Please Understand Me

For many years, people have always questioned each other’s motives. People have always questioned why certain people do certain things or why certain people act a certain way. We have always wondered what makes other people tick; people besides ourselves. Watching another person perform daily tasks can raise many questions. Questions such as \” Why didn’t he do that the other way? \” or \” How can someone bungee jump? \” Temperament, Character, and Personality have mystified human beings so much, Plato, himself, wrote about four kinds of character.

By understanding each other, humankind may get a better sense of who everyone is. Stereotypes as the outcast will be better understood for what they do and why they do it. By understanding character, people will appreciate differences instead of trying to mold other people into molds of themselves. The book Please Understand Me II, by David Keirsey, is based on the questionnaire, devised by Kathryn Briggs called the \”The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. \”(Keirsey, 1998) Myers labeled her sixteen personality types with four pairs of letters.

E or I, P or J, N or S, or, F or T. E means extraverted, I means introverted, P means perceiving, J means judging, N means intuitive, S means sensory, F means feeling, and T means thinking. by \”extraverted\” Myers meant having an \”expressive\” and outgoing social attitude; by \”introverted\” she meant having a \”reserved\” and seclusive social attitude. By \”sensory\” Myers meant being highly \”observant\” of things in the immediate environment; by \”intuitive\”, she meant being \”tough-minded\” or objective and impersonal with others; by \”feeling\” she meant \”friendly,\” or sympathetic and personal with others.

By \”judging\” she meant given to making and keeping \”schedules\”; while, in the case of \”perceiving\” Myerswent her own way and opposed \”perceiving\” to \”judging. \” (Keirsey, 1998) Myers came up with four different temperaments. She came up with the Artisans, the Guardians, the Idealists, and the Rationals. Artisans can be seen as the most exciting temperament out of the four classifications. They live their lives to the fullest, and they try to do everything they possibly can. They are very impulsive and the do things for the fun of it.

Artisans can be described as \”over-optimistic, adaptable, artistic, athletic, open-minded, easy going, tolerant, unprejudiced, and persuasive\”(Keirsey, 1998). Artisans are supreme optimists and are always looking for opportunities, and the best ways to approach situations. They can be seen as the most resourceful of the temperaments. Role variants of the Artisans are divided into Promoters, Crafters, Performers, and Composers. Promoters, also known as \”smooth operators,\” do everything in their powers \”to advertise, announce, boost, convince, entice, or induce\” others to give into their endeavors.

Crafters know which tools to use for a situation and how to use the tools in the most effective manner. Performers love to perform in front of people so they excel at \”demonstrating, displaying, showing, presenting, staging, enacting, or exhibiting their artistic skills\” (Keirsey, 1998). Whereas, Composers excel in things that require improvisational skills, such as cooking. Guardians are known as relying on common sense and for holding morally correct beliefs, and they are alert to the needs and perils of others (Keirsey, 1998). Guardians are very occupied with morality.

They feel responsible for the morality of people in their lives, even if they feel they should not need to be responsible about it. Guardians care about being reliable and therefore, they are very hard working, even as small children. If there is a job to be done, Guardians feel obliged to do it. Usually they are so hard working, they forget to appreciate themselves for the work they have completed. Guardians are have learned to expect the worse from life, and are very highly prepared for precarious situations. For them, it is better to be safe than to be sorry.

The role variants of the Guardians are divided into the Supervisors, the Inspectors, the Providers, and the Protectors. \”Supervisors enforce standard operating procedures, keeping one eye on their people’s performances, and the other on the rules and regulations that govern their activities, making sure that they behave in keeping with agreed procedures and standards of contact. their business is to mind others’ business\” (Keirsey, 1998) Inspectors like working \”behind the scenes\” in jobs, such as taking inventory. Providers provide people with the basic necessities of life.

They like to be able to improve the well being of people so they take on jobs, such as catering. Protectors like to shield others from danger so they take on jobs such as care taking. Idealists have been praised for being \” accepting, adaptable, adjusted, charming, devoted, idealistic, modest, and sensitive\” (Keirsey, 1998). Idealists have an uncanny ability to read people. They have a so-called \”sixth-sense\” about people, and are able to figure out the true intentions of a person. They are very diplomatic and they use their talent to develop the potential in humans.

The role variants of Idealists are divided into the Teachers, the Counselors, the Champions, and the Healers. Teachers see themselves as instructors, and they always have the intention of \”broadening, edifying, enlightening, illuminating, improving, and refining the attitudes and actions of pupils or students. \” Counselors have a feeling for the emotional needs of others. They are very encouraging and noble. They have the best of intentions, with working with other people, only wanting to improve the well being of others.

Champions love to fight for a cause they truly believe in, in order to inspire others to do the same along side with them. Healers are very reserved, but they can make very effective leaders. They are committed to saving the health of those around them, and they do so with an exalted sense of mission. Rationals seem to be very distant and detached from others. Many Rationals are misunderstood and can often be misinterpreted as antisocial. In reality, Rationals are very caring. They just tend to contemplate about problems in their lives.

Rationals are very logical and skeptical people. They are not only \”efficient, they are also adaptable, curious, experimental, farseeing, and flexible\” (Keirsey, 1998). The role variants of the Rationals are divided up into Fieldmarshals, the Masterminds, the Inventors, and the Architects. Fieldmarshals often take the job of commander. They use resources very well in a hierarchal setup. Masterminds arrange things in intricate plans. They can anticipate everything and set up a proper plan of events based on intuition alone. Inventors are highly skilled in making models.

Functionality is their main concern and this can be seen in their job of choice, which is engineering. Architects are preoccupied with design and naturally make plans, models, and blueprints. For Architects, the consistency of what they do is what matters the most to them. Personality is something that everyone ponders about. Even though people often think others are to different to them, it can be seen with a little understanding people have a similar set of beliefs we just have different ways of going about our normal lives.

What is the aim of human life

Tolstoy ponders this thought in his Confessions. His philosophy was that the aim was a union with God. A lack of faith was death as shown in his quote from the Confessions, as quoted by Stumpf (Elements, 549). The rational knowledge brought to me the recognition that life was meaningless, -my life stopped, and I wanted to destroy myself. When I looked around at people, at all humanity, I saw that people lived and asserted that they knew the meaning of life. I looked back at myself: I lived so long as I knew the meaning of life.

As to other people, so even to me, did faith give the meaning of life and the possibility of living. But faith only gave the possibility of life, so something more is needed. The moral life, as it seemed to Tolstoy. He talks of evils and vices, and therefore the corresponding goods and virtues. In this paper, I plan to address these two things. The supreme end of man and the goods and virtues used in attaining it. To attain this goal, we need to agree upon a common understanding of the supreme end of man. An explanation of how faith affects man attaining his supreme end leads us into God’s predestination of man.

Understanding this we see that faith is the key to reaching the supreme end of man. But now that we have the key we need to see what it unlocks. Faith compels us to avoid vices and therefore reach our moral end. This requires the acquiring and use of the virtues. In order to know the aim of human life I suppose we must know then what the supreme end of man is. The views of several philosophers on the supreme end of man have held relatively consistent over the centuries. According to Aristotle as quoted by Stumpf, happiness is “ that which is always desirable in itself and never for the sake of something else. (Elements, 32)

He continues to say that happiness and good are synonymous. This happiness or good is the ultimate end of the human act. St. Augustine, 7 centuries later, reiterates the end of man as happiness, namely eternal life. He also continues to say that faith is the only way to find the ultimate end. (Philosophy, 90-1) St. Thomas Aquinas, eight centuries later, reaffirms God as the end of our desires. The following quote from The Pocket Aquinas, page 192 continues to explain his understanding. The act whereby we are primarily joined to Him is basically and substantially our happiness.

But we are primarily united with God by n act of understanding; and therefore, the very seeing of God, which is an act of the intellect, is substantially and basically our happiness. The greatest happiness then is thinking of the ultimate being, God. This greatest happiness is a union with the Everlasting, or as St. Augustine called it, eternal life. Life in this world is less of a good than life in paradise. This is due to the fact that life in paradise is eternal and the life of a man in this world is just a brief stretch of time. Paradise is also more perfect than earth and life there is a greater good because of this.

Another 1500 years later, Tolstoy in the Confessions again comes to the conclusion of an eternal paradise. He drew the conclusion from a very simple path of premises. One, you must live “according to God’s law. ” Two, “eternal torment or eternal bliss” result from life. Three, the meaning that is not lost to death is “the union with the infinite God. ” (Elements, 549) Throughout a span of over two centuries philosophers have agreed upon the ultimate end of man or else have been confronted with absurdity. How does faith lead man to his eternal end? It leads man to God by helping him to avoid the vices.

Since God is the ultimate being, could God predestine man’s end? This is an important question since if men are predestined by God, it can affect achievement of the supreme end. God does predestine men. This is because God is superior to man. Those higher powers are given control of the lower powers. An example is that man controls beasts. Therefore God controls or predestines man towards happiness. But this is a two-fold end. One that is eternal life and the other is the attainment of the perfection of the created nature of man. (Summa, 175) God then gives merits as he predestines them.

They are predestined according to the following principle. …giving us to understand that God gives grace to a person, and preordains that He will give it, because He knows beforehand that he will make good use of it… (Summa, 177) So God gives merit as they are prepared for it. So this is where faith plays a role in achieving and giving the supreme end. Faith is the preparation that leads to merits being given to a man. For faith allows man to live according to God’s plan, not man’s will. Living by man’s will allows those things that Tolstoy says are pamperings of the will to exist.

These pamperings are the acts, reflections, sciences, and arts of the rich educated class. How do we live by God’s law? Tolstoy says that faith is the key to living by the laws of God. Faith gives the meaning of life. No course of action can be taken without knowing the goal or meaning of what is trying to be attained as the end. Faith gave the common people a life attached to the infinite. (Elements, 549) The more a person was drawn towards the pampering of the appetites, the farther they were drawn from the infinite. Tolstoy uses the running comparison of the commoners versus the wealthy.

The affluent and learned members of society were controlled by their appetites. But faith can only light the way to the supreme end, something more is needed. This is a control over the appetites so that their control is by man. The controls of the appetites are virtues. Only then has he the chance to live. Since when the appetites control man, the meaning of life is lost. What is a proper definition of virtue? I believe the following quote from Man as Man, page 150, is a suitable place to start. Virtue derives from the Latin virtus, which means “power. Applied to many things, virtue is the natural power or function of a thing.

It is the virtue of the ear to hear, … But virtue is more than the mere power to act; it is the power to act well. Aristotle continues to elaborate on the conditions by extending them to man. Virtue to Aristotle is a state of character. It makes a man good as well as induces his work to be well done. (Pocket Ar. , 188) St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas both agree on the definition of virtue as being “ Virtue is a good quality of the mind, by which we live righteously, of which no one can make bad use; which God works in us, without us. (Pocket Aq. , 206) It is a quote by Aquinas of Augustine’s definition.

Both definitions agree that a virtue is a character state or quality that makes its object good. They also agree that it causes the work of the object to be well done. Since this definition agrees with Aristotle and the quote in most points. I will use the prior and say that a virtue is a state of character, which makes its object good and induces its work to be well done. Multiple virtues exist. There must be a way to categorize these virtues. The virtues are basically classified according to their object. The main types of virtues to which I will be discussing are those that affect the intellect, will, and the appetites.

There are two basic types of intellect- speculative and practical. Each has its own virtues. The speculative intellect has wisdom, science, and understanding as its virtues. The practical intellect has synderesis, prudence, and art as its virtues. The virtue of the will is justice. There are two types of appetites- pleasurable and aggressive. Temperance and fortitude are their respective virtues. Of these virtues, the cardinal virtues will be discussed. These are prudence, justice, temperance, and fortitude. Prudence is the most important of the virtues because control of oneself is impossible without it.

Justice, temperance, and fortitude also hinge on each other and are equally important. When one is missing the others cannot exist. “Prudence is the ability to discern the becoming ends of human conduct and the morally good act in all contingencies of life. ”(Man, p. 155) In other words, prudence is the ability to reason correctly about things that are done here and now. Aquinas agrees on this point in the Summa Theologica in the first part of the second book, question 61, article 2. (Philo. , p 565) “It orders man to his last end and makes clear the golden mean of other virtues. (Man, p. 155) Its object is reason, which leads man to human nature adequately understood and therefore leads him to his end. The reason allows each of the virtues to function properly by making the work of reason done well. An example is fortitude in which reason is essential because man cannot choose which difficulties are worth bearing and those that would be unreasonably born. Aquinas talks of ignoring prudence and says that it is worse to ignore prudence than any of the other virtues since rejecting prudence is the same as rejecting reason.

Rejecting another virtue ignores reason, but at a more specific level than that level ignored in prudence. This is because the virtue of prudence controls the other virtues and to ignore prudence means that all of the virtues are ignored. Justice is the virtue where we give each individual that which is due to them. An example is that man should respect each other’s property. Therefore justice says that man should not steal. Aristotle talks of the working of this virtue. He relates it to friendship and discusses differential levels of justice.

It is more unjust to ignore those closely attached to you, in example friends, comrades, and family, than strangers. This does not mean though that justice need not be used when dealing with strangers. It instead puts a greater responsibility of the individual to act justly toward those close people. (Pocket Ar. , 247) Justice is especially important since man is a social animal and acting selfishly is against human nature adequately understood because in order for societies to exist some type of system for treatment of others is necessary.

The virtue of justice is also necessary in the making of laws in that it tells how people should be treated, since laws should be just and in accordance with human nature adequately understood. But he [man] who is unable to live in society, or who has no need because he is sufficient for himself, must be either a beast or a god: he is no part of the state. A social instinct is planted in all men by nature, … For man when perfected, is the e best of animals, but, when separated from law and justice, he is the worst of all This quote of Aristotle from Elements of Philosophy (pg. 147) reiterates the importance of justice to society. Hobbes came to the conclusion that laws can dictate justice since justice means to obey the laws. ( Elements, 186)

But as stated before the laws are developed with reason and justice. So the laws cannot be dictated from the virtue of justice and also dictate justice. The virtue of justice must then be part of the process of creating laws since this is the more reasonable of the two possibilities. This is because if someone creates a law it does not mean it is just.

Here is an example: a people of African-American descent must be segregated from the main population of society could be a law. It would be unjust though and a lawmaker would use the virtue of justice in their decision making and decide that the proposed law that is above should not exist as a law. Temperance is the virtue that constrains the fulfilling of our pleasurable appetites to a reasonable mean, according to the study guides. Temperance is needed to prevent bodily pleasures from making the spiritual pleasures less appealing.

The most likely to be overindulged in pleasures are those that sustain and create new life, namely food, drink, and sex. The vices that coincide with these acts are gluttony for food and drink, and promiscuity for sex since the tendency is toward overindulgence. Temperance moderates these and the moderating effects are called abstinence for food, sobriety for drink, and chastity for sex. Abstinence and sobriety are just moderation in their objects, but chastity is slightly more complicated. Chastity is the moderation of sex, but it carries with it restrictions more than just moderation.

It is wrong for the unmarried to seek sexual pleasure since it is an abuse of human sexuality. Human sexuality is designed for the continuation of man by begetting new life. Since a single parent cannot properly care for a child, society is robbed of a properly raised individual capable of being a responsible citizen who is well-trained in virtues, thought, etc. Nor is sexual activity out of one’s marriage accepted for the same reason, but also because of the injustice done to the family, whether just husband and wife or with children included.

Families are social units of man that when combined build society. So the wife (and children) are hurt, but society is too as one of its parts is failing. Temperance then attempts to control the indulgence of the pleasurable appetites and in doing so attempts to prevent fornication. (Man, 155-6) In passing, a capital sin does not result from singular failings when the virtue of temperance is ignored, but when the pleasurable appetite is corrupted and continually fails because temperance is not present. Temperance then is an aid in the prevention of capital sins.

This is an example of how a virtue directs man towards his natural end. (Man, 156) Fortitude is the virtue that inclines a man to act reasonably despite the prompting of his irascible appetite. This appetite moves toward an arduous good or shuns a difficult evil. In either case it may miss the mean of virtue. … Its function is to restrain our fears and moderate our rashness. It seeks a golden mean between cowardice and rashness, moderating our internal motions of fear and recklessness and our external acts of flight and aggression.

This quote from page 156 of Man as Man gives a wonderful description of fortitude. It parallels the definition in our study guides, which is that fortitude moderates the aggressive appetites and gives strength to persevere in difficult situations. The quote is more in-depth saying that cowardice and rashness are regulated by fortitude. It also addresses the situation of difficult circumstances because it ponders the fact that the appetite alone wills sometimes deviate from the golden mean given by reason.

This is because all situations in which we are responsible to do something are not always the simplest option. An example is when we have the choice of leaving an injured person or staying at the scene and helping them. Leaving and letting it be someone else’s problem is easier to do and does not involve any work on our part. But staying there and helping them is the harder thing to do since it takes time and effort. Fortitude tells us that we should stay. The aim of life is for man to reach his supreme end. That end is that he should achieve supreme happiness.

How does one achieve this moral end? Philosophers say that it can be achieved by faith. One of these men is Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy. Aquinas and others also support the idea that God is the ultimate end of our desires and that faith leads us to it. Faith leads man to his supreme end by allowing man a way to avoid vices by use of the virtues. These virtues are predestined by God to certain men based on their choices. God gives these men the virtues since it is known to him that those men will make good use of the virtues bestowed upon them.

Virtues are any state of character that makes its object good and induces its work to be well done. The intellect, will, and appetites are affected by the virtues. The cardinal virtues are prudence, justice, temperance, and fortitude. These virtues are the ones for control of oneself. This is because none of the virtues can exist without prudence since prudence allows the virtues to be applied in accordance with human nature adequately understood. Virtues make man adhere to the plan of God by avoiding the vices that draw man from God.

This Life Time has 42048000 Minutes

Listen up soldiers, we have a crisis on our hands. A silent army has been built up over hundreds of years and is the most deadly enemy we have ever had to face. This enemy you people have known since the day you were brought into this world. You are face to face with this enemy every day, unknowing that every step you take, every move you make, and every decision you face is contributing somehow to this armys strength. In case you havent noticed yet, ladies and gentlemen, this enemy is ourselves.

Slowly and surely we are destroying nimals, ourselves and most importantly the only planet we have, Earth. You have probably all heard this speech a thousand times before, and well if this has to be the 1001 before we get off our lazy, self-destructing asses and do something to fix it, so be it! I admit Im no better than the rest of you at the simple things in everyday life that are destroying this planet, but the whole issue pisses me off. Our whole existence revolves around money, and our personal benefit.

We have forgotten how to do things for thers, how to help the planet and, in turn, how to benefit the species. The fact is simple people, were killing ourselves. Many, however, dont notice it. They believe what theyre doing is either beneficial, or that they are too small to do anything about it. Well most of them are right, most of us fall under some sort of higher power, which means that the root of the problems are mainly the governments. Dont think that this is leading into one of those x-filesy, conspiracy theory type lectures, however if youd like to call it that, I wont be ne to judge.

I do believe the governments know how to prevent and stop much of the problems in our world today. For example, its a widely known fact that we have the technology to use water instead of gas for cars, but the government wont allow production because they get money off gas, and to them its more important than a clean environment, more important than contaminating the water, or killing off animals because of the pollution even when the money they get from the gas ends up being put back into trying o control these problems anyway.

And who was the guy who thought that burning fossil fuels would be a good source of energy anyway? Did they take the first suggestion that came up or what? Fossil fuels are not everlasting guys, HELLO! Is our species so narrow-minded that we cant see into the future and realise that one day it will run out. Or did we know that in the beginning and not care cause it was the only resource we could use? Did we then become so lazy that we couldnt spend the time and money (ooo not money!! o figure out some other sort of fuel or energy source?!?! This is nuts!!! So go ahead try and hide.

Protect yourselves with your fancy guns and munitions, run away with your trains, planes, and automobiles or go about as if nothings happening. None of those will help you much cause the only way we can shelter ourselves from whats to come is if we stop it from ever happening. Now are you all able to get off your couches, stop watching your TVs and do something about it? Didnt think so but it was worth a try anyway.

Life Beyond Earth

Do you think its possible to find aliens in your lifetime? The chances that an extraterrestrial civilization would actually come to the Earth are slim. However, if they did the best way to find extraterrestrial life is not by space exploration, but by electronic signals. Signals can carry words, numbers, and pictures cheaply and at the speed of light. The amount of time and energy required for the travel would be enormous.

The amount of energy required to accelerate a spacecraft weighing several thousand tons to a speed even a moderate fraction of the speed of light would be billions of times more than the energy needed to send out a radio beacon (Big Ear Radio Observatory 4). Therefore, it’s more likely that they would communicate instead, thats if there are intelligent beings out there who want to communicate with us (Life Beyond Earth). Today we have the means to broadcast messages to the planets and stars but is anyone out there listening?

If we are leaking radio messages into space, the inhabitants of other planets, if they exist, might be doing the same thing. Large radio telescopes on Earth could detect such radio leaks from civilizations in nearby star systems, as well as stronger signals dispatched from planets thousands of light years away (Boyle 2). The idea of searching for extraterrestrial life has been dreamed of through the ages, but the methodology began in 1959 when two physicists from Cornell stated that microwave radio waves could be used for interstellar communication (2).

The first signal was sent from the 1,000-foot Observatory in Puerto Rico on Nov. 16, 1974, during a ceremony celebrating an upgrade of the radio telescope. The signal was sent out toward M13, a globular cluster comprising some 300,000 stars about 21,000 light years from Earth. Astronomers figured the focused 50,000-watt signal would be strong enough to be picked up by an antenna somewhere in that cluster, but ironically, the normal rotation of the galaxy means that M13 will have moved out of the way by the time the signal gets that far (Boyle 3).

Civilizations might communicate in one of two ways. The first way is by sending signals unintentionally. We do this all the time ourselves. For over fifty years now, our first television and radio signals have been radiating out into space like a giant shock wave, or like waves radiating out from a pebble dropped into a pond. Another intelligent civilization could intercept them and wonder what they say. Imagine an alien race picking up one of our television signals, decoding it, and then sending what they believe to be an intelligent reply (Big Ear Radio Observatory 5).

At the time, some observers wondered whether it was wise to send out such a signal. Some thought it was egotistical to transmit a message to aliens without the backing of a worldwide authority like the United Nations, and some worried that the signal might even attract unwelcome extraterrestrial interest. Other astronomers point out that Earth has been leaking radio signals into space for more than fifty years and that at least some of those transmissions are strong enough to alert nearby star systems of our presence (6).

Radio astronomers recently showed off a network of model satellite dishes that will serve as the proving ground for a new generation of radio telescopes. They called this project 1 HT. They said such arrays combined together by computer software would boost their ability to communicate with interplanetary probes, study distant planets and search for alien signals (7). This prototype launches the next generation of SETI research in a bold way, Tarter, the institutes director of SETI research, said in a written statement.

There is also tremendous potential for other radio astronomy. The 1HT is a fundamentally new way to build radio telescopes, and its not an overstatement to say that the world astronomy community is paying very close attention to this project (Boyle 4). Tarter emphasized the wider applications of the 1HT and the Square Kilometer Array. She said a telescope array with an area equivalent to a square kilometer couldidentify Jupiter-size planets beyond our solar system; as far away as thirty light-years from Earth.

With this kind of size of telescope its possible to map the winds and jets created during star formation, and analyze the chemistry of the dusty disks that serve as the birthplaces of stars and planets. Serve as the model for a next-generation Deep Space Network that would communicate with robotic explorers. Produce radar images of near-Earth asteroids that are ten times better than currently possible and finallyexpand the SETI search to up to a million star systems. The Square Kilometer Array would be unlike any existing radio telescope.

An alien message would also most likely be what we call a narrowband signal. This means a signal at a very precise frequency. Radio stations are examples of narrowband signals. Between radio stations, you hear a hissing sound. This is a broadband noise. The stars (and other celestial objects) also put out broadband noise. An intelligent, communicating civilization would probably use a narrowband signal rather than a broadband one for a beacon, since they wouldn’t want their message to be mistaken for regular, ordinary star noise (Billinham 4).

Perhaps there are civilizations that are very much more advanced than we are. Just imagine the wealth of knowledge that would be at our fingertips if we were to discover such a signal and decipher it (Life Beyond Earth). Perhaps it would teach us how to build a space ship that travels close to the speed of light. Or maybe it would tell us how to solve our planetary ecological crisis. It might be able to solve our global political problems? The benefits of such a discovery could be beyond our wildest dreams!

The Irony in Joseph Conrad’s Lord Jim

Lord Jim was written by Joseph Conrad in 1900. Lord Jims tale is a lesson in life. It includes many key literary aspects; the main one, nevertheless, would be irony. With parts of the story exhibiting heroic redemption and others cowardice and shortcomings, it shows the vast conflicts that take place in the story. Lord Jim shows the many hardships the main character,Tuan Jim or Lord Jim, had to go through with great detail. Lord Jim tests the basic worth of a man and the truth that lies within ones soul. The central irony in this book balances itself upon morality and guilt with a tragic result.

Jims soul continued to torture itself for the betrayal he performed when he left the Patna to sink. Jims soul would forever punish him for the unspeakable act he committed when he left the Patna to sink. As so, Jim was destined to live the rest of his life in misery when he left the eight hundred passengers to die. The Patna incident caused a chain of self hatred and self loathing that would go on until Jims death. Jims ever churning soul made him very unhappy. Fighting constantly within himself made Jim experience extreme guilt and anguish.

The way Jim struggled on the inside caused Jim to seem lack luster and lazy on the outside. If Jim would have been more at peace with his soul he would not have been in such pain. Being that Jim was somewhat innocent when he first became a water clerk aboard the Patna; he lacked the mental toughness that would be crucial in key situations. With virtue and perseverance Jim struggled on. Trying to find his inner self and to become a good sailor was important to Jim. Forced into maturing because of the importance of his job; Jim often felt isolated and alone.

But his love for the sea kept him going even in tough times; ironically it would be the same love that would lead to his destruction. Indeed, Jim had a great love for the sea. He respected it and its powers. Although it took a tragic event to learn the seas authoritative powers , Jim still admired it. The sea was Jims motivation and his passion. The sea kept him going mentally through tough times by and yet it kept him moving physically from port to port and finally to the small island he would call home. Jim may not have died the way he did with out his love for the sea; this adds to the irony of the story.

Without his desire to be around the sea , the tragic event of the Patna would not have involved him, but fate thought otherwise. The event of the Patnas potential fatal sinking changed Jim’s’ whole life. It caused him to struggle mentally for years on end , always torturing his soul for the cowardly act he committed. It was fate and destiny for Jims character to be tested and in the end it failed. People from that point on looked at Jim different. He felt he was a disgrace to himself and to his family.

Not knowing why he choose to jump into the life boat at the last second made Jim second guess himself as a person. He was left with no money, no job, and no future as a sailor. Jim was left on his own. Experiencing betrayal at its peak caused Jim to wonder. Never wanting to go through the pain again and afraid to commit to something with such a great responsibility Jim s soul was forever tormented. Yet, Jim was left eternally empty, without honor and struggling to overcome his own disgrace after the Patna incident. Jim felt such heartache and a great need to redeem his soul that he exiled himself from society.

Moving from port to port whenever someone found out his ghastly secret. Ashamed and branded a coward , Jim hid from his problems instead of dealing with them. Jim always felt the need to set right what he did wrong and prove that he was not a coward. When Jim finally found a society that would except him with his grave past , he felt the need to make every thing go smoothly and without problems. Doing so causes Jim to be very sheltered about the things he does with the tribe. When something does go wrong Jim over exerts himself into making it right.

This feeling that he always has something he needs to set right is one of the main things that leads to his death. If Jim did not feel that he owed society something in a sense he would have never tried so hard to set things right with the tribe in the end. Jim had felt that he had lost his honor. Without his honor Jim struggled to feel like a whole man. This brings up a key aspect of the book and one of the most important questions: what may life be worth when honor is gone? (Lord Jim) Jim felt that he had nothing to stand for in life. A man with out his honor is a man that is torn in two.

Caught between how his soul felt and how society choose to see him; Jim was a very unhappy person. Jim had very little integrity left. This caused him to feel insignificant when he applied himself to every day tasks. Without his honor Jim questioned his mortality. Society sets rules of conformity and generally accepted standards of conduct. Jim felt he had broken them thus again causing him to question his mortality and basic worth as a man. This questioning added to the all round irony of Lord Jim if Jim felt he had his honor he would have behaved as a normal man but instead he felt he had lost his honor leaving him a broken man.

If Jim felt he had his honor he would have not felt the need to die for tribe member that was murdered. Thus, dying a very noble death and showing through it all he did in fact have his honor. This in part is the main irony of Lord Jim. The irony of this book is that Jim felt disgraced and wretched. He considered himself to be a total failure, worthless to everyone. Unable to live with himself anymore, Jim chooses suicide and in doing so died in a way that meant something. But really his life was not as bad as he thought it was; no one died from his mistakes and yet he tortured his soul for them.

The Grand Spirits of The Miserable: Javert and Valjean

The world is composed of light and dark. It is of evil and good, concrete and abstract, black and white, planes and curves, stark and subtle.

Like the faces of the coin, these opposing forces can never fully merge into the other, yet as separate entities, they make up a singular material which cannot do without one of the two missing.

This is Les Miserables, a never ending search for freedom which can only be the fruit of acceptance.

This is Les Miserables.

The obsessed law man and the saintly criminal.

The good who is not so good and the bad who is not all that bad.

The hunter versus the hunted.

Prey versus predator.

Two grand and similar spirits that cannot exist as one, bound by the constraints of misinterpreted honor and the chains of the past.

Javert, born in jail, saw himself as an ostracized adolescent with but two paths open to him. He could choose either to be a policeman or a criminal. He chose to be on the right side of the law. Valjean, a peasant, spent time in jail as a young man and came out of it hating society. He believed himself to be apart from it, and chose to live in hatred and crime. Fortunately, the action of a kindly old bishop prevented him from wasting the rest of his life. Valjean switched to tread the path of life on a more morally upright road. He became mayor, protector of society.

When certain events occured in Montreuil, both of them took similar actions. Javert, thinking he had unfairly denounced the mayor, revealed his actions to the latter and fully anticipated being removed from his position as police inspector and assigned to a lowly job. Valjert is also plagued by his conscience. He could not let an innocent man take the blame for his sins. Like Javert, he expected to lose everything. At the end of this particular episode Javert retains his position and Valjean lives in seclusion in a convent as gardener.
Both men become prisoners of the other at one time or another in the novel. Valjean becomes Javert’s prisoner in Paris. Then Javert becomes Valjean’s prisoner at the barricade in Rue de la Chanvrerie but is freed. Then when Javert catches Valjean by the sewers, he frees him in return.

In my point of view one of the most emotional and intellectual parts of the novel is Javert’s suicide. It is the ultimate freedom from a life in which, although he has been continually capturing and chasing and imprisoning, he has been the one ultimate slave. He chose to end his life because the fact has dawned upon him that the life he chose to live, although righteous in the eyes of others, was not entirely correct. He has become a harsh and cruel man. He has seen the error of his ways when he viewed it as too late. Valjean’s own death is almost suicidal too in that he just allowed himself to waste away.

In death, there is no denying that these two great and moving characters are the same. One’s body ends up under a laundress’ boat and the other, in an unmarked grave.
These two great characters, such strong and powerful figures of men, will forever be recalled whenever one thinks of Les Miserables, for they were truly one with the miserable.
They were freemen in bondage, both seeking blindly in life for that something they cannot even dare to perceive. They were looking for a missing necessity which they do not even know they lacked.

And in death they claimed what was rightfully theirs at the start.

Freedom.

They will never be slaves again.

Never again will they be les miserables.

As You Like It

The forest of Arden is the setting where the majority of As You Like It takes place. As inhabitants of the court enter the forest they experience people and an environment very different from what they are accustomed to and each perceive this experience differently. The environment is consistent so how each character views the forest as an alternative to life in the court reveals insights into the nature of the characters. The forest of Arden can invoke paradisiacal sentiments for some but feelings of meagerness for others but most find the forest a simple place of escape from the city.

Only from a pastoral perspective can one truly see the full effects of nature on characters just as only from a fortune-or courtly perspective-can we see how characters are limited and confined from full enjoyment of pastoral life. The extent to which characters can adapt to the forest of Arden and accept such a life not only reveals insights into the true nature of characters but it also attempts to answer whether or not people are better suited to live in the country or the court.

The audience’s first impression of the forest of Arden is from Charles, the undefeated wrestler whom Orlando is about to defeat. Charles informs Oliver, in regard to the usurped Duke Senior, that “they say many young gentlemen flock to him everyday, and fleet the time carelessly as they did in the golden world” (Shakespeare 7). The inhabitants of the court see the forest of Arden as an Eden-like place, a reference that is continued in regard to some of the forest’s inhabitants. Such optimism of the forest is true for Celia and Rosalind as well for in their banishment Celia remarks that “now go in we content to liberty, and not to banishment” (24).

Upon entering the forest both Rosalind and Celia complain to great lengths but eventually both warm to the country experience. With Celia’s remark that “I like this place and willingly could waste my time in it” (35), it is clear that the forest is a viable option and can be favored over the court. Yet others find the opposite, making the forest of Arden a place of “easy ambivalence about the place which characters find themselves and easy ambivalence among the characters” (Westlund 74). Since both Rosalind and Celia are dressed as shepherd and shepherdess respectively, they free themselves from any physical ties with their past courtly lives and are free to enjoying the ambivalent atmosphere of the country.

Orlando’s experience is rather different from that of Rosalind and Celia. He has been repressed and treated in contempt by his older brother, Oliver, who we find out is going to kill him. Oliver refers to his younger brother as “gentle, never schooled and yet learned, full of noble devices, of all sorts enchantingly beloved” (Shakespeare 8). Orlando appears to be well suited for country life and to have been rather unsuited for courtly life. The division that separates Orlando and Oliver is one of love and hate, a gap that closes upon their mutual experiences in the forest of Arden. Orlando leaves the court with Adam, an old servant of his father, who gives Orlando his money for retirement and offers his assistance, stating “my age is as a lusty winter, frosty but kindly” (30). Adam appears unsuited to courtly life as well for he values his friend, Orlando, so highly that he is willing to give his complete servitude and his savings. He is uncorrupt and trustworthy, perhaps naive as well, and this is noted in Orlando’s remark that “thou art not for the fashion of these times” (31). These two set out in exile from the court in anticipation of a more simple life, perhaps one more suited to their natures.

Duke Senior, banished in the forest of Arden at the start of the play, has the most idealized and paradisiacal perception of the country life. He reflects this perspective during his first speech where he states:

Are not these woods more free from peril than the envious court? Here feel we not the penalty of Adam… and our life, exempt from public haunt, finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, sermons in stones, and good in everything (25).

Criticism of the Duke’s speech ranges from him “invoking the pastoral vision and the idea of a new society in extraordinary specific terms” (McFarland 101) to the Duke providing a “norm of wisdom” (Peterson 28) upon which all other characters wisdom can be measured. Duke Senior does set an example, however he is by no means free from “the penalty of Adam.” Such an overstatement is not justified but it does exemplify the fact that the forest of Arden is a place where people can get what they want out of it. The forest is “a place halfway between reality and paradise” (McFarland 102) and a place of “testing and education” (Leggatt 190) and has no single purpose universal to all.

For some of the characters in Arden it turns out to be a place where one can escape reality and try to reach paradise. This is especially true for Orlando and Adam who are escaping their own deaths in the city and entering the country with dreams of a simpler life. Orlando may have entered the forest thinking “that all things had been savage here” (Shakespeare 42) but is promptly converted by Duke Senior into understanding that “gentleness shall force more than your force move us to gentleness” (42). Orlando lets the audience and Duke Senior know that he has internalized his new environment for his analogy that, “like a doe, I go to find my fawn and give it food” (43), reflects his newly found pastoral surroundings.

Despite his subservient role to Rosalind, Orlando has several Christ-like qualities and roles. He provides for the aged Adam and mercifully saves his brother, who openly stated his hate towards him, by battling and slaying a lioness. A snake that threatened the life of Oliver “unlinked itself and with indented glides did slip away” (85) at the sight of Orlando as if the serpent knew of the vice of Oliver and the virtue of Orlando. Orlando’s virtuous character of “kindness, nobler ever than revenge, and nature, stronger than his just occasion” (86) converts the vengeful Oliver into a simple, pastoral character. The lion and serpent are also thematic tools, representing “venom and fury, they symbolically accept the burden of the venom and fury generated by the Cain and Abel contest of Oliver and Orlando” (McFarland 103). This Biblical analogy allows for the tension and violence to be suppressed into one incident and allows the play to continue to pursue it’s primary pastoral themes.

Oliver is an extreme example of the power of the forest of Arden to convert court-associated values such as greed, envy and hypocrisy into the country-associated values of honesty and simplicity. Oliver, the man who states that “my soul, yet I know not why, hates nothing more than [Orlando]” (Shakespeare 8), becomes completely reformed from his evil ways upon his entrance into the forest of Arden. It seems that the enlightenment of Duke Senior that was passed on to Orlando is now passed on to Oliver, a chain reaction of acceptance of virtue over vice that the pastoral setting encourages. However Oliver was the most devious and wicked in the court and suddenly repents all his treachery and vows to live virtuously and modestly in the forest. Hence Oliver bestows Orlando with, “my father’s house, and all the revenue that was old Sir Rowland’s, will I estate upon you, and here I live and die a shepherd” (91), forfeiting all he once worshipped. This example illustrates both the subjective perspective of Oliver and the strength of the pastoral experience in the forest of Arden.

There are two characters whom react very differently than the others to their experiences in the forest: the melancholic attendant to Duke Senior, Jacques, and the humorous clown, Touchstone. The audience’s first impression of Jacques is through the First Lord when he recalled a past hunt and Jacques had called the hunting party “fat and greasy citizens, tis just the fashion.” The First Lord concludes “thus most invectively he pierceth through the body of the country, city, court, yea, and of this our life, swearing that we are mere usurpers, tyrants…” (27). Critics compare Jacques to Hamlet in that “he calls into question all aspects of life that fall below an exalted ideal of human conduct” (McFarland 104). Jacques is not a pastoral character and is an excellent foil of character’s authenticity, as Duke Senior is for his wisdom and pastoral perspective. Jacques criticizes everyone in the play, and it appears true that he has a “misguided conviction that man’s life is altogether evil and detestable” (Phialas 232).

Although Jacques critiques man in all environments he appears most content in the country because here he can at least compare man to nature and appreciate the beauty of nature. This is true when he is left sobbing over a fallen deer or willingly staying alone in the forest of Arden to dwell in a cave. Jacques is intelligent; although it is easy to appear smart when constantly criticizing everyone else, he is consistent and argues a fair case. Duke Senior, a man who appears rather contrary to Jacques, is intrigued by his philosophy and admits “I love to cope him in these sullen fits’ for then he’s full of matter” (Shakespeare 27).

Jacques intelligence may be in fact the cause of his melancholic disposition, as noticed by Rosalind who states “I had rather have a fool to make me merry than experience to make me sad” (74). Jacques seams to be searching for a place in nature similar to that of the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau who believed that solitary man enjoyed original happiness because he was free from the sins of society, such as jealousy and envy, and could peacefully co-exist with nature. Thus from being an attendant to Duke Senior in Court to being immersed in nature with courtly men, Jacques finally leaves to be free from vice of his main antagonist-man.

Touchstone and his relationships with people in the forest of Arden reveals several insights into country life. Touchstone is the main source of comedy in the play and one major vehicle for his comedy is to play on the various perspectives of others in regard to country life. “Instead of representing or expressing a forthright point of view, [Touchstone] is intended to expose and mock, in straightforward statements or by means of irony, the attitudes of other people” (Phialas 227). His role is similar to Jacques in that they both rely on others to express themselves and yet they hold opposite attitudes towards the court versus country debate. Touchstone is a courtly character and expresses this upon his entrance to the forest of Arden that “when I was at home, I was in a better place, but travelers must be content” (Shakespeare 32).

Touchstone’s time with Corin begins his play on perspectives, partly in the fact that Corin is a born and raised shepherd and enjoys a simple life in nature. Touchstone’s speech to Corin that begins “truly, shepherd, in respect of itself, it is a good life; but in respect that it is a shepherd’s life, it is naught…” (47) reveals that his own perspective is malleable and will change with regard to his company. Touchstone is not ‘experienced’ as Jacques is in a philosophical sense; rather experienced in human relations upon which he draws his comedy. Touchstone condemns Corin for he has never been in the court, and Corin responds in the simplistic statement that “those that are good manners at court are as ridiculous in the country as the behavior of the country is most mockable at the court” (48).

In this respect the simple shepherd has detected Touchstone’s courtly wit and, although not openly, Touchstone is willing to give country life a chance. He eventually departs with Corin “not with bag and baggage, yet with scrip and scrippage” (52). However Touchstone’s “comments on the conflict between pastoral life and life at court cannot be taken in a strict biographical and psychological consistent sense” and he “refuses to idealize life in Arden or the ways of pastoral wooing” (Phialas 228-30). Touchstone’s role in As You Like It is cynical towards wooing lovers, optimistic Dukes, and simple shepherds alike for he completely opposes pastoral values.

Although Touchstone attempts to enjoy the country life, he cannot let go of courtly conventions, mainly his reliance on his wit. Touchstone’s wit is acknowledged by courtly characters such as Rosalind and Celia, but is usually lost on the shepherds such as Corin, Silvius and William. This enables him to maintain a tone of dominance over the country dwellers that result in his ability to control conversation and, in effect, their actions. Touchstone’s ability to manipulate people in the country with his rhetoric results in his marriage to Audrey, for she sees his wit as wisdom. Touchstone easily breaks the bond between Audrey and William by unleashing his rhetoric to make William see Touchstone as a wise man who threatens “to wit, I kill thee, make thee away” (Shakespeare 90). Touchstone’s wit enables him to be completely ignorant of country values and limits him from any enjoyment of the pastoral life except in its exploitation.

The reliance on or lack of reliance on time is another way one can view a character’s life in nature. For some, like Celia, who “willingly could waste my time in [the forest of Arden]” (35), Jacques, who mocks the clock as an instrument that lets one know that “from hour to hour, we ripe and ripe, and then, from hour to hour, we rot and rot” (39), and Duke Senior all appear to be enjoying endless afternoons. Others, such as Rosalind, who instructs Orlando on punctuality and its importance in courtly love, bluntly exclaims that “Time is the old justice that examines all such offenders, and let Time try” (79). At first Orlando is willing to “lose and neglect the creeping hours of time” (42) but is quickly instructed on the proper use of time by Rosalind and uses it when saving Oliver from the lioness. At that moment “he determines for him as well as for his brother the course of future events” (Peterson 29), internalizing courtly time in Orlando and the opposite for Oliver. Although the awareness of time is a direct relation to city life, this instance allows Oliver to let go of time and join the endless afternoon in the country and allows Oliver to realize the importance of time, specifically in regard to love.

The division of characters who favor either court or country is very even in the final scene of the play. Rosalind and Oliver, the time-worshipping, wooing lovers will undoubtedly return to courtly life as the two protagonists living happily ever after. Touchstone and Audrey will most likely return to courtly life as well for Touchstone has only cynicism for country life and his wit would be completely useless there. Duke Senior is perhaps the most remarkable example of ambivalence between man and his surroundings, for only a short time after praising nature for its ideal way of life contradicts himself and returns to his usurped dukedom.

On the other hand, Oliver and Celia, two figures that had bourgeoisie status in court abandon all to live in nature as shepherds. Silvius and Phebe remain for they were never tempted by city life at all. Jacques fulfils his role as melancholic philosopher, yet leaves the party not with cynicism but compassion for a life forfeited, for he is “for other than dancing measures” (103). The actions of Duke Frederick are remarkably similar to that of Oliver for they were both usurping, powerful figures in the court who become converted by virtuous characters in the forest. The ambivalence of Duke Frederick and Duke Senior trading their respective roles seems to be a final twist of plot that allows Shakespeare to further complicate and overshadow the court versus country debate.

As You Like It concludes with the realization that there is no environment best suited to all. Although the forest of Arden gives its courtly guests the atmosphere to let go of the constraints of society and search for an ideal life, most characters have constrained themselves by bringing their own reality with them. Conventions such as time and wit are brought to the forest to highlight those from the court and to demonstrate basic differences between people experienced in either the court or the country. The complicated theme of perception in forest reveals that:

One’s sense of the forest of Arden is a place that changes from moment to moment and from character to character… Arden has objective reality, but its reality is not simply objective… [Shakespeare] does not reduce reality to one truth or to the other (Berry 141).

The different views of the forest reflect the various realities of the characters themselves. Shakespeare gives examples of these, even the extreme positions held by Jacques and Touchstone, to portray a wide range of beliefs for those who favor country life and those who prefer the court. The play ends in an ambiguous manner that allows the audience to debate and conclude as it likes.

Bibliography

Berry, Edward. Shakespeare’s Comic Rites. London: Cambridge UP, 1984. Leggatt, Alexander.

Shakespeare’s Comedy of Love. London: Chaucer Press, 1974. McFarland, Thomas.

Shakespeare’s Pastoral Comedy. Chapel Hill: North Carolina UP, 1972. Peterson, Douglas L.

Time, Tide and Tempest. San Marino: Huntington, 1973. Phialas, Peter G. Shakespeare’s Romantic Comedies. Chapel Hill: North Carolina UP, 1966. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques.

A Discourse on Inequality. London: Penguin Books, 1984. Shakespeare, William., and Albert Gilman, ed.

As You Like It. New York: Signet, 1963. Westlund, Joseph. Shakespeare’s Reparative Comedies. Chicago: Chicago UP, 1984.

My Vision of Tomorrow

Tomorrow’s world will be much different and also, much better in many ways. We will have developed much better technology. We will have made huge medical advancements. The general quality of life will be much better, and living will also have become much easier. Still, nothing can ever be perfect, and in a world of the future, we will experience many complex and unavoidable problems such as depletion of resources, overpopulation, and the threat of nuclear and biological warfare.

The solutions to these dilemmas will not be immediately apparent; but, we will have to overcome them. The uture could hold great opportunities for many people, but we will need to work at it. In the future, technology will have advanced so much and so fast that many new possibilities will arise. Most likely, we will enjoy interplanetary space travel frequently in the future and we may even develop communities on other planets, such as mars, or perhaps on the moon. Numerous scientists and writers have already also predicted this.

Life will also be made much, much easier in the future for humans by robots, computers, and other automatons. Many simple tasks done today by humans such as cooking, cleaning, and epairing household items will be done by these machines much more quickly and efficiently and with less pollution. Almost all of the current manual labor jobs, especially in the United States, will become obsolete and robots will do all of the work for us. The advantages of using robots and computers include no pay, no time off, and no complaints or questions asked.

Also, nearly every job in the future will require extensive knowledge and skills of computers and anyone without them will be completely lost. At the pace that doctors and medical researchers have been moving at, n the next few generations we will have developed treatments and/or cures for all of the diseases that plague the worlds people today. These diseases include; AIDS, cancer, the common cold, Alzheimer’s disease, and even the most exotic and deadly diseases like Ebola.

But, the practice of medicine will not be eliminated because these diseases will be continually mutating. Things that doctors cannot even comprehend today will become clear to us in the not so distant future. Everyone will also be living longer due to the knowledge of more remedies and of enhanced wellness. People will also be much different in the future. They will become more separate from each other (linked only by computer and telephone). They will become even more materialistic and our society will move closer and closer to complete capitalism.

Rules and laws will also be much stricter and the kind of crime that is commonly seen today will become rare in the future. The days to come will not be without problems and stress though. To overcome problems like waste disposal, depleted natural resources, world nuclear and biological warfare, and global warming will be no easy task. Everyone around the world will have to join together and help each other to olve problems that will eventually effect all of us.

One of the biggest problems that we will have to deal with is the deterioration of the average family and its values. If the human race cannot get out of the hole that is has dug, everyone in it will be doomed to extinction. So, to sum it up, the future can and will most likely be great, but to achieve this greatness, humans will have to make some personal sacrifices and they will have to face many hardships. For now, we can look forward to the world of tomorrow; but, when it really comes, life, as everyone knows it, will have drastically changed.

Reversing The Aging Process, Should We

In the length of time measured as human lifetime one can expect to see a full range of differing events. It is assumed that during a lifetime a person will experience every possible different emotion. If one is particularly lucky, he will bear witness to, or affect some momentous change in humanity. However is it reasonable to ask what would be experienced by someone who lived two lifetimes? Up until recently the previous question would and could only be rhetorical. There is no answer, because no one has ever lived that long.

Of course that was up until now. At McGill University, nematodes (tiny organisms) have experienced five lifetimes (Kluger). Through complex scientific experiments nematodes and fruit flies have had their lifespans increased not by fractions of life times, but by multiples of lifetimes (Kruger). Mankind is using the discovery of DNA as an opportunity to play G-d by changing the aging process. Man has a natural tendency to play the role of G-d. Man has a an inherent need to affect others, be it through the vises of war, power, manipulation or politics.

However mans natural tendency to play G-d has reached its final manifestation. By attempting to slow down the aging process man is using himself as the ultimate canvas, to play the role of the omnipotent. Research into the process of aging began in 1961(Rose, Technology Review:64). Since then a great deal of time, money and effort have been appropriated into discovering the causes of aging, it can therefore be inferred that humanity has an almost “personal” interest in aging. Of course the culmination of discovering how we age, is discovering how to stop it.

An intrinsic characteristic of Man is His obsession with superficiality. Superficiality is equated with appearance. The appearance of beauty can be equated with youth. Therein lies mans obsession with age, ceasing to age means being eternally beautiful. As usual mans actions are dominated by ego and self-preservation. Within the confines of youth there lies a certain fountain of power. Power which cannot be accessed once one ages. Things like physical and sexual prowess. The time of youth is often refereed to as the “prime of your life”.

It is therefore not difficult to understand and conceive of mans motivation to stay young and to wish that the immediate people surrounding him stay young. If a mathematician wished to create a formula to describe the life of one man he would say that life is equal to a series of interchangeably quantized, experiences and emotions. With the advent of a retarded aging process, that which we know as life changes. While life is composed if those quantized properties there are a finite amount of them, therefore decelerating the aging process has major implications.

First and foremost among them is what to do with all that extra time? In 1900 the average life expectancy of a baby born in the United States was 47 years. Conservative estimates place life expectancy of children born today in the united sates at 76, while less conservative estimates place the life expectancy at 100 years. Presently man is unable to cope with this extra time. Many septuagenarians spend days sitting around doing next to nothing. The term “waiting to die” has been applied in reference to such activities, or rather lack thereof.

Even while the average life-span has increased, whose to say that the time added is quality time? Another general comment overheard in the population at large was “whats the point of growing ld and having to suffer through ulcers, cataracts, hemorrhoids, and cancer. Isn t it better to die young and healthy then to die old, infirm and brittle? ” The essential question being proposed is one of quality versus quantity. Is it better to live for a long time with much of that time spent in dialysis, or is it preferable to enjoy a short but “fun” life.

Even if the scientists can cure humanity of the ailments of the elders, there still remains the question of how to manage ones time. “Were bored” has often been used as the battle cry of youth, people who havent even lived two decades. What are people who have lived twelve decades supposed to do? These questions are stuck in the realm of rhetoric. There are no answers to these questions. It is altogether possible that there never will be. Scientists involved in the dissection of the aging process have made what they believe to be an important discovery (Gebhart,174).

Scientists discovered a small area at the tip of the chromosomes that served no apparent purpose (Kluger). Dubbed a telomere, this area of the chromosome wasnt responsible for any physiological traits. What was discerned however was that whenever a cell ivides to create two new cells each of the daughter cells has less telomere than the mother cell (Kluger). Once the cell has undergone a maximum number of divisions the telomere was reduced to a stub, exposing genes which initiated proteins that caused the deterioration of the cell (Kluger). The most applicable analogy would be that of a bomb.

The telomere acts as the fuse to the bomb. The fuse is lit from the time of birth, and when the telomere\fuse runs out the bomb goes off. Only in this case instead of instantaneous death, the victim succumbs to the equivalent of radiation poisoning. The victims condition is terminal from the start and slowly degrades to the point of death . The conclusion is that life is just a case of terminal death. Or is it? Scientists also discovered an enzyme known as telomerase prevents the loss of telomere, essentially stomping the fire out (Rose, Technology Review: 64).

There are many substantial and immediate implications raised by this. What are the ethics of immortality? Was humanity meant to be immortal? Are there benefits to being immortal? Are there consequences? While it seems like quite a neat thing to do immortality would place an ncredible strain on our resources. Not only on social actions and mental coping but also on the resources of this planet. There are a limited quantity of resources available for consumption on this planet. As a result of human immortality, the first consequence would be overcrowding.

No one ever dies, therefore theres no room to go “out with the old and in with the new”. The next major problem would be a food shortage. With an ever-increasing population and a constant food supply, there wouldnt be enough food to feed everybody. Either the vast majority of the planet would be starving while a few noble class people easted, or in general people would have to reduce the amount they eat. Which introduces the problem of waste disposal. Not only human and animal defecation but garbage, where would it go?

A common complaint from a number of people, and most teenagers is that there parents place too much pressure on them, and that theyre always trying to find out things that are none of there business. Well imagine the pressure placed on someone who has not only his parents, not only his grandparents, but also his great-grandparents, his great-great-grandparents, their parents, and their parents. A person would have an endless supply of ancestors, and would be constantly overseen. These are huge ramifications that would change the way humanity not only acts but also the way humanity perceives itself.

Lastly there is the ethical aspect of increasing humanitys lifespan. Regardless of whether there is or is not a some omnipotent watchperson whom we in our rather limited capacity perceive as G-d there are ethical issues which must be dealt with. Humanity has always perceived itself as more than just the sum of its parts. However that isnt to say that if you change one of the parts humanity will stay the same. There is nothing more immediate than DNA to a human. What right does humanity have to go stumbling around down there.

A baby doesnt change its own diapers does it? If humans were meant to live for a certain amount of time who are we to say we should live longer. On the other hand whos to say we shouldnt. Yes the human lifespan has been adjusted in the past, but those were all external stimuli, war, famine, disease and the CIA were all responsible for changing the definition of a lifetime. However adjusting DNA is an internal change. Changing our society and hygiene is light years away from ontrol ling microscopic chemical reactions.

Man is referred to as G-ds ultimate creation, the universe his canvas. But what happens when humans steal the canvas and decide to redecorate, would you want to recolor your Picasso? Is there any justification for living that long, does there need to be? These are not easy questions, and there not intended to be, but should scientists prove successful in their endeavors, all of these questions will have to be resolved. How can certain establishments which frown on cosmetic plastic surgery frown on the reorganization of protein strands?

There is no doubt that the people in charge of those organizations would take advantage of these technologies (Rose, Melatonin,: 6). How are the two things different? There are no possible answers to these questions for now they must remain rhetorical. It is increasingly obvious that the repercussions of these technologies stretch across the board. As always the horizon of the future stretches before us, only revealing a glimpse of that which is to come. The resounding questions that will soon confront us can only be concluded with the passage of time, something apparently humanity will have a lot of.

Love For Life

Raised with strict family values, I cringe to phrases like, “I cant wait to get my children out of the house,” or “As soon as my children reach 18, they are on their own. ” I become shocked to discover that age defines the release date in which children are no longer supported by parents. Children are the offspring to which parents give birth to in life. Regardless of the age, an individual will always be a child to ones mother or father and should receive support until, and beyond, the age of being released into the world. Support is the assistance provided on earth.

In order to live happily in this world, one must e supported or support themselves with food, a house, finance, security, approval, acceptance, and love. These, all of which are determined by Abraham H. Maslow, a well- respected psychologist, are the “hierarchy of needs. ” These are needs that everyone should have the ability to acquire. Unfortunately, the much needed support from many parents are being cut off too early. As a college student entering adulthood, I witness many peers facing very stressful times of their lives.

At this time of their lives, a number of peers have been “released” from parental support, hoped to have been given to them until individual security was ound. Instead, many peers have found themselves desperately “on their own. ” This early release from parental support comes at a crucial time to many, because it disrupts the need to prepare themselves completely for society. To too many of my fellow students, education and support is replaced by financial and emotional burdens. The weight of the many hardships that arrive, restricts a clear thinking mind, necessary for education and personal development.

A child must have full support from the parents to gain knowledge and security in the world. Immature detachment of parental support, will result in the isturbance to acquire personal potential. Parents should think about the needs of the children and continue to support them through the many lengths and levels throughout life. We live in a complex society where love, care, advice, and assistance are of priceless value. Because living is about learning, parents should be available to their children for understanding lifes dynamic possibilities.

Parents helping their children learn from their past experiences will aid them to become more knowledgeable of the world and what to expect from it. The less parents teach children of past encounters, the more their hildren tend to repeat lifes mistakes. Support should vary according to how much the child needs in order to support him or herself. Though food, house, finance, and security needs are met by the child, a parent should continue to be open with love and acceptance. Should in one day all material items disappear, the most important necessity needed to remain secure, is love and acceptance.

Parenting is giving love and support without an expiration date. The parent-child relationship is a significant element of human nature. The relationship is devotion that a child receives from the parent and gives back to his or her own mother or father. If a child receives plenty of affection from the parents, the child will tend to give this love back, later down the road of life. From being nurtured as an infant to support of a parent of old age, if a child was brought up lovingly and supportively, it is likely that when the parents reach an elderly stage, they will also be taken care of, lovingly and supportively.

Like the saying, “What comes around, goes around,” life tends to perform karma in many ways throughout life. Unconditional love and support will take away the worries that many face. Unconditional love and support replaces the need for extreme individual responsibility. Responsibility is what many parents think about when making the mistake of releasing children too early into society. What parents believe as laying responsibility upon their child, actually turns into uncertainty, insecurity, lack of confidence, and sense of rejection.

These experiences impair concentration required to focus on education and personal growth. In some case these experiences of uncertainty, insecurity, etc. , develop into depression, which places major stress upon the body. Young adults should not be dropped into society by their parents, but supported as child becomes more secure, emotionally and inancially. An emotionally and financially developed adult will learn to gain responsibility through knowledge and growth. Education prepares an individual by allowing time and instruction from school to naturally make one become a stable individual.

Responsibility cannot be forced upon a person at such an immature age, because young adults are faced with hardships that turn education away. This is knowledge that would assist in coping with lifes many situations, including struggle. The difficulties that students’ face makes them rethink the thought of formal education, and therefore places their personal growth at risk. Without time and education, students lose confidence in themselves and in society that also makes one incompetent.

Without parental emotional support, many young adults turn to alcohol, drugs, and unhealthy relationships due to the lack of self-confidence and proper guidance. Many young adults look to outlets to relieve the stress that they face. The use of alcohol and drugs can produce short-term and long-term effects that are hazardous to an individual. Formations of unhealthy relationships are also common due to the shortage of self-esteem and social skills. These situations are some of those that can become avoided through ove, care, and support of children.

Everyone should be given the opportunity to live to his or her full potential. The ability to arrive at goals that, at one time, a person only dreamed about having. To achieve a high level of human promise that one never knew could be attained. To reach these levels of human potential; concentration, education, and support are of priceless value. From birth to adulthood, every child deserves knowledge to become competent in this world. Concentration is also essential and is achieved with the help of parents providing basic necessities to keep a child or young adult focused.

The responsibility, as a parent, is to prepare his or her child with skills that will become useful in this world. An uneducated and unemotionally stable individual may experience much hardship and struggle. Timeless support from parents is all that one needs to find the development of our potentials and full understanding of the world. Through parents we learn to love, to care, to find acceptance, and to protect ourselves from the physical and social environment. We learn from what is right and wrong as a child, to understanding confusing situations to life as adults.

While seeking love and support as infants, dolescents, and adults, we return to our love back to our parents as they reach old age and are of need to our care and acceptance. Through timeless love and support we are brought up as responsible, caring, and competent people to society because of our well developed and mature knowledge. Only when, as a young adult, I see well-established love and support from parents to my peers, do I really see the love and appreciation felt from my peers towards the mother and/or father. This unconditional, untimed love and support are all that is necessary to breed happiness in both parent and child.

Philosophy: Life After Death Analysis

Nobody likes the idea that we are going to die. It’s one of those things that pop into your head whenever you get comfortable, possibly as a subconscious motivational tool. Just in case you ever get really, truly at ease with your life it strikes you that it will all come to an end (possibly quite horribly) without your say-so or even prior notification. Many people find this not only rude but also decidedly inconvenient, and refuse to accept that their lovely lives could ever end. Others are content to allow existence is occasional bout of poor manners and go quietly.

This essay is about the main ways people accept their demise, or rather (as it is in most cases) do not. Materialism With science fast becoming the newest rock and roll, you would think more people would be zealous advocates of materialism, but this is not the case. You would think that the belief that you are nothing more than a soulless (although organic) piece of machinery, rambling aimlessly with only the purpose of reproducing and a brain minutely to advanced to accept this would have most people jumping at the chance to support it.

Perhaps this is because materialism falls under the umbrella of reductionism, and as Richard Dawkins says, “in some circles, admitting to being a reductionist is comparable to admitting to eating babies”. Conveniently for this paper however, there has been a long and steadfast tradition of Materialism, the primus inter pares of which is a Mr Gilbert Ryle. In 1949 when psychology was a young and nubile science, seen (as all new sciences are seen) to hold the Holy Grail to understanding the human mind, Ryle published “The Concept Of The Mind”. In this he dismissed the soul as a category mistake, or as the lay would say a misuse of language.

He even went so far as to coin a scornful phrase for his nemesis “the ghost in the machine” – a beautifully elegant term as it embodies both his belief of the body/mind (as for Ryle, the mind is physical organ and so part of the body) as a machine and the soul as the long jibed-by-science notion of ghosts. Ryle implored us to consider the poor foreigner who asks why the team spirit is late for the sports match, only to be mocked by those of us who understand that “team spirit” is merely a romantic term for the collective banter of many men – not a separate entity of its own.

Ryle saw talk of a soul in a similar fashion, as a way to describe the way a man behaves in the world and acts around others and that to say a soul is something separate is trying to justify something that simply isn’t there. Unfortunately for Ryle he was speaking shortly after a very bloody war, to a nation who had just lost many friend and loved ones, who were not really all too willing to accept they had simply been thrust into oblivion by the Nazi war machine.

However we live in an altogether different time, far from any front line where we can keep the idea of death at a hypothetical arm’s reach. So enters Richard Dawkins. Dawkins appears to be the classic godless heathen atheist, holding totally to his beliefs in the science of genetics and conviction that they hold the complete explanation for what we are. Following from Charles Darwin who came up with the idea of natural selection as a mechanism for our existence – the first credible one that didn’t use one god, many gods or any other intangible divine apparatus.

This didn’t go down too well with theologians of the time, notably William Paley who wrote an entire text against it (including a metaphor which provided Dawkins with the title for a book of his own). Paley’s metaphor was one comparing a rock to a watch, one being a purposeless lump of raw ore and the other a well-defined, precise piece of machinery capable of performing a function. He held that the distinction between these two is that one has a designer and one does not, the wider implication of this being that the universe’s/human being’s innate complexity was evidence of design.

Dawkins attacks this idea in “The Blind Watchmaker”. Dawkins gives us the sense of a force of evolution capable of creating human beings in all their complexity and beauty, at once doing away with notions of the divine background that give strength to our claim on a soul. Evolution is the blind watchmaker of the title, the ultra-slow cumulative selection filtering system that weeds out miscreant creations through a process of statistical averages across mind-bogglingly huge lengths of time. This theory is now so tight and well accepted that the pious peoples of the intelligencer have declared war on it.

Some of their focus is sadly misdirect against cheap shots on Dawkins himself, where he makes categorical errors of his own. These include the idea of “memes”: a reality tunnel Dawkins used to illustrate both the pollination of the human genome and the accelerated spreading of knowledge due to the advent of global communication. This has been attacked as “smuggling” in genetic precepts to explain human behaviour (thus further reducing us to a material level), but I suspect it has been taken out of context.

There are, however, some very important things to be said against modern materialistic thinking (not just against Dawkins, but the ideas he argues). Firstly, it ignores innate human feeling and instinct. We have for generations lived in a world where we have an immortal soul. The reason we pursue arts and literature and experience in life is because we believe we have a soul to nourish. We are uncomfortable with being just a machine, and there are many reasons to say we don’t have to be.

To see an object’s composite physical elements does not mean you have eliminated what it is. A pencil is dead wood; graphite and wood stain but still no less a pencil. To see a pencil like that could give you no idea that it’s functions are performed in a world away from physical description, where it is a transhume for human thought onto paper. This can be seen as a reflection of how the soul works – with a physical body, but also totally separate from it. These is the principle thinking of the next school of thought on the afterlife (or should it be afterdeath? ): Dualism

In “The Republic” Plato divulged to the world his idea of the soul/body duality that would endure for many centuries after his death. He postulated the world of the forms, where the perfect aesthetic ideas of everything that is and could be on earth exists. He also conjured a demiurge being (a kind of slave God) that would wrench these concepts from their paradise into the land of the material. So every dog/man/table on earth is derived from the dog/man/table ideal in the world of the forms – but only appear different due to the corruption of the corporeal form they inhabit.

Important to the proof of the soul was Plato’s idea of “reminiscence“, which is at its fundament the way we can differentiate between a table and a man. As ideas are from our prior, pure existence they are more real. And as they are not physical things, they belong to the spirit realm – so how do we recognise them if we are material? The answer is obvious: we must possess something in ourselves that is not physical, better known as the soul. This is not gross, unthinking matter; it is pure and capable of “seeing” the forms.

This is how we, as human societies, obtain common ideas of justice, duty and honour (all forms to Plato) even when we are geographically isolated from each other. Plato worshipped his soul, claiming it to be the force that guides all of us from the distasteful material world (haven for all the ignorance and savagery that must have confronted him in ancient Athens) towards the higher realm of the forms. Plato’s ideas became standard thinking for most of the world, mainly because it seems so rational to believe that is really how things work.

Aristotle as with all things in his life, took what Plato said and changed it to make it his own. This mainly meant that instead of the demiurge train taking you back and forth from the form world and this one, your soul is what defines your genus, and when you die simply perishes with you (as it is really only the shaping force to your physical form). The only reason Aristotle’s theories are still mentionable (aside from the notoriety he gained from his zoological encyclopaedia) is that they have a factor that was adopted by Catholicism.

For Aristotle postulated that humans have reason because they have a different kind of soul from other animals on earth, which ties in nicely with the idea of God making humans superior and giving them the earth to steward in Genesis. Resurrectionism The Bible chooses to spend the great part of its time writing an imperative persuasio; trying to convince us that we will survive death at all, not really addressing how it will happen.

The closest we get is I Corinthians 15 vs 35-44 where it first tells us that we should not worry about how we are to be resurrected, but allays our fears with the idea of being given a brand new body after death (ideally on the day of Judgement, but then there is an awful lot of souls hanging around somewhere for millennia upon millennia…) constructed of “heavenly flesh”. Well that’s ok then. Some people are less trusting than me and wished to hear an explanation that had either Evidence (not going to happen in this lifetime) or Coherence.

So John Hick came along with his theory of re-creationism. Hick gave us a postulate in three parts: 1) You disappear mysteriously and reappear in Lowest Moldavia. The man on the other continent is, to all conceivable intents and purposes, you. He has your memories, your physical form and think/behaves exactly like you. Most people would concede that he is you. 2) You have a mishap with a griddle and die. Exactly at that moment a man (much like the one above, and so, you) appears in another less-than-well-known European country, professing your identity.

Again, many (and it is those that don’t who hold the spear to the neck of re-creationism) would concede he is you. 3) Not learning your lesson, you insist on more griddling antics and meet a timely end. This time the replica you appears in another (slightly more divine) planet that is “not situated any distance or direction from our present world”. You have died and gone to heaven. With this presumption, Hick attempts to give us a mechanism for accessing the next life – that God will recreate us and we will live in another world forever.

The only problem with this idea (other than that it is based entirely apart from fact) is the worrying concept that if no part of you actually continues to the next life (for you are only being recreated) then how can you call it an afterlife. Sure, the rest of the universe can have the benefit of my everlasting existence, but to me the difference between dying full stop and dying to have a copy of me live in paradise is almost totally nonexistent. This for me spells the end for recreationism.

One of the main problems with dualism is where the soul actually is in the body (unless you go for the pencil argument above, where you cannot see the soul with the perception you use to see the body). Descartes understood that this first hurdle to the afterlife had to be overcome, and came up with this: In your life you experience thoughts, feelings and sensations. These cannot be located in the physical body and to Descartes all that is not physical is the mind. He concluded (with the famous “I Think, Therefore I Am”) that although the mind and body are distinct, they must interact.

Being of a pre-quantum time, this lead Descartes to divide the universe into two basic substances – that which is matter and that which is mind. He arrived at the idea that both these substances existed due to a fundamental purpose – mind-material’s purpose is to think, actual matter’s is to take up space. This belief is what makes the distinction between Plato’s dualism (which is more popular). If there is a divide between the physical/mental worlds, the mind is not a locating device for ideas that are present in the outside world– it is the realm where they exist, non-empirical and as corruptible as the flesh.

On the face of it, it would appear Descartes has a very logical justification of an immortal soul for the afterlife – “Our soul is of a nature entirely independent of the body, and consequentially…is not bound to it. And since we cannot see any other causes which destroy the soul, we are naturally lead to conclude that it is immortal. ” Referring to the original question of the soul’s location, Descartes may have hoisted himself by his own Petard. Where Plato could simply say the form and body were blended by the demiurge, Descartes spoke of an absolute divide – so he had to find a location for it inside the body to allow interaction.

For this he drew on the pineal gland or epiphysis cerebri, now know to be the control mechanism for Melatonin (which is released during sleep, helping regulate the body clock). Without this bridge the soul breaks the laws of physics (notably the 1st law of thermodynamics and energy conservation laws). This means we are back to square one with dualism. So (discounting Epiphenomenalism as it doesn’t really seek an afterlife) we find dualistic notions of a soul failing in the face of science. Studies on the brain have revealed new problems, one of which is the effect the brain has on our behaviour.

If you administer drugs to or perform surgery on the brain, definite changes occur with regard to our behaviour – this would seem to strongly imply a physical link between what we know as our souls and the brain. The problem rests with the already established fact that the soul is nowhere to be found in the body. There is one final main option for us however: Reincarnation Pythagoras, well known for his work with triangles, believed in a transmigration of the soul, meaning a jump from one body to the other at the moment of death.

Unfortunately we have none of Pythagoras’s actual writings, so cannot know the details of what he believed. It is said that he studied in Babylon, a highly cosmopolitan city where he could easily have been exposed to Hindu ideas. One people we know about, as their ideas were still strong in Plato’s time, are the Orphists. They used one of the myths about Dionysus in their teachings: When he was killed in a battle with the Titans, noble Athene saved Dionysus’s heart. Zeus (who was Dionysus’s father) swallowed the heart and spat a reincarnated Dionysus.

Zeus then ordered Prometheus to create man from the leftovers of both Dionysus and the Titans. The good in Dionysus became our souls and the evil Titan’s flesh formed our bodies. This is what gave Plato his ideas on the dualist separation of the body and soul. He may have missed the message of the Orphists however, as they were trying to communicate an ethical approach to reincarnation. As with many Indian beliefs, actions in this world lead to positive or negative forms being granted to you in the next world.

Also very much like India, they believed that this cycle of reincarnation was torment for the souls, being constantly torn from loved ones and experiencing the pain of death over and over. This could only be escaped by cumulative good deed doing, which would free you from the cycle. Though this would appear to have as many problems as a dualist soul that transmigrates to heaven (namely that we cannot find the soul and there is no proof of the afterlife as we haven’t gone there) reincarnation has one saving grace.

Why are people born with horrible, horrible afflictions? Why are some born to fabulous wealthy and easy success, while other slave for years in abject poverty? A Hindu would say these are al the physical evidence for reincarnation, karmic justice meted out in the world around us. When you have the people of the last life coming back to earth instead of off to heaven it gives you a useful insight in to the afterlife (because you are already in it).

Hypnosis will have us believe we can even access our past lives, and many people do go along with this as evidence for reincarnation. A young boy, born with one hand severely disfigured, claims to have been an Egyptian slave master in a past life – responsible for the disciplining of runaway slaves with corporeal punishment. A woman claims her knowledge of a building she has never been to stems from living there in a previous existence. Sadly however, science steps in again to say these are merely symptoms of psychological longings.

Value Of Human Life

The beliefs and views of modern society are hypocritical and unjust. By the time an individual matures from a young child to an adult, they have been taught an uncountable number of life lessons. One of the outstanding lessons that each and every person has learned is that killing another human being is wrong. This is perhaps the first recognizable lesson on the value of human life. Most children know that killing is against the law and learn religiously that it goes against all religious morals and beliefs, yet society is bombarded by violence everyday in the media and in real life.

Today, the value of human life can be questioned, especially that of the young. Through numerous examples of child murder and abortion it is rather obvious that the lives of the unborn or newly born are not valued to the degree that they should be. In most cases, the young are not recognized as “people” and are robbed of their human rights and freedoms. Young lives, both born and unborn, are seen as more of a commodity these days, than as precious, magical miracles.

In the media today there are ridiculous numbers of reports pertaining to accidents, shootings and robberies-these are just a few examples of unjust acts that are occurring everyday. There is also a shocking amount of coverage about parents accidentally, or on the other hand, brutally murdering their kids. Parents are supposed to be loving and supporting caregivers, they have a great influence over everything a child can possibly say or do. It is hard to believe that some parents would actually take their children’s lives into their hands.

Recently in the news there have been accounts of a mother poisoning her son to a father taking a knife and slashing his son’s throat. These are all cases where the parent in charge has taken advantage of their control. Each helpless child is defenseless in these situations. In many cases, children have become victims of a parent’s mental instability. In one case a mother claims to have been “suffering form delusions about hell when she took the life of her twenty month old child. ” In the end this woman was found not criminally responsible because “she had apparently been suffering from psychosis the day of the drowning.

She was then committed to a psychiatric hospital. This seems to be common place today, and there is no justice done for the young slain victims. Another account of a mother murdering her children is that of Diana Yano who “has only a patchy memory of the afternoon she ran the bath water and drowned her two children” to “send them to a watery grave”. She too was found “not criminally responsiblebecause of a mental illness-triggered by a serious bout with breast cancer-that made hr believe her children were better off dead”.

The father that slit his son’s throat suffered from a “manic depressive illnessMr. Meehan was legally insane”. He also had four breakdowns which his ex-wife was aware of before she left her children with him that horrible night. She also recalls “the evil look that came into his eyes when he went off his medication”. Were any of the relatives of the deceased; that knew of these mental states, at all concerned with the safety of these children? This could be thought of as a disregard for the children and their well being or as just a lack of respect.

Any individual old enough to have a kid understands that babies are helpless, totally without control of their surroundings because they do not have the mental capability or life experience to understand most things. In a different situation, a single, young mother; still attending high school is charged with manslaughter and criminal negligence after her ten month old son died of a drug overdose. An autopsy revealed that ” the codeine level was sufficient to killmorphine was also in the baby’s blood, but the amount fell within therapeutic range”.

There had been testifies stating that the mother ” was prescribed a bottle of liquid codeine weeks before her son’s death”. Her charges were dropped from second-degree murder because she had taken good care of her son, he was well-groomed and well-nourished before his death. Does this justify her reasoning for having her son ingest her prescribed medication? If she had taken such good care of her son before his death and she accidentally had given him her medication she would have taken him to the hospital or called a doctor had she been concerned with his health.

She willingly gave enough codeine to her son to kill him and for some reason, given him morphine too. The life of this baby was cut short, knowingly by his own mother. This does not display value of young human life. Along with cases of young children, there have also been those involving disabled children who are not valued as people. A mother in Kitchener, Ontario was “charged with stabbing to death her mentally handicapped daughter”. In this case, the parent has no excuses’ to help bail her out of the consequences.

Rather disturbing was the headline that accompanied this article; “Mother accused of killing child called a great parent” because she was “supportive, actively involved in the school”. The principle of the small school that eleven year old Ashley attended was quoted as saying “Ashley was tremendously well-liked. Everyone wanted to be Ashley’s buddy, they gravitated toward her. ” Why couldn’t her mother have given her that same attention? Ashley had down syndrome, an inherited genetic condition that can produce mental handicaps along with facial, speech and other defects.

At the time of this article, investigation was still taking place “to figure out a motive”. Ashley, despite her age and handicap, was still a person. An article of different nature clarified. This article dealt with the way children are treated. “Children in Canada with disabilities are not guaranteed basic educational and social services”. This article also stated that “Canadian legislation does not specifically recognize the rights of children. Sadly, this means “adults can place arbitrary limits of children’s fundamental freedoms”.

Children are not seen as equal individuals. Senator Landon Pearson, founding chairwoman of the Canadian Coalition for the Rights of Children (CCRC) does not agree with these views. She thinks that “putting children in legislation matters because it makes people understand that were talking about human beings with rights”. If children aren’t seen by law as human beings with rights, how can they be treated otherwise. If children are murdered, they don’t really matter because they are not seen as real people.

The article brings up interesting information regarding the repeal of Section 43 of the criminal code which actually “allows reasonable force’ to be used by parents and teachers meting out discipline”. It turns out this provision has been used to justify a child being punched in the face or pushed down the stairs. One fact that this article admits is “in Canada, children are the only category of persons who can be subject to physical assault without due process”. This does not signify a land of the free, these issues are serious and require immediate attention.

In the future there hopes to be human rights for children, but for so many children it is already too late. Abortion is another serious matter that deals with the rights of children. It has become a question not only of ethics, but morals. The courts have ruled that a woman has the right to terminate a pregnancy by abortion in the first trimester. Over years, there have been numerous restrictions on abortions. As a society it was thought that Canadian’s were well informed about abortion.

The booklet ” Abortion in Canada” notes that many people thought that if abortion was offered there would be better sexual morality, “but instead we have tremendous numbers of teenage pregnancies”. There have also been sexual education courses that “deny a moral code and encourage a hedonistic lifestyle”. Abortion is presented as ” a back-up to contraceptive failure in this do your own thing’ lifestyle”. It was thought that legal abortions would do away with illegal dangerous ones but, it turns out that they have increased rather than decreased.

Throughout this booklet, it is displayed that abortion has brought about a “cheapening of human life”. This disrespect for the unborn has brought about two other impacts on society. The first is infanticide, “the killing of a newborn by active or passive means because he is considered to have a life not worth living”. What started out as a woman’s right became a selfish, yet legal, right to a dead baby. As much as a woman has the right to a dead baby, does she not have the right to a dead baby outside the womb as well as inside the womb? Apparently she does.

This does not show any regard for human life. Medical journals published in the United States carry clear indications that “doctors are practicing infanticide, and yet the law hasturned it’s back. Infanticide in reality is homicide”. Infanticide is the killing of innocent human beings. The second effect is the practice of euthanasia or so-called mercy killing’. This is the “termination of a life of a dependent individual allegedly for his own benefit”. Clearly, the old, sick and dying, that have no use in society, do not have any human rights either.

When doctors are willing to become social executioners for millions of babies, someone must examine the mother’s motives used for justifying her actions. Reasons given include: preserving the life of the mother (neglect for right to life of an unborn child), expectation of a defective child’ (disrespect for natural selection, or playing God), rape and incest. “Even if these were valid reasons, they would account for only 3% of all abortions”. Abortion mainly occurs for matters of “convenience and economy”.

Having a child is a huge responsibility and if individuals cannot handle sex and it’s aftereffects responsibly and with a mature attitude they should not being doing it’. This particularly takes on a strictly Catholic view. The Pope’s (Paul II) argument against abortion is extremely religious. He uses exerts from the Bible, other religious documents and he quotes many clergymen and priests to help defend his position. He explains how society must follow the ten commandments to live a good life and have eternal life. “Jesus replied, If you would enter life, keep the commandments'” (Matthew 19:17).

The first of these ten commandments is “You shall not kill”. On the contrary, individuals should love respect and promote life as stated in “The Gospel of Life” by Paul II. In order to do this, one must carry out God’s plan of procreation with love and intentions to multiply. By having an abortion or murdering the young, one is doing the exact opposite. Not only are they killing an innocent human being, but they are killing a child of God. Also, man is not the final judge in matters such as life and death, he is only a minister of God’s plan’ as explained in Humanae Vitae by Paul VI.

Paul II goes on to explain how human life is “sacred and inviolable”. Life is sacred because it is a gift from God and man was created in the image of God. God overlooks our lives from birth to death, and no one else has the right to destroy an innocent human being, especially one as innocent as an unborn child. Man is suppose to be the defender of the innocent, not the destroyer. He explains how the man who kills the innocent is one who has been deceived by the Devil, because only Satan delights in the death of the living.

You shall not kill” represents the extreme limit which cannot be exceeded. It is meant to encourage man to see life with respect and lead to the promotion of life with love. Along with the teaching that one shall not kill another, is this, as stated in the Didache, the most ancient non-biblical Christian writing: “you shall not put a child to death by abortion nor kill it once it is born … The way of death is this: … they kill their children and by abortion cause God’s creatures to parish … they are filled with sin.

As time goes on, the Church will continue to teach the ndeniable value on the first commandment. Even in the first centuries, murder was considered one of the three most serious sins. This should not come as a surprise. To kill something that was created by, and in the image of, God should be considered a serious sin. The most important case involving the first commandment of You shall not kill’ is when it refers to innocent human beings. This is especially so when it refers to defenseless, weak, human beings such as an unborn child or infant.

The taking of an innocent life, especially at it’s beginning or end, is gravely immoral. This direct and voluntary action will always be regarded as morally evil and can never be considered as necessary, either as an end, or as means to a good end. Nothing and no none can in any way permit the killing of an innocent human being, whether a fetus or an embryo, and infant of an adult … no one is permitted to ask for this act of killing, either for him/herself or for another person entrusted to his or her care … Nor can any authority legitimately recommend or permit such an action” (Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith). Every innocent human being has a right to life.

Every man, woman and child is a person worth protecting, not just an object to be used. Of all crimes possible, abortion and infanticide are defined as “unspeakable crimes” by the Second Vatican Council. When such crimes are accepted by much of the population and permitted by lawmaking bodies, it is a dangerous sign that the moral line between good and evil is getting obscured.

This is especially dangerous because the right to life is at stake. The decision to have an abortion is often painful and tragic to the mother. Not only is she ridding herself of the fruit of life, but a part of herself, too. Much like the reasons mentioned before, Paul II restates in “The Gospel of Life” that “reasons however serious and tragic, can never justify the deliberate killing of an innocent human being”. This decision is, in the end, completely up to the mother. But she may be influenced by many others on the way.

The father of the child, either by coercing her or by leaving her alone, can lead her to such a decision. There are rare cases where the male would like to be put in charge and offers to take complete responsibility for the child. The family and friends of the mother may also have a grave influence upon her decision. These people are not the only ones to blame, legislation allows abortion, foundations encourage the legalization of abortion, and those who promote sexual behaviors in those who cannot care for a child can all be held responsible.

Paul II has different thoughts, “No circumstance, no purpose, no law whatsoever can ever make licit an act which is intrinsically illicit, since it is contrary to the Law of God which is written in every heart, knowable by reason itself, and proclaimed by the Church”. No simple act of man can repeal the fact that only God endows life, by giving the fully formed body and breath, and only God should be able to take ife away. People today, despite freedom of speech cannot think or talk for themselves.

Our country, which has prided itself on it’s lack of discrimination on any grounds has succumbed to discrimination against the unborn because they cannot speak for themselves, against the newly born because they are not seen as individuals with rights. They are people too. Abortion and murder take away the potential for life and they show the ignorance of society today, they show that murder is acceptable to rid the world of so-called unvaluable’ lives.

Procrastination in life

Procrastination is the act or habits of putting things off till the end out of laziness. Almost every student knows this dreaded word. They know if it becomes a habit, disaster happens with a sharp decline in school grades. But what they don’t realize is that procrastinating can actually benefit you in school. It can make you work harder, faster, and more efficiently on school assignments. Even life skills in the real world can be created from procrastinating. Procrastination can actually help you work harder, faster, and more efficiently.

It sounds like an impossible thing, however if you’re like me or any other person that wants a fairly good mark on the next assignment, procrastinating can help you. While your friends are working hard on it, go play, and do the things you like but still allow enough time to complete the assignment. When time comes to do it, it should be cramming time to get it done to the best of your ability. It actually helps you, because it gives that need of drive to actually still maintain a good mark on it. Efficiency comes in when you have your daily homework piled on to your assignment, the need to get the assignment done kicks in.

You will feel less of a need to do other things that you normally do, and cut down on the breaks, including the old rest up and watch TV, one. Also essential life skills in the real world become developed through procrastinating. In the busy world of work, everyone knows that that boss of yours will always set impossible deadlines. The knowing of having to get it done perfectly and fast is always on the employer’s mind. When already experienced through procrastinating, you will already know the field of trying to cram a lot of work into a very little time frame.

Procrastination can honestly boast you to higher levels of achievement. It makes you nervous and deadlines will be hanging from your head. It helps set a planning stage for you, and makes you aware of all the other tasks that is needed to be completed. The management of time will also be used. Time managing of what to do first and last including dividing the assignment into steps, or knowing what to do to get the best result within a smaller amount of time is very handy in the feature. This habit is not so dreaded at all. I feel that procrastinating isn’t all that bad, and actually benefits you.

Like I said, it gives the best result in little time. With that little time, a lot of other subcategories start getting developed, including efficiency, working harder or faster, etc. Though procrastinating isn’t the best option to use when trying to complete a homework assignment. I have to admit; starting early is the best way to get a good mark on an assignment in school. But I strongly disagree to anyone, procrastinating is a bad thing. It creates a lot of useful skills for the near future, and should be used ever so often.

Real Meaning of Life

The primary focus of this essay is on adaptationism and the theory of evolution, which, of course, challenges fundamental religious beliefs. In fact, perhaps as a substitute for religion, some have adopted a distortion of Darwinism to explain the \”purpose\” of life: one depiction of human existence is that we’re actually survival machines programmed to perpetuate our genes, according to \”selfish gene\” pursuits. From this POV, the purpose of life is survival for the sake of continued reproduction- each life then is a carrier, a brief repository of gene pool elements.

Because of this belief, some Darwinists seek to find adaptationist explanations for all aspects of the human physique and behavior. They do so because they believe that all traits must make rational, \”selfish gene\” sense somehow because that’s their whole point; because natural selection wouldn’t allow it otherwise. Some people even have a bizarre \”faith\” in evolution as if life can always be counted on to devise a way somehow (even miraculously) to survive, i. e. , \”life will find a way\”.

The SF writer, Robert A. Heinlein, a Social Darwinist, once wrote, \”there will always be survivors\”; he meant only \”survival of the fittest\”, of course, with the implication that the \”non-fit\” don’t \”deserve\” to live. Nazism (blatant power fantasy) was an outgrowth of Social Darwinism with the implication that \”natural order\” dictates that human society should be patterned on this; that the \”unfit\”, \”weak and inferior\” should be actively \”weeded\” out by society. However, it’s a fallacy to infer morality from natural law.

After all, the law of gravity doesn’t mean human society should strive to promote falling down. This essay has been another attempt to dispel these simplistic notions. Natural selection alone doesn’t explain all aspects of ourselves: mere statistics (of distribution and variation) alone prevents that as previously explained. Adaptationism is a major factor, of course, but not all traits are the result of direct adaptations- and this is increasingly true with greater complexity. Where does one draw the line between direct adaptation, random drift and peripheral serendipity (unintended consequences)?

Again, it can’t be emphasized enough that technically, genes have no purpose- nor are they \”trying to survive\” or enhance their reproductive success or do anything for that matter. It’s just that the gene pool will obviously TEND to consist of genes that have happened to have done so- by default; i. e. , the other genes that happened not to have done so will obviously not be around in as great numbers, if at all. Life will continue to perpetuate in the ways that it’s possible to do so within the laws of nature.

The so-called ingenious ways that species \”devised\” to survive were often the only feasible options left (no miracle was involved)- by default- given the current environment and the previous genetic lineage and the preexistence of requisite traits. But remember, most species- perhaps, all species- go extinct eventually. Evolution is a constant \”work in progress\”; just because a particular species has existed for millions of years doesn’t mean that a kind of \”perfection\” or optimization has been achieved. Sometimes, a species can exist for millennia IN SPITE of \”bad\” adaptations.

And past reproductive success doesn’t predict future success- just look at the dinosaurs. So there’s no preordained \”destiny\” to evolution. Evolutionary biology provides a context for understanding HOW current behavior modes may’ve developed and why they persist. However, it doesn’t directly explain WHY we are as we are. Saying that men seek power and status for sex and are violent to fight over women; and that women seek high status males; or that genes seek to maximize reproductive fitness is a useful model (stereotype)- a teleological explanation- but it’s certainly not the \”meaning of life\”.

The primary focus of natural selection has always been on the \”winners\” (life); but I think evolution can be extended to encompass non-life as well. In semiconductor physics, electrical current can be defined either as negative charge moving, say, in one direction or as positive charge moving in the opposite direction. Likewise, instead of saying that evolution is all about reproductive fitness, one could just as well say it’s about death and extinction- the other side of the coin.

Hell, death is the most likely outcome of natural selection after all. When you get down to it, the only fundamental generalization that makes sense about both life and nonlife is that both aren’t really about survival or reproductive fitness or \”progress\” or anything for that matter, but mere existence: life’s \”purpose\” then isn’t to survive- it’s exactly the same as the purpose of everything else- to simply exist- as some form of matter and/or energy. Existence for the sake of existence.

From this POV, rather than being \”masters of the world\”, we’re actually on \”equal\” footing with everything else in this universe. (I. e. , there’s no such thing as \”inferior\” or \”superior\”. ) Human existence has no more cosmic significance than, well, anything else. In that sense, everything’s the same, and nothing’s really \”meant to be\”. This POV also automatically incorporates adaptationism’s limitations. For ex. , this essay has attempted to explain behavior that doesn’t make gene-centric sense (like parents who murder their own children) as ex. f adaptationism’s statistical limitations or as subtle extreme-case adaptations.

But if this POV is taken, then no other explanation is required- it’s already taken into account; so it kind of makes \”perfect sense\” in a perverse sort of way. One doesn’t have to get bogged down, devising adaptationist scenarios for everything. One doesn’t have to puzzle why a father may kill his estranged wife and his children before killing himself by resorting to agonized \”just-so\” stories.

If there’s no afterlife, and death is followed by eternal oblivion, then what’s so bad about that? Some say only the \”weak\” commit suicide, but maybe, the truly smart people are the ones who just kill themselves and get it over with. Why should death be feared or avoided? (Well, obviously, an aversion to death is an adaptation. ) In fact, one could argue suicide is a good thing. It may be bad for reproductive fitness and for society, but why should people give a damn about that or anything for that matter? Why should people struggle and suffer- when they can have quiet oblivion instead? I’m not advocating this, but it is a \”valid\” POV. In a way, nihilism represents the ultimate freedom…

I once saw a book in a bookstore that describes evolution as an entropic (increasing disorder) process. The general concept of entropy has come to be synonymous with the general decline of things, so this makes intuitive sense. From an energy POV, our greatest energy potential is as embryos; living is an inevitable progression towards death (and in the process, we consume so much). In fact, all of human progress and the ever increasing amount of energy our high-tech civilization consumes might be seen as promoting entropy. Maybe then, all of existence is simply an expression of entropy and we’re the means (agents of entropy) by which the universe expends its energy. Perhaps, this is an equivalent view.

Aging: The Different Theories of How it Works

This report outlines the main theories of how the process of aging works. Since researchers have not discovered a universally-accepted theory of aging, the theories discussed are potential explanations of how we age. The likelihood of each hypothesis is considered roughly equal. The different theories discussed focus on the workings of different parts of the body, from the molecular level of DNA mutations and replication, to the organism level of becoming worn out. Aging is a very complex and gradual process, and its ongoing operation is present to some degree in all individuals.

It is a journey to the maturity, as well as to the degeneration of the body. Because aging affects every part of the body, many different steps are involved and various types of reactions occur. Changes in DNA take place, which can and often do affect the way the body functions; harmful genes are sometimes activated, and necessary ones deactivated. A decrease in important body proteins like hormones and certain types of body cells is almost inevitable. These, among many, are characteristic changes that take place in our bodies as time moves on and aging continues.

At present, a universal explanation for how we age or why we age does not exist, but there are many theories to explain this puzzle, and they are supported by continuous research. In this report, some of the how theories of aging will be examined. Among them are theories concerning spontaneous mutations, damage from free radicals, the clock gene, cellular aging, a weakened immune system, wear and tear, and hormonal and neuroendocrinous changes. The spontaneous mutations theory, also known as the somatic mutation hypothesis, states that the crucial events that cause aging are mutations.

These are changes in a cell=s DNA, which are passed on to daughter cells during mitosis. Since genes on DNA code for specific proteins, mutated genes may produce defective proteins, which do not work properly. Many proteins can be affected, such as enzymes, proteins comprising muscle tissue, and a recently discovered type of protein called transcription factors, which bind to DNA and regulate the individual activities of genes themselves. Physical mutagens are substances that increase the chance of mutation and include such physical phenomena as x-rays and radioactivity from radium.

The atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan are examples of physical mutagens that caused an increase in the number of cases of leukemia. Certain chemicals and radiation cause mutations to occur in DNA by giving off high energy particles. These particles collide with the DNA and knock off atoms of the DNA randomly, damaging it. DNA consists of sequences of four possible nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, paired so that adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine always pairs with cytosine.

As cells repair the damaged DNA, a different DNA base is often substituted. This base-substitution is known as a point mutation and can cause the production of a defective or damaged protein. Apart from being caused by radiation or chemicals, mutations also occur spontaneously but at lower rates. Physicist Leo Szilard and biochemist Denham Harmon proposed that because most mutations are harmful, the more spontaneous mutations that arise, the more abnormalities that arise as defective proteins are produced.

These could ultimately kill an individual (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 20). Although it has been proven that many proteins undergo alterations during aging, the spontaneous mutations theory is not the cause (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 21). It has, however, been proven that DNA is chemically altered during aging. Modifications in DNA bases, called I-spots, have been found to increase in number during aging. Besides I-spots, another modified base known as 8-hydroxyguanine, the DNA base guanine with an added OH group, has also been found to increase during aging.

It is unclear how changes such as these arise, but similar changes seem to be caused be exposure to mutation-causing chemicals, some of which are found in tobacco smoke (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 21). Another factor supporting the spontaneous mutations theory may lie in the temporal occurrence of genetic mutations. Certain cancers and abnormal growths seem to appear more frequently as the process of aging continues. Two tumour suppressor genes called p16 and p53 are responsible for slowing cell proliferation, and therefore keep certain cells from becoming cancerous.

However, if they become mutated, they do not carry out their function properly so cells with these mutations begin to grow and divide quickly, causing cancer and other growths (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 22). Werners syndrome is a disorder that significantly accelerates the aging process starting at around 20 years of age. Molecular geneticist Gerard Schellenburg has suggested that the function of the enzyme helicase, which normally unzips the DNA double helix before replication and removes randomly occurring mutations like base substitutions, does not function properly in people afflicted with Werners.

Therefore, the unzipping of the DNA double helix is disrupted and mutations are overlooked (Lafferty et al. , 1996, 60). Moreover, DNA occasionally loses one or more bases through the process of spontaneous deletion. This type of mutation seriously affects the mitochondria of the cell, a main source of energy within the cell. Mitochondria have their own DNA, mtDNA, which allows them to self-replicate. The mtDNA encodes for enzymes found within the mitochondria which help produce ATP, energy-storing molecules. During aging, the amount of mtDNA that possess lost segments of DNA increases.

Although still unproven, it is believed that this abnormal mtDNA may cause defects in energy production. Most mtDNA deletions occur in brain, muscle, and other tissue with little cell division. By the end of ones lifespan, certain parts of the brain consist of as much as 3% abnormal mtDNA (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 22). Many characteristics of aging have been proven to develop as a result of spontaneous mutations. However, many other changes associated with aging cannot be adequately explained by this theory. A free radical is a fragment of a molecule or atom that contains at least one unpaired electron.

Because unpaired electrons are unstable, an uneven electrical charge is created and the electrons attract those of other atoms or molecules to become stable and rectify the electrical imbalance. As they gain electrons from other molecules, they modify the other molecules. In this way, free radicals can damage DNA, and it is known that damaged DNA is involved in the aging process. Free radicals can be formed when atoms collide with one another, as in the impact of x-rays or UV radiation from sunlight on living cells.

They can start a chain reaction in which atoms or molecules snatch electrons from one another. This process of losing electrons is known as oxidation. Though oxidative damage can be slowed through the help of enzymes and the absorption of free radicals by antioxidants like vitamins E and C, free radicals continue to cause damage, however little, to DNA (Kronhausen et al. , 1989, 78). Cross-linking, or large-scale fusion of large cell molecules, is involved in a process responsible for the wrinkling of skin, the loss of flexibility, and rigor mortis.

It occurs when little or no antioxidant activity is present to alleviate the rapid stiffening of body tissues (Kronhausen et al. , 1989, 74). In older individuals, oxidized proteins in tissues have been found, and when proteins become oxidized, they usually become inactive. Lipids, which constitute a large part of the cell membrane, may also become oxidized, thereby reducing the fluidity of the cell membrane. Also, it is possible that vascular diseases are caused by oxidative damage since oxidized lipids in the blood cause arteries to thicken abnormally (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 24).

In addition, some scientists believe that difficulty in, or slowness of movement (when we age), as well as tremors associated with the aging disease called Parkinson=s disease are caused by oxidative damage (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 26). The neurotransmitter dopamine, found in the brain is damaged by free radicals produced by enzymes during the removal of dopamine from the synapses of the brain. During aging, damaged mtDNA is thought to collect in parts of the brain with high dopamine concentrations and is thought to be caused indirectly by the presence of these free radicals (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 25).

Some regions of the brain high in dopamine and damaged mtDNA happen to be the basal ganglia, the parts that aids in movement control (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 25). A Free Radical Reaction with Glucose As the body continues its normal survival processes, insulin becomes less effective in encouraging the uptake of glucose from the blood. In this way, the body develops insulin resistance. This condition is similar to the more serious type of diabetes called maturity-onset diabetes, or type II diabetes.

If diabetes was left untreated, the excess glucose in the bloodstream would not be taken into cells because of insulin resistance. Instead, the excess glucose in the blood would react with hemoglobin in a free radical reaction through a process called non-enzymatic glycation. Other proteins such as collagen and elastin, which make up the connective tissues between our brain and skull, and in our joints, can also become glycated. Once this occurs, they stop functioning properly. The result of this is that diverse compounds called advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) become attached to proteins.

The combination of AGEs with proteins forms a sticky substance that could dramatically reduce joint movement, clog arteries, and cloud tissues like the lens of the eye, leading to cataracts (Lafferty et al. , 1996, 56). Once glycated proteins are formed, they can cause further damage by interacting with free radicals from other sources (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 26). A gene called clock-1, which was believed to determine an organism=s lifespan was found in small organisms and a very similar gene has also recently been found in humans (Lafferty et al. , 1996, 58).

Although it is uncertain whether the clock genes affect how susceptible cells are to infections, or if they control the actual aging process, it is generally agreed upon that these genes have something to do, either directly or indirectly, with aging (Allis et al. , 1996, 64). It has been proposed in the clock theory that the demise of brain cells, of which we lose thousands each day, is due to regular, programmed cellular destruction, and not to random *accidents= (Keeton, 1992, 50). As cells divide, the number of divisions that they undergo is monitored and kept track of.

After a certain number of divisions, the clock genes are triggered and may produce proteins responsible for cell destruction (Keeton, 1992, 50). In 1961, a discovery made by Leonard Hayflick showed that normal, diploid cells from such continually [email protected] parts of the body as skin, lungs, and bone marrow, divide a limited number of times. Although the cells stop dividing at the point just before DNA synthesis, they do not die. The longer-lived the species, the more divisions the cells undergo.

As the age of an individual increases, the number of potential divisions decreases (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 29). This discovery was found using fibroblasts, or cells found in the connective tissues throughout the body. The cells were placed in a laboratory dish under sterile conditions and allowed to grow and divide until they filled the dish. Then some of these cells were placed in a new dish until it was filled. The number of [email protected] necessary until the cells no longer grew and filled the dish represented the number of cell divisions (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 29).

It is not known why the cells stop dividing, but these AHayflick [email protected] may be caused by some genes responsible for halting the division of neurons during developmental stages (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 30). This limited number of cell divisions is often thought of as cellular aging (Lafferty et al. , 1996, 55), a microcosm of the process of gradual, yet, actual deceleration and deterioration of the body. Though remarkable discoveries support the fact that cells stop dividing, this theory does not seem to recognize why cells stop dividing.

The theory that shortened telomeres are involved in aging is an extension of the cellular aging theory. Telomeres are highly repetitive sequences of nucleic bases found at the tips of chromosomes. They contain only a few genes. Their function is to protect chromosomes in a manner similar to Athe way a plastic cuff protects a [email protected] (Lafferty et al. , 1996, 57). After each DNA replication, telomeres on the daughter chromosomes become shorter than those on the parent strand. So after enough replications, which happens to be the Hayflick limit, the telomeres have become strikingly diminished and cell reproduction ceases.

It has been theorized that at this point, genes previously protected by telomeres become revealed and produce proteins that aid in the deterioration of tissue, characteristic of the aging process (Lafferty et al. , 1996, 57). To back up this theory, researchers have found that cells that do not stop dividing, such as sperm cells and many cancer cells, do not lose telomere DNA. These cells possess an enzyme called telomerase, which maintain telomeres (Lafferty et al. , 1996, 57). If this is true, then with an extra boost of telomerase, DNA may replicate many more times and in turn, we may be able to live longer.

Yet instead of slowing or stopping the process of aging, this possibility may only prolong it, since it has already been accepted that damaged, not a shortage of, DNA plays a large role in aging. During aging, the efficiency of the immune system declines. Normally, novel antigens, foreign molecules found on the surface of viruses and bacteria, activate the production of antibodies secreted by white blood cells, or lymphocytes, called B-cells. The antigens act to neutralize the virus or bacteria, rendering it harmless. If the novel antigens are missed by the antibodies, a [email protected] process comes into play.

Macrophage cells safeguard the body and envelope foreign antigens that they later expose to T-cells for destruction. The pieces of virus that the macrophages pick up trigger the appropriate T-cell, which in turn replicates, producing more copies of itself. These T-cells, called memory T-cells, can recognize and destroy cells infected with the virus (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 35). These two methods of protecting the body from invasion make up the primary immune response, and this is the component of the immune system that decreases in efficiency as we age. The secondary response is the body=s resistance against pathogens it has already met.

The reason for the decline in the immune system=s efficiency is that over time, we come in contact with more viral and bacterial infections so that more of our T-cells have been stimulated, converted to memory T-cells, and therefore, used. That is, they cannot be used to fight off any new viruses or bacteria that invade the body. It is possible that the total number of T-cells is set early in life. If this is so, then as we grow older, having already fought off a number of infections, we have a smaller amount of [email protected] T-cells available to fight of infections that come our way (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 34).

In addition to the decrease in unused T-cells, antibodies used against the body=s own proteins are occasionally made. This faulty process is common in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 36). Whereas this theory of how we age is a very practical one, it almost assumes that older people die as a result of infections, no matter how mild, because of a weakened immune systems. This is often, not so. Just as machinery and other equipment gets worn down through use, so too do our organs and cells.

It is almost inevitable that once our first cells have developed and our organs begin functioning, they also begin a very gradual deterioration through use. In fact, heavy use of our organs and bodies can accelerate this deterioration we call aging (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 33). In typists, for example, carpal tunnel syndrome and other degenerative problems come about faster and more commonly than in those who do not exhibit such specialized use of their fingers. On the other hand, problems can also arise from lack of use.

Muscle atrophy, which is noticed in the elderly is the result of a lack of muscle use (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 33). So assuming that moderate use of our bodies is healthy and will not promote any degenerative problems seems safe. Still, even regular, moderate use of one=s body, however long it can prevent certain problems, does not hold the body=s performance at the same level for very long. As aging continues, a loss of elasticity from the connective tissues in various parts of the body is experienced, and muscle performance, among other things, is reduced (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 33).

In 1900, the life expectancy in the U. S. was 47 years. It may be thought that this was the length of time the human body could withstand *wear and tear= before it Abroke down. @ Today, the life expectancy in the U. S. is about 76 years because of modern technology, and many beneficial medical breakthroughs (Lafferty et al. , 1996, 55). This large increase in life expectancies does not necessarily mean that human bodies can endure heavier use, or more wear and tear, but that it takes longer for our bodies to deteriorate now than it did in previous years.

At the molecular level, lipofuscins, or aging pigments, appear with increasing frequency in non-dividing cells. Because they contain oxidized lipids, it has been theorized that they are products of oxidative chemical reactions such as those involving free radicals (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 34). Modifications in Hormonal and Neuroendocrine Systems The pituitary, ovaries, and testes are part of a system of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream and which are controlled by the brain. This system is called the neuroendocrine system.

At puberty, a signal is sent by the pituitary gland to the ovaries and testes, telling them to produce more sex hormones such as estrogens and progesterone in women and androgens in men. In women, menopause, a stage in which the reproductive system is shut down, is reached. From this point in a woman=s life these hormones are no longer produced and many changes are experienced. Because some neurons can become [email protected] to estrogens, the absence of these hormones induces the brain to respond in different ways, such as sending a surge of blood to the skin.

This is sometimes called a Ahot [email protected] (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 37). Unlike hot flashes, a woman may experience harmful or dangerous changes because of menopause: osteoporosis, or the loss of compact bone is accelerated because bone-mineral metabolism is dependent on estrogen. Once this condition has reached a certain stage, it reduces the ability of bones to support body weight. It also immensely elevates the risk of bone fractures. In fact, as a woman increases in age, her risk of bone fracture due to osteoporosis increases exponentially (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 43).

In men, the number of abnormal sperm, incidence of lower testosterone production, and incidence of impotence have been found to increase with age. Because the brain controls the pulses of testosterone, it can be said that some of these changes arise because of different signals in the brain (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 44). The hormonal and neuroendocrine theory collects evidence mostly from a female way of life, yet both men and women experience the aging process and many of the same characteristics that go with it.

The knowledge that the process of aging is very complex can be deduced from the simple fact that there are many entirely different, yet plausible, theories of how aging works. In fact, the possibility that several of these theories are connected, or play a combined part in aging is not far fetched. Yet because the process of aging is so multifarious, just how humans complete or even begin the transition from youth to old age remains a mystery to some extent. However, with new evidence and proof supporting some of these hypotheses, opportunities for a healthier, longer life may arise.

Life Outside Our Biosphere

The fragile balance of the Earth’s ecosystem is constantly being disrupted. Overpopulation is placing heavy strain on the world’s resources. We are burning all our fossil fuels to create the energy we need, and clearing our rainforests to make enough farmland to feed everyone. The ozone layer is slowly eroding, exposing us to harmful UV light. The room we have on this planet is just enough to provide for our population now! As the population grows, we will find ourselves more and more crowded, with no room left to expand.

Solution: Transfer part of the population off the Earth, to colonies established either on ther planets or on orbiting space stations. This will lessen strain on the world’s land resources by providing more agricultural area, and will help solve problems associated with overcrowding. In our solar system, a few planetic possibilities exist for colonization. Mars, one of our closest neighbors, was previously a prime choice until it was explored more in depth. Scientists have now found it to be a red, rocky, barren desert with little atmosphere, no water, and containing no life.

If Earthlings were to settle on Mars, we would remain totally dependent on the Earth’s resources. Another close planet is Venus, the second from the sun. This “sister planet” of Earth proved to have extremely hostile conditions. Scientists were hopeful when they found traces of water vapor in the upper atmosphere, but were disappointed when concentrations of sulphuric acid were discovered mixed with the water.

Venus has surface temperatures of around 600 degrees Fahrenheit, and an atmosphere one hundred times as thick as the Earth’s. (This produces pressure equivalent to pressure two miles under water on Earth. These conditions project a less than comfortable life on Venus. The Moon has held Man’s curiosity since we were created, leading to such issions as the Apollos. These space missions have taught us a lot about what life on the moon would be like. The moon has little to offer us in the way of settlement: it has little to no atmosphere, and only one sixth of the gravity of Earth.

Although the moon might not be the best place for colonies to settle, it would be an excellent source of resources for nearby space stations. ( Scientists can extract oxygen from the rocks, and glass, aluminium, and other metals as well. Space stations orbiting in the past have been very dependent on the Earth’s supplies for construction and maintenance.

The Soviets have launched a brigade of structures called Salyuts. In fact, one of their cosmonauts has lived in space for more than 235 days! They supplied the Salyuts by shuttle craft flying from the Earth and back, carrying supplies and returning with wastes. Americans also launched a space station, called Skylab. This structure, far larger than the Soviets’, was too expensive and was abandoned after some months of occupation. These mini-colonies had very primitive conditions, with no gravity and an awkward lifestyle.

Scientists predict that space colonies of the future will be much ifferent from these first primitive attempts, but knowing which design they will adopt is difficult. Most engineers agree that they will be in a round configuration, slowly rotating, causing centrifugal force with effects like the Earth’s gravity. Some experts believe that colonies will eventually be around 200 km2, with some large enough to house one million people. Because the colony will be environmentally controlled, natural disasters will be almost obsolete. The only things to worry about will be asteroid showers, which only occur about every one thousand years.

Factories and other industrial facilities will be earby, along with the greenhouses. One of the biggest benefits of these space stations is the excellent agricultural potential. The orbiting space station is constantly exposed to the sun’s rays, and 24 hours a day of photosynthesis in a greenhouse could give the colony all the food and oxygen it could need. If some of these resources could be sent back to Earth, less arable land would be ruined by over farming for starving people. Massive amounts of energy in the universe are unused, and solar panels constantly exposed to unfiltered sunlight may harvest some of this energy.

Huge solar panels attached to the station could provide for all of its energy needs, leaving extra to provide for those still on Earth. The construction of space stations will be a compilation of resources from across the solar system. Initially, we will obtain much of the material from Earth, but we have other sources available to us. Rock, glass, metal, and oxygen taken from the moon would be better than if it were taken from the Earth, because the moon has such low gravity. Our planet has very strong gravity, and removing matter from our planet uses up a lot of energy. Removing metals and ock from the moon is relatively easy, however.

Water is another element vital to the survival of future colonists, and some researchers suggest melting ice from Saturn’s rings for this valuable resource. Establishing settlements outside the biosphere we have lived in for so long will be very difficult. It will take cooperation from all the nations in the world, at huge expense to the technologically advanced countries. We will always be dependent on the Earth, and some primitive cultures may never leave it. Colonization of outer space, however, is a good solution to the world’s energy, overpopulation, and agricultural problems.

Life Changing Experience

First day of the rest of my life, my stomach is in knots and I cant seem to do anything with my hair. I have all my pens, papers, notebooks and other miscellaneous items stuffed into my brand new blue book bag. My mother is down stairs on the patio drinking her morning tea watching the world wake up. I gave my brand new shoes a quick shine, checked my hair about three more times each time finding something new wrong. Mother yells at me from down stairs. Youre going to miss the bus! The bus! I cant believe my ears. I cant show up to high school on my first day by riding the bus.

I was scared I needed my mother to drive me to school. Somehow knowing my mother was going to be there part of the way made it a little bit easier for me to go. I need her in a way to hold my hand as I embark on a new chapter in my life. Plus I was a little brat and felt too good for the public transportation system. My mother could sense that I felt uneasy and drove me. The drive to the newly built high school was just under fifteen minuets away. As we traveled my mother gave me some tips to make it through the day.

She told me to introduce myself to my teachers on personal bases, to sit up front and to eat a good lunch. As we arrived at the entrance I felt my breakfast wanting to jump out of my stomach. I was shaking and on the verge of tears. Mother gave me a hug and a kiss on the forehead, told me everything was going to be just fine. I jumped out of the car and stood on the sidewalk waving my mother goodbye. I never imagined that, the hug, the kiss and the wave goodbye could possibly be the last ones. The first day of high school went over with a blast.

My classes were just fine and my teachers were supreme. Everyone was just so nice and friendly. I only cried once when I couldnt find any of my classes. The bell had rung everyone scattered off to his or her assigned rooms, everyone except me. I was stuck in the middle of the courtyard trying to figure out the school mapping system. Frustrated and embarrassed I broke down in tears and ran to the nearest restroom. The day continued from that point on a happy note. I could not wait to get home to tell my mother all about my day.

As the dismissal bell rung, I hurried off to find the right bus to go home. I was frightened that I would get on the wrong bus and end up on the other side of town. Uneasy I asked four different people where bus 647 was parked. As I entered the bus I recognized familiar faces of those from my junior high. Some friendly and some not so nice. I took my place in middle of the bus and glanced out the window watching the trees and cars go by. As the bus grew closer to my stop I became more and more giddy with excitement. I could not wait to tell my mother about my new adventure.

As soon as the bus was out of sight, I ran all the way home with a huge smile on my face from ear to ear like a Chester cat. As I ran down the street I noticed shattered pieces of glass all over the road and a chunk on the street lawn missing. It looked as if a huge bull dozer rode through the grass crushing all the beautiful flowers. I dismiss it and continued to run my hardest. As I skipped up the drive way, fumbling through my book bag to find my house keys, I noticed that my mothers car was not parked in the drive way.

I figured that she had just got it detailed and put it in the garage. My mother was in love with her champagne colored, fully loaded town car. She had it detailed every weekend. I thought it was strange that she had it detailed on a Wednesday, but maybe she found a single dirt mark. I opened the door, kicked off my shoes, threw down my book bag and screamed out for my mother. There was no answer. I screamed up stairs, there was still no answer. I thought she was probably working in her rose garden. I ran outside onto the patio. There was no sign of here.

As I checked the garage there was no sign of her car either. I was crushed. I thought for sure my mother would find the time to be home after I got off from school. I called her cell phone, no answer. Where could my mother be I thought to myself? I decided to go and play some pool in the family game room and wait for her. As I pulled back for the break, the front door open and closed. I thought for sure it was my mother. I ran out, it was my big sister. She was still dressed in her red pajamas with the picture of Garfield the car on the front.

I asked her were mom was and she scurried off to the kitchen and gulped down a glass of water, not caring about the little streams of water that flowed down her chin onto her shirt. I asked her again and she told me to sit down. Moms been in an accident. She was hit head on by a handicap bus this morning on her way back from dropping you off at school. She said it so bluntly that it took a while to register in my mind. I asked her to repeat herself. Hoping that this was so cruel joke they were playing on me.

Living in the City vs. Living in the Country

The age-old question has plagued many, “Should I live in a city or should I live in the country? “. There are many advantages and disadvantages to choosing a lifestyle in either setting, and careful examination of all aspects is needed to make the perfect decision for you. One major issue affecting many people trying to make the decision on where to live is their quality of life in either extreme. Health, education, transportation are three major concerns that many consider.

In a city, pollution surrounds you wherever you step whether on the streets of a busy financial district or on the lawn of a large park. Pollution could possibly cause health problems later in life. In the country, pollution is scarce. Fresh air, rolling green hills, a few pieces of litter here and there but pretty much everything is clean, and wow! No smog, you can see the stars! In the country, childhood education, kindergarten through twelfth grade, is significantly better than in a large city; smaller class sizes and larger budgets create excellent learning environments.

In cities, public schools are often plagued with very large classes packed into small spaces. Teachers with low pay, and little or no dedication are thrown into classrooms to teach, resulting in poor education. Transportation is very accessible in city environments. Public transportation, by way of subways, busses and ferries, are cheap and easy ways of getting around a metropolis, whether going out to work, school, or for a night on the town. In the country, everyone needs to have access to his or her own vehicle.

A commute to work or school is about an average of forty-five minutes! Cash flow is very important when choosing a living environment. Living in the city can easily be more expensive, if you do not know where to look. But it can also be very competitive with that of your spending in the country. Apartments can be very affordable in a rent-controlled neighborhood, and are much more feasible for families, or students just starting out on their own; whereas, in the country, you may have to buy a home or hard to find cheap rentals.

Transportation costs, groceries, taxes, and utilities are common expenditures for any adult. But, many may find that a large amount of money can be saved on these living expenses in a city. Monthly rent usually includes utilities, and taxes (school, city, etc), and public transportation is always outside your door for an affordable amount. Often, careers are the reason a person moves from one place to another. They are either transferred, or are looking for a new job. The job market in the country is very small, but open to nearly everyone.

In the city, job markets can frequently be large and uninviting because of major competitors out there trying to get the same job as you. Job salaries in both environments are comparable when examining the total cost of living in either place, but often salaries in a city, because of large companies, can be significantly larger than that of the same job in the country. It’s your choice. Decide on a quiet rural community or perhaps a large bustling energetic city. There is the right setting for every person, and it takes more than a glance to decide what setting is suitable for you and your family.

True Faith

Could the curse of this day and age really and truly have stricken thee? If so, to what extent has the burning saber scarred? Do the wounds that it has caused; bear witness to such atrocities to come? Why was a boy of such youth, and life, cursed and shackled to such misery? I ask these questions, my lord, in search of one such answer… Truth. I ask nothing more, than that. I do not forsake thou oh lord. For even in the deepest, darkest parts of my soul, I feel the warmth of your presence; your true and almighty hands have formulated my entire existence.

But I feel far from completed, why is that? Did you create such a creature in that virtuous image of yourself to further understand your own being? Could my lord, my perfect role model, be so selfish? Could it be that you yourself are nothing more than a lost child without a scrap of history to show for it? I wonder, creator of all, that if such is the case, why not explain to us your enigma? Surely, a great species such as our selves could do something for you… Or have I spoken to soon? Have we already given you all you have needed in your search for self-redemption?

If so, could this mean that the end of all your children is soon to come? You seem to have spoken of such a day before. You called it Judgment day. The Apocalypse. It was the day all would be judged and the consequences for being human would pay their toll. The great suffering that would soon follow would make all of our fruitless wars seem like pity arguments. How, and why, would such an act be committed? Father please speak to me, I wish to know the reasoning behind such a demonstration.

You heartless bastard! What kind of creature are you?! After all your speeches, after all your words of wisdom, you come down to be no better than the supposed inferior beings that you have created. Inferiority has nothing to do with intelligence, technology, or even art, but the actions out of cowardice, or shame that wishes not to be shown. I see it now, the truth that lies beyond the hazy lies that you fill our minds with. I see it now, that you are what the true lord warned us about, the source of all-evil.

You are not what we thought you were, and sadly bowed before you in every respect. We had almost our entire civilization believe in some form of you, and all for your greed, and self-ambition. I pray to my lord, my true God, that he will himself put an end to your evil ways. And then, and only then, will you also see the truth, that we are the one’s that are superior and that will survive for as long as time still ticks. Good-bye charlatan, blackest of all hells will soon surround you and I laugh at your misfortune. Simply, good-bye.

Shoeless Joe and the Black Sox Scandal

After winning the 1906 World Series, the Chicago White Sox were not able to maintain their position of number one. They remained in the middle of the American League until 1915 when a new manager, Clarence Rowland and a new star, Joe Jackson, joined the team. Joe Jackson was a star from South Carolina who was known as “Shoeless” Joe because of his poverty-stricken childhood. Joe Jackson was dubbed “The finest natural hitter in the history of the game. ” In 1917 the White Sox won one hundred games in the regular season and went on to defeat the New York Giants in the World Series four games to two.

Two years later the Sox were in the World Series thanks to their two twenty game winners, Eddie Cicotte and Clause Williams. The White Sox lost the best-of-nine series five games to three. A reporter for the Cincinnati Tribune thought something was wrong when he found out that someone had placed a two million dollar bet on the underdog Reds. One year later, in September 1920, Jackson, Cicotte and Wilson signed confessions to receiving five thousand dollars to throw the World Series. Before the trial for Jackson, Cicotte and Wilson, there was a turnover in the Illinois State Attorney’s Office and all the confessions ysteriously disappeared.

The three baseball players then said they didn’t sign the confessions so the case was dropped. The new commissioner for Major League Baseball was Kenesaw Mountain Landis and he believed three players were guilty. He also believed they weren’t the only ones on the team that threw the series. Kenesaw Mountain Landis kicked seven players from the White Sox team of 1919 out of Major League Baseball for life. Eddie Cicotte, Chick Gandil, Clause Williams, Happy Felsch, Swede Risberg, Fred McMullin and Joe Jackson were suspended for accepting a bribe to throw series.

Eight players were actually suspended for life but only seven took bribes. Buck Weaver, the eighth player who was suspended did not take money to throw the series. He was suspended because he knew what was going on but did not say anything. Even though Joe Jackson was accused of throwing the World Series he had the highest batting average in the series which was . 375. He had no errors, twelve hits and the series only homerun. Do those statistics sound like “Shoeless” Joe Jackson threw the series. This turned out to be the greatest fix in the history of baseball.

African American Conductors

Conducting, as we know it today is less than two centuries old. 1 On the other hand time beating; a way of holding players and/or singers together, has been around for several centuries. 1 In the absence of written notation, the leader’s hands indicated the direction of the group. As polyphony entered the musical picture, it became essential that the beats be on target. Interpretation at the time was of no importance. It has been indicated through engravings that in addition to hands, leaders of instrumental and vocal forces utilized a foot, a stick, a pendulum, a handkerchief, or maybe even a piece of paper.

In the seventeenth century the element of interpretation entered the music scene, enhancing the role of the leader greatly. This freedom of interpretation increased the conductors responsibility, although no universal practices existed. Gradually the method of time beating approached uniformity; as meters became established, so did the conductors movements. 1 In the eighteenth century two conductors were often used for operas. 1 One conductor would direct the singers and the other conductor would direct the orchestra.

On occasion there were three directors. The principle or lead violinist would often be the lead director, followed by the keyboard player and a conductor. 1 Orchestras without conductors also existed during this period, a tradition still continued today in chamber orchestras. 1 Gradually the lead violinist director became more important than any other type of director transforming himself into lead conductor. 1 The violinist would lead the orchestra by using the violin bow to conduct in the same manner that the baton would be used later.

By the early period of the nineteenth century, about the time the size of the orchestra had expanded tremendously, a conductor had become a fixture. This paper will inform the reader on a brief history of conductors in general, the importance of a conductor, the history of black conductors, important and revolutionary black conductors, the future and popularity of black conductors, and how black conductors influenced the art of conducting. The art of conducting goes back centuries. It is hard to place an exact date and assign a specific person the honor of being the first conductor.

However, an Italian-born, French-educated Jean Baptiste Lully (1632-1687) is generally designated as being the first important conductor in the history of music. 1 He was director of music for Louis the Fourteenth of France. Lully taught his men a uniform manner of bowing, developed orchestral discipline, and achieved a rhythmic precision unknown till then. 1 He became a model for all conductors of Europe to follow. German composer Christopher Willibald Gluck (1714-1787) is seen as being the first great modern conductor.

Johann Frederick Reichardt (1752-1814), German composer and conductor was believed to be the first to eliminate the keyboard and conduct standing up. 1 Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847) often referred to as the first real conductor, fostered precision and exact realization of the composers score. 1 Franz Liszt (1811-1886), initiated interpretation by facial expressions and gestures. 1Finally Richard Wagner in 1869, wrote On Conducting, which was the first book devoted exclusively to the interpretive aspect of the art of conducting. 1 A conductor is an individual who guides a unique aggregation of instrumentalist.

Requirements of a successful conductor are; enormous authority, mastery of conducting mechanics, extensive knowledge, uncanny powers of communication, and a profound perception of music’s inner meaning. 1 A conductor is one who has the ability to communicate his ideas about a composition through his instrument, which is the orchestra. A conductor can do as he pleases as long as he justifies his actions. Also, the conductor illustrates a technical bond between himself and the orchestra. Furthermore, the conductor is the most visible individual associated with the orchestra making his actions visible to all.

Also the personality of the conductor plays a major role in how the orchestra is conducted. The conductor is a communicator of musical ideas, with the responsibility of serving the music. In all, a conductor must be a born leader who understands the responsibilities of leadership and is never deluded with a sense of absolute power. Black conductors have a very short history compared to the rest of the conducting world. There are many reasons why this is. For one, black people were held to slavery and looked down upon until the late 1800’s. Oral tradition was the common African tradition.

They had little education and most of the music recorded was that of song bearing very few instruments if any. Classical music just wasn’t part of their culture. Singers were the first to enter the music world. When slavery was abolished jazz, blues, and gospel became the major interest of most black folk. Entering the classical music society was expensive and risky. For centuries white males had been conducting white orchestras. The thought of a black orchestrial musician much less conductor was abominable. Everything changed when Dean Dixon was born on January 10, 1915 in New York City.

At the age of three Deans mother, McClara Dean Ralston Dixon bought him a violin and scheduled classes three days a week. 2 He immediately began to love music. He attended Carnegie Hall Events at the age of five. 2 His teachers at school discouraged him to pursue a career in classical music, for the idea wasn’t practical at the time. In 1932, he graduated from high school and with the help of his music teacher he was admitted to The Julliard School based on his violin capabilities. 2 In 1936 he received his B. S. degree and went on to Columbia were he received his M. A. degree.

At the Julliard school he successfully auditioned for a graduate fellowship in conducting. 2 Also in 1932, he successfully conducted his first orchestra. In a short time the Dean Dixon Symphony Orchestra consisted of seventy musicians. 2 He taught private violin and piano lessons for money and in 1938 caught a break when he composed his first professional orchestra. 2 Soon after in 1941, Eleanor Roosevelt arranged a concert for his orchestra at Hecksher Theatre. 2 He drew a huge crowd and caught the attention of the music director of NBC. He was contracted shortly after to direct and conduct NBC Symphony Orchestra.

His career and persona became electrified. He had nation wide popularity, for he was the first black conductor in the history of classical music, and he had great talent. In the next few years he went on to conduct the Philadelphia Orchestra, and The Boston Symphony Orchestra. 2 In 1949 he was invited to conduct concerts in Paris. 2 During the next few years he led 32 concerts in 9 countries. 2 In 1953, he became resident conductor of the Goteborg (Sweden) Symphony. 2He stayed in Sweden until 1961 when he moved to Germany to conduct the Hesse Radio Symphony Orchestra in Frankfurt.

In 1967, Dixon retired and came back to America. On November 4, 1976 Dean Dixon died of heart trouble. 2 He died with the achievement of four awards (Rosenwald Fellowship, ASCAP award, Newspaper Guild Page One Award, and the Alice M. Ditson Award as Outstanding Conductor of the Year, in 1948). 2 His orchestras were endorsed by such prominent musical personalities as Yedudi, Menuhin, Leonard Bernstein, Aaron Copland, Bruno Walter, and Oscar Hammerstein. 2 Critics raved about him after his death. Almost every magazine and newspaper in the country had something good to say about him.

He was a humble man who helped his community by teaching kids the importance of music, by giving to charity, and by doing free lessons. He opened a door no one ever thought possible; he showed the world a black man could be a magnificent musician and conductor. He paved the way for many to follow in his footsteps. Another pioneer in the art of conducting was a man by the name of Henry Lewis. At the age of twenty-eight Lewis became the first black conductor to lead a major symphony orchestra in a home-based, regular subscription concert.

Lewis was born about the time Dixon graduated High School, October 16, 1932 in Los Angeles. Despite the age difference, Lewis practically matched Dixon with his impact on the music world. Lewis emerged as a trailblazer for black musicians, when at the age of sixteen he auditioned successfully for a double bass position in the Los Angeles Philharmonic. 3 He became the youngest and first black musician to join the ranks of such a prestigious group. Furthermore, he went on to be the first black music director of a professional American orchestra, and the first black conductor at the Metropolitan Opera.

Lewis grew up in a relatively poor environment. At the age of five he started piano lessons and went on to try many other orchestral instruments before turning to the double bass. 4 He was forced into playing the bass, for it was the only way he could play in his school orchestra. He began conducting in junior high: performing “Grand March” from “Aida” on graduation day. 4 Lewis’s bass talent stemmed from Herman Reinshagen, who came to Los Angeles after many years of playing for the New York Philharmonic. 4 Reinshagen guided Lewis’s development as a virtuoso bass player and solo recitalist.

After his success with the Los Angeles Philharmonic he received a scholarship to the University of Southern California. His success soared until he was drafted in 1955, into the Seventh Army Symphony as bass player and conductor. He traveled Europe playing over one hundred live performances, averaging about three to four a week. 4 Upon returning home in 1961, Lewis made his subscription concert debut with the Los Angeles Philharmonic when the guest conductor fell ill. 4 He was an instant hit and soon thereafter, Lewis accepted an associate conductors position with the Orchestra.

He led the orchestra throughout California and Europe. He diversified his talent by conducting with the San Francisco Opera, as well as the Metropolitan opera in New York. On tour in the U. S. and Japan Lewis had numerous performances. 4 In 1968, Lewis was appointed music director of the New Jersey Symphony Orchestra. In eight years. 4 In eight years he rebuilt the orchestra from a somewhat mediocre ensemble to a remarkable professional, contract orchestra. 4 He performed over 125 concerts a season in and out of state. 4 At the age of 63 Lewis suffered a heart attack.

He ended his career with over 60 guest conductor and opera performances at various popular cities in the U. S and around the world. 4 He was awarded key to the city of Newark, New Jersey as well as a Grammy. 4 Also, he made recordings with three different companies, had major appointments to nine different musical positions including opera and orchestra becoming the first black to do so. His major recordings include Meyerbeer’s “Le Prophete,” Masenet’s “La Navarraise,” and award winning “Carmen Jones” by Oscar Hammerstein.

His accomplishments are unparallel to any other black conductor. Lewis and Dixon together shocked the world. Both breaking new barriers, they showed America and the world that Blacks could be magnificent conductors. The Press gave them publicity never thought possible, showing the public a new type of conductor astir from the traditional European. Together they started a revolution in music. They became the two major building blocks for other black conductors and musicians to build on. The steep climb for black classical musicians was over.

No longer was the Symphony Orchestra a closed society, no longer was it assumed to be an organization for white people. Dixon and Lewis started it all, but many more fabulous conductors would follow. Some of the leading maestros to follow included James DePriest, Micheal Morgan, Leslie Dunner, Paul Freeman, Raymond Harvey, Isaiah Jackson, William Henry Curry, Willie Anthony Waters, and de Coteau. 5 All these conductors have made a major impact on conductors and music in the U. S. and all over the world. It was estimated that there are over 20 Black music directors or staff conductors in the U.

S. , more than ever before. Many new and upcoming black conductors look to find a comfortable place in the society of Orchestral Symphonies and Opera. The History of Black Conductors is less than 100 years old. In such a short time span Blacks have taken great strides in integrating themselves in a society which once was all white. Talent plays a major factor in their success. Compared to other ethnic groups and women, black men have taken great strides in the art of conducting. There is still much to do; Black conductors must become ambassadors to the community.

They must assist in the creation of places where black children can learn instruments and parents can be encouraged to attend concerts with their children. Only a strong effort will ensure more black members of the orchestra, more blacks in the audience, more blacks as orchestra managers and executive directors, and more black conductors on the podiums of U. S. orchestras. Dixon and Lewis are the protegees of a promising future for black conductors. They and many other black conductors have pushed to enter the 20th century now black conductors must establish themselves in the 21st century.

Dress Codes and Hair Restrictions are Vital

John Doe walks into a skyscraper, confident and well groomed wearing a tie, suit, and dress shoes. His confidence moves him forward, as he enters an elevator going up to the 23rd floor. He approaches his first job interview since leaving Jesuit Prep: McAllen & McAllen Law. This well groomed man graduated from Jesuit prep, which had a dress code and hair restrictions. This dress code and hair restrictions evolved young men into mature adults over a 4 year period at Jesuit.

The dress code and hair restrictions play a vital role for our future as they build class ntegration, increase our image in the community, and dress the students for business, not play. Jesuit Prep needs to continue this vital dress code and hair restrictions for the future. Having a school full of students wearing the same clothes and hairstyles helps build an integration within the class. Students that wear many different styles of clothes all come together wearing similar pants, shirts, ties, and shoes.

Through a dress code and hair restrictions, everyone is helped to be made more comfortable by wearing similar clothes, otherwise, people may feel alienated with less trendy or “cool” clothes. Hairstyles help ease this integration as well by giving each person similar styles making everyone feel more at ease. The overall integration helps the students realize that although people may look similar, the idea that everyone exhibits will be greatly different. These different ideas are present in everyone, and the dress code and hair restrictions help illustrate that just because someone looks the same, they do not think the same.

When the students get jobs or find careers in their future, it will be helpful to know that even though all their co-wor s seem similar, they are in actuality very different. This approach to future jobs and careers will give the students an advantage in being open minded with people. The dress code and hair restrictions will help Jesuit students by improving their image they present to the outside community. An image is a very important part of any student’s life. How others perceive us will impact many future decisions others make.

By abiding to a dress code and hair restrictions, our image will come across to others as very clean, organized, and responsible. Future business partners and bosses will always be more trusting with people who fit that image. Within everyone’s life, there is a time for fun and a time for business. While some people wait until they are well passed high school before they prepare for business, Jesuit is in the forefront preparing students now. This preparation stems from the dress code and hair restrictions which are enforced by Jesuit Prep.

When a coat and tie are worn and hair is neatly brushed, a student does not want to get dirty, so they turn businesslike in their manner by learning and acting in a very mature manner. As you can see, the dress code and hair restriction of Jesuit are vital arts of student development. Integration, image, and dressing for success are important benefits of the dress code and hair restrictions. These benefits will be used into each students’ future to help them move forward within their own career and life.

The Stroop Phenomenon

The stroop phenomenon is a way of measuring how automatic or intentional some well practised tasks are and how we respond in conflict situations. This phenomenon also measures individual distinctions, originality and cognitive flexibility. The two aspects of cognitive development that are demonstrated by the stroop task are naming response and counting response. When two responses compete or are in conflict, the time required to make the correct decision is dependent on speed and accuracy.

In the article “Tracing The Time Course of Picture Word Processing”, by M. C. Smith and L. E. Magee; these two researchers found that picture aming was affected by the presence of incongruent words (Experiment 1). Also naming a picture was faster than when a congruent word was present. Therefore pictures activate the name code. Another experiment (Experiment 2) indicated that memory for pictures and words, whether they were initially named or categorized had an effect on memory. Memory was better for words if they have been categorized and for pictures if they have been named. Experiment 3 showed the same results as the previous two experiments.

The fourth experiment, with the introduction of less common objects, subjects could name the words faster than generating a category ame for the words. Naming pictures are prone to interference when incongruent words are presented simultaneously. Word naming is not as much influenced by distracting pictures. Pictures and words differ in the amount of information to be filtered out, to get the correct response. The design of this experiment is a within subject experiment as the number of choices to be made after viewing the stimulus on the screen are same for everybody (2,3,4).

Also the meaning versus number choices (same, different, conflicting) are used by everyone. The dependent variables in this experiment are average accuracy (%) and average time/response (msec). he independent variable is the random stimulus which appeared on the screen, whether it was the same, different or conflicting. In this experiment we were shown 2, 3, or 4 items on the screen in a randomized form and had to select the right number of items using 2,3,4 on the keyboard as quickly and accurately as possible. In this experiment, the stroop task will be demonstrated.

When there is no conflict between the stimulus and response to be chosen, responses will be quick and accurate. When there is a conflict between the stimulus and response to be made, interference will exist and responding will be lower and less accurate. Results & Discussion Figure 1 The average accuracy in percent for subject 1, was good for the ‘same’ condition. Then they started to decrease when the stimulus was ‘different’. This score for subject 1 at the ‘different’ condition was the lowest among all 3 conditions.

When the stimulus was ‘conflicting’, subject 1 was losing accuracy again and so was not as high as in the ‘same’ condition. Subject 1 was less accurate in the ‘different’ and ‘conflicting’ situations. The average accuracy in percent for subject 2, was quite consistent, being one hundred percent in all conditions. So this subject had a higher accuracy rate than subject 1. Figure 2 In relation to average time/response in milliseconds, subject 1 was quicker than subject 2. Then condition where subject 1 slowed down the most was in the ‘different’ condition.

In the ‘conflicting’ condition, subject 1 increased their speed more than in any other condition. Subject 2 was quite consistent in all 3 conditions in relation to average time/response, with the milliseconds being only 3 or 4 different from the other conditions. For subject 2 the highest responding rate was in the ‘conflicting’ condition, followed by ‘same’, then the ‘different’ ondition. This shows that in the ‘conflicting’ condition, the subjects response rate increased. In the ‘different’ condition the response decreased.

Also if one subject has a higher accuracy rate than another subject, then the average time/response will be lower. The stroop task demonstrates that the naming response (same) is faster than the response used while counting (different) and that when 2 responses conflict (conflicting), the time to make a correct decision increases. Since people find the ‘conflict’ condition difficult, they will make more errors and take more time to determine the correct response. So the ccuracy and response rate decreases in the ‘conflict’ situation.

The difference in speed and accuracy in the 3 conditions (same, different, and conflicting) was the result of the experience with each specific condition. The more practice with each condition, the smaller the differences in speed and accuracy among the three conditions. When there is no conflict, people are accurate and quick in responding to the stimulus. So in the situations of ‘same’ and ‘different’ (22 and **), people will respond by pressing 3 and do well. Subject 1 was least accurate in the ‘different’ condition, but was still quicker compared to ubject 2; who was very accurate but not as quick as subject 1.

In the ‘conflict’ situation, where an example of 222 showed up on the screen and the response was to be 3. In this incident most people have trouble responding due to interference, which leads to slower responding and less accuracy. When subject 1 was presented with the ‘conflicting’ situation, response was faster than in non- conflicting situations; but accuracy suffered. Subject 2 was more accurate (100%) but was slower in responding. Just as in the research done by Smith and Magee, there was an effect by the presence of an incongruent (conflicting) stimuli.

Also when there is a congruent (same) stimuli present, response becomes quick, as there is a much faster processing rate which occurs. There is also support that memory is better for words, in our case numbers and for pictures that are given consistent symbols (eg. ***). When responding to the stimulus on the screen, in ‘different’ conditions, if incongruent stimuli are presented simultaneously, there is a chance of disruption. Recognizing the correct number of items on the screen is not influenced much by distracting pictures (symbols). In our case this was a problem that Subject 1 was having, so it is not fully supported.

How to become a successful in any endeavor

We all want to have a life full of success. Many people assume without question that success is essentially material, that it can be measured in money, prestige, or an abundance of possessions. These can certainly play a role, but having such things is no guarantee of success. The success that we should strive for is the ability to love and have compassion, the capacity to feel joy and spread it to others, the security of knowing that one’s life serves a purpose, and finally, a sense of connection to the power of the universe. All of these are what create the dimensions of success, which will bring inner fulfillment.

We as human beings are made of mind, body, and spirit. Of these, spirit is the most important, for it connects us to the source of everything. In other words we can describe it as our conscience. The more clearly that we think, the more we will enjoy the abundance of the universe. Our conscience is broken down into many different layers, the most important being our self-esteem. Our self-esteem is portrayed by our interactions with others. “Some simple examples of how we should use are self esteem is: Always greet people with a smile. As simple as it sounds, a smile establishes your own self-worth and shares it with others.

Always say “thank you” when you are praised. A simple thank you is the universal mark of an individual with self-esteem. Surround yourself with people who enjoy their work. People with self-esteem seem to radiate it to others. ” The second most important layer of the conscience is our attitude. 2“A positive attitude means everything”. Have you ever noticed when you enter a room with a huge smile on your face, give someone a comment and they immediately return with a smile? Being optimistic is a very important key factor in creating success, especially in the workforce.

Too many people spend too much time every day thinking of past hurts. They image every grudge vividly in their minds. Instead they need to learn how to use their minds to create scenes of positive, pleasing emotions. We are not responsible for what happens out there or what others do or think. We are responsible only for how we choose to respond. That’s our attitude. The responsibility is ours. Perseverance is the third important layer of our conscience. We need to learn how to be relentless and persistent in visualizing our goals and dreams of achievement. 3“Happiness is a learned habit.

Constantly practicing the principles of self-esteem and having a positive attitude when times are tough will make your perseverance take control of any situation. Do more than you are asked and contribute more than is required and you will find yourself catching on to things quicker. Self-discipline is yet another important layer. Don’t be a slave to your emotions and impulses; be in charge of your feelings. Individuals, who have mastered, their emotions through self-discipline are among the most successful workers. They are free to do their job well and are liberated from self-destructive habits that weaken the joy of working.

Self-discipline is: holding your ground when you’d rather run away; counting to ten when you would rather explode with anger; keeping a smile on your face when you would rather cave in; working hard when you would rather give up. Self-discipline and motivation can effect permanent change in your self-image and your capacity for joy. Motivation will bring you to a whole different level of thought, if you let it. Sometimes it’s hard to get motivated, but if you can convince yourself using self-discipline, it will enable you to think BIG. External motivators including incentives, books, bonuses, meetings, etc. ave little power until you yourself want to change your life for the better. To be motivated means to enjoy the thrill of achievement; welcome the challenge to get there and have an intense desire to change for the better. Paying value to others is also very important. Communication is very important, especially inside the work force. Its important to learn to treat people more like brothers and sisters. Paying more value to everyone you encounter in your workplace, and of course your friends and family. Listening is a very important factor of communication.

When someone is talking to you give him or her your full attention. When you speak, project constructive, supportive ideas. Be neither cynical nor critical. Learn to accept other peoples point of views, even if they are opposed to your own. Conversation has basically become the practice of two people taking turns talking. Don’t be to busy thinking about what you are going to say next. Practice the lost art of listening. Visualization is also an important layer. Everything we are and are not at this moment is the result of our thinking—conscious or subconscious.

It is the way we get our level of self-esteem. If we want to rise out self-esteem, we must exchange out self-image. This is done by visualization. Ninety percent of us think in pictures. Visualization is most successful when all five senses are used. If you’re uncertain as to whether you can visualize or not, try this simple test: think of a beautiful rose. Imagine its color and texture and even its scent. If you can see that rose in your mind without going out to the garden to look at one, you can visualize. It is also said that ninety-five percent of our action and reactions are subconsciously motivated.

In other words, the majority of things we do day-to-day basis are the result of our past thinking. Most of this programming takes place when we are infants. Some people say that a child in his first few years of life may learn up to twenty-five times as much every day as an adult does. That is why it is so important to program children with positive images. If you want to think differently about yourself, if you want to look and act differently, you must begin to visualize yourself in new ways. The Old Testament teaches us that “As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he. (Proverbs 27:7) Everyone needs a place where they can think without interruption, to visualize, meditating, to pray, and to plan.

The best place to go is where you feel the most relaxed. Some people are able to go into meditative states when they jog. The best place for me is when I am in the shower. I can lock the door; and review my overall objectives, relax, close my eyes, and visualize the things I’m trying to accomplish. If used right, visualization is one of the best ways to raise self-esteem. We must learn how to incorporate personal satisfaction in to our life.

We must learn to appreciate each moment of our working days. If the work gets boring go right to the basics and appreciate your hands and mind which functions so efficiently. Use your powers of visualization to see yourself succeeding in your goals. “Success without honor is an unseasoned dish; it will satisfy your hunger, but it won’t taste good. ” This quote by Joe Paterno, is a good analogy which says, you must be satisfied with every choice you make, and never show regret. A clear conscience is absolutely essential to enjoying success. Success must be built from the inside out.

IMPORTANT STEPS TO BECOME A SUCCESSFUL PERSON The first step to success is to think BIG and always believe in yourself in whatever you do. Most of us have daydreams of a better life-style, whether that means a better paying job, a bigger house, a business of our own, more time to spend with our families or on our favorite pastimes. Some of us aren’t sure what we want, but we do know we want “something better. ” Through my research I have developed some important steps to take, to become successful. Each step is broken down and describes the different aspects towards reaching and maintaining success.

The first step we must take is to set out goals and to make our dreams come true. Goals save you time. They help to direct your energy and enthusiasm. They provide an immediate purpose to work toward. When we have goals, it gives us something to get excited about. It is important to create mini-goals, which will give you the chance to experience continual success. Not only do you have the satisfaction of looking forward to your big dream, but you can also enjoy smaller successes along the way. There are four different guidelines to create a short-term goal: Set a goal you can visualize yourself achieving.

Set a goal that is measurable and concrete. Attack all your goals with enthusiasm. Set goals that will not allow for procrastination. The next step we must take is to use our imagination. 4“We must learn to use and trust our imagination”. The principle of personal readiness is one of the most important aspects for turning a daydream or goal into reality. Although visualization and daydreaming can help in our pursuit, they are only effective when combined with hard work. 5“Students want the best jobs, but they just aren’t willing to turn themselves into the qualified people most companies are seeking.

The Bible teaches that you cannot put new wine in old bottles. So it is with goals and daydreams. You cannot make them true until you have developed the personality, skills, and strengths necessary for the experience. Our next step is to enable us to solve problems quickly and efficiently. We must learn however to be patient. We often choose quick, short-term solutions to big problems because we want a fast escape from the stress and anxiety that the negative situation brings. We get so unhappy and uncomfortable that we set aside our better judgement and put out energy and money into ineffective treatments.

One good way to relieve stress is to take a walk or to go jogging. Scientific studies have shown that physical exercise can actually block out mental and emotional thoughts. Success, the one word that we all want to live up to. Why do we all want to be successful? The answer to that is easy; to be a happier, wealthier, prestigious person, right? Well we all know that success doesn’t come to easy. Throughout this report I discussed the essential elements of what it takes to become a successful person. And I also stated the steps to take to become more successful. “Success is a very important value for anyone to incorporate”. We all have had our bad times in school, work, and personal affairs, but we can’t let those problems bring us down. We must think that every time we fail, we must analyze the failure and teach ourselves to learn what it is that made us fail. And from each experience we must take all the things we did right and expand them. In other words we must learn to give a hundred and ten percent and never give up. Remember the first step to success is to think BIG and always believe in yourself in whatever you do.

Don’t get burned out

Burnout. It happens to everyone, everywhere, everyday. Athletes -young, old, professional, amateur, male and female- all experience burnout in different forms and degrees. Burnout is defined as the physical, emotional, and psychological reaction to intense pressure to fulfill obligations, whether they be sports or otherwise. Simply put, people get tired and worn out because they often take on the responsibility of doing too much. Burnout is most common among professional and Olympic athletes that train hard and work hard for long periods of time.

However, others can also experience burnout in athletics. Burnout leads to reduced interest in the sport, quality of performance, and then withdrawal. Burnout is often associated with overtraining, overreaching, and staleness. Overtraining is the point where training is no longer beneficial but harmful. Overreaching is similar to overtraining however the length of time makes the difference. Overreaching for long periods of time leads to overtraining. Staleness is the effect of reaching a performance plateau. Together with overtraining, staleness eventually leads to athlete burnout.

In sports psychology, several models exist to help explain, prevent, and treat burnout in athletes. Stress models of burnout point to stress as the key factor in burnout. Silvas training stress model is based on the notion that some training stress is necessary to improve.. These improvements are based on positive adaptation to training stress or negative adaptation to training stress. Smiths Cognitive-Affective model of burnout has for stages that lead to burnout. Investment model of burnout insists that if an athlete participates in sports based on enjoyment, burnout is less likely to occur.

On the other hand, if an athlete is trapped into participation this will lead to burnout. Empowerment model of burnout suggests that stress is not the cause but merely a symptom of burnout. This theory in particular deals mainly with youths in sports. Burnout normally occurs slowly, over a long period of time. It may express itself physically or mentally. Physical symptoms may include feelings of intense fatigue, changes in heart rate, weight, blood pressure, vulnerability to viral infection, and then immune breakdown.

Mental burnout may manifest itself with feelings of lack of control over commitments, belief that you are accomplishing less, tendency to think negatively, loss of a sense of purpose and increasing detachment to situations that cause stress. In some cases, burnout can lead to a decreased self-esteem. Keeping the sport and activities fun can help prevent burnout from setting in. If athletes are in danger of burning out they can re-evaluate their goals and prioritize them, reduce unnecessary commitments, learn stress management techniques, following a healthy lifestyle, and developing a support network among friends and family.

Interventions can sometimes provide a solution. Self-awareness is the first step. Time off from the activity followed by initiation of relaxation techniques round out the recommended intervention process. Some athletes can move past the burned out stage and continue participating in their sport. Others however, are unable to once again have fun engaging in that sport again. Younger children are increasing vulnerable to burnout. Gymnasts, ice skaters, and other Olympic caliber athletes are pushed at such an early age and so hard that once they can make their own decisions, they reject the sport.

Some also accomplish such large goals so young that they reach a performance plateau early. Parents also push their children to play sports even when they do not wish to play. This can also lead to burnout of young children. Deciding the level of commitment in a desired sport is one of the most important decisions to be made regarding prevention and treatment of burnout. Athletics should be fun, enjoyable and help relieve stress. Once it begins to cause unhealthy levels of stress burnout might follow.

Sport can be a lifetime activity that can enhance life, but in the wrong context sport can be life altering and debilitating. I was fortunate enough to grow up in a family that supported me regardless of whether or not I participated in sports. My parents encouraged me to participate only if and when I wanted to. Sports were never mandatory and my parents did not push me. They did not live vicariously through my sports participation. I think that is the biggest cause of youth burnout. Parents want their children to excel in a certain sport, maybe one they could have excelled at or one they particularly like.

Regardless of whether or not they child actually enjoys the sport or any sports at all. Participating in youth sports not only helped me develop valuable skills in regards to leaderships, commitment, and team skills. Although I am no longer involved in organized club sports, I see sport as a form a therapy. It helps me relieve stress and feel good. I believe my parents support helped me develop a love of sports and exercise that will last a lifetime and help me live a long healthy happy life.

Best Evidence

There are archetypal patterns in life. They reoccur and become familiar to people through all ages and ethnicities. Throughout history, few literary works have captivated audiences by incorporating these patterns. The epic Beowulf is one literary work that effectively incorporates timeless components. The epic poem relates the tale of Beowulf, a warrior who throughout his life overcomes evils. It has strong elements of Anglo-Saxon elements of bravery, strength and of religious tenets.

Beowulf enjoys universal appeal primarily because of its elements of characterization, plot and theme that prove timeless. Beowulfs portrayal of human nature proves eternal. The protagonist Beowulf brashly lists his accomplishments before entering battle: “But the truth is simple: no man swims in the sea as I can, no strength is a match for mine other monsters crowded around me, continually attacking. I treated them politely, offering the edge of my razor-sharp sword,” (265-294). His boasts are symbolic of his personal insecurity. Beowulf seems scared of defeat and faliure.

His boastful remarks are reminders to himself of his invincibility. Because he is insecure, Beowulf is an accurate representation of human nature. The poem also discloses social behaviors through Welthow, who portrays appropriate submissiveness of a wife. Women in society and position always are hot topics for discussion in any country and time period. She is subservient to her husband and ” [pours] a portion from the jeweled cup for each, till [she] had carried the mead-cup among [the guests],” (354-372). Jealousy is a accurately portrayed in the poem. s a human attribute that will apply to any time period anywhere. In the incident with Unferth, for example: “angry that anyone in Denmark or anywhere on earth had ever acquired glory and fame greater than his own”(236-238) tries to belittle Beowulfs claims to bravery, and, by doing so, adds realistic qualities to his character. Belief Divine or supernatural notions are also tendencies of human nature. The poem reflects this ageless concern through references to “that Shepherd of Evil” (432) and “[sacrifices] to the old stone gods” (90).

These are both conflicting allusions to the two prominent religions of the time. One pertains to Christian ideology; i. e. “The Almighty God” (493), and “the Almighty making the earth” (8), and the other relates to Anglo Saxon religious beliefs; i. e. , “the omens were good” (118) and “fate will unwind as it must,” (189). The poem alludes to Christianity, a monotheistic religion that rejects ideas of fate. On the other hand, there are rudiments of Anglo Saxon philosophy, pagan on account of its elements of fate.

The conflicts in the epic between the two opposite beliefs reflect human natures fickle notions and uncertainty in the belief in the divine. Additionally, the main characters attributes and conflicts would classify him as a “messiah,” an archetypal pattern. Like Jesus and Moses, Beowulf, the epic hero, comes at a time of need and chaos in Herot, thereupon ending the chaos and destruction by killing Grendel and his mother. He comes after “twelve winters of grief,” (62) and avenges evil by “[purging] Herot clean,” (508).

Just as Moses who was reluctant to die without seeing the “promised land”, and Jesus who also was reluctant to die, Beowulf is “unwilling to leave this world,” (738) or complete the final task at hand. Thus, Beowulfs constituents of supernatural and religious notions and realistic portrayal of human nature create a universal appeal that proves timeless. The epic develops the nature of the universal and reoccurring battle that men fight against evil. The three battles that occur at different stages of Beowulfs life imply that the battle against evil is repetitious.

Symbolically the three battles are fought with evil: one with Grendel, one with Grendels mother, and the third with the dragon. Grendel is decidedly evil because he “was spawned in that slime, conceived by a pair of those monsters born of Cain, murderous creatures banished by God,” (20-23). Thus his mother is also of the same origin. The dragon as well is a great evil, whose breath “[was] burning hot, poison [poured] from his tongue,” (672-673). The three battles are fought at different times of Beowulfs life, to symbolize the perpetual war men fight against evil.

Beowulf previously fights various evils: “[He] fought that beasts last battle,”(290) “Huge sea-monsters [he] killed,”(308) “Hunting monstersand killing them one by one,”(56-158). Later Beowulf battles with Grendel, and “meant to hold the monster till its life leaped out, knowing the fiend was no use. ” (473-474) Beowulf then fights the mother of his former archenemy, Grendel, at the bottom of “heaving [waters]” (571) in “her terrible home. ” (565) Beowulfs final fight is against the dragon that breathed “murderous flames. ” (732) The three battles propose to the reader the reoccurring battle against evil.

However, the epic makes it clear that the battle isnt easily won. Beowulf struggles with Grendels mother. He “was weary”(619) and even his sword failed. In sheer desperation Beowulf manages to win, only by luck that a “heavy sword the best of all weapons,” was readily available. Without its help, Beowulf in his fight against evil would have surely lost. Beowulf would not have killed the dragon in his last battle if it were not for Wiglaf. Together they triumphed over evil. Because Beowulf doesnt succeed solely, it is deducted that the fight against evil is won through teamwork.

The concept of teamwork to succeed is universal, in that it is represented through religion. In Judaism, it takes ten or a minion to have valid prayer. In Christianity, all is encouraged to attend church to have unified prayer. The epic incorporates the universal concept of cooperation, thus adding to Beowulfs appeal. Beowulf fights all three main battles, thereby representing good, battling the ever-constant bad; “Monsters,” creatures of the unknown, symbols of evil from eras of the past, and for centuries to come.

These symbols of evil are valid at any time, thus validating Beowulfs universality. Mythical human ideals of invincibility and bravery are commingled with realistic attributes of failure and age in Beowulf to create a timeless appeal to all audiences. Bravery and strength characterize the protagonist, Beowulf. Strong Beowulf “survived the sea, smashed the monsters hot jaws, swam home from [his] journey,”(311). Beowulf has tremendous strength, which is an idealistic quality of most humans, past and present.

Beowulf, who has a “tight hard grip,” (447), would most likely appeal to Romans as well as nowaday men who watch Monday night football to enjoy pure physical strength. Invincible in his youth, Beowulf fought multitudes of sea-monsters. Beowulf however, never drowns, though laden in armor and mail, and seems to be invincible. Nevertheless, Beowulf falls victim to age. Beowulf in his final battle “must lean on younger arms. ” (776-778) In other words, Beowulf can no longer fend for himself solely.

He needs the help of at least another to conquer evil. This represents the belief of strength in number; men uniting will overcome. The change in his boasts reflects his age. Before his battle against Grendel he said, “therell be nothing to mourn over, no corpse to prepare for its grave,” (180-181). In his age however, he says to his men, “Wait for me (after the battle) we shall see who will survive this bloody battle,”(679-681). Beowulf, invincible in his youth, fails ultimately; ” his soul left his flesh, flew to glory,” (827-828).

His failure in his final battle against evil creates a mixture of realism and myth, thereby instituting timeless appeal. Beowulf will impact generations to come as it has affected past generations, because of its timeless and ageless elements of characterization, theme, and plot. Beowulf has an incorporation of timeless spiritualism that can accommodate an array of beliefs and, has ageless components of good vs. evil, and human ideals. Beowulf sets a universal precedent of timeless literature. Beowulf, like few other literary works, is ancient, but has not, and will not lose its appeal or audience.

What your dreams are telling you

Do you know what your dreams are telling you? If your answer was NO youre not alone. Many people have no idea what their dreams are trying to tell them. In this research paper I will answer this question and many other questions about dreams, sleep and also types of dreams. I will also talk about some of the most common or popular dreams and their meanings. We will explore some dream theories and interpretations of dreams. I have also done my own at hand research which I will be sharing with you the reader in this paper.

I wish to take you through the dreaming process step by step, but in order for dreams to begin we must first sleep. So that is where Ill begin, with the sleep process. All dreaming starts with sleep. When we sleep there are four stages that we go through (Carskadon 4). Stage one is the lightest phase of sleep. In stage one sleep there is often visual imagery involved. Images appear in the form of wandering or dream like thought which can be controlled unlike a full dream state. In this stage of sleep someone can be awakened by low volume sounds or slight touch.

Stage one sleep happens through-out the night. It often reappears as a transitional state of sleep following arousal during the night. When stage one does reappear during sleep it only last thirty seconds to one minute (Carskadon 5-6). Young adults spend ten to fifteen minutes a night in stage one sleep (Carskadon 6). Sometimes during sleep you feel your body jerk or twitch, that is called Hypnic Jerks. This usually happens right before stage two sleep occurs (Carskadon 6). Stage two sleep may have some of the slower eye movement of stage one but in general stage two sleep is free of any eye movement.

Another feature of stage two is arousal. Since stage two is a deeper sleep than stage one it will take more arousal to awaken a person from this stage of sleep. The transition from stage two sleep to stage three occurs with a gradual decrease in brain thought (Carskadon 7-9). Stage three sleep as well as stage four is usually referred to as a slow wave sleep. Which basically mean a slow frequency of brain thought. There are no visible eye movements in this stage (Carskadon 10). Again in stage three it takes even more arousal then stage two sleep, to awaken a person from this state of sleep.

Most of the dreams remembered occur during stage three sleep (Carskadon 11-12). Stage four sleep is the deepest of sleep. This is where the body and mind gets the most rest. Brain frequencies increase slightly in stage four sleep. In this stage of sleep people begin their dreams. When a person is dreaming you can visually tell by the movement of the eyes. Scientist and theorist measure deep sleep by R. E. M. which simply means rapid eye movement. R. E. M. is measured by sleep monitoring instruments. What they measure is the amount of time your eye moves in stage four sleep and also brain activity along with frequency.

Once again much more arousal is needed to awaken a stage four sleeper (Carskadon 14-19). Next we need to examine dreams and the different types of dreams. According to Dr. Koch-Sheras the definition of a dream is a story that evolves in your mind, all in a single flash (32). Dr. Koch- Sheras also states that a dream is a sequence of sensations, images and thoughts (32). I discovered through recent self research I that a lot of people dont remember their dreams or that they just dont dream at all. Well the myth that not everyone dreams is false. Everyone dreams. Everyone! (Koch-Sheras 41).

Within a year some people may only remember few or no dreams but, they still dream. Some people are just able to recall dreams better than others (Koch-Sheras 42-46). Dr. Medard Boss professor of psychotherapy at the University of Zurich says that People with above average I. Q. and or upper brain function are more apt to recall dreams of the past nights sleep and sometimes of dreams in past days, weeks, months and possibly years in certain past cases (192). There are many different types of dreams, too many to list in this paper. I will go over a couple of the most common types of dreams.

Have you ever realized you were dreaming while the dream was still happening? Experts refer to that as a Lucid Dream (Koch-Sheras 61). Just about everyone over the age of 20 has experienced a lucid dream and more often during nightmares (Koch-Sheras 61). Now you might ask how do you know when you have had a lucid dream? Its when the fear of the situation suddenly lifts you up and out of your dream and you have to say to your self It was only a dream (Koch-Sheras 62). A lot of the time dreamers wake themselves up as soon as they notice they are dreaming.

A lucid dream may sound like a nightmare, but they are a little bit different (Koch-Sheras 62). Now according to The Encyclopedia of Dreams their definition of a nightmare is A frightening dream, often accompanied by a felling of oppression and helplessness (647). Dr. Koch-Sheras says that a nightmare is A disturbing dream that causes the dreamer to wake up feeling anxious or frightened (67). Also with a nightmare the content of the dream is easily recalled. In some nightmares the plot may seem silly or cartoon like in away, especially in clear light of day.

Still the strong emotions are all too real and may stay with the dreamer for days to weeks (Koch-Sheras 67-69). There are many theories about where dreams come from. I will discuss what a few of the leading people in dream research have to say about dreams. Sigmund Freud was one of the founders of psychoanalysis and also the first physician to see dreams as a window to the soul (Boss 125). Freud published twenty-six different volumes about dream interpretation. Freud believed that dreams came from our unconscious memory. It can be lost memories, repressed emotion or lost emotion (Boss 114).

Carl Jung worked with Freud until a dispute between the two. Carl Jung is also an early leader of dreams. Carl Jung thought dreams are a natural event and there is no reason under the sun why we should assume that it is a crafty device to lead us astray (Boss 114). Two Americans unlocked a big key about their discovery of REM period of sleep. Calvin Hall and Fredrick Perls believed that dreams are common everyday objects and settings leading them to conclude that dreams are about every day life and present day and not instead of latent content of the dream, as Freud believed (Lavie 118).

Other recent research suggests that it could be both everyday life and unexpressed content. Which would make all three dream theorists above partially correct (Lavie 118). My next bit of research was a little tougher to find. I wanted to know What do people dream about? To find out this answer I created by own survey. I did a survey of 200 different students. All the students surveyed attend San Bernardino Valley College. I wanted this survey to be the best representation of all the students at Valley College, so I interviewed students of different ages, sex and race.

Out of the 200 different college students I found out exactly what people dream. Most important I found out what the ten most common dreams were. The survey consisted of me walking up to 200 college students and asking them When you sleep at night, what are your three most reoccurring dreams?. Do you know what your three most reoccurring dreams are? Hold on to your answer and later on you can see if your dreams are the same as Valley College students. After analysis of the hundreds of responses given to me, this next information can be found.

Now remember earlier in this paper we debunked the myth that not all people dream. Everyone dreams they simply cant recall their dreams. But out of the students surveyed 42% of them told me that they dont dream or cant remember, and the other 58% said that they remember their dreams. Next I am going to share with you a list of the top ten most common dreams, dreamt by Valley College Students from most common to less common. 4. Dreams about going to school or being in class. 10. Dreams about friends and past acquaintance

During this research the most popular dream falling just barely beat out the second most popular dream in terms of being the most reoccurring dream. I feel though that some people might not want to discuss their sex dreams with a stranger giving a survey. Now that we know what dreams people have, we need to ask ourselves What does the dream mean or symbolize? Ive looked through many encyclopedias on dream interpretation to tell you what it all means. Since there are an uncountable amount of different dreams to interpret we cant discuss them all..

I will go through and give you some meanings and symbolisms of a few of the most popular dreams at valley college. Starting with the most popular dream at Valley College, falling. To dream about falling and being frightened, suggests that you will under go some great struggle, but will eventually rise to honor and wealth. If you were injured in the fall, you will encounter hardships and loss (Koch-Sheras 210). The second most popular dream is sex. Sex was not just a common dream of the younger students surveyed but older students as well.

To dream that you are having or have had a pleasurable sexual experience could mean that you are happy and content in your personal relationships. To dream of watching other people having sex, denotes an inability to be part of a successful, satisfying relationship (Delaney 46-48). But if you dream of a joyless sexual experience it could be a warning that you could be contemplating some undertaking which, if carried out, can end up to disgrace or guilt you in some way (Delaney 46-48). At this time I would like to move down the popular list of dreams to number five money.

The definition of money as a dream has many meanings which I will go over. To dream of finding money, denotes small worries, but much happiness. Change sometimes follows dreams of finding money (Miller 324). To dream of paying out money could mean misfortune, but to receive money means great prosperity and unalloyed pleasures (Bynum 218). To dream of losing money suggest you will experience unhappy hours in the home and affairs appear to be gloomy. Dreaming about counting money and finding it short could mean that youre worried about your bills and expenses (Bynum 218-219).

A dream that you stole money could suggest that you are in danger and should guard your actions (Lavie 184). As you can see there are many dreams about money and many more that I have not mentioned as well. We have just finished going through the dream process, the only thing left is awakening. Sleep and dreaming effects all of us. Everyone sleeps and also everyone dreams. It is something we do every night and there is no escaping it. The need for sleep and dreams calls out to all of us. Dreaming is a necessary exercise for the brain.

It enhances imagination and creativity of the mind. Freud once called it the only true time where our brain thinks and acts without interference of consciousness (Boss 74). I hope this research paper was able to give you a starting foundation to understanding the dream process and what our bodies and especially our minds go through during a sleep cycle. After this research I feel that being able to understand our dreams is a gate way for understanding our conscious and unconscious thoughts.

My Symbolical Snack

My liquid is APPLE JUICE. The apple, once portrayed as the Forbidden fruit eaten by Adam and Eve, has a lot of nutrients that are essential to the body. Potassium, fiber, and many vitamins are things that your get from the apple. My sweet is a BIG KAT this symbolizes my love for chocolate. Many may think that chocolate is too fattening, or too rich in sugar, and unhealthy, but a little chocolate once in a while can be good for you as well as your soul. My nutritious food is BREAD, a highly nutritious food eaten in one form or another by nearly every person on earth.

It is an excellent source of vitamins, protein, and carbohydrates. Bread has been an essential element of human diets. This symbolizes unity to me, in remembrance of the story where Jesus turns a small slice of bread in to a plentiful amount of several loaves of bread, where men gathered together to share food amongst them in unity. My miscellaneous food is PRINGLES. Like me, once you POP the FUN wont STOP! It is a snack that I feel symbolizes fun and bringing friends together to enjoy some unforgettable time.

Gold mining union plans one-day Free State strike

NUM, or South Africas National Union of Mineworkers, is organizing a one-day strike at Free State gold mines. They are protesting the poverty and job losses from the mines. NUM is the countrys biggest mining union with 50,000 members, and on March 22 the strike would affect five gold companies; AngloGold Ltd. , Gold Fields Ltd. , Harmony Gold Co. , Avgold and African Rainbow Minerals.

NUM spokesman Ikaneng Matlala didnt say, however, how many members of the union would participate on the strike, but did say All the gold mines in the Free State gold fields are going to embark on a strike. The protest is against the gold mines because of the huge job losses in the last fifteen years. In 1987, gold, being the backbone of the economy, employed 530,000 miners. After the end of apartheid in 1994, South Africas economy was open to foreign competition, and the gold industry had to be restructured.

The gold price has been decreasing as well, and today only 200,000 miners are employed. This current event relates to Alan Patons, Cry, the Beloved Country, because mining supported Johannesburg, and references were made to the mining industry throughout the book. Many characters voiced their opinion that it was the black men that economically supported the white men in South Africa, and they were diseased and injured by it. That they worked for cheap, were exposed to dangers, and then when they needed medical attention the non-European hospitals were less than inadequate.

John Kumalo gave speeches on strikes against the gold mines. Gold was found in a new area, Odenaalrust, and the white men wanted to change the name because it was too hard to pronounce. The novel had realism to it because it was somewhat of a historical account of the times, as was The Grapes of Wrath with the dustbowl and droughts. This article shows how the gold mines still cause disputes and struggles much as they did in the 1940s. Gold strike, relating to cry,

Cloning: The future of our lives

On February 23, 1997 the world itself was changed forever. Whether or not you believe that it was for the good is an entirely different question. You can not argue the fact that a major breakthrough in cloning technology had been made. With a lot of time and effort, scientists were able to successfully clone a sheep. Since then, British scientists have also cloned a frog embryo. Cloning has, and will continue to be a controversial issue for a long time to come. Often people say that we are trying to play the role of God. We feel that the scientists are not trying to play God, but just improve the lives of people.

Many people say that we should not try to interfere with nature. If we try to clone organs for transplant patients that are in their final hour then we are actually improving their life. If you feel that saving a persons life is a bad thing, then Im sorry. People often question whether or not we have the right to clone. We are all guaranteed rights by the fact that we are human beings. Those rights include the right to pursue areas of scientific study, and also the right to live. They could have argued the fact that man was not meant to walk on the moon.

If they did, and the program did not succeed, then we would not have the technology that we have today. Cloning organs can only yield new technologies that will be beneficial to society. Organ cloning is something that would be extremely beneficial to society. Imagine the ability to create a liver for James Earl Ray. He was the man that was accused in the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. After he died, new evidence was brought forth in finding that he might not have been responsible for Kings death. Imagine if the technology was available to clone his liver in order to prolong his life so that the truth could be shown.

That would solve an important mystery and save the life of one person on the waiting list to receive a new organ. This way, another person who was on the waiting list could receive the organ. In this country there are thousands of people on waiting lists to receive new organs that will help prolong their life. Many of these people will die because there is not a suitable donor that matches their needs. Imagine the lives that will be saved if an individual can clone their own liver, or any other organ that is needed to survive an illness. The process is fairly uncomplicated.

When a child is conceived, doctors will take a few cells from it and clone them. These cells will then be placed in a national tissue bank until needed. There they are readily available. If the child gets hurt, or contracts a disease, it will have a body repair kit to fall back on. Most of the controversy is over whether or not we will be killing another human in order to get these parts. In a sense, we would. The frozen embryo would be placed in a surrogate mother. There it needs only a mere week to grow. It can then be removed, and the needed organ singled out.

Then, this organ can be grown in a lab, where scientists can speed up the process greatly. Yes, we did create the beginnings of a human, but it was only one week old. If you were to look at the one week old embryo, you would see nothing. There would be no distinguishable features, and certainly none that resemble a human. Whether or not you believe in the art of cloning you have to agree that there are definitely some good things that can come from all of this research. Researchers say that within 5-10 years we will actually be able to grow headless human clones. Im not saying that this is ethically right, but just imagine the possibilities.

No more waiting lists, and no more organ rejection. This type of technology could save thousands of lives. Using just the embryonic cloning, we could drastically improve many peoples chance to live. Just put yourself in one of these situations. If you or a loved one was dying, could you look them in the face and say Im sorry, but its just not right to give you a cloned organ. Theres nothing else we can do, so you are going to die. I know I could never do that, and I would hope that you can see it my way. Cloning has the ability to change the face of the planet forever.

We should be excited that we are able to duplicate such a complex sequence of genes. Whatever you feel is morally right, we should at least allow this to happen because if we never explore the risks then we can never enjoy the benefits. As previously stated, space exploration yielded many new technologies that will forever aid us in the bettering of our society. We can not continue to prohibit the exploration of scientific study. If this practice continues then we will not be able to continue to develop advancements in the prolonging of the human race. If we impose a ban on cloning, then we are basically imposing a ban on our right to live.

The Ultimate Dilemma

There are several safety precautions that we as humans take to ensure our safety. Humans most commonly test things before selling or using them. This can avoid liability and make sure products are safe. Cosmetics are among the many types of products that are being tested such as fragrances, toiletries, and cosmetics that are tested on millions of animals each year. This has created several controversies between animal rights activists and cosmetic manufacturers. Especially in the European Union Council of Ministers where they want to ban animal testing as soon as they can develop enough alternatives (Milmo, 6).

This is because several animals are used in experimentations to test if products are safe for us to use. Tests like the Draize Irritancy and Skin Tests, where products are put in the eyes of rabbits to test irritations, and the LD50, where several animals are exposed to a chemical are considered ways of torture. But luckily several corporations are discovering new and reliable ways to replace animals with science and technology to help reduce the amount of animals used.

So because testing on animals are absolutely necessary for our safety, as consumers, we do not have the right to use animals in this type of manner, but we should reduce the amount of tests by replacing many with alternatives. Although this seems wrong, it is the ultimate necessity for human safety in cosmetic use. Animals have been used in cosmetic safety testing primarily because they share similarities to humans. They are quick and easy to use because they live short lives and are easily accessible. Most animals are raised only for testing, and experimentation is really all that they know.

So hey really are not taken out of their natural habitat for testing. Testing has been so important to corporations because they are trying to avoid being branded as unsafe. Testing also has been so important that they help avoid liability lawsuits and bad publicity from unsafe products (Hunter, 30). It all started in 1933 when a woman wanted to thicken her eyelashes. But after applying the dye to her lashes and accidentally to her eyes, she suffered for about three months. This woman, that the Federal Drug Administration calls “Mrs. Brown”, eventually went blind. Congress then passed the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938.

The law gave the FDA permission to prohibit any type of cosmetics that may cause some kind of harm to people (Hunter, 30). This is why the tests on products used in or around the eye were so important to be tested. This law may have prevented several lawsuits that may have occurred in the future. However the cosmetic manufacturers are not required by the FDA to conduct safety tests for cosmetics. Though the testing is important for safety, the amount of animals that are killed each year is cruel. Using animals with a lower level of intelligence then the normal human being for a renewable resource is wrong (McCoy, 88).

It is also immoral to use animals in experiments on products that are not necessities for human survival. There are basic moral rights that are granted to everyone, which include life, liberty, happiness or well being, and freedom from suffering (Fox, 54). These rights are not legal rights, but moral rights that humans seem to think are only granted to them. Animals always have to adapt to our type of lifestyle even if it means having to suffer (Planet for the Taking Series: Ultimate Slavery). The thought of using millions of animals each year for cosmetic testing is harsh.

This is because several of the tests inflict pain and suffering on animals. There are two traditional tests used to test cosmetics. One of these tests on animals is the LD50, which stands for the legal dose for 50% of the animals that are exposed to the chemical in an experiment. In this experiment, dogs, cats, rodent, and even primates ingest an increasingly large amount of a substance until 50% of the animals die (Finsen, 17). This type of test is used to test cosmetics, detergents, pesticides, and food additives that may have a dramatic poisonous effect in a short time.

The problem with this test is that it requires a large number of animals. The LD50 only gives acute effects and not chronic effects (Hunter, 26). Not only do these animals have to die in the experiment, but also they must suffer for a while first. Another common test is the Draize Eye Irritancy and Skin Test that is tested usually on rabbits. This test examines products that are used in or around the eyes. In this test, a chemical is dropped in one eye of a rabbit while the other eye is used as a control. Experimenters look for bulging, broken blood vessels, or hemorrhaging over a course of three or four days (Hunter, 26).

Usually after these tests the animals are killed or used for another experiment. These are both very controversial tests that harm a large number of animals at once. Neither tests show long-term effects nor how they will react with other substances (Finsen, 18). Luckily these two tests are not the only options to product testing. Manufacturers are coming out with more reliable techniques to that offer faster, less expensive, and more humane ways to obtain data. To minimize the amount of animal testing, corporations must use alternatives when possible.

The John Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health and its Department of Environmental Health Science have been trying to get corporations to replace in vivo for toxicology with in vitro toxicology. In vitro is the test- tube science of using cells, tissues and organs, while in vivo are live animals. The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, also known as CAAT, has been trying to improve in vitro testing for neurotoxicity, skin irritation, eye irritation, and liver or kidney toxicities of many products by awarding grants (Hunter, 26).

There is one grant on in vitro that tests to see if a test chemical would be painful or not. Another grant could help replace animals in skin tests and allergens by developing models of human skin using keratinocytes, which are cells in a layer of skin (Hunter, 26). This type of test could also test corrosiveness instead of using animals. The in vitro tests are helpful because they do not cause any type of pain or stress to animals. These tests can replace the Draize test for several cosmetics and toiletries like eye shadows, shampoos, perfumes, skin creams and cleansers.

By adding these products to a synthetic mixture that stimulates the living cornea in human eye, the possible irritations are scored by color. The colors are arranged by graduations that signify molecular effects on the tissue. By using about five or six in vitro test, many irritant responses can be recognized. In 1988, the cost of in vitro tests averaged about $50 per product, which compares to $500,000 for in vivo test (Hunter, 26). There is a ready source of corneal tissue from the tissue that is discarded during a regular eye surgery.

These cells would probably be more accurate than a rabbit’s corneal cells because they are not entirely the same as human cells. These human cells would probably give more accurate results than a rabbit’s cells (Hunter, 27). Another test that has been reported to reduce 80% to 90% of the number of animals used in eye safety testing is the Agarose Diffusion Method. This non- animal screening test has been available since 1989. This method uses an overlay of agarose, which is a non-gelling type of algae called agar. Basically the test product is placed on a paper filter disc and placed on the agarose.

ADM tests products that can be diluted with water, such as creams, powders or pastes. Then the effects on the cells determine whether it is positive or negative. This test has been favorable for replacing the Draize test (Hunter, 27). Bacteria have also been used to substitute the Draize test. This is because there is a type of bacteria that can emit light. A tester can mix the test substance with the bacteria in a solution and the change in light emission shows the possible irritancy of a substance (Hunter, 27). Proctor and Gamble is among the many corporations that have been trying to reduce the amount of animals in their testing.

They have actually reduced their amount by 80% since 1984. They have replaced most of their animals with a technique that they call data mining, analysis and modeling. They call this “testing on software instead of on animals”. Basically, Proctor and Gamble has a huge database of information on existing chemicals and past tests to decide whether a product will pass for safety. For new and untested chemicals, its molecular structure is set up to show how atoms are joined to form a molecule and compared to 450,000 known and previously tested chemicals.

Because it is a new chemical there would be no match. But the Oxford Molecular Group Inc. in Campbell, California uses “structural analogues. ” They believe chemicals compared to untested chemicals will have similar properties (Anthes, 44). So as we can see it is important for cosmetic manufacturers to continue running tests on their products for safety, and we as humans do not have the right to kill millions of animals on tests that are not exactly accurate, but thankfully there are several alternatives available to reduce our dependence on animals.

The fact that we need to ensure safe products makes completely eliminating testing a difficult commitment for a corporation. But because of the morality of some of the tests, there should be some kind of reduction from animal testing. Because there are so many alternatives available now there really should not be a reason why a corporation would not reduce the amount of animals used. The newer techniques offer chances to obtain data faster, less expensively, and more humanely (Hunter, 26).

The Makioka Sisters

Megan Guimon Saliba Alternative Calendars 11 January 2000 Change Is The Only Constant With life comes death, with destruction comes rebirth, and with fear often comes understanding and growth. Constant change within our environment surrounds and invades our existence–which too is ever changing, growing, digressing and evolving. Often a sad tone resounds within this acceptance of uncontrolled fluctuation. It is the sad or destructive experiences that one wishes could be controlled; and often those become more apparent then the joy and happiness that accompanies change.

Throughout Tanizakis The Makioka Sisters the essence of the novel is captured using subtlety to describe the timeless cyclical changes in nature, thus revealing and enhancing the acceptance of the unavoidable impermanence that is woven into the sisters lives and experiences. Transformations within their natural world saturate and undeniably affect the lives of the characters in this novel. Throughout the novel the sisters are constantly exposed to the beauties and destruction that the cycles of nature produce, changing and affecting their lives for brief and lengthy durations.

Change in nature perpetually occurs and learning to adapt to its inconsistency is often demanded of the sisters. Tanizaki poetically uses the fluctuation of nature to delicately suggest fluctuation or transformations that occur within the characters. For example, as massive flooding consumes the Kobe-Osaka district with destruction, the Makiokas lives are consumed with upheaval; and yet, this inevitable chaos encourages realizations for Sachiko and transformations within Taeko.

The most disastrous flood in the districts history, its transforming effects on the river are vividly described as, “less a river than a black, boiling sea, with the mid-summer surf at its most violent” (Tanizaki 176). Its burdens afflict the land, and all of its inhabitants, from scuttling crabs and dogs to the Makiokas, Stoltzes, and countless other families. Physically destroying homes, railroads and schools, the flood claims lives amidst clouds of dust, mud, and sand. The rain viciously reveals its overpowering capabilities.

As Sachiko searches for occupying distraction from the worry that she endures concerning Taekos safe return, she is drawn to the pictures of Taekos performance of “Snow” from the previous month. The effects of the flood and its devastating possibilities encourage Sachiko to view both these pictures, and Taeko in a revised light. Sachiko admits her luring interest to a photographic pose of Taeko which reveals a “certain delicate winsomeness and grace[in Taeko. ] … one could see from this photograph that there was in her too something of the old Japanese maiden, something quietly engaging” (189).

In the midst of chaotic torment Sachiko is able to appreciate the many aspects of who Koi-san is rather than concentrate on her sisters demise. And not without sadness, she questions whether it was only by chance that Koi-san had been captured in this light or rather that it had been an unhappy omen for the disaster that now lay lurking. For Taeko, the floods transform her spirit as fear and lack of enthusiasm take root in her heart. Her environment has instilled a previously unfelt sense of fear and respect for its reigning force.

Shaken, and perhaps disenchanted with the changes around her and within her, Taeko avoids work and activity for an entire month after the torrential storm. “Taeko, usually the most active of the three, had evidently not recovered from the shock of the flood. This summer she showed little of her usual energy” (204). As the natural destruction drains her energy it also transforms her interests in Kei-boy, killing the last of her love for him. Within both of the sisters, the inevitable changes that the floods bring, seeps deeper than the surface damage; bidding and encouraging new growth and challenge within the characters hearts and minds.

Yet another encounter with a severe storm, this time a Tokyo Typhoon, reveals the destruction and terror that nature can display, disrupting lives, and harshly revealing the change in direction that the Makiokas prestigious lives have taken. The worst typhoon in over ten years, winds literally shaking the house, dirt and sand forcefully flying through vacant cracks, and walls billowing seemingly ready to burst; the family must remain calm although terror chills their bones. They eventually find safety and solace next door in a sturdier home than their own.

The storm not only reinforces the necessity to accept and deal with the atrocities that nature randomly brings, it also reveals the depths to which the Makiokas have fallen with their move to Tokyo. “To lose the Osaka house was to lose their very roots” (99). Change in prestige and economics has obviously affected the conditions of the home that they are now reduced to invest in. Dramatic changes have touched the Makiokas lives, and the storm is a reminder that even the deepest rooted traditions are susceptible to change.

As the next morning brings a clear crisp autumn day, the reality that destruction can be followed with beauty and rebirth rings regardless of the previous days chaos. As the sisters partake in an enchanting hunt for fireflies a….. t the Sugano residence, an understanding of the impermanence of time and life that surrounds them unfolds. The hunt takes place at dusk as both the day and energies of the participants wane, emphasizing the fleeting beauty of the sisters experience. Tanizaki describes this beauty as “the delicate moment before the last light goes” (342), again delineating the brief duration of the event.

The fireflies are at first invisible to their pursuers as they are darting back and forth across the river among the long grasses that line the water. This moment is described as the “impressive moment of the evening” (342), when the fading light and a sudden abundance of fireflies leave behind a multitude of tiny bright trails combining. Sachiko finds a yearning connection to be a part of their bright band of existence “cutting her own uncertain track of light” (342). After the fireflies are caught, the participants walk back to their base releasing the fireflies into the garden of the country home allowing them to disperse.

The final firefly of the evening is found inside the house by Sachiko as she is getting ready to end the day; its presence draws her attention to a calligraphic scroll bearing the motto “Pavilion of Timelessness. ” (343). In this world of timelessness, cycles of joy and experience permeate the Makiokas lives and are yet in constant flux. The motto Pavilion of Timelessness truly sums up the experiences of the evening as Sachiko releases the firefly into the garden, noting that all of the others have flown, thus revealing the transience in all of their lives.

The thread of impermanence is woven through the novel with the changing seasons and flourishing cherry blossoms, revealing the essence of change within nature and in turn, within the Makioka family. An excerpt from Sachikos thoughts reveal the essence of change that the event symbolizes. All these hundreds of years, from the days of the oldest poetry collection, there have been poems bout cherry blossoms. The ancients waited for cherry blossoms, grieved when they were gone, and lamented their passing in countless poems.

How very ordinary the poems had seemed to Sachiko when she read them as a girl, but now she knew, as well as one could know, that grieving over fallen cherry blossoms was more than a fad or a convention. The family… had for some years now been going to Kyoto in the spring to see the cherry blossoms. The excursions had become a fixed annual observance… the three sisters were always together. For Sachiko there was, besides pleasant sorrow for the cherry blossoms, sorrow for her sisters and the passing of their youth. She wondered whether each excursion might be her last with Yukiko.

Although anticipated with enthusiasm, for the beauty and significance that they bring, the cherry blossoms reveal symbolically the passing of each year and the cycle of saddening change that inevitably occurs. “The flowers would come again but Yukiko would not. It was a saddening thought, and yet it contained almost a prayer… ” (89). Each year the sisters grow older, and soon the tradition of experiencing the blossoms all together will simply be a treasured memory. Sachiko is particularly engrossed and drawn to the cherry blossoms each year as she accepts an understanding of spring.

She finds a obvious connection amidst the beauty of seasonal cycles, which creates a haven of understanding for the impermanent nature of her natural world and her familial one. Sachiko witnesses the evolving changes within the social structure of her family as she deals with the responsibilities involving her younger sisters. Feeling responsible to help marry off Yukiko, she cant escape the cherry blossom festivities without an underlying feeling of guilt. “A wedding party was just leaving .. this was not the first time they had seen a bride at the Heian Shrine. Sachiko always felt a stabbing at the heart, and walked on” (89).

Realizing that soon her family will again be altered, she hints at a note of sadness although the change will possibly bring a joyous communion for Yukiko. A transition will be made to a new life and journey. It is at every passing year that the beautifully exotic cherry blossoms suggest the nearer possibility of that adjustment. Natures cycles are vast and endlessly progressing. Threading its way through the lives of the Makioka sisters, change burdens and at times terrifies them. But it is these evolving transformations within themselves, each other, and their environment that they must in turn come to accept and respect.

Nature is an intricate part of Japanese life and culture, reflecting many aspects of their lifestyle and beliefs. In having central aspects of life concentrated around nature, one must learn to live with its rhythms and cycles. In an attempt to accept the changes that constantly occur around them, the Makiokas must also accept the impermanence which continues to pass within their own daily lives. The subtle suggestions that Tanizaki incorporates into The Makioka Sisters truly reveals the deeply rooted connections concerning impermanence within the lives and experiences of the sisters and those that occur in their environment.

Time, what time is it?

Time, what time is it? Is it time for class already? No, we still have some time. It is time that we have totally forgotten about, and have taken it for granted for so long. But does time really exist? Does the 24 Hours of the day mean anything? Or does 12 months? Time means different things to different people. According to COLLINS COBUILD Learners Dictionary (HarperCollins Publishers Ltd. 1996) time is defined as the measurement we measure in minutes, hours, days, and years. Seems rediculously simple, but does it have more to it?

Time actually have a more scientific meaning, which will later be explained. The basic definition of time comes down to 1. What we measure in minutes, hours, days and years. 2. Time is what we use to specify a certain point in the day or refer to the period which something has been happenining. (Stephen Bullon TIME Collins Cobuild Learners Dictionary 1999 Pg 1155) From that definition, how long is a day? It is the amount of time taken for the earth to rotate its axis once, containing two 12hour periods.

Telling the difference between the two periods, the notations AM and PM are used (Ante and Post Meridiem). We cannot literally see or tuch time, but time seems to be all around us, from waking up with an alarm clock to watching your dinner eaten away. However, reversing this process can be another concept that raises many questions. As we all are living, we are also time travellers, since time goes by as we live our lives day by day. But since this topic seems to capture our vivid imaginations, it has also become the origin of many science fiction books, movies and even cartoons.

The idea of time has been thought of for so long yet, but he first evidence of the existence of time appeared in Homers Iliad. In this historical Greek epic, Homer stated Now Dawn the saffron-robed was spreading over the face of all the earth. Homer mentioned the start of a new day allowing us to know that the idea of time has been around even before 700BC. In early years, people used to record the beginnings and ends of seasons and noticing that they do come in cycles. With the advancement of astronomy, Ancient Greek started to utilize heavens and stars for designing calendars.

Eventually, Plato, an Italian scientist, stated The Sun, Moon, and planets were made for defining and preserving the numbers of time. Time has always been thought of as a property that could never be changed, but as the human intelligence grew, time also becomes a property possible for manipulation. If any of you are a fan of science fiction, then you should have noticed that the word ‘relativity’ plays a great part in the genre. For example, pepople on Star Trek are always talking about travelling at the speed of light and time dilations.

Both of these are principles based on the theory of relativity. In his theory, Einstein stated that: “Any object (such as the center of the solar system) is a suitable frame of reference, and the motion of any object can be referred to that frame. ” This means that each object can have different motion depending on the point of reference we pick to observe the object from. From this we can conclude that if we see the sun moving around us, we can either see it as, the sun is moving around the earth or the earth is moving around the sun.

Further more, if a person A is running at 1m/sec towards another person B who is standing still, person B standing still will see person A with a speed of 1m/sec. In the same way, person A will see person B approaching him at a speed of 1m/sec. On the other hand, if both were travelling at 1m/sec towards each other, each will see the other person travelling at a speed of 2m/sec. relative to themselves. However, Einstein also stated that anyone should be able to measure the speed of light to be the same value no matter where they take their point of reference to be.

This is the key to his theory of relativity where he utilizes light as an arguement to explain the manipulation of time. To give another example of relativity, which was also stated in Einstien’s theory of relativity, imagin a person dropping a ball on earth. The ball would accelerate at a rate of 9. 8 meters per sec. to the ground. Now imagin the same situation in a spacecraft floating in space with no velocity nor acceleration. The ball would not be falling. Accelerating the carft by 9. 8 meters per second, the ball would drop from the person’s hand with an acceleration of 9. meters per second as well, these two situatoins are just so identical. The person’s feet will feel the exact same thing both on earth and on the carft, an acceleration pressed between the feet and the floor of 9. 8meters per second. Now, for time manipulation. Imagine a spacecraft, travelling at the speed of light passing an astronaut in space. In this craft, there is a lamp that keeps the time. This lamp shines a beam of light onto a mirror reflecting it back to the source, time taken is then recorded. The seperation between the source and the mirror is 0. 3 meters. Meaning the total distance travelled by the light is 0. meters. With respect to the pilot, the light travels forth and back in 2 nanosec. (Time = distance / speed of light). Having another observer outside the craft, the astronaut will see the light as moving in a vertical as well as horizontal path, making the path longer. This way, the total amount of distance travelled by the light increases to 1 meter. This results the time taken for light to return to the source to be 3. 3 nanosec. Instead of 2 nanosec. From this principle, Einstein showed that once travelling at the speed of light, time tends to go slower than other objects taking reference of that time.

Crisis, Unrest, and the Possibility for Peace

True to many observers that since there hasn’t been any major conflicts to start the second half of the 20th century that there should be peace and prosperity in the world. The truth though shows a different picture of this time period. Prosperity was very prevelent in the world and many of the countries that were ravaged during the second World War did quite well after. Aid from outside countries such as the United States helped countries like France dig themselves out of the rubble that was and enter a time of growth.

The world powers that emerged victorious from the WWII, the United States, Great Britain, Soviet Union, were all committed to creating a world peace that would last for many years to come and keep this catastrophe from happening again. A domino-effect of things broke down along the way to peace that derailed the dream for peace between the world powers. It pitted the United States and Great Britain vs. Russia in what would be known as the Cold War. This Cold War would lead many years of unrest around the globe and wouldn’t be settled until near the end of the 20th century.

Misunderstandings seem to have been the catalyst to the Cold War unrest, division, and arms stockpiling. The first was on how Germany should be dealt with right after WWII was over. It was agreed that the Soviet Union would divide Germany into zones and would pay heavy taxes to Russia. But the way that the provinces that were now controlled by the Soviet Union would be able to vote in there elections would not be overlooked by the U. S. and Great Britain.

The issue of free elections but with pro-Russian influence would not be allowed by the U. S. President Harry S. Truman demanded that free elections reign throughout Europe. Stalin and the Soviets wanted security from Germany and its neighbors and allies after going through two deadly invasions at the hand of Hitler’s army. Both sides stood strong to there goals and tensions increased and the stale mate gave way to a Cold war that lasted for almost the entire second half of the 20th century. Many hardships followed around the world.

Russia tightened its grip on neighboring countries, making them endure what provinces were already going through inside the “iron curtain”. Communist rulers were put into power in many of the surrounding countries and were forced to move communism across new borders and spread this idealism across western Europe. This was, of course, unsuccessful. Peoples in these countries, such as Poland in 1980 fought hard and long to win their country back and force communist leaders out. In Germany, dissatisfied East Germans began pouring though Hungary to thriving West Germany.

This prompted people in East Germany to open the Berlin wall to stabilize the movement of people but it only prompted the bringing down of the socialist government. Soon western and eastern Germany were reunified in peace. With the Soviet Unions rising deficit from military arms racing, the move for peace, and the need to move past the Cold War prompted world leaders to meet to reduce the amount of arms and cut military spending. The Paris Accord of 1990 would be the main push to peace the world needed, finally ending WWII and the Cold War.

Revolutions rang through durign this time. Countries like Czechoslovakia whose rule had been under a communist leader who died became a self ruling in only 10 days. This was known as the Velvet Revolution. These reasons have strong implications towards the push to peace and the struggle to maintain that peace. The ripple effect of the Cold war have not yet dissolved and much time is needed until the effects of oppression of other countries during this time if gone. Peace almost had its way around the world. Almost. Recent up risings in countries such as Yugoslavia, Peace

A Changing Lifestyle

Last August, as a high school senior, I made a big transition in my life. Not only did I pack up my things and move to another city, I moved with the intention of acquiring higher education. I made the next step in my life by beginning college. High school life as I knew it was over, and my life would be new and different upon my arrival at school. My room, schedule, motivation, school life, money availability and parental influence has changed greatly. A major transition to make was that of adjusting to living in a dorm with a roommate.

In high school, my room was decorated and filled with things from my life. The furniture arrangement and room size left plenty of extra room. I had a queen-sized bed as well as a large vanity with a full mirror. The other furniture in my room held trinkets and picture frames. My room had plush carpet and two big windows with curtains. It was not necessary to lock my bedroom door as I left. To be alone, all I had to do was retreat to my bedroom and turn up my favorite song. College rooms differ greatly from this description. One half of my dorm is full of things to which I cannot relate.

Furniture lines the walls of the room and the small rectangle of space in the middle provides room for walking. My bed is twin-sized and is almost six feet in the air. The remainder of my furniture is tucked beneath my bed and holds many books and a few framed pictures of friends. The carpet is thin and puckered in certain spots. Leaving the door unlocked is not safe because of amount of people who bypass it daily. My window is thin and tall, commonly referred to as suicide-proof because it is not big enough for a person to fit through. The curtain rod holding the small fabric cut to be our curtain falls almost daily.

I seldom enter the room when my roommate is not there. When Im tired, she usually is watching television or is talking loudly on the phone. When Im in the mood for television or listening to music, she is often asleep. My schedule allows me to sleep more than I did in high school; however it tends to be at random hours of the day. In high school I had a set schedule. School began at the same time every day and I had the same activities after school. Then I came home, ate dinner, worked on some homework, and went to bed. Staying out late only occurred on weekends when I could sleep late the next day.

I had to be at my house by midnight, so my bedtime was not altered greatly. Currently my classes begin at two different times of the day and end in the same way. Twice a week I have my entire afternoon free for sleeping and the other two days I spend my entire afternoon in classes. I am not as interested in extra-curricular activities, so I spend that time watching movies, exercising, or catching up on homework. I can stay out as late as I please and usually catch up on lost sleep during the next day. Parental supervision is a huge part of high school. Curfews, chores, and family time seemed to be the worst of it.

I always had to ask permission to leave the house and I would have to call home from my destination to assure my safe arrival. Not doing the dishes or neglecting to clean my room would take away my privilege to go out. Arguing happens almost daily because by the time you have lived with someone for eighteen years, their every move can spark an outburst. At school curfews only exist for the opposite sexs time in your room. Chores happen when things get too gross to handle, and family time at school does not exist. When I leave to go out, I dont have to have anyones permission or approval.

I can come and go as I please. Resident Assistants are the only source of authority and they often are oblivious to the happenings of their hall. I live among my friends, so my decisions are not challenged. I have a new freedom and new responsibilities. Sources of school motivation have changed drastically. At home, homework was lightly supervised. Not spending adequate time reading or working on projects resulted in questions from my parents. In order to miss class, I had to prove to my parents that I was really sick, and a fever was usually the deciding factor.

My mom would wake me up every morning for school and ask me if there was anything I needed for the day. That way I my brain had to work almost as soon as my eyes opened. My friends rarely missed class just because and almost never showed up without their homework. Now if my homework is not done, I get no feedback from anyone except a lower grade on tests and transcripts. If I wake up and am not feeling well, it is up to me to decide whether or not I should attend class. This makes it more difficult because I have to decide for myself. Usually my brain is not in full function until after lunch because no one is around to pick at my brain.

I see a number of students miss class just because they are tired or socializing. Sometimes an almost entire class will show up without their homework. Classes are very different as well. High school days are six-and-a-half hours long. College students rarely have more than four hours a day of class. High school teachers are caring and understanding and often bend rules for well-behaved students. Though college professors can change the rules and often do in extenuating circumstances, your impression on the teacher is rarely a factor.

You have the same classes every day in high school, while in college you attend two or three times a week. Most high school classes consist of twenty-five to thirty students. College classrooms can hold up to sixty students. Auditoriums can hold hundreds. Many high school students, particularly girls, spend hours getting ready for school. Most college students do not even shower until after eleven in the morning. Pajamas are seen frequently in morning classes. Homework is turned in almost daily and tests and quizzes are given periodically throughout high school semesters.

The end of a unit usually results in a project of some sort. Students end up with over fifty grades by the end of the semester in one class. College professors usually grade three to four tests or papers and usually no more than ten daily assignments. Projects are assigned at the beginning of the semester. About five to ten grades factor in to the final semester grade. Money is a big issue to college students. In high school I was able to work set hours every week because my school schedule was always the same. The absence of weekday partying left plenty of time for sleeping so I was not grumpy in the evenings.

College class hours are relatively random so it is hard to work with an employer who hires shift workers. Usually I get to bed late so by the time Im ready for work, I am tired and miserable. Living at home provides plenty of food and personal items whenever they are needed. Dorm life is expensive because I have to pay for my own groceries and shampoo. In high school my bank account was often very full and I could use my check card freely. I seldom use my check card now for fear of bouncing a purchase because I have minimal amounts of money in the account.

If I happened to run out of money, my parents would give me small chores to earn money. Since I am not home now, I have to beg for money. In order to get it, I have to drive home and spend more money on gas. I am extremely limited on frivolous spending. Overall my move to college has made me very aware of real life. Parental involvement is a luxury that comes with being at home all the time. Sometimes it seems overwhelming, but having things at my fingertips so often made me take things for granted. College life increases maturity levels drastically and is a baby step to living on my own.

Dirt Bikes

There are two basic types of motorcycles. One type is made for riding on smooth surfaces like roads or paved race tracks. These motorcycles are called road bikes. They are heavier, faster, and more powerful than off-road bikes. Off-road motorcycles, or dirt bikes, are lighter than road bikes. Dirt bikes are built to handle rough terrain like dirt, mud, and rocks. Not all people use dirt bikes for sport. Some people need their dirt bikes for work. ‘Members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police ride Honda, Kawasaki, and Suzuki dirt bikes instead of horses. (Motocross, 128) Forest rangers take dirt bikes out on patrol.

Some cowboys even herd cattle from the seats of their dirt bikes. ‘Workers also travel deep into the woods on dirt bikes to repair telephone equipment. ‘;(Chris Lace,10) ‘Most people ride dirt bikes for fun. They enjoy being out doors and finding new places to ride. They can follow an old trail or blaze a new one. Riders are basically free on their dirt bikes, just be sure that you know what your doing and do not get lost. Also make sure the area you are riding permits the use of dirt bikes.

Due to the stupidity of some reckless riders areas for riding are diminishing. ‘;(Chris Lace,45) This is true places to ride are becoming less and less due to a few unmannered people. Many people also use dirt bikes to experience the excitement of competition. Different types of dirt-bike racing include motocross, supercross, trials, and enduro. Motocross is held out-side. It usually has about twenty to forty participants. They race on tracks about three quarters to one mile long. They usually lap around five to twenty times give or take some laps, depending on the race.

Supercross is held in an indoor stadium on oval to circular tracks. Usually you need an sponsor to get into one of these races. Trials are not even actual races, and requires a special trial bike. These bikes are longer and lighter with lower geared engines than the typical dirt bike. Trial bikes are specially designed for balance and stability. During a trials race you are tested on your skill, stability, and balance. The coarse is an obstacle coarse with things like boulders, logs, and streams that you will have to cross or maneuver on top of. The final kind of race is enduro.

They are very long races which test your skills in map reading and if need be fixing your bike in the middle of nowhere with what you got. One famous race is the Paris-Dakar Which is an astonishing 6,371 miles (10,250 kilometers). ‘All dirt bikes share some basic features-knobby tires, light weight frames, long-travel suspension, and two- or four stroke engines placed high and out of the way. ‘; (Kawasaki owners manual, Intro) ‘Knobbies’;, or knobby tires give the dirt bike good traction through mud, loose gavel, and sand. Without knobby tires, you would not have much control on rough trails.

In deep sand it would be very difficult to move forward with just regular tires. Although on a paved road they will give you an rather bumpy ride. Another important part of all dirt bikes is long-travel suspension. This includes the fork legs in the front and one or two shock absorbers in the rear. Long-travel suspension softens the ride over the big jumps. ‘All dirt bikes have engines that are placed high in the chassis so they can clear obstacles suck as large bumps, stumps, and rocks. The exhaust pipe also rides high so it will not catch on boulders or fallen trees. ‘;(Jesse Young,16)

How a dirt bike works is when a spark plug ignites a mixture of air and gasoline in the engine cylinder. The explosion moves a piston up and down inside the cylinder. This is calls the power stroke. A rod and crankshaft convert the power stroke to a circular motion. This motion reaches the rear wheel by way of a clutch, gearbox, and drive chain. Some Dirt bikes have two-stroke engines. Others are four stroke. In a two-stroke engine, there is a power stroke for every turn of the crankshaft. And the gasoline must be mixed with two-stroke engine oil before being put in the dirt bike.

In a four-stroke engine there is an extra stroke that lets out the exhaust. Every other turn of the crankshaft is a power stroke. Every motorcycle, no matter how small, must have a way of cooling the hot-running engines. Air-cooled engines use metal fins to dispel the engines heat. Water-cooled engines are more common today. They pump water through the water jacket across the block and the head then it goes back through the radiator where it gets cooled back down top be pumped through the cycle again. Motocross bikes must be light, but they must also be though to handle the hallenging tracks.

Riders often have to deal with steep hills, tall jumps, and even trees. A motocross cycle is usually sued for racing. It has no head lights and no taillights, no turn signals, no mirrors, no speedometer, and no kickstand. All these bikes have small, two-stroke engines. ‘Dirt bike engines are measured in cubic centimeters (cc). Common sizes for dirt-bike engines are 80cc, 125cc, 250cc, and 500cc. They are all light but will give the motorcycle a lot of power. ‘; (Kawasaki owners manual, Intro) The sixteen-inch wheels are held in place by telescopic ork legs and a rear swing arm with one or two shock absorbers.

The shock absorbers dampen the jolts. They soften landings after riding off large jumps during a race. ‘Dual-purpose bikes have lights, turnsignals, and a speedometer. They are used on public streets as well as on off-road trails. These bikes are best for the rider who likes to ride on streets and on off-road trails but who does not want to buy two motorcycles. For the serious dirt bike riders, dual-purpose bikes are too heavy. The dual-purpose bike does not make a very good street bike either. ‘; (Chris Lace,103)

When ever you ride a dirt bike you should be wearing the right equipment. You should be wearing a helmet, goggles, jersey, pants, boots, gloves, and a chest protector. A helmet should fit snugly, it should also be full faced and made of fiberglass. The goggles should also fit snugly to keep dust and dirt out of your eyes. Goggles with wide elastic straps and scratch resistant lenses are best. The jersey should be bright, so others can see you. Pants of a good quality are made of nylon and leather and have inserts for pads at the thighs and knees should be worn.

Boots made of thick cow hide that cover the entire shin protect you best. gloves made of nylon with leather palms protect your hands from rocks that may fly up. Chest protectors also help protect against any rocks that may be kicked up. When ever you go out riding whether it be for pleasure or for sport, on-or off-road always use your head. Follow the basic rules of riding, never go alone, wear your gear, have a spare part or two with you, bring your fuel, and don not do what you cannot do with out practicing for a while. Do this and you should have a fun and enjoyable time.

A Life of Consequence

Consequence, a natural or necessary result from reason or argument. The true meaning of consequence does not only derive from negative conditions. Although the first word people relate it to is punishment or repercussion. Sometimes we are not conscious of the fact that a consequence can be a result and the act of a successful student. This is Webster’s definition, demonstrated in some of my every day conditions. For example, last semester I felt I was fully equipped and clear-minded going into the school year. But slowly, yet more than gradually my grades were lowering naturally, endangering me of academic probation.

This semester, I ended up taking the same class as a consequence and a necessary result. But in a positive since, taking this class a second time I discovered that this is what I wanted to major in. Another time was in high school, I had took all the necessary steps of pleasing a teacher, while in a class of academically poor students. Just from my show of participation and interest, I feel my grade was helped in consequence of being an involved student. All year long my peers would walk in late with no homework and when in discussion have nothing to offer.

Students tried to involve me involve me in erratic behavior, but I knew a deduction of points was the last thing anyone needed. So the duration of the year, I managed to squirm my way up till the final with a low ‘C’. Finals came around and if I didn’t receive an ‘A’ on the test I would have a ‘D’ in consequence. Even though, all year I was working on a good relationship with the teacher, it still all seemed ironic when she offered an ultimatum. My teacher offered for me to write a paper on the information I retained in the last two chapters.

The deal was if the paper was an ‘A’ satisfaction paper and if I received a ‘C’ on the final I would receive a ‘B’ in the class. My development of the paper went well, but along with the deal came consequences and repercussions. Students and peers felt mistreated and unfair. Since it was already done she claimed that I was the only one that asked, when questioned. Students offered to turn in papers but the deadline was past due. Many students in that class received a low grade as a consequence. If I received a low ‘C’ on the final I would get a ‘B’ in the class as a result of being an involved student.

Many times as a kid I remembered my family going through hard times and paying the consequences. Going through these times my parents always kept me in private schools, hoping I would amount to something. Sometimes sacrificing trips or a new car, chancing an investment in my education. I felt the silent pressure daily and tried my best to achieve, by working hard to receive a high G. P. A. During school and hard times, when tuition couldn’t get paid, I often suffered the repercussions. Some how, some way mom and dad worked harder and got me back in schooling result of a positive consequence.

Things seemed harder than they should have been, because my parents would never take a handout. They felt a debt is the worst situation to be in, and would rather suffer the consequences. My brother also was, well lets just say disturbed, and often had run-ins with the police. This was something the reason my tuition couldn’t get paid, but he over looked my problem. Later in my life things got better, my brother moved out, dad got a raise and I stayed in school. I received a high school diploma and got accepted to MCC as a consequence and result of positive actions

An Event Which Changed My Life

An Event which changed my life, well when, I think back on my life there’s Many changes for the good and some were bad but, there were some learning experiences that help make me a better person. The events in my life, was dealing with the Birth and The Death of my first daughter. The First, Event was the birth of my first daughter it, was a joyous event in my life. I remembered one night getting on my knees and asking God to send me a child that will love me unconditionally and that I will love it and that know one could ever take the love that we both shared away.

I also, remembered telling God that I would love this child forever, you know God granted me my wish it was on a Thursday evening on August 16, 1979 at 4:20 P. M. that my little angel was born she was a sweet little angel. She was very special my family, she was the first granddaughter, great-granddaughter and the first niece and her father’s first of his two children to witness coming to this world. I remember when she was just a week old I laid her down on her stomach in my bed, she tried to crawl.

La Shundra, was very happy and loved baby, she was so special she touch the hearts of everyone that came to know her even when, she was at her worst until the day she died. She always had smile on her face and she would always see the good in people, no matter how they treated her she would always consider them as her friend. I tried several times to tell her not everyone was her and that she needed to be careful, I guess as mother I was only trying to protect her feeling, but, I guess that was her calling as an angel.

When my daughter graduated from the eight grade to go into the ninth grade in High School, together we made lots of plans she was anticipating on getting her driver’s license trying out for the dance team and just attending high school itself was the most exciting event in her life, me on the other hand I was nervous about the ideal that my baby was growing up. It was in August 1994 that I took my daughters for their yearly physicals’ before returning back to school. She just turned 14 years old and she still had not started her cycle, I became curious because, she had past all of the ages of our immediately family when they started theirs.

My grandmother stated when she was 13yrs. My mother started when she was 12yrs and I started when I was 11yrs. When I took her in to see her Pediatrician I explain to her my concerns. She exam my daughter, she stated. “That she was ok and that most girls start late and that she had until the age of 17yr. to start her cycle. My Daughter started high school that same month she was so happy to be in high school. It was in November 1994 that I took my daughters in for their yearly eye exam and that when the Doctor discovered that my eldest daughter had some type of growth behind her right eye that made her vision in her right eye very weak.

He referred us to a Neurophthalmology to confirm his findings. The Neurophthalmology arranged for my daughter to have a MRI done. It was confirmed that she had a brain tumor it was a Pluritary tumor. The tumor alternated the hormonal changes and the Endocrine system. The doctor called us with the most devastating news about my daughter. I remembered trying to find the right words to tell my daughter the bad news I took her in my arms ready to cry and all my daughter said was all we have to do was to pray those words coming for her comfort me.

All I was saying to myself that this was not fair this was her first year in high school. The Primary Care doctor sent us to several specialists: An Endocrinologist, Neurologist, and a Neurolophthalmologist. She was schedule on December 22, 1994 to remove the brain tumor. The neurosurgeon that did the operation explain to the family what the out come of the surgery might be that she could lose her memory but, it was only going to be temporally and that she could lose her eyesight.

We were preparing for the memory lost we brought in photo albums and the family was there to see her as soon as the surgery was over. The doctor came out to tell us the surgery was an success that a tissue sample was sent to the pathology lab and the results was that tumor was not cancerous. The Doctor stated that he had to pull out because he was about to lose her because her blood pressure dropped when he attempted to remove the entire tumor. She was than sent to the Recovery Room. She did recognize me she said, high mommy that comfort me.

But, some how during the night she lost her eyesight, because the nurse that was taking care of her said she became frighten when he attempted to bath her and that she could not see him. I don’t know if she was scared because she heard a males voice or that she discovered that she could not see are combination of both. It all seems so unfair this was her first year in high school. The following day after surgery the doctor explain that she would need at least 12 weeks of radiation treatment to shrink the rest of the tumor that was left over.

The Day that my daughter was discharged from the hospital the doctor wrote orders for us to visit an oncologist at MD Anderson Hospital. The last day of her 12 week treatment she develop and earache which later that evening develop in an ear infection I took her to see her doctor she was out and so she was seen by a doctor that was seeing her doctor’s patients for that day. She prescribes some antibiotics and eardrops. The next, morning I had to rush her to the emergency room because her lips were turning blue and she was breathing with difficulty.

The attending emergency room doctor at Hermann Hospital stated that she had went into respiratory failure and septic shock it is a bacteria infection in the blood stream that attack all major organ in the body because it sees them as foreign object in the body, she had to be transferred to intensive care unit. She admitted into the hospital from February until March of 1995. With extensive use and dosages of antibiotic and dialysis they were able to save her because people with septic shock usually die within 24 hours.

She was discharged at the end of March with only little problems she had to be treated with little bedsore because it was important to her treatment to remain stable in one position and she had to have physical therapy because of laying bed for long she had to regain her strength and endurance to become strong. She dad returned back to school and she was adjusting ok except she had to relearn again in a different way such as Braille and she had to be taught by and orientation specialist how to get around in school and in the community. In May 1995 it was the beginning of hill battle of going in and out of the hospital.

She had complained about chest pains and sharp pain in her back behind her right shoulder blade. When, we arrived at the emergency room at the Texas Children hospital she was diagnosis with having a Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack). The Septic shock that she had suffered with early that year had damage her heart and it became enlarged and she was diagnosis with Cardiomyapthy which is brought on when a person has had a viral infection of untreated Blood pressure when the heart has to work extra had to get the blood pumping. People with that time of diagnosis are usually given a life expectancy of at least 5 years.

I found that out after my daughter passed through research of my own. She had been in and out of the hospital since 1995 to 2000 the year that she past away. It was January 18, 2000 when she past away it was on a Tuesday morning. She was admitted into the hospital because she had a seizure Sunday evening while attending a movie with my sister, she was rush to the hospital to be observed she was put on life support to assist with breathing she was able to communicate through sign language and a writing broad that hospital provided for her.

Monday morning she was ok she was watching television with me and she was able to breath with little assistance from the ventilator the doctor had to lower the level of the vent because she was breathing over the machine he later stated that if she continue to breathing good that he might take her off the vent later on during the week. Monday evening she became nauseated.

By early Tuesday morning she was transported to another room. I was able to give her a whip off, change her linen, grown, whip her face, combed her hair and kissed her forehead and I told her I loved her and she told me that she loved me to little did I know that’s was the last time that I would be able to tell her those words and that I would hear her voice tell me that she love me too.

About 7:41 the alarm on her machine went off she sat up in bed and she said that she could not breath and see closed her eyes and failed back , the nurse came in and said that she was not breathing she alarmed a Code Blue all of the Medical team came rushing in I had been in codes before when I had work in the hospital the staff tried to get me to leave but I did not want to I thought that I could withstand a the staff working on my daughter but, when it your family member, I learned than that I was not strong enough to witness something so tragic.

I remembered trying to find my way out of the room I lost my sense of direction and I tried to cry but, nothing came out it felt like I could not get enough air to push out a scream of tears, all I could remember saying that I hated God how could her give her to me and take her away from me. Form that moment on I felt less of mother, I did not want to be a mother any more because I lost a child.

I know that people had tried to comfort me by saying she in better place, I just did not want hear that because what better place could she be besides in my arms. I still cry today as if it just happen and I often wonder what would she be doing right now. Losing a child it is event which changed my life. I find myself looking for her face when I’m driving or walking I just cannot believe that she’s gone she is forever in my heart that’s what’s on her tombstone.

September 11 & Pearl Harbor

There are many similarities and differences between the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. One attack was committed by terrorists and the other was committed by a government. After Pearl Harbor, we entered a world war, and after the terrorist attacks, we invaded another country. Both Attacks were grave threats to our national security. To begin, the two attacks were launched by different types of enemies. On September 11, 2001, civilian terrorists attacked the United States. They belonged to a group called Al Qaeda and were from the nations of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Egypt.

On December 7, 1941, the United States military base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii was attacked by the military representing the government of Japan. Pearl Harbor was attacked by a nation against a nation, where as the attacks on September 11 were perpetrated by civilians against civilians. Unlike the military attack at Pearl Harbor, which was intended to destroy our Pacific fleet, the September 11 attacks were not only meant to threaten or government but to demonstrate hatred for our way of life and ruin our economic system.

A difference between the attacks is that after one we went to war and after the other we invaded another country. After Pearl Harbor, we entered World War II. After the September 11 attacks, the United States did not enter an ongoing war. Until December 1941, the United States was attempting to remain neutral while many European nations were already at war. However, when Pearl Harbor was attacked, President Roosevelt and Congress immediately declared war on Japan and chose to support our European allies and joined World War II.

After the September 11 attacks, it was widely believed that the terrorists responsible were hiding throughout the hills and caves of Afghanistan. The United States chose to invade Afghanistan because it was searching for the terrorists. President Bush believed that the Taliban was hiding Osama Bin Laden and his people. The United States and our allies were successful at removing the threat during World War II, but while our military was able to overthrow the Taliban and capture some of Bin Laden’s associates, we are still involved in a war in the Middle East.

Finally, after both Pearl Harbor and the September 11 attacks, the United States felt that its national security was being threatened and took steps to protect itself. Both incidents took place on our own soil. After Pearl Harbor, Americans feared that the Pacific Coast would be attacked as well. As a result of that fear, our government began to intern anyone of Japanese descent living within the borders of the United States. Many of those interned were born in the United States and came from families who had lived in the country for many generations. Similarly, after September 11, Americans were in fear of anyone of Middle Eastern descent.

Many innocent people were stopped at airports, in cars, or just going about their daily business. Racial profiling against anyone who looked Middle Eastern reached an all-time high. The Department of Homeland Security was established and Americans learned to live with color-coded terror alerts. Paranoia about chemical weapons caused stores to sell out of duct tape, plastic, and bottled water. We lived in fear whenever the alert level was raised to orange or red. Both Pearl Harbor and the September 11 attacks had a tremendous impact on our government and on our way of life.

The topic of stereotyping

The following essay will discuss the topic of stereotyping, and how it affects society when practiced. What is stereotyping, and what are the causes? Is it related to instinct? These questions will be put reason, based on fact. When the facts have been made clear, a valid opinion regarding the topic of stereotyping will be made. Stereotyping is quite common among society, yet it is also quite difficult point out what it really is. Stereotyping is referred to as any theory or doctrine indicating that that actions of an individual reflect on his or her whole culture, sex, age, race, class, or nationality.

It could also be considered as a tool which people use to label others. In practice, one looks at a other, and begins to make generalizations about any physical or intellectual attributes one may possess, and then classes them into a certain category. Adopting stereotype ideas, one assumes that the behavior of one represents everyone of that class. If a young Japanese boy is excelling in math, for example, then a stereotype attitude would be to assume that all Japanese boys are good at math. It is quite obvious that this is not always so. Knowing this, does that mean that stereotyping is wrong?

When is it considered correct, if ever? We are provided with prerogative to think however we like, but is it correct in assuming that stereotyping is immoral and unfair? This topic will be more discriptive through the proceeding. Stereotyping As it was mentioned in the Introduction, stereotyping is relative to making generalizations towards a whole culture, class, or nation, etc. based on the actions of one or a select few. It is quite obvious that the accuracy rate of observing in such a manner would be quite minimal, yet there are people who practice it and people who have done it before, including myself.

I would be telling an absolute lie if were to say that I have never stereotyped anyone. Who is to say why I have, for I am not a prejudiced person as far I can tell. Yet I have caught myself thinking that all people from Hong Kong are filthy rich, because the majority of the people that I know, originating from there (which is not many) seem to be quite well off financially, with their fancy cars and clothing. Well the truth is, there are people who filthy rich living in Hong Kong, as well as people who are dirt poor. The jealousy towards my acquaintances from Hong Kong, lead me to believe that all people from there are rich.

That is a classic example of stereotyping, within my experience. Looking back on that predicament, which was about two years ago, makes me feel feeble-minded, for the assumption was quite ridiculous. I am glad, however, that it had occurred, because it has enlightened me to the point that I will remember not to even think along the lines of something as ridiculous as that. There are many other various examples of stereotyping regarding nationality, such as: The Irish are considered as uncontrollable alcoholics, the Chinese are portrayed as illusive thieves, Jewish people as being inherently cheap and Natives as being lazy and apathetic.

All of which, are very unwarranted judgment, for there is minimal if not any credible evidence backing it up. Yes there may be a few Irish alcoholics, Chinese thieves, cheap Jewish people, and lazy Natives, but that does not mean, however, that they are all like they are said to be. A person who stereotypes could be considered as a prejudiced person. A prejudiced person does not take the time to understand another as an individual. Instead, they make preconceptions about another, regarding their age, sex, race, nationality, class or culture. In my previous case, I was prejudiced about my acquaintances from Hong Kongs nationality or culture.

The general relationship between a person who is prejudiced and a person who stereotypes is the fact that they are both mean-spirited. That is, they violate the rights of individuals by forming perceptions about people based solely on their membership in a particular group. Consequently, they fail to judge people based on their merits and individual traits but on generalized notions derived from popular culture. I contend that in many instances that the tendency to prejudge other humans is an act of ignorance more than an intentional behaviour. Cause and Distinction

Some would think that stereotyping is a subconscious or instinctive action from within, and that may be considered true, only to a certain degree however. There is a fine distinction between innate behaviours opposed to conditioned behaviours. Instinct is an innate behaviour which is part of our natural intuition from the point of which we are born. Stereotyping would not come as an automatic reflex action in any situation, thus it can be said that it is not an instinctive behaviour. It is an action which is learned and conditioned through periods of time, just as racism, sexism, and enthoncentrism, etc.

There are some cases when stereotyping could indirectly act in ones favour, however the amount is quite minimal. If a unpleasant looking black male, for example, were following you in the middle of the night, it would seem unclear whether to foster stereotype ideas and run like mad to get away, for black people have been portrayed solely as gangsters and muggers, or remain walking a normal pace and risk getting attacked. Instinct would likely tell you to run for safety, however the follower being black should have nothing to do with a his credibility.

It is the fact that he is following you in the middle of the night, which is a perfect time to spring an attack. Technically stereotyping really has nothing to do with this particular situation, however people may say that it does. Common catalysts for influencing such beliefs like racism, sexism, enthoncentrism, and stereotyping are media, like newspaper articles and headlines, television programs, and radio broadcastings, etc. The media has the power to direct any message, however it may see fit, and affix it to the viewers thoughts.

The media has abused its power to the point of which it has caused actual fatalities. Approximately during the late 1950s, for example, there was a sudden unwarranted broadcast stating that the Martians had landed somewhere in San Fransisco. This broadcast shocked the nation and caused absolute panic within the hearts of the Americans. Fortunately, the broadcast was revealed to be false. Consequently, before that could be revealed, people had already begun to flee from the country and even commit suicide. The initial intention of this broadcast was for pure entertainment.

However, I fail to see a sign of anything entertaining. I believe this was a test to see how far people would actually go in favour of what they see or hear. This abusing of power by the media is one of the many fosters of stereotyping. Another origin of stereotyping, is through the social pipeline. Social stereotypes and generalizations derived from popular culture are what I consider to be prepackaged labels we can assign to people. This saves us the time and effort of understanding the complexities of other human beings different from us.

In all fairness, it can be said that all cultures participate in this endeavor. No one or group has a monopoly on prejudice and stereotype behaviour. Closing Statement I believe that it has been made quite clear that stereotyping is very wrong, for it deprives a person of the natural right to be recognised as an individual. , something which we all want and deserve. Sometimes its easier to say that this person must be like this because his or her people are all like that instead of taking time to find out what the person is really like.

Labeling people into certain group might make it seem easy to understand people, but the truth is its not easy, because life isnt easy. There are no shortcuts in understanding the ways people work, for we full of complexities and a uniqueness which cannot be just wrapped up in a single unwarranted perception. I appreciate the fact that I can be picked out of a group of people for having distinct differences in qualities, but not based solely on what I look like, but about who I am. Being stereotyped robs me of what I can call myself…… an individual. If I were to lose that, then I would have no reason to live.

Lessons of Sula

In their life, at one point or another, people deny to themselves and others what they really feel and what really happened. Some people go on living their entire lives denying their true emotions. In Toni Morrison’s novel Sula, characters constantly denied their feelings and their actions. Sula Peace, her best friend Nel Wright, and Nel’s mother do not listen to their feelings and hide from their true emotions. Sula Peace is one of the protagonists of the novel. She is born to a very unstable family and is from that moment treated differently in “the Bottom”, the black section of Medallion, Ohio.

From the time that she was very young, right up until her death, Sula denied her true emotions. She refuted her need for love and did not acknowledge her family and its impact on her. Sula’s need for love was first expressed in the beginning of the novel when she is twelve years old. Not realizing that Sula is nearby, Hannah, her mother says:

“I love Sula. I just don’t like her. ” Sula “only heard Hannah’s words, and the pronouncement sent her flying up the stairs. In bewilderment, she stood at the window fingering the curtain edge, aware of a sting in her eye. “(57)

Sula did not show that her mother’s words truly hurt her.

She ran away from the problem when she heard Nel call for her. Sula just went on to continue playing with Nel like nothing happened even thought the words of her mother would ring in her head forever reminding her of the hurt and betrayal she felt when those words left her mother’s lips. Sula’s lack of love continued in 1923 when she turned thirteen. She was changing into a woman, but the words of her mother were still with her. In the summer when the entire community began to can fruits and vegetables for the winter, Hannah began to do the same. She lit a fire, which in turn caught her dress and soon engulfed her in flames.

Sula sat on the back porch simply looking on as her mother burned. Sula continued to keep standing as Eva, her handicapped grandmother dived out the second floor window in an effort to save Hannah. When Eva told people that she saw Sula standing by and not even trying to help anyone they responded by saying:

“Sula was probably struck dumb, as anybody would be who saw her own mama burn up. “(78)

Eva agreed with them,

“but inside she disagreed and remained convinced that Sula had watched Hannah burn not because she was paralyzed, but because she was interested. “(78)

Eva’s suspicions were right. Sula was not so much paralyzed by the sight of her mother’s burning body, but by the words that her mother said last year. Sula could not bring herself to help her mother and because of the pain she felt, she also could not help her grandmother. As Sula became older she continued to run from her emotions and from her problems.

When Nel married Jude Greene in 1927, Sula ran away after the wedding. She ran for ten years because she thought that her and Nel’s friendship would not say the same and that Jude would replace her in Nel’s life.

When Sula returned to Medallion, she came back the same person as the one who left. She was still running from her problems and her past. Sula put Eva into a nursing home because Eva brought back memories of how Sula watched her own mother die. Once again Sula ran away fro her past trying to change the future. A little after, when Nel asked Sula why Eva was put in a nursing home, Sula lied to Nel saying: “I’m scared Nellie. That’s why…”(100) She once again turned her face away from her past and lied to herself and her best friend about what really happened.

Sula’s best friend and the other protagonist of Sula was Nel Wright. Nel was the exact opposite of Sula. Nel had a light skin color, almost like the color of sand; in contrast, Sula’s skin was dark like the rich earth. Nel was the picture of innocence and purity; Sula had a birthmark in the shape of a rose over one of her eyes, giving an impression of something mysterious. Nel was a calm and constant person, while Sula could and would flare up with emotion. However, the two friends shared the fact that they both ran from their problems.

In 1927 when Nel married Jude Greene, she did not marry out of love. Nel married Jude because she thought it was the proper social thing to do, to accept a marriage proposal. Just as her mother had taught her, Nel wants to settle down and gain the respect that comes with marriage. “She seemed receptive but hardly anxious” (82). It was a sad reason to get married. She wanted to run from her mother’s restrictions into her own life. Nel like Sula began to run from her problems. Ten years later when Sula returned to The Bottom, she slept with Jude.

Jude ashamed of what he did left Nel and their three children on a one-way ticket to Detroit. Nel wished that she could express the pain she felt, but all that she could think of was the way women cried at Chicken Little’s funeral, and how she wanted to cry like that also. “Nel waited, Waited for the oldest cry. A scream not for others, not in sympathy for a burnt child, or a dead father, but a deeply personal cry for one’s own pain. A loud strident: “Why me? ” She waited. (108) Nel ran away from her emotions because she wanted to deal with them the way most people deal with them, by crying.

She did not want to face her own personal emotions and her own private way of dealing with Jude’s departure and the loss of her best friend. Although Helene Wright was not a protagonist in the novel, she like Sula and Nel ran away from her problems and her past. Helene married a distant cousin of hers and moved out of the racist South to a more accepting town of Medallion, Ohio. She also ran from the South to forget the life she lived there. Being raised by her grandmother because her mother was a prostitute who was incapable of raising a child.

When Helene got notice to come to Louisiana because her grandmother was sick

“She did not want to go, but she could not ignore the silent plea of the woman who had rescued her. “(19).

Helene did not want to go because she would once again have face her past in the racist streets of Louisiana. For her trip Helene sewed herself an elegant dress hoping that it would ease some tension of the fact that she was black. It was almost as if Helene was trying to hide the fact that she was black. Although Sula, Nel, and Helene were all running from their past, it finally caught up to them.

Sula as much as she did not like her other, became like her by becoming the town whore and sleeping around with the married men of Medallion. Nel who throughout the novel tried to break the social conscience shell her mother put her in, wound up worrying what the town would think of her. Helene Wright went back to Louisiana and was forced to look her mother in the eyes. By running away from their past and their emotions they were forced to encounter them in much more difficult situations than if they were to have faced their feelings head on.

Learning from Mistakes

One day that I will probably never forget is the day that I had to play Jonathan Walker. He was easily the best table tennis player in our school and he had even been offered to play on the National Junior team. I remember the match as if it was yesterday. It was the time of year when competition smelled thick in the air and everyone was excited about Inter-House Sports. I was particularly involved in Tennis and Chess but I was really excited about Table Tennis as I had been named Vice-Captain. It was a grueling school day that had ended with an arduous 120-minute Chemistry practical.

The school bell that rang was like sweet music to my ears and the only thought that whisked through my mind was that of going home and sleeping in my big, comfortable bed. Just then, I remembered that the Table Tennis contest between Team C and Team D which also incidentally the finals, was at 4:00 p. m. I sluggishly changed into the clothes that I had in my locker and headed for the Games Room. I was very tired and hoped that I would have an easy opponent. However, this was not to be my lucky day.

The captain of our team, Jason, was sick so I had to play the opposing captain, namely, Jonathan. Panic and doom were those thoughts that dominated my mind when I was told this. However, I was always an optimist and tried to convince myself that I could defeat him (Yeah right! ). We approached the table and shook hands. In the few initial minutes, we warmed up, just casually rallying the ball around, but even then he was playing better tennis than I ever had. The coach then blew his whistle which concluded the warm up and signaled the commencement of the match.

At this point in time, I tried to swallow all the fear and anxiety that I had and to face my opponent valiantly and courageously. The match began and before I had fully realized, he had won the first game 21-05. He had won it with the utmost ease, returning even my best shots without any struggles or even remote difficulty. I tried not to feel discouraged, saying to myself that he still had two more games to win and that I would not give in without a fight. The second game was closer but I was still not able to break his rigid backspin defense that he used against all my good serves.

I realized here that the key here to me winning the game was to use my brain and not just my table-tennis skills. I started to experiment with a variety of serves until I found one that gave him great difficulty to return. It was a rather simple serve which one would not expect to find in a match of this caliber. I learned at that point in time that sometimes simple things could be better solutions to a problem than complex ones could ever be. I lost the second game 21-17 but was confident now that I had a good chance of defeating this adversary of mine.

Jonathan made a critical mistake in the third game that I believe worked to my advantage. He became over-confident and therefore careless, giving me easy points and hence ‘keeping’ me in the match. The game went to a tie-break. I was tired but somehow I found the strength to play on and won the game 28-26. With this win, I became even more confident and aggressive in my game-play which I believe intimidated Jonathan and though he tried to discourage me by using his fancy serves to get the crowd on his side, I won the fourth game 21-18.

Jonathan was furious that he had let me win two games and was determined to crush and humiliate me in front of the crowd. He used all his lethal shots against me and I was also becoming worn out. I tried to keep up with him but his better style of playing kept the crowd on his side. The score was now 19-17 in his favor. Here, there was a long rally, gruesomely long, where it was ‘loop’ vs. ‘loop’, ‘chop’ vs. ‘chop’ and ‘smash’ vs. ‘smash’. I realized that whoever won this point, would have psychologically won the match. The point lasted for about 35 seconds but seemed like years.

Beads of sweat were trickling down my forehead and I could taste the salty liquid in my mouth but I was determined to win. When his smash somehow found my racket and the ball returned to his side of the table hitting the edge on its way out, I realized that I had won the point. I won the next two points with relative ease and this brought me to match point. I was dizzy from extreme exhaustion, felt great apprehension about what I hoped to be the last point and could hear the crowd in the background cheering for me now. However, Jonathan was as energetic as ever and had not even had a mild sweat.

I did not let this discourage me, however, and I gathered all my remaining strength for the task at hand. I served the ball low and it harmlessly hit the net. I had just wasted perhaps the best opportunity for victory and now it was deuce. I was angry with my self for being o careless and made a fatal mistake. I focused on the point that I had lost instead of the points that were ahead of me and by loosing the next two points, I not only lost the game, but the match as well and perhaps the greatest victory of my table tennis career.

A sense of victory did not permeate the air around me and instead of congratulations, I received phrases like, “Better luck next time. ” I went home sad and depressed, focusing on my loss. However, at that split second, I realized that this is what had made me lose the match. I learned there that one cannot be perfect and that one cannot always win, but that one must learn to deal with his failures and to learn form them. After all, those who do not learn form history are doomed to repeat it. Sometimes, we gain more from defeat than from victory!

That day was a day that I will remember for the rest of my life, not because I won but because I lost. I learned some invaluable lessons and sincerely believe that I had gained more through defeat than I would have ever gained through victory. The knowledge that I gained there helped me in future situations and I believe that this particular experience has helped me in my process of maturing as a person. I finally learned what the phrase ‘learning from your mistakes’ really meant. Free College Admissions Essays: Learning from Mistakes College Admissions Essays

Learning from Mistakes One day that I will probably never forget is the day that I had to play Jonathan Walker. He was easily the best table tennis player in our school and he had even been offered to play on the National Junior team. I remember the match as if it was yesterday. It was the time of year when competition smelled thick in the air and everyone was excited about Inter-House Sports. I was particularly involved in Tennis and Chess but I was really excited about Table Tennis as I had been named Vice-Captain.

It was a grueling school day that had ended with an arduous 120-minute Chemistry practical. The school bell that rang was like sweet music to my ears and the only thought that whisked through my mind was that of going home and sleeping in my big, comfortable bed. Just then, I remembered that the Table Tennis contest between Team C and Team D which also incidentally the finals, was at 4:00 p. m. I sluggishly changed into the clothes that I had in my locker and headed for the Games Room. I was very tired and hoped that I would have an easy opponent. However, this was not to be my lucky day.

The captain of our team, Jason, was sick so I had to play the opposing captain, namely, Jonathan. Panic and doom were those thoughts that dominated my mind when I was told this. However, I was always an optimist and tried to convince myself that I could defeat him (Yeah right! ). We approached the table and shook hands. In the few initial minutes, we warmed up, just casually rallying the ball around, but even then he was playing better tennis than I ever had. The coach then blew his whistle which concluded the warm up and signaled the commencement of the match.

At this point in time, I tried to swallow all the fear and anxiety that I had and to face my opponent valiantly and courageously. The match began and before I had fully realized, he had won the first game 21-05. He had won it with the utmost ease, returning even my best shots without any struggles or even remote difficulty. I tried not to feel discouraged, saying to myself that he still had two more games to win and that I would not give in without a fight. The second game was closer but I was still not able to break his rigid backspin defense that he used against all my good serves.

I realized here that the key here to me winning the game was to use my brain and not just my table-tennis skills. I started to experiment with a variety of serves until I found one that gave him great difficulty to return. It was a rather simple serve which one would not expect to find in a match of this caliber. I learned at that point in time that sometimes simple things could be better solutions to a problem than complex ones could ever be. I lost the second game 21-17 but was confident now that I had a good chance of defeating this adversary of mine.

Jonathan made a critical mistake in the third game that I believe worked to my advantage. He became over-confident and therefore careless, giving me easy points and hence ‘keeping’ me in the match. The game went to a tie-break. I was tired but somehow I found the strength to play on and won the game 28-26. With this win, I became even more confident and aggressive in my game-play which I believe intimidated Jonathan and though he tried to discourage me by using his fancy serves to get the crowd on his side, I won the fourth game 21-18.

Jonathan was furious that he had let me win two games and was determined to crush and humiliate me in front of the crowd. He used all his lethal shots against me and I was also becoming worn out. I tried to keep up with him but his better style of playing kept the crowd on his side. The score was now 19-17 in his favor. Here, there was a long rally, gruesomely long, where it was ‘loop’ vs. ‘loop’, ‘chop’ vs. ‘chop’ and ‘smash’ vs. ‘smash’. I realized that whoever won this point, would have psychologically won the match. The point lasted for about 35 seconds but seemed like years.

Beads of sweat were trickling down my forehead and I could taste the salty liquid in my mouth but I was determined to win. When his smash somehow found my racket and the ball returned to his side of the table hitting the edge on its way out, I realized that I had won the point. I won the next two points with relative ease and this brought me to match point. I was dizzy from extreme exhaustion, felt great apprehension about what I hoped to be the last point and could hear the crowd in the background cheering for me now. However, Jonathan was as energetic as ever and had not even had a mild sweat.

I did not let this discourage me, however, and I gathered all my remaining strength for the task at hand. I served the ball low and it harmlessly hit the net. I had just wasted perhaps the best opportunity for victory and now it was deuce. I was angry with my self for being o careless and made a fatal mistake. I focused on the point that I had lost instead of the points that were ahead of me and by loosing the next two points, I not only lost the game, but the match as well and perhaps the greatest victory of my table tennis career.

A sense of victory did not permeate the air around me and instead of congratulations, I received phrases like, “Better luck next time. ” I went home sad and depressed, focusing on my loss. However, at that split second, I realized that this is what had made me lose the match. I learned there that one cannot be perfect and that one cannot always win, but that one must learn to deal with his failures and to learn form them. After all, those who do not learn form history are doomed to repeat it.

Sometimes, we gain more from defeat than from victory! That day was a day that I will remember for the rest of my life, not because I won but because I lost. I learned some invaluable lessons and sincerely believe that I had gained more through defeat than I would have ever gained through victory. The knowledge that I gained there helped me in future situations and I believe that this particular experience has helped me in my process of maturing as a person. I finally learned what the phrase ‘learning from your mistakes’ really meant.