chemical pesticides and let the “balance of nature” take care of the insects.

Another “activist” of the day was lady bird johnson, president johnson’s wife. she envisioned beautification all over america. she is generally credited with inspiring the highway beautification act of 1965.

This is the decade when scientists were becoming more vocal about the ozone layer, pollution, and smoking cigarettes. americans became aware of the dangers they encountered everyday and would perhaps hand down to their children. the federal communications commission voted 6 to 1 to ban cigarette advertising on radio and tv. eventually, with congressional approval, cigarette packages had a new warning on them: “caution: cigarette smoking may be hazardous to your health.”

Medicine and Health

Mistakes made in the past caused great social and health problems to children around the world when it was discovered that using a tranquilizer called thalidomide caused severe birth defects. babies were born with hands and feet like flippers, attached close to the body with little or no arm or leg. as results of using thalidomide became apparent, every compound drug containing thalidomide was taken off the market.

President John F. Kennedy

There is something about John F. Kennedy. Could it be his charisma and charm that still entrances America? Maybe it is his elevated status as a pop culture icon that bedazzles most American citizens. It might be the martyr status he attained through his tragic assassination that makes American culture revere him as a President. Whatever the reason is that defines John F. Kennedy as probably one of the most beloved Presidents in American History; one assumption by many is that it has nothing to do with his political legacy. Many respected historians will tell you that he has an insubstantial political legacy.

Using the body of legislation that was passed during his short time in office as evidence, historians say that significant legislation was lacking. More than likely they will remark about his emphasis on rhetoric and his deficient action. On the other hand, many historians and writers contend his political legacy reverberates to this very day. They claim that through his mastery of that novel medium of his day, Television, his inclusion of culture into the office of President, and most of all his idealism, echoes in todays political atmosphere.

In total, the latter argument is actually tronger. Although JFK does lack substantial legislation that would bolster a claim to a significant political legacy, in other ways John F. Kennedy has such an intense political legacy that to this very day the Presidency of the United States cannot escape it. In respect to truly monumental legislation, John F. Kennedy does lack and therefore the people who say he does not have a true political legacy have a point. These critics believe a true political legacy is in what the President has accomplished legislatively in the White House.

With Kennedy, they state he was more talk than action. They do concede it was not truly do to his lack of initiative. He did have many proposals, but because he was dealing with a Congress that was very strong and composed of a Southern Democrats/Republican majority, he had a hard time. (Kilpatrick, 51) So proposals like federal aid to education, the creation of a Department of Urban Affairs, and Medicare were shot down. (Kilpatrick, 53). To drum up support for them, Kennedy had to convince the public and gain their support. Thats where Kennedys famous rhetoric comes in.

The talk may have later led the American public to support the mentioned roposals in the Johnson years, but in JFKs years they did nothing but make his critics say he was a lot of talk and no action. Yet John F. Kennedy did have some significant legislation passed through Congress, and even got accomplishments done around Congress back. One achievement is when John F. Kennedy formed the Peace Corps. (Sorensen, 256) Another was the giving of federal support to the arts, which was done through executive orders. (Kilpatrick, 54) Economically, his tax cut resonates in the policy of former President Reagan.

In fact, when tallying the recommendations Kennedy sent to the 87th Congress, of the 107 he sent 73 were enacted into law, with measures dealing with water pollution, mental health care, hospital construction, mental retardation, drug safety and medical schools. (Manchester, 227) In total, his biggest achievement was not in what was accomplished, but what was proposed. The critics might believe that passed legislation is the only indicator of political legacy, but in reality what is proposed can have profound effects.

His proposals on Medicare and programs like it might have lead to nothing in his term, but they did come to fruition in later Presidencies. Truthfully, one cannot say a man does not have a political legacy if he had proposed ideas, but they had not been passed, since those proposals can deeply influence later Congresses and Presidents through their ideas and insight into problems. One way President Kennedy has a true political legacy is in his use of Television in his campaign for in the Presidential Election of 1960. Back when Kennedy ran, it was an underutilized tool.

Kennedy brought out its potential. Through television, he was able to present himself to vast audiences that he could never have reached. Kennedy exploited the television ebate, first used in that election. Kennedy had poise, while also looking tanned and well rested, while his opponent, Richard Nixon, was sick and looked dreadful. Afterwards, during his presidency Kennedy effectively utilized the new medium to his advantage. He was the contemporary man, as he was called by Adlai Stevenson after Kennedys death. This was portrayed through TV in his vitality and youth. Schlesinger, 12)

It was said by William Manchester, Newspapermen and television commentators reported the progress of the new administration almost breathlessly. The televised news conferences were immensely popular. Remembering his first debate with Nixon, Jack became the first President to recognize and exploit the possibilities of TV. (Manchester, 135) His family became a center of public interest. Everyone wanted to know the name of his daughters horse or his sons latest escapade.

The television turned the presidential family into a mini soap opera, changing the way the Presidency would be looked at after it. Manchester, 250) This usage of television is seen today, from round the clock coverage of the president on television, to the media firestorm that surrounded President Clinton during the Lewinsky scandal. President Clinton is a byproduct of this usage of TV. He is a telegenic person who has used his mastery of the medium effectively to convince voters to vote for him. He also says that his idol President is John F. Kennedy. Throughout most of Americas history, the President had to appeal to the commoner to be elected.

That usually meant appearing commoner then the ordinary person. However, John. F. Kennedy did not hide his love of the high-life. He broke the mold and invited the creme de la creme to the White House, and entertained them with artists, poets, scientists, musicians, and scholars. The guests would eat gourmet ood, and then maybe see a ballet troupe perform, or perhaps they saw a Shakespeare company stage a play. Whatever it was, JFK broke new political ground, changing the perception of a President from a commoner to an intellectual. (Manchester, 156).

John F. Kennedy was a man of idealism, and his idealism changed the political landscape. He held that problems are man-made, and can be therefore solved by man. (Kennedy, 2) He was man who believed things of excellence could be achieved, no matter how hard they are to attain. (Sorenson, 256) Kennedy believed that it was the role of the President to gnite hope for decency, equality, reason and peace. (Sorenson, 257) In a speech at American University in 1963, President Kennedy said: What kind a peace do we seek? Not a Pax Americana enforced on he world by American weapons of war.

Not the peace of the grave or the security of a slave. I am talking about genuine peace, the kind of peace that makes life on earth worth living, the kind that enables men and nations to grow and to hope and to build a better life for their children not merely peace for Americans but peace for all men and women not merely peace in our time but peace for all time. Kennedy, 1) This kind of idealistic world vision that Kennedy was known for inspired millions, with him growing a loyal following of the younger generation of the time.

He told his fellow Americans to reexamine their attitudes towards peace and freedom. (Kennedy, 6) In fact, he was the one who inspired the youth of the 1960s to actually participate in the government and the world. He gave them an outlet, the Peace Corps, and gave them inspiration to change the world for the better, and therefore gained their votes. As Arthur Schlesinger Jr. said, He voiced the disquietude of the postwar generation . . (Schlesinger, 13). By using the youth to his political advantage, he ignited a chain of events that reverberates to this day.

It was the first generation that had grown up in an age when American innocence had died. (Schlesinger, 12) This volatile mixture of loss of innocence, youth and idealism lead to the SDS, Black Panthers, The Weatherman, Flower Power and other organizations or beliefs that had idealistic views. This is a true political legacy, because by him inciting the youth of the 60s to do better and . . . Ask what you can do for your country. Led this country down the path of the urbulent 60s, changing the dynamics of the countrys youth culture irreparably.

However valid the point of JFKs critics in reference to Kennedys flimsy legislation record, Kennedy does have a political legacy that is irrefutable. The idealism he gave to the youth of America, his mastery of the media, and his infusion of culture into the White House have left its mark politically in such a way that Presidents, Senators and congressmen can in no way escape it. John F. Kennedy does have a political legacy, and it is one that politicians must embrace or they will not be taken seriously by Americans.

Comparing The Murder of Duncan in Macbeth and The Assassination of Kennedy

There is a man who is a head of state. He is a very powerful man and is well liked by his subjects. The people love him. Then he is suddenly, inexplicably murdered. Someone is blamed for the murder, but the entire country knows the accused are innocent and are tools used in a cover-up. Does this situation sound bizarre? Does it sound like some work of fiction? Well, it is. It is the beginning of William Shakespeare’s Macbeth. However, it is much more than that. It is real life. It is the circumstances that surrounded one of the most surreal periods of time in United States history.

It is the situation surrounding the assassination of one of the US’s most revered Presidents, John F. Kennedy. These circumstances suggest that the events which occur in the play Macbeth are still possible. It is possible for the circumstances surrounding Macbeth to be repeated in modern day America because no protection provides absolute safety, some men are still willing to do what Macbeth did, and the ac t could still be covered up. No amount of protection provides absolute safety. In today’s world, it is easier than ever to kill someone. Any person can buy a cheap pistol and kill omeone.

It is also easier to kill without being caught. There are long range rifles and remote control explosives that can be used as the murder weapon while the actual perpetrator is far away. Also, it is easier than ever to find a professional assassin who will kill anyone for the right amount of money. These latter methods could allow a person to commit murder and easily get away with it. Even though the actual murderer may be caught, the person financing the operation could get away untouched. In Macbeth, Duncan was well protected by his guards. However, he was still murdered.

The guards were overcome through a simple trick. “The doors are open, and the surfeited grooms Do mock their charge with snores. I have drugged their possets… ” says Lady Macbeth. She had drugged their drinks, and instead of guarding Duncan, they were asleep. Macbeth was easily able to sneak past them and kill Duncan. Every precaution available had been taken to insure Duncan’s protection. It is not an easy task to get past two armed bodyguards in a cramped area. However, through some deceit, Macbeth was able to accomplish this. This reaffirms the statement that no protection is absolute.

Perhaps the best example that no protection is infallible occurs in the aforementioned situation involving President Kennedy. Kennedy was in a moving vehicle. There were two Secret Service men directly behind him and countless others in the crowd. Dallas Police Department officers were placed throughout the area. Dealy Plaza, the site of the tragedy, was crowded, with many obstructions such as trees, signs, and an overpass. Protection was tight. The day was beautiful. The sun was shining. The setting was not right for assassination. However, it still occurred.

Kennedy was killed and the entire nation stunned. There was a Secret Service agent very close, yet he was not able to stop the fatal bullet. The limousine driver did not speed up in time to get the President out of danger. The agents in the crowd were unable to prevent the deadly shots. With that many people, with all those pre-cautions, President Kennedy was still killed, proving that protection can be penetrated. Since the beginning of time, man has wanted power. It is in his basic nature. It is what drives him. The history of the world serves to prove this fact.

Adam and Eve wanted power equal to God’s so they ate the apple. Caesar struggled to become king and to gain power and was killed for his aspirations. Napoleon had much power. He used it to conquer half of Europe. Hitler craved power so badly he plunged the world into a war that preceded the detonation of the atomic bomb. Men crave power. Some of them, like Adam and Eve, were willing to sacrifice the perfect life to gain their power. They had no jobs, no wake-up calls. They didn’t even have to wear clothes! Yet they were willing to sacrifice all this for the chance that they would have power like God.

So we learn from the first story of the most popular book in the world that man is willing to trade perfection for more power. Macbeth loved power. Otherwise, he would never have murdered Duncan. Macbeth was willing to trade anything to be king. Macbeth was willing to “… jump the life to come. ” if he could kill Duncan and be done with it. He was willing to risk eternal damnation for a finite term as king of a small country on a small island in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. How much more tempting would it be for a man to kill to gain the position as the most powerful an in the world? The temptation would be tremendous.

Macbeth had second thoughts on Duncan’s murder going so far as to say “We will proceed no further in this business. ” He was persuaded to commit the murder after many arguments. He does this to satisfy his craving for power. The President of the United States is the most powerful man in the world today. This is why he is also in more danger than most people. The temptation for the Vice-President to kill the President would be great. Some say that this temptation has even been realized. When Kennedy was shot, it was only a matter f hours before Vice-President Lyndon Johnson was sworn into the vacant office.

Was it possible that Johnson had Kennedy killed? It is obvious that a massive cover-up was managed. The cover-up was arranged by someone in power. Who has more power than the President? Johnson could easily have arranged such a massive smoke-screen. Men have killed for less and Johnson was in a position to profit from the Presidency. He gained large sums of money from his construction company in Vietnam. It can be argued that Johnson prolonged the war purposely so he could reap more benefits from the war in Asia. Whatever happened, Johnson was rewarded with much power after the assassination of Kennedy.

Nobody wants to tell the truth if it might get them in trouble. A small child does something wrong, they will usually deny having done it. Teenagers often lie to cover-up their late night parties. Government officials lie to avoid scandals. They are all lies. The only difference is the complexity of the lie and the number of people affected by it. A small child cannot lie very well. Teenagers are somewhat better at it. However, they are mere amateurs compared to professional politicians. This is true for several reasons. Politicians have the means to pay people to lie for them.

Sometimes they can threaten to expose other’s embarrassing secrets if they do not cooperate. There are other techniques that these people use to hide the truth. However, the fact remains that the more powerful the person, the better the cover-up. Macbeth was reasonably able to conceal the murder of Duncan. He did this in textbook fashion. First, he found a scapegoat, Duncan’s guards. Lady Macbeth cast the suspicion on them by making sure “Their hand and faces were all badged with blood, So were their daggers, which unwiped we found Upon their illow.

Then Macbeth killed them, cutting off any chance they may have had of defending themselves, claiming “The expedition of my violent love Outrun the pauser of reason. ” He had provided the perfect patsy. They were covered with Duncan’s blood, as were their knives. It would have been difficult to defend themselves against this evidence even if they were still alive. But when they were dead, no defense could be offered and they were assumed guilty. So, if Macbeth had quit with this one murder, he would have gotten away with his crime with no consequences.

Who could have known that almost the same exact circumstances would be repeated some 800 years later. After President Kennedy was shot, there had to be a cover up. Someone had to shoulder the blame. Someone had to take the fall. Whether voluntarily or not, Lee Harvey Oswald was the man blamed with the murder of JFK. His palm-print was on the rifle that fired the fatal shot. He was seen leaving the building from which the shots supposedly came. Oswald was set up as the murderer from the beginning, the lone nut who killed the President. And like the fall guys in Macbeth, he was murdered before he was given a chance o defend himself.

This provides the perfect cover-up to be presented to the American people. Oswald acted alone. He was crazy. This provided a plausible motive and excluded any chance of a possible conspiracy scandal. The story presented to the American public fit perfectly into the psychological make-up that was supposedly Oswald. He was simply acting like he was supposed to and this explained the murder of Kennedy. In the years following the assassination, more truth about the event has surfaced, rendering the Oswald character impossible. The people orchestrating the Kennedy cover-up made the same mistake

Macbeth made. They were unwilling to leave their story alone. They tried to make themselves more secure by killing key witnesses and doctoring evidence, but what they believed would make them safer, most probably aroused suspicions and their entire story became unbelievable. The conspirators in both situations discredited their entire story by trying to secure themselves. Assassinating the President is a difficult thing to do. It doesn’t happen very often. However, it can be done. If a person plans the crime, and executes it according to plan, he can succeed in killing the President.

The protection afforded the President is tremendous but not infallible. Men are willing to commit this crime in order to gain power. If a proper cover-up is planned and executed, then it is effective. If all of these obstacles are overcome properly, a man can assume the Presidency while not one hint of blame is ever thrown his way. All of this has been proven in this paper. It is possible for the plot of Macbeth to be repeated in today’s world because no protection provides absolute security, men are still willing to do what Macbeth did, and the deed could still be covered up.

John F. Kennedy Life

In November 1960, at the age of 43, John F. Kennedy became the youngest man ever elected president of the United States. Theodore Roosevelt had become president at 42 when President William McKinley was assassinated, but he was not elected at that age. On Nov. 22, 1963, Kennedy was shot to death in Dallas, Tex. , the fourth United States president to die by an assassin’s bullet. Kennedy was the nation’s first Roman Catholic president. He was inaugurated in January 1961, succeeding Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. He defeated the Republican candidate, Vice-President Richard M. Nixon, by little more than 100,000 votes.

It was one of the closest elections in the nation’s history. Although Kennedy and his vice- presidential running mate, Lyndon B. Johnson, got less than half of the more than 68 million votes cast, they won the Electoral College vote. Kennedy thus became the 14th minority president. Because of the close vote, election results were challenged in many states. The official electoral vote was Kennedy 303, Nixon 219, and Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia 15. President Kennedy’s great-grandparents immigrated to the United States from Ireland in 1858. They settled in Boston, Mass.

His grandfathers, Patrick J. Kennedy and John F. Honey Fitz) Fitzgerald, were born there. Both men became influential in state politics. Honey Fitz served several terms as Boston’s mayor and as a member of the United States House of Representatives. Patrick Kennedy was a powerful ward boss and served in both houses of the Massachusetts legislature. Patrick’s son, Joseph, was a brilliant mathematician.

At the age of 25 he became the youngest bank president in the United States. His fortune continued to grow, and he was one of the few financiers to sense the stock market crash of 1929. He made hundreds of millions of dollars. Joseph married Rose Fitzgerald, daughter of Honey Fitz, on Oct. 1914. Their first child, Joseph, Jr. , was born in 1915. John was born on May 29, 1917. Seven other children followed: Rosemary, Kathleen, Eunice, Patricia, Robert, Jean, and Edward (called Teddy).

All were born in Brookline, Mass. , a suburb of Boston. Training Pays Off Joseph Kennedy, Sr. , set up a million-dollar trust fund for each of his children. This freed them from future financial worry and allowed them to devote their lives to public good, if they desired. As the children grew, their parents stressed the importance of competitive spirit. One of their father’s favorite mottoes was: Second place is a loser.

The drive to win was deeply embedded in the children, and they never did anything halfheartedly. Their parents were careful to neglect neither the intellectual nor the physical development of the children. As they grew older, the children would eat their evening meals in two groups, divided by age. Mr. and Mrs. Kennedy ate at both meals. This allowed them to discuss subjects which were of interest to each group. All the children attended dancing school while very young, and all, with the exception of Rosemary, loved sports activities. Rosemary did not take part in rough-and-tumble play.

The other children, however, thrived on it. Even when they were adults, one of their favorite pastimes was a rousing and often bruising game of touch football. On pleasant days, Mrs. Kennedy took her children for long walks. She made a point of taking them into church for a visit each day. I wanted them to form a habit of making God and religion a daily part of their lives, she said later in life. With this background, it was quite natural for John Kennedy and his brothers and sisters to excel in school and in sports. John attended public schools in Brookline. Later he entered private schools in Riverdale, N. Y. , and Wallingford, Conn. In 1935 and 1936 he studied at the London School of Economics.

Then he followed his older brother, Joe, into Harvard University. An excellent athlete, John was a star swimmer and a good golfer. His athletic activities, however, were cut down after he suffered a back injury in a Harvard football game. The injury was to plague him later in life. John and his older brother were very close. While a young boy, Joe said that someday he would be president of the United States. The family took him at his word. Of all the children Joe seemed the one most likely to enter the political field.

Joseph, Sr. , was named ambassador to Great Britain in 1937. John and his older brother then worked as international reporters for their father. John spent his summers in England and much of the rest of his time at Harvard. The brothers often traveled to distant parts of the world to observe events of international importance for their father. The clouds of World War II were hovering over Europe at that time. The senior Kennedy was a controversial ambassador. His candid remarks about the progress of the war in Europe earned him the disfavor of the English and of some of his countrymen in the United States.

His family returned home in 1939, and he followed the next year. John finished his studies at Harvard and was graduated with honors in 1940. Later that same year he did graduate work in economics at Stanford University. He also expanded a college thesis into a full-length book entitled ‘Why England Slept’. It dealt with England’s unpreparedness for World War II and was based on John’s own experiences while working for his father. The book became a best seller. A few months before the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in December 1941, John attempted to enlist in the United States Army.

His old back injury kept him from being accepted. After several months of exercise, he was granted a commission in the Navy. Eventually he became the commander of a torpedo boat and saw extensive action in the South Pacific. In August 1943, during a night action in the Solomon Islands, John’s torpedo boat was rammed and cut in half by a Japanese destroyer. The force of the collision threw him to the deck, reinjuring his back. Despite this, he gathered the ten members of his crew together. One of the crew members was so badly injured that he was unable to swim.

He was put into a life jacket. Kennedy gripped one of the jacket’s straps between his teeth and towed the man as the crew swam to a nearby island. It took them five hours to reach it. For his heroism, Kennedy was awarded the Navy and Marine Corps medal, the Purple Heart, and a citation. The back injury, however, put him out of action for the remainder of the war. Nearly one year after John’s narrow escape, Joe, Jr. , a Navy pilot, was killed when his plane exploded in the air over the English coast. To his brother’s memory John wrote ‘As We Remember Joe’, a collection of tributes.

In 1948 John’s sister Kathleen died in an airplane crash in the south of France. She was the widow of the marquess of Hartington of England. He too had been killed in action during World War II, while leading an infantry charge in Normandy, France. The death of his brother deeply affected John Kennedy. Before the war Joe had decided to carry on with his ambition to enter politics. This caused a certain degree of disappointment for John, because he too had considered that field. He felt, however, that one Kennedy in politics was enough and determined to become a newspaperman.

After his discharge from the Navy he worked for a short time as a correspondent for the Chicago Herald American and the International News Service. In 1946 he decided to enter politics. To the family this was the most natural thing for him to do. For his first target, Kennedy chose to try for a seat in the United States House of Representatives. He would represent the 11th Massachusetts Congressional District. His family rallied to his side as he began his campaign for the nomination. Because the 11th district was predominantly Democratic, the candidate for the office would have no trouble being elected once he had gained the nomination.

Kennedy and his family worked tirelessly. Their efforts, Kennedy’s own impressive war record, and his family’s political background greatly aided his campaign. He easily defeated eight other candidates running for the same nomination. In office, Kennedy quickly established himself as a moderately independent thinker. Occasionally he voted against proposed measures which had met with the approval of his own Democratic party. He was reelected in 1948 and 1950. An accomplished orator, the young congressman became a popular speaker. His back injury, however, continued to bother him.

He often appeared on the House floor and at speaking engagements supported by crutches. In 1946 he was named by the United States Chamber of Commerce as one of the nation’s outstanding men of the year. In 1952 Kennedy decided to run for the United States Senate. His opponent was Republican senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. Again the Kennedy family worked side by side to get John elected. Kennedy defeated Lodge by more than 70,000 votes. The victory was particularly impressive because across the rest of the nation Republican candidates were swept into office along with the landslide of votes for the new Republican president, Dwight D. Eisenhower.

In the Senate Kennedy had woolen textile tariffs raised and urged President Eisenhower to obtain an agreement with Japan to cut textile imports. The president agreed to do so. Kennedy helped pass several other measures important to Massachusetts’ textile industry. He also sponsored bills which improved his state’s conservation programs. One of the many committees Kennedy served on was the Select Committee of the Senate to Investigate Improper Activities in Labor-Management Relations. His younger brother Robert was chief legal counsel for this group.

The two Kennedys were frequently in the public eye in 1959 as the committee investigated racketeering among top labor union officials. John sponsored a labor bill which did a great deal to eliminate criminal practices in unions. Kennedy met his future wife, Jacqueline Lee Bouvier, at a Washington, D. C. , party shortly after his election to the Senate. Described as a cameo beauty, Jackie was the daughter of a Long Island family. At the time they met, she was a photographer and a pen-and-ink artist for a Washington, D. C. , newspaper. They were married on Sept. , 1953.

Their daughter, Caroline, was born in 1957. Their son, John Fitzgerald, was born on Nov. 25, 1960, 17 days after Kennedy was elected president of the United States. As wife of the president, Jackie became one of the most gracious and most beautiful White House hostesses. Jackie was born on July 28, 1929, at Southampton, Long Island. She attended several private American schools and the Sorbonne, in Paris, France. She was graduated from George Washington University, in Washington, D. C. Kennedy’s old back injury still gave him a great deal of pain.

Beginning in October 1954 he underwent a series of spinal operations. While he was recuperating in 1955 he decided to write a book he had been contemplating for several years. It was a series of portraits of eight of the most courageous senators in the nation’s history. Entitled ‘Profiles in Courage’, it became a best seller and won Kennedy the 1957 Pulitzer prize for biography. During his campaign for the 1960 Democratic nomination, Kennedy often began his speeches with this remark: Thanks for not voting for me in 1956. That was the year he barely missed being nominated vice-president on the Democratic ticket.

Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee, who won the nomination, and Adlai E. Stevenson, the presidential nominee, were defeated in the election. Had Kennedy won the nomination and been defeated in the election, his chances for the presidency might have been lost. Following the 1956 national election, Kennedy began an elaborate campaign for the 1960 Democratic presidential nomination. His popularity increased. In 1958 he was reelected to the Senate by a margin of some 874,000 votes, more than any other Massachusetts senator had ever received. His brother Robert managed John’s senatorial campaign.

In 1958 Teddy, the youngest of the Kennedy family, worked with Robert in managing John’s campaign for the Democratic nomination. In the early months of 1960 Kennedy entered and won seven primary elections across the nation. At the 1960 Democratic convention in Los Angeles he received his party’s nomination on the first ballot. During the campaign Kennedy and Vice-President Richard M. Nixon met in four nationally televised debates. It was generally conceded that these television appearances helped Kennedy more than Nixon. As Kennedy took office, cold-war tensions between Communist and Western nations increased.

Communist forces pushed into Laos and threatened South Vietnam. The new president pledged strong efforts to halt the spread of Communism. Toward this end, he created a Peace Corps of young Americans to work in underdeveloped countries. After the Soviets successfully launched the first man into outer space in April 1961, Kennedy asked for a greatly increased budget for space research. This new phase of the cold war was called the space race. The first United States manned space flight was in May. In the spring of 1961 the Bay of Pigs near Havana, Cuba, was invaded by opponents of Cuba’s Communist premier, Fidel Castro.

The rebels were defeated quickly. The invasion had been aided by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Kennedy was criticized by some for having approved the CIA’s support of the invasion. Others blamed him for the operation’s failure. Kennedy met with Premier Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union in Vienna in June to discuss the German question. The conference did not alter Communist goals. The Berlin Wall was built in August. At home Kennedy won Congressional approval of a number of his proposals, including greater social security benefits, a higher minimum wage, and aid to economically depressed areas in the country.

The 23rd Amendment to the Constitution was ratified early in Kennedy’s administration. It gave the residents of Washington, D. C. , the right to vote in presidential elections. In March 1961 Kennedy proposed an international economic development program for the Americas. The charter for the program, called the Alliance for Progress, was ratified in August by the Organization of American States (OAS) In March 1962 Kennedy used his influence to get a steel-industry wage settlement generally regarded as noninflationary. Early in April, however, several companies announced increases in their steel prices.

Kennedy reacted strongly. He exerted unusual pressure by shifting government orders to rival steel manufacturers and by threatening lawsuits against the companies that were attempting to raise their prices. Within four days the price increases were canceled. Kennedy’s most important legislative success of 1962 was the passage of the Trade Expansion Act. It gave the president broad powers, including authority to cut or eliminate tariffs. The act was designed to help the United States compete or trade with the European Economic Community (EEC) on equal terms. Kennedy’s medical care project was defeated in Congress.

Under this plan certain hospital expenses for most elderly persons would have been paid through the social security system. In October 1962 Kennedy faced the most serious international crisis of his administration. Aerial photographs proved that Soviet missile bases were being built in Cuba. Declaring this buildup a threat to the nations of the Western Hemisphere, Kennedy warned that any attack by Cuba would be regarded as an attack by the Soviets and the United States would retaliate against the Soviet Union. He also imposed a quarantine on ships bringing offensive weapons to Cuba.

Negotiations were carried on between the president and Khrushchev. By the end of November the missiles had been shipped back to the Soviet Union, the United States had lifted the quarantine, and the month-long crisis had abated. In 1963, clashes between the police and demonstrating blacks in Birmingham, Ala. , and elsewhere, especially in the South, induced the president to stress civil rights legislation. Kennedy’s new civil rights message included bills to ban discrimination in places of business; to speed up desegregation of public schools; and to end discrimination in the hiring of workers on federal construction projects.

An agreement to set up a Teletype link between Kennedy and Khrushchev was signed in June 1963. This limited, but promising, achievement was intended as a precaution against war by accident or miscalculation. The president also paid increasing attention to strengthening the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Visiting Europe early in the summer of 1963, he conferred with government leaders in West Germany, Italy, and Great Britain. In West Germany, the president pledged that United States military forces would remain on the European continent.

Kennedy also visited Ireland, from which his great-grandparents had emigrated to the United States. A limited nuclear test ban treaty was signed by representatives of the United States, the Soviet Union, and Britain in the summer of 1963. The agreement permitted underground nuclear tests, and signatory nations could withdraw after 90 days’ notice. Kennedy called the treaty a victory for mankind. Mrs. Kennedy gave birth to her second son, Patrick Bouvier, on Aug. 7, 1963. Born prematurely, the infant died after only 39 hours of life.

In November, looking forward to the 1964 presidential election, Kennedy made a political visit to Florida and Texas, the two most populous Southern states. His wife, Vice- President Johnson, and Mrs. Johnson accompanied him on the Texas trip. He had been warned that Texas might be hostile. In Dallas, only a month earlier, Adlai Stevenson, United States ambassador to the United Nations, had been spat upon and struck with a picket’s placard. In San Antonio, Houston, and Fort Worth, however, the crowds were friendly, and obviously delighted with the charming young Jacqueline Kennedy.

A large and enthusiastic crowd greeted the presidential party when it arrived at the Dallas airport on the morning of November 22. Along the route of the motorcade into downtown Dallas the people stood 10 to 12 deep, applauding warmly. Next to the president in the big open limousine sat his wife. In front of them, on jump seats, were John B. Connally, the governor of Texas, and his wife, Nellie. The third car in the procession carried Vice- President and Mrs. Johnson. As the cars approached a triple underpass, Mrs. Connally turned around and said, You can’t say Dallas doesn’t love you, Mr. President.

At that moment three shots rang out. The president, shot through the head and throat, slumped over into his wife’s lap. The second bullet hit Governor Connally, piercing his back, chest, wrist, and thigh. A reporter, glancing up, saw a rifle slowly disappear into a sixth-floor corner window of the Texas School Book Depository, a textbook warehouse overlooking the highway. It was 12:30 PM in Dallas. President Kennedy died in Parkland Memorial Hospital without regaining consciousness. The time of death was set at 1:00 PM. Governor Connally recovered from his multiple wounds.

Six minutes after the shooting, a description of a man seen leaving the textbook warehouse went out over the police radio. At 1:18 PM patrolman J. D. Tippit stopped and questioned a man who answered the description. The man shot him dead. At 1:35 PM Dallas police captured Lee Harvey Oswald in a motion-picture theater, where he had hidden after allegedly killing patrolman Tippit. Although a mass of circumstantial evidence, including ballistics tests, pointed to Oswald as the slayer of President Kennedy, the 24-year-old professed Marxist and Castro sympathizer never came to trial.

On Sunday, November 24, as he was being led across the basement of the City Hall for transfer to another prison, Jack Ruby (born Rubenstein), a Dallas nightclub owner, broke through a cordon of police and shot Oswald. The murder was committed in full view of television cameras as millions watched. The casket bearing Kennedy’s body was removed to the presidential jet plane, Air Force One, where Lyndon B. Johnson took the oath of office as president of the United States. Only 98 minutes had elapsed since Kennedy’s death. All that long afternoon and into the early morning of the next day, Mrs. Kennedy refused to leave her husband’s body.

Close by her side at all times after her return to Washington, D. C. , was her husband’s brother and closest adviser, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy. Mrs. Kennedy carefully directed the details of the funeral, consulting with historians as to the traditional burial procedures for other presidents who had died in office. The body lay in repose for a day in the East Room of the White House. On November 24, in a solemn procession to the slow beat of muffled drums, the casket was removed to the rotunda of the Capitol and placed on the catafalque which had borne President Abraham Lincoln’s casket.

The following day the funeral procession moved from the Capitol to the White House and then to St. Matthew’s Cathedral. Here Richard Cardinal Cushing, Roman Catholic archbishop of Boston, celebrated Low Mass. From the White House to the cathedral, Mrs. Kennedy walked in the procession between her husband’s brothers, Robert and Edward. In a scene unduplicated in history, 220 foreign leaders followed them. Burial was at Arlington National Cemetery, on a hillside overlooking the Potomac and the city of Washington. At the conclusion of the service Mrs. Kennedy lighted an eternal flame at the grave.

Two Kennedy infants were later reburied on either side of their father. They were Patrick Bouvier and an unnamed daughter who was stillborn in 1956. On June 8, 1968, the Kennedy family and a host of other mourners again gathered at the Kennedy grave site-this time for the burial of Robert F. Kennedy. The president’s brother, who had become a United States senator, was shot on June 5 in Los Angeles, Calif. , while campaigning for the Democratic presidential nomination. He died on June 6 of brain damage. Sirhan Bishara Sirhan, a Jordanian immigrant who was seized at the scene of the shooting, was eventually indicted for the murder.

For the second time President Johnson declared a day of mourning for a Kennedy. Many of the same Americans who honored Robert Kennedy’s memory on June 9, 1968, were sadly reminded of an earlier day of mourning. In his proclamation declaring Nov. 25, 1963, a National Day of Mourning for John Kennedy, President Johnson paid this tribute to the slain president, quoting in conclusion from Kennedy’s inaugural address of January 1960: As he did not shrink from his responsibilities, but welcomed them, so he would not have us shrink from carrying on his work beyond this hour of national tragedy.

He said it himself: ‘The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it–and the glow from that fire can truly light the world’. On Nov. 29, 1963, President Johnson created the President’s Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy to investigate and report on the facts relating to the tragedy. It functioned neither as a court nor as a prosecutor. Chief Justice Earl Warren was appointed chairman.

Other members of the bipartisan commission were Senators Richard B. Russell of Georgia and John Sherman Cooper of Kentucky, Representatives Hale Boggs of Louisiana and Gerald R. Ford of Michigan, Allen W. Dulles, and John J. McCloy. J. Lee Rankin was the general counsel. The report was published on Sept. 24, 1964. Since Oswald was unable to stand trial and defend himself, and in fairness to him and his family, the commission requested Walter E. Craig, president of the American Bar Association, to participate in the investigation and to advise the commission whether the proceedings conformed to the basic principles of American justice.

The commission found that the shots that killed President Kennedy and wounded Governor Connally were fired by Lee Harvey Oswald. There was no evidence at that time that either Oswald or Jack Ruby was part of any conspiracy, domestic or foreign, to assassinate President Kennedy. No direct or indirect relationship between Oswald and Jack Ruby had been uncovered. On the basis of the evidence before it, the commission concluded that Oswald acted alone. Despite the findings of the commission, conspiracy theories persisted for decades.

The commission criticized both the Secret Service and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Some of the advance preparations and security measures in Dallas made by the Secret Service were found to have been deficient. In addition, though the FBI had obtained considerable information about Oswald, it had no official responsibility to refer this information to the Secret Service. A more carefully coordinated treatment of the Oswald case by the FBI might well have resulted in bringing Oswald’s activities to the attention of the Secret Service, the report stated.

The commission made suggestions for improved protective measures of the Secret Service and better liaison with the FBI, the Department of State, and other federal agencies. Other recommendations were: That a committee of Cabinet members, or the National Security Council, should review and oversee the protective activities of the Secret Service and other agencies that help safeguard the president. That Congress adopt legislation that would make the assassination of the president and vice-president a federal crime.

JFK Life and Death

His Life and Legacy On November 22, 1963, while being driven through the streets of Dallas, Texas, in his open car, President John F. Kennedy was shot dead, allegedly by the lone gunman, Lee Harvey Oswald. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th President of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected President, the first Roman Catholic and the first to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as President therefore his achievements were limited.

Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented the United States from entering into another world war. The world had not only lost a common man, but a great leader of men. From his heroic actions in World War II to his presidency, making the decisions to avert possible nuclear conflict with world superpowers, greatness can be seen. Kennedy also found the time to author several best-selling novels from his experiences. His symbolic figure represented all the charm, vigor and optimism of youth as he led a nation into a new era of prosperity.

From his birth into the powerful and influential Kennedy clan, much was to be expected of him. Kennedy was born on May 29,1917 in Brookline, Massachusetts. His father, Joe, Sr. , was a successful businessman with many political connections. Appointed by President Roosevelt, Joe, Sr. , was given the chair of the Securities and Exchange Commission and later the prestigious position of United States ambassador to Great Britain (Anderson 98). His mother, Rose, was a loving housewife and took young John on frequent trips around historic Boston learning about American Revolutionary history.

Both parents impressed on their children that their country had been good to the Kennedys. Performing some service for the country must return whatever benefits the family received from the country they were told. (Anderson 12). The Kennedy clan included Joe, Jr. , Bobby, Ted and their sisters, Eunice, Jean, Patricia, Rosemary, and Kathleen. Joe, Jr. , was a significant figure in young John’s life as he was the figure for most of John’s admiration. His older brother was much bigger and stronger than John and took it upon himself to be John’s coach and protector.

John’s childhood was full of sports, fun and activity. This all ended when John grew old enough to leave for school. At the age of thirteen, John left home to attend an away school for the first time. Canterbury School, a boarding school in New Milford, Connecticut and Choate Preparatory in Wallingford, Connecticut completed his elementary education (“JFK” 98). John graduated in 1934 and was promised a trip to London as a graduation gift. Soon after, John became ill with jaundice and would have to go to the hospital. He spent the rest of the summer trying to recover.

He was not entirely well when he started Princeton, several weeks later in the fall of 1935. Around Christmas the jaundice returned and John had to drop out of school. Before the next school year began, he told his father he wanted to go to Harvard (“JFK” 98). On campus, young people took interest in politics, social changes, and events in Europe. The United States was pulling out of the Great Depression. Hitler’s Nazi Germany followed aggressive territorial expansion in Europe. It was at this time that John first became aware of the vast social and economic differences in the United States.

In June 1940, John graduated cum laude (with praise or distinction) from Harvard. His thesis earned a magna cum laude (great praise) ( “JFK” 98). After graduation, John began to send his paper to publishers, and it was accepted on his second try. Wilfrid Funk published it under the title Why England Slept. It became a bestseller. John, at twenty-five, became a literary sensation. In the spring of 1941, both John and Joe, Jr. , decided to enroll in the armed services. Joe was accepted as a naval air cadet but John was turned down by both the army and navy because of his back trouble and history of illness (“JFK” 98).

After months of training and conditioning, John reapplied and on September 19, John was accepted into the navy as a desk clerk in Washington. He was disgusted and applied for a transfer. In June 1941, Kennedy was sent to Naval Officers Training School at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois and then for additional training at the Motor Torpedo Boat Center at Melville, Rhode Island. In late April 1943, Lieutenant John F. Kennedy was put in command of a PT 109, a fast, light, attack craft in the Solomon Islands in the South Pacific.

Kennedy saw action in the form of night patrols and participated in enemy bombings. On August 1, 1943, during a routine night patrol, a Japanese destroyer collided in the darkness with Kennedy’s craft and the PT 109 was sunk. Through superhuman effort, the injured Kennedy heroically swam back and forth rescuing his wounded crew. Two were killed in the crash. The injury had once again aggravated his back. Still, Kennedy pushed on swimming from island to island in the South Pacific hoping for a patrol to come by. The lieutenant had no idea he had been in the water for eight hours.

Finally, an island was spotted that could have provided cover from Japanese planes. With no edible plants or water, Kennedy realized that he and the crew must move on. The next day, he once again attempted to search for rescue. After treading water for hours, the lieutenant was forced to admit no patrol boats were coming. He turned back for the island but was swept away by a powerful current. Kennedy collapsed on an island and slept. He recovered enough energy to return to the island and gathered the crew to move to another island in search of food.

JFK was now desperate enough to seek help from natives on a Japanese controlled island. After making contact with the natives, Kennedy persuaded the natives to deliver a message written on the back of a coconut shell to allied forces. The coconut fell into the hands of allied scouts and a patrol was sent. The coconut would appear again on the desk of an American President (Anderson 35). The crew of the PT 109 was given a hero’s welcome when they returned to base, but Kennedy would have none of it. He refused home leave and was given another boat.

In constant pain from the back injury, JFK soon contracted malaria, became very ill, and lost twenty-five pounds. He was forced to give up command and was sent home to Chelsea Naval Hospital near Hyannis Port. The lieutenant received the Purple Heart, the Navy and Marine Corps Medal, and a citation from Admiral W. F. Halsey. John’s back failed to recover was an operation was performed on his spine in the summer of 1944. During recovery, Kennedy received word that his brother Joe, Jr. had been killed in action. Joe had been eligible for home leave, but had volunteered for a special bombing mission.

The bombs had detonated early and Joe and his copilot were caught in the explosion. Kennedy put his feelings onto paper and a second book was published for the family and close friends. He called it As We Remember Joe. The family- particularly JFK’s father- had assumed that Joe, Jr. would carry on the family tradition and go into politics. Both of his grandfathers had been active in politics (Anderson 41). Now, suddenly, JFK was the oldest Kennedy of his generation. Kennedy’s first chance in politics came when Congressman James Curley from the 11th District of Massachusetts decided to retire in 1946 (Gadney 42).

JFK won his first Congressional seat by a margin of more than two to one. At the age if twenty-nine, JFK was placed on the front page of the New York Times and in Time Magazine. He was often mistaken in Congress as a Senate page or an elevator operator. It was during this time period in which Kennedy met and fell in love with Jacqueline Bouvier. “Jackie”, as she was known, came from a wealthy Catholic background as prestigious as the Kennedys. She attended Vassar College and the Sorbonne in Paris, France. She spoke French, Italian, and Spanish fluently.

They were wed on September 12,1953, at St. Mary’s Catholic Church in Newport, Rhode Island. All seemed well, yet after three two-year terms as a Congressman, Kennedy became frustrated with House rules and customs and decided to run for Senate. In 1952, Kennedy ran for Senate against Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. Fifteen years older than Kennedy, Lodge was the incumbent of two terms in the Senate. JFK prevailed in the victory but was soon stricken with Addison’s disease during his first year in the Senate and had to operate on a fifty-fifty chance for survival procedure (Gadney 52).

While recovering, Kennedy wrote Profiles in Courage, a bestseller on examples of moral courage in the lives of eight senators who risked their careers for a great cause or a belief. Kennedy returned to Senate and participated in the powerful Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He was also chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Labor. JFK believed strongly in education, equal job opportunity, and the civil rights movement. His biggest success came in the form of his Labor Reform Bill, which passed by a margin of 90 to 1 in Senate debate. Kennedy’s first child, Caroline, was born during this time.

Due to his enormous success in Congress, the Democratic Party nominated him for the presidential ticket in 1960. Lyndon Johnson was chosen as the running mate with Kennedy to secure and build upon the democratic bases in the southern states while the Kennedys sought out the younger voters, the factory workers, and the liberals (Gadney 61). During the Kennedy Administration, a great deal of events was going on. Jackie had given birth to JFK, Jr. , while all over the south, the civil rights movement was going in full force with incidents breaking out.

Specific attention gathered around a black air force veteran, James Meredith, applied for admission to the University of Mississippi. In Cuba both the Bay of Pigs occurred, in which U. S. supported rebels revolted in a poorly laid out plan of events that fell out beneath them, and the Cuban Missile Crisis in which the Soviet Republic were building missile silos in Cuba, 100 miles away from Florida. The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly in the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and his advisors.

The fall out from the invasion caused a rise in tension between the two great superpowers and ironically 34 years after the event, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel Castro, is still in power. The Space Race was in full force with both Russia and the U. S. in competition to reach the moon. U. S. involvement in Vietnam was in the latter stages with plans to withdraw after the 1964 election. On a trip to Dallas to stir up support for the re-election, the President’s autos were coming down Elm Street when three shots rang out. The first projectile entered at the base of Kennedy’s neck and exited through the back of his head.

The second bullet hit Texas Governor John Connally. Seconds later there was another shot and the back of the president’s head was torn away. The “assassin” Lee Harvey Oswald with a mail-order rifle, fired from the Texas School Book Depository (Warren 5). He then promptly and calmly exited the building approximately three minutes after the first shot was fired. He was picked up later at a Texas movie theatre with little resistance. Oswald had recently applied for a passport to Communist Russia, which led to a series of private meetings between Oswald and the Russian Government (Warren 614). Oswald protested his innocence.

President Johnson set up what quickly became known as the Warren Commission headed by Chief Justice Warren to find the motive behind the assassination; The Commission finds the lone, depressed, mentally unstable, anti-social nut kills an American president. On the Morning of November 22, 1963 at approximately 12:25 the presidential motorcade turned right from Houston St. on to Elm St. Their speed was approximately 11 miles per hour. President Kennedy had ordered the Secret Service to ride on the car boards on the car behind him. He made this decision so that the public would be able to see him better and show that he trusted the public.

At exactly 12:30 while Kennedy waved to the crowd a shot fired out. He was hit in his neck, a shot that was fired approximately five seconds after the first struck him in his head and tore a piece of his skull off. Governor Connally who rode in the same car in front of the president sustained wounds on his back, right side of his chest, right wrist and left thigh. Orders were then given for the limousine to speed up to the hospital. President Kennedy was pronounced dead at approximately 1:00 pm. Now the question remained. What were the reasons for the president’s assassination?

The assassination plot could have been organized by one of many factions, such as the Cubans or the Russians, the Mob, someone upset with his civil rights policies, or maybe an inside job by a special agency. The plot was a deep and complex issue that involved many factions. More theories were offered when Oswald’s ties to the CIA and his ties to Russian special agencies were exposed. Around October 1959, Oswald applied for Russian citizenship.

While in Russia he went to the U. S. Embassy in Moscow where he denounced the United States, Praised the Soviet Union, and stated that he wanted to renounce his U. S. citizenship. He also made another very dramatic announcement: he stated that he had offered to give the Soviets radar secrets that he had learned in the Marines. He told them ominously that he “might know something of special interest,” an obvious reference to the U-2 spy plane which he had observed while in the service (Melanson 13). It was later noted that Oswald was working under an operative program for the CIA and was a double agent against the KGB. After his assignment was completed he was given $435 by the state department to get home.

Whatever Oswald’s reason for pulling one of the triggers against President Kennedy, it certainly involved a political agenda behind it. Other theories have evolved over time such as the Grassy Knoll theory. Witnesses say that a man in black was present and fired simultaneously with Oswald and doubled considerable connections and plotted revenge. On Nov. 24, 1963 as Oswald was being escorted from the city jail, nightclub owner Jack Ruby shot Oswald with a single shot from a Colt . 38 revolver. Ruby was arrested and stood trial in Dallas. He was found guilty and was sentenced to hang. He died in jail of cancer, on January 3,1968.

Kennedy was the first President to be born in the twentieth century and was very much a man of his time. He was restless, seeking, with a thirst of knowledge, and he had a feeling of deep commitment, not only to the people of the United States, but also to the peoples of the world. Many of the causes he fought for exist today because of what he did for the rights of minorities, the poor, the very old and the very young. He never took anything for granted and worked for everything he owned. Perhaps Kennedy summed up his life best in his own inaugural speech: “Ask not what your country can do for you, but ask what you can do for your country. “

Presidential Biography of JFK

John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917 in the Boston suburb of Brookline. Kennedy was the son of Joseph P. Kennedy a formerambassador to Great Britain. Kennedy was much like his father, possesing a delightful sense of humor, a strong family loyalty, a concern for the state of the nation, endless vitality and a constant air of confidence no matter how dire the situation (Kennedy, Sorensen, Harper & Row, New York 1965, Page 18). Growing up in a priviliged household and graduating with honors from Harvard.

He served as an assistant to his father (1938), naval officer (1941-1945), journalist (1941 and 945) and Congressman (1947-1953), he had traveled to every major continent and talked with the presidents and prime ministers, of some thirty-seven countries. In 1952 he was elected to the United States Senate and in 1953 he married Jaqueline Bouvier. However one year later a spinal operation brought him to the edge of deaths door, causing him to deeply reflect on his character (Sorensen 28). After his dangerous operation he researched and wrote a book, about democracy.

The next year narrowly missing the Vice Presidential nomination of his party, Kennedy emerged as a national figure in large demand. John Kennedy was not one of the Senates great leaders (Sorensen 43). Very few laws of great importance bear his name. Even after his initial traditionally inactive freshman year in the Senate, his chances for major contributions to the Senate excluding his stances on fair labor reform and against rackets, were constantly diminished of his Presidential campaign. His voting record reflects his open minded views, and strengthed beliefs. He was well liked and respected by many Senators.

Kennedy was regarded for his eagerness and cool logic in debate situations His only real enemy was Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin (Sorensen 45). McCarthys rough and wide-ranging hunts for Red, pinks and headlines had stomped on the freedoms of people who had not committed a crime, and Kennedy was too rational and reasonable a man to remain indiferent to the extremism known as Mcarthyism. Kennedy often was a thorn in McCarthys side obstructing many of McCarthys personal choices for various offices and by serving on certain committies of which McCarthy was chairman, such as the Government Operations Committee (Sorensen 46).

Kennedys political philosophy revoloved around the idea that one could not allow the pressures of party responisbility to cloud ones personal responsibility. Meaning after all was said and done that the decision falls upon yourself to make the choice regardless of what your party platform was. Of course the platfrom had significant merit, nevertheless it still came down to the individual. Democrats, he said, generally had more heart, more foresight and more energy. They were not satisfied with things as they were and believed they could make them better (Sorensen 71).

John F. Kennedy wanted someday to be President of the United States (Sorensen 95). Not becuase he was dissatisfied with his life as a Senator nor because he possessed some grand scheme for the future of America. He merely felt that it was the center of action of the American System. at least you have an opportunity to do something about all the probelms which. . . I would be concerned about [anyway] as a father or as a citizen. . . and if what you do is useful and succesful, then . . . that is a great satisfaction (Sorensen 95).

Before the election of 1960 Kennedy used the result of his newfound celebrity status to do a bit of travelling across the country. Convering more than thirty thousand miles in twenty-four states, he made over 150 speeches and appearances in the course of six weeks. He spoke to various conventions, varying from ivic to labor, farmer to youth. However his senatorial duties enabled him to accept less than 4 percent of the hundreds of invitations that poured into his office, mainly consisting of important Democratic canidates or fund-raising dinner chairmen.

As the years progressed the fact materialized that his hard work had finally begun to pay off. His audiences had became larger and even more enthusiastic. Therefore at 12:30 P. M. , on Saturday, January 2, Senator John Fitzgerald Kennedy walked into a crowded press conference and read a one-page declaration of his candidacy for the Presidency (Sorensen 122). I am announcing today my candidacy for the Presidency of the United States. . . . In the past forty months, I have toured every state in the Union and I have talked to Democrats in all walks of life.

My candidacy is therefore based on the conviction that I can win both the nomination and the election (Sorensen 122). Kennedys campaign opened on a low note, polls showed that Nixon was far better known than Kennedy on the basis of his national office and four nationwide campaigns; that Nixon was looked upon as more experienced; and that Kennedy was known primarily as a wealthy, inexperienced, youthful Catholic. The Democrats were in a state of division, while Nixon had successfully rallied the Republicans.

Kennedy took the this time to organized himself and manifest support for his campaign run, through a steady onlslaught of speeches, and meetings Kennedy seemed almost to thrive (Sorensen 178). Focusingnot on singular issues but instead Kennedy expressed his discontent with Americas current situation, he insisted that we could do better. Kennedy indeed won the election by a very narrow margin, so narrow that the victory could almost be attributed to any list of decisive factors. However there are seven that prominantly stick out. The Television Debates.

At this point in American history this was the most televised campaign ever and Kennedys vitality and knowledge appealed to millions of voters who probably would have simply acknowledged him as too inexperienced and young. One survey showed that four million voters made up their minds simply by the debates, giving Kennedy a three-to-one margin (Sorensen 213). Campaign Tactics. Kennedys vigorous, intensified campaign style was aggressive from the start instilling a feeling of unreached potential. His tactics enabled him to swing many undecided voters and probably even more if time had permitted (Sorensen 214).

Party Identification. Kennedy appealed frequently and aggressively to party unity, loyalty, and history. His party was the majority party in terms of Senators, Congressmen, governors, and mayors, this allowed for heavy organization and heavy registration of voters. Nearly seven million more people that the amount that voted four years earlier. Black Relations. Kennedys concerned call to the wife of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was hailed throughout the black community, which thenproceeded to vote overwhelmingly for Kennedy.

Do to length constraints the paper will jump ahead to focus on one example of the Presidents response to a domestic issue and the Presidents view on foreign policy. The Fight For Equal Rights (Sorensen 470). In 1953 John Kennedy was adamantly in favor of civil rights legislation as a political neccessity and simply recognized that this legislation was morally correct. However in 1963 Kennedy was deeply committed to human rights. His convictions on this subject were not converted, but instead reached by his characteristic gradualness, logic, and cool mentality.

He immediately began to implement programs that would incorporate a stronger black prescence in the legislative and judical branches of government. However an element that was seriously lacking were civil rights measures. No amount of Presidential pressure could put through the Eighty-seventh Congress a meaningful legislative package on civil rights (Sorensen 476). Kennedy responded to his situation at a press conference by saying, when I feel that there is a necessity for Congressional action, with a chance of getting that Congressional action, then I will recommend it (Sorensen 476).

Nevertheless Kennedy pushed and pushed first through legislation aimed at massive registration to massive desegregation. Executive orders barred segregation or descrimination in the rmed forces Reserves, in the training of civil defense workers, in the off-base treatment of military personnel, in Federally aided libraries and in the summer college training institutes of the National Science Foundation and National Defense Education Act. The Olive Branch (Sorensen 509).

John Kennedys approach to foreign affairs was very different from his approach to domestic problems, this was because foreign affairs had always appealed to him far more than domestic. They took up a great deal more of his time and energy as President. They severely tested his abilities of execution and udgement, and his ability to react to consistent unforeseeable events.

The following two quotes are one of many that sum up his opinion on foreign policy, Let us never negotiate out of fear, but let us never fear to negotiate and We must face up to the chance of war, if we are to maintain the peace. . . Diplomacy and defense are not substitutes for one another. . . . A willingness to resist force, unaccompained by a willing to talk, could prevoke belligerence–while a willingness to talk, unaccompanied by a willingness to resist force, could invite disaster. . . . While we shall negotiate freely, we shall not negotiate freedom. . . In short, we are neither warmongers nor appeasers, neither hard nor soft. We are Americans (Sorensen 511) The President faced many crisises whether domestic or foreign.

He was forced to deal with the escalating Cold War, the Cuban Missle Crisis, Civil Rights, Recession and Inflation. With each issue he faced he responded with dilligence, careful thought and decisive action. Throught every scenario he faced from election to the Senate to the Presidential campaign he was able to expand his ideas and maintain a healthy open attitude. That was the shock of November, 1963. Jack Kennedy was living at his peak. Almost everything seemed to be moving in his direction. He was healthy, respected, and looking forward to the comepletion of his first term and start of his second term.

To suddenly be cut off is not simply a loss, but a loss of what could have been. In less than three years he presided over a new era in American race relations, a new era in our a Latin-American relations, a new era in fiscal and economic policy and a new era in the exploration of space. His Presidency helped launch the longest and strongest period of economic expansion for that period of time, and new and enlarged roles for the Federal Government in higher education, mental affliction, civil rights, and the conservation of human and natural resources.

If I was to rate the president I would conclude that since he was the first Executive power to back the civil rights movement and such that he was indeed a great president. A man far greater than the legend he left us who truly believed that one man could make a difference. I feel that what makes him such a great president is what he stood for, hope in an era of doubt, public service ahead of private interests, for reconciliation between black and white, labor and management. His sole defense for such rating are his actions and his beliefs.

I have to admit that before this report I really knew nothing of J. F. K. Of course I knew of his assassination but of his legislative and executive work I knew absolutely nothing except for the work he did for civil rights which my father informed me of at an early age. However now I feel a great deal more informed and I found his life rather interesting. If he had not of died he would be around 86 this year and most likely still very active in the Senate or some form of political office. Interesting to note the effect his wisdom and advice could have affected the way the United States is now today.

John F. Kennedy – A thousand days

John F. Kennedy was destined to be president of the United States. He would rather mold history than let history mold itself. John Kennedy was born in Brookline, MA in 1917. His mother was Irish and his father was a graduate of Harvard University and had entered the business world. After their arrival as immigrants, John’s grandparents entered politics. John had attended four different schools before attending Harvard. He first attended Dexter School in Brookline where he played football. He was then enrolled at the Riverdale Country Day School in Bronxville, NY because his father had moved for business reason.

He had also attended the Canterbury School in New Milford, MA and then he spent his secondary school years at Choate in Wallingford, CT. As a student, Kennedy was average. He had potential of a great intellect and had a capacity to learn but he failed to apply himself. Therefore, he was happy as a B student. In 1946, JFK started down the road mapped out for him by his father. Since Kennedy was more of a scholar than a politician, it wasn’t easy when he ran for Congress from Massachusetts’ 11th district. Since his family was well known, he fit right in. He served in the House of Representatives for six years.

Then in 1952, he ran for the Senate against Henry Cabot Lodge. He won and then began to capture the eyes of men in the Democratic Party. In 1956 he decided to run as the Democratic Vice Presidential nominee, but he lost to the Senator of Tennessee. His effort, however, earned him national prominence, exactly what he wanted. In 1960 he won the Democratic Presidential Contest. From that time on JFK had developed into one of the most effective speakers in the history of the presidency. While a junior member of the Senate in 1952, Kennedy me Jacquelin Lee Bouvier, who was working as a photographer for the Washington Times Herald.

On September 12, 1953, they married in Hyannis Port on Cape Cod. Although Kennedy was not born a politician, he learned the trade fast. His quest for presidency started in 1959. His campaign was a very exhausting experience for him. He had planned early on that he would “cover everything, do everything and see everyone. ” The highlight of the 1960 Presidential Campaign was the series of four television debates between Kennedy and his opponent, Richard M. Nixon. Even off screen, Kennedy had a way of turning the debates to his advantage. When the ratings were in, Kennedy had clearly passed up his opponent by a considerable margin.

Many experts believe that his appearance on television was the key factor in winning most of the votes. They said that Nixon came off poorly and even looked poorly. When all the speeches were over, Kennedy returned to Boston to cast his vote at the West End Branch Library. Within a few hours it was clear that Kennedy had been elected to do one of the most demanding jobs in the world. John Kennedy had two children, Caroline and John Jr. Mrs. Kennedy tried very hard to keep them out of the spotlight because she was afraid that it would have an adverse effect on their development. John Jr. loved to hang out in his father’s office.

John always found time to spend with his family. It was very rare that he didn’t unless there was a very hectic issue he had to deal with as president. While the children were cared for much of the time by Maud Shaw, their private nurse, Mrs. Kennedy would take over whenever time allowed. More than anything else, the children of John Kennedy served to personalize and humanize the man. Scenes of the president playing with his children, carrying their teddy bears, listening to their problems and caring for their needs were deeply moving scenes. And when he died, Caroline and John were not yet old enough to understand.

Someday they will and they, more than anyone, will be able to remember the human side of the man who worked so long and hard for his country. Maybe Caroline summed it up when she once said, “That’s not the president, that’s my daddy. ” Jackie Kennedy was the daughter of a New York banker, John Bouvier and Mrs. Hugh D. Auchincloss of Georgetown. Following a liberal arts education in American schools, Jackie went to Paris to study at the Sorbonne. Just after meeting John Kennedy when she was a freshman senator, she took a job as a photographer and reporter with a Washington Newspaper.

She interviewed and wrote about many of the leading political figures. As husband and wife, John and Jackie were very compatible. Each nurtured a deep appreciation and trust of the other and each held the other’s view of life in deep respect. But as John’s political career rose, she had begun to realize that she wanted the quiet life she had always dreamed of. Above all, she wanted privacy, for herself and for her children. She knew that as the presidency grew her dream would become farther away. As a one-time journalist she understood all this, yet she couldn’t stop it completely without hurting her husband’s career.

Because of this she adjusted. She protected her children from the prying cameras of the professionals and the tourists as much as possible. November 22, 1963 started out promisingly under Texas skies. Air Force 1, the presidential jet, landed at Dallas’ Love Field at 11:37 a. m. The President was touring the Lone Star State for political reasons. JFK got off the plane, got into his limo and was on his way to a luncheon at the Trade Mart and was lead by cops. Many teenage girls were holding signs wanting to shake the president’s hand. At this point he had less than 15 minutes to live.

While going by the Texas Book Depository Building he had less than a minute to live. Within the next minute, three explosions could be heard and John F. Kennedy fell wounded into his wife’s arms. The Texas Governor, John Connally, who was with Kennedy, was seriously wounded. Then the presidential limo rushed Kennedy three miles to the Parkland Hospital. A team of doctors tried to bring back his life but it had already vanished. Police and secret service agents rushed toward the Texas Book Depository, believing that the shots had been fired from there. People were showing their great sympathy to Jackie who lay by her husband’s side.

Kennedy was dead instantly. Many countries like France, England, Germany, Ireland, and Italy, which had all been visited by Kennedy, the people wept. On Monday, November 25, 1963, John F. Kennedy was laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery, with full military honors, and with many of the world’s leaders in attendance. His widow stood by, courageous to the end, and he would have admired that, for as brother, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, noted afterward, courage was the virtue that John F. Kennedy admired most. And courage was clearly the stuff that John F. Kennedy was made of.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy, president of the United States

John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected president. He was also the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president. Therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented war. Young people especially liked him. No other president was so popular. He brought to the presidency an awareness of the cultural and historical traditions of the United States.

Because Kennedy expressed the values of 20th-century America, his presidency was important beyond its political achievements. John Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts. He was the second of nine children. Kennedy announced his candidacy early in 1960. By the time the Democratic National Convention opened in July, he had won seven primary victories. His most important had been in West Virginia, where he proved that a Roman Catholic could win in a predominantly Protestant state. When the convention opened, it appeared that Kennedy’s only serious challenge for the nomination would come from the Senate majority leader, Lyndon B.

Johnson of Texas. However, Johnson was strong only among Southern delegates. Kennedy won the nomination on the first ballot and then persuaded Johnson to become his running mate. Two weeks later the Republicans nominated Vice President Richard Nixon for president and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. , who was ambassador to the United Nations and whom Kennedy had defeated for the Senate in 1952, for vice president. In the fast-paced campaign that followed, Kennedy made stops in 46 states and 273 cities and towns, while Nixon visited every state and 170 urban areas.

Another important element of the campaign was the support Kennedy received from blacks in important Northern states, especially Illinois and Pennsylvania. They supported him in part because he and Robert Kennedy had tried to get the release of the civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. King, who had been jailed for taking part in a civil rights demonstration in Georgia, was released soon afterward. The election drew a record 69 million voters to the polls, but Kennedy won by only 113,000 votes. Kennedy was inaugurated on January 20, 1961.

In his inaugural address he emphasized America’s revolutionary heritage. 2″The same … beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe,” Kennedy said. 3″Let the word go forth from this time and place to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans-born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage-and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.

Kennedy challenged Americans to assume the burden of “defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. ” The words of his address were, 4″Ask not what your country can do for you-ask what you can do for your country. ” Kennedy sought with considerable success to attract brilliant young people to government service. His hope was to bring new ideas and new methods into the executive branch. As a result many of his advisers were teachers and scholars. Among them were McGeorge Bundy and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. , both graduates of Harvard.

Kennedy’s most influential adviser was Theodore C. Sorenson, a member of Kennedy’s staff since his days in the Senate. Sorenson wrote many of Kennedy’s speeches and exerted a strong influence on Kennedy’s development as a political liberal, 5 a person who believes that the government should directly help people to overcome poverty or social discrimination. The president and Mrs. Kennedy attempted to make the White House the cultural center of the nation. Writers, artists, poets, scientists, and musicians were frequent dinner guests.

On one occasion the Kennedy’s held a reception for all the American winners of the Nobel Prize, people who made outstanding contributions to their field during the past year. At the party the president suggested that more talent and genius was at the White House that night than there had been since Thomas Jefferson had last dined there alone. At a meeting with the leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Nikita Khrushchev, Kennedy asked the name of a medal Khrushchev was wearing.

When the premier identified it as the Lenin Peace Medal, Kennedy remarked, 6″I hope you keep it. ” On another occasion he told a group of Republican business leaders, 7″It would be premature to ask for your support in the next election and inaccurate to thank you for it in the past. ” Even in great crises, Kennedy retained his sense of humor. Kennedy’s first year in office brought him considerable success in enacting new legislation. Congress passed a major housing bill, a law increasing the minimum wage, and a bill granting federal aid to economically depressed areas of the United States.

The most original piece of legislation Kennedy put through Congress was the bill creating the Peace Corps, an agency that trained American volunteers to perform social and humanitarian service overseas. The program’s goal was to promote world peace and friendship with developing nations. The idea of American volunteers helping people in foreign lands touched the idealism of many citizens. Within two years, Peace Corps volunteers were working in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, living with the people and working on education, public health, and agricultural projects.

However, after his initial success with Congress, Kennedy found it increasingly difficult to get his programs enacted into law. Although the Democrats held a majority in both houses, Southern Democrats joined with conservative Republicans to stop legislation they disliked. The Medicare bill, a bill to make medical care for the aged a national benefit, was defeated. A civil rights bill and a bill to cut taxes were debated, and compromises were agreed to, but even the compromises were delayed. A bill to create a Cabinet-level Department of Urban Affairs was soundly defeated, partly because Kennedy wanted the economist Robert C.

Weaver, a black man, to be the new secretary. Southern Congressmen united with representatives from mostly rural areas to defeat the bill. Kennedy did win approval of a bill to lower tariffs and thus allow more competitive American trade abroad. Congress also authorized the purchase of $100 million in United Nations bonds, and the money enabled the international organization to survive a financial crisis. Further, Congress appropriated more than $1 billion to finance sending a man to the moon by 1970 which was accomplished in 1969.

The major American legal and moral conflict during Kennedy’s three years in office was in the area of civil rights. Black agitation against discrimination had become widespread and well organized. Although Kennedy was in no way responsible for the growth of the civil rights movement, he attempted to aid the black cause by enforcing existing laws. Kennedy particularly wanted to end discrimination in federally financed projects or in companies that were doing business with the government. In September 1962 Governor Ross R. Barnett of Mississippi ignored a court order and prevented James H.

Meredith, a black man, from enrolling at the state university. On the night of September 29, even as the president went on national television to appeal to the people of Mississippi to obey the law, rioting began on the campus. After 15 hours of rioting and two deaths, Kennedy sent in troops to restore order. Meredith was admitted to the university, and troops and federal marshals remained on the campus to insure his safety. In June 1963, when Governor George C. Wallace of Alabama prevented two blacks from enrolling at the University of Alabama, Kennedy federalized the Alabama National Guard to enforce the law.

The students were enrolled at the university. Three months later, Kennedy again used the National Guard to prevent Wallace from interfering with integration in the public schools of Birmingham, Tuskegee, and Mobile. Kennedy also asked Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would guarantee blacks the right to vote, to attend public school, to have equal access to jobs, and to have access to public accommodations. Kennedy told the American people, 8″Now the time has come for this nation to fulfill its promises … act, to make a commitment it has not fully made in this century to the proposition that race has no place in American life or law. ”

Public opinion polls showed that Kennedy was losing popularity because of his advocacy of civil rights. Privately, he began to assume that the South would oppose him in the next election, but he continued to speak out against segregation, the practice of separating people of different races. To a group of students in Nashville, Tennessee, he said, 9 “No one can deny the complexity of the problem involved in assuring all of our citizens their full rights as Americans.

But no one can gainsay the fact that the determination to secure those rights is in the highest tradition of American freedom. ” In 1959, after several attempts, a revolution led by Fidel Castro finally overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar. During the next two years, Castro was to become increasingly hostile to the United States. The new regime’s agricultural reform laws provoked U. S. companies that operated sugar plantations. Companies that were not controlled by Cuban stockholders were not allowed to operate plantations, and sugar production was de-emphasized in favor of food crops.

In 1960 the Castro government nationalized, or took over ownership of, an estimated $1 billion in properties owned by U. S. companies and citizens, and the Eisenhower administration imposed a trade embargo. When Castro began to proclaim his belief in Communism, Cuba became part of the Cold War, or struggle between the United States and its allies and the nations led by the USSR that involved intense economic and diplomatic battles but not direct military conflict. Many Cubans fled to the United States.

During the Eisenhower administration the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had begun to train Cuban exiles secretly for an invasion of Cuba. When Kennedy became president, he approved the invasion. In April 1961 more than 1000 Cuban exiles made an amphibious landing in Cuba at a place called the Bay of Pigs. Their plan was to move inland and join with anti-Castro forces to stage a revolt simultaneously, but instead Castro’s forces were there to meet the invaders. The revolt in the interior did not happen, and air support, promised by the CIA, never came.

The exiles were defeated and the survivors were taken prisoner. On December 25, 1962, 1113 prisoners were released in exchange for food and medical supplies valued at a total of approximately $53 million. Most other Latin American countries had the same bad social, economic, and political conditions that had led to Castro’s success in Cuba. Many of these nations seemed ripe for a revolution that could easily be exploited by the Communists. Upon taking office, President Kennedy looked for a program that would accelerate change in Latin America by strengthening democratic institutions.

In March 1961 he introduced the Alliance for Progress, and in August it was established by the charter of Punte del Este. The Alliance for Progress was to be a Latin American version of the Marshall Plan, the United States plan to fund a cooperative, long-term program to rebuild Europe following World War II. All Latin American nations except Cuba joined the Alliance for Progress, pledging 10″to bring our people accelerated economic progress and broader social justice within the framework of personal dignity and individual liberty. ” The United States promised $20 billion for the first ten years.

The Alliance for Progress and President Kennedy’s particular concern for democratic institutions brought the United States renewed popularity in Latin America. On June 3, 1961, in Vienna, Austria, Kennedy and Khrushchev met and reviewed relationships between the United States and the USSR, as well as other questions of interest to the two states. Two incidents contributed to hostility at the meeting. The first was the shooting down of a U. S. spy plane in Soviet air space, and the second was the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in early 1961.

The results of the conference made it clear that Khrushchev had construed Kennedy’s failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion as a sign of weakness. No agreements were reached on any important issues. In fact, the Soviet premier made it clear that the Soviet Union intended to pursue an even more aggressive policy toward the United States. Kennedy’s last words to Khrushchev in Vienna were, 11″It’s going to be a cold winter. ” He reported to the American people that the Soviet premier was a “tough-minded” leader who did not understand the intentions of the United States.

The leaders had spent a “very sober two days. ” In August 1961, to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West, the Communists ordered a wall built on the border between East and West Berlin. West Berlin had been under the control of the United States, France, and Britain since the end of World War II, although the city lay deep inside East Germany, a state that was an ally of the USSR. Kennedy and other Western leaders protested, but the wall was built. Kennedy had already asked for more military spending and had called up reserve troops for duty in Europe.

When East German soldiers began blocking the Allied route through East Germany into Berlin, Kennedy sent a force of 1500 soldiers marching along the route into West Berlin. The troops went uncontested. Communist interference stopped, allowing Allied forces travel to and from Berlin . Amongst other problems President Kennedy faced, none was more serious than this one. The Cuban Missile Crisis was perhaps the world’s closest approach to nuclear war. In 1960 Soviet Premier Khrushchev decided to supply Cuba with nuclear missiles that would put the eastern United States within range of nuclear missile attack.

Khrushchev, when asked, denied that any missiles were being supplied to Cuba, but in the summer of 1962 U. S. spy planes flying over Cuba photographed Soviet-managed construction work and spotted the first missile on October 14. For seven days President Kennedy consulted secretly with advisers, discussing the possible responses while in public his administration carried on as though nothing was wrong. Finally, on October 22, Kennedy told the nation about the discovery of the missiles, demanded that the Soviet Union remove the weapons, and declared the waters around Cuba a quarantine zone.

Kennedy called upon Khrushchev 12″to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations” and warned that an attack from Cuba on any nation in the western hemisphere would be considered an attack by the USSR on the United States itself. At the same time, United States troops were sent to Florida to prepare for invading Cuba, and air units were alerted. American vessels blockaded Cuba with orders to search all suspicious-looking Soviet ships and to turn back any that carried offensive weapons.

For several tense days Soviet vessels en route to Cuba avoided the quarantine zone, while Khrushchev and Kennedy discussed the issue through diplomatic channels. Khrushchev, realizing his weak military position, sent a message on October 26 in which he agreed to Kennedy’s demands to remove all missiles. The following day, before the United States had responded to the first note, Khrushchev sent another, trying to negotiate other terms. Kennedy decided to respond to the first message, and on October 28, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle and remove the weapons from Cuba and offered the United States on-site inspection.

In return Kennedy secretly promised not to invade Cuba and to remove older missiles from Turkey. Kennedy called off the blockade but Cuba, angry at Soviet submission, refused to permit the promised inspection. However, U. S. spy planes revealed that the missile bases were being dismantled. Nuclear war had been avoided. This was perhaps Kennedy’s greatest moment as president. Many felt that both World War I and World War II had begun because of weak responses to acts of aggression, and Kennedy may have prevented World War III by displaying courage and strength.

On November 22, 1963, President and Mrs. Kennedy were in Dallas, Texas, trying to win support in a state that Kennedy had barely carried in 1960. As the motorcade approached an underpass, two shots were fired in rapid succession. One bullet passed through the president’s neck and struck Governor Connally in the back. The other bullet struck the president in the head. Kennedy fell forward, and his car sped to Parkland Hospital. At 1:00 PM, he was pronounced dead. He had never regained consciousness.

Less than two hours after the shooting, aboard the presidential plane at the Dallas airport, Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th president of the United States. That afternoon, Lee Harvey Oswald, who was employed in the warehouse, was arrested in a Dallas movie theater and charged with the murder. On November 24 the body of President Kennedy was carried on a horse-drawn carriage from the White House to the Rotunda of the Capitol. Hundreds of thousands of people filed past the coffin of the slain president. The grave was marked by an eternal flame lighted by his wife and brothers.

The Assassination Of John F. Kennedy

In January of 1960, a young man by the name of John F. Kennedy was sworn in to uphold the office of President of the United States of America. He was assassinated on November 22, 1963, when he was only 46 years old. There is lots of speculation about the way he died. Here are just a few questions concerning his death. Who or how many people were involved in President John F. Kennedys assassination? This is a question that has baffled many people for 33 years. Some of the main questions are: Was Lee Harvey Oswald the lone assassin? This question may never be answered.

Is there a possibility that there could have been another rifleman? What is the minimum time to get three shots off with the Mannlicher Carcano bolt action rifle? Why did Jack Ruby shoot Oswald? Was he trying to protect himself or show loyalty to his President? Did Fidel Castro have President Kennedy assassinated? Were the CIA and FBI involved? What about the mob; did they have any logical reason to kill the President? What is the story on the superbullet? How can one assassin shoot three shots at a man in a limousine going 11. 2 mph under five seconds?

Among the most crucial questions to be considered in determining the identity of the Presidents assassin are the number of shots fired in the course of the assassination, the time elapsed between shots, and the location of the site or sites where the shots were fired. A great deal of evidence rides on these questions: the number of wounds, the path of the bullets causing each wound, the position of the rifle believed to have fired the recovered bullet and its fragments, the position and number of empty cartridge cases believed to have been fired, and visual observations by bystanders.

In addition, a mass of evidence has been collected from the people that witnessed the shooting. I will try to explain or figure out what went on during the 22 of November in 1963. There are many theories on the assassination of JFK. The first theory is that Robert Kennedy, the brother of John and also the attorney general at this time dated a known mobsters girlfriend, and Robert also tried to get one of the biggest court cases in the history of the U. S. put upon the mob. In order to get back at him, they killed his brother. Later, they killed him when he was going to run for President.

There is some more evidence that the mob was involved when Jack Ruby killed Lee Oswald. He shot him at close range with a . 38 caliber pistol. This is a typical mob killing; close up and with a small caliber pistol. Jack Ruby was a nightclub owner. It is believed that Ruby had connections with the mob. People say that this theory had mob written all over it. When the so-called mob killed the President, they got him in crossfire. First they formed a triangle, one in the book depository, one behind the picket fence, and one on the monument.

This forms a triangle, which supports this theory called trianglism. The next theory is unlikely to happen. It is the superbullet theory. This theory is trying to convince us that one single bullet did all of the damage. This is virtually impossible. The bullet would have to hit President Kennedy in the neck and then hit Connaly through the back, chest, wrist, and thigh, then re-enter Kennedys head on top. See what I meanimpossible. Some people believed that this happened. Governor Connaly said that he is certain that the first shot hit Kennedy and him at the same time.

This theory is impossible according to the Zapruder film. The film shows a definite delay between the wounding of the two mena delay too short for the Carcano rifle to be shot twice by one man, and too long to leave the superbullet theory with credibility. Some people think that Fidel Castro had President Kennedy shot. (Posner 122-148) Motive, yes he had motive. In October 1962 Kennedy faced the most serious international crisis of his administration. Aerial photographs proved that Soviet missile bases were being built in Cub.

Declaring this buildup a threat to the nations of the Western Hemisphere, Kennedy warned that any attack by Cuba would be regarded as an attack by the Soviets and the United States would retaliate against the Soviet Union. He also imposed quarantine on ships bringing offensive weapons to Cuba. Negotiations were carried on between the President and Khrushchev. By the end of November, the missiles had been shipped back to the Soviet Union, the United States had lifted the quarantine, and the month-long crisis had abated. It was the Cuban Missile Crisis.

The Cuban Missile Crisis was when Castro had missiles pointed at the U. S. Kennedy did not like this, so he made Castro disengage them. Of course Castro didnt like Kennedy after this, so he had him shot. But who did the shooting? True, Oswald was the one that put the lethal shot in the President. Could there have been someone else? I think so. I have good reason for this. There were 3 shots. It is impossible to get 3 well-aimed shots off in less than five seconds, because it has been proven to take 2. 5 seconds for one shot. Less than 2. econds elapsed between the first and second, or the second and third shots.

This is evidence that there had to be a second gunman. This does not support the theory of the lone gunman and shows that there could be a possible conspiracy. Where was he shooting from? Acoustic scientists have found in a picture what they think is a head peeking over the picket fence behind the grassy knoll. Ed Hoffman, a deaf mute, saw someone shoot from behind the fence. After the shots were fired, Mr. Hoffman saw the man hand a gun to a person dressed in a railroad uniform.

When he went to get the police, one policeman waved his gun at him, and told him to get out of the way, so he left. There is suspicion that this is the so-called second gunman. The next theory is a theory concerning what the second gunman was shooting at. Could it have been possible for the second gunman to be shooting at Lee Harvey Oswald? It involved Fidel Castro or anyone that plotted to kill the President. Whoever wanted the President dead had Lee Oswald shoot Kennedy. Then after Oswald shot, there was a man behind the picket fence on the grassy knoll.

Acoustic scientists found what they think is a mans head looking over the fence from the grassy knoll. They were trying to kill Oswald so he couldnt talk. This is a likely theory. They never recovered the bullet that was shot from the front of the motorcade, if there is one. There is evidence that a bullet was fired from the front. When the first shot was fired, Kennedys head went violently backwards. This means the bullet had to strike him from the front. When you look at the videotape, it appears as if the bullet strikes him form the front.

Either the bullet did not hit anything, or it passed through the neck then vanished because it was never recovered. This could mean a possible second gunman. Some people think that the CIA was involved. They were mad at President Kennedy because he said that he wanted to scatter the CIA into a thousand pieces and scatter them into the wind. They had another reason to kill Kennedy. It was called the invasion of the Bay of Pigs on April 18, 1961. This is where the CIA tried to overthrow Castro by themselves.

They landed on the shore and were defeated. Kennedy had told them that the U. S. ould have no part in this invasion. Although he had ships just off the shore, they wouldnt help. The CIA blamed the defeat on the President for not helping them. Many Americans blamed Kennedy for not helping them. In the spring of 1961, the Bay of Pigs, near Havana, Cuba, was invaded by opponents of Cubas Communist premier, Fidel Castro. The rebels were defeated quickly. The invasion had been aided by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Kennedy was criticized by some for having approved the CIAs support of the invasion. Others blamed him for the operations failure.

The plan was partially done when President Eisenhower was President. (North 86) They did not do the killing, but I would say that they had something to do with it. The Zapruder film was shot by a dressmaker named Abraham Zapruder, who was a spectator at Dealy Plaza in Dallas, Texas watching the presidential motorcade that fatal November day. This film was shot with a 8mm movie camera that filmed 18. 3 frames per second. Zapruder was located on a concrete platform extending from the grassy knoll. He was with his secretary at the time of the shooting.

The Zapruder film implies that the first shot was fired before frame 204. A large oak tree blocked the assassins view between frames 166-210. People think that the President was shot before frame 204 because his wife turned sharply toward him at 204. This cannot be proven for a fact because the camera had no sound. The Zapruder film implies that there is indeed a second gunman, according to the evidence and reaction of Jacqueline Kennedy at frame 204. (Accessories 5) The Zapruder film wasnt the only photographed evidence taken during the assassination of the President.

There are also pictures taken and eyewitnesses that saw things most people dont know about. A woman took a picture of what they think is Lee Oswald on the first floor of the book depository watching the motorcade. Police say that they are mistaken. They think it is someone else. They have photographed Jack Ruby at the Dealy Plaza who denies ever being near the place on November 22. Below is a chart showing the positions of Abraham Zapruder, Lee Harvey Oswald, the original route of the motorcade, and the time frames of the Zapruder film: There is also another theory.

This theory is about a man and what he saw from the overpass. This man claims that he saw someone shoot from the monument on the grassy knoll. Did he see what he thought he saw? He may have heard shooting and looked up and saw something get out from behind the monument. They could have been taking cover. The Warren Commission is an investigative report on the assassination of John Kennedy. The commission was made up of 7 people. They were Chief Justice Earl Warren, Senators Richard B. Russell of Georgia and John Sherman Cooper of Kentucky, Representatives Hale Boggs of Louisiana, Gerald Ford of Michigan, Allen W. Dulles and John J. McCloy. Lee Rankin was the general counsel.

They had a soul purpose, and that was to find out what happened on that tragic day in November. The report was published on September 24, 1964. The commission found that the shots that killed President Kennedy and wounded Governor Connaly were fired by Lee Harvey Oswald. There was no evidence at the time that either Oswald or Jack Ruby were part of any conspiracy, domestic or foreign, to assassinate President Kennedy. No direct or indirect relationship between Oswald and Ruby had been uncovered.

On the basis of the evidence before it, the commission concluded that Oswald acted alone. (Scott 47) Despite the findings of the commission, conspiracy theories persisted for decades. The commission stated that Lee Harvey Oswald was the lone shooter. They denied ever hearing or thinking that there could have been a second gunman, even thought there is evidence that there was someone on the grassy knoll behind the picket fence. They looked for an easy way out and ignored some valuable evidence, says Jim Garrison. What about the Zapruders film?

Can they just ignore that? There is also proof that there was another shooter because of the rapidness of the shots. Its impossible for one man to shoot 3 shots in under 5 seconds with that type of bolt action rifle that was used. This rifle was a model C2766 Mannlicher Carcano Italian rifle. Sharpshooter set up targets at the range where the President was shot, and they could not shoot stationary targets, let alone moving ones with the same accuracy and speed that Oswald supposedly shot. They said that this model was not a very accurate one.

There are also two pictures of Oswald and his Mannlicher Carcano and his pistol. A man named Jim Mars proved that the pictures are fake because of the size of Oswalds head. In both pictures, Oswald was standing beside his house with these two guns. In the second picture, Oswald is standing farther away from the house than in the first, but his head is still the same size. His head should be bigger in the second picture than it is in the first picture. In the second picture, his head is slightly tilted and a little bit of the shadow from under his nose is gone.

The theory that American people read about is the theory that Lee Oswald shot Kennedy from the Texas School Book Depository. There is valuable information that this theory is true. Many witnesses say that the shot sounded as if it was up above them on the sixth floor of the Book Depository, and that he was shot with the Mannlicher Carcano bolt-action rifle. They are lead to believe that there were only three shots, which could possibly be true. Under any circumstances, it was not as simple as it sounds. All of these books base their evidence on the Warren Commission.

Nobody looks beyond the Warren Commission. They take it for the truth, and therefore believe it. For all they know, it could be a cover-up for the CIA. My opinion is one that I have thought over many times. I think that the CIA was mad at President Kennedy for not helping them out at the Bay of Pigs, so they managed to convince Oswald that they would give him lots of money to kill the President. When they hired Oswald, they had one of their own men on the grassy knoll to shoot Oswald after he shot President Kennedy, then the CIAs man would kill Kennedy.

This supports the theory of why the people heard a shot over the fence at the grassy knoll. Another things that supports my theory is that they never found the third bullet. When the man behind the fence did not do his job, they sent Jack Ruby to finish what they started. They had to quiet Oswald or he was going to talk and tell who was really behind it. Who was really behind it? This is a question that the world will never know the real answer to. This concludes my theory on how President John F. Kennedy was assassinated.

The Assassination Of John F. Kennedy

In January of 1960, a young man by the name of John F. Kennedy was sworn in to uphold the office of President of the United States of America. He was assassinated on November 22, 1963, when he was only 46 years old. There is lots of speculation about the way he died. Here are just a few questions concerning his death. Who or how many people were involved in President John F. Kennedys assassination? This is a question that has baffled many people for 33 years. Some of the main questions are: Was Lee Harvey Oswald the lone assassin? This question may never be answered.

Is there a possibility that there could have been another rifleman? What is the minimum time to get three shots off with the Mannlicher Carcano bolt action rifle? Why did Jack Ruby shoot Oswald? Was he trying to protect himself or show loyalty to his President? Did Fidel Castro have President Kennedy assassinated? Were the CIA and FBI involved? What about the mob; did they have any logical reason to kill the President? What is the story on the superbullet? How can one assassin shoot three shots at a man in a limousine going 11. 2 mph under five seconds?

Among the most crucial questions to be considered in determining the identity of the Presidents assassin are the number of shots fired in the course of the assassination, the time elapsed between shots, and the location of the site or sites where the shots were fired. A great deal of evidence rides on these questions: the number of wounds, the path of the bullets causing each wound, the position of the rifle believed to have fired the recovered bullet and its fragments, the position and number of empty cartridge cases believed to have been fired, and visual observations by bystanders.

In addition, a mass of evidence has been collected from the people that witnessed the shooting. I will try to explain or figure out what went on during the 22 of November in 1963. There are many theories on the assassination of JFK. The first theory is that Robert Kennedy, the brother of John and also the attorney general at this time dated a known mobsters girlfriend, and Robert also tried to get one of the biggest court cases in the history of the U. S. put upon the mob. In order to get back at him, they killed his brother. Later, they killed him when he was going to run for President.

There is some more evidence that the mob was involved when Jack Ruby killed Lee Oswald. He shot him at close range with a . 38 caliber pistol. This is a typical mob killing; close up and with a small caliber pistol. Jack Ruby was a nightclub owner. It is believed that Ruby had connections with the mob. People say that this theory had mob written all over it. When the so-called mob killed the President, they got him in crossfire. First they formed a triangle, one in the book depository, one behind the picket fence, and one on the monument.

This forms a triangle, which supports this theory called trianglism. The next theory is unlikely to happen. It is the superbullet theory. This theory is trying to convince us that one single bullet did all of the damage. This is virtually impossible. The bullet would have to hit President Kennedy in the neck and then hit Connaly through the back, chest, wrist, and thigh, then re-enter Kennedys head on top. See what I meanimpossible. Some people believed that this happened. Governor Connaly said that he is certain that the first shot hit Kennedy and him at the same time.

This theory is impossible according to the Zapruder film. The film shows a definite delay between the wounding of the two mena delay too short for the Carcano rifle to be shot twice by one man, and too long to leave the superbullet theory with credibility. Some people think that Fidel Castro had President Kennedy shot. (Posner 122-148) Motive, yes he had motive. In October 1962 Kennedy faced the most serious international crisis of his administration. Aerial photographs proved that Soviet missile bases were being built in Cub.

Declaring this buildup a threat to the nations of the Western Hemisphere, Kennedy warned that any attack by Cuba would be regarded as an attack by the Soviets and the United States would retaliate against the Soviet Union. He also imposed quarantine on ships bringing offensive weapons to Cuba. Negotiations were carried on between the President and Khrushchev. By the end of November, the missiles had been shipped back to the Soviet Union, the United States had lifted the quarantine, and the month-long crisis had abated. It was the Cuban Missile Crisis.

The Cuban Missile Crisis was when Castro had missiles pointed at the U. S. Kennedy did not like this, so he made Castro disengage them. Of course Castro didnt like Kennedy after this, so he had him shot. But who did the shooting? True, Oswald was the one that put the lethal shot in the President. Could there have been someone else? I think so. I have good reason for this. There were 3 shots. It is impossible to get 3 well-aimed shots off in less than five seconds, because it has been proven to take 2. 5 seconds for one shot. Less than 2. econds elapsed between the first and second, or the second and third shots.

This is evidence that there had to be a second gunman. This does not support the theory of the lone gunman and shows that there could be a possible conspiracy. Where was he shooting from? Acoustic scientists have found in a picture what they think is a head peeking over the picket fence behind the grassy knoll. Ed Hoffman, a deaf mute, saw someone shoot from behind the fence. After the shots were fired, Mr. Hoffman saw the man hand a gun to a person dressed in a railroad uniform.

When he went to get the police, one policeman waved his gun at him, and told him to get out of the way, so he left. There is suspicion that this is the so-called second gunman. The next theory is a theory concerning what the second gunman was shooting at. Could it have been possible for the second gunman to be shooting at Lee Harvey Oswald? It involved Fidel Castro or anyone that plotted to kill the President. Whoever wanted the President dead had Lee Oswald shoot Kennedy. Then after Oswald shot, there was a man behind the picket fence on the grassy knoll.

Acoustic scientists found what they think is a mans head looking over the fence from the grassy knoll. They were trying to kill Oswald so he couldnt talk. This is a likely theory. They never recovered the bullet that was shot from the front of the motorcade, if there is one. There is evidence that a bullet was fired from the front. When the first shot was fired, Kennedys head went violently backwards. This means the bullet had to strike him from the front. When you look at the videotape, it appears as if the bullet strikes him form the front.

Either the bullet did not hit anything, or it passed through the neck then vanished because it was never recovered. This could mean a possible second gunman. Some people think that the CIA was involved. They were mad at President Kennedy because he said that he wanted to scatter the CIA into a thousand pieces and scatter them into the wind. They had another reason to kill Kennedy. It was called the invasion of the Bay of Pigs on April 18, 1961. This is where the CIA tried to overthrow Castro by themselves. They landed on the shore and were defeated. Kennedy had told them that the U. S. ould have no part in this invasion.

Although he had ships just off the shore, they wouldnt help. The CIA blamed the defeat on the President for not helping them. Many Americans blamed Kennedy for not helping them. In the spring of 1961, the Bay of Pigs, near Havana, Cuba, was invaded by opponents of Cubas Communist premier, Fidel Castro. The rebels were defeated quickly. The invasion had been aided by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Kennedy was criticized by some for having approved the CIAs support of the invasion. Others blamed him for the operations failure.

The plan was partially done when President Eisenhower was President. (North 86) They did not do the killing, but I would say that they had something to do with it. The Zapruder film was shot by a dressmaker named Abraham Zapruder, who was a spectator at Dealy Plaza in Dallas, Texas watching the presidential motorcade that fatal November day. This film was shot with a 8mm movie camera that filmed 18. 3 frames per second. Zapruder was located on a concrete platform extending from the grassy knoll. He was with his secretary at the time of the shooting.

The Zapruder film implies that the first shot was fired before frame 204. A large oak tree blocked the assassins view between frames 166-210. People think that the President was shot before frame 204 because his wife turned sharply toward him at 204. This cannot be proven for a fact because the camera had no sound. The Zapruder film implies that there is indeed a second gunman, according to the evidence and reaction of Jacqueline Kennedy at frame 204. (Accessories 5) The Zapruder film wasnt the only photographed evidence taken during the assassination of the President.

There are also pictures taken and eyewitnesses that saw things most people dont know about. A woman took a picture of what they think is Lee Oswald on the first floor of the book depository watching the motorcade. Police say that they are mistaken. They think it is someone else. They have photographed Jack Ruby at the Dealy Plaza who denies ever being near the place on November 22. Below is a chart showing the positions of Abraham Zapruder, Lee Harvey Oswald, the original route of the motorcade, and the time frames of the Zapruder film: There is also another theory.

This theory is about a man and what he saw from the overpass. This man claims that he saw someone shoot from the monument on the grassy knoll. Did he see what he thought he saw? He may have heard shooting and looked up and saw something get out from behind the monument. They could have been taking cover. The Warren Commission is an investigative report on the assassination of John Kennedy. The commission was made up of 7 people. They were Chief Justice Earl Warren, Senators Richard B. Russell of Georgia and John Sherman Cooper of Kentucky, Representatives Hale Boggs of Louisiana, Gerald Ford of Michigan, Allen W. Dulles and John J. McCloy. Lee Rankin was the general counsel.

They had a soul purpose, and that was to find out what happened on that tragic day in November. The report was published on September 24, 1964. The commission found that the shots that killed President Kennedy and wounded Governor Connaly were fired by Lee Harvey Oswald. There was no evidence at the time that either Oswald or Jack Ruby were part of any conspiracy, domestic or foreign, to assassinate President Kennedy. No direct or indirect relationship between Oswald and Ruby had been uncovered.

On the basis of the evidence before it, the commission concluded that Oswald acted alone. (Scott 47) Despite the findings of the commission, conspiracy theories persisted for decades. The commission stated that Lee Harvey Oswald was the lone shooter. They denied ever hearing or thinking that there could have been a second gunman, even thought there is evidence that there was someone on the grassy knoll behind the picket fence. They looked for an easy way out and ignored some valuable evidence, says Jim Garrison. What about the Zapruders film?

Can they just ignore that? There is also proof that there was another shooter because of the rapidness of the shots. Its impossible for one man to shoot 3 shots in under 5 seconds with that type of bolt action rifle that was used. This rifle was a model C2766 Mannlicher Carcano Italian rifle. Sharpshooter set up targets at the range where the President was shot, and they could not shoot stationary targets, let alone moving ones with the same accuracy and speed that Oswald supposedly shot. They said that this model was not a very accurate one.

There are also two pictures of Oswald and his Mannlicher Carcano and his pistol. A man named Jim Mars proved that the pictures are fake because of the size of Oswalds head. In both pictures, Oswald was standing beside his house with these two guns. In the second picture, Oswald is standing farther away from the house than in the first, but his head is still the same size. His head should be bigger in the second picture than it is in the first picture. In the second picture, his head is slightly tilted and a little bit of the shadow from under his nose is gone.

The theory that American people read about is the theory that Lee Oswald shot Kennedy from the Texas School Book Depository. There is valuable information that this theory is true. Many witnesses say that the shot sounded as if it was up above them on the sixth floor of the Book Depository, and that he was shot with the Mannlicher Carcano bolt-action rifle. They are lead to believe that there were only three shots, which could possibly be true. Under any circumstances, it was not as simple as it sounds. All of these books base their evidence on the Warren Commission.

Nobody looks beyond the Warren Commission. They take it for the truth, and therefore believe it. For all they know, it could be a cover-up for the CIA. My opinion is one that I have thought over many times. I think that the CIA was mad at President Kennedy for not helping them out at the Bay of Pigs, so they managed to convince Oswald that they would give him lots of money to kill the President. When they hired Oswald, they had one of their own men on the grassy knoll to shoot Oswald after he shot President Kennedy, then the CIAs man would kill Kennedy.

This supports the theory of why the people heard a shot over the fence at the grassy knoll. Another things that supports my theory is that they never found the third bullet. When the man behind the fence did not do his job, they sent Jack Ruby to finish what they started. They had to quiet Oswald or he was going to talk and tell who was really behind it. Who was really behind it? This is a question that the world will never know the real answer to. This concludes my theory on how President John F. Kennedy was assassinated.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States

John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected president. He was also the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president. Therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented war. Young people especially liked him. No other president was so popular. He brought to the presidency an awareness of the cultural and historical traditions of the United States.

Because Kennedy expressed the values of 20th-century America, his presidency was important beyond its political achievements. John Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts. He was the second of nine children. Kennedy announced his candidacy early in 1960. By the time the Democratic National Convention opened in July, he had won seven primary victories. His most important had been in West Virginia, where he proved that a Roman Catholic could win in a predominantly Protestant state. When the convention opened, it appeared that Kennedy’s only serious challenge for the nomination would come from the Senate majority leader, Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas.

However, Johnson was strong only among Southern delegates. Kennedy won the nomination on the first ballot and then persuaded Johnson to become his running mate. Two weeks later the Republicans nominated Vice President Richard Nixon for president and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. , who was ambassador to the United Nations and whom Kennedy had defeated for the Senate in 1952, for vice president. In the fast-paced campaign that followed, Kennedy made stops in 46 states and 273 cities and towns, while Nixon visited every state and 170 urban areas.

Another important element of the campaign was the support Kennedy received from blacks in important Northern states, especially Illinois and Pennsylvania. They supported him in part because he and Robert Kennedy had tried to get the release of the civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. King, who had been jailed for taking part in a civil rights demonstration in Georgia, was released soon afterward. The election drew a record 69 million voters to the polls, but Kennedy won by only 113,000 votes. Kennedy was inaugurated on January 20, 1961.

In his inaugural address he emphasized America’s revolutionary heritage. 2″The same … beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe,” Kennedy said. 3″Let the word go forth from this time and place to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans-born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage-and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.

Kennedy challenged Americans to assume the burden of “defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. ” The words of his address were, “Ask not what your country can do for you-ask what you can do for your country. ” Kennedy sought with considerable success to attract brilliant young people to government service. His hope was to bring new ideas and new methods into the executive branch. As a result many of his advisers were teachers and scholars. Among them were McGeorge Bundy and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. , both graduates of Harvard.

Kennedy’s most influential adviser was Theodore C. Sorenson, a member of Kennedy’s staff since his days in the Senate. Sorenson wrote many of Kennedy’s speeches and exerted a strong influence on Kennedy’s development as a political liberal, 5 a person who believes that the government should directly help people to overcome poverty or social discrimination. The president and Mrs. Kennedy attempted to make the White House the cultural center of the nation. Writers, artists, poets, scientists, and musicians were frequent dinner guests.

On one occasion the Kennedy’s held a reception for all the American winners of the Nobel Prize, people who made outstanding contributions to their field during the past year. At the party the president suggested that more talent and genius was at the White House that night than there had been since Thomas Jefferson had last dined there alone. At a meeting with the leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Nikita Khrushchev, Kennedy asked the name of a medal Khrushchev was wearing.

When the premier identified it as the Lenin Peace Medal, Kennedy remarked, 6″I hope you keep it. ” On another occasion he told a group of Republican business leaders, 7″It would be premature to ask for your support in the next election and inaccurate to thank you for it in the past. ” Even in great crises, Kennedy retained his sense of humor. Kennedy’s first year in office brought him considerable success in enacting new legislation. Congress passed a major housing bill, a law increasing the minimum wage, and a bill granting federal aid to economically depressed areas of the United States.

The most original piece of legislation Kennedy put through Congress was the bill creating the Peace Corps, an agency that trained American volunteers to perform social and humanitarian service overseas. The program’s goal was to promote world peace and friendship with developing nations. The idea of American volunteers helping people in foreign lands touched the idealism of many citizens. Within two years, Peace Corps volunteers were working in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, living with the people and working on education, public health, and agricultural projects.

However, after his initial success with Congress, Kennedy found it increasingly difficult to get his programs enacted into law. Although the Democrats held a majority in both houses, Southern Democrats joined with conservative Republicans to stop legislation they disliked. The Medicare bill, a bill to make medical care for the aged a national benefit, was defeated. A civil rights bill and a bill to cut taxes were debated, and compromises were agreed to, but even the compromises were delayed. A bill to create a Cabinet-level Department of Urban Affairs was soundly defeated, partly because Kennedy wanted the economist Robert C.

Weaver, a black man, to be the new secretary. Southern Congressmen united with representatives from mostly rural areas to defeat the bill. Kennedy did win approval of a bill to lower tariffs and thus allow more competitive American trade abroad. Congress also authorized the purchase of $100 million in United Nations bonds, and the money enabled the international organization to survive a financial crisis. Further, Congress appropriated more than $1 billion to finance sending a man to the moon by 1970 which was accomplished in 1969.

The major American legal and moral conflict during Kennedy’s three years in office was in the area of civil rights. Black agitation against discrimination had become widespread and well organized. Although Kennedy was in no way responsible for the growth of the civil rights movement, he attempted to aid the black cause by enforcing existing laws. Kennedy particularly wanted to end discrimination in federally financed projects or in companies that were doing business with the government.

In September 1962 Governor Ross R. Barnett of Mississippi ignored a court order and prevented James H. Meredith, a black man, from enrolling at the state university. On the night of September 29, even as the president went on national television to appeal to the people of Mississippi to obey the law, rioting began on the campus. After 15 hours of rioting and two deaths, Kennedy sent in troops to restore order. Meredith was admitted to the university, and troops and federal marshals remained on the campus to insure his safety. In June 1963, when Governor George C. Wallace of Alabama prevented two blacks from enrolling at the University of Alabama, Kennedy federalized the Alabama National Guard to enforce the law.

The students were enrolled at the university. Three months later, Kennedy again used the National Guard to prevent Wallace from interfering with integration in the public schools of Birmingham, Tuskegee, and Mobile. Kennedy also asked Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would guarantee blacks the right to vote, to attend public school, to have equal access to jobs, and to have access to public accommodations. Kennedy told the American people, 8″Now the time has come for this nation to fulfill its promises … act, to make a commitment it has not fully made in this century to the proposition that race has no place in American life or law. ”

Public opinion polls showed that Kennedy was losing popularity because of his advocacy of civil rights. Privately, he began to assume that the South would oppose him in the next election, but he continued to speak out against segregation, the practice of separating people of different races. To a group of students in Nashville, Tennessee, he said, 9 “No one can deny the complexity of the problem involved in assuring all of our citizens their full rights as Americans.

But no one can gainsay the fact that the determination to secure those rights is in the highest tradition of American freedom. ” In 1959, after several attempts, a revolution led by Fidel Castro finally overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar. During the next two years, Castro was to become increasingly hostile to the United States. The new regime’s agricultural reform laws provoked U. S. companies that operated sugar plantations. Companies that were not controlled by Cuban stockholders were not allowed to operate plantations, and sugar production was de-emphasized in favor of food crops.

In 1960 the Castro government nationalized, or took over ownership of, an estimated $1 billion in properties owned by U. S. companies and citizens, and the Eisenhower administration imposed a trade embargo. When Castro began to proclaim his belief in Communism, Cuba became part of the Cold War, or struggle between the United States and its allies and the nations led by the USSR that involved intense economic and diplomatic battles but not direct military conflict. Many Cubans fled to the United States.

During the Eisenhower administration the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had begun to train Cuban exiles secretly for an invasion of Cuba. When Kennedy became president, he approved the invasion. In April 1961 more than 1000 Cuban exiles made an amphibious landing in Cuba at a place called the Bay of Pigs. Their plan was to move inland and join with anti-Castro forces to stage a revolt simultaneously, but instead Castro’s forces were there to meet the invaders. The revolt in the interior did not happen, and air support, promised by the CIA, never came.

The exiles were defeated and the survivors were taken prisoner. On December 25, 1962, 1113 prisoners were released in exchange for food and medical supplies valued at a total of approximately $53 million. Most other Latin American countries had the same bad social, economic, and political conditions that had led to Castro’s success in Cuba. Many of these nations seemed ripe for a revolution that could easily be exploited by the Communists. Upon taking office, President Kennedy looked for a program that would accelerate change in Latin America by strengthening democratic institutions.

In March 1961 he introduced the Alliance for Progress, and in August it was established by the charter of Punte del Este. The Alliance for Progress was to be a Latin American version of the Marshall Plan, the United States plan to fund a cooperative, long-term program to rebuild Europe following World War II. All Latin American nations except Cuba joined the Alliance for Progress, pledging 10″to bring our people accelerated economic progress and broader social justice within the framework of personal dignity and individual liberty. ” The United States promised $20 billion for the first ten years.

The Alliance for Progress and President Kennedy’s particular concern for democratic institutions brought the United States renewed popularity in Latin America. On June 3, 1961, in Vienna, Austria, Kennedy and Khrushchev met and reviewed relationships between the United States and the USSR, as well as other questions of interest to the two states. Two incidents contributed to hostility at the meeting. The first was the shooting down of a U. S. spy plane in Soviet air space, and the second was the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in early 1961.

The results of the conference made it clear that Khrushchev had construed Kennedy’s failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion as a sign of weakness. No agreements were reached on any important issues. In fact, the Soviet premier made it clear that the Soviet Union intended to pursue an even more aggressive policy toward the United States. Kennedy’s last words to Khrushchev in Vienna were, 11″It’s going to be a cold winter. ” He reported to the American people that the Soviet premier was a “tough-minded” leader who did not understand the intentions of the United States.

The leaders had spent a “very sober two days. ” In August 1961, to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West, the Communists ordered a wall built on the border between East and West Berlin. West Berlin had been under the control of the United States, France, and Britain since the end of World War II, although the city lay deep inside East Germany, a state that was an ally of the USSR. Kennedy and other Western leaders protested, but the wall was built. Kennedy had already asked for more military spending and had called up reserve troops for duty in Europe.

When East German soldiers began blocking the Allied route through East Germany into Berlin, Kennedy sent a force of 1500 soldiers marching along the route into West Berlin. The troops went uncontested. Communist interference stopped, allowing Allied forces travel to and from Berlin . Amongst other problems President Kennedy faced, none was more serious than this one. The Cuban Missile Crisis was perhaps the world’s closest approach to nuclear war. In 1960 Soviet Premier Khrushchev decided to supply Cuba with nuclear missiles that would put the eastern United States within range of nuclear missile attack.

Khrushchev, when asked, denied that any missiles were being supplied to Cuba, but in the summer of 1962 U. S. spy planes flying over Cuba photographed Soviet-managed construction work and spotted the first missile on October 14. For seven days President Kennedy consulted secretly with advisers, discussing the possible responses while in public his administration carried on as though nothing was wrong. Finally, on October 22, Kennedy told the nation about the discovery of the missiles, demanded that the Soviet Union remove the weapons, and declared the waters around Cuba a quarantine zone.

Kennedy called upon Khrushchev 12″to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations” and warned that an attack from Cuba on any nation in the western hemisphere would be considered an attack by the USSR on the United States itself. At the same time, United States troops were sent to Florida to prepare for invading Cuba, and air units were alerted. American vessels blockaded Cuba with orders to search all suspicious-looking Soviet ships and to turn back any that carried offensive weapons.

For several tense days Soviet vessels en route to Cuba avoided the quarantine zone, while Khrushchev and Kennedy discussed the issue through diplomatic channels. Khrushchev, realizing his weak military position, sent a message on October 26 in which he agreed to Kennedy’s demands to remove all missiles. The following day, before the United States had responded to the first note, Khrushchev sent another, trying to negotiate other terms. Kennedy decided to respond to the first message, and on October 28, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle and remove the weapons from Cuba and offered the United States on-site inspection.

In return Kennedy secretly promised not to invade Cuba and to remove older missiles from Turkey. Kennedy called off the blockade but Cuba, angry at Soviet submission, refused to permit the promised inspection. However, U. S. spy planes revealed that the missile bases were being dismantled. Nuclear war had been avoided. This was perhaps Kennedy’s greatest moment as president. Many felt that both World War I and World War II had begun because of weak responses to acts of aggression, and Kennedy may have prevented World War III by displaying courage and strength.

On November 22, 1963, President and Mrs. Kennedy were in Dallas, Texas, trying to win support in a state that Kennedy had barely carried in 1960. As the motorcade approached an underpass, two shots were fired in rapid succession. One bullet passed through the president’s neck and struck Governor Connally in the back. The other bullet struck the president in the head. Kennedy fell forward, and his car sped to Parkland Hospital. At 1:00 PM, he was pronounced dead. He had never regained consciousness.

Less than two hours after the shooting, aboard the presidential plane at the Dallas airport, Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th president of the United States. That afternoon, Lee Harvey Oswald, who was employed in the warehouse, was arrested in a Dallas movie theater and charged with the murder. On November 24 the body of President Kennedy was carried on a horse-drawn carriage from the White House to the Rotunda of the Capitol. Hundreds of thousands of people filed past the coffin of the slain president. The grave was marked by an eternal flame lighted by his wife and brothers.

John F. Kennedy: Was His Assassination Inevitable

A popular misconception is that President John F. Kennedy’s assassination was an isolated event perpetrated by one man. This could not be farther from the truth. Instead, it was the result of a complex combination of domestic and foreign events. When President Kennedy was in office, he had to deal with many issues, ranging from business and finance to crime-fighting and war issues. Perhaps it is not as important to decide who it was that killed him, but why. President Kennedy’s decisions and courses of action were not popular with everybody, and thus it is not surprising that his assassination was inevitable.

The people who might have wanted John F. Kennedy dead can be classified into the following groups: Russians, Cubans, Mobsters (Organized Crime/Mafia), Special Agents (CIA), G-men (J. Edgar Hoover’s FBI), Rednecks and Oilmen (Right-wing Extremists), and the MIC (Military Industrial Complex). Each group had its own motives for killing John F. Kennedy. Many of these groups that wanted JFK dead are very closely intertwined, so in order to understand each group, they will each be analyzed seperately. In order to better understand the relationship between JFK, the Cubans and Russians, several important events must be mentioned and discussed.

Two of the most important foreign affairs in Kennedy’s presidency were the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis. During Eisenhower’s administration, Cuba was torn apart by revolution. The Cuban dictator, Batista, was an extremely corrupt man. While he was enjoying a luxurious life, the people of Cuba were in poverty. Thus it was not surprising when a rebellion, led by a man named Fidel Castro, took place. Batista, knowing that the majority of Cuba wanted him out, chose to flea rather than be caught and face execution. Once Batista was out of the way, Cuba was Castro’s for the taking.

One of the first actions Castro took while in charge of Cuba was to close down all casinos. The people running them were either imprisoned or deported. Exploitation of Cuban workers by American was unacceptable to Castro, and he took immediate action against this. He believed American capitalists were taking advantage of the Cubans. Angered by this aggressive attitude toward American “interests”, the United States government established a trade embargo, hoping the Cuban people would overthrow Castro and reinstate a more “American friendly” leader.

With a starving population on one side, and a broken economy on the other, Castro turned to Russia for help. Since Russia did not own any land or power in the US/Cuban region, Castro offered the Russians a chance to extend their sphere of influence. An opportunity which was not refused. Of course, the American government did not accept this situation readily. A plan to train and arm Cuban exiles who would return to Cuba to overthrow Castro was contrived. This secret operation was viewed as far less dangerous than a direct invasion by American troops.

As the election of 1960 approached, the CIA had already made plans to overthrow Castro with the Cuban exiles. However, to the surprise of just about everyone, a young John F. Kennedy defeated favorite Richard Nixon by the slimmest of margins. Nonetheless, the invasion had to go on. The plan was to bomb Cuba’s airfields to prevent the Cuban military from killing the invading exiles. However, two things went wrong in the invasion. First, the CIA underestimated the Cuban army, and second, the airstrips were not all taken out, allowing the Cuban airforce to retaliate.

Upon hearing news of this, the CIA told Kennedy that in order to succeed the US must provide air coverage for the exiles. Kennedy refused however, believing it would be foolish to provoke a crisis with the Soviets just in order to aid the exiles. Due to this, the exiles were given no chance and were quickly demolished, and the invasion had failed. Now that Castro knew the United States’ intentions, he knew he was in immediate danger. Once again, he turned to Russia for aid. Castro realized the only way to assert his safety was to defend himself, and what he did was a very strategic move.

He asked Russia to send nuclear missiles to Cuba, saying to the US that any more attempted invasions of Cuba would exact their price. For years now, the US was sending nuclear missiles to friendly countries around Russia in order to halt any Russian expansionism, and the Russians were more than eager to return the favor. This led to what is now known as the Cuban Missile Crisis. On October 16, 1962 Kennedy called his closest advisors to the White House. The CIA had verified that nuclear missiles were indeed present in Cuba, Kennedy had to react fast.

He eventually decided to launch a naval blockade to prevent any further missiles from entering Cuba. Though threatened by Russian Prime-Minister Nikita Khruschev Kennedy would not let this disturb him, and he did not stop the naval blockade. The Russian ships eventually returned home, with nuclear war being narrowly averted. However, one must consider what kind of relationship Kennedy had with both Castro and the Russians after the crisis. Could the Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile crisis made the Russians and or Cubans mad enough to kill Kennedy? As was mentioned before, many of the groups that might have wanted JFK dead are closely related.

The CIA, the Military Industrial Complex, and maybe even the FBI were all involved in the situation in Cuba, and might of had their own reasons for wanting Kennedy dead. “I will smash the CIA into a thousand pieces”, said Kennedy after the disaster at the Bay of Pigs. The President soon commissioned a report to see why the Cuban invasion had failed. The results of the report were quite disturbing. It turned out that the CIA had intentionally lied to Kennedy even though they were fully aware the invasion was predestined to fail. However, they did not tell him this so he could be pressured into providing air cover at the last minute.

Kennedy later learned that the CIA had a secret plot to kill Castro, a plot which he would have vehemently opposed. Kennedy realized how powerful the CIA could be, that they could lie to him as they please, and could plot assassinations, while he remained completely ignorant. Kennedy was not going to take this lightly. He fired the Director of the CIA, Allen Dulles. Kennedy saw the CIA not only as corrupt, but as a threat to the freedom of America, and to democracy everywhere. A threat too powerful to exist in a democracy such as the United States’.

One of Kennedy’s first courses of action to restrain the CIA was to sign the NASM 55 (National Security Action Memorandum), which would relieve the CIA of it’s role as presidential advisor, and NSAM 57, which said any proposed paramilitary operation in its early staged must be presented in front of the Strategic Resources Group for initial consideration, and than approval by the president, if necessary. Then, the SRG will give out the responsibilities for planning, coordination, execution of the Task Force, the department or individual best qualified to carry forward the operation, and will choose supporting responsibilities.

Any large paramilitary operation which needs a vast number of military personnel, military equipment, or a high level of military experience is the primary responsibility of the Department of Defense with the CIA in a supporting role. With these two documents, Kennedy had effectively restricted the CIA. Would it be a surprise then, if the CIA, in an effort to get rid of Kennedy and replace him with a more favorable president, assassinated him? Another group that quite possible wanted JFK dead was the Military Industrial Complex. Just exactly what is the MIC? It is the supplier of every plane, gun, bullet and uniform.

Just about every organization that supplies or is hired by the government to build weapons. The relationship between the government and the MIC is a very important one, and this relationship is important in understanding if the MIC wanted Kennedy dead or not. When it comes to the economy within the MIC, war is the equivalent of winning the lottery. An aggressive president who does not hesitate to go into war is the ideal choice for the MIC. The MIC thrives on war, seeing it as “business”, every time a weapon has to be replaced the MIC gets richer, and the taxpayer gets poorer.

The MIC couldn’t care less about Americans dying in war as long as the cash is flowing. Military troops can be sent anywhere at anytime in the event of war. In order to foresee a coming war, every inch on earth is now being monitored by satellites, submarines, and radar. This machinery needs regular maintenance, repair, and replacement. Every time this happens, the money goes into the MIC’s pockets. World War II was a great example of how war boosts the economy, and how quickly the US can get out of a depression. Similarly, the ongoing situation in Vietnam was a great opportunity for the MIC to fatten its wallets.

When Kennedy took the presidency, the situation in Vietnam had not yet escalated into an all out war. It was Kennedy’s firm belief that Vietnam should not the United States’ concern, and troops should be recalled back immediately. Kennedy did not see Vietnam is a danger to democracy in America. He did not share the notion that Vietnam was a “holy crusade” against the “evil empire. ” He therefore made preparations to withdraw troops, and end the conflict. To hurry up the process, Kennedy sent trainers to South Vietnam to train the Vietnamese so they could protect themselves after the US had left.

By signing NSAM 263, Kennedy asserted he wanted one thousand troops out of Vietnam by Christmas of 1963, and wanted the conflict ended by 1965. Many researchers believe this was the final straw for the MIC, if he were to now withdraw from Vietnam, their profits would be damaged substantially. It is important to note the actual amount of money the MIC had to gain if troops did stay in Vietnam. Estimated figures ranged in billions, even trillions of dollars. To have Kennedy re-elected in the election of 1964 would be disastrous the MIC.

Would it sound ludicrous at all if the MIC killed Kennedy if the gain was over a trillion dollars, and the possible loss equal to that? Another government-related group that may have wanted JFK dead was the Federal Bureau of Investigations, led by J. Edgar Hoover. The FBI was a group so powerful, it put the Secret Service to shame. If by some misfortune Kennedy were to die, the president would become Lyndon B. Johnson, one of Hoover’s best friends. If indeed he did die, the combined power of the president and the Director of the FBI would have been more than enough to fabricate an investigation into Kennedy’s assassination.

While there is no definitive proof that the FBI conspired to kill Kennedy, it would have been real easy for them to get away with it if they did commit the crime. This, coupled with Hoover’s and Johnson’s well-known hate for the Kennedys, causes most researchers today to consider the FBI as prime suspects. As if President Kennedy didn’t have enough foreign enemies, or enemies from his own government, he also had many domestic enemies. Two of the biggest were the big businessmen and the “rednecks”. Both of these groups were intimidated by the Kennedy administration.

Kennedy tried to find a middle road between black and white radicals. His human-rights activities earned him the hatred of all racists. And as for big business, he angered them by obliging steel manufacturers to reverse price increases, as well as introducing a tax-reform legislation that would end unfair tax practices and would abolish the profitable oil reduction allowance. International bankers were quite angered when, in the summer of 1963 Kennedy, had the Treasury Department print an excess of $4 billion in “United States Notes,” thus bypassing the powerful Federal Reserve System.

It may be noteworthy that Lyndon B. Johnson was a strong ally of Texas oilmen who despised Kennedy, and that it was rumored that Kennedy was about to drop Johnson from the 1964 election ticket. Could big businessmen along with Lyndon B. Johnson and friend J. Edgar Hoover, who also might have wanted Kennedy dead, plotted to kill Kennedy? The last major group that would have wanted JFK out of the way was the notorious Mafia. Since its origin, it has had a heinous reputation in the United States. John F. Kennedy’s brother, Robert, was working as Attorney General to prosecute the Mafia, thus earning him and his brother a unpleasant reputation with them.

Many crime bosses in the United States threatened the Kennedys at one point or another. The Mafia and US intelligence, as discovered by the Kennedy’s, had a few connections dating back all the way to World War II. While the Federal Bureau of Investigations didn’t really hunt down the Mafia, the CIA actually collaborated with the Mafia on more than one occasion. Certain sources even claim that there were contacts between JFK and Sam Giancana, a Mafia boss, during Kennedy’s campaign for the presidency in 1960, which led to Kennedy to winning the presidency (though the veracity of these sources leaves something to be desired).

However if this is true, the Mafia would definitely consider JFK and his brother going after them as a double-cross, and this would have been a more than strong enough motive for the them to kill Kennedy. It is important to note that the Mafia felt that no person was above them, that nobody is immune from their power. If the Mafia wanted Kennedy dead, and had a motive, is it that unlikely that they did it? The events that would have happened if Kennedy was not to be assassinated were extremely vital.

Kennedy was going to remove a thousand soldiers from Vietnam by 1963, and was committed to withdraw all troops by 1965, when Lyndon B. Johnson took office, neither happened. He was going to smash the CIA into a thousand pieces, and replace J. Edgar Hoover as Director of the FBI, this didn’t happen. He may have been going to drop Lyndon B. Johnson from the presidential ticket in 1964. Had he not been assassinated Johnson would have never become president. When Johnson took over, he signed NSAM 273, considered to be the opening of the Vietnam war. The commitment meant the MIC would continue to make money, and lots of it.

John F. Kennedy: Was His Assassination Inevitable

A popular misconception is that President John F. Kennedy’s assassination was an isolated event perpetrated by one man. This could not be farther from the truth. Instead, it was the result of a complex combination of domestic and foreign events. When President Kennedy was in office, he had to deal with many issues, ranging from business and finance to crime-fighting and war issues. Perhaps it is not as important to decide who it was that killed him, but why. President Kennedy’s decisions and courses of action were not popular with everybody, and thus it is not surprising that his assassination was inevitable.

The people who might have wanted John F. Kennedy dead can be classified into the following groups: Russians, Cubans, Mobsters (Organized Crime/Mafia), Special Agents (CIA), G-men (J. Edgar Hoover’s FBI), Rednecks and Oilmen (Right-wing Extremists), and the MIC (Military Industrial Complex). Each group had its own motives for killing John F. Kennedy. Many of these groups that wanted JFK dead are very closely intertwined, so in order to understand each group, they will each be analyzed seperately. In order to better understand the relationship between JFK, the Cubans and Russians, several important events must be mentioned and discussed.

Two of the most important foreign affairs in Kennedy’s presidency were the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis. During Eisenhower’s administration, Cuba was torn apart by revolution. The Cuban dictator, Batista, was an extremely corrupt man. While he was enjoying a luxurious life, the people of Cuba were in poverty. Thus it was not surprising when a rebellion, led by a man named Fidel Castro, took place. Batista, knowing that the majority of Cuba wanted him out, chose to flea rather than be caught and face execution. Once Batista was out of the way, Cuba was Castro’s for the taking.

One of the first actions Castro took while in charge of Cuba was to close down all casinos. The people running them were either imprisoned or deported. Exploitation of Cuban workers by American was unacceptable to Castro, and he took immediate action against this. He believed American capitalists were taking advantage of the Cubans. Angered by this aggressive attitude toward American interests, the United States government established a trade embargo, hoping the Cuban people would overthrow Castro and reinstate a more American friendly leader.

With a starving population on one side, and a broken economy on the other, Castro turned to Russia for help. Since Russia did not own any land or power in the US/Cuban region, Castro offered the Russians a chance to extend their sphere of influence. An opportunity which was not refused. Of course, the American government did not accept this situation readily. A plan to train and arm Cuban exiles who would return to Cuba to overthrow Castro was contrived. This secret operation was viewed as far less dangerous than a direct invasion by American troops.

As the election of 1960 approached, the CIA had already made plans to overthrow Castro with the Cuban exiles. However, to the surprise of just about everyone, a young John F. Kennedy defeated favorite Richard Nixon by the slimmest of margins. Nonetheless, the invasion had to go on. The plan was to bomb Cuba’s airfields to prevent the Cuban military from killing the invading exiles. However, two things went wrong in the invasion. First, the CIA underestimated the Cuban army, and second, the airstrips were not all taken out, allowing the Cuban airforce to retaliate.

Upon hearing news of this, the CIA told Kennedy that in order to succeed the US must provide air coverage for the exiles. Kennedy refused however, believing it would be foolish to provoke a crisis with the Soviets just in order to aid the exiles. Due to this, the exiles were given no chance and were quickly demolished, and the invasion had failed. Now that Castro knew the United States’ intentions, he knew he was in immediate danger. Once again, he turned to Russia for aid. Castro realized the only way to assert his safety was to defend himself, and what he did was a very strategic move.

He asked Russia to send nuclear missiles to Cuba, saying to the US that any more attempted invasions of Cuba would exact their price. For years now, the US was sending nuclear missiles to friendly countries around Russia in order to halt any Russian expansionism, and the Russians were more than eager to return the favor. This led to what is now known as the Cuban Missile Crisis. On October 16, 1962 Kennedy called his closest advisors to the White House. The CIA had verified that nuclear missiles were indeed present in Cuba, Kennedy had to react fast.

He eventually decided to launch a naval blockade to prevent any further missiles from entering Cuba. Though threatened by Russian Prime-Minister Nikita Khruschev Kennedy would not let this disturb him, and he did not stop the naval blockade. The Russian ships eventually returned home, with nuclear war being narrowly averted. However, one must consider what kind of relationship Kennedy had with both Castro and the Russians after the crisis. Could the Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile crisis made the Russians and or Cubans mad enough to kill Kennedy? As was mentioned before, many of the groups that might have wanted JFK dead are closely related.

The CIA, the Military Industrial Complex, and maybe even the FBI were all involved in the situation in Cuba, and might of had their own reasons for wanting Kennedy dead. I will smash the CIA into a thousand pieces, said Kennedy after the disaster at the Bay of Pigs. The President soon commissioned a report to see why the Cuban invasion had failed. The results of the report were quite disturbing. It turned out that the CIA had intentionally lied to Kennedy even though they were fully aware the invasion was predestined to fail. However, they did not tell him this so he could be pressured into providing air cover at the last minute.

Kennedy later learned that the CIA had a secret plot to kill Castro, a plot which he would have vehemently opposed. Kennedy realized how powerful the CIA could be, that they could lie to him as they please, and could plot assassinations, while he remained completely ignorant. Kennedy was not going to take this lightly. He fired the Director of the CIA, Allen Dulles. Kennedy saw the CIA not only as corrupt, but as a threat to the freedom of America, and to democracy everywhere. A threat too powerful to exist in a democracy such as the United States’.

One of Kennedy’s first courses of action to restrain the CIA was to sign the NASM 55 (National Security Action Memorandum), which would relieve the CIA of it’s role as presidential advisor, and NSAM 57, which said any proposed paramilitary operation in its early staged must be presented in front of the Strategic Resources Group for initial consideration, and than approval by the president, if necessary. Then, the SRG will give out the responsibilities for planning, coordination, execution of the Task Force, the department or individual best qualified to carry forward the operation, and will choose supporting responsibilities.

Any large paramilitary operation which needs a vast number of military personnel, military equipment, or a high level of military experience is the primary responsibility of the Department of Defense with the CIA in a supporting role. With these two documents, Kennedy had effectively restricted the CIA. Would it be a surprise then, if the CIA, in an effort to get rid of Kennedy and replace him with a more favorable president, assassinated him? Another group that quite possible wanted JFK dead was the Military Industrial Complex. Just exactly what is the MIC? It is the supplier of every plane, gun, bullet and uniform.

Just about every organization that supplies or is hired by the government to build weapons. The relationship between the government and the MIC is a very important one, and this relationship is important in understanding if the MIC wanted Kennedy dead or not. When it comes to the economy within the MIC, war is the equivalent of winning the lottery. An aggressive president who does not hesitate to go into war is the ideal choice for the MIC. The MIC thrives on war, seeing it as business, every time a weapon has to be replaced the MIC gets richer, and the taxpayer gets poorer.

The MIC couldn’t care less about Americans dying in war as long as the cash is flowing. Military troops can be sent anywhere at anytime in the event of war. In order to foresee a coming war, every inch on earth is now being monitored by satellites, submarines, and radar. This machinery needs regular maintenance, repair, and replacement. Every time this happens, the money goes into the MIC’s pockets. World War II was a great example of how war boosts the economy, and how quickly the US can get out of a depression. Similarly, the ongoing situation in Vietnam was a great opportunity for the MIC to fatten its wallets.

When Kennedy took the presidency, the situation in Vietnam had not yet escalated into an all out war. It was Kennedy’s firm belief that Vietnam should not the United States’ concern, and troops should be recalled back immediately. Kennedy did not see Vietnam is a danger to democracy in America. He did not share the notion that Vietnam was a holy crusade against the evil empire. He therefore made preparations to withdraw troops, and end the conflict. To hurry up the process, Kennedy sent trainers to South Vietnam to train the Vietnamese so they could protect themselves after the US had left.

By signing NSAM 263, Kennedy asserted he wanted one thousand troops out of Vietnam by Christmas of 1963, and wanted the conflict ended by 1965. Many researchers believe this was the final straw for the MIC, if he were to now withdraw from Vietnam, their profits would be damaged substantially. It is important to note the actual amount of money the MIC had to gain if troops did stay in Vietnam. Estimated figures ranged in billions, even trillions of dollars. To have Kennedy re-elected in the election of 1964 would be disastrous the MIC.

Would it sound ludicrous at all if the MIC killed Kennedy if the gain was over a trillion dollars, and the possible loss equal to that? Another government-related group that may have wanted JFK dead was the Federal Bureau of Investigations, led by J. Edgar Hoover. The FBI was a group so powerful, it put the Secret Service to shame. If by some misfortune Kennedy were to die, the president would become Lyndon B. Johnson, one of Hoover’s best friends. If indeed he did die, the combined power of the president and the Director of the FBI would have been more than enough to fabricate an investigation into Kennedy’s assassination.

While there is no definitive proof that the FBI conspired to kill Kennedy, it would have been real easy for them to get away with it if they did commit the crime. This, coupled with Hoover’s and Johnson’s well-known hate for the Kennedys, causes most researchers today to consider the FBI as prime suspects. As if President Kennedy didn’t have enough foreign enemies, or enemies from his own government, he also had many domestic enemies. Two of the biggest were the big businessmen and the rednecks. Both of these groups were intimidated by the Kennedy administration.

Kennedy tried to find a middle road between black and white radicals. His human-rights activities earned him the hatred of all racists. And as for big business, he angered them by obliging steel manufacturers to reverse price increases, as well as introducing a tax-reform legislation that would end unfair tax practices and would abolish the profitable oil reduction allowance. International bankers were quite angered when, in the summer of 1963 Kennedy, had the Treasury Department print an excess of $4 billion in United States Notes, thus bypassing the powerful Federal Reserve System. It may be noteworthy that Lyndon B.

Johnson was a strong ally of Texas oilmen who despised Kennedy, and that it was rumored that Kennedy was about to drop Johnson from the 1964 election ticket. Could big businessmen along with Lyndon B. Johnson and friend J. Edgar Hoover, who also might have wanted Kennedy dead, plotted to kill Kennedy? The last major group that would have wanted JFK out of the way was the notorious Mafia. Since its origin, it has had a heinous reputation in the United States. John F. Kennedy’s brother, Robert, was working as Attorney General to prosecute the Mafia, thus earning him and his brother a unpleasant reputation with them.

Many crime bosses in the United States threatened the Kennedys at one point or another. The Mafia and US intelligence, as discovered by the Kennedy’s, had a few connections dating back all the way to World War II. While the Federal Bureau of Investigations didn’t really hunt down the Mafia, the CIA actually collaborated with the Mafia on more than one occasion. Certain sources even claim that there were contacts between JFK and Sam Giancana, a Mafia boss, during Kennedy’s campaign for the presidency in 1960, which led to Kennedy to winning the presidency (though the veracity of these sources leaves something to be desired).

However if this is true, the Mafia would definitely consider JFK and his brother going after them as a double-cross, and this would have been a more than strong enough motive for the them to kill Kennedy. It is important to note that the Mafia felt that no person was above them, that nobody is immune from their power. If the Mafia wanted Kennedy dead, and had a motive, is it that unlikely that they did it? The events that would have happened if Kennedy was not to be assassinated were extremely vital.

Kennedy was going to remove a thousand soldiers from Vietnam by 1963, and was committed to withdraw all troops by 1965, when Lyndon B. Johnson took office, neither happened. He was going to smash the CIA into a thousand pieces, and replace J. Edgar Hoover as Director of the FBI, this didn’t happen. He may have been going to drop Lyndon B. Johnson from the presidential ticket in 1964. Had he not been assassinated Johnson would have never become president. When Johnson took over, he signed NSAM 273, considered to be the opening of the Vietnam war. The commitment meant the MIC would continue to make money, and lots of it.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States

John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected president. He was also the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president. Therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented war. Young people especially liked him. No other president was so popular. He brought to the presidency an awareness of the cultural and historical traditions of the United States.

Because Kennedy expressed the values of 20th-century America, his presidency was important beyond its political achievements. John Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts. He was the second of nine children. Kennedy announced his candidacy early in 1960. By the time the Democratic National Convention opened in July, he had won seven primary victories. His most important had been in West Virginia, where he proved that a Roman Catholic could win in a predominantly Protestant state. When the convention opened, it appeared that Kennedy’s only serious challenge for the nomination would come from the Senate majority eader, Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas.

However, Johnson was strong only among Southern delegates. Kennedy won the nomination on the first ballot and then persuaded Johnson to become his running mate. Two weeks later the Republicans nominated Vice President Richard Nixon for president and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. , who was ambassador to the United Nations and whom Kennedy had defeated for the Senate in 1952, for vice president. In the fast-paced campaign that followed, Kennedy made stops in 46 states and 273 cities and towns, while Nixon visited every state and 170 urban areas.

Another important element of the campaign was the support Kennedy received from blacks in important Northern states, especially Illinois and Pennsylvania. They supported him in part because he and Robert Kennedy had tried to get the release of the civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. King, who had been jailed for taking part in a civil rights demonstration in Georgia, was released soon afterward. The election drew a record 69 million voters to the polls, but Kennedy won by only 113,000 votes.

Kennedy was inaugurated on January 20, 1961. In his inaugural address he emphasized America’s revolutionary eritage. “The same … beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe,” Kennedy said. 3″Let the word go forth from this time and place to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans—born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage—and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed and to which we are committed today at home and around the world. ”

Kennedy challenged Americans to assume the burden of “defending reedom in its hour of maximum danger. The words of his address were, 4″Ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country. ” Kennedy sought with considerable success to attract brilliant young people to government service. His hope was to bring new ideas and new methods into the executive branch.

As a result many of his advisers were teachers and scholars. Among them were McGeorge Bundy and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. , both graduates of Harvard. Kennedy’s most influential adviser was Theodore C. Sorenson, a member of Kennedy’s staff since his days in the Senate.

Sorenson wrote many of Kennedy’s peeches and exerted a strong influence on Kennedy’s development as a political liberal, 5 a person who believes that the government should directly help people to overcome poverty or social discrimination. The president and Mrs. Kennedy attempted to make the White House the cultural center of the nation. Writers, artists, poets, scientists, and musicians were frequent dinner guests. On one occasion the Kennedy’s held a reception for all the American winners of the Nobel Prize, people who made outstanding contributions to their field during the past year.

At the party the president suggested that more talent nd genius was at the White House that night than there had been since Thomas Jefferson had last dined there alone. At a meeting with the leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Nikita Khrushchev, Kennedy asked the name of a medal Khrushchev was wearing. When the premier identified it as the Lenin Peace Medal, Kennedy remarked, 6″I hope you keep it. ” On another occasion he told a group of Republican business leaders,

7″It would be premature to ask for your support in the next election and inaccurate to thank you for it in the past. Even in great crises, Kennedy retained his sense of humor. Kennedy’s first year in office brought him considerable success in enacting new legislation. Congress passed a major housing bill, a law increasing the minimum wage, and a bill granting federal aid to economically depressed areas of the United States. The most original piece of legislation Kennedy put through Congress was the bill creating the Peace Corps, an agency that trained American volunteers to perform social and humanitarian service overseas. The program’s goal was to promote world peace and friendship with developing nations.

The idea of American volunteers helping people in foreign ands touched the idealism of many citizens. Within two years, Peace Corps volunteers were working in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, living with the people and working on education, public health, and agricultural projects. However, after his initial success with Congress, Kennedy found it increasingly difficult to get his programs enacted into law. Although the Democrats held a majority in both houses, Southern Democrats joined with conservative Republicans to stop legislation they disliked.

The Medicare bill, a bill to make medical care for the aged a national benefit, was defeated. A civil rights bill and a bill to ut taxes were debated, and compromises were agreed to, but even the compromises were delayed. A bill to create a Cabinet-level Department of Urban Affairs was soundly defeated, partly because Kennedy wanted the economist Robert C. Weaver, a black man, to be the new secretary. Southern Congressmen united with representatives from mostly rural areas to defeat the bill. Kennedy did win approval of a bill to lower tariffs and thus allow more competitive American trade abroad.

Congress also authorized the purchase of $100 million in United Nations bonds, and the money enabled the international organization to survive a financial crisis. Further, Congress appropriated more than $1 billion to finance sending a man to the moon by 1970 which was accomplished in 1969. The major American legal and moral conflict during Kennedy’s three years in office was in the area of civil rights. Black agitation against discrimination had become widespread and well organized. Although Kennedy was in no way responsible for the growth of the civil rights movement, he attempted to aid the black cause by enforcing existing laws.

Kennedy particularly wanted to end discrimination in federally financed projects or in companies that were doing business with the government. In September 1962 Governor Ross R. Barnett of Mississippi ignored a court order and prevented James H. Meredith, a black man, from enrolling at the state university. On the night of September 29, even as the president went on national television to appeal to the people of Mississippi to obey the law, rioting began on the campus. After 15 hours of rioting and two deaths, Kennedy sent in troops to restore order.

Meredith was admitted to the university, and troops and federal marshals remained on the campus to insure his safety. In June 1963, when Governor George C. Wallace of Alabama prevented two lacks from enrolling at the University of Alabama, Kennedy federalized the Alabama National Guard to enforce the law. The students were enrolled at the university. Three months later, Kennedy again used the National Guard to prevent Wallace from interfering with integration in the public schools of Birmingham, Tuskegee, and Mobile.

Kennedy also asked Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would guarantee blacks the right to vote, to attend public school, to have equal access to jobs, and to have access to public accommodations. Kennedy told the American people, 8″Now the time has come for this ation to fulfill its promises … to act, to make a commitment it has not fully made in this century to the proposition that race has no place in American life or law. ” Public opinion polls showed that Kennedy was losing popularity because of his advocacy of civil rights.

Privately, he began to assume that the South would oppose him in the next election, but he continued to speak out against segregation, the practice of separating people of different races. To a group of students in Nashville, Tennessee, he said, 9 “No one can deny the complexity of the problem involved in assuring all of our citizens their full rights as Americans. But no one can gainsay the fact that the determination to secure those rights is in the highest tradition of American freedom. ” In 1959, after several attempts, a revolution led by Fidel Castro finally overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar.

During the next two years, Castro was to become increasingly hostile to the United States. The new regime’s agricultural reform laws provoked U. S. companies that operated sugar plantations. Companies that were not controlled by Cuban stockholders were not allowed to operate plantations, and sugar production was de-emphasized in favor of food crops. In 1960 the Castro government nationalized, or took over ownership of, an estimated $1 billion in properties owned by U. S. companies and citizens, and the Eisenhower administration imposed a trade embargo.

When Castro began to proclaim his belief in Communism, Cuba became part of the Cold War, or struggle between the United States and its allies and the nations led by the USSR that involved intense economic and diplomatic battles but not direct military conflict. Many Cubans fled to the United States. During the Eisenhower administration the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had begun to train Cuban exiles secretly for an invasion of Cuba. When Kennedy became president, he approved the invasion. In April 1961 more than 1000 Cuban exiles made an amphibious landing in Cuba at a place called the Bay of Pigs.

Their plan was to move inland and join with anti-Castro forces to stage a revolt simultaneously, but instead Castro’s forces were there to meet the invaders. The revolt in the interior did not happen, and air support, promised by the CIA, never came. The exiles were defeated and the survivors were taken prisoner. On December 25, 1962, 1113 prisoners were released in exchange for food and medical supplies valued at a total of approximately $53 million. Most other Latin American countries had the same bad social, economic, and political conditions that had led to Castro’s success in Cuba.

Many of these nations seemed ripe for a revolution that could easily be exploited by the Communists. Upon taking office, President Kennedy looked for a program that would accelerate change in Latin America by strengthening democratic institutions. In March 1961 he introduced the Alliance for Progress, and in August it was established by the charter of Punte del Este. The Alliance for Progress was to be a Latin American version of the Marshall Plan, the United States plan to fund cooperative, long-term program to rebuild Europe following World War II.

All Latin American nations except Cuba joined the Alliance for Progress, pledging 10″to bring our people accelerated economic progress and broader social justice within the framework of personal dignity and individual liberty. ” The United States promised $20 billion for the first ten years. The Alliance for Progress and President Kennedy’s particular concern for democratic institutions brought the United States renewed popularity in Latin America. On June 3, 1961, in Vienna, Austria, Kennedy and Khrushchev met and eviewed relationships between the United States and the USSR, as well as other questions of interest to the two states.

Two incidents contributed to hostility at the meeting. The first was the shooting down of a U. S. spy plane in Soviet air space, and the second was the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in early 1961. The results of the conference made it clear that Khrushchev had construed Kennedy’s failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion as a sign of weakness. No agreements were reached on any important issues. In fact, the Soviet premier made it clear that the Soviet Union intended to pursue an even ore aggressive policy toward the United States. Kennedy’s last words to Khrushchev in Vienna were, 11

“It’s going to be a cold winter. He reported to the American people that the Soviet premier was a”tough-minded” leader who did not understand the intentions of the United States. The leaders had spent a “very sober two days. ” In August 1961, to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West, the Communists ordered a wall built on the border between East and West Berlin. West Berlin had been under the control of the United States, France, and Britain since the end of World War II, although the city ay deep inside East Germany, a state that was an ally of the USSR. Kennedy and other Western leaders protested, but the wall was built.

Kennedy had already asked for more military spending and had called up reserve troops for duty in Europe. When East German soldiers began blocking the Allied route through East Germany into Berlin, Kennedy sent a force of 1500 soldiers marching along the route into West Berlin. The troops went uncontested. Communist interference stopped, allowing Allied forces travel to and from Berlin. Amongst other problems President Kennedy faced, none was more serious than this one. The Cuban Missile Crisis was perhaps the world’s closest approach to nuclear war.

In 1960 Soviet Premier Khrushchev decided to supply Cuba with nuclear missiles that would put the eastern United States within range of nuclear missile attack. Khrushchev, when asked, denied that any missiles were being supplied to Cuba, but in the summer of 1962 U. S. spy planes flying over Cuba photographed Soviet-managed construction work and spotted the first missile on October 14. For seven days President Kennedy consulted secretly with advisers, discussing the possible responses while in public his administration arried on as though nothing was wrong.

Finally, on October 22, Kennedy told the nation about the discovery of the missiles, demanded that the Soviet Union remove the weapons, and declared the waters around Cuba a quarantine zone. Kennedy called upon Khrushchev 12″to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations” and warned that an attack from Cuba on any nation in the western hemisphere would be considered an attack by the USSR on the United States itself. At the same time, United States troops were sent to Florida to prepare or invading Cuba, and air units were alerted.

American vessels blockaded Cuba with orders to search all suspicious-looking Soviet ships and to turn back any that carried offensive weapons. For several tense days Soviet vessels en route to Cuba avoided the quarantine zone, while Khrushchev and Kennedy discussed the issue through diplomatic channels. Khrushchev, realizing his weak military position, sent a message on October 26 in which he agreed to Kennedy’s demands to remove all missiles. The following day, before the United States had responded to the first note, Khrushchev sent another, rying to negotiate other terms.

Kennedy decided to respond to the first message, and on October 28, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle and remove the weapons from Cuba and offered the United States on-site inspection. In return Kennedy secretly promised not to invade Cuba and to remove older missiles from Turkey. Kennedy called off the blockade but Cuba, angry at Soviet submission, refused to permit the promised inspection. However, U. S. spy planes revealed that the missile bases were being dismantled. Nuclear war had been avoided. This was perhaps Kennedy’s greatest moment as president. Many felt that both World War

I and World War II had begun because of weak responses to acts of aggression, and Kennedy may have prevented World War III by displaying courage and strength. On November 22, 1963, President and Mrs. Kennedy were in Dallas, Texas, trying to win support in a state that Kennedy had barely carried in 1960. As the motorcade approached an underpass, two shots were fired in rapid succession. One bullet passed through the president’s neck and struck Governor Connally in the back. The other bullet struck the president in the head. Kennedy fell forward, and his car sped to Parkland Hospital. At 1:00 PM, he was pronounced dead.

He ad never regained consciousness. Less than two hours after the shooting, aboard the presidential plane at the Dallas airport, Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th president of the United States. That afternoon, Lee Harvey Oswald, who was employed in the warehouse, was arrested in a Dallas movie theater and charged with the murder. On November 24 the body of President Kennedy was carried on a horse-drawn carriage from the White House to the Rotunda of the Capitol. Hundreds of thousands of people filed past the coffin of the slain president. The grave was marked by an eternal flame lighted by his wife and brothers.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States

John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th president of the United States. He was the youngest president ever to be elected, the first Roman Catholic president, and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Although, he didn’t get the chance to live out his term and possible another one, he impacted the entire world. No other president was so popular, especially with the young people. John F. Kennedy was born May 29th, 1917, child of Joseph P. and Rose Kennedy.

John had eight brothers and sisters: Joseph P. Jr. (1915), Rosemary (1918), Kathleen (1920), Eunice (1921), Patricia (1924), Robert F. 925), Jean (1928) and Edward M. (1932). All of the children were born in Brookline, Massachusetts. They were all very competitive due to their parents. The only thing that was important to them was winning. John grew up in the nineteen twenties and thirties at his birth place of Brookline, Massachusetts. John had once stated, “life is unfair,”1 yet for him the statement was definitely not true. His childhood consisted of many things. Coming from a wealthy family let him have the freedom to do what most kids couldn’t.

That still didn’t keep him from behaving like other kids. He and his brothers and isters all participated in things such as sailboat races, tennis matches, or even just a simple game of touch football. All family members were always encouraged to get involved with government issues. Small talk wasn’t allowed at the Kennedy dinner table2. They discussed world and national issues. The impact of these discussions wouldn’t be seen until later. Joseph and Rose were trying to prepare their sons for public life and prepare their daughters for marriages to distinguished young men.

In 1937, the Kennedy family moved to Great Britain so that John’s father could become the American ambassador there for three ears. John stayed in the United States for an education at Harvard University. John was a very good student at Harvard, yet he didn’t make the high grades that his brother had. So, John joined two clubs and spent most of his time working on a newspaper published at Harvard, “Crimson”3. When he had finished his school term his father decided to let him tour Europe. When he was there he started to become interested in wars and politics, after noticing Hitler’s actions.

John went back there the following summer and saw how Hitler never gave up and continued to strengthen his army. He knew of the war that was soon oming. The United States had sided with Great Britain, so he knew he would have to go into the war. So, he went to enter the Air Corps, but was turned away because of his back problems. Instead he went for the position on naval officer and passes the health analysis. He was assigned to the intelligence division, he thought it was very boring. Shortly after Pearl Harbor was attacked, John was sent for motor torpedo (PT boat) training4.

Officer Kennedy soon became Lieutenant Kennedy. In Tulagi, John was assigned to a dirty old looking boat that had already been through nine months of combat. John experienced his first eal combat when his boat was attacked by a Japanese fighter plane. Only two men were injured that time. They continued to stay there until one night when a full size Japanese ship came full speed at Kennedy’s boat. The boat was demolished and the Japanese thought that all of the men had been killed. All of the men were forced to swim to Plum Pudding Island , three and one half miles away, with Kennedy leading them.

After his triumph he was promoted to Full Lieutenant and was awarded the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for saving his crew. He also received a Purple Heart for the severe back injury he suffered from the ollision. After that, he took command of another PT boat and took part in many more missions. For John one particularly bad thing happened in this war, his brother died. Which impacted his life so greatly. The family had expected his brother Joe to run for public office. Now that he was gone, John was now the eldest son and it was now his responsibility. In 1946, he had the chance to run for Congress.

Though he was still weak from his war injuries, he campaigned aggressively. He won that election that November, he was only 295. He served three terms as a Democratic Congressman, from 1947 until1953. In 1952 he ran for U. S. senate against Henry Cabot Lodge. He won that election and less than a year later he enhanced his appeal to the people. He married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier on September 12, 1953. He was a very popular and successful Senator. He had almost become Stevenson’s vice presidential running mate in 1956. His speech on concession brought him into over 40 million homes in America.

He quickly became one of the most famous political figures in the country. Already his campaign for 1960 nomination had begun. Kennedy had to make extreme efforts toward this campaign. People were saying that no Roman Catholic man could ever become president. His mission was to prove them wrong. The press loved him, he and his wife appeared on magazine covers, photographers followed them everywhere. He had to do a number of speeches and appearances. So, to transport him and his staff around the country, his father bought him a forty passenger Convair aircraft6.

In January 1960, Kennedy formally announced his presidential candidacy. His rivals were Senators Hubert H. Humphrey of Minnesota and Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas. Kennedy knocked Humphrey out of the way and was still battling the rumors f a catholic president. He dealt with that by winning the primary in West Virginia, which is primarily Protestant. He was nominated on the first ballot, and chose Johnson as his running mate. Kennedy narrowly won the general election against Nixon. He was inaugurated on January 20, 1961. At the inauguration is where he made his famous speech.

The speech was about America’s revolutionary heritage. Which is when he made this famous quote,” Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country. “7 Kennedy’s first year in office brought him considerable success. Congress passed a bill ncreasing minimum wage, and Congress passed his bill to create the Peace Corps. Which was an agency to perform social and humanitarian services overseas. The program’s goal was to create peace and friendship with nations. Within two years the Peace Corps were working in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.

Kennedy ran into some problems after the conservative Republicans joined with the Southern Democrats to stop legislation they didn’t like. A Medicare bill, a civil rights bill, and a bill to create a Cabinet-level Department of Urban Affairs were all defeated8. Kennedy didn’t lose all of his approval because he get some of his ills passed. Congress passed a bill to lower tariffs, authorized a purchase of over $100 million in United Nations bonds, and Congress appropriated more than $1 billion dollars to send a man to the moon.

Kennedy began to lose popularity after he started forcing universities in the south to accept black students. People thought that he was limiting their rights as citizens. He continued to speak out against segregation and lost even more populairty. In 1959, after several attempts, a revolution led by Fidel Castro finally overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar. During the next two years Castro became ery hostile towards the United States. After some problems with $1 billion dollars in properties and companies owned by the U. S. Castro began to proclaim his belief in Communism.

Cuba then became part of the cold war. Kennedy approved an invasion of Cuba by CIA trained Cuban exiles. In April 1961, more then 1000 exiles landed in Cuba at a place called Bay of Pigs. Their plan was to move inland and join with anti-Castro forces to stage a revolt. Castro’s forces were there to meet the invaders, and the revolt didn’t happen. The CIA promised air support, but that never came. The exiles were taken as prisoners. The prisoners were released in exchange for food and medical supplies valued at $53 million.

In March 1961, Kennedy introduced the Alliance for Progress, which would strengthen democratic institution in the Latin American nation to prevent them from doing what Cuba did. In August in was established by the charter of Punte del Este. This would be a Latin American version of the Marshall Plan. All Latin American nations except Cuba joined , pledging ” to bring our people accelerated economic progress and broader social justice within the framework of personal dignity and individual liberty. 9 This brought the U. S popularity in Latin America.

On June 3, 1961, in Vienna, Autstria, Kennedy and Khrushchev met and reviewed the relationship between the U. S and the U. S. S. R. . There was a lot of hostility, considering that there was a shooting down of a U. S spy plane in Soviet air space. The Bay of Pigs invasion created hostility too. NO agreements were reached on any important issues. The Soviet premier actually made it clear that the policies toward the Untied States would be even more strict. In August 1961, the Communists ordered that there be a wall put up between East and West Berlin. West Germany was under the control of the US, France and Britain.

Those countries protested the wall, but since East Germany was Communist, it was done anyway. Allied forced weren’t even allowed to travel through Berlin. This was the beginning of the Cuban Missile Crisis. This was the closest the world’s ever been to nuclear war. Khrushchev decided to supply Cuba with nuclear missiles that would be in range of the Eastern United States. He denied it when asked if he was supplying Cuba with missiles, but in the summer or 1962 there a US spy plane photographed a construction site managed by the Soviets and then spotted a missile on October 14th.

For seven days Kennedy met with advisors on how to handle and respond to this, while the administration carried on as if nothing was wrong. On October 22nd, Kennedy told the nation about the missiles, demanded that the USSR remove the missiles and declared the water around Cuba a quarantine zone. Kennedy warned the USSR that if Cuba attacked the US it would be considered an attack on the US by USSR itself. Troops were sent to Florida to prepare for invading Cuba and air units were alerted. American vessels blockaded any Soviet ships that looked suspicious and earched them.

For several days Soviet ships avoided the quarantine zone while Kennedy and Khrushchev discussed this. On October 26th Khrushchev agreed to remove all of the missiles. Before the US could respond to that note, Krushchev sent another trying to negotiate other terms. The USSR removed and dismantled all of the mistled and offered the US an on-site inspection. Kennedy promised not to invade Cuba and to remove missiles from Turkey. Cuba, angry at the Soviet submission refused the promised inspection. US spy planes revealed that the missile bases were being dismantled.

Kennedy was a hero, he had avoided nuclear war and possibly World War III. As a result of him displaying courage and strength. On November 22, 1963, President and Mrs. Kennedy were in Dallas, Texas. They were trying to win support from the state that Kennedy had barely carried in 1960. AS the motorcade approached an underpass, two shots were fired in rapid succession. One bullet passed through Kennedy’s neck and struck Governor Connally in the back. The other bullet hit the president in the head. His car sped to Parkland Hospital. At 1:00PM he was pronounced dead, he had ever regained consciousness.

Less then 2 hours after the shooting, on the residential plane, Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th president of the United States. That afternoon, Lee Harvey Oswald, who was employed in the warehouse, was arrested in a movie theatre and charged with murder. On November 24 the body of President Kennedy was carried on a horse drawn carriage from the White House to the Rotunda of the Capitol. 10 Hundreds of thousands of people filed passed the coffin of the president. The grave was marked by an eternal flame that was lit by his wife and his brothers.

John F. Kennedy Assassination

On November 22, 1963, American history changed forever. That day the presidential motorcade of President John F. Kennedy traveled down Elm Street in Dallas, Texas. As the limousine went down past The Texas School Book Depository shots were fired. These shots, said to have been fired by Lee Harvey Oswald, struck President Kennedy and Governor Connally. The wounds to President Kennedy were fatal. This event will never be forgotten by the American people.

This event and the proceeding Warren Commission investigation will be causes of arguments in this country for a long time to come. With the uncertainty of this event, it seems that everyone has their own opinion on what actually happened. These opinions range from believing the official report of the Warren Commission, to believing that the Russians assassinated Kennedy. Despite all of the other theories, the most believable theory is that the federal government was involved in the assassination of the President.

The federal government involvement in the Kennedy assassination can be seen through the quick findings that Oswald acted alone in the assassination, through CIA and FBI actions after the assassination, and through the actions of President Johnson following the assassination of President Kennedy. There are many other theories about the assassination of President Kennedy. One of these is the Lone Gunman theory give by the Warren Commission. This stated: The shots which killed President Kennedy and wounded Governor Connally were fired from the sixth floor window at the southeast corner of the Texas School

Book Depository. This is due to the conclusion that the bullets were fired from above and behind the Presidential limousine, and witnesses reported seeing a rifle being fired from that window. (Callahan 30-32) This statement, although the official report, is questionable. This theory makes it so that one man would have to fire all of the rounds. Callahan states “Kennedy was reported to have been shot with a 6. 5 Mannlicher-Caracano rifle which takes a minimum of 2. 3 seconds to load while no more than 1. econds elapsed between rounds,”(32).

That fact makes this theory impossible to be true, especially with that particular gun. So this evidence shows that there is no way that Lee Harvey Oswald could have acted alone from the Book Depository. Another theory is the Friendly Fire theory. This theory given By Bonar Menninger suggested “Kennedy was shot by Secret Service agent George Hickey who accidentally discharged his AR-15 in the direction of Kennedy after being startled by the first two shots of Oswald,”(251).

This theory is based on the research of ballistics expert Howard Donahue, who firmly believes that by the way the head of President Kennedy was positioned, the fatal bullet must have traveled at a trajectory equal to the grade of the street (Callahan 40). This theory does not make any sense for two reasons. First, the bullets supposedly came from a Mannlicher-Caracano rifle. The weapon that Hickey was carrying was an AR-15, not the type said to have killed Kennedy. Also, it seems odd that a secret service agent would have his gun aimed at the person that he was protecting.

It would seem more likely that someone in the crowed would have been shot if a secret service agent accidentally discharged his weapon. This theory has never been backed up, because neither Hickey nor the Secret Service would comment on this alleged incident. So it is seen that many of the main theories about the assassination have major holes in them. This leads one to believe that they were not told the truth about what actually happened in the assassination. There is only one group that has the power to cause the cover up of this event.

This group is who performed the investigation, the federal government. So through holes in assassination theories it is shown that the federal government had to have been involved, or else the American people would know what really happened on that day in DallaThe Warren Commission was in charge of investigating the assassination of the President. This commission was named after its head, Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren. The group spent From March to June of 1964 sorting through the huge and contradictory body of evidence collected by J. Edgar Hoover’s FBI (Callahan 29).

In just three months they came up with their conclusion of the assassination. This seems like it was very quick with all of the evidence that the commission had to go through. This would make one think that they did not look at every possibility for the assassination. Thus they must have been hiding something. As time went on people began to feel that the government was not telling them everything that happened concerning the Kennedy assassination. CIA concerns about this were revealed in a now declassified memo released April 1, 1967.

The memo stated “In most cases the critics have speculated as to the existence of some kind of conspiracy, and often implied that the commission itself was involved. “(Callahan 65). So it is shown people were starting to doubt what the government told them about the Kennedy situation. Callahan stated: The memo presumably came about due to increasing challenge to the Warren Commission report shown in a public opinion poll at the time which stated 46% of the American public did not feel that Oswald acted alone (65). This started to worry the CIA that the people were not believing what the government told them.

This was also shown in the CIA memo. It said: The people felt the government especially the CIA was directly involved because they contributed information to the investigation and because Oswald was alleged to have worked for the Central Intelligence Agency (Callahan 66). The agency would now turn its attention to trying to discredit any of their involvement. Why would the CIA have been so worried if they were not involved in the Kennedy assassination? The truth is they would not have, so they must have had something to do with the President’s murder.

The subject of Cuban involvement in the assassination was not really even considered during the Warren Commission investigation. Callahan stated “Even when the commission would bring this topic up, Allen Dulles, former director of The Central Intelligence agency, would try to get the investigation of the committee away from the subject of Cuba,”(128). The actions of Dulles leads one to think that the CIA was involved in something with Cuba. The way Dulles skirted around the topic of Cuba could be read to different ways according to Callahan: the first was that he feared the international repercussions.

While the other was sinister, saying the CIA stayed silent about Cuba because the evidence showed that some of the CIA agents helped procure the assassins from Cuba who shot President Kennedy(128). If the second of these two ways to see this were true, it would be easy to see why the Dulles would be trying to avoid the subject of Cuban involvement in the assassination. The former head of the CIA was trying to hide American involvement in the incident. If truth of this were ever to get out there would be chaos in the government due to the number of officials who must have been involved.

The involvement of the CIA and the FBI in the incident can be seen further in the commission’s proceedings. This is shown in the Warren Commission not even talking to William Harvey or Maurice Bishop, who were thought to both have information on CIA assassination programs, were not even questioned by or even mentioned by the Commission (Callahan 129). The fact that these two men were not even brought up must have shown that the two of them knew something that the CIA did not want let out. This could be that they knew who really killed President Kennedy.

About the failure to question the two, Callahan remarked “This makes it impossible to claim beyond a reasonable doubt that the FBI and CIA were not involved in the Kennedy Assassination,”(129). One would figure that if the agencies had nothing to hide, they would have let these two men testify for the commission. This too shows government involvement in the Assassination. The most incriminating account of the Central Intelligence Agency’s involvement came from a former CIA hitman. This man was named Hugh Higgins. He was one of the agency’s top assassins.

As an agent he was called by the name Hugh Howell and personally killed thirty-seven people while he was taking orders directly from the Kennedys (Sloan 175-176). Higgins told Sloan this about Kennedy’ Assassination: Between seven to ten shots were fired by four different assassins, but Lee Harvey Oswald never fired a single round. Two of the shooters were CIA contracted agents. Two were actually picked up by the Cops and released, and another one flew out of Dallas untouched (177). It is real disturbing that not only did the government apparently have its head killed, but the police had the real assassins and let them go free.

In the interview Higgins went on to talk about the wounds to President Kennedy during the autopsy which he claimed to have witnessed. Higgins recalled “There was an entry wound in Kennedy’s left temple which could not have possibly come from behind Kennedy,” he continued “This was the bullet that blew off the right side of Kennedy’s skull,”(Sloan 183-184). This evidence shows that the findings of the Warren Commission was false, and there would have to have been at least one other gunman on the other side of the motorcade. One would wonder how the commission could miss this in their investigation.

In their investigation of the “sniper’s nest” the FBI reported information that has some problems. Sloan stated: The FBI found shell casings in the so called sniper’s nest aligned in a neatly spaced pattern. Lucien Pierce, an experienced hunter, familiar with the type of rifle Oswald supposedly used would throw the casings out in all directions not in a neat row like the investigators had been claiming. (34) This fact makes it appear to as though the FBI had planted the evidence in the sniper’s nest. The FBI was in effect using Oswald as a scapegoat.

This would make it appear that there is a conspiracy being covered up by the government. That would be the only plausible explanation for why the shell casings were found in the reported fashion. The condition of this evidence further shows the guilt of the federal government in this assassination. There were many officials in the government who stood to benefit from Kennedy being assassinated. Two of the most prominent were Vice-president Lyndon Johnson and director of the FBI, J. Edgar Hoover. For Johnson the benefit was obvious, becoming President.

For Hoover the benefit was not being forced from his job as the director of the FBI. President Kennedy did not like Hoover and was going to force him to retire. North remarked “In February of 1961 Hoover confronted Kennedy trying to intimidate him so he could keep his job. Kennedy was determined to retire him(Hoover) by January 1, 1965,”(71). So it is seen Hoover knew he was going to lose his job if Kennedy was in power. “In May of 1964 President Johnson removed the mandatory retirement age for director of the FBI,”(North 560). This made it so Hoover could then keep his job.

This coincidentally happened just six months after Kennedy was killed. This makes it seem as though Johnson and Hoover were somehow involved in the assassination of Kennedy. Also, almost immediately after Kennedy was killed the U. S. reversed its policy on Vietnam (Prouty 145). Prouty said “Kennedy was withdrawing a thousand advisors from Vietnam. After he took power Johnson escalated the conflict into the major foreign policy issue of the coming decade,”(145). This also shows that people in government who wanted to stay in Vietnam would also benefit from the assassination.

These are some of the reasons that the government may have killed Kennedy. In Conclusion, there is a lot of evidence that points to the government being involved in the assassination. Although there may seem to be holes in this theory, this seems to be the best theory for the assassination. This is because there seems to be less room to question the evidence in this theory. Unlike many other theories this one seems to be better supported by the evidence of the assassination. So it is shown that this is the best explanation for what really happened in the Kennedy assassination.

John F. Kennedy Assination – Conspiracy

In 1976, the US Senate ordered a fresh inquiry into the assassination of John F Kennedy, who was murdered in 1963 during a motorcade in Dallas, Texas. People who had been involved in the original Warren Commission investigations were asked to make fresh statements. The FBI and the CIA were persuaded to release more of their documents on Oswald. New lines of inquiry were opened and individuals who had not previously given evidence were persuaded to come forward. Most important of all, pieces of evidence such as photos and sound recordings were subjected to scientific analysis using the most up-to-date methods and equipment.

The House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) completed their investigation in 1979 and they finally came to a discrete verdict that Lee Harvey Oswald fired three shots at Kennedy, one of which killed the president. The fourth shot was fired from the grassy knoll. They concluded that John Kennedy was assassinated as a result of a conspiracy. There are many reasons why the HSCA came to this verdict, but firstly it was important that the American people understood why this case was re-opened over a decade later!

The investigation was set up as direct result of the assassinations of two other major political figures; the civil rights leader, Dr Martin Luther King and the Presidents brother Robert Kennedy, in 1968. Naturally this aroused immense suspicion and the American public started questioning why so many key US figures had been assassinated in the space of just four years when previously this type of incident had been rare. At the time there was also an increasing amount of corruption and scandal within the government. This alarmed the public who had completely trusted the government before.

The Watergate Scandal in 1974 involving President Nixon had clearly shown that this was not the case anymore. Nixon had abused his authority and power to his advantage. This indicated that even politicians were prone to sleaze and scandal. As a result of this, people also started questioning the behaviour of the government. This is most likely why they were more receptive in accepting that Kennedy was the victim of a conspiracy, later on. The public also became increasingly interested in the Kennedy assassination as books such as Rush to judgement’ by Mark Lane and Inquest’ by Edward Jay Epstein, started to be written.

They immediately became best sellers and played a large role in raising awareness regarding the assassination. As a result people started to inquire more and rumours began that other people or organisations had been involved in Kennedy’s assassination i. e there had been a conspiracy. As people became more and more aware about the events surrounding the assassination, many blamed the Dallas police as being incompetent in handling the whole investigation. They had proven to be extremely unorganised despite the fact that the President had just been murdered.

The fact that interviews hadn’t been recorded was one of the reasons why there was so much confusion. Yet the only excuse the Dallas police could come up with was that they couldn’t find a tape recorder! The questions that were asked by the officers proved to worthless and what little records were kept are said to be inadequate. However more seriously, the Dallas police were wildly believed to be at fault for Oswalds death and even the world wide doubt over his guilt. Even though previously an attempt had been made to kill Oswald, no further security precautions had been taken to prevent this from happening again.

Considering that they were holding the alleged assassin of the President in custody, the security was appalling. At the hands of Jack Ruby, one bullet had proved sufficient enough to kill Oswald. The fact that reporters were allowed to mingle around Oswald as he was escorted out of court, probably caused the death. Public access to Oswald should not have been permitted under any circumstance. Oswald was murdered in front of cameras and video footage of the incident shows that the police didn’t make hardly any attempts to prevent the murder, but literally just stood there. Many people have found this to be extremely suspicious.

Some believe that Jack Ruby killed Oswald to silence him and the police were ordered to let it happen. If this is true, who were they taking orders from? Despite discrepancies such as these, for many years the American public had to be content with the Warren Commissions verdict that Lee Harvey Oswald had been the sole assassin in the murder of John Kennedy who died as result of three shots being fired from the Texas school depository building. However since the report was published on 24 September 1964, fresh evidence kept surfacing, as did inconsistencies on the Warren Commissions part.

There was a general feeling that they had disregarded evidence if it contradicted their conclusion. They had been under immense pressure from the public to come to a verdict. At the time Oswald had seemed like the perfect person to blame – a motiveless man with a grudge. They had no doubt been influenced by public opinion and their conclusion had been a hasty one. In fact, three days after the assassination, Lyndon Baines Johnson received a memo saying; “The public must be satisfied that Oswald was the assassin, that he did not have confederates. ”

By the 1970’s Americans were actually alarmed that the Warren Commission had been so single minded and did not make any attempt to investigate other possible theories and that they hadn’t followed a number of promising leads. It later also came to light that none of the commission members had any investigative experiences and completely relied on Hoover and the FBI. However, probably their biggest mistake was disregarding key eyewitnesses whom they considered to be incompatible, inconsistent and were contrary to their lone psychotic assassin theory.

Nobody of the commission heard one of the witnesses who appeared before the counsel. Among them were crucial witnesses such as Abraham Zapruder. Others didn’t even give evidence. J C Price, a bystander at the motorcade, claimed to have seen a man with a rifle running behind the fence on the grassy knoll. Similarly, Gordon Arnold and James Simons stated that the shots came from the grassy knoll. Jean Hill, a teacher who was standing near the Presidents car, said: “I heard four to six shots and I’m pretty used to guns. They weren’t echoes.

They were different guns that were being fired. ” Credible testimonies from literally dozens of witnesses such as these was ignored purely because it contradicted the Warren Commissions conclusion of a lone assassin firing three shots from the depository building. This indicated that their report was based on appallingly selective reading of evidence and just shows how reliable it was! All these eyewitness testimonies remained inconclusive to the Warren Commission at the time, as they just didn’t make sense. Similarly Kennedy’s autopsy reports also contained many discrepancies.

Two autopsies were carried out on Kennedy. It was hoped at the time that they would reveal the angles at which the bullets had entered Kennedy’s body, hopefully pointing to where the gunman or gunmen were situated. The autopsies actually created even more confusion, as they were completely contradictory. The first autopsy was conducted in Parkland Hospital, Dallas although the official one was conducted in Bathesda Naval Hospital, Washington DC. When the two examinations were compared, alarming differences showed up.

The main difference was that the exit and entry wounds were said to be different. In Dallas, doctors claimed that the bullet entered Kennedy’s body at the front of the neck, about bow-tie height. When Kennedy was brought into Parkland Hospital, Dr Malcom Perry said that when he was about to perform the tracheotomy, he noticed a hole of about 5mm just below Kennedy’s adams apple, presumably where the bullet had entered. Contrary to this, in Washington the autopsy reports show that the bullet exited from the neck.

Their report confirmed the single bullet theory’ addressed by the Warren Commission whose conclusion was highly dependent on this theory. This was that the bullet entered Kennedy’s right shoulder blade, bruised the strap muscles of the right side of the neck, damaging the windpipe and making its exit through the front of the neck. According to the single bullet theory,’ the very same bullet entered Governor Connally’s back, who had been seated in front of Kennedy, went through his chest taking out part of his fifth rib and collapsing his lung.

The bullet then went into his right wrist and then buried itself in his left thigh. Although there is medical evidence to support this theory, some believe that the bullets path and velocity could not have been possible. Even Governor Connally believed that the bullet that wounded Kennedy wasn’t the same one that responsible for his wounds. A FBI supplementary report states that the bullet that entered Kennedy’s back had penetrated to less than a finger length. If this is true, how can the bullet have exited from the front of his neck?

There are of course other facts that warp this theory such as the fact that the bullet was mysteriously found on a hospital stretcher in pristine condition. Yet the bullet should have been out of shape and showing signs of severe impact, considering that it had gone through two major bones and had torn out a great deal of muscle. However some theorists believe that the bullet was in fact planted on the stretcher by the FBI or CIA so that they could pin the assassination on Oswald, again indicating the involvement of a conspiracy.

Another disturbing piece of evidence surrounding the autopsies is the fact that the bullet wound to the head was said to have entered at different angles. On report says that it entered at a low trajectory whilst the other said that it entered at a high trajectory. As well as this the diagrams and measurements made during the autopsies vary. The differences as you can see are substantial and inevitably have a great influence on the theory of the second gunman.

The examination of the body in Dallas seems to point towards two gunmen, whilst the autopsy in Washington points towards a single gunman! The fact that the autopsy reports are still classified arouses suspicion in itself. It has recently also come to light that much of the reports have been destroyed. Is it possible that the government may be hiding something? Secret service presence during both examinations also has to be considered as it would have been in the interest of the government what the outcome of the autopsies were, if there was indeed something to hide.

Up till two weeks prior to when the HSCA was due to publish their report, they had believed the Warren Commission’s conclusion that Oswald was the lone assassin and this single bullet theory. ‘ However, they changed their minds as a vital piece of evidence came to light, which provided a strong indication of the involvement of a conspiracy. It was a previously overlooked sound recording. A police outrider travelling with Kennedy’s motorcade had left the microphone of his two-way radio switched on. The recording had amazingly been stored and not destroyed.

It was rediscovered by committee investigators and sent of to a leading acoustics lab. There, by separating and amplifying the background noises he was able to determine the direction of sound waves in Dealy Plaza at the time of the shooting. He concluded that at least two rifles could be heard firing four shots. Furthermore one of the shots came from a direction to the front and to the right of the motorcade. He stated that there was a 50% chance of there being a second gunman on the grassy knoll.

The HSCA called in two more acoustic experts who confirmed this and said there was actually a 95% chance of a second gunman. For the HSCA this was a dramatic confirmation of some of the earlier witness accounts that the Warren Commission had chosen to ignore. Many of the eyewitnesses questioned by the Warren Commission had recalled hearing a rifle fired from the direction of the grassy knoll. However, now together with these eyewitness reports and the acoustical and forensic evidence, which hadn’t been available to the Warren Commission, everything fell into place and made a lot more sense.

As a result the HSCA was able to get a clearer picture of what happened and at this point the involvement of a conspiracy was looking more likely. Further analysis of the sound recording provided the HSCA yet with more evidence of a second gunman. Experts found that two of the shots fired from the direction of the depository building were within an interval of just 1. 66 seconds. As the Mannlicher Carcano rifle isn’t an automatic weapon and requires a bolt to be drawn by hand in order to feed single live rounds to its breech, it is almost impossible to load, aim and fire in such a short space of time.

Expert marksmen tested the rifle on a firing range. A telescope sight, which was also found with the rifle on the sixth floor, made the rifle difficult to aim and fire in rapid succession. Without a telescope sight speed of fire improved and the marksman managed times of 1. 65 and 1. 75 seconds. But at such speeds the marksmen only hit the target with one shot in three. Oswald’s military records showed that he had been a poor shot, an average marksman at best. Could he have really managed to fire so many shots successfully?

Doubts were also raised about the accuracy of the weapon. Tests were conducted and experts found that the rifle was inaccurate and they described it as being “crudely made, poorly designed and dangerous. ” They also found that the ammunition for the rifle was frequently of a poor quality. In one batch, 17 out of 20 bullets were defective and failed to fire. Considering all this, was it possible that Oswald could have shot three bullets at a moving target, through immense foliage, 88 yards away in just 5. 6 seconds using a faulty rifle?

To many people this seemed highly unlikely. There was also evidence suggesting the presence of a second gunman on the sixth floor of the depository building, but this remains inconclusive. Several eyewitnesses reported seeing two gunmen with guns on the sixth floor. The men were described as wearing light coloured clothing. Oswald had worn a dark coloured shirt to work that day. Certainly with two gunmen firing from the depository building the chances of hitting the target would have been greatly improved.

The HSCA now had enough evidence supported by eyewitness reports to conclude that Kennedy was a victim of a conspiracy. Unlike the Warren Commission they were able to conduct a more thorough investigation, most likely because they had more time to come to a verdict. However, although they had been able to come up with a satisfactory conclusion, they had not been able to identify the second gunman or even the extent of the conspiracy. But people came up with their own theories about what happened, blaming various organisations for the assassination of Kennedy.

Undoubtedly the most poplar theory was that government agencies were involved, that it was planned by either high officials in the White House or by the secret service, FBI and CIA. It was executed by paid killers and afterwards the agencies ensured that the murderers remained uncovered. But what motive could such agencies have? The CIA certainly had a motive. They blamed Kennedy for not throwing the full weight of his air force behind the Bay of Pigs affair and in addition they were bitterly disappointed that he had come to an agreement with the Soviets over Cuba.

Kennedy had also stopped listening to the CIA after the Bay of Pigs affair and it resented being cold-shouldered by the President. Another popular theory was that the Mafia, the most powerful criminal organisation in the world, was involved. An indication of this was the involvement of Jack Ruby who supposedly had Mafia links. One of the reasons they could have conspired to kill Kennedy was that the Presidents brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy, had been using his legal powers to act vigorously against some of the larger and more influential Mafia bosses.

In fact he had been leading a strong campaign against the Mafia. Getting rid of Kennedy would have resulted in a new government and therefore Robert Kennedy would be replaced. However it has to be considered that according to the Mafia’s code of conduct, they are forbidden to kill any individuals with any legal authority i. e police officers, magistrates and the President! Other implications included blaming the right-wing extremists to whom Kennedy was a communist as he attempted to build peaceful relationships with Cuba and the Soviet Union.

Communists were also blamed for being involved as they saw Kennedy as a friend of industrials and held him responsible for the Vietnam War, the blocking of Cuba and many other things. These were just a few of the theories around at the time but it has to be remembered that none of them have ever been proven. It was possible that people were so shocked by Kennedy’s assassination that they were overreacting and that there was a plausible explanation for his death. In key assassinations there is almost always speculation of a conspiracy, yet one has never been identified.

But even the HSCA concluded that Kennedy was the victim of a conspiracy, as they believed that all the evidence and the eyewitness reports indicated this. If there was indeed a conspiracy involved, it would cause a huge political crisis to unravel it. Although the HSCA came to a sufficient conclusion, the truth about Kennedy’s assassination will never be known. However, the haunting words that Oswald left us with; “I’m just a patsy” will always raise questions to whether there was a cover up, if Oswald was part of the conspiracy or if he was just a lone gunman with a grudge!

John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States

His Life and Legacy On November 22, 1963, while being driven through the streets of Dallas, Texas, in his open car, President John F. Kennedy was shot dead, allegedly by the lone gunman, Lee Harvey Oswald. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th President of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected President, the first Roman Catholic and the first to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as President therefore his achievements were limited.

Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented he United States from entering into another world war. The world had not only lost a common man, but a great leader of men. From his heroic actions in World War II to his presidency, making the decisions to avert possible nuclear conflict with world superpowers, greatness can be seen. Kennedy also found the time to author several best-selling novels from his experiences. His symbolic figure represented all the charm, vigor and optimism of youth as he led a nation into a new era of prosperity.

From his birth into the powerful and influential Kennedy clan, much was to be expected of him. Kennedy was born on May 29,1917 in Brookline, Massachusetts. His father, Joe, Sr. , was a successful businessman with many political connections. Appointed by President Roosevelt, Joe, Sr. , was given the chair of the Securities and Exchange Commission and later the prestigious position of United States ambassador to Great Britain (Anderson 98). His mother, Rose, was a loving housewife and took young John on frequent trips around historic Boston learning about American Revolutionary history.

Both parents impressed on their children that their country had been good to the Kennedys. Performing some service for the country must return whatever benefits the family received from the country they were told. (Anderson 12). The Kennedy clan included Joe, Jr. , Bobby, Ted and their sisters, Eunice, Jean, Patricia, Rosemary, and Kathleen. Joe, Jr. , was a significant figure in young John’s life as he was the figure for most of John’s admiration. His older brother was much bigger and stronger than John and took it upon himself to be John’s coach and protector. John’s childhood was full of sports, fun and activity.

This all ended when John grew old enough to leave for school. At the age of thirteen, John left ome to attend an away school for the first time. Canterbury School, a boarding school in New Milford, Connecticut and Choate Preparatory in Wallingford, Connecticut completed his elementary education (“JFK” 98). John graduated in 1934 and was promised a trip to London as a graduation gift. Soon after, John became ill with jaundice and would have to go to the hospital. He spent the rest of the summer trying to recover. He was not entirely well when he started Princeton, several weeks later in the fall of 1935.

Around Christmas the jaundice returned and John had to drop out of school. Before the next school ear began, he told his father he wanted to go to Harvard (“JFK” 98). On campus, young people took interest in politics, social changes, and events in Europe. The United States was pulling out of the Great Depression. Hitler’s Nazi Germany followed aggressive territorial expansion in Europe. It was at this time that John first became aware of the vast social and economic differences in the United States. In June 1940, John graduated cum laude (with praise or distinction) from Harvard. His thesis earned a magna cum laude (great praise) ( “JFK” 98).

After graduation, John began to send his paper to ublishers, and it was accepted on his second try. Wilfrid Funk published it under the title Why England Slept. It became a bestseller. John, at twenty-five, became a literary sensation. In the spring of 1941, both John and Joe, Jr. , decided to enroll in the armed services. Joe was accepted as a naval air cadet but John was turned down by both the army and navy because of his back trouble and history of illness (“JFK” 98). After months of training and conditioning, John reapplied and on September 19, John was accepted into the navy as a desk clerk in Washington.

He was disgusted and applied for a transfer. In June 1941, Kennedy was sent to Naval Officers Training School at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois and then for additional training at the Motor Torpedo Boat Center at Melville, Rhode Island. In late April 1943, Lieutenant John F. Kennedy was put in command of a PT 109, a fast, light, attack craft in the Solomon Islands in the South Pacific. Kennedy saw action in the form of night patrols and participated in enemy bombings. On August 1, 1943, during a routine night patrol, a Japanese destroyer collided in the darkness with Kennedy’s craft and the PT 109 was sunk.

Through superhuman effort, the injured Kennedy heroically swam back and forth rescuing his wounded crew. Two were killed in the crash. The injury had once again aggravated his back. Still, Kennedy pushed on swimming from island to island in the South Pacific hoping for a patrol to come by. The lieutenant had no idea he had been in the water for eight hours. Finally, an island was spotted that could have provided cover from Japanese planes. With no edible plants or water, Kennedy realized that he and the crew must move on. The next day, he once again attempted to search for rescue.

After treading water for hours, the lieutenant was forced to admit no atrol boats were coming. He turned back for the island but was swept away by a powerful current. Kennedy collapsed on an island and slept. He recovered enough energy to return to the island and gathered the crew to move to another island in search of food. JFK was now desperate enough to seek help from natives on a Japanese controlled island. After making contact with the natives, Kennedy persuaded the natives to deliver a message written on the back of a coconut shell to allied forces. The coconut fell into the hands of allied scouts and a patrol was sent.

The coconut would appear again on the desk of an American President (Anderson 35). The crew of the PT 109 was given a hero’s welcome when they returned to base, but Kennedy would have none of it. He refused home leave and was given another boat. In constant pain from the back injury, JFK soon contracted malaria, became very ill, and lost twenty-five pounds. He was forced to give up command and was sent home to Chelsea Naval Hospital near Hyannis Port.

The lieutenant received the Purple Heart, the Navy and Marine Corps Medal, and a citation from Admiral W. F. Halsey. John’s back failed to recover was an operation was performed on his spine in the summer of 1944. During recovery, Kennedy received word that his brother Joe, Jr. had been killed in action. Joe had been eligible for home leave, but had volunteered for a special bombing mission. The bombs had detonated early and Joe and his copilot were caught in the explosion. Kennedy put his feelings onto paper and a second book was published for the family and close friends.

He called it As We Remember Joe. The family- particularly JFK’s father- had assumed that Joe, Jr. ould carry on the family tradition and go into politics. Both of his grandfathers had been active in politics (Anderson 41). Now, suddenly, JFK was the oldest Kennedy of his generation. Kennedy’s first chance in politics came when Congressman James Curley from the 11th District of Massachusetts decided to retire in 1946 (Gadney 42). JFK won his first Congressional seat by a margin of more than two to one. At the age if twenty-nine, JFK was placed on the front page of the New York Times and in Time Magazine. He was often mistaken in Congress as a Senate page or an elevator operator.

It was during this time period in which Kennedy met and fell in love with Jacqueline Bouvier. “Jackie”, as she was known, came rom a wealthy Catholic background as prestigious as the Kennedys. She attended Vassar College and the Sorbonne in Paris, France. She spoke French, Italian, and Spanish fluently. They were wed on September 12,1953, at St. Mary’s Catholic Church in Newport, Rhode Island. All seemed well, yet after three two-year terms as a Congressman, Kennedy became frustrated with House rules and customs and decided to run for Senate. In 1952, Kennedy ran for Senate against Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge.

Fifteen years older than Kennedy, Lodge was the incumbent of two terms in the Senate. JFK prevailed in the victory but was soon tricken with Addison’s disease during his first year in the Senate and had to operate on a fifty-fifty chance for survival procedure (Gadney 52). While recovering, Kennedy wrote Profiles in Courage, a bestseller on examples of moral courage in the lives of eight senators who risked their careers for a great cause or a belief. Kennedy returned to Senate and participated in the powerful Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He was also chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Labor.

JFK believed strongly in education, equal job opportunity, and the civil rights movement. His biggest success came in the form f his Labor Reform Bill, which passed by a margin of 90 to 1 in Senate debate. Kennedy’s first child, Caroline, was born during this time. Due to his enormous success in Congress, the Democratic Party nominated him for the presidential ticket in 1960. Lyndon Johnson was chosen as the running mate with Kennedy to secure and build upon the democratic bases in the southern states while the Kennedys sought out the younger voters, the factory workers, and the liberals (Gadney 61).

During the Kennedy Administration, a great deal of events was going on. Jackie had given birth to JFK, Jr. , while all over the south, the civil rights ovement was going in full force with incidents breaking out. Specific attention gathered around a black air force veteran, James Meredith, applied for admission to the University of Mississippi. In Cuba both the Bay of Pigs occurred, in which U. S. supported rebels revolted in a poorly laid out plan of events that fell out beneath them, and the Cuban Missile Crisis in which the Soviet Republic were building missile silos in Cuba, 100 miles away from Florida.

The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly in the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and his advisors. The fall out from he invasion caused a rise in tension between the two great superpowers and ironically 34 years after the event, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel Castro, is still in power. The Space Race was in full force with both Russia and the U. S. in competition to reach the moon. U. S. involvement in Vietnam was in the latter stages with plans to withdraw after the 1964 election.

On a trip to Dallas to stir up support for the re-election, the President’s autos were coming down Elm Street when three shots rang out. The first projectile entered at the base of Kennedy’s neck and exited through the back of his head. The second bullet hit Texas Governor John Connally. Seconds later there was another shot and the back of the president’s head was torn away. The “assassin” Lee Harvey Oswald with a mail-order rifle, fired from the Texas School Book Depository (Warren 5). He then promptly and calmly exited the building approximately three minutes after the first shot was fired.

He was picked up later at a Texas movie theatre with little resistance. Oswald had recently applied for a passport to Communist Russia, which led to a series of private meetings between Oswald and the Russian Government (Warren 614). Oswald protested his innocence. President Johnson set up what quickly became known as the Warren Commission headed by Chief Justice Warren to find the motive behind the assassination; The Commission finds the lone, depressed, mentally unstable, anti-social nut kills an American president.

On the Morning of November 22, 1963 at approximately 12:25 the presidential motorcade turned right from Houston St. on to Elm St. Their speed was approximately 11 miles per hour. President Kennedy had ordered the Secret Service to ride on the car boards on the car behind him. He made this decision so that the public would be able to see him better and how that he trusted the public. At exactly 12:30 while Kennedy waved to the crowd a shot fired out. He was hit in his neck, a shot that was fired approximately five seconds after the first struck him in his head and tore a piece of his skull off.

Governor Connally who rode in the same car in front of the president sustained wounds on his back, right side of his chest, right wrist and left thigh. Orders were then given for the limousine to speed up to the hospital. President Kennedy was pronounced dead at approximately 1:00 pm. Now the question remained. What were the reasons for the president’s assassination? The assassination plot could have been organized by one of many factions, such as the Cubans or the Russians, the Mob, someone upset with his civil rights policies, or maybe an inside job by a special agency.

The plot was a deep and complex issue that involved many factions. More theories were offered when Oswald’s ties to the CIA and his ties to Russian special agencies were exposed. Around October 1959, Oswald applied for Russian citizenship. While in Russia he went to the U. S. Embassy in Moscow where he denounced the United States, Praised the Soviet Union, and stated that he wanted to renounce his U. S. itizenship. He also made another very dramatic announcement: he stated that he had offered to give the Soviets radar secrets that he had learned in the Marines.

He told them ominously that he “might know something of special interest,” an obvious reference to the U-2 spy plane which he had observed while in the service (Melanson 13). It was later noted that Oswald was working under an operative program for the CIA and was a double agent against the KGB. After his assignment was completed he was given $435 by the state department to get home. Whatever Oswald’s reason for pulling one of the triggers against President Kennedy, it certainly involved a political agenda behind it. Other theories have evolved over time such as the Grassy Knoll theory.

Witnesses say that a man in black was present and fired simultaneously with Oswald and doubled considerable connections and plotted revenge. On Nov. 24, 1963 as Oswald was being escorted from the city jail, nightclub owner Jack Ruby shot Oswald with a single shot from a Colt . 38 revolver. Ruby was arrested and stood trial in Dallas. He was found guilty and was sentenced to hang. He died in jail of cancer, on January 3,1968. Kennedy was the first President to be born in the twentieth century and as very much a man of his time.

He was restless, seeking, with a thirst of knowledge, and he had a feeling of deep commitment, not only to the people of the United States, but also to the peoples of the world. Many of the causes he fought for exist today because of what he did for the rights of minorities, the poor, the very old and the very young. He never took anything for granted and worked for everything he owned. Perhaps Kennedy summed up his life best in his own inaugural speech: “Ask not what your country can do for you, but ask what you can do for your country. “

The Assassination Of John F. Kennedy

In January of 1960, a young man by the name of John F. Kennedy was sworn in to uphold the office of President of the United States of America. He was assassinated on November 22, 1963, when he was only 46 years old. There is lots of speculation about the way he died. Here are just a few questions concerning his death. Who or how many people were involved in President John F. Kennedy’s assassination? This is a question that has baffled many people for 33 years. Some of the main questions are: Was Lee Harvey Oswald the lone assassin? This question may never be answered.

Is there a possibility that there could have been another rifleman? What is the minimum time to get three shots off with the Mannlicher Carcano bolt action rifle? Why did Jack Ruby shoot Oswald? Was he trying to protect himself or show loyalty to his President? Did Fidel Castro have President Kennedy assassinated? Were the CIA and FBI involved? What about the “mob”; did they have any logical reason to kill the President? What is the story on the “superbullet”? How can one assassin shoot three shots at a man in a limousine going 11. 2 mph under five seconds?

Among the most crucial questions to be considered in determining the identity of the President’s assassin are the number of shots fired in the course of the assassination, the time elapsed between shots, and the location of the site or sites where the shots were fired. A great deal of evidence rides on these questions: the number of wounds, the path of the bullets causing each wound, the position of the rifle believed to have fired the recovered bullet and its fragments, the position and number of empty cartridge cases believed to have been fired, and visual observations by bystanders.

In addition, a mass of evidence has been collected from the people that witnessed the shooting. I will try to explain or figure out what went on during the 22 of November in 1963. There are many theories on the assassination of JFK. The first theory is that Robert Kennedy, the brother of John and also the attorney general at this time dated a known mobsters’ girlfriend, and Robert also tried to get one of the biggest court cases in the history of the U. S. put upon the mob. In order to get back at him, they killed his brother. Later, they killed him when he was going to run for President.

There is some more evidence that the mob was involved when Jack Ruby killed Lee Oswald. He shot him at close range with a . 38 caliber pistol. This is a typical mob killing; close up and with a small caliber pistol. Jack Ruby was a nightclub owner. It is believed that Ruby had connections with the mob. People say that this theory had “mob” written all over it. When the so-called “mob” killed the President, they got him in crossfire. First they formed a triangle, one in the book depository, one behind the picket fence, and one on the monument.

This forms a triangle, which supports this theory called trianglism. The next theory is unlikely to happen. It is the “superbullet” theory. This theory is trying to convince us that one single bullet did all of the damage. This is virtually impossible. The bullet would have to hit President Kennedy in the neck and then hit Connaly through the back, chest, wrist, and thigh, then re-enter Kennedy’s head on top. See what I meanimpossible. Some people believed that this happened. Governor Connaly said that he is certain that the first shot hit Kennedy and him at the same time.

This theory is impossible according to the Zapruder film. The film shows a definite delay between the wounding of the two mena delay too short for the Carcano rifle to be shot twice by one man, and too long to leave the “superbullet” theory with credibility. Some people think that Fidel Castro had President Kennedy shot. (Posner 122-148) Motive, yes he had motive. In October 1962 Kennedy faced the most serious international crisis of his administration. Aerial photographs proved that Soviet missile bases were being built in Cub.

Declaring this buildup a threat to the nations of the Western Hemisphere, Kennedy warned that any attack by Cuba would be regarded as an attack by the Soviets and the United States would retaliate against the Soviet Union. He also imposed quarantine on ships bringing offensive weapons to Cuba. Negotiations were carried on between the President and Khrushchev. By the end of November, the missiles had been shipped back to the Soviet Union, the United States had lifted the quarantine, and the month-long crisis had abated. It was the Cuban Missile Crisis.

The Cuban Missile Crisis was when Castro had missiles pointed at the U. S. Kennedy did not like this, so he made Castro disengage them. Of course Castro didn’t like Kennedy after this, so he had him shot. But who did the shooting? True, Oswald was the one that put the lethal shot in the President. Could there have been someone else? I think so. I have good reason for this. There were 3 shots. It is impossible to get 3 well-aimed shots off in less than five seconds, because it has been proven to take 2. 5 seconds for one shot.

Less than 2. econds elapsed between the first and second, or the second and third shots. This is evidence that there had to be a second gunman. This does not support the theory of the lone gunman and shows that there could be a possible conspiracy. Where was he shooting from? Acoustic scientists have found in a picture what they think is a head peeking over the picket fence behind the grassy knoll. Ed Hoffman, a deaf mute, saw someone shoot from behind the fence. After the shots were fired, Mr. Hoffman saw the man hand a gun to a person dressed in a railroad uniform.

When he went to get the police, one policeman waved his gun at him, and told him to get out of the way, so he left. There is suspicion that this is the so-called second gunman. The next theory is a theory concerning what the second gunman was shooting at. Could it have been possible for the second gunman to be shooting at Lee Harvey Oswald? It involved Fidel Castro or anyone that plotted to kill the President. Whoever wanted the President dead had Lee Oswald shoot Kennedy. Then after Oswald shot, there was a man behind the picket fence on the grassy knoll.

Acoustic scientists found what they think is a mans head looking over the fence from the grassy knoll. They were trying to kill Oswald so he couldn’t talk. This is a likely theory. They never recovered the bullet that was shot from the front of the motorcade, if there is one. There is evidence that a bullet was fired from the front. When the first shot was fired, Kennedy’s head went violently backwards. This means the bullet had to strike him from the front. When you look at the videotape, it appears as if the bullet strikes him form the front.

Either the bullet did not hit anything, or it passed through the neck then vanished because it was never recovered. This could mean a possible second gunman. Some people think that the CIA was involved. They were mad at President Kennedy because he said that he wanted to “scatter the CIA into a thousand pieces and scatter them into the wind. ” They had another reason to kill Kennedy. It was called the invasion of the “Bay of Pigs” on April 18, 1961. This is where the CIA tried to overthrow Castro by themselves. They landed on the shore and were defeated.

Kennedy had told them that the U. S. would have no part in this invasion. Although he had ships just off the shore, they wouldn’t help. The CIA blamed the defeat on the President for not helping them. Many Americans blamed Kennedy for not helping them. In the spring of 1961, the Bay of Pigs, near Havana, Cuba, was invaded by opponents of Cuba’s Communist premier, Fidel Castro. The rebels were defeated quickly. The invasion had been aided by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Kennedy was criticized by some for having approved the CIA’s support of the invasion.

Others blamed him for the operation’s failure. The plan was partially done when President Eisenhower was President. (North 86) They did not do the killing, but I would say that they had something to do with it. The Zapruder film was shot by a dressmaker named Abraham Zapruder, who was a spectator at Dealy Plaza in Dallas, Texas watching the presidential motorcade that fatal November day. This film was shot with a 8mm movie camera that filmed 18. 3 frames per second. Zapruder was located on a concrete platform extending from the grassy knoll. He was with his secretary at the time of the shooting.

The Zapruder film implies that the first shot was fired before frame 204. A large oak tree blocked the assassins view between frames 166-210. People think that the President was shot before frame 204 because his wife turned sharply toward him at 204. This cannot be proven for a fact because the camera had no sound. The Zapruder film implies that there is indeed a second gunman, according to the evidence and reaction of Jacqueline Kennedy at frame 204. (Accessories 5) The Zapruder film wasn’t the only photographed evidence taken during the assassination of the President.

There are also pictures taken and eyewitnesses that saw things most people don’t know about. A woman took a picture of what they think is Lee Oswald on the first floor of the book depository watching the motorcade. Police say that they are mistaken. They think it is someone else. They have photographed Jack Ruby at the Dealy Plaza who denies ever being near the place on November 22. Below is a chart showing the positions of Abraham Zapruder, Lee Harvey Oswald, the original route of the motorcade, and the time frames of the Zapruder film: There is also another theory.

This theory is about a man and what he saw from the overpass. This man claims that he saw someone shoot from the monument on the grassy knoll. Did he see what he thought he saw? He may have heard shooting and looked up and saw something get out from behind the monument. They could have been taking cover. The Warren Commission is an investigative report on the assassination of John Kennedy. The commission was made up of 7 people.

They were Chief Justice Earl Warren, Senators Richard B. Russell of Georgia and John Sherman Cooper of Kentucky, Representatives Hale Boggs of Louisiana, Gerald Ford of Michigan, Allen W. Dulles and John J. McCloy. Lee Rankin was the general counsel. They had a soul purpose, and that was to find out what happened on that tragic day in November. The report was published on September 24, 1964. The commission found that the shots that killed President Kennedy and wounded Governor Connaly were fired by Lee Harvey Oswald. There was no evidence at the time that either Oswald or Jack Ruby were part of any conspiracy, domestic or foreign, to assassinate President Kennedy. No direct or indirect relationship between Oswald and Ruby had been uncovered.

On the basis of the evidence before it, the commission concluded that Oswald acted alone. (Scott 47) Despite the findings of the commission, conspiracy theories persisted for decades. The commission stated that Lee Harvey Oswald was the lone shooter. They denied ever hearing or thinking that there could have been a second gunman, even thought there is evidence that there was someone on the grassy knoll behind the picket fence. They looked for an easy way out and ignored some valuable evidence, says Jim Garrison. What about the Zapruders film?

Can they just ignore that? There is also proof that there was another shooter because of the rapidness of the shots. Its impossible for one man to shoot 3 shots in under 5 seconds with that type of bolt action rifle that was used. This rifle was a model C2766 Mannlicher Carcano Italian rifle. Sharpshooter set up targets at the range where the President was shot, and they could not shoot stationary targets, let alone moving ones with the same accuracy and speed that Oswald supposedly shot. They said that this model was not a very accurate one.

There are also two pictures of Oswald and his Mannlicher Carcano and his pistol. A man named Jim Mars proved that the pictures are fake because of the size of Oswald’s head. In both pictures, Oswald was standing beside his house with these two guns. In the second picture, Oswald is standing farther away from the house than in the first, but his head is still the same size. His head should be bigger in the second picture than it is in the first picture. In the second picture, his head is slightly tilted and a little bit of the shadow from under his nose is gone.

The theory that American people read about is the theory that Lee Oswald shot Kennedy from the Texas School Book Depository. There is valuable information that this theory is true. Many witnesses say that the shot sounded as if it was up above them on the sixth floor of the Book Depository, and that he was shot with the Mannlicher Carcano bolt-action rifle. They are lead to believe that there were only three shots, which could possibly be true. Under any circumstances, it was not as simple as it sounds. All of these books base their evidence on the Warren Commission.

Nobody looks beyond the Warren Commission. They take it for the truth, and therefore believe it. For all they know, it could be a cover-up for the CIA. My opinion is one that I have thought over many times. I think that the CIA was mad at President Kennedy for not helping them out at the Bay of Pigs, so they managed to convince Oswald that they would give him lots of money to kill the President. When they hired Oswald, they had one of their own men on the grassy knoll to shoot Oswald after he shot President Kennedy, then the CIA’s man would kill Kennedy.

This supports the theory of why the people heard a shot over the fence at the grassy knoll. Another things that supports my theory is that they never found the third bullet. When the man behind the fence did not do his job, they sent Jack Ruby to finish what they started. They had to quiet Oswald or he was going to talk and tell who was really behind it. Who was really behind it? This is a question that the world will never know the real answer to. This concludes my theory on how President John F. Kennedy was assassinated.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy Biography

John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917 in the Boston suburb of Brookline. Kennedy was the son of Joseph P. Kennedy a formerambassador to Great Britain. Kennedy was much like his father, possesing a delightful sense of humor, a strong family loyalty, a concern for the state of the nation, endless vitality and a constant air of confidence no matter how dire the situation (Kennedy, Sorensen, Harper & Row, New York 1965, Page 18). Growing up in a priviliged household and graduating with honors from Harvard.

He served as an assistant to his father (1938), naval officer (1941-1945), journalist (1941 and 945) and Congressman (1947-1953), he had traveled to every major continent and talked with the presidents and prime ministers, of some thirty-seven countries. In 1952 he was elected to the United States Senate and in 1953 he married Jaqueline Bouvier. However one year later a spinal operation brought him to the edge of death’s door, causing him to deeply reflect on his character (Sorensen 28). After his dangerous operation he researched and wrote a book, about democracy.

The next year narrowly missing the Vice Presidential nomination of his party, Kennedy emerged as a national figure in large demand. John Kennedy was not one of the Senate’s great leaders” (Sorensen 43). Very few laws of great importance bear his name. Even after his initial traditionally’ inactive freshman year in the Senate, his chances for major contributions to the Senate excluding his stances on fair labor reform and against rackets, were constantly diminished of his Presidential campaign.

His voting record reflects his open minded views, and strengthed beliefs. He was well liked and respected by many Senators. Kennedy was regarded for his eagerness and cool logic in debate situations His only real enemy was Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin (Sorensen 45). McCarthy’s rough and wide-ranging hunts for Red, “pinks” and headlines had stomped on the freedoms of people who had not committed a crime, and Kennedy was too rational and reasonable a man to remain indiferent to the extremism known as Mcarthyism.

Kennedy often was a thorn in McCarthy’s side obstructing many of McCarthy’s personal choices for various offices and by serving on certain committies of which McCarthy was chairman, such as the Government Operations Committee (Sorensen 46). Kennedy’s political philosophy revoloved around the idea that one could ot allow the pressures of party responisbility to cloud ones personal responsibility. Meaning after all was said and done that the decision falls upon yourself to make the choice regardless of what your party platform was.

Of course the platfrom had significant merit, nevertheless it still came down to the individual. “Democrats, he said, generally had more heart, more foresight and more energy. They were not satisfied with things as they were and believed they could make them better” (Sorensen 71). “John F. Kennedy wanted someday to be President of the United States” (Sorensen 95). Not becuase he was dissatisfied with his life as a Senator nor because he possessed some grand scheme for the future of America. He merely felt that it was the center of action of the American System.

It least you have an opportunity to do something about all the probelms which. . . I would be concerned about [anyway] as a father or as a citizen. . . and if what you do is useful and succesful, then . . . that is a great satisfaction (Sorensen 95). Before the election of 1960 Kennedy used the result of his newfound celebrity status to do a bit of travelling across the country. Convering more than thirty thousand miles in twenty-four states, he made over 150 speeches and appearances in the course of six weeks. He spoke to various conventions, varying from civic to labor, farmer to youth.

However his senatorial duties enabled him to accept less than 4 percent of the hundreds of invitations that poured into his office, mainly consisting of important Democratic canidates or fund-raising dinner chairmen. As the years progressed the fact materialized that his hard work had finally begun to pay off. His audiences had became larger and even more enthusiastic. Therefore at 12:30 P. M. , on Saturday, January 2, Senator John Fitzgerald Kennedy walked into a crowded press conference and read a one-page declaration of his candidacy for the Presidency (Sorensen 122).

I am announcing today my candidacy for the Presidency of the United States. . . . In the past forty months, I have toured every state in the Union and I have talked to Democrats in all walks of life. My candidacy is therefore based on the conviction that I can win both the nomination and the election” (Sorensen 122). Kennedy’s campaign opened on a low note, polls showed that Nixon was far etter known than Kennedy on the basis of his national office and four nationwide campaigns; that Nixon was looked upon as more experienced; and that Kennedy was known primarily as a wealthy, inexperienced, youthful Catholic.

The Democrats were in a state of division, while Nixon had successfully rallied the Republicans. Kennedy took the this time to organized himself and manifest support for his campaign run, through a steady onlslaught of speeches, and meetings Kennedy seemed almost to thrive (Sorensen 178). Focusingnot on singular issues but instead Kennedy expressed his discontent with America’s urrent situation, he insisted that we could do better. Kennedy indeed won the election by a very narrow margin, so narrow that the victory could almost be attributed to any list of decisive factors.

However there are seven that prominantly stick out. The Television Debates. At this point in American history this was the most televised campaign ever and Kennedy’ s vitality and knowledge appealed to millions of voters who probably would have simply acknowledged him as too inexperienced and young. One survey showed that four million voters made up their minds simply by the debates, giving Kennedy a hree-to-one margin (Sorensen 213). Campaign Tactics. Kennedy’s vigorous, intensified campaign style was aggressive from the start instilling a feeling of unreached potential.

His tactics enabled him to swing many undecided voters and probably even more if time had permitted (Sorensen 214). Party Identification. Kennedy appealed frequently and aggressively to party unity, loyalty, and history. His party was the majority party in terms of Senators, Congressmen, governors, and mayors, this allowed for heavy organization and heavy registration of voters. Nearly seven million more people that the amount that oted four years earlier. Black Relations. Kennedy’s concerned call to the wife of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was hailed throughout the black community, which thenproceeded to vote overwhelmingly for Kennedy.

Do to length constraints the paper will jump ahead to focus on one example of the President’s response to a domestic issue and the President’s view on foreign policy. “The Fight For Equal Rights” (Sorensen 470). In 1953 John Kennedy was adamantly in favor of civil rights legislation as a political neccessity and simply recognized that this legislation was morally correct. However in 1963 Kennedy was deeply committed to human rights. His convictions on this subject were not converted, but instead reached by his characteristic gradualness, logic, and cool mentality.

He immediately began to implement programs that would incorporate a stronger black prescence in the legislative and judical branches of government. However an element that was seriously lacking were civil rights measures. No amount of Presidential pressure could put through the Eighty- seventh Congress a meaningful legislative package on civil rights (Sorensen 476). Kennedy responded to his situation at a press conference by saying, when I feel that there is a necessity for Congressional action, with a chance of getting that Congressional action, then I will recommend it (Sorensen 476).

Nevertheless Kennedy pushed and pushed first through legislation aimed at massive registration to massive desegregation. Executive orders barred segregation or descrimination in the armed forces Reserves, in the training of civil defense workers, in the off-base treatment of military personnel, in Federally aided libraries and in the summer college training institutes of the National Science Foundation and National Defense Education Act. “The Olive Branch” (Sorensen 509).

John Kennedy’s approach to foreign affairs was very different from his approach to domestic problems, this was because foreign affairs had always appealed to him far more than domestic. They took up a great deal more of his time and energy as President. They severely tested his abilities of execution and judgement, and his ability to react to consistent unforeseeable events.

The following two quotes are one of many that sum up his opinion on foreign policy, “Let us never negotiate out of fear, but let us never ear to negotiate” and “We must face up to the chance of war, if we are to maintain the peace. . . Diplomacy and defense are not substitutes for one another. . . . A willingness to resist force, unaccompained by a willing to talk, could prevoke belligerence–while a willingness to talk, unaccompanied by a willingness to resist force, could invite disaster. . . . While we shall negotiate freely, we shall not negotiate freedom. . . . In short, we are neither “warmongers” nor “appeasers,” neither “hard” nor soft. ” We are Americans” (Sorensen 511) The President faced many crisises whether domestic or foreign.

He was forced to deal with the escalating Cold War, the Cuban Missle Crisis, Civil Rights, Recession and Inflation. With each issue he faced he responded with dilligence, careful thought and decisive action. Throught every scenario he faced from election to the Senate to the Presidential campaign he was able to expand his ideas and maintain a healthy open attitude. That was the shock of November, 1963. Jack Kennedy was living at his peak. Almost everything seemed to be moving in his direction. He was healthy, respected, and looking forward to the comepletion of his first term and start of his second term.

To suddenly be cut off is not simply a loss, but a loss of what could have been. In less than three years he presided over a new era in American race relations, a new era in our a Latin-American relations, a new era in fiscal and economic policy and a new era in the exploration of space. His Presidency helped launch the longest and strongest period of economic expansion for that period of time, and new and enlarged roles for the Federal Government in higher education, mental ffliction, civil rights, and the conservation of human and natural resources.

If I was to rate the president I would conclude that since he was the first Executive power to back the civil rights movement and such that he was indeed a great president. A man far greater than the legend he left us who truly believed that one man could make a difference. I feel that what makes him such a great president is what he stood for, hope in an era of doubt, public service ahead of private interests, for reconciliation between black and white, labor and management. His sole defense for such a rating are his actions and his eliefs.

I have to admit that before this report I really knew nothing of J. F. K. Of course I knew of his assassination but of his legislative and executive work I knew absolutely nothing except for the work he did for civil rights which my father informed me of at an early age. However now I feel a great deal more informed and I found his life rather interesting. If he had not of died he would be around 86 this year and most likely still very active in the Senate or some form of political office. Interesting to note the effect his wisdom and advice could have affected the way the United States is now today.

Death of President John F. Kennedy

On 22 November 1963, President John F Kennedy was shot dead as he took part in a motorcade through the streets of Dallas, Texas. Soon afterwards a man named Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested and accused of having shot Kennedy from the sixth floor of the Texas school Depository building . Even though Oswald refused to co-operate and denied all knowledge of the assassination, he was formerly charged the next day, on the 23 November. However, he never stood trial as just two days later Oswald himself was shot dead by Jack Ruby, a Dallas night club owner, as he was being taken from police headquarters to court.

As Jack Ruby went to prison and the police had no longer a suspect to question, President Lyndon Baines Johnson, set up a committee led by chief justice Earl Warren, to conduct an official investigation into Kennedy’s murder. They were under immense pressure by the public to come up with a conclusion. On 24 September 1964, the Warren Commission finally issued a report of their findings. They concluded that President Kennedy was murdered by a single gunmen, Lee Harvey Oswald.

There were numerous reasons why the Warren Commission came to this conclusion, varying from Oswalds background and most predominantly the hard evidence there was against him. In fact, there was a substantial amount of evidence that linked Oswald to the murder weapon and the crime scene which, undoubtedly helped a great deal in his conviction. The main evidence against Oswald was a unique Mannlicher-Carcano rifle, which was recovered on the sixth floor of the school depository building and had allegedly been used for the shooting.

Witnesses claimed that three shots had been fired. Three spent cartridges were found alongside the rifle. Ballistics proved that the fragments from two bullets that were recovered from the Presidents limousine and from the wounds of Kennedy and Governor Connally, came from the same unusual type of rifle, made in Italy during the Second World War. Forsenic evidence also linked Oswald to the weapon. Fibres found on the rifles stock matched those on a shirt Oswald was wearing when he was arrested.

Oswalds palm prints were also found on the underside of the gun barrel. His prints were found on a part of the rifle that was exposed only when it was taken to pieces. In an attempt to conceal the weapon, Oswald may have brought it to the building in pieces and then assembled it there. Police also recovered a brown paper bag on the sixth floor of the depository building. Oswald prints were also found on this paper bag, inside of which were traces of oil from the rifle. Two eyewitnesses recalled seeing Oswald with this brown paper bag on the morning of 22 November.

Lillie Mae Randall, a neighbour, stated that Oswald had carried a long package in a paper bag from his house that morning. As well as this, one of Oswalds own work colleagues, Buell Wesley Frazier, who had given him a lift to work that day, claimed that he too had seen Oswald carry a large paper bag to the depository on the morning of the assassination. Both witnesses stated that the package Oswald had been carrying was 22-23 inches long, roughly the size of the rifle. The evidence slowly mounted up. Next, the ownership of the rifle was traced to Oswald.

His wife, Marina, confirmed that Oswald had owned a rifle similar to the murder weapon that he kept in the garage of their house. However when the garage was searched, the rifle was missing! I believe that this made a substantial difference in the investigation, as Oswalds own wife had provided conclusive evidence against him. When captured, Oswald was carrying a forged identity card in the name of A J Hidell. Enquiries were at one began at local gun stores of whether a Mannlicher-Carcano rifle had been purchased within the past year by anyone named Oswald or Hidell.

Soon a mail order supplier came forward with records to prove that a similar rifle had been purchased by a certain A Hidell. The address given on the receipt was Oswalds and the gun had been sent to his PO Box, which he had recently rented. Experts later also verified that the signature on the on the order form had been in Oswalds handwriting. This strengthened the investigation a great deal, as it was almost certain that the murder weapon had belonged to Oswald. Some thought that Oswald had purchased the weapon using a false Id and had rented a PO Box in order to cover his tracks.

Despite his efforts, it obviously hadn’t worked and had actually made the whole situation seem more suspicious than it maybe was. As well as these links to the murder weapon, the Warren Commision also established links between Oswald and the crime scene, the Texas school book depository building, where Oswald had been working for six weeks previous to the assassination. Therefore he probably knew the building quite well. His prints were found on the boxes on the sixth floor of the building. There were also many eyewitnesses who claimed to have seen Oswald on the sixth floor of the depository, prior to the murder.

Charles Givens stated that he saw Oswald on the sixth floor, acting suspiciously, at 11:55, about 35 minutes before the shooting. Another man called Arnold Rowland who was on Elm Street just before the motorcade was about to arrive, described a man fitting Oswald description who he claimed was standing on the sixth floor holding a rifle. He believed that it was a secret service agent and thought nothing more of it. Howard Brennan selected Oswald from an identity parade as the man bearing the closest resemblance to a rifleman he saw at the sixth floor window.

With all these witnesses supporting each others claims, it was difficult to dismiss them and this reinforced their investigation even further. However the events that took place afterwards, played an important part in Oswalds conviction. This incident was another murder, this time of a policeman, Officer J D Tipppit, who was shot through the head at point-blank range. A witness, Mrs Helen Markham, stated that Tippit had stopped to question a man who produced a gun and shot Tippit before running off.

Oswald was charged for Tippit’s murder as ballistics confirmed that the spent cartridges found beside Tippit’s body were of the type used in the . 38 Smith and Wesson revolver found on Oswald when he was arrested. Mrs Markham also identified Oswald from an identity parade as the murderer. This incident indicated that Oswald was indeed capable of murder. There also didn’t appear to be any clear motive for the murder and the police presumed that Oswald had panicked and had shot Tippit when he had stopped to question him. But why had Oswald panicked?

He may have been on edge if he had just murdered the President and could have overreacted! All this evidence against Oswald and the overwhelming number of eyewitnesses that had come forward, was enough to find Oswald guilty of murder at the time. However, the Warren Commission also investigated Oswalds background and found that he was a strange and enigmatic figure. It was evident that he had a fairly unstable and troubled past, which to most people accounted for his behaviour and the manner in which he had allegedly murdered the President.

As a child he had been brought up in a single parent family, moving all over the country and living in various places. From aged 20, for a short period of time he had served in the US Marines. Here he may have learnt how to handle and use weapons such as rifles. Colleagues who had worked with him said that during this period, Oswald learnt how to speak Russian and read a lot of Communist literature. In fact, on 31 October 1959, he gave up his US citizenship and stayed in the Soviet Union where he met his wife and had his first child.

However, after expressing a desire to return to the USA, he was allowed back in1962. Despite this, he now strongly believed in communism. He began making some dangerous friends due to this and joined various left-wing political groups. Again he indicated his propensity for violence when he attempted to assassinate General Edwin Walker who was a right-wing extremist and therefore from the opposite political spectrum. If he wasn’t afraid to assassinate Walker then, it was believed that he certainly wouldn’t be hesitant to assassinate the President.

This incident showed that he was more than capable of murder! After returning to the USA, Oswald had also joined an undercover communist organization “Fairplay for Cuba Committee,” who were sympathetic to Fidel Castro’s revolutionary government in Cuba. However, Kennedy had approved an invasion of Cuba in order to overthrow Castro and this government, known as the ‘Bay of Pigs’ affair. Once more, this indicated that there was a conflict of ideas between the President and Oswald, who, as we know, wasn’t afraid of speaking out about his beliefs.

This may have been Oswalds motive for murdering Kennedy, a democratic leader who was against communism and an opponent of Castro’s. Despite all this hard evidence and information that the Warren Commission had compiled against Oswald, there was still an abundant amount of evidence that remained inconclusive. However, the Warren Commission were under a great deal of pressure from the public to come up with a verdict about Kennedy’s assassination. Therefore they did not feel the need or have the time to investigate any further and as a result their conclusion was without doubt a hasty one.

But it has to be considered that their only suspect, Lee Harvey Oswald, was dead and it was difficult for them to conduct a thorough investigation without a suspect to interrogate. As a result they only had a limited amount of evidence which was most likely why so many questions remained unanswered. Kennediy’s assassination was so sudden and cold-blooded, that it left the world in immense shock and disbelief. Naturally people wanted someone to blame, to bring the guilty party/parties to justice.

When Oswald was arrested and people became aware of his background, most Americans were convinced that he was responsible. Oswald was the perfect person to blame, to them Kennedy’s murder could only have been the act of a motiveless man – a man like Oswald, an outcast bearing a grudge and seeking notoriety. The Warren Commission may well have been influenced by public opinion as they undoubtedly wanted the public to be satisfied and by concluding that Oswald was guilty, they were doing just that.

By blaming Oswald they were blaming an eccentric, a misfit, someone not representing a true American. Therefore, American society couldn’t be blamed for this tragedy and its image as a peaceful nation could not be harmed in the eyes of the world. For now the American public were content with the Warren Commission’s verdict, that it was a lone-nut assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, who had murdered their President! But the truth is that no one will ever be sure about the events that took place on the morning of 22 November 1963.

John F. Kennedy: His Life and Legacy

On November 22, 1963, while being driven through the streets of Dallas, Texas, in his open car, President John F. Kennedy was shot dead, apparently by the lone gunman, Lee Harvey Oswald. The world had not only lost a common man, but a great leader of men. >From his heroic actions in World War II to his presidency, making the decisions to avert possible nuclear conflict with world superpowers, greatness can be seen. Kennedy also found the time to author several best-selling novels from his experiences . His symbolic figure represented all the charm, vigor and optimism of youth as he led a nation into a new era of prosperity.

From his birth into the powerful and influential Kennedy clan, much was to be expected of him. Kennedy was born on May 29,1917 in Brookline, Massachusetts. His father, Joe, Sr. , was a successful businessman with many political connections. Appointed by President Roosevelt, Joe, Sr. , was given the chair of the Securities and Exchange Commission and later the prestigious position of United States ambassador to Great Britain(Anderson 98). His mother, Rose, was a loving housewife and took young John on frequent trips around historic Boston learning about American So 2 revolutionary history.

Both parents impressed on their children that their country had been good to the Kennedys. Whatever benefits the family received from the country they were told, must be returned by performing some service for the country(Anderson 12). The Kennedy clan included Joe, Jr. , Bobby, Ted and their sisters, Eunice, Jean, Patricia, Rosemary, and Kathleen. Joe, Jr. , was a significant figure in young John’s life as he was the figure for most of John’s admiration. His older brother was much bigger and stronger than John and took it upon himself to be John’s coach and protector.

John’s childhood was full of sports, fun and activity. This all ended when John grew old enough to leave for school. At the age of thirteen, John left home to attend an away school for the first time. Canterbury School, a boarding school in New Milford, Connecticut and Choate Preparatory in Wallingford, Connecticut completed his elementary education(“JFK” 98). John graduated in 1934 and was promised a trip to London as a graduation gift. Soon after, John became ill with jaundice and would have to go to the hospital.

He spent the rest of the summer trying to recover. He was not entirely well when he started Princeton, several weeks later in the fall of 1935. Around Christmas the jaundice returned and John had to drop out of school. Before the next school year began, he told his father he wanted to go to Harvard(“JFK” 98). On campus, young people took interest in politics, social changes, and events in Europe. The United States was pulling out of the Great Depression. Hitler’s So 3 Nazi Germany followed aggressive territorial expansion in Europe.

It was at this time that John first became aware of the vast social and economic differences in the United States. In June 1940, John graduated cum laude(with praise or distinction) from Harvard. His thesis earned a magna cum laude(great praise)( “JFK” 98). After graduation, John began to send his paper to publishers, and it was accepted on his second try. Wilfrid Funk published it under the title Why England Slept. It became a bestseller. John, at twenty-five, became a literary sensation. In the spring of 1941, both John and Joe, Jr. , decided to enroll in the armed services.

Joe was accepted as a naval air cadet but John was turned down by both the army and navy because of his back trouble and history of illness(“JFK” 98). After months of training and conditioning, John reapplied and on September 19, John was accepted into the navy as a desk clerk in Washington. He was disgusted and applied for a transfer. In June 1941, Kennedy was sent to Naval Officers Training School at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois and then for additional training at the Motor Torpedo Boat Center at Melville, Rhode Island.

In late April 1943, Lieutenant John F. Kennedy was put in command of a PT 109, a fast, light, attack craft in the Solomon Islands in the South Pacific. Kennedy saw action in the form of night patrols and participated in enemy bombings. On August 1, 1943, during a routine night patrol, a Japanese destroyer collided n the darkness with Kennedy’s craft and the PT 109 was sunk. Through superhuman effort, the injured Kennedy heroically swam So 4 back and forth rescuing his wounded crew. Two were killed in the crash. The injury had once again aggravated his back.

Still, Kennedy pushed on swimming from island to island in the South Pacific hoping for a patrol to come by. The lieutenant had no idea he had been in the water for eight hours. Finally, an island was spotted that could provided cover from Japanese planes. With no edible plants or water, Kennedy realized that he and the crew must move on. The next day, he once again attempted to search for rescue. After treading water for hours, the lieutenant was forced to admit no patrol boats were coming. He turned back for the island but was swept away by a powerful current.

Kennedy collapsed on an island and slept. He recovered enough energy to return to the island and gathered the crew to move to another island in search of food. JFK was now desperate enough to seek help from natives on a Japanese controlled island. After making contact with the natives, Kennedy persuaded the natives to deliver a message written on the back of a coconut shell to allied forces. The coconut fell into the hands of allied scouts and a patrol was sent. The coconut would appear again on the desk of an American President(Anderson 35).

The crew of the PT 109 were given a hero’s welcome when they returned to base, but Kennedy would have none of it. He refused home leave and was given another boat. In constant pain from the back injury, JFK soon contracted malaria, became very ill, and lost twenty-five pounds. He was forced to give up command and was sent So 5 home to Chelsea Naval Hospital near Hyannis Port. The lieutenant received the Purple Heart, the Navy and Marine Corps Medal, and a itation from Admiral W. F. Halsey. John’s back failed to recover was an operation was performed on his spine in the summer of 1944.

During recovery, Kennedy received word that his brother Joe, Jr. had been killed in action. Joe had been eligible for home leave, but had volunteered for a special bombing mission. The bombs had detonated early and Joe and his copilot were caught in the explosion. Kennedy put his feelings onto paper and a second book was published for the family and close friends. He called it As We Remember Joe. The family- particularly JFK’s father- had assumed that Joe, Jr. ould carry on the family tradition and go into politics. Both of his grandfathers had been active in politics(Anderson 41).

Now , suddenly, JFK was the oldest Kennedy of his generation. Kennedy’s first chance in politics came when Congressman James Curley from the 11th District of Massachusetts decided to retire in 1946(Gadney 42). JFK won his first Congressional seat by a margin of more than two to one. At the age if twenty-nine, JFK was placed on the front page of the New York Times and in Time Magazine. He was often mistaken in Congress as a Senate page or an elevator operator. It was during this time period in which Kennedy met and fell in love with Jacqueline Bouvier. Jackie”,as she was known, came from a wealthy Catholic background as prestigious as the Kennedys. She attended Vassar College and the Sorbonne in Paris, France. She So 6 spoke French, Italian, and Spanish fluently. They were wed on September 12,1953, at St. Mary’s Catholic Church in Newport, Rhode Island. All seemed well, yet after three two-year terms as a Congressman, Kennedy became frustrated with House rules and customs and decided to run for Senate. In 1952, Kennedy ran for Senate against Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. Fifteen years older than Kennedy, Lodge was the incumbent of two terms in the Senate.

JFK prevailed in the victory but was soon stricken with Addison’s disease during his first year in the Senate and had to operate on a fifty-fifty chance for survival procedure(Gadney 52). While recovering, Kennedy wrote Profiles in Courage, a bestseller on examples of moral courage in the lives of eight senators who risked their careers for a great cause or a belief. Kennedy returned to Senate and participated in the powerful Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He was also chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Labor. JFK believed strongly in education, equal job opportunity, and the civil rights movement.

His biggest success came in the form of his Labor Reform Bill which passed by a margin of 90 to 1 in Senate debate. Kennedy’s first child, Caroline, was born during this time. Due to his enormous success in Congress, the Democratic party nominated him for the presidential ticket in 1960. Lyndon Johnson was chosen as the running mate with Kennedy to secure and build upon the democratic bases in the southern states while the Kennedys sought out the younger voters, the factory So 7 orkers, and the liberals(Gadney 61). During the Kennedy Administration, a great deal of events were going on.

Jackie had given birth to JFK, Jr. , while all over the south, the civil rights movement was going in full force with incidents breaking out. Specific attention gathered around a black air force veteran, James Meredith, applied for admission to the University of Mississippi. In Cuba both the Bay of Pigs occurred, in which U. S. supported rebels revolted in a poorly laid out plan of events that fell out beneath them, and the Cuban Missile Crisis in which the Soviet Republic were building missile silos n Cuba, 100 miles away from Florida.

The Space Race was in full force with both Russia and the U. S. in competition to reach the moon. U. S. involvement in Vietnam was in the latter stages with plans to withdraw after the 1964 election. On a trip to Dallas to stir up support for the reelection, the President’s auto were coming down elm street when three shots rang out. The first projectile entered at the base of Kennedy’s neck and exited through the back of his head. The second bullet hit Texas Governor John Connally. Seconds later there was another shot and the back of the president’s head was torn away.

The ssassin- Lee Harvey Oswald with a mail-order rifle fired from the Texas School Book Depository(Warren 5). Oswald had recently applied for a passport to Communist Russia which led to a series of private meetings between Oswald and the Russian Government(Warren 614). Oswald protested his innocence. President Johnson set up what quickly became known as the So 8 Warren Commission headed by Chief Justice Warren to find the motive behind the assassination, The Commission finds the lone, depressed, mentally unstable, anti-social nut kills an American president(“Theories” 1).

Other theories have evolved over time uch as the Grassy Knoll theory. Witnesses say that a man in black was present and fired simultaneously with Oswald and doubled the actual shots fired(“Theories” 1) Another theory is that the fired CIA director Allen Dulles used his considerable connections and plotted revenge(“Theories 2”). On Nov. 24, 1963 as Oswald was being escorted from the city jail, Jack Ruby shot Oswald with a single shot from a Colt . 38 revolver(Warren 350). Ruby was arrested and stood trial in Dallas. He was found guilty and was sentenced to hang. He died in jail of cancer, on January 3,1967.

Kennedy was the first President to be born in the twentieth entury and was very much a man of his time. He was restless, seeking, with a thirst of knowledge, and he had a feeling of deep commitment, not only to the people of the United States, but to the peoples of the world. Many of the causes he fought for exist today because of what he did for the rights of minorities, the poor, the very old and the very young. He never took anything for granted and worked for everything he owned. Perhaps Kennedy summed up his life best in his own inaugural speech: “Ask not what your country can do for you, but ask what you can do for your country. “

John Fitzgerald Kennedy – 35th president of the United States

John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected president. He was also the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president. Therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented war. Young people especially liked him. No other president was so popular. He brought to the presidency an awareness of the cultural and historical traditions of the United States.

Because Kennedy expressed the values of 20th-century America, his presidency was important beyond its political achievements. John Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts. He was the second of nine children. Kennedy announced his candidacy early in 1960. By the time the Democratic National Convention opened in July, he had won seven primary victories. His most important had been in West Virginia, where he proved that a Roman Catholic could win in a predominantly Proteezt state. When the convention opened, it appeared that Kennedy’s only serious challenge for the nomination would come from the Senate majority leader, Lyndon B.

Johnson of Texas. However, Johnson was strong only among Southern delegates. Kennedy won the nomination on the first ballot and then persuaded Johnson to become his running mate. Two weeks later the Republicans nominated Vice President Richard Nixon for president and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. , who was ambassador to the United Nations and whom Kennedy had defeated for the Senate in 1952, for vice president. In the fast-paced campaign that followed, Kennedy made stops in 46 states and 273 cities and towns, while Nixon visited every state and 170 urban areas.

Another important element of the campaign was the support Kennedy eceived from blacks in important Northern states, especially Illinois and Pennsylvania. They supported him in part because he and Robert Kennedy had tried to get the release of the civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. King, who had been jailed for taking part in a civil rights demonstration in Georgia, was released soon afterward. The election drew a record 69 million voters to the polls, but Kennedy won by only 113,000 votes. Kennedy was inaugurated on January 20, 1961. In his inaugural address he emphasized America’s revolutionary heritage. “The same beliefs for which our forebears fought are till at issue around the globe,” Kennedy said. 3″Let the word go forth from this time and place to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americansborn in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritageand unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed and to which we are committed today at home and around the world. ” Kennedy challenged Americans to assume the burden of “defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. The words of his address were, ”

Ask not what your country can do for youask what you can do for your country. ” Kennedy sought with considerable success to attract brilliant young people to government service. His hope was to bring new ideas and new methods into the executive branch. As a result many of his advisers were teachers and scholars. Among them were McGeorge Bundy and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. , both graduates of Harvard. Kennedy’s most influential adviser was Theodore C. Sorenson, a member of Kennedy’s staff since his days in the Senate.

Sorenson wrote many of Kennedy’s speeches and exerted a strong influence on Kennedy’s development as a olitical liberal, 5 a person who believes that the government should directly help people to overcome poverty or social discrimination. The president and Mrs. Kennedy attempted to make the White House the cultural center of the nation. Writers, artists, poets, scientists, and musicians were frequent dinner guests. On one occasion the Kennedy’s held a reception for all the American winners of the Nobel Prize, people who made outezding contributions to their field during the past year.

At the party the president suggested that more talent and genius was at the White House that night than there had been since Thomas Jefferson had last dined there alone. At a meeting with the leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Nikita Khrushchev, Kennedy asked the name of a medal Khrushchev was wearing. When the premier identified it as the Lenin Peace Medal, Kennedy remarked, 6″I hope you keep it. ” On another occasion he told a group of Republican business leaders, 7″It would be premature to ask for your support in the next election and inaccurate to thank you for it in the past. Even in great crises, Kennedy retained his sense of humor. Kennedy’s first year in office brought him considerable success in nacting new legislation. Congress passed a major housing bill, a law increasing the minimum wage, and a bill granting federal aid to economically depressed areas of the United States. The most original piece of legislation Kennedy put through Congress was the bill creating the Peace Corps, an agency that trained American volunteers to perform social and humanitarian service overseas. The program’s goal was to promote world peace and friendship with developing nations.

The idea of American volunteers helping people in foreign lands touched the idealism of many citizens. Within two years, Peace Corps volunteers were working in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, living with the people and working on education, public health, and agricultural projects. However, after his initial success with Congress, Kennedy found it increasingly difficult to get his programs enacted into law. Although the Democrats held a majority in both houses, Southern Democrats joined with conservative Republicans to stop legislation they disliked.

The Medicare bill, a bill to make medical care for the aged a national benefit, was defeated. A civil rights bill and a bill to cut taxes were debated, and compromises were agreed to, but even the ompromises were delayed. A bill to create a Cabinet-level Department of Urban Affairs was soundly defeated, partly because Kennedy wanted the economist Robert C. Weaver, a black man, to be the new secretary. Southern Congressmen united with representatives from mostly rural areas to defeat the bill. Kennedy did win approval of a bill to lower tariffs and thus allow more competitive American trade abroad.

Congress also authorized the purchase of $100 million in United Nations bonds, and the money enabled the international organization to survive a financial crisis. Further, Congress appropriated more than $1 billion to finance sending man to the moon by 1970 which was accomplished in 1969. The major American legal and moral conflict during Kennedy’s three years in office was in the area of civil rights. Black agitation against discrimination had become widespread and well organized. Although Kennedy was in no way responsible for the growth of the civil rights movement, he attempted to aid the black cause by enforcing existing laws.

Kennedy particularly wanted to end discrimination in federally financed projects or in companies that were doing business with the government. In September 1962 Governor Ross R. Barnett of Mississippi ignored a ourt order and prevented James H. Meredith, a black man, from enrolling at the state university. On the night of September 29, even as the president went on national television to appeal to the people of Mississippi to obey the law, rioting began on the campus. After 15 hours of rioting and two deaths, Kennedy sent in troops to restore order.

Meredith was admitted to the university, and troops and federal marshals remained on the campus to insure his safety. In June 1963, when Governor George C. Wallace of Alabama prevented two blacks from enrolling at the University of Alabama, Kennedy ederalized the Alabama National Guard to enforce the law. The students were enrolled at the university. Three months later, Kennedy again used the National Guard to prevent Wallace from interfering with integration in the public schools of Birmingham, Tuskegee, and Mobile.

Kennedy also asked Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would guarantee blacks the right to vote, to attend public school, to have equal access to jobs, and to have access to public accommodations. Kennedy told the American people, 8″Now the time has come for this nation to fulfill its promises to act, to make a commitment it has ot fully made in this century to the proposition that race has no place in American life or law. ” Public opinion polls showed that Kennedy was losing popularity because of his advocacy of civil rights.

Privately, he began to assume that the South would oppose him in the next election, but he continued to speak out against segregation, the practice of separating people of different races. To a group of students in Nashville, Tennessee, he said, 9 “No one can deny the complexity of the problem involved in assuring all of our citizens their full rights as Americans. But no one can gainsay the fact that the determination to secure those rights s in the highest tradition of American freedom. ” In 1959, after several attempts, a revolution led by Fidel Castro finally overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar.

During the next two years, Castro was to become increasingly hostile to the United States. The new regime’s agricultural reform laws provoked U. S. companies that operated sugar plantations. Companies that were not controlled by Cuban stockholders were not allowed to operate plantations, and sugar production was de-emphasized in favor of food crops. In 1960 the Castro government nationalized, or took ver ownership of, an estimated $1 billion in properties owned by U. S. companies and citizens, and the Eisenhower administration imposed a trade embargo.

When Castro began to proclaim his belief in Communism, Cuba became part of the Cold War, or struggle between the United States and its allies and the nations led by the USSR that involved intense economic and diplomatic battles but not direct military conflict. Many Cubans fled to the United States. During the Eisenhower administration the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had begun to train Cuban exiles secretly for an invasion of Cuba. When Kennedy became president, he approved the invasion. In April 1961 more than 1000 Cuban exiles made an amphibious landing in Cuba at a place called the Bay of Pigs.

Their plan was to move inland and join with anti-Castro forces to stage a revolt simultaneously, but instead Castro’s forces were there to meet the invaders. The revolt in the interior did not happen, and air support, promised by the CIA, never came. The exiles were defeated and the survivors were taken prisoner. On December 25, 1962, 1113 prisoners were released in exchange for food and medical supplies valued at a total of approximately $53 million. Most other Latin American countries had the same bad social, economic, and political conditions that had led to Castro’s success in Cuba.

Many of these nations seemed ripe for a revolution that could easily be exploited by the Communists. Upon taking office, President Kennedy looked for a program that would accelerate change in Latin America by strengthening democratic institutions. In March 1961 he introduced the Alliance for Progress, and in August it was established by the charter of Punte del Este. The Alliance for Progress was to be a Latin American version of the Marshall Plan, the United States plan to fund cooperative, long-term program to rebuild Europe following World War II.

All Latin American nations except Cuba joined the Alliance for Progress, pledging 10″to bring our people accelerated economic progress and broader social justice within the framework of personal dignity and individual liberty. ” The United States promised $20 billion for the first ten years. The Alliance for Progress and President Kennedy’s particular concern for democratic institutions brought the United States renewed popularity in Latin America. On June 3, 1961, in Vienna, Austria, Kennedy and Khrushchev met and eviewed relationships between the United States and the USSR, as well as other questions of interest to the two states.

Two incidents contributed to hostility at the meeting. The first was the shooting down of a U. S. spy plane in Soviet air space, and the second was the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in early 1961. The results of the conference made it clear that Khrushchev had construed Kennedy’s failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion as a sign of weakness. No agreements were reached on any important issues. In fact, the Soviet premier made it clear that the Soviet Union intended to pursue an even ore aggressive policy toward the United States. Kennedy’s last words to Khrushchev in Vienna were, 11″It’s going to be a cold winter. He reported to the American people that the Soviet premier was a “tough-minded” leader who did not underezd the intentions of the United States. The leaders had spent a “very sober two days. ” In August 1961, to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West, the Communists ordered a wall built on the border between East and West Berlin. West Berlin had been under the control of the United States, France, and Britain since the end of World War II, although the city ay deep inside East Germany, a state that was an ally of the USSR. Kennedy and other Western leaders protested, but the wall was built.

Kennedy had already asked for more military spending and had called up reserve troops for duty in Europe. When East German soldiers began blocking the Allied route through East Germany into Berlin, Kennedy sent a force of 1500 soldiers marching along the route into West Berlin. The troops went uncontested. Communist interference stopped, allowing Allied forces travel to and from Berlin. Amongst other problems President Kennedy faced, none was more serious than this one. The Cuban Missile Crisis was perhaps the world’s closest approach to nuclear war.

In 1960 Soviet Premier Khrushchev decided to supply Cuba with nuclear missiles that would put the eastern United States within range of nuclear missile attack. Khrushchev, when asked, denied that any missiles were being supplied to Cuba, but in the summer of 1962 U. S. spy planes flying over Cuba photographed Soviet-managed construction work and spotted the first missile on October 14. For seven days President Kennedy consulted secretly with advisers, discussing the possible responses while in public his administration arried on as though nothing was wrong.

Finally, on October 22, Kennedy told the nation about the discovery of the missiles, demanded that the Soviet Union remove the weapons, and declared the waters around Cuba a quarantine zone. Kennedy called upon Khrushchev 12″to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations” and warned that an attack from Cuba on any nation in the western hemisphere would be considered an attack by the USSR on the United States itself. At the same time, United States troops were sent to Florida to prepare or invading Cuba, and air units were alerted.

American vessels blockaded Cuba with orders to search all suspicious-looking Soviet ships and to turn back any that carried offensive weapons. For several tense days Soviet vessels en route to Cuba avoided the quarantine zone, while Khrushchev and Kennedy discussed the issue through diplomatic channels. Khrushchev, realizing his weak military position, sent a message on October 26 in which he agreed to Kennedy’s demands to remove all missiles. The following day, before the United States had responded to the first note, Khrushchev sent another, rying to negotiate other terms.

Kennedy decided to respond to the first message, and on October 28, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle and remove the weapons from Cuba and offered the United States on-site inspection. In return Kennedy secretly promised not to invade Cuba and to remove older missiles from Turkey. Kennedy called off the blockade but Cuba, angry at Soviet submission, refused to permit the promised inspection. However, U. S. spy planes revealed that the missile bases were being dismantled. Nuclear war had been avoided. This was perhaps Kennedy’s greatest moment as president. Many felt that both World War

I and World War II had begun because of weak responses to acts of aggression, and Kennedy may have prevented World War III by displaying courage and strength. On November 22, 1963, President and Mrs. Kennedy were in Dallas, Texas, trying to win support in a state that Kennedy had barely carried in 1960. As the motorcade approached an underpass, two shots were fired in rapid succession. One bullet passed through the president’s neck and struck Governor Connally in the back. The other bullet struck the president in the head. Kennedy fell forward, and his car sped to Parkland Hospital. At 1:00 PM, he was pronounced dead.

He ad never regained consciousness. Less than two hours after the shooting, aboard the presidential plane at the Dallas airport, Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th president of the United States. That afternoon, Lee Harvey Oswald, who was employed in the warehouse, was arrested in a Dallas movie theater and charged with the murder. On November 24 the body of President Kennedy was carried on a horse-drawn carriage from the White House to the Rotunda of the Capitol. Hundreds of thousands of people filed past the coffin of the slain president. The grave was marked by an eternal flame lighted by his wife and brothers.

What is Affirmative action?

Affirmative action is a term used to describe rules and regulations that were established to protect minorities and women from being discriminated against (Simmons 1982). Affirmative action has changed the way people were treated since it was first brought into order in 1961 by president John F. Kennedy through executive order 10925(Alexander 1999). It helped established more opportunities for minorities and women in education, employment and housing (Dietz 2001).

Nevertheless, affirmative action has caused much controversy in our society and whether it has benefited America (Altschiller 1991). As a result, there are those who believe minorities have benefited, yet the dominant group has suffered. Before the passing of executive order 10925, minorities and women were treated unfairly. Before president Kennedy brought the executive order into action, minorities suffered a great deal of discrimination. In the past, minorities were abolished from specific areas. For instance they were not allowed to use the same bathrooms as whites (Alexander 1999).

The minorities were spatially segregated from the rest of society meaning outsides did not accept them; they weren’t allowed to obtain certain jobs, live in close proximity to the dominant group or receive the same educational opportunity (Parrillo 2003). After Kennedy, president Lyndon Johnson established several laws that helped establish better opportunities for minorities such as his ” Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 1965 and then the office of Federal Compliance in 1967″(Alexander 1999). In addition, he was simultaneously establishing the Fair Housing Act as well as the Economic Opportunity Act.

The Civil Rights Movement was one of the major contributors to the establishment of the parity laws. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 made it possible that the federal level could enforce the law on those who violated it, which helped give minorities the protection they needed from the Dominant group. After the implementation of affirmative action and the laws that followed, “the proportion of blacks in white-collar jobs grew from 10% to 24% and the ratio of black median family income to white rose from 55% to 62%”(Alexander 1999). As one can clearly see, there were major improvements for minorities.

They were given more opportunities to contribute to society without facing discrimination from businesses, education, and they began to gain a little more respect from others. Before these laws, minorities and women were subjected to institutional discrimination (book). They were judged upon on the bases of their race, origin and ethnicity. These minority groups were able to gain socioeconomic status within their society (Parrillo 2003). They were making their way and beginning to assimilate more with the society. Due to minorities being discriminated against in various circumstances, it was presidents Franklin D.

Roosevelt, Kennedy, and Johnson who wanted to see an end to it. They didn’t feel it was right that minorities and women were being discriminated against. They wanted the minorities to receive a better chance at life than their predecessors did. They wanted everyone to have an equal opportunity in America. Further, it was their goal to alleviate the way minorities had been treated in the past (Simmons 1982). However, it wasn’t as easy for the dominant white group to accept the new laws in favor of minorities. The dominant whites were xenophobic in that they were afraid of those were not like them.

They had for so long created social distance from the minority group (Parillo 2003). They liked being surrounded by those who were similar to them. It was much easier for them to associate with people who were like them and to judge those who were not. Trying to enforce the laws wasn’t the hard part in most cases; it was how they were still treated even after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was enacted. The laws couldn’t always prevent discrimination in businesses or schools although they did help provide minorities with a better opportunity.

The laws established quotas that the businesses had to follow. They were mandated to allocate so many minorities to a particular business. Some people, particularly whites, reacted toward the minorities gaining more opportunities in their companies. Although the law said they had to meet a certain quota, it didn’t mean that the business managers acted in the approved manner toward minorities. For so many years they were taught to be prejudice and to discriminate against those who were of a different race, ethnicity and gender.

And then suddenly, the law was changed and they began to see these minority groups upwardly mobilizing towards becoming more accepted into society and being given an equal opportunity. The dominant group was sort of like a stranger lacking “Intersubjective Knowledge” because they were unaware of what minorities were like and capable of. “Hence being white and being male in the United States historically has lead to greater employment opportunities, greater advancement, and higher wages”(Dietz 2001).

With the enactment of these laws, the dominant white groups felt they were competing with the minorities and felt they were going to start to take over. There was much talk about whether the laws had actually created reverse discrimination. One of the major cases that went to the Supreme Court was the University of California in 1978 v. Bakke (Simmons 1982). This was the first case that dealt with reverse discrimination issues at the Supreme Court level. Due to Bakke’s dominant group status, he was rejected from the school while minority groups were accepted although he had attained a better educational background.

Further, the reasoning behind this case was Bakke felt he was being discriminated against because The University of California at Davis Medical School was basing their admission on race and reaching a certain quota. ” The school offered four justifications for this policy countering the effects of past societal discrimination; reducing the historic deficit of minorities in the profession; increasing the number of professionals willing to practice in underserved, predominately minority communities; and increasing the educational benefit derived from maintaining a racially diverse student body (Friedl 1999)”.

The fourth explanation was of major importance in the decisions by the Supreme Court. Justice Powel, the Supreme Court Judge, believed all students could benefit from being around diverse people. In our society, diverse people surround us and much can be learned from a person with a different culture, ethnicity, race, gender and religious background ” With four justices joining him this portion of Justice Powel’s opinion,–allowing the medical school to continue to consider race, along with other factors, in its admissions policyreceived a majority vote and became the law of the land”(Friedl 1999).

As we discussed in class, anthropologists Ralph Linton stated, “that any given culture contains about 90% borrowed elements”(Parrillo 2003). Justice Powel’s ruling stated that everyone could learn from those who are not like you. It can expand our knowledge and help everyone become more accepted. They can contribute to the society and to learning which can help the society prosper. Ralph Linton’s beliefs can pertain to Justice Powel’s ruling because our society is multicultural. After this case became widely known, it stirred up more consciousness of reverse discrimination and more racial tension between minorities and whites.

In higher education programs and in employment, there has been controversy over whether affirmative action has created the opposite by discriminating against the dominant white group. As stated earlier, the goal of affirmative action was to stop discrimination against minorities and women. Yet, opponents believe that by making it easier for minorities to obtain a job and receive placement in education, we have corrected one problem and created another by discriminating against dominant whites, predominantly males. They believe that although we tried to solve the problem of unfair treatment, we have just created a double standard.

In businesses, people are being hired on the bases of their race rather than on how qualified they are for the job. Businesses are being forced to reach a certain quota and the person most qualified may end up jobless due to reverse discrimination (Thomas 2003). Also, the businesses are being hurt because they aren’t hiring the most successful applicant, which could be harmful to the company. Also, in higher education programs, like in the case of Bakke discussed earlier, schools are admitting students based on their race rather than how educated they are.

They also need to obtain a quota and do so by lowering the standards for minorities. One issue opponents argue is that although we have made it easier for minorities and women to be more successful in our society, we have created a double standard because whites are facing unequal treatment just as minorities and women did in the past (Gross 1977). Further, another issue they argues is that affirmative action has actually hurt minorities because there is a stigma behind it. Whether a minority is hired because they are qualified or not, others will believe they were hired because of Affirmative action.

They will never receive the credit they deserve if they were hired because they were qualified. Instead, they will always have a stigma attached to them. However, a study was conducted which showed clear evidence that whites still receive benefits and still receive more advantages in our society than minorities and women do. The study was on whether ” the effects of gender, ethnicity, education, family characteristics, geographic residence over time on economic attainment” (Dietz 2001) There is a significant relationship between being a minority and how much income one receives.

Depending on your age, gender, race and where you live can play a major role in your income. ” White males compose only about 30% of the total population” and ” they continue to hold 75% of the highest earning occupations”. As one can see, it clearly shows that white males receive an advantage. Minorities and women receive less income and they continue to experience discrimination, especially in employment (Alexander 1999). Further, minorities are more likely to be in poverty. They are likely to use welfare services than are dominant whites.

As author Kurt Jacobson and Alba Alexander stated, “Some ten million blacks live in poverty: 31% overall, and nearly half of all black children” (Alexander 1999). Many minorities are stuck and need the guidance from the government, yet minorities continue to be discriminated against in America. In order to stop the cycle of poverty, the society needs to be aware that America is a diverse society and everyone deserves equal treatment. Women have experienced greater advantages since the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as well as the Women’s Rights Movement.

They have made their way into the workforce, in receiving an education and making a living for themselves and their family. They do not rely on the males as much as they did in the past. Although they do obtain the jobs, men have and continue to receive more income. Women are discriminated against due to the fact that they are women. They are not judged on how well they can do the job or whether they are the best one suited for the job. Further, minorities have been subjected to the same treatment. In 1999, Muame found ” that black men are generally not promoted as quickly as white male”(Alexander 1999).

In regards to minorities who have an educational background, they still receive less income. Further, this study did find an increase for minorities and women since the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. They have attained more achievements in education due to affirmative action, which helped protect them from discrimination. They have made progress in our society. However, even though there have been improvements for minorities and women, the dominant white male population still continues to do better in our society. They receive more benefits and are still looked upon as the dominant group.

They continue to obtain higher incomes not solely because of their educational background but also because they are white. “Furthermore, these data reveal that arguments that affirmative Action and equal opportunity have created a new trend in business toward “reverse discrimination” against white men are not substantiated”(Dietz 2001). Today affirmative action still raises a lot of concern between the different ethnic groups in America. People believe that it has benefited our society while some believe it still causes students and companies some disadvantages based on their racial background.

In our society, we have faced discrimination since the beginning of time. We have progressed and changed since then and will continue to change as time passes by. Advanced employment and educational opportunities were difficult for minorities and women to obtain in the past. Today, past efforts and changes in laws has made the United States more unified than it ever was. As discussed in class, when immigrant’s first came over, they were subject to hostility by the dominant group. As time went by, they began to assimilate and eventually weren’t as noticeable to the dominant groups.

Change isn’t easy for anyone and it takes time to become accustomed to it. The immigrants suffered harsh discrimination when they first came to America as did minorities before The Civil Rights Act was enacted. And they continued being discriminated against after it was enacted. People have become accustomed to minorities having more opportunity in education and employment. It is more accepted today than in the past. In conclusion, affirmative action has progressed since it was first brought to order in 1961.

America has seen a significant change in the United States. Minorities have experienced discrimination throughout the past but they have ended up gaining more opportunity in our society. There are people who advocate for affirmative action as well as those who are against it. There have been major benefits for women and minorities due to affirmative action. Furthermore, how much someone earns is usually based on their ethnic background and their gender. Affirmative action has caused controversy and will continue to cause it for years to come.

John F. Kennedy Conspiracy

The debate about Kennedys assassination has been mixed by emotional arguments array of conspiracy theories that try to explain why a popular president was shot. I believe that President John F. Kennedys assassination in Dallas, Texas was a conspiracy. The U. S. Government has admitted that the American people have not been told the truth about the assassination. The Committee on Assassinations believes that on the basis of evidence available to it, that President JFK was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy.

The committee also stated that is was unable to identify “the other gunman” implying that the first gunman was Oswald, but they never verified him as one. One reason the extent of the conspiracy wasnt determined is because the funding for the investigation was suddenly cut. The conspirators did not want the committee to find out. Someone that could cut of the funds to a government aided project most have some authority. Newly discovered documents reveal that George Bush was directly involved in the murder. The document places Bush working with a now famous CIA agent, Felix Rodriguez.

He claims that he quit the CIA in 1976, just after being sent to prison for his role in the Watergate burglary. According to Rolling Stone however, Rodriguez still goes to the CIA headquarters monthly to receive assignments and have his blue 1987 bulletproof Cadillac serviced. He was asked where he was the day JFK was shot and claims he cant remember. Every serious investigator now agrees that Oswald did not shoot JFK. During Nixons Watergate “problems” he always used code words when talking about the 1963 murder of JFK. Haldeman said Nixon would always refer to the assassination as “the Bay of Pigs.

At first Bush, Nixon, Cabel, and Hunt decided to just go ahead with the corporate/CIA planned invasion on Cuba. Just 2 hours before the invasion General Cabel called JFK and asked for permission to provide U. S. air cover for the CIA invasion. Kennedy said no. The CIA was furious but went ahead with the invasion. It failed due to poor intelligence. It had landed on a the worst beach killing 15 of the CIAs best men with another 1100 in Cuban prisons. Bush, Nixon and Hunt blamed Cabel for asking Kennedy and blamed Kennedy for saying no. They were left with a lot of anger.

Nixons corporate sponsors ordered JFK to make any deal to recover the 1100 CIA agents in Cuba. Once the CIA had its well-trained Cubans back they decided to continue the invasion of Cuba just as soon as they could get rid of Kennedy. With Nixon running against Kennedy again, Bush, Ford and Nixon knew that they had to get rid of Kennedy soon in order to win. They decided not to wait until 84 so the Cuban teams of “shooters” began following JFK from city to city looking for an opportunity. They came close in Chicago but in Dallas is where they had an ace. The mayor there was the brother of General Cabel.

He prevailed on his brother and the motorcade was changed to pass the grassy knoll at 7 m. p. h. Hunt and Sturgis shot JFK. They were photographed and seen by 15 witnesses. The media pretended to know nothing about the photos for 25 years. The afternoon JFK was murdered some of the Watergate crew including Nixon and Hunt were photographed in Dallas with a group of Cubans. One which was holding an umbrella, a signal perhaps, next to the Presidents limo just as Kennedy was shot. In the Zapruder film and dozens of still photographs you can see the signal umbrella. After the assassination they can be seen calmly walking away.

Nixon denied he was in Dallas that day but new photos say otherwise. Nixon claimed to the FBI that he couldnt remember where he was. Bush also claims he cant remember where he was. Jack Anderson did a TV special in 1988 to prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that two of the tramps arrested in Dallas behind the grassy knoll were Hunt and Stugis. There are 4000 hours of Watergate tape. Nixon had recorded every meeting he had with people in his inner circle to use as blackmail. On June 23, 1972 discussions with John Ehrlichman and Haldeman shows that there is clear evidence that Nixon is openly “confessing” to hiring Hunt to kill JFK.

John F. Kennedy – A Thousand Days

John F. Kennedy was destined to be president of the United States. He would rather mold history than let history mold itself. John Kennedy was born in Brookline, MA in 1917. His mother was Irish and his father was a graduate of Harvard University and had entered the business world. After their arrival as immigrants, John’s grandparents entered politics. John had attended four different schools before attending Harvard. He first attended Dexter School in Brookline where he played football. He was then enrolled at the Riverdale Country Day School in Bronxville, NY because his father had moved for business reason.

He had also attended the Canterbury School in New Milford, MA and then he spent his secondary school years at Choate in Wallingford, CT. As a student, Kennedy was average. He had potential of a great intellect and had a capacity to learn but he failed to apply himself. Therefore, he was happy as a B student. In 1946, JFK started down the road mapped out for him by his father. Since Kennedy was more of a scholar than a politician, it wasn’t easy when he ran for Congress from Massachusetts’ 11th district. Since his family was well known, he fit right in. He served in the House of Representatives for six years.

Then in 1952, he ran for the Senate against Henry Cabot Lodge. He won and then began to capture the eyes of men in the Democratic Party. In 1956 he decided to run as the Democratic Vice Presidential nominee, but he lost to the Senator of Tennessee. His effort, however, earned him national prominence, exactly what he wanted. In 1960 he won the Democratic Presidential Contest. From that time on JFK had developed into one of the most effective speakers in the history of the presidency. While a junior member of the Senate in 1952, Kennedy me Jacquelin Lee Bouvier, who was working as a photographer for the Washington Times Herald.

On September 12, 1953, they married in Hyannis Port on Cape Cod. Although Kennedy was not born a politician, he learned the trade fast. His quest for presidency started in 1959. His campaign was a very exhausting experience for him. He had planned early on that he would “cover everything, do everything and see everyone. “The highlight of the 1960 Presidential Campaign was the series of four television debates between Kennedy and his opponent, Richard M. Nixon. Even off screen, Kennedy had a way of turning the debates to his advantage. When the ratings were in, Kennedy had clearly passed up his opponent by a considerable margin.

Many experts believe that his appearance on television was the key factor in winning most of the votes. They said that Nixon came off poorly and even looked poorly. When all the speeches were over, Kennedy returned to Boston to cast his vote at the West End Branch Library. Within a few hours it was clear that Kennedy had been elected to do one of the most demanding jobs in the world. John Kennedy had two children, Caroline and John Jr. Mrs. Kennedy tried very hard to keep them out of the spotlight because she was afraid that it would have an adverse effect on their development. John Jr. loved to hang out in his father’s office.

John always found time to spend with his family. It was very rare that he didn’t unless there was a very hectic issue he had to deal with as president. While the children were cared for much of the time by Maud Shaw, their private nurse, Mrs. Kennedy would take over whenever time allowed. More than anything else, the children of John Kennedy served to personalize and humanize the man. Scenes of the president playing with his children, carrying their teddy bears, listening to their problems and caring for their needs were deeply moving scenes. And when he died, Caroline and John were not yet old enough to understand.

Someday they will and they, more than anyone, will be able to remember the human side of the man who worked so long and hard for his country. Maybe Caroline summed it up when she once said, “That’s not the president, that’s my daddy. “Jackie Kennedy was the daughter of a New York banker, John Bouvier and Mrs. Hugh D. Auchincloss of Georgetown. Following a liberal arts education in American schools, Jackie went to Paris to study at the Sorbonne. Just after meeting John Kennedy when she was a freshman senator, she took a job as a photographer and reporter with a Washington Newspaper.

She interviewed and wrote about many of the leading political figures. As husband and wife, John and Jackie were very compatible. Each nurtured a deep appreciation and trust of the other and each held the other’s view of life in deep respect. But as John’s political career rose, she had begun to realize that she wanted the quiet life she had always dreamed of. Above all, she wanted privacy, for herself and for her children. She knew that as the presidency grew her dream would become farther away. As a one-time journalist she understood all this, yet she couldn’t stop it completely without hurting her husband’s career.

Because of this she adjusted. She protected her children from the prying cameras of the professionals and the tourists as much as possible. November 22, 1963 started out promisingly under Texas skies. Air Force 1, the presidential jet, landed at Dallas’ Love Field at 11:37 a. m. The President was touring the Lone Star State for political reasons. JFK got off the plane, got into his limo and was on his way to a luncheon at the Trade Mart and was lead by cops. Many teenage girls were holding signs wanting to shake the president’s hand. At this point he had less than 15 minutes to live.

While going by the Texas Book Depository Building he had less than a minute to live. Within the next minute, three explosions could be heard and John F. Kennedy fell wounded into his wife’s arms. The Texas Governor, John Connally, who was with Kennedy, was seriously wounded. Then the presidential limo rushed Kennedy three miles to the Parkland Hospital. A team of doctors tried to bring back his life but it had already vanished. Police and secret service agents rushed toward the Texas Book Depository, believing that the shots had been fired from there. People were showing their great sympathy to Jackie who lay by her husband’s side.

Kennedy was dead instantly. Many countries like France, England, Germany, Ireland, and Italy, which had all been visited by Kennedy, the people wept. On Monday, November 25, 1963, John F. Kennedy was laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery, with full military honors, and with many of the world’s leaders in attendance. His widow stood by, courageous to the end, and he would have admired that, for as brother, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, noted afterward, courage was the virtue that John F. Kennedy admired most. And courage was clearly the stuff that John F. Kennedy was made of.

John F. Kennedy Assassination Witnesses In The Motorcade

On November 22, 1963 John F. Kennedy, 35th President of the United States, was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. President Kennedy rode in the back of an open top limousine through the downtown area of Dallas. Thousands of people lined the designated route of the planned motorcade, hoping to catch a glimpse of their President. As the motorcade slowed to its end, traveling through Dealy Plaza, shots resonated through the city, and through the hearts of the American public, ultimately killing the beloved JFK. Immediately, secret service men rushed the President to Parkland Hospital, desperately hoping to save his life.

The doctors efforts were futile; within an hour, the President was proclaimed dead. A great deal of controversy surrounds the case. A government appointed investigation team, the Warren Commission, published their conclusions in a book called The Warren Report. Their conclusions remain the American Governments official stance on the case. Today, there are as many critics of The Warren Report as there are believers. The witnesses and their testimonies who participated in the motorcade provide compelling evidence towards theories that do not all support the Warren Reports conclusions.

The author Gerald Posner who wrote Case Closed, a book that supports the Warren Reports theories, prints conclusions that are also found to be questionable after strictly reviewing the testimonies of the involved parties from the motorcade. At 11:40am C. S. T. , Air Force One landed at Dallas Love Field Airport. The vice-presidents plane, Air Force Two, arrived about five minutes earlier. A sizable, but controllable crowd gathered to welcome the President and wave him off as the motorcade began its trip through Dallas.

The motorcade traveled at about 25-30 mph as it proceeded to the pre-arranged route. As the motorcade entered the downtown area of Dallas, the crowds began to thicken and the motorcade slowed down. There were no reported irregularities as the motorcade made its way through the crowded downtown streets, except for two short stops in which the President requested. One, to shake a little girls hand, and the other to briefly greet a nun, leading a group of children. Everything was going accordingly as they headed west on Main towards Dealy Plaza.

At Houston, the motorcade turned right and headed north towards Elm St. Several vehicles, beginning with a large group of Dallas Police Department motorcycles preceded the Presidents car. They traveled several minutes ahead of him. Behind the motorcycles came a pilot car. Several members of the Dallas Police Department manned it. Their job was to check for signs of unusual activity, or anything that could be considered threatening to the President. Following the pilot car was another small group of six motorcycles. They served to control the crowd back and away from the presidential limousine.

Next came the lead car, which was meant to carefully scan the areas of possible trouble next to and around the motorcade route. It was an unmarked DPD police car, driven by the Dallas Chief of police, Jesse Curry (Crossfire 9). Secret Service agents Forest Sorrels and Winston Lawson as well as Dallas County Sheriff J. E. Bill Decker rode the same car, which led approximately four or five car lengths ahead of the Presidents limousine, a 1961 custom made, Lincoln convertible (Crossfire 9). Special Agent William Greer drove, and to his right sat Special Agent Roy Kellerman (Crossfire 9).

There were two collapsible seats just behind the driver and passenger where Texas Governor John Connally and his wife sat. Governor Connally sat on the passenger side with Mrs. Connally sitting next to him on the driver side of the car. Behind them sat President John F. Kennedy and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy. President Kennedy sat on the passenger side of the car behind Governor Connally while his wife sat on the driver side of the car behind Mrs. Connally. Behind the Presidential Limousine drove the follow up car. It held ten people.

That day, all but one was a secret service agent. The Vice Presidential car followed next, carrying Lyndon Johnson, his wife, and Senator Ralph Yarborough (Crossfire 10). Eleven vehicles carrying local dignitaries, press, photographers, and White House staff trailed behind them (Crossfire 9-10). As the Presidential limousine made the hard left turn onto Elm, the motorcade slowed almost stagnant (Case Closed 232). A few yards following the stunted speed, the limousine accelerated to about 10-12 mph once the street straightened out.

The time was exactly 12:30pm C. S. T. (Case Closed 232) This was established after the assassination by the testimonies of four witnesses to the Warren Commission investigation (WR48-49). Mrs. Connally and Mrs. Kennedy were waiving to crowds on left side of the car while Governor Connally and President Kennedy waived to the crowds on the right side of the car. The car was traveling at about 10-12 mph when the first shot rang out (WR49). Many members of the motorcade disregarded the notion that the noise actually shot from a gun.

Instead, they assumed, and later testified, that the loud bang was that of a firecracker pop or a motorcycle backfiring. Though, Governor Connally and Forest Sorrels believed from the start that it was indeed a gunshot (WC IV 129)(WC VII 332). The sound was loud, and attracted the attention of most of the motorcade. Many participants looked around for the source of the sound. Agent Kellerman thought that the sound came from his right side (WC II 61). Mrs. Connally also thought the shot came from her right (WC IV 146).

Agent Sorrels, at the time of the shooting, believed that the sound he heard projected from his right, or in front of him, by the overpass (Conspiracy23). Later, in his testimony to the Warren Commission, Agent Sorrels attested that the shots had come from behind him and to the right (Conspiracy23). At the time of the shooting, to the right of the motorcade was the grassy knoll and to the back right was the book depository. Mr. Connally and Agent ODonnell believe that the first shot came from behind them and to their right (WC IV 129)(WC VII 440).

Immediately after the first shot rang out, Agent Kellerman heard a voice from behind him that he believed to be President Kennedy saying My God, I am hit. Agent Kellerman then turned around to face the President (WC II 61). When he did, he saw the President gripping his neck with his hands, wearing a confused look on his face. He then turned back around and reported to the driver, Agent Greer, Lets get out of here; we are hit (WC II 61). Mrs. Connally, right after the first shot, also turned around to look at the President.

She additionally saw the Presidents hands cuffed around his neck (WC IV 146). Though, neither one saw any blood. Governor Connally, at the same time, began to turn around to his right, attempting to see if the President had been shot. He couldnt, so he began to turn around to his left, but before he could get all the way around, he was struck in the back by a bullet (WC IV 129). Agent Kellerman heard a total of three to four shots (WC II 129). The first one, a short pause, then the second, third, and possibly fourth, cluttered and falling on top of each other.

He described the last shots as being a double bang-bang (WC II 129). Mrs. Connally, on the other hand, affirmed that she only heard three shots. She heard the same short pause after the first shot and then the second and third shots right after the other (WC IV 146). Mr. Connally doesnt recall the second shot but heard the first and third. He described them as being rifle shots (WC IV 129). Due to the rapidity of the shots, his first impression at the scene was that there were either multiple gunmen or a lone gunman with an automatic rifle (Conspiracy 19).

Agent Sorrels also believes that the second and third shots were fired very close together (WC VII 332). At least closer than the first and second shots. Several other witnesses in the motorcade also believed that the last two shots came almost one on top of the other. According to the Warren Report, it was the third shot that hit President Kennedy in the back of the head. Agent Hill heard the first shot but disregarded it as a firecracker popping (WC II 132). Once he realized that it was a gunshot he ran from the follow-up car to the back of the presidential limousine.

He did not hear the second shot but as he attempted to climb onto the back bumper of the limousine he heard what he thought was a second shot and then a popping sound (WC II 132). He then looked up and realized that President Kennedy had been shot in the head (WC II 132). Mrs. Kennedy after the third shot climbed onto the trunk of the limousine to retrieve a piece of the Presidents skull. Agent Hill on his second attempt to climb aboard the limousine helped push Mrs. Kennedy back into her seat. It was at this point that the motorcade began to accelerate on their way to Parkland hospital.

The information gathered from the participants in the motorcade presented a series of inconsistencies. The Warren Report as well as the author of Case Closed, Gerald Posner, concluded that a lone gunman assassinated the President. From the testimonies of the witnesses in the motorcade, several of their conclusions could be seen as inaccurate or incorrectly inferred. For example, Posner in his book Case Closed concludes that the first shot hit not only President Kennedy but also Governor Connally (Case Closed 326). Governor Connallys testimony to the Warren Commission contrasts this conclusion.

His testimony says that after the first shot, which he at the time believed to be a rifle report, came from over his right shoulder. He turned around to the right to see the origin of the shot. Simultaneously, he tried to turn even farther around to see the condition of the President. He could not get a view of the President turned in this direction so he began to turn around to his left. Before he could turn around far enough for view, he reported that he was hit in the back, and began to hunch over. Although he did not hear a second shot, most would assume that he was truly hit by the second fired shot.

Gerald Posner dismisses much of the Governors testimony in his book. How could Governor Connally not feel the bullet hit him or the wounds he sustained from the bullet until a couple seconds at least after he had supposedly been shot? It was plausible that he did not here the second shot and only the first and third because the second shot would have struck him before the sound of the bullet reached his ears. In Mrs. Connallys testimony to the Warren Commission, who sat right next to Governor Connallys on his left, said that the first shot fired hit President Kennedy in the neck (WC IV 146).

The second bullet she says hit her husband because it was then that he slouched over and she pulled him into her lap. If Mr. and Mrs. Connally were accurate, the determination of a fourth shot would be undeniable. This is because it has been established that presumably the second of the three total bullets that were fired missed and hit a curb next to the underpass on Elm. The first bullet fired was inarguably the bullet that hit President Kennedy in the neck and the third shot is undisputedly the shot that hit President Kennedy in the head. So it would seem that Posner is missing a fourth shot.

This might be able to be explained by the large number of witnesses who say that the second and third shots that they heard were extremely close together. Agent Kellerman testified that he heard the second and third shots as a double bang-bang (WC II 61). Mrs. Connally testified that the second and third shot were closer together than the first and second shot (WC IV 146). Agent Greer also believes that he heard the third shot just after the second (WC II 112). Agent Sorrels testified to the same thing (WC VII 332). A shot heard right after the other, within a second or even a second and a half concludes that there was a second gunman.

After a series of tests, the FBI concluded that it takes a minimum of 2. 3 seconds to recycle the chamber of Oswalds bolt action rifle (JFK MOVIE). This means that the second and third shots had to be at least 2. 3 seconds apart without aiming but just loading the weapon. This leaves a reasonable doubt to whether the Warren Commission and Posners conclusions are really accurate. Another doubt in Posners conclusions presented itself through the testimony of several witnesses in the motorcade who say they heard shots from the right rather than from behind them and to the right.

Gerald Posner concludes that all three shots had to have come from the book depository building only. Contradictively, Mrs. Connally testified that her impression of where the shots came from was to the right of the car (WC IV 146). At the time the shots were fired, the grassy knoll area would have been to the right of the car implying a second gunman. David F. Powers, who sat two cars behind the presidential limousine, attested that he thought the shots came from his right and possible from over by the underpass (WC VII 472).

Dallas County sheriff Bill Decker believed that the shots came from possibly the knoll area or behind it in the railroad yards because he immediately radioed Notify station five to move all available men out of my department back into the railroad yards (Conspiracy 24). Sheriff Bill Decker sat in the back seat of the lead car and was only one car ahead of President Kennedy. Although there are witnesses who believe the shots came from over their head and to their right (area of book depository), there are too many witnesses who testify otherwise to just ignore their opinions.

After reviewing the testimonies of the witnesses involved in the motorcade, I believe this aspect of the case must be left open to argument. Many Americans rightly demand the simple truths to what happened that November day in Dealy Plaza; but this is not possible. There are to many holes presented by witness testimony that keep the answers buried. For now this case cannot be closed. Until more evidence is uncovered, the American public will wait in agony to hear the true story of what happened on November 22, 1963 when The President of the United States was gunned down in cold blood while visiting Dallas.

Anti-Affirmative Action

“That student was accepted because of affirmative action policies. ” With my first intake of the phrase, I realized that the student, whom I knew and worked with so many times, the one with such a lack of motivational ability, confidence, and ideas, was now occupying my chances towards a preferred school. “Affirmative action”, I soon found out, was used by President John F. Kennedy over 30 years ago to imply equality and equal access to all, disregarding race, creed, color, or national origin.

As a policy setting out to resolve the problems of discrimination, Affirmative Action is simply nothing more than a quota of reverse discrimination. Affirmative Action emphasizes prospective opportunity more towards statistical measures. It promotes the hiring and acceptance of less experienced jobs of the workforce and less able students. Sometimes the affirmative action policies forces employers and schools to choose the best workers and less privileged students of the minority, in all, regardless of their potential lack basic skills.

As remarked by Maarten de Wit, an author whos article I found on the World Wide Web, affirmative action beneficiaries are “not the best pick, but only the best pick from a limited group. ” Another article I found, “Affirmative action: A Counter-Productive Policy” by Ernest Pasour also on the W. W. W. , is one example which reveals that Duke, a very famous and prestigious university, adopted a resolution requiring each of its department to hire at least one new African-American for a faculty position the 1993 date.

More proofs of Affirmative Action in action is the admission practices at the University of California Berkeley. In the same article by Pasour, it states that while whites or Asian-Americans need at least a 3. 7 grade point average through high school to be in consideration for admission in Berkeley, most minorities with much lower standards are automatically admitted. All the preferential treatment may provide a basis for employers, employees, as well as real applicable students to fight for an end to Affirmative Action.

The development of more racial tensions are yet another part of the Affirmative Action policy. Tensions between blacks and whites and other racial groups at U. S. colleges are related to preferential treatment. Tensions at the workplace also deal with the toleration of race and sex rather than individual abilities. Racial discrimination was said to have grown with the implementation Affirmative Action. Examples of black students attending North Carolina colleges stating that they were treated like affirmative action cases though they were not, conjured more of the racial discriminatory feelings.

As described by the above author, Ernest Pasour, professors at those colleges already assumed that the African-American students lack the qualifications, thus always seeking to help by asking if any tutoring or other assistance is needed. Solutions to the Affirmative Action policies may be simple and complex.

The example alternatives provided by Brian Sterlitz in his article, “Alternatives to Affirmative Action” found on the W. W. W. are: (1) rebuilding of civil society in minority communities; the strengthening of community associations, which will provide a foundation for collective development, (2) increasing minority and female applicant flow; maybe easy to accomplish with the addition of minority colleges and universities in campus recruitment programs at individual companies, and (3) most important promote broad policies for economic opportunity and security that benefit the low and middles-income Americans; Americans should work together toward broad based economic policies by consistently emphasizing broad-based, race-neutral policies.

Examples may be, public investment, national health reform, an enlarged earned income, tax credit, child support assurance, and other policies benefiting families with young children.

John F. Kennedy: Was His Assassination Inevitable?

A popular misconception is that President John F. Kennedy’s assassination was an isolated event perpetrated by one man. This could not be farther from the truth. Instead, it was the result of a complex combination of domestic and foreign events. When President Kennedy was in office, he had to deal with many issues, ranging from business and finance to crime-fighting and war issues. Perhaps it is not as important to decide who it was that killed him, but why. President Kennedy’s decisions and courses of action were not popular with everybody, and thus it is not surprising that his assassination was inevitable.

The people who might have wanted John F. Kennedy dead can be classified into the following groups: Russians, Cubans, Mobsters (Organized Crime/Mafia), Special Agents (CIA), G-men (J. Edgar Hoover’s FBI), Rednecks and Oilmen (Right-wing Extremists), and the MIC (Military Industrial Complex). Each group had its own motives for killing John F. Kennedy. Many of these groups that wanted JFK dead are very closely intertwined, so in order to understand each group, they will each be analyzed seperately. In order to better understand the relationship between JFK, the Cubans and Russians, several important events must be mentioned and discussed.

Two of the most important foreign affairs in Kennedy’s presidency were the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis. During Eisenhower’s administration, Cuba was torn apart by revolution. The Cuban dictator, Batista, was an extremely corrupt man. While he was enjoying a luxurious life, the people of Cuba were in poverty. Thus it was not surprising when a rebellion, led by a man named Fidel Castro, took place. Batista, knowing that the majority of Cuba wanted him out, chose to flea rather than be caught and face execution. Once Batista was out of the way, Cuba was Castro’s for the taking.

One of the first actions Castro took while in charge of Cuba was to close down all casinos. The people running them were either imprisoned or deported. Exploitation of Cuban workers by American was unacceptable to Castro, and he took immediate action against this. He believed American capitalists were taking advantage of the Cubans. Angered by this aggressive attitude toward American “interests”, the United States government established a trade embargo, hoping the Cuban people would overthrow Castro and reinstate a more “American friendly” leader.

With a starving population on one side, and a broken economy on the other, Castro turned to Russia for help. Since Russia did not own any land or power in the US/Cuban region, Castro offered the Russians a chance to extend their sphere of influence. An opportunity which was not refused. Of course, the American government did not accept this situation readily. A plan to train and arm Cuban exiles who would return to Cuba to overthrow Castro was contrived. This secret operation was viewed as far less dangerous than a direct invasion by American troops.

As the election of 1960 approached, the CIA had already made plans to overthrow Castro with the Cuban exiles. However, to the surprise of just about everyone, a young John F. Kennedy defeated favorite Richard Nixon by the slimmest of margins. Nonetheless, the invasion had to go on. The plan was to bomb Cuba’s airfields to prevent the Cuban military from killing the invading exiles. However, two things went wrong in the invasion. First, the CIA underestimated the Cuban army, and second, the airstrips were not all taken out, allowing the Cuban airforce to retaliate.

Upon hearing news of this, the CIA told Kennedy that in order to succeed the US must provide air coverage for the exiles. Kennedy refused however, believing it would be foolish to provoke a crisis with the Soviets just in order to aid the exiles. Due to this, the exiles were given no chance and were quickly demolished, and the invasion had failed. Now that Castro knew the United States’ intentions, he knew he was in immediate danger. Once again, he turned to Russia for aid. Castro realized the only way to assert his safety was to defend himself, and what he did was a very strategic move.

He asked Russia to send nuclear missiles to Cuba, saying to the US that any more attempted invasions of Cuba would exact their price. For years now, the US was sending nuclear missiles to friendly countries around Russia in order to halt any Russian expansionism, and the Russians were more than eager to return the favor. This led to what is now known as the Cuban Missile Crisis. On October 16, 1962 Kennedy called his closest advisors to the White House. The CIA had verified that nuclear missiles were indeed present in Cuba, Kennedy had to react fast.

He eventually decided to launch a naval blockade to prevent any further missiles from entering Cuba. Though threatened by Russian Prime-Minister Nikita Khruschev Kennedy would not let this disturb him, and he did not stop the naval blockade. The Russian ships eventually returned home, with nuclear war being narrowly averted. However, one must consider what kind of relationship Kennedy had with both Castro and the Russians after the crisis. Could the Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile crisis made the Russians and or Cubans mad enough to kill Kennedy? As was mentioned before, many of the groups that might have wanted JFK dead are closely related.

The CIA, the Military Industrial Complex, and maybe even the FBI were all involved in the situation in Cuba, and might of had their own reasons for wanting Kennedy dead. “I will smash the CIA into a thousand pieces”, said Kennedy after the disaster at the Bay of Pigs. The President soon commissioned a report to see why the Cuban invasion had failed. The results of the report were quite disturbing. It turned out that the CIA had intentionally lied to Kennedy even though they were fully aware the invasion was predestined to fail. However, they did not tell him this so he could be pressured into providing air cover at the last minute.

Kennedy later learned that the CIA had a secret plot to kill Castro, a plot which he would have vehemently opposed. Kennedy realized how powerful the CIA could be, that they could lie to him as they please, and could plot assassinations, while he remained completely ignorant. Kennedy was not going to take this lightly. He fired the Director of the CIA, Allen Dulles. Kennedy saw the CIA not only as corrupt, but as a threat to the freedom of America, and to democracy everywhere. A threat too powerful to exist in a democracy such as the United States’.

One of Kennedy’s first courses of action to restrain the CIA was to sign the NASM 55 (National Security Action Memorandum), which would relieve the CIA of it’s role as presidential advisor, and NSAM 57, which said any proposed paramilitary operation in its early staged must be presented in front of the Strategic Resources Group for initial consideration, and than approval by the president, if necessary. Then, the SRG will give out the responsibilities for planning, coordination, execution of the Task Force, the department or individual best qualified to carry forward the operation, and will choose supporting responsibilities.

Any large paramilitary operation which needs a vast number of military personnel, military equipment, or a high level of military experience is the primary responsibility of the Department of Defense with the CIA in a supporting role. With these two documents, Kennedy had effectively restricted the CIA. Would it be a surprise then, if the CIA, in an effort to get rid of Kennedy and replace him with a more favorable president, assassinated him? Another group that quite possible wanted JFK dead was the Military Industrial Complex. Just exactly what is the MIC? It is the supplier of every plane, gun, bullet and uniform.

Just about every organization that supplies or is hired by the government to build weapons. The relationship between the government and the MIC is a very important one, and this relationship is important in understanding if the MIC wanted Kennedy dead or not. When it comes to the economy within the MIC, war is the equivalent of winning the lottery. An aggressive president who does not hesitate to go into war is the ideal choice for the MIC. The MIC thrives on war, seeing it as “business”, every time a weapon has to be replaced the MIC gets richer, and the taxpayer gets poorer.

The MIC couldn’t care less about Americans dying in war as long as the cash is flowing. Military troops can be sent anywhere at anytime in the event of war. In order to foresee a coming war, every inch on earth is now being monitored by satellites, submarines, and radar. This machinery needs regular maintenance, repair, and replacement. Every time this happens, the money goes into the MIC’s pockets. World War II was a great example of how war boosts the economy, and how quickly the US can get out of a depression. Similarly, the ongoing situation in Vietnam was a great opportunity for the MIC to fatten its wallets.

When Kennedy took the presidency, the situation in Vietnam had not yet escalated into an all out war. It was Kennedy’s firm belief that Vietnam should not the United States’ concern, and troops should be recalled back immediately. Kennedy did not see Vietnam is a danger to democracy in America. He did not share the notion that Vietnam was a “holy crusade” against the “evil empire. ” He therefore made preparations to withdraw troops, and end the conflict. To hurry up the process, Kennedy sent trainers to South Vietnam to train the Vietnamese so they could protect themselves after the US had left.

By signing NSAM 263, Kennedy asserted he wanted one thousand troops out of Vietnam by Christmas of 1963, and wanted the conflict ended by 1965. Many researchers believe this was the final straw for the MIC, if he were to now withdraw from Vietnam, their profits would be damaged substantially. It is important to note the actual amount of money the MIC had to gain if troops did stay in Vietnam. Estimated figures ranged in billions, even trillions of dollars. To have Kennedy re-elected in the election of 1964 would be disastrous the MIC.

Would it sound ludicrous at all if the MIC killed Kennedy if the gain was over a trillion dollars, and the possible loss equal to that? Another government-related group that may have wanted JFK dead was the Federal Bureau of Investigations, led by J. Edgar Hoover. The FBI was a group so powerful, it put the Secret Service to shame. If by some misfortune Kennedy were to die, the president would become Lyndon B. Johnson, one of Hoover’s best friends. If indeed he did die, the combined power of the president and the Director of the FBI would have been more than enough to fabricate an investigation into Kennedy’s assassination.

While there is no definitive proof that the FBI conspired to kill Kennedy, it would have been real easy for them to get away with it if they did commit the crime. This, coupled with Hoover’s and Johnson’s well-known hate for the Kennedys, causes most researchers today to consider the FBI as prime suspects. As if President Kennedy didn’t have enough foreign enemies, or enemies from his own government, he also had many domestic enemies. Two of the biggest were the big businessmen and the “rednecks”. Both of these groups were intimidated by the Kennedy administration.

Kennedy tried to find a middle road between black and white radicals. His human-rights activities earned him the hatred of all racists. And as for big business, he angered them by obliging steel manufacturers to reverse price increases, as well as introducing a tax-reform legislation that would end unfair tax practices and would abolish the profitable oil reduction allowance. International bankers were quite angered when, in the summer of 1963 Kennedy, had the Treasury Department print an excess of $4 billion in “United States Notes,” thus bypassing the powerful Federal Reserve System. It may be noteworthy that Lyndon B.

Johnson was a strong ally of Texas oilmen who despised Kennedy, and that it was rumored that Kennedy was about to drop Johnson from the 1964 election ticket. Could big businessmen along with Lyndon B. Johnson and friend J. Edgar Hoover, who also might have wanted Kennedy dead, plotted to kill Kennedy? The last major group that would have wanted JFK out of the way was the notorious Mafia. Since its origin, it has had a heinous reputation in the United States. John F. Kennedy’s brother, Robert, was working as Attorney General to prosecute the Mafia, thus earning him and his brother a unpleasant reputation with them.

Many crime bosses in the United States threatened the Kennedys at one point or another. The Mafia and US intelligence, as discovered by the Kennedy’s, had a few connections dating back all the way to World War II. While the Federal Bureau of Investigations didn’t really hunt down the Mafia, the CIA actually collaborated with the Mafia on more than one occasion. Certain sources even claim that there were contacts between JFK and Sam Giancana, a Mafia boss, during Kennedy’s campaign for the presidency in 1960, which led to Kennedy to winning the presidency (though the veracity of these sources leaves something to be desired).

However if this is true, the Mafia would definitely consider JFK and his brother going after them as a double-cross, and this would have been a more than strong enough motive for the them to kill Kennedy. It is important to note that the Mafia felt that no person was above them, that nobody is immune from their power. If the Mafia wanted Kennedy dead, and had a motive, is it that unlikely that they did it? The events that would have happened if Kennedy was not to be assassinated were extremely vital.

Kennedy was going to remove a thousand soldiers from Vietnam by 1963, and was committed to withdraw all troops by 1965, when Lyndon B. Johnson took office, neither happened. He was going to smash the CIA into a thousand pieces, and replace J. Edgar Hoover as Director of the FBI, this didn’t happen. He may have been going to drop Lyndon B. Johnson from the presidential ticket in 1964. Had he not been assassinated Johnson would have never become president. When Johnson took over, he signed NSAM 273, considered to be the opening of the Vietnam war. The commitment meant the MIC would continue to make money, and lots of it.

John F. Kennedy Biography

John F. Kennedy graduated from Harvard in 1940, and soon after he entered the Navy. In 1943, when his PT boat was rammed and sunk by a Japanese destroyer, Kennedy, despite serious injuries, led the survivors through perilous waters to safety. Back from the war, he became a Democratic Congressman from the Boston area, advancing in 1953 to the Senate. He married Jacqueline Bouvier on September 12, 1953. In 1955, while recuperating from a back operation, he wrote Profiles in Courage, which won the Pulitzer Prize in history.

In 1956 Kennedy almost gained the Democratic nomination for Vice President, and four years later was a first-ballot nominee for President. Millions watched his television debates with the Republican candidate, Richard M. Nixon. Winning by a narrow margin in the popular vote, Kennedy became the first Roman Catholic President. His Inaugural Address offered the memorable injunction: Ask not what your country can do for you– ask what you can do for your country. As President, he set out to redeem his campaign pledge to get America moving again.

His economic programs launched the country on its longest sustained expansion since World War II; before his death, he laid plans for a massive assault on persisting pockets of privation and poverty. Responding to ever more urgent demands, he took vigorous action in the cause of equal rights, calling for new civil rights legislation. His vision of America extended to the quality of the national culture and the central role of the arts in a vital society. He wished America to resume its old mission as the first nation dedicated to he revolution of human rights.

With the Alliance for Progress and the Peace Corps, he brought American idealism to the aid of developing nations. But the hard reality of the Communist challenge remained. Shortly after his inauguration, Kennedy permitted a band of Cuban exiles, already armed and trained, to invade their homeland. The attempt to overthrow the regime of Fidel Castro was a failure. Soon thereafter, the Soviet Union renewed its campaign against West Berlin. Kennedy replied by reinforcing the

Berlin garrison and increasing the Nation’s military strength, including new efforts in outer space. Confronted by this reaction, Moscow, after the erection of the Berlin Wall, relaxed its pressure in central Europe. Instead, the Russians now sought to install nuclear missiles in Cuba. When this was discovered by air reconnaissance in October 1962, Kennedy imposed a quarantine on all offensive weapons bound for Cuba. While the world trembled on the brink of nuclear war, the Russians backed down and agreed to take the missiles away.

The American response to the Cuban crisis evidently persuaded Moscow of the futility of nuclear blackmail. Kennedy now contended that both sides had a vital interest in stopping the spread of nuclear weapons and slowing the arms race. This led to the test ban treaty of 1963. The months after the Cuban crisis showed significant progress toward his goal of a world of law and free choice, banishing the world of war and coercion. His administration saw the beginning of new hope for both the equal rights of Americans and the peace of the world.

John F. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy was the thirty-fifth president of the United States and the youngest to be assassinated. He also served in World War II on a PT boat. He also helped to solve the Cuban Missile Crisis. He was assassinated in 1963 in dallas texas. He also started the peace corps to help 3rd world countries better them selves. He was born of Irish decent in Brookline, Massachusetts, on May 29, 1917. In 1940 he entered the second World War and he served on a PT. In 1943 when his PT was rammed and sunk by a Japanese destroyer, even though he was injured severely he still helped urvivors to safety.

After the war he became a Democratic Congression from the Boston area, moving on to a senator in 1953. He married Jacqueline Bouvier on September, 1953. In 1955 he wrote a book called “Profiles of Courage” which won the Pulitzer prize in history. In 1956 he almost gained the democratic Vice President, and four years later he was the first-ballot nominee for president. Kennedy became the first Roman Catholic President. His Inaugural Address offered the memorable line: “Ask not what your country can you–ask what you can do for your country. ”

As president he set out to redeem his campaign pledge to get America moving again. His economic programs launched the country on its longest sustained expansion since World War II. Before his death, he laid plans for a massive plans for assault on persisting pockets of privation and poverty. John F. Kennedy was called the dreamer President. This inspiring president challenged America to be the first country to land a man on the moon. He gave the space program it’s first push. His assassination was truely a sad day for America. He was a very loved and respected president and will truely be missed.

John F Kennedy John F. Kennedy was the thirty-fifth president of the United States and the youngest to be assassinated. He also served in World War II on a PT boat. He also helped to solve the Cuban Missile Crisis. He was assassinated in 1963 in dallas texas. He also started the peace corps to help 3rd world countries better them selves. He was born of Irish decent in Brookline, Massachusetts, on May 29, 1917. In 1940 he entered the second World War and he served on a PT. In 1943 when his PT was rammed and sunk by a Japanese destroyer, even though he was injured severely he still helped urvivors to safety.

After the war he became a Democratic Congression from the Boston area, moving on to a senator in 1953. He married Jacqueline Bouvier on September, 1953. In 1955 he wrote a book called “Profiles of Courage” which won the Pulitzer prize in history. In 1956 he almost gained the democratic Vice President, and four years later he was the first-ballot nominee for president. Kennedy became the first Roman Catholic President. His Inaugural Address offered the memorable line: “Ask not what your country can you–ask what you can do for your country. ”

As president he set out to redeem his campaign pledge to get America moving again. His economic programs launched the country on its longest sustained expansion since World War II. Before his death, he laid plans for a massive plans for assault on persisting pockets of privation and poverty. John F. Kennedy was called the dreamer President. This inspiring president challenged America to be the first country to land a man on the moon. He gave the space program it’s first push. His assassination was truely a sad day for America. He was a very loved and respected president and will truely be missed.

A fresh inquiry into the assassination of John F. Kennedy

In 1976, the US Senate ordered a fresh inquiry into the assassination of John F Kennedy, who was murdered in 1963 during a motorcade in Dallas, Texas. People who had been involved in the original Warren Commission investigations were asked to make fresh statements. The FBI and the CIA were persuaded to release more of their documents on Oswald. New lines of inquiry were opened and individuals who had not previously given evidence were persuaded to come forward. Most important of all, pieces of evidence such as photos and sound recordings were subjected to scientific analysis using the most up-to-date methods and equipment.

The House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) completed their investigation in 1979 and they finally came to a discrete verdict that Lee Harvey Oswald fired three shots at Kennedy, one of which killed the president. The fourth shot was fired from the grassy knoll. They concluded that John Kennedy was assassinated as a result of a conspiracy. There are many reasons why the HSCA came to this verdict, but firstly it was important that the American people understood why this case was re-opened over a decade later!

The investigation was set up as direct result of the assassinations of two other major political figures; the civil rights leader, Dr Martin Luther King and the Presidents brother Robert Kennedy, in 1968. Naturally this aroused immense suspicion and the American public started questioning why so many key US figures had been assassinated in the space of just four years when previously this type of incident had been rare. At the time there was also an increasing amount of corruption and scandal within the government. This alarmed the public who had completely trusted the government before.

The Watergate Scandal in 1974 involving President Nixon had clearly shown that this was not the case anymore. Nixon had abused his authority and power to his advantage. This indicated that even politicians were prone to sleaze and scandal. As a result of this, people also started questioning the behaviour of the government. This is most likely why they were more receptive in accepting that Kennedy was the victim of a conspiracy, later on. The public also became increasingly interested in the Kennedy assassination as books such as Rush to judgement by Mark Lane and Inquest by Edward Jay Epstein, started to be written.

They immediately became best sellers and played a large role in raising awareness regarding the assassination. As a result people started to inquire more and rumours began that other people or organisations had been involved in Kennedys assassination i. e there had been a conspiracy. As people became more and more aware about the events surrounding the assassination, many blamed the Dallas police as being incompetent in handling the whole investigation. They had proven to be extremely unorganised despite the fact that the President had just been murdered.

The fact that interviews hadnt been recorded was one of the reasons why there was so much confusion. Yet the only excuse the Dallas police could come up with was that they couldnt find a tape recorder! The questions that were asked by the officers proved to worthless and what little records were kept are said to be inadequate. However more seriously, the Dallas police were wildly believed to be at fault for Oswalds death and even the world wide doubt over his guilt. Even though previously an attempt had been made to kill Oswald, no further security precautions had been taken to prevent this from happening again.

Considering that they were holding the alleged assassin of the President in custody, the security was appalling. At the hands of Jack Ruby, one bullet had proved sufficient enough to kill Oswald. The fact that reporters were allowed to mingle around Oswald as he was escorted out of court, probably caused the death. Public access to Oswald should not have been permitted under any circumstance. Oswald was murdered in front of cameras and video footage of the incident shows that the police didnt make hardly any attempts to prevent the murder, but literally just stood there. Many people have found this to be extremely suspicious.

Some believe that Jack Ruby killed Oswald to silence him and the police were ordered to let it happen. If this is true, who were they taking orders from? Despite discrepancies such as these, for many years the American public had to be content with the Warren Commissions verdict that Lee Harvey Oswald had been the sole assassin in the murder of John Kennedy who died as result of three shots being fired from the Texas school depository building. However since the report was published on 24 September 1964, fresh evidence kept surfacing, as did inconsistencies on the Warren Commissions part.

There was a general feeling that they had disregarded evidence if it contradicted their conclusion. They had been under immense pressure from the public to come to a verdict. At the time Oswald had seemed like the perfect person to blame – a motiveless man with a grudge. They had no doubt been influenced by public opinion and their conclusion had been a hasty one. In fact, three days after the assassination, Lyndon Baines Johnson received a memo saying; “The public must be satisfied that Oswald was the assassin, that he did not have confederates. ”

By the 1970s Americans were actually alarmed that the Warren Commission had been so single minded and did not make any attempt to investigate other possible theories and that they hadnt followed a number of promising leads. It later also came to light that none of the commission members had any investigative experiences and completely relied on Hoover and the FBI. However, probably their biggest mistake was disregarding key eyewitnesses whom they considered to be incompatible, inconsistent and were contrary to their lone psychotic assassin theory.

Nobody of the commission heard one of the witnesses who appeared before the counsel. Among them were crucial witnesses such as Abraham Zapruder. Others didnt even give evidence. J C Price, a bystander at the motorcade, claimed to have seen a man with a rifle running behind the fence on the grassy knoll. Similarly, Gordon Arnold and James Simons stated that the shots came from the grassy knoll. Jean Hill, a teacher who was standing near the Presidents car, said: “I heard four to six shots and Im pretty used to guns. They werent echoes.

They were different guns that were being fired. ” Credible testimonies from literally dozens of witnesses such as these was ignored purely because it contradicted the Warren Commissions conclusion of a lone assassin firing three shots from the depository building. This indicated that their report was based on appallingly selective reading of evidence and just shows how reliable it was! All these eyewitness testimonies remained inconclusive to the Warren Commission at the time, as they just didnt make sense. Similarly Kennedys autopsy reports also contained many discrepancies.

Two autopsies were carried out on Kennedy. It was hoped at the time that they would reveal the angles at which the bullets had entered Kennedys body, hopefully pointing to where the gunman or gunmen were situated. The autopsies actually created even more confusion, as they were completely contradictory. The first autopsy was conducted in Parkland Hospital, Dallas although the official one was conducted in Bathesda Naval Hospital, Washington DC. When the two examinations were compared, alarming differences showed up.

The main difference was that the exit and entry wounds were said to be different. In Dallas, doctors claimed that the bullet entered Kennedys body at the front of the neck, about bow-tie height. When Kennedy was brought into Parkland Hospital, Dr Malcom Perry said that when he was about to perform the tracheotomy, he noticed a hole of about 5mm just below Kennedys adams apple, presumably where the bullet had entered. Contrary to this, in Washington the autopsy reports show that the bullet exited from the neck.

Their report confirmed the single bullet theory addressed by the Warren Commission whose conclusion was highly dependent on this theory. This was that the bullet entered Kennedys right shoulder blade, bruised the strap muscles of the right side of the neck, damaging the windpipe and making its exit through the front of the neck. According to the single bullet theory, the very same bullet entered Governor Connallys back, who had been seated in front of Kennedy, went through his chest taking out part of his fifth rib and collapsing his lung.

The bullet then went into his right wrist and then buried itself in his left thigh. Although there is medical evidence to support this theory, some believe that the bullets path and velocity could not have been possible. Even Governor Connally believed that the bullet that wounded Kennedy wasnt the same one that responsible for his wounds. A FBI supplementary report states that the bullet that entered Kennedys back had penetrated to less than a finger length. If this is true, how can the bullet have exited from the front of his neck?

There are of course other facts that warp this theory such as the fact that the bullet was mysteriously found on a hospital stretcher in pristine condition. Yet the bullet should have been out of shape and showing signs of severe impact, considering that it had gone through two major bones and had torn out a great deal of muscle. However some theorists believe that the bullet was in fact planted on the stretcher by the FBI or CIA so that they could pin the assassination on Oswald, again indicating the involvement of a conspiracy.

Another disturbing piece of evidence surrounding the autopsies is the fact that the bullet wound to the head was said to have entered at different angles. On report says that it entered at a low trajectory whilst the other said that it entered at a high trajectory. As well as this the diagrams and measurements made during the autopsies vary. The differences as you can see are substantial and inevitably have a great influence on the theory of the second gunman.

The examination of the body in Dallas seems to point towards two gunmen, whilst the autopsy in Washington points towards a single gunman! The fact that the autopsy reports are still classified arouses suspicion in itself. It has recently also come to light that much of the reports have been destroyed. Is it possible that the government may be hiding something? Secret service presence during both examinations also has to be considered as it would have been in the interest of the government what the outcome of the autopsies were, if there was indeed something to hide.

Up till two weeks prior to when the HSCA was due to publish their report, they had believed the Warren Commissions conclusion that Oswald was the lone assassin and this single bullet theory. However, they changed their minds as a vital piece of evidence came to light, which provided a strong indication of the involvement of a conspiracy. It was a previously overlooked sound recording. A police outrider travelling with Kennedys motorcade had left the microphone of his two-way radio switched on. The recording had amazingly been stored and not destroyed.

It was rediscovered by committee investigators and sent of to a leading acoustics lab. There, by separating and amplifying the background noises he was able to determine the direction of sound waves in Dealy Plaza at the time of the shooting. He concluded that at least two rifles could be heard firing four shots. Furthermore one of the shots came from a direction to the front and to the right of the motorcade. He stated that there was a 50% chance of there being a second gunman on the grassy knoll.

The HSCA called in two more acoustic experts who confirmed this and said there was actually a 95% chance of a second gunman. For the HSCA this was a dramatic confirmation of some of the earlier witness accounts that the Warren Commission had chosen to ignore. Many of the eyewitnesses questioned by the Warren Commission had recalled hearing a rifle fired from the direction of the grassy knoll. However, now together with these eyewitness reports and the acoustical and forensic evidence, which hadnt been available to the Warren Commission, everything fell into place and made a lot more sense.

As a result the HSCA was able to get a clearer picture of what happened and at this point the involvement of a conspiracy was looking more likely. Further analysis of the sound recording provided the HSCA yet with more evidence of a second gunman. Experts found that two of the shots fired from the direction of the depository building were within an interval of just 1. 66 seconds. As the Mannlicher Carcano rifle isnt an automatic weapon and requires a bolt to be drawn by hand in order to feed single live rounds to its breech, it is almost impossible to load, aim and fire in such a short space of time.

Expert marksmen tested the rifle on a firing range. A telescope sight, which was also found with the rifle on the sixth floor, made the rifle difficult to aim and fire in rapid succession. Without a telescope sight speed of fire improved and the marksman managed times of 1. 65 and 1. 75 seconds. But at such speeds the marksmen only hit the target with one shot in three. Oswalds military records showed that he had been a poor shot, an average marksman at best. Could he have really managed to fire so many shots successfully?

Doubts were also raised about the accuracy of the weapon. Tests were conducted and experts found that the rifle was inaccurate and they described it as being “crudely made, poorly designed and dangerous. ” They also found that the ammunition for the rifle was frequently of a poor quality. In one batch, 17 out of 20 bullets were defective and failed to fire. Considering all this, was it possible that Oswald could have shot three bullets at a moving target, through immense foliage, 88 yards away in just 5. 6 seconds using a faulty rifle?

To many people this seemed highly unlikely. There was also evidence suggesting the presence of a second gunman on the sixth floor of the depository building, but this remains inconclusive. Several eyewitnesses reported seeing two gunmen with guns on the sixth floor. The men were described as wearing light coloured clothing. Oswald had worn a dark coloured shirt to work that day. Certainly with two gunmen firing from the depository building the chances of hitting the target would have been greatly improved.

The HSCA now had enough evidence supported by eyewitness reports to conclude that Kennedy was a victim of a conspiracy. Unlike the Warren Commission they were able to conduct a more thorough investigation, most likely because they had more time to come to a verdict. However, although they had been able to come up with a satisfactory conclusion, they had not been able to identify the second gunman or even the extent of the conspiracy. But people came up with their own theories about what happened, blaming various organisations for the assassination of Kennedy.

Undoubtedly the most poplar theory was that government agencies were involved, that it was planned by either high officials in the White House or by the secret service, FBI and CIA. It was executed by paid killers and afterwards the agencies ensured that the murderers remained uncovered. But what motive could such agencies have? The CIA certainly had a motive. They blamed Kennedy for not throwing the full weight of his air force behind the Bay of Pigs affair and in addition they were bitterly disappointed that he had come to an agreement with the Soviets over Cuba.

Kennedy had also stopped listening to the CIA after the Bay of Pigs affair and it resented being cold-shouldered by the President. Another popular theory was that the Mafia, the most powerful criminal organisation in the world, was involved. An indication of this was the involvement of Jack Ruby who supposedly had Mafia links. One of the reasons they could have conspired to kill Kennedy was that the Presidents brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy, had been using his legal powers to act vigorously against some of the larger and more influential Mafia bosses.

In fact he had been leading a strong campaign against the Mafia. Getting rid of Kennedy would have resulted in a new government and therefore Robert Kennedy would be replaced. However it has to be considered that according to the Mafias code of conduct, they are forbidden to kill any individuals with any legal authority i. e police officers, magistrates and the President! Other implications included blaming the right-wing extremists to whom Kennedy was a communist as he attempted to build peaceful relationships with Cuba and the Soviet Union.

Communists were also blamed for being involved as they saw Kennedy as a friend of industrials and held him responsible for the Vietnam War, the blocking of Cuba and many other things. These were just a few of the theories around at the time but it has to be remembered that none of them have ever been proven. It was possible that people were so shocked by Kennedys assassination that they were overreacting and that there was a plausible explanation for his death. In key assassinations there is almost always speculation of a conspiracy, yet one has never been identified.

But even the HSCA concluded that Kennedy was the victim of a conspiracy, as they believed that all the evidence and the eyewitness reports indicated this. If there was indeed a conspiracy involved, it would cause a huge political crisis to unravel it. Although the HSCA came to a sufficient conclusion, the truth about Kennedys assassination will never be known. However, the haunting words that Oswald left us with; “Im just a patsy” will always raise questions to whether there was a cover up, if Oswald was part of the conspiracy or if he was just a lone gunman with a grudge!