Genie (feral child)

Genie was called the “wild child. ” This term was defined as a child who grows up in severe isolation. When Genie was one year of age, her father found out that Genie was going to be slightly slow. He felt this to be unacceptable and locked her in a room tied to a potty-chair for the fist ten years of her life. Her blind mother was seeking help for herself and Genie was with her. When the social worker saw the terrible condition Genie was in, she reported it immediately (class discussion). The father committed suicide after he found out the social workers discovered her.

Dr. James Kent was the hospital psychologist who worked with Genie. He was captivated by her intense way of observing her environment. He felt she had the capacity to learn attachment (video). Attachment is defined as an especially close affectional bond formed between living creatures (161). It was once thought that attachment was formed between an infant and caregiver because of the need to fulfill primary biological needs. However, Harry Harlow conducted a study using rhesus monkeys that proved this theory wrong. The monkeys were placed with two surrogate mothers; one made of wire, the other of cloth.

Both provided an equal amount of nursing and primary biological needs however, the monkeys spent as much time possible cuddling and hugging the cloth mother as opposed to the wired mother (161-162). This relates to humans because there is more to life than biological needs. An infant needs to continue to be social so he/she could develop and show attachments. Attachments were absent in Genie’s life because of the fact that her parents did not acknowledge her other than when it was time to eat.

However, when Genie was discovered, Dr. Kent was able to develop a relationship with Genie. He noticed her ability to become sad when he left her and happy when he was in her presence. Kent felt that Genie needed a surrogate parent. She needed to develop a relationship with one family so she could form an attachment and not have to be with a number of different people. She needed someone to be there as her “friend. ” No one felt attachment was important to the study of Genie except for Kent. When she was with Jean Butler, her first foster parent, she was happy and treated with a lot of care.

Jean wanted to adopt her, but the Children’s Hospital turned it down claiming she wanted Genie to make her famous. However, a few hours after Jean had to give her back, Dr. Rigler became her foster parent. Having Genie go from foster home to foster home was not healthy for Genie and had affected her progress greatly. Genie did not have the opportunity to form attachments because she was too busy getting pushed around from test to test and home to home. The “Genie team” felt that studying her progress in language was more important than her development of attachment.

All the doctors became more interested in gaining popularity from the studies while Kent and Jean Butler were only in it for the welfare of Genie. He was eventually kicked out of the study because of this (class discussion). When Genie was found, her language ability did not exist. It has been said that Genie was abused when she made any type of noise. She made sure she kept extremely quiet. Because of the tremendous amount of love and care Genie received, she was able to learn and speak words quickly. Genie became extremely interested in learning vocabulary.

When Genie was in the care of Susan Curtiss, a graduate student in linguistics, she wanted to learn a word for every thing in sight. Genie discovered the world. When Genie lived in the Rigler home, she was also treated with a lot of care. Marilyn Rigler taught her “bad time” to stomp her feet and slam doors so she could make a physical world connection to express herself. Genie experienced a developmental breakthrough because she was able to use words for past events including bad memories, sleeping on a potty-chair etc. Genie learned to read simple words, learned emotion words, shape words, and even colors (video).

Pedagogy vs Andragogy

In this assignment, I intend to consider the possible differences between the way in which children and adults learn. For instance, Piaget believed there to be schemes with four distinct stages of cognitive development. Between birth and the time a child is ready for school, he/she will pass through two of the four stages. These stages are the Sensorimotor Stage and the Preoperational Stage. Alternatively, it could be argued that our parents, teachers, and society as a whole condition us, to learn in a particular way, to take our place in society.

This, then in the words of Freire is: the banking concept of education, in which the scope of action allowed to the student extends only as far as receiving, filing and storing the deposits. (Freire, 1970) On the other hand, it is suggested, that adults learn from experience and reflection, therefore, it is the way in which people: understand, or experience, or conceptualise the world around them. (Ramsden, 1992) The focus for them then, is gaining knowledge or ability through the use of experience.

These are two extremes of the spectrum of learning and there are, according to theorists such as Piaget, several stages in-between, these are: sensory-motor, pre-operational, concrete-operational and formal-operational. I intend to look at these stages in detail in the main body of this assignment. Firstly, I intend to consider the meaning of learning and briefly look at the terms pedagogy and andragogy. Learning What is learning? Learning is a process by which we change our behaviour and understanding. We learn in many ways.

For instance, the cognitive orientation to learning, this could be said to be how children learn, (see child learning section). Secondly, there is the humanistic orientation to learning, this could be said to be a personal act to fulfil potential, through experience and reflection. Finally, we have the social/situational orientation to learning; this refers to the way we are pre-conditioned by society. Child learning: Pedagogy Firstly, we will look at the term pedagogy, pedagogy means the art and science of educating children and often is used as another word for teaching.

More correctly, pedagogy embraces teacher-focused education. In the pedagogic model, teachers assume responsibility for making decisions about what will be learned, how it will be learned, and when it will be learned. Therefore, teachers direct the learning. This then, according to Friere (70) is the banking method of education. This term will be considered in greater depth later in this assignment. Piaget believed schemes apply the basis for future learning, the earliest schemes setting the stage for constructing new and more sophisticated schemes.

Even in a newborn baby, we can find the simplest of schemes. For example, infants can suck from a bottle, but they quickly apply this to dummies and thumbs. Later in life, schemes move from a physical sensory-motor focus to more mental aspects. Toddlers can imagine blocks for stacking and put them to different uses, and eventually learn number schemes, which allow them to further organise their world in new ways.

Action applied to objects Primarily sensory and motor systemsMental processes for organising action Objects, numbers and spatial relationsMental processes for organising self-concept and awareness. IdentityOrganisation of the abstract Meanings of abstract laws and notions, such as physics, life and origins. Piaget believed there are four distinct stages of cognitive development. For a complete explanation of these stages, see the table on Piagets stages of cognitive development.

Stage Age Characteristics Sensorimotor 0-2 Years Your child will begin to make use of her ability to imitate, to think, and to memorise. She will begin to realise that objects don’t cease to exist when they are out-of-sight. Her actions will become more goal-oriented, rather than motivated through reflexes. Preoperational 2-7 Years Your childs language skills will begin to develop. She will be able to think in symbolic forms. Your child will be able to think mental operations through in one direction.

Your child will have difficulty seeing another persons point of view. Concrete Operational 7-11 Years Your child will be able to solve concrete, hands-on problems in logical fashion. She will be able to understand laws of conservation and will be able to classify and serrate. She will also understand reversibility. Formal Operational 11-15+ Years Your child will be able to solve abstract problems in a logical fashion. Her thinking will become more scientific and she will develop concerns about social issues and her identity.

From his observations, Piaget concluded that as children develop, they form cognitive structures, or schemata, that are a collection of ideas and concepts. These schemata allow a child to make sense of his/her environment and to progressively uncode how the world works. Therefore, a scheme is a mental structure that underlies a co-ordinated and systematic pattern of behaviours and thinking. It can be applied across similar objects or situations and develops over time. Hence, schemes are a means by which a child interacts with their environment, and are the driving force behind the childs cognitive development.

In addition, because the child, through interactions with the environment builds them, he/she is seen as an active agent of its own development. Although Piagets developmental stages of learning are considered a major contribution to teaching and learning, educators and curriculum developers do not always take these stages into account when designing curriculum and learning experiences for young children. If children are to learn and be literate, educators must choose appropriate content and experiences to match childrens cognitive capacities at different stages of their development.

Therefore, as I suggested in my introduction, the way in which children learn is possibly pre-conditioned by their teachers, to conform to societys norms and are therefore taught accordingly. Therefore: The goal of the education of children is not only to teach them, more or less intellectual knowledge, nor only to teach them virtues in the sense of honesty, courage, etc. The functions of any individual, within society, go far beyond the above mentioned: they must learn to work and to consume within the norms demanded by the means of production and the consumption patterns of their group and the society in which they live.

ADHD on Child Intelligence

The subject of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has undergone intense research in the past decade. Much of this is rooted in the fact that approximately 5% of children are affected with the disorder. Children with ADHD are identified as having increased behavioral difficulties because of excessive motor activities, poor self regulation and inattentiveness (Dulkan et al. , 1997). It has been found that as many as 30% of children inflicted with ADHD have learning disabilities with academic underachievement becoming a common correlate.

Since these children do not meet the expectations of society and their learning environment they are usually met with anger, punishment, and rejection. In turn these children develop a low-self esteem and low levels of motivation (Morgan, 1997). The etiology of ADHD is still a mystery to researchers. Within the field there are many correlates to biological (genetic) and social causes. The present paper seeks to explore current research through investigating the social and bio-genetic influence of ADHD on child intelligence. Testing and treatments of those with ADHD will also be discussed.

In accordance with Dulcan et al. (1997) ADD, ADD-H, ADHD, although not identical, will be considered interchangeably due to similarity. Characteristics and Testing of ADHD Intelligence Even though ADHD occurs in people of every intelligence, a majority of children affected experience academic problems. These children may have specific learning disabilities, such as dyslexia, or may have multiple learning problems (Beiderman et al. , 1993). In a study by MacLeod et al. (1996) comparing ADHD children with those unaffected, those with the disorder performed significantly worse than the others.

Learning disabilities can be said to arise from attentional difficulties in the classroom setting. Many of these difficulties occur in tasks where listening and time is a factor. Reading disabilities have also been found as a result of ADHD (Millberger et al. , 1991). Even though there is a higher prevalence of boys and those with low intelligence diagnosed, others with ADHD are impaired as well. Results have found that girls with this disorder face greater intellectual impairment, especially with picture vocabulary tasks, than boys or control girls (Seidman et al. 997).

There is also significant findings that the level of intelligence affects ADHD children in different ways. More specifically, those with both ADHD and normal to high intelligence are more prone to accidents, and have a smaller number of steady friends. Children who were identified with low intelligence and ADHD were found to have more behavioral and emotional problems in their adolescence.

Long term studies have found that the outcome of these children was continued academic problems and school failures (Aman et al. 996). However, there is suggestion ADHD children show greater artistic ability when writing or drawing slowly and precisely (Morgan, 1997). Testing the intelligence of ADHD involves a number of measures. Psychoeducational testing is used to assess intellectual ability and to search for learning disabilities. Tests such as the Wechler Intelligence Scale are used for intelligence testing, yet, much debate exists because of the need to change the test to meet the child’s attention deficits (Braswell, 1991).

A new intelligence test has been created by Naglieri (1997) called the Cognitive Assessment System to help diagnose and measure ADHD intelligence. This test is based on the premise that traditional tests don’t measure processes such as planning and attention, which is essential in testing and detecting ADHD students. There is inconsistent data for the use of computerized tests of attention and vigilance for this purpose (Dulcan et al, 1997). Social Mediators In many cases the effects of ADHD on childrens intelligence is influenced by social factors.

For instance studies show that symptoms become worse in situations which are unstructured, minimally supervised, boring, or require sustained attention or mental effort (Dulcan et al. , 1997). A study by Greene et al. (1996) purports that learning disabilities are lead by difficulties in social functioning. There is an inverse deviation in IQ scores when related with increased social disability scores. The same study looked at teacher perceptions, which showed that the less likable and more aggressive the child was, the lower the performance.

In researching verbal deficits in ADHD children, Faraone (1993) found many early intellectual problems linked with disruptive behavior such as hyperactivity and aggression. Data also shows that parental conflict, diminished family cohesion, and number of parents psychiatrically ill during the child’s lifetime adversely affected intelligence scores (Greene et al. , 1995). The researchers conclude that a significant correlation links IQ and social functioning. Another study by Biederman et al. (1995) shows similar results. Six factors were listed from the family environment which correlated with ADHD children’s cognitive deficits.

These include: severe marital discord, low social class, large family size, paternal criminal record, maternal mental disorder and foster home placement. This study asserts that children with ADHD have a more “malleable” IQ and are more adversely affected. The Greene et al. (1995) study, argues that family size is of no significance. Conversely, when investigating parental style and family influence on ADHD IQ levels, Naussbaum (1990) reports that little evidence exists. Poor school achievement for ADHD children is also associated with the need for immediate reinforcement.

These children have been shown to perform as well as others in situations where consistent, immediate and positive reinforcement is in place. Rule governed behavior is additionally difficult for these students. Even when they understand the rules, they do not follow through with correct behavior, therefore the right social environment is necessary. Theories of Vygotskys such as “self talk” and social guidance were listed as possible influences (Braswell, 1990). Bio-genetic Mediators Studies have found that lower intelligence in ADHD children is not socially mediated, but in fact rooted in genetics and human biology.

In testing the families of these children, it has been shown that siblings show increased learning disabilities and higher rates of ADHD (Faraone, 1993). Family patterns show that approximately 20 to 30 percent of children with ADHD have a parent or sibling with similar problems. There is the suggestion that these children inherit a type of nervous system which makes them prone to learning disabilities (Nussbaum, 1990). Data from family risk, adoption, and twin research are supportive of this assertion (Braswell, 1991).

However, recent research has indicated that ADHD and learning disabilities are transmitted independently in families and that their occurrence is due to non-random mating (Milberger et al. , 1995). In looking at probands of parents, Biederman et al. (1993) also conclude ADHD and learning disabilities are independent, and rather due to random mating, therefore not etiologically dependent. Other researchers claim the intellectual deficit lies in physiological anomalies. More specifically, imbalance in the neurotransmitter systems of the brain, dysfunction in the reticular activating system, or a lag in brain development (Nussbaum, 1990).

In determining if the neurocogonitive characteristic in individuals with resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) are similar to those with ADHD, researchers have found that children with RTH have like deficient achievement levels as those with ADHD (Stein et al. , 1995). There is also evidence that epinephrine (EPI) levels are lower in ADHD children. Urinary EPI levels are inversely related to fidgeting and aggression for second-grade ADHD students.

During intelligence testing, results have shown that these EPI levels during a cognitive challenge is at least 40% lower than controls (Hanna et al. 996). In a study which had subjects enhance beta activity and suppress theta in EEG activity during cognitive testing, those with ADHD improved in intelligence testing. Improvements were assumed to be a result of attention enhancement affected by EEG biofeedback (Linden et al. , 1996). Improving Learning Disabilities in ADHD Children Investigating effectiveness of treatments of ADHD learning disabilities allows additional information on the social and bio-genetic causes of academic underacheivement related with this disorder.

It has been stated that both instruction and contingency management is necessary to remedy academic deficits. Some techniques include; token economies, class rules, attention to positive behavior, as well as time out and response cost programs. Suggested to compliment and further increase probability of improvement is the alliance of parents, patient and school with the consideration of individual needs for the student and subsequently accommodating the environment to these needs.

Scales such as the Academic Performance Rating Scale or daily report cards (due to necessity of immediate reinforcement) are useful in monitoring performance (Dulcan, 1997). Cognitive-behavioral interventions have also been shown to have a positive effect in academic achievement. Interventions such as self-instructional training, problem-solving training, attribution retraining and stress reduction procedure work as well. However well they work, these methods of interventions have not been widely implemented in treatment of ADHD children (Braswell, 1991).

Many children are segregated into learning disability classes separate from other students. It is essential tutoring and resources be made for the child, however, many are able to learn at the same level with the other children. It has been found that many ADHD children are inappropriately placed in special education programs for the learning disabled. This is mainly because of social maladjustment, so extremes are not necessary. A percentage of ADHD students do exhibit normal intelligence but are socially inept. Therefore careful testing and diagnoses is imperative for the improvement of these youths.

And by failing to provide interventions for their behavior problems, they may become restricted in their opportunities for academic success (Lopez et al. , 1996). It is quite often found that the majority of ADHD children improve with psychopharmaceuticals, specifically stimulants such as Ritalin. Results reveal that medication related improvements include increased work output, improved accuracy and efficiency, and better learning acquisition (Dulkin et al. , 1997). Learning and achievements in arithmetic, reading, and fine motor skills improve as well. There is a 70 to 90 percent response rate to stimulants (Gillberg et al. 997).

These results are quite dramatic in short term, but long term efficacy is still questioned (Braswell, 1991). There is much consensus in literature that a combination of treatment types is best to improve academic deficits. The cornerstones of treatment are support, education of parents, appropriate school placement, and psychopharmacology (Braswell et al. , 1991; Dulcan et al. , 1997; Gillberg et al. , 1997; Nussbaum et al. , 1990). Conclusion In reviewing the current literature on how intelligence is affected by ADHD, it is easy to see that it is a subject yet to be firmly defined.

Intelligence tests have been erroneously utilized in diagnosing and categorizing ADHD children and new tests must be developed in accordance to their disorder (Naglieri, 1997). The current increase in ADHD children seems somewhat suspicious. Is it an increase in the children, or a decrease in the deserved attention they are receiving from parents? The stimulant Ritalin is being overly diagnosed as a quick fix. There must be much more behavioral and parental/school attention intervention in order for this epidemic of hyper children to be curbed. It would be interesting to see this generation of Ritalin children grow.

Intelligence and ADHD have been linked in twin and adoption studies to family, therefore these studies could still be testing quite different things. Other studies also have found links in hyperactivity and affect to genetic dispositions. In testing, it is hard to determine if it is genetic or environmental due to the fact that many with ADHD can also be without learning disorders (Beiderman et al. , 1993). Therefore, if we are to label this as a disease a bio-social etiological approach is necessary in diagnosis, treatment and intelligence assessment.

Childhood Enemies

Undoubtedly, adolescence is one of lifefs most challenging and complex transitions in life. A combination of rapid physical, cognitive, and psychosocial growth represents a period of significant change. These changes bridge the transition from childhood to adulthood. Teenagers today live in a media-saturated society and they deal with a bouquet of formidable issues like sex, drugs, divorce, and gun violence. These conditions can become significant factors in an emerging personality (Doherty, 1997). How do these circumstances influence young people who are searching for the roles and values that will guide them all their lives?

The primary goal of this paper is to reveal the influences of technology and social environments experienced during early to middle adolescence that contribute to shaping adult personality. Research Section By the end of the high school years, young people have developed a unique mixture of characteristics that appear to have a profound influence on their adult personality (Doherty, 1997). How these life shaping individual characteristics come about, however, remains a central focus of developmental interest.

Certainly, an individualfs genetic endowment plays a significant role in personality development, but these genetic influences are not 100% determinant of adult personality traits (Doherty, 1997). A combination of rapid physical changes and early exposure to sexual and violent images is shrinking the time between childhood and adolescence. It is widely accepted that a complex and subtle interplay between the growing adolescentfs family, community, and social environments and the dispositional characteristics an adolescent brings to these environments, can be consequential to the emerging adult personality (Doherty, 1997).

However, it should be noted that developing technologies, such as the Internet and video games are growing in their influence on emerging adult personalities too. g Over a very short period of time, there has been a dramatic truncation of childhood,h says Mary Pipher, gThroughout history, this was always a time when children were free of the burdens and responsibilities of sexuality. Parents and society felt responsible to shelter children and provided close supervision and protective love.

The truncation of childhood can be due in part to the overwhelming influence that mass media has on distorting reality. While acknowledging the step marking the passage of toddler into adolescence is triggered partially by physical changes, Pipher says two sociological changes, gthe rapid entry of mothers of young children into the work place and the large number of broken families have catapulted elementary-schoolaged children out of childhood and into adolescence. h gChild care was once home-based; now children are placed in institutionalized care while still infants,h she says.

When children are deemed old enough, they are often left alone and told to play their video game or watch the television. gAlso, many children of single parents are exposed to dating or cohabiting parents. This close view of inappropriate supervision and intimacy erodes childhoodfs innocence. h (Pipher, 1999). Even time itself — or the lack of it — has proved to be an enemy of childhood, as children return to empty homes and family dinners fall victim to overscheduling.

Sociologist Arlie Hochschild points out how, for many people, home and office have changed places. Home has become a frantic exercise in gbeat the clock,h with family members having fifteen minutes to eat before rushing off to a soccer game, and trying to bond in the half hour before bed so they donft waste time. To get away from the hustle of family life Hochschild suggests that parents welcome the refuge in the workplace, where they can socialize and relax.

She writes, gIn this new model of family-and-work life, a tired parent flees a world of unresolved quarrels and unwashed laundry for the reliable orderliness, harmony, and managed cheer of work. h But even the most attentive parents cannot slow his or her childfs physical maturity. Parents, educators and physicians long have observed that girls are reaching puberty earlier than ever. Marcia Herman-Gidden, a physician and associate professor of public health at the University of North Carolina, last year confirmed that girls are reaching puberty as young as the age of eight.

In a study of 17,000 girls seen by pediatricians during a fourteen-month period, she reported that white girls started puberty (meaning that they developed breast buds and pubic hair) at an average age of 9 years, 9 months, and black girls at 8 years, 6 months. The reason for the difference between races is unclear, although some scientists have speculated that many black hair products contain estrogen. The on-set of menarche, the time of a girlfs first menstrual cycle has remained unchanged at 12. 5 since the 1950fs, but better nutrition and health care led to a precipitous five-year drop in the 100 years previous to that (Tanner, 1991).

Child Labor in Victorian England

The report described the children as Chained, belted, harnessed like dogsblack, saturated with wet, and more than half-naked, crawling upon their hands and knees, and dragging their heavy loads behind them (Yancey 34). This quote from Ivor Brown probably best describes the strenuous work preformed by a child laborer during the Victorian Era. Child laborers played an important part in developing the countrys economy. Children, one of the main sources of labor in Victorian England, endured less than adequate living and working conditions.

During the Victorian Period children were good sources of labor. Beginning work as young as six or seven employers saw many benefits to hiring children (Yancey 33). Adolescents were a significant part of the labor force because they could be paid lower wages (Cody). Also their naturally small and nimble hands and bodies were easily maneuverable. Employers most often hired children over adults because kids were powerless and would not revolt (Yancey 33). Economic conditions forced poor children into working, sometimes as hard and long as their parents (Cody).

Essential to the economy, Parliament supported child labor saying a child was more useful to his family working (Altick 249). Child laborers led very hard and grossly disgusting lives of filth. Generally the living quarters of laborers were poorly built, rotting, even falling down, with little ventilation. There was no indoor plumbing causing people to throw human waste on unpaved streets. Houses were often crowded and rented by the room or even by the corner. Dirty floors and leaky roofs did not stop people from living in over crowded basements and attics (McMurtry 159).

The majority of the day of young workers was spent without their family. The factory system split up families for as much as fourteen hours. The time they did have together was either spent eating or sleeping. Young daughters developed no housewife skills because they were working and their working mother was not there to care for and teach them. The role or father was decreased since he was not the sole supporter of the family (Harrison 74). The life of a child laborer was much like this; thus they learned little about life (Harrison 74).

Despite its major importance education played a very small role in the lives of children. In the Victorian Era there was a refined belief that education was not needed (Altick 249). Few working kids had more then two or three years of schooling (Altick 250). In 1840 only twenty percent of the youth population had any schooling at all (Cody). Then in 1870 the Education Act was passed stating that all children, ages five through ten, must attend school. Yet, it was not until 1881before the act became nation wide (Child Labor).

Many children tried to avoid school mainly because of the hot, noisy, odorous, and unsanitary classroom environment. School buildings were inadequate along with schoolteachers. Most of the teachers were not properly trained and were usually failures in life. Children often picked work over school due to the fact that working earned them money while school earned them nothing (Altick 250). There were many different indoor jobs a child laborer could have during the Victorian Period. Two of the most commonly heard of jobs included servants and sweatshop workers.

Boys and girls became household servants around ten or twelve. They would help around the house doing all sorts of different activities and odd jobs. Children were required to follow many rules around the family since they were of the lower class. Younger servants could not even be seen, heard, or around the family or their friends (McMurtry 169). Sweatshops were very small makeshift factories, usually ran by poor immigrants. The daily conditions of the shops were dirty, cramped, and unventilated. Fire was a serious threat because escape routes were usually narrow stairs that were hard to climb.

Though most shops were illegal, Parliament did not stop them since the economys stability relied on their operation (Yancey 28). Two of the most popular jobs during the era involved outdoor work; they were chimney sweeping and mining. One of the most brutal forms of child labor was chimney sweeping. Many young boys would apprentice with masters to be trained adequately. They learned how to climb inside chimneys to clean off the soot and creosote. However, there were many dangers like burns, falls, and suffocation.

Mining quickly turned into the most dangerous of child occupations (Yancey 33). People who worked in mines faced daily threats of cave-ins and explosions (Yancey 27). Girls and boys as young as five worked twelve to sixteen hours a day. Children were sent down to haul up loads of coal from crammed passages (Yancey 33). Often accidents would occur when children lost hold of mine carts causing them to run over them (Yancey 34). In 1833 a law was passed limiting the amount of hours kids could work in textile factories, and in 1842 the law was extended to child in mines.

Finally in 1847 Parliament outlawed females and boys under ten from working in mines (Child Labor). The environment a child worked in during this time period was, at the least very dangerous. Textile mills were crowded and poorly ventilated causing such diseases as fossy jaw, black lung, and other fatal lung diseases. In the factories candles were used for lighting. These easy to knock over light sources were a huge fire hazard (McMurtry 155). Poorly heated, dim factories full of unskilled workers put many innocent children in danger.

The lack of knowledge about machinery caused workers to be crushed, mangled, or beaten to death in belts. Often polluted and unsanitary buildings caused much death and illness (Yancey 27). During the Victorian Era children were often mistreated and subjected to the poorest of working and living conditions. This time period was characterized by the use of children to help develop the economy. Child laborers received less than the essentials needed at home, school, and at work. The life of a young worker was in essence a life of a slave.

The child with ADHD

Parenting is something that no-one person is an expert and that no expert can tell you how to do it. If a persons child is an absolute angel, does nothing wrong, and gets straight As; parenting still is difficult. When a child has a disorder such as ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactive disorder), the child needs much more from the parent than most parents bargain for. Parenting roles for a child with ADHD change greatly; from the time that a parent needs to spend helping the child tie their shoe, or taking the child out for a run in the park.

ADHD is not a very easy concept to define, that being because there is no medical proof that the disorder exists. There is no test or questionnaire a child can take to prove that he/she is suffering from this disorder. There are no objective diagnostic criteria for ADHD no physical symptoms, no neurobiological signs, and no blood test. Despite claims to the contrary, there are no brain scans findings and no biochemical imbalances. No physical test can be done to verify that a child has ADHD(Breggin 144). A child taking drugs that suffers from ADHD has many side affects that come along with it.

Side affects that a parents needs to be aware of, and educated about so they can be taken care of the right way. Over the past 10-20 years, the use of Ritalin in this country has jumped to extreme levels. It is odd to think that maybe it is not advancements in testing for this disorder, or a question of being able to solve a problem that cannot be solved. It is that parents dont have the time or the effort to spend with their children. The age is approaching when women will be as independent financially as men are. It has forever been accustomed for women to stay at home and care for the children of a family.

Now there are women who want to establish their careers, but it is impossible for them to do that with a child to take care of. A parent with an ADHD child must altar their normal way of parenting, even if the parent had previous kids that were normal. A question that is frequently asked and is yet, almost impossible to answer is, what is ADHD? Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neuropsychological impairment experienced by some 2 million children-3 to 5% of the school-age population. (Seagal 263) The symptoms that exist with ADHD vary from day to day and from situation to situation.

Some symptoms are as simple as not being able to pay attention in class, or excessive daydreaming. Some of the drugs that a child takes with ADHD are Ritalin, Adderall, Dexidrine, and Cylert. All of these drugs have major side effects such as the Zombie effect, depression, tics, rebound-effect, and suppressed hunger. Ritalin is the most common of drug used among ADHD children. There is no real in depth research showing what long-term affects this drug has on children except that it is highly addictive and like most medication, can cause problems with the liver.

Ritalin is most intended for an overactive child who has a hard time concentrating on one thing at a time. The use of stimulant medication has been remarkably effective in ameliorating the poor attention, social behavior, and other troublesome symptomatology of ADHD children. (Vaughan 145) This means that the drug slows down the childs thinking so that the child can concentrate on a single thing. It is hard to imagine what it is like to live with ADHD, but it is harder to imagine what it is like being on stimulants with ADHD.

It is difficult for a parent to deal with a child that suffers from ADHD. Most parents want to blame themselves for their childs problem. Some have a hard time finding patients to work with their child. ADHD is a complex disorder. It has an impact on the child at home, at school, and in the community. (Rubin 44) Most children when they first hear a diagnosis would probably feel very confused, or maybe feel as if they are being punished. It is the parents job to help the child understand that it is something that can be over come and can be helped with time and effort.

It is essential that medical providers, physicians, children, and their parents discuss the goals of the treatment and the main issues or symptoms it targets. (Rubin 48) This is important because it isnt as simple as giving a child the stimulants and then all of the problems go away and everything is fine. The stimulants are there to help control the childs action and hyperactive nature, so the parent or teacher can target their concentration. Parents need to know that their roles as the care giver becomes more important with a child that has ADHD.

ADHD is a complex, multi-determined disorder that can impact almost every aspect of a childs life. Therefore, treatment planning should include parents, teachers, school nurses, and all appopriate medical and mental health providers. Thoughtful use of medications in children have been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of ADHD. Partnerships in the care of ADHD require consistent communication among providers and the child and his or her family. (Rubin 51) It is very strange to think that just over the past 10-20 years that there have been more children born with ADHD than in years before that.

Many factors could contribute to the over-use or over diagnosis of stimulants in America today. Many things have changed or are changing in our society. One major change would be womens roles in society. That arent as they were 20 years ago. Years ago women did not have careers and did not have a burden to make money. Women today have full time jobs, and a career is the most things important to them. Not saying that women today are not as good as mothers 20 years ago; but the American women has changed greatly.

Instead of a child coming home from school and being able to go to a park and play, they have to go to a after school daycare center where they sit inside and do homework. Day Cares have become an easy babysitter for parents who both have full time jobs. Kids as young as 3 years old stay at day care from 6 oclock in the morning until 6 oclock at night. Where in this childs life do they get to go outside and really run off all of that energy that all little kids have inside of them. It is an age of quick fixes, and giving a child Ritalin is a quick fix.

As a society, we expect children to sit for 7 hours in a classroom environment with little exercise and pay attention the entire time. I am sure that most children day dream a lot during class, does that mean that they need a mind altering drug to make them pay attention all the time. Parenting today has become parenting on the fly. Parents today lack a major involvement in their childs lives. Parents also need to understand that after the diagnosis the problem is not fixed. Parents need to spend time with the child and help them understand what the drug is helping them control.

However, they are told that there are ways to learn how to deal with the impairment and that medications may help. It is important that the child understand that the medication alone will not make him or her behave or get good grades. However, it can help control impulses so the child can make better choices about their behavior. That is the overall goal of treatment for a child with ADHD. It is a horrible thing to say or think but it is apparent is some parts of our society children have become a second priority. In a way, Ritalin for children is like fast food.

It is quick and easy and it solves the problem quickly. Thinking about what the fast food is doing for your health, much as thinking about what Ritalin is doing for your child, it is rarely thought about. Yet, eating fast food quick fixes your hunger, just like Ritalin quick fixes your childs problems at school. ADHD is a very difficult and confusing disorder to deal with when it comes to your children. It is hard to establish is looking out a window or active behavior is just natural for your child, or if your child has a problem. Many drugs can help a child settle down and concentrate better.

These drugs should be used for a temporary purpose only; where the goal is to be able to function properly without taking them. Parents and children all have a difficult time dealing with ADHD. It takes time and a lot of hard work between the child and the parents. While parenting is the hardest job of them all, theres no hope for our children unless parents retake responsibility from the experts and determine for themselves to take the most sensible, effective, and loving approach to their children. We may seek professional guidance but we must never relinquish parental intuition, common sense, or love.

Image of Child Heros

The image of a child hero or trickster is seen in many cultures. This kind of role can tell a lot about how a culture acts and reacts to things. The idea of the child hero in stories written and told before the birth of Christ probably reflect the peoples beliefs that the child is the future, and therefore carries some sort of power or gift. For stories that were written after the birth of Christ, the child could reflect the idea stated above, or it could also be the peoples belief in an infant savior, that a child will make everything right again.

Whether the story comes from before Christ or after, the one uniform aspect about these stories is that they are present in every culture, all around the world. The image of the trickster is also very prevalent in the different cultures. It is seen in many different fables and moral-based stories. You cannot go against the Philistine, you are but a youth, and he has long been a man of war(Metzger 145). This is what King Saul of Israel said to David when he proposed that he fight the Philistine warrior Goliath.

The story of David and Goliath is quite possibly one of the oldest child hero stories. It was part of the Bible, in the Old Testament. In this story a young man named David proposes to the king of Israel that he fight and attempt to kill Goliath, the giant that had been plaguing Israel. The king agrees, however hesitantly, and David goes on to slay the beast using just a slingshot. While this story is not one that was made up, it still shows us that the ancient Hebrews believed in the fact that a child, or in this case teen, has the will and motivation to do the impossible.

Staying on the eastern side of the world, we will next see examples of Russian stories. In the former Soviet Union, a lot of the time stories, books and other types of art were hard to come by. In a broader sense, though, recent years have witnessed genuine cultural enrichment, as Gorbachevs glasnost policy permitted the works of previously forbidden writers, artists, and cinematographers to become accessible(Grolier Multimedia). After the public was able to get at the mass of stories that had been kept from them, there was even more of an increase of books and other forms of art.

The Russian people now had much more of an incentive to write. In a certain village, not near, not far, ot high, not low, there lived an old couple with one little son named Ivashko (Wyndham 32). This is the line that begins the story of Ivashko and the Witch. This story takes place in a small village in Russia, and the main character is a small boy named Ivashko. Ivashko was a very independent boy who wanted to go of on his own and go fishing. He begged and pleaded with his parents, and finally they gave in.

His father built him a canoe and off he went. Ivashko was doing well while he was fishing, but and one point was lured to shore by an evil witch. The witch grabbed him and took him to her house deep in the woods. She showed him to her daughter and they decided that they would eat him. At this point the witch left to get some of her friends. Ivashko seized this opportunity, and when the witches daughter went to sit down on a shovel in order to demonstrate to Ivashko how to do it, he through her into the fire.

He then left and ran up a tree. The witch found him and started gnawing at the tree. Luckily for Ivashko, a flock of geese was flying overhead and one flew down to sweep him up. Just as he left the tree fell over on the witch and all her evil friends, crushing them. Ivashko lived happily ever after. This shows that in the Russian culture there is a presence of the child hero, and even shows the image of the trickster in the way Ivashko tricked the witchs’ daughter into showing him how to sit on a shovel.

Ivashko is a hero in this story not only because he killed the witch, but because he rid the lake and the woods of the evil that kept most people from going there. Although this isn’t one of the newly released works in Russia, I think that the children’s stories, sometimes being all that the Russian people had to read that wasn’t corrupted by the government, made a reat contribution to the development of the Russian culture and also had a great impact on many people. The image of the trickster is also very prevalent in different cultures.

In the African culture the trickster comes to the forefront in many different folk tales and fables. He is usually used to teach a lesson or to show a moral. In most cases the trickster ends up getting the short end of the stick, but in the story I’m going to relate to you, Sungura and the Leopard, the trickster comes out on top. In the African jungle there lived a leopard. One day it started to rain, nd fearing that he may lose his spots, the leopard decided to build a house. A short distance away, a rabbit (Sungura) had the same idea.

Both chose the same spot to build a house. They both then started to go and gather wood. Each was adding to the same pile, but neither one knew that the other was also going to build there. They just thought that their ancestors had put the extra wood there. Leopard then went to get mud for the roof, and came back to find the house already framed. He attributed this to his ancestors and went on to finish the house. The two slept in the house that night not knowing that they were together. In the morning they found each other and agreed to build a small wall and share the house.

After a while, Rabbit started a family. The noise got too annoying for Leopard, so he decided that he would kill them. Rabbit overheard and decided that it was time to play a trick on Leopard. He started having his kids cry for elephant meat. Leopard overheard this and got scared. He figured if he can kill an elephant then he can kill me. So he left. He then saw a baboon, and was called foolish for believing the rabbit. Then he went back. He then overheard Rabbit say I can’t believe that leopard listened to the baboon! What a fool! Knuston 19). Rabbit then had his children cry for Leopard meat, and when Leopard heard Rabbit say that he would go out and hunt some, he left for good. Rabbit now had the house all to himself. This is a tale that came out of the Ashanti tribe, and the point of it was to say that even if you are small, if you use your brain then you can prevail. Ashanti artistic creations include a wealth of myths and tales… (Miller 2). Tales such as this one are seen throughout the African tribes, and he trickster is usually the one who prevails.

The Ashanti, as well as the other tribal Africans, believed that it was more important to use ones mind and to be able to think quick than to just rely on brute strength all of the time. Using the image of the trickster also served as an educational tool. It displayed to the young children that they can get out of a conflict without fighting. It also taught them that pride was bad, because Leopard only wanted the house so that he wouldn’t lose his spots, and Rabbit, the winner, only wanted the house so he could raise a family.

European culture also has its fair share of trickster tales in Aesops Fables. In these stories, which were said to have been written by a Greek man named Aesop some time in the sixth century BC, there is always a moral for an ending. While Aesops Fables is more of a collection of stories from different, unknown authors, Aesop gets the credit for it. The most commonly used trickster in the fables is the wolf. He is shown to be very sneaky and mean, but also very smart. In many of the tales he is successful as the trickster, and his main objective is usually to eat ome sort of defenseless animal.

One example of the wolf as a trickster is the story of the Wolf and the Crane. In this story, the wolf has a bone stuck in his throat and asks a crane to use its long neck to pull it out. The wolf offers a reward, so the crane reluctantly accepts. After the bone is out the crane asks for her reward, and gets this reply, You can go about boasting that you once put your head into a Wolf’s mouth and didn’t get it bitten off. What more do you want? (Santore 3). this showed the cunningness of the wolf whereas he got the service that he eeded for nothing in return.

One fable where the trickster didn’t come out on top was in the fable entitled The donkey in the Lion’s Skin. In this case the trickster was a donkey. He found a lion skin, dressed himself in it, and then went around scaring friends. When he neighed in happiness at his triumph, the fox heard him, and exposed him for what he was. Here the fable taught the moral that if one is to be a trickster, then make sure you are very careful about it. Probably the most famous tricksters and child heroes ever to be introduced to the world were Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn.

These two boys, created by Mark Twain, spent their entire lives tricking people for different reasons and also becoming heroes by getting themselves into many interesting adventures. In the book The Adventures of Tom Sawyer the two boys end up capturing a criminal and bringing him to justice before the whole town. Another example of Tom Sawyer’s heroics was when he and a girl were trapped in a cave, and when she passed out from exhaustion he took it upon himself to get her water and keep her alive. In the end they were rescued from the cave and Tom was given accolades as a hero.

Baby boomers

Fifty five million Americans are age fifty five and older, according to the United States Census Bureau, of that number, thirty five million are age sixty five and older. By the year 2030, the sixty five and older population will double to seventy million, and the fastest growing segment of the older population is age eighty five and older. The baby boomer generation will soon reach the retirement age, and expected to redefine old age.

Just as they have redefine every stage of their lives because boomers will be the largest generation of elderly, they will impact everything from housing to health care as the market and society caters to their wealth, longevity, and interest in new technology (Dytchweld K. 1999). The baby boomer generations also the first to have the luxury to examine personal issues and raise questions concerning work, health care, technology, politics, and social and moral issues (USA Today Magazine, November 19, 1999).

No other generation reflects the complex world we live in today. The baby boomers have left their indelible mark on Americas social landscape. The baby boomers created pop culture and a new form of political activism (Breaux J. November 1999). Education, medical advances, and technology afforded more freedom and independence. Soon America will look different; the average age of the population will go up to fifty-five. The baby boomers will have the benefits and face the challenges of longevity.

Can America afford the social, medical, and political issues the aging baby boomers demand? Will our transportation system ensure more old drivers have safe alternatives? How will our national housing policy adapt to the senior boom? How about the pension and financial plans that allow older Americans to move in and out of retirement (Breaux, J. November 1999). The size and distinct characters of the baby boomers will not only create a sense of urgency to current issues, but also create a whole new set of aging issues.

Among the many cultural contributions of the baby boomers along with the free love, the drug scenes and Grateful Dead ties, was the concept of generation gap (Veith G. ). In every other culture and throughout history, children were socialized to be adults. When children grew up they took their parents places, roles and their values. There was no separate subculture, no music and fashion to set off the younger generation from their parents.

Children were dressed, for the most part, like little adults, but in the mid twentieth century, American culture became stratified along generational lines (Veith G. The generation prior to the baby boomers, after World War II, had extra ordinary prosperity and better living through technology, may have spoiled their children a little. The baby boomer generation never concentrated on learning their parents skills and disciplines, but worked hard on entertaining themselves. This process was helped along with not only television, but perhaps even more importantly radios and record players, which made possible the mass production and nationwide distribution of music (Veith G. )

The baby boom generation has always been in the spotlight reshaping every American institution. As children, the public school systems were reinvented to meet their needs. As young adults, music and pop culture was drastically changed by their participation. As they move towards old age, they will also redefine and revolutionize the American aging experience. Baby boomers have reaped the benefits of change. They grew up with more education and high expectations, technology and medical research have blossomed throughout their lives and they have come to expect lifestyle improvements in every turn.

With their political clout, they will expect the government, corporate America, the research community and the health care sector to meet their growing needs. Government policies should encourage private sector investments in products and services to help the needs of the aging baby boomers and reflect the diversity in lifestyle, race and income of the future senior citizens. For the last few decades the influential baby boomer segment of the population dominated the American culture virtually in any aspect.

Television programming may not specifically target baby boomers, but since baby boomers fit into the prime eighteen to forty nine year old or twenty five to fifty four year old demographics that are preferred by most advertisers, the baby boomers are, by default, the biggest part of many network audiences (Walther C. 1998). Because the baby boomers capture the lions share of attention from programmers and advertisers, programming might change to attract the demographics.

We are now seeing a change on todays cable programming, we now see more cable network stations that cater to travel, such as the Travel Network, educational programs like the ones shown in the Discovery Channel, technology and information systems like Tech TV and many more. The biggest network that is boosting high following from baby boomers is the Home and Garden TV (HGTV), which profiles people who have undertaken midlife career or lifestyle changes; and vacation living, a program targeting the more affluent and older baby boomer segment considering extended vacations (Walther C. 98).

Networks will also use on air talents with a little gray hair, use older music that is familiar to the boomers, or try to reach or alter programs for boomers to fir their lifestyle (Walther C. 1998). Music videos are even changing nowadays, Music Television (MTV) still caters to younger viewers, but Video hits One (VH1) has change their focus. Rather than focus on a general audience, they are specifically targeting baby boomers with their shows. They are featuring artists that the baby boomers listened to while growing up.

Artists like the Beatles and the Beach Boys just to name a few. The supermarket of the future will be redesigned; they will carry more varieties of foods and products that will be geared towards the needs of the baby boomer segment. Prepared take-out food, more organic fruits and vegetables, specially prepared and raised meat products are some of the varieties that we can expect to be a main staple on future grocery store. Services such as banking and laundry services will also be provided to consumers to maximize the consumers shopping experience.

The baby boomers will influence how our food will be manufactured, the concern on health and moral values will force the food manufacturers to reshape the way they prepare and select their ingredients (Saccomano A. 1999). They have to offer foods that will benefit health or fortified products that contain vitamins and nutrients. Since the boomers will be the leading edge of expectation and preference, with their demands on quality and convenience, will also benefit all consumers, young and old. One impact that the boomers might have on the next generation is family values.

Because the boomers have singularly devoted to their personal needs and wants one consequence on that attitude of self-centeredness is the high divorce rate of baby boomers (Monaldo, F. 2000). The high divorce rates of the baby boomer generation have deprived their children parental guidance and love. Unfortunately payback maybe looming. A new study led by Lilliana Pezzin , a Professor of medicine at John Hopkins University, documented what common sense would have predicted. Children learn from their parents, even the unintended ones (Monaldo F. 2000).

The children of divorced parents offer far less care for their aging parents than other children whose parents stayed together; they also receive far less financial help from their children. A large number of baby boomers may find themselves in a lonely old age cared for by institutions and uncomforted familial ties. The generation that thought mostly of themselves may find themselves living on their own with out any family support (Monaldo F. 2000) Americans longer life span mean that many will continue to invest, and they will be spending more money during their retirement years.

From age sixty-five to seventy five, they will be spending as much money as usual (Fahey M. 2001). From age seventy-five to eighty five to eighty five they will be slowing down and may want to start helping their children and grandchildren. After age eighty-five they will be spending more of their money for medicinal purposes. Investment brokerages, banking institution and financial services will benefit from the infusion of savings and financial planning that they will be involved in. The growing numbers of baby boomers with medical situations are on the rise.

In the article, A Baby Boomer Boom (Kirchheimer, B. 2001) Trent Healthcare Corporation (A For Profit Hospital), during the six month period which ended November 30, 2000, say that volume at the hospital rose twelve percent for people aged fifty one to sixty years old. They expect that the usage of the hospitals by the elderly will increase in even greater numbers in the years to come. With this knowledge they plan to focus on treating the types of medical problems they are most likely to experience: cardiology, gynecology, orthopedics, oncology and neurology.

Other fields of healthcare will be in optometry and audiology. As people grow older, eyesight and hearing are usually the two senses that will deteriorate before the body gives way. Pharmaceuticals, and drug store chains will be affected greatly by the emergence of the baby boomer into the retirement age. The youth obsessed baby boomers will want to maintain a youthful appearance, long life cycles of anti-aging creams, hair color treatments, nutritional supplements, and a host of future products that can promise to make people look and feel younger.

Retirement communities will be growing tremendously, for those who are physically and mentally independent. There are more people now that are into physical fitness these days, as a result future seniors will be more healthy and capable on caring and providing for themselves. They will have future needs for recreational activities, so businesses that cater to different types of physical activities and leisure for the aging will do very well. There is a downside to this.

After age sixty-six, the likelihood of a person developing Alzheimers Disease doubles about every five years (Dytchwald, K. Dec. 18. 2000). Unless a cure is found in our lifetime, it is estimated that the disease will strike fourteen million baby boomers by the middle of this century, up from four million today. Dytchwald also notes that the duration of the disease, which currently averages eighth to ten years before death will continue to be prolonged to fifteen to twenty more years or more.

One of the first support groups businesses will be interested in are the children of the retiring people. Most retirees will not want to or can not afford to live in a retirement home, especially with the increase of elderly abuse in retirement homes that are always featured on the news media. The children of retirees will not want to place their loved ones in such facilities, therefore businesses should look for ways to help or change the situations to make the children of the aging population to feel more at ease on placing their loved ones in retirement facilities.

In home care for those who are disabled and living with their loved ones, will be something that the family will need so that their normal life activities, will not be affected with the burden of an incapable elderly staying in their home. The need for more nurses and doctors for in-home and hospital care will be greatly in demand, for there will be many more people in the future because of the influx of the aging boomers, that will need specialists to care for them.

There will also be needs for more health care facilities such as nursing homes, hospitals and retirement homes for those who are sick and do not have the support of their families to care for them. Healthcare insurance is another business that will profit greatly as the boomers enter the retirement stage of their lives. There will be a great demand for medicines, most, of which will far exceed the income of the elderly. People will be looking for the best and cheapest way of filling prescriptions, making them shop smarter for insurance carriers causing these companies to compete and give better assistance to the consumers.

Private transportation companies are another business segment that will be positively influenced by the need of the elderly for mobility. We have seen recent reports on TV on the problems of the elderly driving and controlling their vehicles. At a certain age people lose their ability to operate motor vehicles, and people are still unsure of public transportation especially places like Southern California where people are dependent on driving around by themselves. Once drivers license are taken away from the elderly do not mean that they will lock themselves up into isolation.

There will be a great need for alternative transportation for the ones that need mobility and do not want to be dependent on other people to get them to places that they need to go, like medical facilities, recreational facilities and grocery stores. Gays and lesbian baby boomers are another group that specialized businesses will cater to. The demand for housing communities, social organization facilities and lots more will be rising because the gay and lesbian communities will intend to invent their own way of retirement, one that celebrates being part of a like-minded community (Rosenberg, D. Jan. 15, 2001)

One change that the baby boomer population has changed is the way they do and deal with politics. The baby boomers will be very influential in the political arena, changes that they have demanded are more directed to problems of the population as a whole. The baby boomers have brought together all races to the bargaining table. Realizing the past generations mismanagement and prejudicial incompetence, the baby boomers are now exercising their own judgement to mend the thinking and past practices of the pervious generation in politics.

Baby boomers no longer believe in follow the leader, they will question whatever they think is wrong or they will need explanations and justifications on issues that will affect them. The boomer generation has enacted laws regarding discrimination in the workforce, childcare and safety laws, environmental issues, just to mention a few. Baby boomers know that in order to have a strong and united country, we must learn to change our thinking, attitudes and behavior on diversity.

This attitude of the baby boomers will be an example for the generations to come, who in turn can make any type of prejudice a thing of the past. To truly show the attitudes and positions of the baby boomer generation, an article from the Suburban Boomers Take on City Hall from Macomb Township to Westland (Detroit News Oct. 10, 2000) showed their activism in politics. They are voicing out their opinions and feeling to the city hall politicians about their discontent on the way things are enacted on their city.

The article also claims that the baby boomers have been awakened and are desperate for change on issues like environment and government, it says that the baby boomers are now in the drivers seat and they will make changes according to their needs. (Celente G. ). Baby boomers are taking control of their lives. They will be changing politics for the good of everyone else. Changes in world trade, globalization, social security, Medicare and human rights will be enacted as they take control of the voting majority.

The baby boomer generation is getting old and wiser, changes in policies toward health care and other needed reforms will be expected to conform to their retirement needs. They grew up independent and would like to stay that way and not depend on the next generation for their retirement needs. To elaborate more on the subject of health care concerns of the baby boomers, an article written by Amy Turnbull, (Morning Star November 15, 1999) Quoted Mr. Patrick Brady, who is the executive director of Citizens for Long Term Care (CLTR), a non partisan Washington D. C. sed nonprofit organization that wants to raise awareness of problems in the long term care system.

He talked about problems that can be exacerbated as baby boomers age. Mr. Brady told residents and others at the Manorhouse that in thirty one years, more than twenty percent of the population will be sixty five or older and the cost of long term care will be astronomical. By 2030, unless significant changes are made in Americas entitlement programs, social security spending, Medicare and federal civilian and military pensions, spending will exceed the governments revenues.

In conclusion, The baby boomer generation will be the largest retiring population that our society will experience. They will affect decisions that in turn will be the basis on how society will live in the near future. Because of their political clout and voting power the baby boomers will basically decide the future of the nation, how society will view beliefs, how laws will be enacted and create more laws that will be made for the needs of the retiring baby boomers.

Because of their wealth and longevity, many businesses will cater to their needs, changes on food manufacturing will be affected for the better, and we will see more nutritious food and many more facilities offering convenience. The medical fields will be impacted the most by the retiring baby boomers, the need for more facilities, better services and care, and effective prescription drugs will be in high demand in the near future. Future careers of people will also be impacted by their retirement; people will get jobs that are related to directly or indirectly to the needs of the retiring baby boomers.

Research and technology will also benefit from their retirement; their usual demands for better things will predict what new ways people will be doing or making in the near future. Everyone should be made aware of the consequences of the retiring baby boomers. There will be lots of technological advances and exciting changes that will happen, but there are also issues that the nation as a whole should start thinking and finding ways to solve right now, issues like social security benefits, Medicare, aging society issues, medical care and many more.

Facing issues at an early stage will not only benefit the retiring population, but the nation as a whole. The near future can be an exciting place to be the benefits that the aging baby boomers will demand can also make everyones life better. They will affect all aspects of life; politics, businesses and social life will change to conform to the aging baby boomers needs. So get ready, The baby boomers are coming.

Child Labor

Child labor is a serious moral issue. There have been many controversial debates over whether it should be legal or not. Two different viewpoints on the subject exist. Many argue that child labor is morally wrong and that the children should not work, no matter how poverty stricken their family might be. Advocates and major corporations that support child labor argue that it is good because it gives poverty-stricken families a source of income. Child labor first appeared with the development of domestic systems (when people became civilized).

It was widely practiced in England, America, and other countries during the 16th-18th centuries. Children were paid very little for the dangerous conditions and the long hours they were required to work. Many of these children worked in factories, mills, mines, and other horrible places. Some families sold their children into labor for money to pay off debts. These children worked off the debt and were a source of income for the family. Today, child labor is illegal in most developed countries. There are strict laws that monitor the jobs, hours, wages, etc. that children have if they do work.

An example of these laws, is one that requires all children to go to school until they are 16 years of age before they can drop out and be employed full time. Most third world and under-developed countries are where the majority of child laborers can be found. Child labor is morally wrong. The children shouldnt be forced to work. Most children who work are little more than slaves to their employers. They put up with abuse, starvation, and sometimes never being paid for their work. One eight year-old boy, Munnilal, from Varanasi, India, was freed when a raid was lead on the factory in which he worked and was kept in a slave-like environment.

His Master gave him no money for the long hours he worked. He also stated that he was hit again and again. (Kielberger, 6. ) Children who are forced to work also miss out on life and their chance for a good education. In Pakistan, I talked to a boy making bricks. He had been sold into labor by his grandfather to pay a debt. Would you like to go to school? I asked him. What is school? he asked me. (Kielberger, 5. ) In India, only 64% of males and 39% of females are literate. When children are forced to work at a young age, they can also develop serious health problems.

Health problems are compounded for children because they are more susceptible than adults to the types of illnesses and injuries associated with occupational hazards. (Parker, http://www. busph. bu. edu/Gallery/Introp. html. ) Child labor is necessary in some places because poor families need the extra income this will bring. Poverty is the reason many children go to work. In India, 37% of the urban and 39% of the rural populations live in poverty. (Unknown. ) Studies have revealed a positive correlation- in some instances, a strong one- between child labor and such factors as poverty.

Melara-Kerpelman, 1996. ) Also, a poll taken of child laborers revealed that 63. 74% said the reason they worked was poverty. (Unknown. ) Many parents make their children work because there are no alternate sources of income. In many economically depressed countries where child labor exists, there arent any welfare systems and easy access to loans. The money for these types of programs isnt readily available. The shortage of money is due to the fact that there are economic problem within the country. Not all of the places where children work in third world countries are dangerous and dirty.

Some major corporations move their businesses to places like Pakistan and China because the people there will work for less. Many times the people who work in these factories are children. Not all of these companies pay just a few cents a day though. Mattel, the maker of Barbie, is one of these corporations. In their factory based in Chagnan, China, workers are paid a $1. 81 a day. (Holstein. ) The factory they work in is also kept up to higher standards than most factories in China are. It is clean and they are very rarely forced to work in dangerous conditions. I feel children should be allowed to work only if they absolutely need to.

The conditions in and hours which they work, as well as the pay they receive need to be improved. Governments need to pass laws that will do this. There have been laws passed that limit and reduce the amounts of child labor. An example of this is the Keating-Owen Act passed in 1916. This law barred articles produced by child labor from interstate commerce. Many organizations are working to improve child labor conditions. They are succeeding in some cases. Free The Children (FTC) is one such organization. FTC was created by Craig Kielburger when he was twelve years old.

They petitioned for the release of a childrens rights advocate, Kailash Satyarthi, from prison. Their petition helped free him. After his release, he led raids on carpet factories that freed some children from bondage labor. In my opinion, children around the world should not be forced to work at all. They shouldnt be coerced into getting jobs until they are legally adults. They should be given a chance to live their life before it is virtually taken away from them. I also feel that if they dont start working until they are older the quality of their work will improve greatly.

Observations of Development

Child development is an amazing thing to watch in the way that children interact with one another and how they perceive the world that surrounds. While doing our research of child development we began to observe a group of kids ranging the ages 1 – 12. During these observations we noticed traits such as attachment, comfort, and love. Through the following examples we will proceed to observe development in our environment and explain its relativity to the text I observed a set of dizygotic or fraternal twins, Antonio and James, that had walked in, which were both males.

I noticed that they were attached to their mother, which I had considered “normal” when thinking back to when my 15 year old daughter was that age. Even now she is like that when she comes into contact with strangers. Finally when Antonio and James received an invitation to come play, Antonia stood holding onto his mother’s leg when James only stood a few inches away. Their mother urged the two twins to go and join the others, but they were both reluctant, when finally James took that first step to warm up to the others and went over to pick up a toy, at which point Antonio followed close behind.

When I asked their mother if they were always like that she replied that they were, whether or not she was in the room or somewhere near. Although it appeared the twins were warming up, Antonio kept getting up to see where his mother was. In addition to knowing of her whereabouts he needed to go over and touch her before going back to join the other children. It appeared as though he had no peace while playing because of his constant worry about where his mother was; he had to know where she was at all times in order to go back to playing for a while.

James on the other hand was not like this. James would check on her from where he was sitting but did not get up as much as his twin. All of the children continued playing with each other and with the toys that were on the floor. As like the other children both twins sat on the floor playing with a toy of their own liking; Antonio was facing one direction and James another. After a few minutes, all of the kids began to play with the twins when they both began to get aggressive towards the others.

Everything was fine when they played by themselves but once the other kids began to play with them Antonio and James began to show aggressive behavior towards the others. Antonio took a toy away from one of the kids almost as though he did not want to be bothered by anyone. Then with all of the commotion Antonio calmly got up as if he did not do anything to, again, check on his mother. This time she was not where he had left her, which caused him to react by screaming, “I want my mommy, I want my mommy. ” Then James came over and began to do the same thing.

It was as if they had lost their security blanket. The other kids went over and began to stare at them as though there were something wrong with them. One of the kids came up to me and said, “Why is he crying like that? ” I explained to her that he wanted to be with his mommy, and she responded, “Oh,” and walked away with out a care in the world. This was a clear example of the experiment that (Harlow) ran on the monkeys in 1962. The monkeys were removed from their mother after 8 weeks of being born then placed in a cage with a surrogate mother, one of wire and the other one was made out of terry cloth.

They eventually attached them selves to the surrogate mother that was made out of the terrycloth, even though the one that feed them was the one made out of wire. The reason was the comfort in the soft and warmth of the terrycloth, which made them feel safe. Just like Antonio when he held on to his mother’s side. Once Antonio had lost his comfort zone, he felt scared. Harlow stated that attachment was important but it did not ensure normal social development. We saw proof of that behavior earlier with the twins when they did not function as well in an environment where they had no control of.

When they felt they lost control they showed signs of anxiety when they could not see there mother. The other kids were not worried about where there parents were, they played and adapted to there surroundings. Antonio and James did not feel when their mother was not in eye sight; they felt lost. The Ethological theory Pre-attachment states that during the first six months of an infant’s life, attachment plays a big role. They instead use smiling and crying to get closer to their parents or grandparents.

Because the twins were born prematurely they were constantly being picked up by their parents even after the six months period their parents felt the need to pick them up because of there size, which made it harder on them after there seventh month. According to the ethological theory from seven months to twenty one months, children begin to show signs of attachment toward their parents. In this case it would be the mother because she took time off from work to care for them. During the first year of their life they saw her all of the time, even though their father helped.

The father was not there all day with them; they only saw him part of the night, which made it hard for the mother to go anywhere because the kids would start crying. As a result of their behavior she never went any where with them; only when they went to the doctor’s office. They adapted to being home at all times and when it came time for them to go out the house, they felt scared around other children and other people. I will say that sometimes it is best to expose children’s to different environment so they will be able to associate better with others, and not feel anxiety while around others.

Juvenile Delinquency Essay

The current statistics of juvenile delinquency are astounding. I will look at the most recent statistics and a few of the programs implemented to reduce or prevent delinquency. Before delving to deep into juvenile delinquency it is important to consider the definitions of “juvenile” and “delinquent”. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary gives two definitions of “juvenile”: 1. Showing incomplete development, and 2. A young person; one below the legally established age of adulthood (1997). Merriam-Webster defines “delinquent” as: offending by neglect or violation of duty or law (1997).

As a complete definition of juvenile delinquent it is safe to repeat “a person below the established age of adulthood that offends by neglect or violation of duty or law (1997)”. The history of juvenile delinquency had harsh beginnings. Children were viewed as non-persons until the 1700’s(Rice 1995). They did not receive special treatment or recognition. Discipline then is what we now call abuse. It was believed that life was hard, and you had to be hard to survive. The people of that time in history did not have the conveniences that we take for granted.

For example, the medical practices of that day were primitive in comparison to present-day medicine. Marriages were more for convenience, rather than for childbearing or romance. The infant and child mortality rate was also very high. It did not make sense to the parents in those days to create an emotional bond with children when there was a strong chance that the children would not survive until adulthood (1995). At the end of the 18th century, “The Enlightenment” appeared as a new cultural transition. People began to see children as flowers, who needed nurturing in order to loom.

It was the invention of childhood, love and nurturing instead of beatings to stay in line (1995). Children had finally begun to emerge as a distinct group. It started with the upper class, who were allowed to attend colleges and universities. Throughout all time there has been delinquency. It may not have had the delinquency label, but it still existed. In ancient Britain, children at the age of seven were tried, convicted, and punished as adults. There was no special treatment for them; a hanging was a hanging.

Juvenile crime is mentioned as far back as ancient Sumeria and Hammurabi, where laws concerning juvenile offenders first appear in written form (1995). Industrialization set into motion the processes needed for modern juvenile delinquency. The country had gone from agriculture to machine based labor intensive production. Subsistence farming quickly turned into profit making (1995). People who were displaced from their farm work because of machinery were migrating to the city to find work. This led to urbanization in such places as Chicago, which in turn caused the cities to burst at the seams (1995).

There was also a huge increase in the amount of movable goods that were produced and these moveable goods were easy to steal. The stealing of these goods made property crime rise tremendously in these urban centers. The wealth of the upper class increased, and stealing became a way of living (1995). These large urban centers also created another problem. The work place was now separated from the home and during the hard times both parents took jobs. There was also very little for the youths to do, especially when school was not in session. It was then that youths were becoming ncreasingly unsupervised.

These youths were largely unemployed and without supervision, and with movable goods easily available, stealing became a way of life. The huge influx of people to these urban areas overwhelmed society (1995). The factories could not keep up, and unemployment became a factor, which led to widespread poverty. Poorhouses were created to keep youthful offenders away from trouble. The idea behind them was to take the children of the “dangerous (1995) ” classes out of their “dangerous environment (1995). ”  Kids who were thought to be salvageable needed to be saved.

The majority of these children were rounded up for the crime of being poor, not because they committed a crime. These houses, sometimes referred to as reform schools, were very harsh. This was contradictory to the ideas that they needed nurturing and love. In New York, houses of refuge were created to do the same. The houses eventually became overfilled, and children were sent out West as indentured servants. As many as 50,000 children were shipped out (1995). Some of the children were never allowed to have contact with their parents again.

Industrialization and urbanization played a tremendous role in the modern era of juvenile delinquency. A lot of these factors are true today. Many more farms are going bankrupt. Unemployment is still a factor with the youth of today. We are a culture that values material wealth over and above all (1995). Youth who have no money to live the way they want will often turn to crime as a way to satisfy themselves. As our nation changes, the way in which juveniles are treated will also have to change. The current trends in juvenile delinquency have an impact on how we view the problem.

The number of juvenile arrests has been declining. In 1971, 21% of all arrests were juveniles. A lot of this change has to do with the declining teenage population. There are 6 million fewer teenagers today than 20 years ago (1995). Property crime in the United States has been fairly stable; there has been a 3% increase between 1982 and 1991. Violent crime has seen a tremendous increase. Since 1965, juvenile arrests have doubled for rape (11:100,00 in 1965 to 22: 100,00 in 1991). Crime is generally a young person’s game. Property crime peaks at age 16, violent crime peaks at age 18.

All crime drops off dramatically at about age 30. There are some disturbing trends such as: More than 500 kids under age 12 were arrested for rape in 1991. These statistics should be viewed with caution. For example, some of these figures were estimated, the official numbers may be less disturbing, or even underestimated (1995). With an increased emphasis on juveniles, more enforcement and less discretion equal higher figures. There is also a problem with data being “fudged (1995)” in order to justify an increase in resources.

Falcon Baker writes that “…crime statistics are at best only educated guesses, and all too often are tainted by political expediency, sloppy record keeping, and outright deception” (1991). Contrary to the “negative publicity, relatively few children come before the juvenile court” (Downs, Moore, McFadden, Costin, 1991). Of the 29. 9 million youths aged 10 through 17 in the United States in 1995, only 2. 7 million, or less that 10 percent, were arrested for delinquent acts, including status offenses. Violent crimes (murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) accounted for 5 percent of all juvenile rrests.

The ages of youths at the time of arrest for all crimes were as follows: 23 percent were 17 years of age; 68 percent were 13 through 16 years of age, and 9 percent were less than 13 years of age. The racial composition was 69 percent white, 28 percent black, 1 percent Native American and 2 percent Asian (1991). In doing research on juvenile crime one will find the body of evidence overwhelming. It is at times contradictory and often confusing, but there are some statistics that jump out at you as you sift your way through reports and books.

Often the most compelling statistics are not the ones that appear in newspapers, or on television, radio and speeches that seem to take place almost continuously. According to a report issued last year titled Violent Crime Increases, and prepared for the National Report on Juvenile offending and Victimization shows that between 1965 and 1992 law enforcement agencies reported a 423% increase in the four crimes that make up the FBI’s Violent Crime Index (assault, robbery, rape and homicide) (Abruzzese 1997). The report also includes that in the period from 1983 to 1992 it increased only 54%.

A few additional points are that in 1992 law enforcement agencies in over 92% of all jurisdictions reported that 45% of violent crimes, as measured by the index, were “cleared” (1997). However, more than half (55%) were not “cleared” (1997), so half of all violent crimes were not solved. Also 19% (or 128,000) of the violent crimes committed between 1983 and 1992 is attributable to juvenile offenders (1997). In a report titled “Person Offenses in Juvenile Court” from the October 1994 OJJDP some interesting statistics were given.

From 1985 to 1994, person offenses including assault, robbery, rape and homicide, increases by 93% with juvenile courts handling an estimated 336,100 person offense cases. Person offenses also accounted for a larger proportion of cases, 22% in 1995 compared with 16% in 1985. And, finally, of the 336,100 person offenses handled by the juvenile courts in 1994, over half were dismissed, 3 percent were processed as adults, 24 percent incarcerated and the remainder were on probation or some other alternative program.

When reading over these statistics and trying to fathom the numbers of juvenile delinquents and their crimes, it raises a few important questions. What is being done to prevent this? And what are our governments (local and federally) doing to help? Money makes the world go round and without government help the many social workers, psychologists, counselors and doctors trying to help this situation would not be able to do their part. The juvenile justice system is funded by multiple sources (McNeece & Roberts, 1997).

Almost no federal money is expended by juvenile courts to support ongoing operations, but demonstration projects are funded with grants from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) and the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. This appears to be changing somewhat under the Violent Crime Control Act of 1994, with $377 million available in Fiscal Year 1996-2000 for crime prevention programs sponsored by local governments (1997). This money will also be administered by OJJDP. Other provisions of this act may also make federal funds vailable to courts for general administration ($150 million).

Another $36 million has been authorized for “delinquent and at-risk youth” programs. A few private foundations also fund innovative programs for short periods of time. Juvenile justice operations are financed primarily by a combination of state and local dollars, and the amount contributed of each varies by state and locality (1997). The biggest problem of funding programs for juveniles is the fact that local and state governments are now handling the huge responsibility of welfare programs. This puts a burden on funding new programs that relief from the federal level could improve.

The report on the fiscal year 1998 published by the Children’s Defense Fund indicates “no [federal] increases in funding for the child welfare service areas of: runaway and homeless youth, child abuse state grants, child abuse discretionary activities, child welfare services and family violence” (Wilber 1998). With an estimated growth of 23% in the total population of youths from ages 15 to 19 by 2005, it is imperative that we find effective and low cost solutions. Many such prevention and intervention programs already exist and several are worth mentioning (1998).

Educational programs come in many forms. One of the most prevalent is Conflict Resolution Education. The programs contain components of process curriculum, peer mediation, peaceable classroom, and peaceable school with programs often combining elements from these approaches. Such programs can exist in schools and in the community. The New Mexico Center for Dispute Resolution’s Youth Corrections Mediation Programs starts within the facility and continues in community mediation centers in more than 600 ommunities.

This provides skill development and assistance for both juveniles and their families (1998). Most communities also have some form of parenting classes available because parents have a tremendous influence over their teenagers. Michael D Resnick, a sociologist at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, in the September 1997 issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association, published the results of the most comprehensive survey ever done of American adolescents.

It found that the health and well being of adolescents “still rests in that strong feeling of being cared for by parents” (1998). In fact, the more loved they felt and the more comfortable they were in school, the less teenagers were likely to engage in problematic behaviors, including committing violence. Supporting parents through this very difficult stage of parenting and ensuring they have the skills necessary to help their children and support pro-social behaviors is money well spent.

Advocacy programs are also effective and fiscally sound. One such program is the Court Appointed Special Advocates, which utilizes trained volunteers, each of whom follow one child under the conservatorship of the state regardless of where the child lives and makes recommendations to the judge (1998). CASA organizations exist throughout the United States but unfortunately, they often can only serve as few as one-third of the children who need the service and do not serve children who are not under conservatorship.

This leaves the abused sixteen-year-old, for example, on his own and far too often the first intervention an abused adolescent will see is punishment (1998). The Juvenile Justice System has many treatment options to choose from. Besides the usual jails and correctional centers, there are specialized Youth Centers, Group Homes, and Foster Care Programs. These are just a few examples of what is available. Peter Greenwood and Susan Turner (1993) assessed the Paint Creek Youth Center in Ohio. The main goal of this center is to provide high quality tailored programming.

There was a three-day orientation program and an aftercare program to assist in the transition back to society. The youths received classes and formal counseling instead of locked up in a cell. They were part of a community. While at the center youths earned privileges as they progressed. Among the privileges were being allowed a paying job, family visits at the center, and weekends at home. The uniqueness of this program was the emphasis on tailored treatment. Instead of being lumped into groups, the youths are counseled individually.

This allowed the counselors and youths to benefit from the program. Greenwood and Turner concluded that the aftercare program had a modest effect on post-release arrests and behavior. More cognitive/behavioral effort was needed in the aftercare. They also determined that this alternative shows promise, and that more attention should be paid to the youths’ prosocial behavior when they return to the community. Haghighi and Lopez (1993) evaluated the success/failure of group home treatment programs for juveniles.

The two factors used in the analysis were evaluations from program staff and the reappearance of the juvenile in the juvenile justice system after release. Haghighi and Lopez found that 62. 5% of the juveniles were rated as successful. The rest either failed, were sent to another facility, or committed another delinquent act after release. Juveniles with prior treatment, such as probation, were more successful than those with no treatment or with time spent in a juvenile detention center. Galaway, et al. 995) wrote an article that claimed family homes for emotionally or psychiatrically impaired youth might have hidden benefits for delinquents.

Family care providers were said to be able to manage delinquents in a home setting and that their behavior will improve. The study was composed of 220 U. S. , 18 Canadian, and 28 U. K. programs. Less than half of these programs served delinquents. It was reported that 41% of delinquent youth completed the programs, 12% were administratively discharged, 14% showed no progress and the rest were discharged due to breakdown of the youth or foster family.

The average length of stay was 7. 5 months. They determined that foster family care may be a viable alternative for delinquents and could be used more often. It is sometimes the case that youth are placed in the wrong setting (jail) because there is no alternative. In closing, we are all aware of after school programs and community based services such as Boys and Girls Clubs. They provide a safe haven for children to go where they can build self-esteem, pro-social values and productive futures.

Communities and organizations do what they can, some with the help of Title V grants under “Delinquency Prevention Programs. ”  However, as long as a disproportionate amount funding goes to deal with problems after they have occurred, there will remain limited resources to prevent their occurring (Wilber 1998). “Let us not in our concern about juvenile violence forget that they are just that-children. These are our children and they need our attention and concern before they get into serious trouble, as well as after” (1998).

Violence: Children Who Own The Streets

There are many problems facing today’s society. One of the problems is the violent condition that surrounds the lives of children in America. We are awarded of the violence among our juveniles because we read, hear and see it. The newspapers, magazines, news media, and our neighborhoods testify the living proof of the chaos. Everyone tries to find explanations of the causes and consequences of street violence and other aspects of the turbulent lives of young people. Yet, the problem facing our juveniles will not be solved over night. But that’s not a reason enough to ignore the problem.

It will only ake matters worse and keep on doubling through the years. It is our duty as citizens, friends and family to start trying to make that difference. It is frustrating to know that violence among the children of America is increasing in many aspects. The crimes are starting to vary. It’s not like in the past, where kids only stole candies or disobeyed curfew laws. Now children steal, murder, rape and use drugs. This is not the America that we knew, this is a battle. What can we do to influence these kids to stay off trouble? First of all, we have to realize this is a very serious problems. And it has to be stopped.

The second step is to figure out what causes children to be violent and become juvenile delinquents. This negative attitude causes them to lead a life of delinquency and a life isolated from society’s idealistic world. When we ask these question, many others come in mind. Does these problems begin in the family? Are parents good role models or are they condoning the violence? How can we prevent parents from destroying the minds and future of these children? If we try to deny a teen who seeks help, they will only turn to the streets, drugs, and gangs. When they turn rebellious they will commit crimes, minor or major.

Juvenile violence is a problem, it leads to crime and segregation. If it’s not lessen, it will only keep doubling. And then the future of America will devour. Some of the main concerns of violence revolves around the family atmosphere. Some families are not creating a secured environment for their children. Instead, these children get exposed to illegal behavior and violent actions in the homes. Family morals and values play an important role in the discipline and education of an adolescent. If you teach a kid to be good, he ill be good. If you show him bad, he will see bad.

What ever they plant that’s what they will produce. In depicting family disturbance, we encountered with interviews done by the Children’s Express teen journalists. One of the interviews is on Connie a twelve year old from Indianapolis expressing herself on violence. ” I’m just a person that would try to stay out of trouble and do what is right, but I sure wish I could change all the violence and stuff that I be around and all the trouble that my family go through. Some of my uncles do a lot of drugs and the police is always after them. ( Kozol. 4).

Diamond a fourteen year old from San Francisco also tells. I’m fourteen years old and I usually come down the street to hang out, just talk to friends. My home’s not really functional and stuff, so I try to get away from it as much as possible. My mom, she’s like manic-depressive and she hasn’t worked in three years, and my sister is really abusive. She’s older, so she thinks she’s the boss of everything and everybody, so I don’t really like to be at home. ” (Kozoc. 9). I think in order to know what’s going with juveniles, it’s very important to listen to what they say.

That’s why you will hear their voices. On his fifth birthday, Mark’s father gave him a gun. And this is what Mark ( 16 yrs. ld) from Massachusetts says, “That was his thing—–we all had to learn how to shoot when we turned five years old . He made me go to Karate and wrestling.

My father was very big on fighting. There was no time for anything except for my father. He always found something for us to do. You could go outside, rake the yard, be done with it, and then you’d have to go sweep the driveway, then go rake the yard again, You had no free time for yourself, no privacy at all. Everyday he used to hit me, and one year he molested my sister. I found that out after I killed him I knew, even as I pulled the trigger I was going to prison.

I just didn’t want my family to suffer anymore, or myself. ” (Kozoc 13). These are only Some of the many stories that describe the anguish and desperation of these juveniles. And some of these stories are valid for the cause of so much violence among them. When we talk according to the statistics family breakdown is 27% of factors important in causing crime, poor housing is 15%, poor education is 7%. and drugs is 22%. These are factors that judges etermines as most important There are more causes of violence than family. And that’s why it’s very important in investigating other probable causes.

One of them is watching too much violence on television by children and adults is certainly suspected as a major contributor. In a study by American psychological Association, they estimated that the average American child, by the seventh grade, he has watched 8,000 murders and 100,000 acts of violence on TV. (Baron, 154). In American cartoons, a violent act occurs on average 90 seconds. That is 10 percent more than 10 years ago. In an article in the New York magazine, Ken Auletta quoted the association’s report which noted the consequences of watching so many acts of violence.

Accumulated research demonstrates a correlation between viewing violence and aggressive behavior—that is, heavy viewers behave more aggressively that light viewers. Children and adults who watch a large number of aggressive programs also tend to hold attitudes and values that favor the use of aggression to solve conflicts. ” ( Baron. 155). In a nationwide poll by the Times Mirror Company in February 1993, it was found that Americans are ncreasingly disturbed by the violence on TV entertainment shows, and 80 percent of them believe that it’s harmful to the nation.

The survey showed the link between age and concern about television violence. The majority of Americans — -72 percent of those surveyed—– said that TV has too much violence, about 25 percent characterized it as a ” reasonable amount” and the remainder said there is ” very little” violence on TV or had no opinion. The opinion percentages were almost the same as found by a national poll taken in 1971. What was different in the 1993 poll was that more Americans are troubled by ntertainment violence now, and more believe it has a poisonous effect on society.

Americans who said they were ” personally” bothered” by violence in TV shows jumped to 59 percent in 1983, with those saying they were bothered a great deal rising to 24 percent from 16 percent. ( Baron 155). Another contributor to violence and crime would be hand guns. With easy access to guns and propensity of American toward violence, the result is that a lot of people are killed every year by guns—about 30,000 in 1991. How many Americans would be killed every year if guns were not available to the public?

If criminals and hostile people only had hands and fists and knives to attack people, surely, only a small percentage of the current 24,000 gun homicides would actually occur. The five children killed in Stockton, California, school yard by Patrik Purdy, or the massacre of 22 people killed at Luby’s Cafeteria in Killeen, Texas, would not have happened if guns were not available. It is estimated that about one half of the households in the United States have at least one gun and that typical gun owner is fairly educated member of the middle class. And this is what causes their juveniles to have easy access to guns.

They see the guns and their curiosity makes them grab a hold of them and get hostile. That’s why in most child homocides firearms the number is 1,500, hands and feet 400, k 0. nives 180, blunt object 50, and other forms are 250. Deaths by firearms per 100,000 in the 15-19 age group in 1992 was as followed, African Americans males 105,000, African American females 10,000, white males 10,000, and white females were 1,000. This goes to show us that things are not getting any good compared to many years ago. More juveniles are killing and getting killed, Some of the violence happens in the schools and this is one story.

A dozen teenagers watched as a fifteen year old student shot and killed a seventeen year old classmate at Reseda High School in February of 1993. ( California ). Robert Heard, a Reseda High football player, confronted Michael Shean Ensley in a corridor during midmorning snack break. He fired once, hitting Ensley in the chest. Ensley staggered outside and collapsed in a grassy quadrangle area near the administration office. Several who witnessed the incident initially thought it was play acting, but rushed the injured youth to the nurse’s office when they realized he was hurt. He was pronounced dead at

Northridege Hospital Medical Center a shot time later. Robert was arrested shortly after. ( Baron 14). This was only one of the many stories that we hear about juvenile crimes. Not only do they kill but they join gangs to gain that power. Youth gangs are ways out for teens who are in crisis or need special attention. Youth gangs of adolescent, usually male, from urban working class or under privileged districts, take part in aggressive and delinquent activities both within the gang and outside of it, fighting other gangs, committing assault and theft and damage to property,.

Rarely are such gangs organized crime units, more often they are delinquent as a means for obtaining kicks. Increasingly street gangs are involved in drug trafficking, intimidation and violence. Some gangs have initiation rituals, including shooting people,. Youth gangs have developed in many countries, increasing ( like the general level of juvenile delinquency) in countries with a higher economic levels or with rapid social and economic change. In 1988, 622 wilding robberies were referred to New York’s City’s family court.

It is the second most common crime among youths in New York city, after crack dealing. In Los Angeles in 1990 there were some 750 gangs; in 1994 the estimate was 885( 570 Latino and 315 Black). One of the biggest claim to have 10,000 members. By the year 2000 it is estimated that there will be 250,000 gang members in LA. County. Gang related robberies in 1989 were put at 1,800; murder at 570, and 8000 or more in 1992. Gangs offer an identity and opportunity for self assertion to youths under conditions where life holds out little else.

With murders in the schools, families and gangs, there comes another crime that is rising as well. Sexual Offenses by juveniles is one that we can’t forget. In U. S. A from 1976 to 1986 the rate arrest for 13 and 14 year old accused of rape doubled to 40 arrests per 100,000 children. For sex offenses like exhibitionism, grabbing and fondling in the same age group arrests increased by 80%.. To sum it all up juvenile crime, as all crime has been increasing. Brutal crime among young offenders also is increasingly evidenced in reports, particularly on urban areas.

Some offenders are psychotic and their offenses may range from suicide to mass murder. Others are anti-social given to minor acts of defiance. Ease of access to weapons ; drug addiction; unemployment; and conomic motives, are the more obvious circumstances leading to crime; but modern societal stress, breakdown of family life, deviant role models, threats of nuclear war and the confusion in values which produce unstable feelings and distorted ideas, probably all contribute to aggravate violence among youth.

Despite the enormous amount of study devoted to it, a great many questions about juvenile delinquency still remained unanswered. The term covers a wide range of legally forbidden acts committed by young people who may be anything from 10 to 25 years of age. The highly varied misbehavior of these young people, who differ reatly in personal background, development, experience, and situation, is no homogeneous phenomenon. One view is that delinquent behavior develops when a youngster’s rewards in terms of money and goods, excitement, fellowship or revenge outstrip the costs of getting caught.

Under age drinking and shoplifting were the most common offenses, followed by truancy, taking drugs, vandalism, bullying, and joyriding. Over half cited to impress others and boredom as the reason for offending, followed by lack of money, peer pressure, lack of parental strictness and ability to get away with it. The extent of outhful crime is hard to judge. Since the second World War, a substantial increase in juvenile convictions has been recorded in many countries. As offenders, boys outnumber girls in a ratio of about 10:1.

Juvenile delinquency rates may rise with higher general technological economic level and in situations of varied social change. Hence Western Europe, USA and Japan have high levels of juvenile delinquency. Youth gangs are noted also in Taiwan, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Poland, USSR and Yugoslavia. Juvenile delinquency has shown an increase in such rapidly developing nations as Ghana and Kenya. Crimes against property are by far the most frequent type of offense.

These include stealing from shops, houses, and cars; and the unauthorized taking of the person ( assaults, fighting, robbery with violence ), together with sex offenses and, in industrially developed countries, traffic offenses, come next and are more common among those aged from 17 to 21. Narcotic addiction and other types of drug dependence, though not always criminal offenses, are a relatively new and disturbing form of deviance and seem to be increasing rapidly. The 1991 UK National Prisons Survey found 83 percent of lock up young offenders ad been in council care, against 2 percent of the population as a whole.

In 1992 in Britain, 110,4000 children aged 10-16 were caught breaking the law; 75 percent were boys. By far the most common crime was theft or handling of goods. Throughout the 1980’s juvenile crime fell in UK: 100,000 cautioned or convicted in 1992, 37 percent fewer than a decade earlier. The young population had also fallen, but only by 2o percent. In 1992, there were 3,764 male juveniles per 100,000 convicted or cautioned; in 1982 the figure was 5,028. The fall was the biggest among boys aged 10-13: from 2,929 to 1,927.

Babies Killing Babies

Two teenagers entered a high school in Colorado and opened fire on their classmates. The young gunmen end their lives, but not before taking the lives of fifteen students, and injuring twenty, finalizing the tragedy. In recent years we have experienced a rampage of violence in our schools. Researchers have yet to pinpoint the answer to this plague of violent disorders. The National Institute of Mental Health, and The Office of the Surgeon General have focused their research to the areas of stages of violence development, prevention and intervention, and methods of identifying the most effective treatments.

Studies by the Office of the Surgeon General have concluded that there are two paths for the materialization of youth violence. One is identified at an early age of puberty, the other in the adolescent stage. The research shows that if there is violence demonstrated in the early childhood stage of a child, the degree of violence in the child rises, as the child grows older, concluding in severe violent behavior. The group that is said to be in the early-onset group, or before puberty, is said to have a greater and more serious number of violence incidents during the adolescent years.

This also leads to a determining factor for violent behavior during their adulthood, (see research by Stattin and Magnusson, 1996; and Tolan and Gorman-Smith, 1998). Research has shown that violence offenses committed by young men, between the ages of sixteen or seventeen, can be traced back to their puberty stage (DUnger et al. , 1998; Elliot et al. , 1996; Huzinga et al. , 1995; Nagin and Tremblay, 1999; Patterson and Yoerger, 1997; Stattin and Magnusson, 1996). This is proof that the majority of offenders began their violent behavior during the younger years.

However, the study also shows that those who began in the puberty stage did not commit the most serious and persistent acts of violence; moreover, by those whos violent behavior began during adolescence. The study also concludes that there is very little support to the claims that youth violence can be easily identified at an early age. We can see an example of this in the violent shootings that took place in Jonesboro, Arkansas; where two boys, ages eleven and thirteen years old, opened fire during a false fire alarm, killing four girls and one teacher.

On the other hand, most offenders have showed only minimum levels of childhood violence. It is obvious that there are different levels in which researchers have to evaluate violence in children. Further research programs are needed to target, puberty and adolescent, stages of childhood violence. Since 1997, we have experience such an explosion of school violence that parents, teachers, and community leaders are wondering whether or no is safe to send our children to school. The following are accounts of school violence as reported by ABC News:

In February 1996, in Moses Lake, Washington, a fourteen year old boy wearing a trench coat opens fire in classroom with a hunting rifle. He kills the teacher, two students, and injures one other. In February 1997, in Bethel, Alaska, a sixteen year old opens fire with a shotgun. He kills the principal and another student. Two others students are injured. The young man was sentenced to two ninety-nine year terms. In October 1997, in Pearl, Mississippi, another sixteen year-old shoots nine students, two of them die including the shooters ex-girlfriend.

The shooters mother is also found shot in her home. The youth is sentence to life in prison, and other students could be found guilty of accessory. In December 1997, in West Paducah, Kentucky, a fourteen-year-old is found guilty of shooting students in Heath High School. Three die and five others are wounded. The young offender is sentenced to life in prison. In March 1998, in Jonesborough, Arkansas, four students and one teacher are shot to death by and eleven and a thirteen year old boys. Ten others are injured during a false fire alarm.

They were staged in the woods near the evacuation area. They can be held in juvenile court until the age of twenty-one. In April 1998, in Edinboro, Pennsylvania, a fourteen-year-old student shoots a teacher to death during a graduation dance. In April 1998, in Pomona, California, a fourteen-year-old boy shoots and kills two other teenagers on an elementary school basketball court. In May 1998, in Fayetteville, Tennessee, an eighteen year-old honor roll student kills another teenager just days away from graduation. The teenager killed was dating the shooters ex-girlfriend.

In May 1998, in Houston, Texas, a fifteen year-old is shot and wounded after a gun misfires while it was inside the backpack of another seventeen year-old student. The student is charged with a third degree felony. In May 1998, in Onalaska, Washington, a fifteen year-old boy boards a bus with a gun and orders his girlfriend to get off the bus and took her to her home. He then dies from a self-inflicted headshot. In May 1998, in St. Charles, Montana, police intervene when information was found on three six-graders that had a hit list and plans to kill students on the last day of school during a false fire alarm.

In May 1998, in Springfield, Oregon, a fifteen-year-old student opens fire in the school cafeteria and kills two students. The shooters parents are also found dead in their home. All this happened the day after the shooter was expelled for bringing a gun to school. In June 1998, in Richmond, Virginia, a teacher and a guidance counselor are shot and wounded in the hallway. On April 1999, in Littleton, Colorado, the most serious of school shootings, two young men wearing black trench coats fire, killing fifteen students, including themselves, and injuring twenty.

On November 1999, in Deming, New Mexico, a twelve-year-old boy shoots and kills a young girl with a . 22 caliber handgun. On December 1999, in Fort Gibson, Oklahoma, five students were injured after a thirteen-year-old boy opens fire with his fathers 9mm pistol. According to the Office of the Surgeon, there are hundreds of researches conducted on youth violence, yet there is little to be known about their effects. It has also been found that the funding allotted to the prevention of programs for school violence has been spent on unproductive programs (Mendel, 2000).

However, there has been some advancement in information concerning youth violence. Some scientists have made progress in uncovering some of the causes and correlates of youth violence. Experts say that it had become difficult to identify effective programs. A recommendation is to use the resources of ineffective programs and allocate them to the programs that have been identified as affective. Another roadblock is the lack of cooperation between schools, communities, and juvenile justice authorities.

Because of the reputation that most programs give no positive results, organizations are wary of trying new programs. The focus should be centered in providing a healthy, non-violent environment for children. Doctor Scott Poland, one of the two educators invited to the White House to discuss solutions to school violence with President Clinton and Attorney General Janet Reno, was asked to comment on the recent wave of youth violence and its prevention he stated that we must reduce the violence in television, motion pictures, video games, and music.

We must put the mental health of children in America first, and provide the schools with the resources that they need. And we must restrict gun access to children. I am concerned at how our culture glamorizes violence, and portrays it as painless and guiltless. (Dr. Scott led the crisis response team in the Oklahoma City bombing incident in 1995) Scientists have two different methods of identifying school violence. These are a meta-analysis method, and an empirical method. The first is a statistical method in which results of various studies are combined in order to achieve an estimate.

The second is a review of the first in order to identify broad distinctiveness, and make recommendations on them. Statistics and the review of research is not the only practice in identifying the causes of youth violence. The National Institute of Mental Health has been studying a more scientific approach in the genetic research of brain development. Steven E. Hyman, Director of The NIMH states that An understanding of the timing of brain development, and the types of environments in which it can proceed in a healthy trajectory have important policy implications.

This awareness is a very important beginning in which we should built. For example, we know that brain development continues to throughout childhood and adolescence, but for success in school and life, we need t pay attention not only to cognitive development, but also to emotional development. The negative effects of neglect and abuse, poor adult supervision, and the influence of deviant peers and of exposure to violence are important, but have been well documented; less well understood are the emotional disorders of childhood that may lead to the violence that seems to come out of nowhere.

The causes of this violence; indeed the reasons for the frequency of depression and other emotional disturbances in our society are complex and not fully understood. A profound truth that we have learned about brain development and vulnerability to mental disorders is that as complex as the gene-gene interactions are providing to be, they do not explain everything; equally complex gene-environment interactions are also involved. The interactions of genes and environment permit the limited information in the genome to be read out in as way as to produce the human brain.

Our brains have been described as the most complex structure in the known universe, and complex they must be to confer on humanity its wonderful richness and diversity, and above all, to permit us to adapt to the many different environments and conditions in which human beings live. How might the environment cause our brains to develop in one possible way rather than another? Insofar as we experience it or interact with it, the environment produces biochemical changes in the nerve cells within our brains.

When such biochemical changes are of large enough magnitude, they turn gene on and off inside those cells as part of normal processes that go by the name of brain plasticity. These physical changes caused by experience within the brain are the basis of all long-term memory. During development, as these little tweaks add up, our brains get wired up one way or another. This has sometimes been described as sculpting the brain. This sculpting occurs, of course, by the regulation of genes by the environment, which not only builds new connections but also may eliminate connections that go unused.

There is enough evidence, according to the study made by NIMH, to relate that development in genetic activity should be researched further. It is not to say that the research in place should be abandoned, but that new research should be implemented with current research. Hyman also states that sometimes there is no reasonable explanation for such violent behavior among youths; and that sometimes there is no apparent negative experiences in the past of violent offenders. In these cases the questions of economic and social status, family relationship, peer influence, stability, and family history.

There is much more research needed in the field of youth violence. Students, parents, school staff and the community should have a sense of safety regarding our educational institutions. There must be a reform of research programs in order to combined those programs that are successful with new programs. The government should be more involved with the allocation of funding, and drop the grants from programs that have sown little or no effect on finding an answer to detecting, preventing, and treatment of youth violence. Only then can our kids feel secured in our schools.

What is a Hermaphrodite

The definition that Suzanne Kessler, The writer of Lessons from the Intersexed, gives us is that a true hermaphrodite is where a baby has either testes or ovaries, but the genitals are indistinct. This birth defect has been happening to a small percentage of babies throughout history ( ). A lot of Kessler’s essay deals with the interviewing of six medical experts in the field of pediatric intersexuality. They supply the reader with plenty of information on the topic of intersexuality and babies born with ambiguous genitals.

Kessler also supplies us with a great deal of information on the process parents have to go through with the diagnosis and the waiting period between knowing whether or not the baby is going to be a boy or girl. In Judith Lorber’s essay, Night to His Day: The Social Construction of Gender, she talks about gender and what a man or a women have to do to that is required in their specific gender. Both these essays deal with the idea of choosing what sex a child is going to be based on their ambiguous genitals and how their gender will affect them in the society.

There are three factors that in this present time that deal with the intersex condition. Two specialists, John Money and Anke A. Ehrhardt, constructed a theory saying that gender identity can be manipulated up to eighteen months of age ( ). People who have been born into the intersex condition, nowadays, have many options to choose from on how to fix the so called problem ( ). Since technology advances everyday, there have been newly discovered ways to perform the surgery to repair the genitals ( ). Feminism also plays a part in the intersex condition.

Now, feminists say that if a person has the presence or absence of gonads, it is no longer the only decisive factor for that gender he or she is in ( ). To continue, if a baby is born with ambiguous genitals, then it needs to be assigned a gender as quickly as possible ( ). I agree with that statement because I have a family friend that had to go through the same ordeal and she had to hide the fact that her newborn wasn’t assigned a gender yet. That is sometimes hard for people to deal with because they want to know whether their baby is a boy or girl.

The doctors play a huge role in the choosing of the baby’s gender. The parents depend on the doctor for insight on everything because the doctor is the expert. If the doctor doesn’t have a quick and comforting answer to the parents question, Is it a boy or a girl? then the parents may feel uncertain and very upset. Therefore the doctor needs to be decisive and unambiguous, so that the parents are settled, their credibility is not questioned and they help keep Money and Ehrhardt’s theory valid ( ).

I also think that this is a necessity, because its hard enough hearing that your child is neither fully male nor fully female, but if the doctor doesn’t know how to deal with it, then who do the parents turn to. If I were in that position, I too would be going crazy, trying to figure out what to do about my child. Its like thinking, Do I want a male or a female child? I would need some assistance in that choice. Keller discusses some things doctors should have not said in post delivery. For example, You have a little boy, but he’ll never function as a little boy, so you better raise him as a little girl, ( ).

What do the parents say to the family and friends during the time the infant is getting surgery? One of the doctor’s told one of the stories she heard, saying that the parents lied and told everyone they had twins, then when they found out the baby’s gender, they had told everyone that the other twin had dies ( ). As I was reading this, I had also thought that if I were in that position I would probably do the same thing and tell a white lie. It may be hard to do, but since this society is very cruel, a birth defect can put someone in a different social class when that person grows up.

Judith Lorber discusses the idea of gender and how it is a social institution. Lorber explicitly explains to us that since gender is a social institution, it is one of the major ways that human beings organize their lives ( ). I believe that explanation, because gender revolves around everything you do that fits your gender group. If you are a female you will do female things because that’s just what you are supposed to do. If you are male then you will do male things. Lorber makes reference that in order to understand gender as a social institution; there is a need to know the difference between a human being and an animal ( ).

She gives much description as to how humans are dependent upon the social structure of their lives and how animals live their lives all through instinct and imitation ( ). Lorber states that the roots of gender are socially constructed statuses ( ). In the United States and all around the world, there are two gender statuses, man or woman. Also, modern western societies consider transsexuals and transvestites, not as a third gender, but just changing over from man to women or vice versa ( ). Everybody is has a social status that he or she abides by.

Ray Birdwhistell, who studies how body motion is a form of human communication, says that humans need to have a gender of a male or female because that just the way the human specie needs to be set up. Genitalia are the only thing that differentiates a male from female. In my view, I think that if one person has to be in a gender, then that person should be able to chose what they want to be. I think that genitalia shouldn’t matter at all as to if you are considered a male or female. It should be the choice of that human being if it wants to be considered a male, female, or any other gender it wants to make up.

Gender much at all to me. I think a person should be what they want when they want. Nobody should have a say in it but that person. But in our society, that will never happen without being harassed or tortured by the rest of the world. Our society has set the standard for the normal male and the normal female. Our society says that any of the people born with ambiguous genitals should somehow mend the problem and get surgery done so that it can live a normal life. I think that a person should have the choice of just living the natural life they were given if they want to. If they don’t, then they are free to do what they want.

Hardships of Southern Sharecro

For many people in the 1930s living conditions were not as adequate as they needed to be. The stock market had just crashed in 1928, and the US was in the midst of the Great Depression. Many people suffered from lack of money, and many others suffered from lack of food. One group of people who suffered greatly during this time period were the southern share croppers. Factors that caused the substandard living conditions of the southern share croppers in the 1930s include lack of education, poor health care, and inadequate living facilities.

The first factor that caused the substandard living conditions of the southern share croppers was their lack of education. There were several reasons the share croppers didnt get the education they needed. One main reason was because many children didnt go to school. Harold Walker writes that Southern cotton states ranked lower in rate of attendance for each student enrolled than any of the other states in the nation (4). A factor that contributed to this was their excessive mobility, which inhibited many children from going to school (Corder 27).

It is common knowledge that any child who constantly moves around will not be able to attend school on a regular basis, and even if they go to a school when they get a chance they will be so far behind they would have a difficult time catching up. Another factor that impeded on a childs attendance at school was the fact that they never went to school when there was cotton to be picked (Walker 8). This may not seem like a large task, but some times it could take weeks to pick all the cotton.

These few weeks that a child spent picking cotton was valuable learning time, and missing it could put a child too far behind to catch up. Another reason share croppers didnt get the education they needed was because many southern rural schools had short terms (Gentry 21). Because of this teachers would not be able to cover all of the material that they needed to cover, or they would have to rush through the material they did cover. A final reason the education of the southern cotton states was not as good as other states was because their teachers were not as good.

This was reflected in the fact that the salaries of Southern teachers were not as high as the salaries of other teachers (Mckeon 98). Back in the 1930s the higher a teachers salary was the higher their quality and training was (Mckeon 98). This meant that when children did go to school they did not get adequate teaching. Because of all of these reasons education of the Southern cotton states was at an all time low. The children were not getting the education they needed, so they were forced to work the substandard jobs such as sharecropping. This meant that their children would not get the education they needed, either.

It was a cycle that led to the lowering of the general living conditions of southern share croppers, but lack of education was not the only factor that lowered the living conditions of the share croppers. Another reason the living conditions of the southern share croppers were so low was because they had poor health care. To begin with the tenant farmers did not eat in a healthy manner. Mckeon writes that many tenant farmers in the South said that garden vegetables, milk, butter, and eggs were never a part of their diet (116). One of the main things that they did eat was sowbelly, a fat salty pork (Walker 33).

Because they ate so poorly it was hard for them to stay healthy. Another health concern of the tenant farmers was that their clothing was very coarse and not warm enough (Gentry 38). Many of the men wore denim overalls and the women wore cheap cotton and homemade underwear, if any at all (Gentry 38). Wearing clothing like this could be very hard on a person during the winter months, and could easily lead to diseases such as the flu or pneumonia. These diseases were hard for the poor sharecroppers to combat because it was hard for them to afford any medication, if there were any medications at all to help them out.

Another disease that plagued the southern sharecroppers was typhoid fever (Gentry 31). This disease was spread through contaminated wells and took a heavy toll on the life and energy of a person (Gentry 31). Malaria, which led to several fatalities, was also a serious problem for the tenant farmers (Corder 98). It was a major problem for many of the unfitting men, and the men who worked long energetic hours (Corder 98). With all of these health hazards it was hard for the southern share croppers to stay healthy. To make the problem even worse there were not enough health care facilities to take care of the sick.

Walker writes that in the 1930s there was an average of 210 persons per hospital bed in the south, while the national average was only 120 (10). This led to many overcrowded hospitals, and many times the sick had to be sent home and took care of there. The bad thing about this was that the disease could be spread around the family, and soon around the community because there was nothing to contain it. Because of this the living conditions of the southern sharecroppers continued to decline, and it became harder and harder for them to make a better life for themselves.

Another major problem many of the southern sharecroppers faced was poor housing. In many cases the houses of the southern sharecroppers were in horrid condition. Walker writes that many of the houses were huts on the verge of collapsing (17). Many of these huts were on the verge of collapsing into the water that surrounded them (Walker 4). To get to these houses surrounded by water logs were placed in a makeshift manner, and it was very dangerous to cross (Walker 4). A misplaced foot or a slippery log could easily have led to a severe injury, or maybe even death.

The surrounding water could have also been an easy place for diseases, or dangerous animals to manifest, yet creating another health problem for the tenant farmers. Houses for the southern share croppers of this time were usually only two or three rooms, which made it almost impossible for anyone to have privacy or decency (Walker 87). The close living conditions also made it easier for germs to spread, which meant that when one person in a family got sick the rest of the family got sick along with them. The construction of these shacks that the tenant farmers lived in was also very poor.

In many cases the roofs were leaky (Walker 40). In other cases the houses were never even painted, which meant that the houses were more susceptible to rotting or water damage. After looking back at the way the southern sharecroppers lived it is easy to see that their way of life was well below what is considered decent. These tenant farmers were plagued with disease, they lacked a thorough education, and they lived in wretched little shacks that were well below societys standards. It was hard for the sharecroppers to get out of this way of life, though, because they had little money, and their education was lacking.

Stay Tuned: The Exploitation Of Children In Television Advertisements

Across America in the homes of the rich, the not-so-rich, and in poverty-stricken homes and tenements, as well as in schools and businesses, sits advertisers’ mass marketing tool, the television, usurping freedoms from children and their parents and changing American culture. Virtually an entire nation has surrendered itself wholesale to a medium for selling. Advertisers, within the constraints of the law, use their thirty-second commercials to target America’s youth to be the decision-makers, convincing their parents to buy the advertised toys, foods, drinks, clothes, and other products.

Inherent in this targeting, especially of the very young, are the advertisers; fostering the youth’s loyalty to brands, creating among the children a loss of individuality and self-sufficiency, denying them the ability to explore and create but instead often encouraging poor health habits. The children demanding advertiser’s products are influencing economic hardships in many families today. These children, targeted by advertisers, are so vulnerable to trickery, are so mentally and emotionally unable to understand reality because they lack the cognitive reasoning skills needed to be skeptical of dvertisements.

Children spend thousands of hours captivated by various advertising tactics and do not understand their subtleties. Though advertisers in America’s free enterprise system are regulated because of societal pressures, they also are protected in their rights under freedom of expression to unfairly target America’s youth in order to sell to their parents, regardless of the very young’s inability to recognize the art of persuasion. In the free enterprise system, the advertiser’s role is to persuade consumers to buy their products/services.

They are given a product/service and re required to use their best creative effort to make this product desirable to the intended audience (Krugman 37). Because of this calculated and what many deem as manipulative way of enticing the target audience, the advertising industry is charged with several ethical breeches, which focus on a lack of societal responsibility (Treise 59). Child Advocacy groups and concerned parents, among others, question the ethicality of advertising claims and appeals that are directed towards vulnerable groups in particular, children (Bush 31).

The fundamental criticism is that children are an unfair market. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulates the advertising industry to ensure consumers’ protection from false or misleading information. The question many assert is should the government be allowed to monitor what is legitimate simply because some do not approve (Hernandez 34). This question requires value judgments that can only be answered through constructing public policy (Kunkel 58). Most people in society recognize that television advertising directed towards children is excessive, manipulative and takes unfair advantage of children (Kunkel 60).

In a recent survey from the researcher, it was documented that 80% of dults with children wanted governmental regulation to protect children from television advertising (See Appendix 1). Research in the social science fields such as psychology and communication documents how the child interprets a given television advertisement. Findings indicate for one, the majority of children up to age five “experience difficulty distinguishing perceptually between programs and commercials” (Kunkel 62). It is noted that children at this young age tend to treat all television content as a unidimensional type of message.

For instance, child viewers do not begin to discriminate between antasy or reality dimensions of television content at the most basic levels until grade school. Advertisers compound this issue by using perceptual similarities in program content and commercial content which adds to the difficulty children already have in distinguishing between the two variables. Secondly, the study substantiates that, “A substantial proportion of children, particularly those below age eight, express little or no comprehension of the persuasive intent of commercials” (Kunkel 63).

This is a crucial argument in regards to the legality of unfair advertising. Children eight and younger are n unfair market, for they do not understand the intent of the advertisement. For the child to recognize and appreciate the persuasive intent of television advertising, he/she would be able to identify the following characteristics: “the source of the advertisement has perspectives and interests other than those of the receiver, the source intends to persuade, persuasive messages are biased, and biased messages demand different interpretive strategies than do unbiased messages” (Kunkel 64).

Thirdly, research has found “younger children who are unaware of the persuasive intent of television advertising tend to xpress greater belief in commercials and a higher frequency of purchase requests” (Kunkel 64). Children are an unfair market in this regard because they simply do not understand the commercial claim may be exaggerated and biased. The child often does not understand that when he/she gets the product , it may not be as spectacular as it was made out to be in the advertisement (Kunkel 64).

Popular studies give evidence that children are often mesmerized by television (Signorielli 34). Children fixate upon television and become hypnotized by watching. The attention level of young viewers is elevated in he presence of children, eye contact, puppets, and rapid pacing (Van Eura 23). Television advertisements target younger audiences by using colorful images and rapid movement often in the form of animation (Brady). The advertisements primarily directed towards the childrens’ market are for toys and foods (Pediatrics 295).

Studies show that children see the images on television as a window of the world, these images affect their thoughts and ideas (Pingree 253). Therefore, advertisers are manipulating children by predominantly showing advertisements that encourage materialism and eating. Research findings on how children interpret television commercials are not the only indicator of what constitutes a fair market. Public opinion, along with the observations of other regarded professionals, observe the exploitation of the children’s market.

According to Cynthia Schiebe, assistant professor of psychology at Ithaca College and director of The Center for Research on the Effects of Television, has the following to say in relation to children as an unfair market: “The point is not that advertising is wrong, but it often plays unfair… Children can’t distinguish the persuasive intent of ommercials. There is enormous evidence that young children have various difficulties in understanding the nature of commercials. They give more credibility to the person speaking than they should, especially if it’s someone like Cap’n Crunch or Ronald McDonald, or someone who is a role model.

Ms. Schiebe, through her work as a psychologist and a researcher, asserts that adults have the capabilities to detect persuasive strategies where children do not have the same capabilities. Peggy Charren, leader for 25 years of Action for Children’s Television (ACT), believes that advertising takes advantage of mpressionable youngsters. Charren states, “Children are the only unpaid sales force in the history of America. Advertisers don’t expect kids to buy the product. The kids are being used to sell the product to the parent. ”

According to James U. McNeal, a Texas A&M University Marketing professor , states, “What distinguishes children from other viewers is not so much what advertiser’s show them, but how they interpret it. Children are literalists, which makes them more vulnerable to advertising’s message. For them seeing is believing” (Guber). Though questions of ethicality are denounced extensively, advertising to hildren persist on the forefront of American culture. Advertisers continue to focus on the children’s market because children have become a tremendous source of revenue and an increasingly important commodity for the advertising and marketing industry.

In 1993 alone, children between the ages of four and 12 in the United States had a disposable income of 17 billion dollars. Not only do children have their own money to spend, but children with two working parents influence their parents to spend annually 155 billion dollars (Collins 4). Advertisers do not only see children in terms of immediate discretionary ncome that is available to spend, but perhaps even more valuable to the marketer is the brand loyalty potential.

The advertiser’s mission is to convince the child to want a particular brand, to then have a preference and liking for the brand and therefore to purchase the product again and again which then implies a brand loyalty has been established (Sissors). Advertisers do not only employ this brand loyalty tactic in commercials aimed at the child, but they also implicitly target other campaigns to meet the appeals of children. For example, children surveyed had a particular fondness for the Michelin tire campaign which features babies.

Though these children will not be buying tires for awhile, the implication that brand loyalty has been established seems great (Wujtas 50). Research has confirmed that children establish brand loyalty as early as the age of two years old. An older audience has an awareness of close to 1500 brand names where as a young child has little preconceived preferences. (Guber) With a combination of money to spend and an open mind for the potential to create a brand loyal consumer at an early age, children are an irresistible market to American businesses.

With such tremendous potentiality for revenues and brand loyalty, dvertisers target the children’s market with vengeance. Advertisers annually spend close to 471 million dollars on advertising to children. While the rest of the advertising industry is suffering from a three year decline, the amount of money spent on children’s advertising continues to increase despite heated controversy over the ethicality of targeting a vulnerable and unfair market (Wartella 461). Contemporary advertisers flood the marketplace in practically every outlet daily with their claims and appeals. Advertisements can be found virtually everywhere.

Common media vehicles used for the children’s market are, elevision commercials with an increase during children’s programs, especially Saturday morning programming, on videotapes, in children’s magazines , in malls, and even in the classroom through television- educational programming (Collins 4). One television outlet that has received a considerable amount of negative publicity is Channel One. This is a program where marketers enter the classroom setting by embedding advertisements aimed at children into segments of a 12 minute newscast that is shown daily in more than 12,000 schools across the country.

The appeal to advertisers is to guarantee reaching he intended target audience (Wartella 451). The result to children is exploitation which is basically sponsored by the school system via television advertisers. Many other vehicles are used in the targeting of the children’s market, however, television advertising is perceived as the most effective source in reaching children. The increase of cable options and the amount of time children spend watching the television allows the advertiser to make his exposure and frequency appeals more readily than ever before.

Next to sleeping, children spend the majority of their free time watching television (Lazar 67). By the time a young child graduates from high school, he/she will have seen an estimated 350,000 commercials (Carlsson-Paige 68). For the average child, the television set is on in the home for an average of seven hours per day. In a one week time frame the average preschool-aged child (ages two through five) watches 28 hours of television. The average school-aged child (ages six to 11) watches 24 hours of television (Kotz 1296).

With such an advent of exposure time the young child is repetitively exposed to the advertisers persuasive dialogue. Children are drawn to the mystique and excitement the television set ffers. Due to demographic shifts in the American family it is unlikely that parents will give up the television’s entertaining baby-sitting function. In the last two decades, the number of working women with young children and the number of single parent families has sharply risen. In addition statistics recorded in 1990 report, reflect that nearly three-fourths of both parents in married-couple families with children work on a full or part-time basis.

Therefore, with the current increase of pressures from home, work, and single parenthood the child becomes attached to the television and all it has to offer, hich to a large extent is a selling medium (Lazar 68). The lack of social policy which supports families and regulates children’s television leaves the child vulnerable and exploited from the marketplace. The venues advertisers use to market products to children have widened with increasing technology, marketing ploys and an increase of child oriented products/services.

Beginning in the middle of the 1970’s, the children’s television market grew through the addition of independent television channels and cable networks. The early 1980’s introduced a successful marketing device nown as the program-length commercial which capitalized on taking advantage of an unaware audience (Wartella 449). The program-length commercial is a television show where the main character is modeled after a toy product. The entire program is built around demonstrating to children how to play with a product then encouraging them to buy it.

This strategy is extremely successful for many in the toy industry who usually are the ones funding the marketing and production. Mattel who was the first to pioneer the program-length commercial in the early eighties doubled their sales for their He-Man action igure shortly after implementation of the advertisement (Carlsson-Paige 69). This implies that such advertising manipulates children through a character they admire and encourages the child to want this product by extending the exposure so that the child will demand the product.

The proliferation of new products aimed for children increases the number of television commercials as well. Common categories are videotapes, 900 number information services, a wider range of food products, including children’s TV dinners and other foods that can be prepared by children, an expanded line of clothing and apparel, and n increase of travel advertisements, such as Disneyland, which are aimed explicitly for children to influence their parents vacation choices (Wartella 449). Children have dominant influence on purchases and consumption rates in American families for several changing sociological reasons.

Children are influencing more purchases because families today are having only one child, hence the increase of one parent families forces the child to a do a great extent of his/her own shopping. More women are delaying childbearing, therefore, when she decides to have a child generally their is more money open to spend than when she was younger. And in 70% of U. S. households both parents work , requiring children to become more self-reliant than earlier generations (Wartella 451). Besides being an ethical issue, exploiting children creates adverse effects.

A study conducted by the American Dietetic Association reveals that advertisers primarily promote high fat and/or high sugar foods and drinks to children. The foods being advertised are not consistent with dietary recommendations. With the extended periods of time contemporary American children spend watching television, concern has risen on the implications this has on health attitudes and behaviors of children. By broadcasting the antithesis of a healthful diet, it may be a significant contributor to obesity in children.

Obesity is the result of an energy imbalance that is created when the diet contains mostly high fat and sugar (Kotz 1298). The American Dietetic Association conducted their study by viewing 52. 5 hours of television during children’s programming. In that time 997 commercials were for a product and a mere 68 were public service announcements. More than half (56. 5%) were advertisements for foods while only 10 of the 68 public service announcements were nutrition related. On the average of the 19 ommercials advertisements per hour 11 were for food.

This means a child views a commercial for food every five minutes (Kotz 1297). This may be an acceptable practice if the foods advertised were nutritious, however, predominantly the foods were inconsistent with what constitutes a healthful diet. Of the 564 food advertisements, 43. 6% were for foods in the fats, oils and sweets group. 37. 5% were for foods in the breads, cereals, rice and pasta food group, however, 23% of those ads were for high sugar cereals. In this particular study there was not a single advertisement for fruits or vegetables (Kotz 1297).

This skewed portrayal of a healthful diet has detrimental consequences not only as a short term effect but the overall effect will stay with the child throughout his/her life. In the United States nine out of 10 adults are at an increased risk of diet related chronic disease. The American Dietetic Association recommends a diet high in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes and to keep fat intake to a minimal, a diet many Americans are lacking perhaps due to advertising’s neglect.

Because dietary patterns of children mirror those of adults, children too are lacking a healthful diet. Evidence indicates hat the atherosclerotic process begins in early childhood and that preventing or slowing this process could extend years of healthful living for many Americans (Kotz 1296). Although it is difficult to distinguish the effect television has on behavioral effects of children, studies show that the amount of time a child spends watching television directly correlates with the request , purchase, and consumption of foods advertised on television.

Heavy marketing of high fat and/or sugar foods and not advertising foods with nutritional value is exploitation; the child does not have the knowledge of what is healthful and is ot able to understand that commercials are designed to sell products (Kotz 1299). This view is accepted by The American Academy of Pediatrics as well. Their position is stated as the following: Parents rather than children should determine what children should eat. Children are unprepared to make appropriate food choices and do not understand the relationship of food choices to health maintenance and disease prevention….

Because young children can not understand the relationship between food choices and chronic nutritional diseases, advertising food products to children promotes profit rather than health (Kotz 1300). Profit seems to be the main motivation in the advertising world. The second effect advertisers promote in young children is materialism coupled often with a loss of self-sufficiency in their ability to make the best with what they have. Due to advertisers influential power on children and the advent of the program-length commercial, children think they have to have certain toys just in order to play.

In the past, children created their own accessories, props and so forth in acting out their play. Today, advertisers convince children they must have a manufactured accessory and prop to play. Basically, the advertiser is taking control of the situation and therefore undermining the child’s basic sense of self-sufficiency (Carlsson-Paige 69). Not only do advertisers dictate how children should play, but they are also creating an environment where children consistently demand more.

Toy manufacturers produce lines of toys which are correlated with cartoons or other children’s programming. This type of strategy is successful in making the child want it more. The toys being sold in this way have only one specific function so the child has to get other components to play effectively. The dvertiser is getting the child to think in terms of quantity (Carlsson-Paige 69). This creates profit for the advertising industry and creates a materialistic view of the world for the child. Concern of the implications of television has received attention for more than 30 years.

Through the pressures of children’s advocacy groups, the television market has received some regulation, though minimal. Many critics argue it is not enough and the government must intervene to stop the exploitation of children through television advertising. Current and past regulations imply that the profitability of the market place is regarded more ighly than the welfare of children (Kunkel 57). The controversy heated up in the late 1960’s when children were considered their own market because of the vast array of commercials directed explicitly to the children’s market.

Advertisers used direct hard-sell approaches in attempts to persuade the children’s market to want the product/service. The advertisers focused their approach on exaggerated claims and showed these commercials often. The public took notice of the repetitiveness and appeals being used and voiced their concern to the Federal Communications Commission (Kunkel 59). In 1970, pressures from a child advocacy group, Action for Children’s television (ACT) presented ample evidence to the FCC on television advertising exploitation of children.

According to findings conducted by the Surgeon Generals Report, advertising is exploiting children because, one, children the age of five can not distinguish program content from commercial content and , two, children eight and under do not have the cognitive skills to identify persuasion (Lazar 69). Therefore children are an unfair market and the public expects protection on a government level. ACT petitioned the FCC to ban all advertisements directed towards hildren eight and under. Despite receiving more than 100,000 letters in support of ACT’s petition, the FCC did not comply with the request.

It took the FCC four years to come up with some restrictions. The restrictions included: advertiser’s must limit advertisement time to 9. 5 minutes per hour on weekends when viewing is highest and 12 minutes during the week (Lazar 70). The FCC believed reducing frequency would offer the child some sort of protection from exploitation. In order to protect the child five and under who cannot distinguish program content from advertisers, the FCC required all tations to comply with the separation principle.

This policy was applied in three different areas: One new requirement was that all television programs adopt a separation device referred to as a Bumper. This device signals to the child a commercial is about to be broadcast. For instance, an announcer might say, “And now a word from our sponsor” (Kankel 62). Critics claim that advertisers have circumvented the rules and they minimize the warnings. For example when speaking disclaimers such as the one mentioned before, the voice over is spoken rapidly and is not understood fully by the child viewer (Pediatrics 295).

The second area of regulation prohibited host selling. Host selling is when a character from the program promoted products either directly or adjacent to their show. For example a Barbie Doll commercial could not be seen during a Barbie Doll television show. And thirdly, program-length commercials were prohibited at this time (Kankel 62). In the early 1980’s during the time of the Reagan administration, the advertising industry basically deregulated itself. Mattel and other toy companies reinstated the program-length commercial.

In 1984, ACT responded to the proliferation of program length commercials by filing a complaint to the FCC. However, according to the FCC, “marketplace forces can better determine commercial levels than our own rules” (Lazar 70). Kunkel and Roberts had the following conclusion to make: “When forced to choose at an extreme level, society(at least in the form of its representative government) valued the protection of private enterprise, commercial speech, and some degree of the concept of caveat emptor more than it valued the protection of children in their interaction with these institutions” (67).

The government needs to intervene with some form of regulated guidelines because a child can not be regarded in the same sense as an adult audience. Children are vulnerable to persuasion and should not forced to succumb to materialism so early in life. There have been others concerned with this position and freedom of expression in the free enterprise system has allowed television to become the mass marketing tool. Advertisers seem unconcerned about ethical obligations. So it has to be individual families to shield their children from exploitation.

Cynthia Scheibe, psychology professor, and Peggy Charren, founder of ACT, has the following recommendations to lessen the degree of exploitation of children. The amount of television watched should be limited in order to ecrease its negative effects. Adults should impress upon youngsters that having more toys or clothes won’t always bring satisfaction.

As a parent, one should watch the advertisements with the child and ask the child such questions as “What is it they’re trying to sell? The parent should also take the child to the store to see if the desired products are really as exciting in real life as they appear to be on television. The parent should point out to the child that the objects surrounding the product are unrealistically big meaning the toy is probably smaller than it appears. And lastly, get the child to make up is or her own commercial and try to sell a product to another child to see how difficult it is to sell a product fairly in 30 seconds (Collins 5).

Although these suggestions are useful they still are not a remedy for the problem advertisers create. It is society’s responsibility to push for regulation that will protect America’s children from advertisers’ exploitation. The first amendment gives all citizens responsibility along with freedom: the responsibility to protect their vulnerable youth, the responsibility to limit their excesses, which with the pervasion of advertising has become next to mpossible, and the responsibility to insulate children from a world of adults who employ unfair tactics just to sell.

It is the duty of adults to teach sound ethics to children rather than to breach all ethical considerations for the purpose of selling, thus brainwashing our children through commercials and making them feel incomplete, inferior, and inadequate if they do not purchase various advertised products. It is citizens’ responsibility to nurture children to become self-sufficient, creative, healthy adults who have not a distorted propensity for materialism. The welfare of America’s children is the welfare of her future.

Blood Of Children Sampling

Should parents pay a blood bank to store the blood from their newborn baby’s umbilical cord and placenta, in case that child or another family member ever needs it to treat cancer or leukemia? Expectant parents are being urged to do so by companies that have sprung up during the past few years to sell cord-blood banking as a form of “biological insurance” against such dreaded diseases. The pitch is based on reports in medical journals, such as a major study published last week in the New England Journal of Medicine, showing that cord blood can sometimes be used in place of a bone marrow transplant.

Like bone marrow, cord blood is rich in stem cells, which can churn out many different types of cells to rebuild a patient’s blood supply and immune system after high doses of radiation and chemotherapy. And a patient’s own cord blood, or that from a relative, is more likely than cord blood from an unrelated donor to be a good tissue match and to be accepted by the recipient’s body. Some experts in bone-marrow transplantation and blood banking frown on the cord-blood business, arguing that people are being frightened into wasting money on a service they will probably never need.

Moreover, private companies are growing in tandem with public banks, and some scientists worry that private banking will limit public access to cord blood. They are concerned because the cord blood in private banks remains the property of the donor family and is not available to patients seeking a compatible donor. But the companies say that however remote the possibility that the blood will be needed, people who choose to bank their own cord blood have a right to do so.

In most cases their cord blood would be thrown away in the delivery room if they did not pay to bank it. There are only a few cord-blood banks in the United States, and most hospitals do not have specially trained staff members to collect the blood. Like bone marrow, cord blood must be matched to the recipient by tests for six inherited traits that determine an individual’s tissue type. Cord blood does not have to be as precisely matched as bone marrow, but still, the closer the match, the better the odds of success.

The weaker the match, the more likely it is that the recipient’s body will reject the transplant, or the transplant will attack the recipient’s tissues, in life-threatening reaction called graft versus host disease. The companies that freeze cord blood and bank it point out that a person’s own cord blood is a perfect match, and a sibling’s cord blood a more likely match than a specimen from a stranger. And so, the argument goes, the best way to protect an entire family from the unthinkable is to save the newborns’ cord blood.

Promotional literature for one company, Cord Blood Registry, in San Bruno, Calif. , emphasizes that people with cancer in the family may have a special interest in cord-blood banking, along with those who have the hardest time finding matches, hich includes members of racial minorities, especially families in which the parents are of different races. According to a spokeswoman, Scoti Kaesshaefer, the company reaches parents-to-be by promoting itself to doctors, nurses and childbirth educators, and by leaving information at hospitals.

Among the promotional materials the company provided to the New York Times were copies of articles from other newspapers suggesting that cancer among children is on the rise. The company also has a Web site and an 800 number with a recorded greeting that instructs callers to have their credit cards ready. The idea of saving one’s own cord blood seems to be catching on. Cord Blood Registry, which describes itself as the largest private cord-blood banking firm in the United States, has stored 10,000 samples during the past three years: 1,500 in 1995, 3,000 in 1996 and 6,000 in 1997.

The company charges an initial fee of $1,200 to collect a sample and freeze it, and then $95 a year to keep it stored in liquid nitrogen at the blood bank at the University of Arizona. Customers include people with perfectly healthy children, who just want extra peace of mind, as ell as some families who have lost a child to leukemia or another disease and fear for the health of their other children. In its three years of operation, eight customers have retrieved their cord blood for use in medical treatment, said Kaesshaefer.

All eight samples were used for siblings or relatives, she said. By contrast, the largest public-access bank of cord blood, at the New York Blood Center in Manhattan, has collected only 8,686 specimens in six years. But nearly 800 of those samples have been used to treat patients, many of them children, in the United States and overseas. Critics of private cord-blood companies point out that even if a person with banked cord blood does need a transplant later, the stored blood may not be the best choice. Dr.

Pablo Rubinstein, who directs the cord-blood program at the New York Blood Center, said there was a compelling medical argument against using a patient’s own cord blood in some cases. In some young children with leukemia, he said, malignant cells were already present at birth in the cord blood, and transfusing those cells back into the child later might contribute to a relapse. In addition, he aid, bone marrow from a donor could help destroy diseased cells, an effect known as graft versus leukemia. A person’s own cord blood might not have that effect, and in some cases even a sibling’s might not.

Dr. John Wagner, associate director of bone marrow transplantation at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, said that for a child being treated recently, he deliberately rejected cord blood from a sibling in favor of a well-matched unit from an unrelated donor, hoping to take advantage of its antileukemic effect. Dr. Robertson Parkman, director of bone marrow transplantation at Children’s Hospital in Los Angeles, said he saw no point in banking cord blood for most families. “It’s motivated by fear,” he said.

But in families with an ill child who might need a bone-marrow transplant, he said, it makes sense to collect cord blood from any siblings born later and save it. Medical centers with transplant programs will often perform that service, he said. So will some of the private companies, without a fee. When a bone-marrow donor could not be found for 4-year-old Joshua Kelton, who was suffering from leukemia, his parents, stationed at a military base in Honolulu, conceived another child in he hope that the baby’s tissues would match Joshua’s.

They did, and Cord Blood Registry collected the cord blood at birth, stored it in Arizona for a month, and then, when Joshua was ready for the procedure, transported it to a medical center at Stanford University. Joshua was treated with his infant brother’s cord blood in August, and has been declared free of leukemia. “Right now, he’s 100 percent,” his father said in a telephone interview, “a normal child, the way he was before this happened. ” But the Keltons’ experience is hardly representative.

That the family was certain it would need the cord blood sets it apart from most families that store the blood. Wagner is wary of the hard sell of some of the cord-blood companies. “My concern is that it be presented fairly to expectant mothers, who are already fairly vulnerable,” he said. “I have a lot of obstetricians and parents calling me and complaining it’s too late, they missed the opportunity. Others call saying, ‘Should I do this? ‘ It’s hard to answer. I don’t want to bias them. We have someone now who takes the calls for me because it got to be overwhelming. “

Development Of Children

Infants grow at a very rapid rate during the first one and a half years of life. Their development is not only physical, it is also mental, emotionally, and social. These developments are the blue prints for further development in life. During development, there are three basic developmental laws. The first one is the babys development in the head region, followed by the upper body, followed by the trunk portion, and lastly the legs and feet. For example, a baby can hold up their heads first before they can grab an object with their hand. The second law is the babys motor skills. Motor skills are the childs ability to control movement.

There are two basic types of motor skills; they are arge motor skills and fine motor skills. Large motor skills deal with all the large muscles, fine motor skills deal with smaller muscles in the body. The 3rd developmental law is Brain development. As the brain develops, a child responds more and more to sight and sound. Babies are born having some sort of reflexes in order for them to adapt to their surroundings. In the first 2 weeks after birth, infants develop some new reflexes. Babies begin to explore their grasping reflex where they can hold tightly to an object.

A lot of these behaviors are important for a childs survival, without these a child would not be able to hysically develop. The absence of reflexes in a newborn is signals of possible problems in brain development. A babys attention span is very limited. In the first two months, they can only focus on an edge of an object, however by the end of the 2nd month they can see a whole object. Newborns can hear soft voices as well as loud voices and can also notice differences between different sounds that are made. When babies hear someone talking they are inclined to open their eyes wider and look for the speaker.

Infants love the sounds of children since their voices are in a high pitch. This is why they like to hear baby alk Cognitive thinking development is the reasoning and logic of an infant. The first 18 months of development is the sensory motor. In this stage infants develop basic units of knowledge. During this stage infants can form these units only when objects are present. They cannot think about missing objects because they cant act on them. When a very young infant sees an abject and then looks away, the infant thinks the object is no longer there.

They do not have the concept of knowing its there, if its out of sight. Infants will begin to develop the idea of permanent objects at around 4 months. Also, at this part of life they are beginning to learn that a disappearing object can still exist. Infants between 4- 8 months will follow a moving object with their eyes until it has vanished, but they dont search for it. From about 8-12 months infants for the first time will search manually for an object that disappears out of their sight. Social and emotional teaching is an important concept for parents to be aware of.

A nurturing environment can build trails that encourage emotional stability, while repeated stress may cause problems further in development. Infants learn from the people around them the most. Infants learn how to handle a situation through what other people are doing. During the first hour after birth an emotional tie begins. From an early age infants are alert to the people around them. They prefer to look at children and at attractive faces. Infants also communicate through their feelings by crying and screaming. From 0-4 months babies show the majority of their emotions through crying.

Also they can communicate that they want to be alone by turning away and sucking their thumbs. A baby that smiles and is looking around is enerally showing signs that they want to interact with others. Not responding to an infants emotional sign can slow down their social development. Its at this point that they also develop a sense of trust. This strong sense of trust establishes their trust for a lifetime. Without this a baby may have problems communicating with others later on in their development. Often at 5 through 7 months infants develop a sense of fear or shyness of strangers, which is completely naturally.

Infants at this age will sometimes cling to their parents and will not want to be touched by people who they see as being nfamiliar. From 0-4 months babies show the majority of their emotions through crying. They have many cries in which they show different emotions. From 4-8 months infants begin to express a wider range of emotions. Pleasure, happiness, fear, and frustration are shown through gurgles, cools, and wails. They also show movements such as kicking, arm waving, rocking and smiling. From 8-18 months they develop a sense of self. They begin to recognize their image in a mirror and start to become more and more independent.

Babies at this stage have a wide range of emotional states. One minute they could be happy and playing and the next minute they could be kicking and screaming. Moral development begins early in an infants life. Moral develop depends on the type of training and attention an infant gets through its parents. If they are disciplined early enough in age they will grow up knowing things that are right and wrong. If a parent ignores a child and lets them think that the bad things are ok to do, they grow up having no morals taught through their parents.

Children most likely will first learn to respond to the words such as “no” and “hot”. There are 3 stages to moral development. These are preconventional, conventional, and postconventional. Moral development begins with preconventional thinking, which children obey in order to avoid punishment. What determines a childs position in these stages is weather or not they choose what they have done is right or wrong. Speech development beings within the first week after birth. A childs first form of communication is crying. Crying is a babys way of usually saying that they are hungry, tired, or need their diaper changed.

By 3 months babies begin all the gurgles and “woos”. This is the beginning of their development of vowel sounds. By the age of 5 to 6 months most babies will begin to babble and may even slip out the words”ma”, or “da. ” Although a baby might say these words, they cant tie them to a certain person. 10-15 months toddlers can understand a few more words. Names and objects that they hear often are the most easily understood. The most common of these words are mama, dada, cookie, doggy, and car. At this stage in communication babies also learn inflection, which is raising your voice when asking a question.

At 18-24 months their vocabulary has increased and toddlers re most likely to repeat any word they hear. Their vocabulary may include as many as 200 words or more. From this stage on they begin to put words together and can eventually speak a sentence. There are many factors that also contribute to the development of a child. Many things can slow down the development such as low birth weight, being premature and drug use. Birth weight is an important factor associated with an infants overall development and health. Children who were born under 5 pounds are more likely to have serious medical problems and to also have developmental delays.

Transracial Adoption Essay

The topic of child welfare is quite a broad one. There are numerous programs and policies that have been put in place to protect children. One of these policies is that of Adoption. Adoption was put into place to provide alternate care for children who cannot live with their biological families for various reasons. One of the more controversial issues surrounding adoption is that of Transracial adoption. Transracial Adoption is the joining of racially different parents and children (Silverman, 1993). Adoption is as old as time itself, even if it wasnt formally called that.

It has been spoken about in old Greek texts, and in the bible itself. However, not until the 1850s was adoption legally sanctioned. At this point, adoption was usually a matter of financial circumstances. Children were given to farmers to help tend the land during Industrialization, because some families were unable to financially care for the children in their new lives in the city. As the need for adoption laws increased, Massachusetts instituted the first formal statute. These statutes however, did little to protect the child.

Finally, in 1917, Minnesota required the state agency of child welfare to investigate these cases and make recommendations to the court. In present day, now that racism prejudice and segregation is something that children learn about in history books, there is a new issue surrounding adoption. It is now considered controversial when a couple of one race wishes to adopt a child of another race. Transracial adoption is a topic that must be confronted and dealt with so that all children in need of a permanent home can get the best family possible.

Although it does not state in Social Work Policy Statements that Transracial adoption is unacceptable, it does state, The social work profession stresses the importance of ethnic and cultural sensitivity. An effort to maintain a childs identity and his or her ethnic heritage should prevail in all services and placement actions that involve children in foster care and adoption programs (NASW 2000). This statement was made to ensure that we do not lose the importance of our childrens heritage.

However, it also states that Barriers that are unsupported by tested experience, such as resistance to using single parents, foster parents (for adoption), and nontraditional family patterns. (NASW 2000). The relevant policies also states The recruitment of and placement with adoptive parents from each relevant ethnic or racial group should be available to meet the needs of children (NASW 2000). This is geared more towards preventing racism against the adoptive parents. For instance, and African American adoptive parent is just as capable as a Caucasian or Asian in raising a child.

There are many laws that are in place to protect adoptive children and their families as well. One of these laws is the Howard M. Metzenbaum Multiethnic Placement Act of 1994, herein referred to as MEPA. MEPA prohibits an agency or entity that receives Federal assistance and is involved in adoptive or foster care placements from delaying or denying the placement of a child on the basis of race, color or national origin of the adoptive or foster parent, or the child involved.

In addition to this, in 1996 congress amended MEPA, with the Interethnic Adoption Provisions (IEP). IEP prohibits agencies from denying or delaying a childs placement solely because of race or national origin. The provisions included removing misleading terminology. It was changed to discrimination is not to be tolerated; this new terminology strengthens the enforcement of procedures. MEPA and its IEP also have some very specific intentions. First, its intention is to decrease the length of time that a child waits to be adopted.

It is also meant to facilitate the recruitment and retention of foster and adoptive parents that can meet the distinctive needs of children. Lastly, it intends to eliminate discrimination on the basis of the race, color, or national origin of the child or the prospective parent. Many agencies are involved in adoption. These systems are involved on the micro, mezzo, and macro level. The systems that are the most involved on a micro level are the families and the children themselves. Adoption agencies are affected and involved at a macro level.

A practitioner has many roles when working within the adoption system. They must be able to mediate, agitate, broker, and advocate. A practitioner must do all these roles on the micro, mezzo, and macro level. In order to mediate on a micro level, they must be able to mediate between the adoptive families-the children-and the families who have given up the child. On a mezzo level, they must mediate between agencies and families. A practitioner must also agitate the systems on all fronts.

They must do this by working within the families to find the appropriate family for each individual family, and if none seem acceptable, they must stir up the need for better placements. They also must agitate the agency in which they work, so that their coworkers do not drop the ball, or leave a child in limbo for too long. If a practitioner sees that there are problems within the policies and laws with adoption, they must take on the responsibility to agitate the government and show the need and initiative to make policy changes.

Realistically speaking, a social worker that works in adoption has to be a broker. They have to provide the services that the child, and each family may need. If they cannot themselves do the follow up services, then they must refer the families and the children to the appropriate service agencies. As social work professionals constantly say, the clients best interest is our top priority. In the instance of adoption, the child is your number one priority. Therefore, a practitioner must advocate for the child.

A child cannot take care of itself, so it is up to the practitioner to keep the childs best interests in mind. It states clearly over and over again in Professional Social Work research that racism is unacceptable. Continually, we read about Social Work competencies dealing with cultural diversity issues. We are expected as Social Workers to respect all family systems, even non-traditional ones. However, the National Association Of Black Social Workers (NABSW) made a policy statement in 1972 vehemently opposing Transracial adoption.

More specifically, they claim that the future placement of black children with white families must cease immediately. The reasons for this are that raising a black child in a white family denies the blackness of the child. They cannot learn about their culture, ethnicity, or heritage appropriately from a white family. Furthermore, this belief is supported by research that states, Agencies do not intentionally seek to be culturally destructive but rather lack the capacity to help minority clients or communities.

Our Code of Ethics states that we must have certain competencies. Within these competencies are competencies dealing with cultural issues. Cultural competence is paramount for all adoption issues. If we cannot understand the clients culture that we represent, we cannot represent our client. Our cultural competencies state, Social workers shall use appropriate methodological approaches, skills, and techniques that reflect the workers’ understanding of the role of culture in the helping process.

More specifically they must] assess the meaning of culture for individual clients and client groups, encourage open discussion of differences, and respond to culturally biased cues (NASW 2001). Understanding a culture is still different then being completely aware of that culture. A practitioner must be able to find the appropriate fit for the adoptive child within their adoptive family. For some children, they would rather just have a family, for other children, they may want to wait for a family from their national origins.

When children are older, they can express their preferences, however, as social workers we do not want to deny an infant of their heritage. In order to know the full effect of Transracial adoption, longitudinal studies must be done. Fortunately, these studies began in the Sixties and Seventies, so the research results are available to us now. There have been nearly a dozen studies to research the effect Transracial adoption has had on preadolescent and younger children. The results are conclusive, that nearly 75% of transracially adopted children adjust well in their adoptive homes (Silverman 1993).

It shows us that Transracial adoption is a viable means of providing stable homes for waiting children. In 1995 a study was performed, and Transracial adoption was shown not to be detrimental for the adoptee in terms of adjustment. Furthermore, these terms include self-esteem, academic achievement, peer relationships, parental, and adult relationships. What does this all mean Some say that the main issue isnt racial matching policies, but the need to address the reasons why there are so many more black children that go into foster care than other races.

Black women adopt the most frequently in the United States, however, there are no where near as many adoptive parents that could racially match the children waiting for a home. This is very disturbing, there should not be hundreds of thousands more of one race than another in adoption systems. This shows that there is a problem within the system. The root of this problem may be that adoption agencies are encouraged, one way or another, to be racist. There are fewer restrictions for whites to adopt a child of color internationally than domestically (Smith 1996).

In fact, many agencies will not allow white parents to adopt U. S. born black or biracial black children. Ever since the NABSW made their claim in 1972 that it was completely unacceptable for black children to be adopted by white families, there has been a halt in the progression of transracial adoption acceptance. The NABSW reaffirmed its opposition in the 1980s. However, the adoptive children in the United States are primarily black children. If they are not allowed to be adopted by white parents, than more and more black children will clog the child welfare agencies.

Perhaps more black children are removed from their biological homes for reasons such as poverty, lack of housing, or lack of jobs. However, research and studies show that whites are just as poor as blacks are. This means that child welfare workers are targeting black families, and that whites live in more rural areas, where they are less likely to be singled out by a welfare agency. This blatant discrimination needs to stop. Solutions to this ghastly problem are occurring few and far between. The NABSW will continue their strong opposition to transracial adoption, regardless of what the studies show.

As social workers, we must continue to become culturally competent. We must realize the worth and dignity of every ethnicity, national origin, race, and cultural heritage. This includes the fact that the NABSW must realize that white families can indeed provide a wonderful home for black children. The practitioners role would be to continually follow up the adoption, and broker services to help the white parents understand and expose themselves and their children to the childs diverse and rich cultural heritage. Reverse racism is a terrible way to raise our children.

Black children should not be prevented from finding a stable and permanent home because the family that is the best fit for them is a white family. The NABSW is being very protective of their children, which is quite respectable, however, their perspective is limiting the possibility for black children to find good homes. There is a plea for tolerance, and it is coming from the children. The older children get within adoption agencies the less adoptable they become. It is our responsibility as professionals to provide the best possible care for our clients.

The Similarities and Differences Between Parents and Their Children

The transition from childhood to adulthood is a journey undergone by all, but all in a different way. While some people believe that the maturation process is a time for one to develop one’s individuality and uniqueness from one’s parental figures, others believe that growing up is a fine-tuning of beliefs, morals and ideology passed down from generation to generation. The old saying A chip of the old block in most cases applies to every human, regardless of how different one may seem from one’s parents.

Qualities are inherited that cannot be suppressed and will always prevail despite how much one may want to differ form one’s parents. While protruding into this topic, valuable issues must be discussed; moral ideology, lifestyles, social influences, and physical attributes are all factors in the distinction between a child and his/her parents. Morals are one of the key ingredients in raising a child. These thoughts are passed from the parent to the youngster from birth and possibly even as far as death.

Parents are always helping the development of morals weather intentional or through actions displayed by the parent. Although a parent may not even realize that morals are being taught, the idea of good and bad are presented even in the act of disciplining a child. Kids grow up learning how to handle situations from past experiences and the lessons that have been attained. Perhaps a simple example of this rational is the lesson of truth. When a child lies to his/her mother, the mother reprimands the child and disciplinary action may be taken.

If appropriately used, the punishment will teach the child that it is unacceptable to lie. As time progresses, the child will usually develop an understanding to tell the truth. This is important in comparing a child from a parent because if the parent never learned that it is inappropriate to lie, then the child will most likely understand the importance of truth because truth was not a moral prevalent in the child’s upbringing. Although parents most often teach commendable lessons, negative morals can also be developed in a person due to actions taken by the parent in the past.

For example, it is a possibility that a parent is always pushing a child to attend church. When the child loathes attending services and tries at all costs to avoid them, a resistance to religion can be formed. The child can develop excuses as to why attending church is pointless and begin to believe these reasons. Further down in life a complete opposition to religion could possibly be established based on the roots of a boring mass. Now the parent whose morals are set in organized religion has a child who has drifted away from religion and entirely new ideas are developed in his/her mind.

Morals play an important part in comparing and contrasting the similarities between a parent and a child. The presence of morals usually is passed down to the child, however sometimes the moral ideology presents itself in a completely different manner that proposes opposition between parents and children. While morals are very relevant to the discussion of behavioral similarities and differences between parents and children, lifestyles and the reasons behind a chosen lifestyle is also a prevalent topic in the discussion.

Some people tend to choose a similar path that their parents have chosen, while others choose to break away and take a completely alternate route. The way one lives depends largely upon his/her personality and motivation, which in turn, is greatly effected by the parents. If one is brought up in an environment that is very neat and tidy, most likely that person will follow the habits of growing up in that manner and will continue to keep things orderly. The effect can be best described in terms of the word imitation.

Because the child is so used to doing things a certain way, when the absence of the parent arises, the habits are carried over. Usually this process goes either one of two ways: the child either mimics the parent’s habits or the child develops a resistance. Typically when youths reach college, they are so tired of doing things the right way that a form of rebellion occurs. The whole lifestyle is rearranged now that the parental figure is missing, and things are free to go as they please. This typically happens when one is forced to do something against one’s will.

This occurrence is very similar to the changing of morals due to a disliked aspect of life. Another example of this is displayed in Alice Walker’s Everyday Use. In this story, Dee, one of the daughters, leaves home due to her strong-willed ways (exactly like her mother. ) Dee leaves the home for city life, a completely different lifestyle, and returns with the same hard-headedness. However, she now leads a life entirely opposite to that which she was raised in. Dee’s new name, Wangero, is possibly a sign of rebellion from her mother.

The two are so much alike that they are torn apart because they both stand up for what they want, regardless of the reasons that they hold. The path in life that one chooses is most definitely caused by the way one is raised, weather or not the path is similar is dependent upon many aspects of growing up. Although Everyday Use presents the suggestion of changing lifestyles in the ascertation of similarities and differences between a mother and a daughter, the story also shows how the changing of society can cause parents and children to resemble or differ from one another.

Part of the reason that Dee went through such an extravagant change was because society was also going through changes. When generations develop new ideas and trends also develop, such as in Dee’s case of trying to stay up to date in what was going on in her environment, children begin to differ from their parents. While this makes parents and children different in the sense that their likes and dislikes are not the same, it also makes them similar because every generation is prone to societies influences.

For the most part, younger generations participate in the changing of the times and this does cause differences in attitudes between children and parents. There are some cases, however, where because a child does not participate in the evolution of society the child is very similar to the parent in one aspect while a sense of individualism is never achieved. In William Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily, Miss Emily is stuck in a society that was present when her father was still alive.

Miss Emily’s immaturity to face real issues drive her to insanity because she never fully develops her own self and her own personal strengths. She does not face society after her father’s death because she never really adapts to society in the first place. While her father was alive, Miss Emily led a somewhat normal life, however she never fully adapted to social interaction, therefore, when her father died, she was unable to handle life in a society. While Miss Emily is very proud of her father and family heritage, just like her father was, she is also very unstable because she lacks her own identity.

This is a rather extreme example of how social interaction within a culture can distinguish between the similarities and differences between parents and children, however it is a beneficial example in proving how people develop due to their upbringing and society’s impact upon one’s lifestyle. Aside from the way a child is raised and the presence of parental supervision in one’s life, there are more obvious factors that allow for similarities in a child and his/her parents. There are certain mental conditions that force a child to act in a similar manner to his/her parents.

Some aspects of one’s personality are passed down and are usually surfaced in one’s character. A simple example of this is alcoholism. It is a theory of many people that alcoholism is a genetic inheritance. Therefore, if one is a child of an alcoholic, one is prone to become an alcoholic following in the footsteps of the parent. There are also mental disabilities that are thought of as genetically inherited such as ADHD and Turret’s syndrome. These mental disorders are yet another example of how one can unintentionally mimic some behavioral patters of one’s parents.

Some people think that children can grow old and never contain any similarities as the parents. I, however, feel as though the parents play an important role in the development of a child. Children learn from their parents, therefore actions, attitudes, and feelings are grown surrounded by the already-learned lessons of the adults. Aside from the morals, lifestyles, and social influences, children are a part of their parents. Character traits must be passed down and similar ways are learnt. The old saying The apple doesn’t fall far from the tree is definitely a statement that should be taken with some true consideration.

Image of Child Heros

The image of a child hero or “trickster” is seen in many cultures. This kind of role can tell a lot about how a culture acts and reacts to things. The idea of the child hero in stories written and told before the birth of Christ probably reflect the peoples beliefs that the child is the future, and therefore carries some sort of power or gift. For stories that were written after the birth of Christ, the child could reflect the idea stated above, or it could also be the peoples belief in an infant savior, that a child will make everything right again.

Whether the story comes from before Christ or after, the one uniform aspect about these stories is that they are present in every culture, all around the world. The image of the “trickster” is also very prevalent in the different cultures. It is seen in many different fables and moral-based stories. “You cannot go against the Philistine, you are but a youth, and he has long been a man of war”(Metzger 145). This is what King Saul of Israel said to David when he proposed that he fight the Philistine warrior Goliath.

The story of David and Goliath is quite possibly one of the oldest child hero stories. It was part of the Bible, in the Old Testament. In this story a young man named David proposes to the king of Israel that he fight and attempt to kill Goliath, the giant that had been plaguing Israel. The king agrees, however hesitantly, and David goes on to slay the beast using just a slingshot. While this story is not one that was made up, it still shows us that the ancient Hebrews believed in the fact that a child, or in this case teen, has the will and motivation to do the impossible.

Staying on the eastern side of the world, we will next see examples of Russian stories. In the former Soviet Union, a lot of the time stories, books and other types of art were hard to come by. “In a broader sense, though, recent years have witnessed genuine cultural enrichment, as Gorbachevs glasnost policy permitted the works of previously forbidden writers, artists, and cinematographers to become accessible”(Grolier Multimedia). After the public was able to get at the mass of stories that had been kept from them, there was even more of an increase of books and other forms of art.

The Russian people now had much more of an incentive to write. “In a certain village, not near, not far, ot high, not low, there lived an old couple with one little son named Ivashko” (Wyndham 32). This is the line that begins the story of Ivashko and the Witch. This story takes place in a small village in Russia, and the main character is a small boy named Ivashko. Ivashko was a very independent boy who wanted to go of on his own and go fishing. He begged and pleaded with his parents, and finally they gave in.

His father built him a canoe and off he went. Ivashko was doing well while he was fishing, but and one point was lured to shore by an evil witch. The witch grabbed him and took him to her house deep in the woods. She showed him to her daughter and they decided that they would eat him. At this point the witch left to get some of her friends. Ivashko seized this opportunity, and when the witches daughter went to sit down on a shovel in order to demonstrate to Ivashko how to do it, he through her into the fire.

He then left and ran up a tree. The witch found him and started gnawing at the tree. Luckily for Ivashko, a flock of geese was flying overhead and one flew down to sweep him up. Just as he left the tree fell over on the witch and all her evil friends, crushing them. Ivashko lived happily ever after. This shows that in the Russian culture there is a presence of the child hero, and even shows the image of the trickster in the way Ivashko tricked the witchs’ daughter into showing him how to sit on a shovel.

Ivashko is a hero in this story not only because he killed the witch, but because he rid the lake and the woods of the evil that kept most people from going there. Although this isn’t one of the newly released works in Russia, I think that the children’s stories, sometimes being all that the Russian people had to read that wasn’t corrupted by the government, made a reat contribution to the development of the Russian culture and also had a great impact on many people. The image of the trickster is also very prevalent in different cultures.

In the African culture the trickster comes to the forefront in many different folk tales and fables. He is usually used to teach a lesson or to show a moral. In most cases the trickster ends up getting the short end of the stick, but in the story I’m going to relate to you, Sungura and the Leopard, the trickster comes out on top. In the African jungle there lived a leopard. One day it started to rain, nd fearing that he may lose his spots, the leopard decided to build a house. A short distance away, a rabbit (Sungura) had the same idea.

Both chose the same spot to build a house. They both then started to go and gather wood. Each was adding to the same pile, but neither one knew that the other was also going to build there. They just thought that their ancestors had put the extra wood there. Leopard then went to get mud for the roof, and came back to find the house already framed. He attributed this to his ancestors and went on to finish the house. The two slept in the house that night not knowing that they were together. In the morning they found each other and agreed to build a small wall and share the house.

After a while, Rabbit started a family. The noise got too annoying for Leopard, so he decided that he would kill them. Rabbit overheard and decided that it was time to play a trick on Leopard. He started having his kids cry for elephant meat. Leopard overheard this and got scared. He figured ” if he can kill an elephant then he can kill me”. So he left. He then saw a baboon, and was called foolish for believing the rabbit. Then he went back. He then overheard Rabbit say “I can’t believe that leopard listened to the baboon! What a fool! (Knuston 19). Rabbit then had his children cry for Leopard meat, and when Leopard heard Rabbit say that he would go out and hunt some, he left for good. Rabbit now had the house all to himself. This is a tale that came out of the Ashanti tribe, and the point of it was to say that even if you are small, if you use your brain then you can prevail. “Ashanti artistic creations include a wealth of myths and tales… ” (Miller 2). Tales such as this one are seen throughout the African tribes, and he trickster is usually the one who prevails.

The Ashanti, as well as the other tribal Africans, believed that it was more important to use ones mind and to be able to think quick than to just rely on brute strength all of the time. Using the image of the trickster also served as an educational tool. It displayed to the young children that they can get out of a conflict without fighting. It also taught them that pride was bad, because Leopard only wanted the house so that he wouldn’t lose his spots, and Rabbit, the winner, only wanted the house so he could raise a family.

European culture also has its fair share of trickster tales in Aesops Fables. In these stories, which were said to have been written by a Greek man named Aesop some time in the sixth century BC, there is always a moral for an ending. While Aesops Fables is more of a collection of stories from different, unknown authors, Aesop gets the credit for it. The most commonly used “trickster” in the fables is the wolf. He is shown to be very sneaky and mean, but also very smart. In many of the tales he is successful as the trickster, and his main objective is usually to eat ome sort of defenseless animal.

One example of the wolf as a trickster is the story of the “Wolf and the Crane”. In this story, the wolf has a bone stuck in his throat and asks a crane to use its long neck to pull it out. The wolf offers a reward, so the crane reluctantly accepts. After the bone is out the crane asks for her reward, and gets this reply, ” You can go about boasting that you once put your head into a Wolf’s mouth and didn’t get it bitten off. What more do you want? ” (Santore 3). this showed the cunningness of the wolf whereas he got the service that he eeded for nothing in return.

One fable where the trickster didn’t come out on top was in the fable entitled ” The donkey in the Lion’s Skin”. In this case the trickster was a donkey. He found a lion skin, dressed himself in it, and then went around scaring friends. When he neighed in happiness at his triumph, the fox heard him, and exposed him for what he was. Here the fable taught the moral that if one is to be a trickster, then make sure you are very careful about it. Probably the most famous tricksters and child heroes ever to be introduced to the world were Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn.

These two boys, created by Mark Twain, spent their entire lives tricking people for different reasons and also becoming heroes by getting themselves into many interesting adventures. In the book The Adventures of Tom Sawyer the two boys end up capturing a criminal and bringing him to justice before the whole town. Another example of Tom Sawyer’s heroics was when he and a girl were trapped in a cave, and when she passed out from exhaustion he took it upon himself to get her water and keep her alive. In the end they were rescued from the cave and Tom was given accolades as a hero.

Children Of Alcoholics

The topic I chose for the research assignment is children of alcoholics. I chose to focus more on the children that are involved in families of alcoholics rather than on the family as a whole, because I felt there would be too much information. Because I grew up in a stable, relatively normal family, I chose to research a topic in which I did not have experience with. The participants that I chose for the interview are people that I know to have problems with parental alcoholism.

Both of the interviewees are mature enough to reflect upon their childhood experiences, and are also still dealing with them to a point. The male participant is a friend of my sister, and the female participant is my roommate. I will discuss the research that I have done on children of alcoholics and then I will discuss the interviews. The National Association for Children of Alcoholics reports that there are an estimated 11 million children of alcoholics under the age of eighteen in the United States (Children of Alcoholism: Important facts).

Additionally the association states that “almost one in every five adult Americans lived with an alcoholic while growing up” (Children of Alcoholism: Important facts). These statistics are horrifying. Living with an alcoholic is a very dangerous and emotionally stressful experience. Effects of growing up in an alcoholic family include Fetal Alcohol Syndrome for a baby that is exposed to alcoholism in the womb, hyperactivity, alexithymia, low self esteem, child abuse and many others. Teenagers who are children of alcoholics are emotionally neglected and might start drinking earlier than their peers.

Adults who have survived living with an alcoholic family often have trouble functioning in relationships. In the 1970’s, researchers and other professionals began to look deeply into the “impact of parental alcoholism on children” (Jacob and Seilhamer 168). This began to open America’s eyes to the dangers of being a child of an alcoholic. Although research on this issue has relatively just started, concern for these unfortunate children has been documented as far back to the time of Aristotle (Jacob and Seilhamer 168).

The gin epidemic in England during the 1700’s sparked concern due to “high infant morbidity and mortality” (Jacob and Seilhamer). Problems associated with being the child of an alcoholic regained national attention in the past 25 years with the formation of such groups as the National Association for Children of Alcoholics, and programs for treatment and prevention such as Al-Ateen (Jacob and Seilhamer 168). The amount of attention that is paid to studying and trying to help children of alcoholics indicates how much of a problem it is.

Lindy Boggs, former Congresswoman and chairperson of the Task Force of Crisis Intervention once remarked, Alcohol abuse seemed to be connected to and exacerbate, so many problems that American families and their children face (Alcohol Abuse and its Implications for Families). Although this paper will discuss the many family issues that accompany being a relative of an alcoholic, the main focus will be on the children of alcoholics. Children of alcoholics are important to observe and study because they are, in most cases, the innocent victims of parental alcohol abuse.

Sara Markowitz and Michael Grossman articulate the importance of parental alcohol abuse by stating, Alcohol use and abuse is an important research topic because of the significant costs alcohol abuse imposes on individual users, their families, and society as a whole (309). Being born to a mother who is an alcoholic is a struggle from conception. Some of the outcomes that can occur from this type of pregnancy are “spontaneous abortion, still birth” and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (Windel 30).

The latter is a term that refers to “birth defects common to children whose mothers were chronic alcoholics who drank heavily throughout pregnancy” (Windel 29). Some of the abnormalities of children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome are growth retardation, central nervous system deficits, developmental delay, brain malformations, and characteristic facial features. These effects of being born to an alcoholic mother have a devastating effect on both the child and the family as a whole.

Families that deal with miscarriages and still births are faced with emotional distress which could include: sadness, frustration, disappointment and anger (Knox and Schacht 341). This may worsen the condition of the alcoholic mother because she might blame herself for the death (Knox and Schacht 341). Dealing with such problems as hyperactivity and developmental delay create extra stress on the parents of the children (Knox and Schacht 332). Even in children that do not suffer from Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, there are other detriments associated to being in a family with a history of alcoholism.

Corral et al. observed lower performance in children with a family history of alcoholism than in children with out alcoholic relatives in attentional, visiospatial, and frontal tasks (509). In addition, developmental difficulties may be expressed in a child of an alcoholic and include elevated motoric activity, attention deficits, reactivity, impulsivity, and anxiety (Hussong et al. 453). Again, all of these outcomes are an added stress on the family of the child. Alcoholism impacts families of all races, socioeconomic status, religions, and other backgrounds.

Although each family responds and deals with alcoholism differently, there are several universal problems that most families must face. Ruth Ann Seilhamer and Theodore Jacob have proposed a pathway in which parental alcoholism affects offspring (176). This pathway of will provide the structure in which the ways children of alcoholics are affected are discussed. The first step in the pathway is consumption of the alcohol. The intake of the alcohol leads to three possible effects.

One of the first effects is the ethanol effects (Seilhamer and Jacob 176). In this direct result of alcohol consumption, the ability to be an effective parent is impaired (Seilhamer and Jacob 176). According to Cathy Spatz Widom, in the article Child Abuse and Alcohol Use and Abuse, under the influence of alcohol, individuals who may already be stressed may misinterpret cues and resort to abusive behavior (291). Many parents that abuse alcohol perform their duties differently when intoxicated and when sober (Ackerman 13).

According to Robert Ackerman, author of Let Go and Grow, When drinking, the alcoholic would demonstrate irresponsible behavior to the child, and when sober would try to do all of the positive parenting at one time (13). The behaviors exhibited by the alcoholic parent affect the child psychologically, because there is no consistency in parenting. Child abuse is one of the most devastating side effects of ethanol consumption. Abuse can range from psychological abuse to physical abuse and in some cases sexual abuse.

There are many statistics that support the fact that alcoholism and abuse go hand in hand. Markowitz and Grossman estimate that around forty percent of all cases of child maltreatment (including physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect) involve alcohol (310). Additionally, studies shows that thirteen percent of child abuse cases involved a perpetrator who was intoxicated at the time of the attack, and that in sixty nine percent of cases of child abuse, at least one parent was an alcoholic (Markowitz and Grossman 310).

There are many ways in which families are affected by alcoholism. Marital strain is one of the primary outcomes of parental alcoholism. Many times, if one parent is an alcoholic and the other is not, the non-alcoholic parent has a great deal of stress and responsibility. Spouses of alcoholics, may be resentful or frustrated with their partners actions. The non-alcoholic parent must perform the duties of both parents when the alcoholic is too intoxicated to fulfill them. Consequently, non-alcoholic parents may be inconsistent, demanding and frequently neglect the children (Duffy).

Lindy Boggs asserts, Spouses of alcoholics cannot support their children emotionally because they are so wrapped up in their own survival (Alcohol Abuse and its Implications for Families). Studies have shown that it is unlikely for husbands of female alcoholics to stay married (Ackerman 50). Thus, additionally emotional strain is placed upon all family members. Having financial difficulties is another issue that families of alcoholics cope with. The family may have to give up certain privileges due to the amount of money spent on alcohol.

Anyone that is a chronic drinker of alcohol is susceptible to a host of medical problems, which in turn may compound to financial problems (Seilhamer and Jacob 176). Doctor and hospital bills are a large financial burden on a family, which could create more tension and stress. Because many alcoholics drinking interferes with employment, unemployment is closely related to alcoholism (Boggs). Without one possible source of income, and money being spent on an addiction, a family would experience great financial distress. Children may not receive the nutrition and necessities that are needed.

Children of alcoholics often experience social isolation or difficulties (Seilhamer and Jacob 176). Ellen Duffy from the Al-Anon Family Group Headquarters reports that, Children may be ashamed of their home or afraid they will be embarrassed in front of their friends (The Effects of Alcoholism on the Family). So, in order to escape the embarrassment, the children of alcoholics tend to shy away from friendships. The anxiety, depression and avoidance that many children of alcoholics feel lead to withdrawal, isolation and poor social skills over time (Hussong et al. 5).

And, because the alcoholic parent or parents are more attentive at sober times than when intoxicated, the children receive a conflicting portrayal of intimacy and family cohesiveness (Seilhamer and Jacob 182). Although alcoholism is a genetic disorder, environmental factors are also important in the manifestation of the disease (Windel 9). Children look up to their parents and model their behavior, so it is no surprise that a great number of children of alcoholics turn into alcoholics themselves.

Cathy Spatz Widom suggests, Early onset and heavy use of alcohol may represent a coping strategy used by abused and neglected children to help them adapt to their early childhood trauma and to distance themselves from the painful realities they experienced (295). The children dealing with parental alcoholism learn from parental actions that to deal with stress or problems, drinking is viable option. This is not a healthy response to stress and the family problems are never resolved. According to the pathway described by Seilhamer and Jacob, both the family effects and the ethanol effects lead to disrupted parenting (176).

As mentioned before, alcoholic parents do not provide a consistent and supportive environment (Seilhamer and Jacob 177). In some cases, there is no motivation for children to perform well because parents are too wrapped up in dealing with alcoholism, and pay little attention to accomplishments of the child (Ackerman 7). All of these effects of alcoholism lead to child adjustment difficulties (Seilhamer and Jacob 176). Being in a family of an alcoholic has devastating effects on a childs performance academically.

In addition to being at a disadvantage due to being born with cognitive and attentional impairments caused by parental alcoholism, children must face additional hurdles (McGrath et al. 20). Because alcoholic and dependent parents often do not provide structure and are inconsistent, the children have poor organizational skills (McGrath et al. 19). Alcoholics may be dealing with their own impairments and may not provide an intellectually stimulating environment that encourages academic competency (McGrath et al. 19). Education is an area in which a child should be encouraged and supported.

Without proper values instilled in their young minds, children of alcoholics are robbed of their opportunity to succeed in life. In his book, Let Go and Grow, Robert Ackerman lists some concerns of young and adolescent children of alcoholics. For young children the emotional conflicts are: worrying about the health of the alcoholic parent and fights between the alcoholic and the dependent, being confused by the inconsistency and unpredictability of the family patterns, feeling unloved and being scared by the possibility of violence in the family, and feeling responsible for the alcoholics drinking (Ackerman 52).

Adolescents have other conflicts such as: being concerned about what others think of their families alcoholism and whether or not they will inherit the disease; dealing with living with an alcoholic and how to develop better skills for coping with their parents alcohol abuse; worrying about the health of their parents and how to survive their parents troubled relationship (Ackerman 52). Children of alcohol dependent parents are often deprived of having enjoyable experiences as a family. Because the children are conditioned to constantly handle conflict and crisis, they are unable to relax their defenses and have fun (Ackerman 9).

This is a horrible way to experience childhood and undoubtedly has an emotional effect on the individual as a child and will be carried into adulthood. Numerous studies and research has attested to the fact that alcoholism is passed on through genetics and behavioral learning. Former Senator Paula Hawkins revealed that, the sons of alcoholic father are four times more likely to become alcoholics, and the daughters of alcoholic mothers are three times as likely to become alcoholics (Alcohol Abuse and its Implications for Families).

Because the children of alcoholics experience a greater number of life stressors than do non children of alcholics, they are more likely to be depressed, have a lowered self esteem, and associate with peers that are involved in deviant behaviors (McGrath et al. 19). These characteristics which develop from being a child of an alcoholic are often the cause of alcohol and other substance abuse (McGrath et al. 18). Alcoholic families often allow this behavior due to the fact that little attention is paid to the child.

Children of alcoholics are also prone to resolving conflicts by drinking, because the behavior is reinforce by the parents (Dunn and Goldman 579). Alcohol may serve a variety of functions for the emotionally scarred child. It can reduce the feelings of isolation created by the alcoholic and their spouse, act as an escape from a neglecting and abusive environment, act as a means to gain control over the childs life or be used to help boost the childs self esteem (Spatz Widom 295).

Children with alcoholic parents are more likely to begin drinking at an earlier age than their peers (Windel 15). Also, as mentioned previously, parental alcoholism may cause hyperactivity. In a study by Michael Windel, it is shown that a number of children who are hyperactive children of alcoholics become aggressive and undersocialized teenagers (134). These teenagers consumed larger quantities of alcohol than their peers and the behavior expressed is predictive of adult alcohol abuse and alcoholism (Windel 134).

It is a sad fact that many children born to alcoholics will be destined to become alcoholics themselves. With both genetic and environmental forces working against them, children of alcoholics have little chance of creating a normal, nurturing life for themselves and their future families (Seilhamer and Jacob 170). Unfortunately, the emotional impact on being born to an alcoholic family is long lasting, even if a child does not end up being an alcoholic. Many adult children of alcoholics developed exaggerated coping styles, which lead to dysfunction in adulthood (Seilhamer and Jacob 168).

It is difficult for children of alcoholics to achieve successful intimate relationships in adulthood because all they have ever known were negative relationships (Ackerman 10). Adult children of alcoholics often find themselves intimately involved with someone who is an alcoholic, or is in some way abusive. Thus, the suffocating and detrimental cycle of alcoholism continues. In order to gain a more personalized perspective on being a child of an alcoholic, I conducted two interviews. It is important to understand that not all families that have an alcoholic member of the family are the same.

I learned this first hand from the interviews that I conducted. The first interview that I conducted was on an eighteen-year-old male, C E. He is the child of an alcoholic father and is considered to be lower class in socioeconomic status. When asked if he drank or used other substances on a usual basis he replied that he drank approximately once a month and did not use other drugs. I asked the interviewee if he was afraid of becoming an alcoholic and he replied that he wasnt. When furthered questioned about life as a child of an alcoholic, he was rather unresponsive.

I feel that this is a part of the response mechanism that most children of alcoholics possess. Ackerman states that often the parents live one way and instruct the children not to tell anyone or ask the child to deny to outsiders whatever he or she sees (7). Thus, this child is not accustomed to talking about the problems of his parents, therefore was not willing to share sensitive information. The second person that I interviewed was more open and willing to share life experiences than the first.

The interviewee is a nineteen-year-old college student named J T. Both of her parents are alcoholics and she has received counseling for the problems associated with being a child of an alcoholic. A great deal of the conflicts and experiences that J has been through can be explained by the issues mentioned in this paper. Realization of a problem began at the age of five when she remembers asking her parents to get a divorce. The interviewees alcoholic parents had a great deal of marital conflict, which is common in alcohol dependent families. On several occasions, the interviewee was blamed for the parental arguments or blamed for the alcoholism of the parent.

There were also financial problems due to the constant purchase of alcohol. She has seen the receipts of five or six bottles of vodka and scotch purchased at a time. Because her parents were concerned with their own lives and drinking, she never really had a structured childhood. Ms. T recalls never having a set curfew and never having to prove to her parents where she was going when she went out. This lack of guidance and consistency is another characteristic of alcoholic parents behavior. Although as a child she was not asked to keep the alcoholism of either parent a secret, the interviewee was often embarrassed to invite friends over.

This is a common reaction among children of alcoholics. When she was you, Ms. T got very upset when she would find alcohol hidden around the house. However, as a teenager, she would just take the alcohol and save it for herself. She started drinking at age fourteen and was even given alcohol often as a baby. The family never had any fun family events because most holidays, occasions, or seldom trips were disrupted by alcohol abuse. As in other families, Ms. Ts parents were not very encouraging or supportive in terms of education. They just expected her to do well and punished her when she did not perform to their standards.

When asked if she was afraid of becoming an alcoholic, the interviewee responded that she was. Because alcoholism is very abundant in her family, she tries not to fall into the pattern of becoming an alcoholic. She is very careful not to drink when she is upset and does not let alcohol determine if she is having a good time. I believe that the statement made by Ms. T that most encompasses the feeling of being a child of alcoholic parents is this: I dont know what a problem is because I dont know what normal is. The life that she has lived as a child of alcoholics is, unfortunately, the only one she knows.

As can be seen by examining the wealth of literature on alcoholism and conducting personal interviews with children of alcoholics, alcoholism is a problem that many families are faced with. Many institutions have been created in order to help the family members that are caught in the web of alcohol abuse. In studying families, it is important to learn more about alcoholic families because they represent a large number of families. Every member of a family is affected by an alcoholic, whether it be in marital problems, child abuse or a host of other problems.

Family therapists need to understand the dynamics of a family dealing with alcoholism in order to be successful in aiding the family. More efforts need to be taken to help the innocent victims of alcohols devastating wrath. The words or former Senator Paula Hawkins are a call for action: In our mutual effort to create a better world for our children, we must ensure that their freedom to develop and grow, from fetus to maturity, is not destroyed because of the disease of alcoholism (Alcohol Abuse and its Implications for Families).

Children and the Internet

Although the U. S. created the Internet in the 1960s as a communications tool for the military, it was not until after the government opened it to the public in the late 1980s that the Internet became a unique communications phenomenon. Nobody could predict the speed by which people all over the world grabbed onto this new form of technological communication. In 1995, there were an estimated 56 million Internet users worldwide; by 1999, this figure is expected to rise to 200 million.

This tremendous growth has caused something our world has never seen before; for the first time in history, the governments of this planet are facing something that is larger than all of them combined . . . and they are terrified. A wealth of information is readily available to those who possess the technological means to access and contribute to it. It is the place where “any person can become a town crier with a voice that resonates farther than it could from any soapbox” (Sheremata 22). This has made the Internet a very powerful and positive forum for free expression.

Parents, however, are concerned that the Internet makes pornographic, hateful, violent, profane and destructive content easily accessible to their children. But who is ultimately responsible for keeping the Internet safe for children: parents, educators, Internet service providers or the government? And how can one regulate this new form of communication without infringing on peoples’ right to freedom of expression? Some would say that the Internet needs to be regulated by eliminating all pornographic, destructive, violent and hateful web sites. This would ensure the protection and welfare of everyone’s children.

Pornography and “adult-oriented sites” are the main part of the Internet that parents do not want their children to have access to. From text to images, the graphic portrayals of almost every form of sexual activity are available to anyone regardless of age or gender. Without any restrictions one may view these images or read these “stories” within a few minutes of logging onto the Net. Making Internet service providers (ISPs) delete all the pornography may be the key to getting rid of Internet smut. Hate propaganda is not a recent symptom of the Net but has grown significantly in the past few years.

The Internet has more than 150 extreme web sites, offering a vast array of racist literature and graphics. The propaganda that these racist sites publish is believed to be detrimental to children’s welfare and mental stability. Anti-Semitic views and harassment are also part of the hate propaganda expressed on the Net. Many people think that the Internet should be free from such racism and hate, and that getting rid of these web sites would be beneficial for all. Another problem with the Internet is all the sites that contain destructive and violent texts.

Recipes for things like how to make pipe bombs have parents worried. Parents become very frightened for the safety of their children when they can make a bomb from household materials. About two years ago at a bus terminal near Erminskin Shopping Centre in Edmonton, Alberta, a teenager placed a homemade pipe bomb into a watermelon that blew not only the watermelon apart along but the bus terminal as well. Such recipes for disaster are everywhere on the net and should be eliminated before more children get hurt or killed. Children are vulnerable to what they see and read on the Internet.

Pornography, hate propaganda, and violent content is upsetting, confusing and can give children incorrect information and can also be emotionally destructive. They don’t have the knowledge to decide whether this material is good for them or not and cannot differentiate between healthy and unhealthy sexual activity. Children are easily influenced and should not be able to view or access such sites which contain pornography or hate propaganda. Canadian law states that a person must be 18 or older to purchase erotica, yet a child of nine can access such pictures on the Net that would make most adults sick.

Hate propaganda on the net may recruit kids into cults or influence their beliefs so that they exhibit racist behaviours. Also, any user can enter a hate web-site, and download pages of text and graphics without any legal hindrance or technological impediment. Such ideas and beliefs must be not be exposed to children for their safety. Destructive and violent texts also need to be kept at arms length from children because children are curious by nature. They may attempt to make some of these homemade recipes from the Net.

Children have had their hands blown off before, when attempting to make pipe bombs from a recipe off the Internet. The Internet provides access to more pornography and hate speech than parents can handle, but it also provides the tools to let them protect their children from such evils. Many markets have an incentive to regulate themselves, competing to offer consumers protection from unpleasant experiences. Parents can choose Internet access from service providers that can help them keep their offspring away from offensive material.

American Online (AOL) is one of these ISPs that offer parental controls for differing ages such as child, teenager, and adult. The government is also regulating ISPs in order to them accept some of the responsibility for the material that they circulate using their network on the Internet, and will also be required to obtain a license. To guarantee that minors are not accessing inappropriate material, content providers will be required to register all users who visit their sites to verify their age.

This registration process will prevent anonymous browsing and speech online, since the user will have to identify themselves in order to enter that specific site. Also, filter and blocking software can control the presence and accessibility on the Internet of material judged objectionable by parents. The user-based filtering software is presented as an option for parents and educators so that they, instead of governments or ISPs, can engage in blocking sites considered unsuitable for children.

Some better-known filters that block keywords, phrases, or certain blacklisted sites are Net Nanny, SurfWatch, CyberPatrol, and CyberSitter. However, none of these current filtering tools are 100% effective but range around 97% effectiveness. The newest filter on the market My Father’s Eyes is the first and only Internet filtering device which is 100% secure and guarantees that children will not be exposed to material which is either questionable or offensive. However, the implication of blocking and filtering software could inevitably lead to, in a worst case scenario, a bland and homogenized Internet for children.

The vast majority of the content on the Internet is not porn, but if people want adult content they can find it. However, child pornography is on the Net as well and should be altogether wiped out, some forms of pornography may, in certain instances, provide a useful social service, such as “relief for the lonely or education for the dysfunctional” (O’Connell, 36). Pornography is legal as anyone can see by looking behind the counter at their local convenience store. The pornographic magazines may be wrapped in brown paper but they are still there.

Of course, children do not have access to this pornographic medium. They do, however, have access to the Net through their homes, schools, and libraries. A recent survey by SurfWatch showed that nearly all parents whose children have Internet access are aware of the dangerous material on the Internet, but many have no idea how much time their children are spending on it. Parents need to pay attention to what their children are doing, and even closer attention to how they are using the Net.

The protection of children must also go outside of the home, at their schools and at their libraries. Presently, many schools and libraries at the elementary, junior and senior levels are beginning to use these filtering devices to block certain aspects of the Internet that they deem questionable. This still presents the problem of censorship but at a minimal level for children not adults. People may not like pornography or racist views but the right to freedom of expression guarantees that people can have those views and post that material.

Not only is anonymous communication another class of constitutionally protected speech, but it is a vital component of online interaction. David Jones, a professor at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont. , has found that “the more experience people have on the Net, the more they appreciate its openness” (5). Jones also added that, “people come to realize that they can make choices themselves and [that] they don’t need some bureaucrat to decide what they can [or cannot] see” (3). The Internet is an adult environment, with all the problems of the real adult world.

Therefore, a system of restrictions should be placed on children below the age of 18. Getting rid of certain forms of expression on the Net diminishes what it stands for – freedom of expression. People who are over the age of 18 need not be censored, for they are presumed to be adults who can make the necessary decisions as to what they wish to view or read on the Internet. Most authors using electronic media do not produce material that is any “worse” than that available from newsagents, video shops, or mail-order sources.

What is new is that all types of material are equally, and easily, accessible to everyone. Regulation of the Internet is not needed but one must regulate children’s access to it. Through the use of ISPs that have parental controls or by using your own filtering software one may keep all the “evils” of the Net away from their children. Freedom of expression is not limited in this process but children’s viewing capabilities are. However, since kids are usually more computer smart than their parents, keeping one step ahead of them in the technology arena can be quite a trick.

To censor the Internet or let the government handle it would be ultimately the worst thing that could happen. Where would the government stop once they had this power to eliminate ideas that aren’t in their “best interests”? We do not live in Singapore where they restrict the Internet. The Internet does not present the views of a few privileged speakers, but rather allows all participants to publish, comment on, and even refute, what they read. Therefore, any attempt to regulate the Internet would impact heavily, and negatively, on free expression.

The Effects of Lead Poison on Children

Throughout the world today one out of every six children under the age of six are suffering from health disorders due to a poisonous metal known as lead(Kiwanis, 1996). Lead is a natural occurring bluish-grey metal found in the earth’s crust. It has no taste or smell. Lead can easily be found in all parts of our environment today. Most of it comes from mining, manufacturing, and last but not least the burning of fossil fuels(Xintaras, 1993). In the United States lead poison has increased because of the lack of knowledge in our society. (Background information on the effect’s lead poison has on children)

Lead is released into the environment by industries, the burning of fossil fuels or wastes. When lead enters the environment, it starts to become a problem. After a period of about ten days, depending on the weather, it falls to the surface. Here lead builds up in the soil particles. Where it may make its way into underground water or drinking water due to the fact the grounds acidic or if it’s soft enough. Either way it stays a long time on the soil or in water. Months or years down the road after the lead has built up it starts to become a problem for children that play outside of their homes (Xintaras, 1993).

These lead containing soil particles get on the child’s hands or clothing and end up in the child’s mouth. After the build up of so much lead it leads to a problem commonly known as lead poison. Lead poisoning has been an issue since the early 1900s, when the use of lead started being banned from the manufacturing of paint in foreign countries such as Australia(Monheit, 1996). Unfortunately the United States did not start banding it until 1978, when it finally became illegal in our nation. Today 90% of the lead in the atmosphere comes from the burning of gasoline.

This problem has been a large issue since he 1920s, when the EPA(Environmental Protection Agency) started making laws on the amount of lead allowed in gasoline. There are many other ways that a child especially under the age of six can be diagnosed to lead poison besides air pollution. One of the most common ways of our past is when a child eats or chews on an object that has lead based paint chips in or on its surface. Parents can easily prevent this from happening by reading labels or buying objects which are not painted. Another way in a child can be affected is by drinking water that comes from lead pipes.

Houses built prior to 1978 have been found very unsafe due to the older pipes(Verstraaten, 1997). These pipes can be easily replaced in most situations. This process may be expensive but it pays off dearly when it comes to your family, and never let your child drink from a water fountain or a water hose that you are not sure is safe(Reducing Lead Hazards When Remodeling Your Home, 1994). The build up of lead in the soils another problem. Bare soil can easily contain lead from car exhaust, paint peeling, and near by industries pollution.

The easiest way to prevent this is by not letting you child play on bare soil or over the soil before letting the child play in the area(Handout IIa: Activities to Reduce Environmental Exposure, 1997). Breathing workplace air has been a problem in past also. When parents are not aware of the near by power plants or industries, which could be letting off lead into the air. It can lead to problems. So its always best that you know the area really well that you child is playing in. Another incident that occurred here recently in North Carolina was a young child was discovered having lead poison after eating some pool-cue chalk.

Researchers here found the cue chalk could actually be a source of nvironmental lead(Modica 1996). There are many effects or symptom that lead poison can have on a child if diagnosed at an early age. These injuries our so severe because the body and the brain are not fully developed, which can leave children with subtle but irreversible injuries that does not appear until many years after the exposure of lead(Monheit, 1). In young children, lead retards the development of the central nervous system and brain. Lower levels of lead can reduce their IQ, reading and learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder and behavior problems.

When these are added up it causes the student to become a dropout from school and a negative contribution to our communities(Monheit, 1996). The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta (CDC) have found that these injuries occur when blood levels rise to a mere 10 Micrograms per deciliter of whole blood. Lead poisoning is treatable in the early stages due to the great amount of investigation that the medical and environmental fields have put forth, but the damage that the lead does in a child’s body is not treatable, so once the lead has been damaged, its permanent (Monheit, 1996).

The CDC also asks parents to make sure that their child receives a blood-lead test at each pediatric checkup at least until the age of seven. If any of the following symptoms, are obtained by any child consult to immediate emergency care: sluggish behavior, apathy headaches staring periods, tremors, seizures, loss of consciousness abdomen cramps, loss of appetite, constipation irritability hyperactive behavior All of the following symptoms are early stages of lead poisoning and if not treated when possible the symptoms of this poisoning may lead to a child being put into a coma or even death.

Ways that people can stay informed on lead poison) Information on lead poison today is so easy to get access of. One of the easiest sources of information can be found on the Internet. Many people still do not yet realize how much information it releases. I found that this subject had thousands of documents over the Internet that could be easily reached by the touch of a few keys. Examples of this is: Preventing lead poisoning by the Kiwanis International, Lead Paint Poisoning of Children by the Law Offices of Herbert Monheit, and Lead by ToxFAQs.

Besides the Internet they’re other tools hat can easily be obtained such as Ebsco Host. This is a program in which one can find information in periodacles over a computer. It saves a lot of time because one doesn’t have to go to a library and look through periodicals that can take hours. Being this was my first time exploring this program I found many valuable keys of information in it such as: Preventing Childhood Poisoning, the FDA Consumer, which explains the steps that the FDA are taking in order to stay informed on lead and lead poisoning.

Lead in Homes Subject to Additional Disclosure by Business Journal of Charlotte magazine. This magazine tells about the new federal regulations on lead-based paint in 1996. If one doesn’t have access of either of these programs most libraries have many books and periodicals that cover this subject. Other programs that stay informed on this issue can be found governmental agencies such as the Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, located in Washington D. C.. This Alliance staff offers technical assistance and will help clubs find local contacts who can offer expert advice for local preventing program.

Materials and requests are also found through the Alliance. Examples f this is: Guide to State Lead Screening Laws, Resource Guide for Financing, Lead-Based Paint Cleanup, and copies of fact-filled articles from news papers, magazines, and other organizations. Another governmental agency which seems to be on top of this subject is The Environmental Protection Agency. They make the law and requirements on lead in our environment today. The Lead Institute of San Francisco offers free pamphlet on lead poisoning and sells testing kits and books on lead poisoning.

Another is the National Lead Information Center/Hotline located in Washington, D. C. has a variety of brochures and facts heets aimed at Parents and explaining the dangers of lead poisoning, the importance of testing children, and safe home renovations(Kiwanis International, 1996). In Chicago Illinois the Films Incorporated Video is a programs that obtain video tape and study guides tilted for the awareness of kids in lead hazard areas. These developed films by Consumers Reports Television and Connecticut Public Television can be purchased for a small price(Kiwanis International, 1996).

The broadcast media doesn’t play a big role on lead poisoning unless an incident comes along which turns out to affect a large umber of people or an important individual. If one needs to stay informed on this information over a sustained period of time, I would direct them to the Internet, because its filled with so many resources and its always up dating its information on a daily bases. (Encouraging Governmental Actions) The government has many actions to protect human health.

One of the leading agencies in this field is the Environmental Protection Agency. The EPA began in 1970 with the passage of landmark legislation. Much has been accomplished it those 27 years, but much remains to be done. Due to the earning and failure of the EPA an extensive study entitled Reinventing Environmental Regulations took place on March 16, 1995, the study makes several important points: Americans are committed to a healthy environment. Pollution is a sign of economic inefficiency. Profits can be improved by preventing pollution.

Better decisions result from collaborative processes than adversarial ones. Regulations allowing flexibility can provide greater protection at lower cost. (Hankinson,1996) These regulations would probably not of taken place if it was not up to the regional administrator for Region IV of the United States, John H. Hankinson Jr. (Hankinson, 1996). Today the EPA limits the amount of lead that can be in leaded gasoline to 0. 1 grams of lead per gallon of gasoline(0. 1g/gal), and unleaded gasoline to 0. 05g/gal.

The amount lead in the air is required under 1. micrograms per cubic meter average over three month period, and lead in drinking water to 15 micrograms per liter (Xintaras, 1993). If help is needed the EPA works with several different agencies such as: Occupational Safety and Health Administration that can be reached by this Number (202) 219-8151, the National Conference of State Legislatures at (303) 830-2200, nd the National Lead Information Center Clearinghouse at (800) 424-LEAD. The Food & Drug Administration(FDA) is one of the oldest protection agencies in our nation today.

The FDA is a public health agency, charged with protecting American consumers by enforcing the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and several related public health laws. Today the FDA is located in 157 cities across the country. It investigates and inspects around 95,000 FDA- regulated businesses(The Food and Drug Administration, 1995). This organization is taken steps to protect children from lead poisoning by proposing regulations hat will make it harder for small children to gain access to high-potency lead products.

FDA is also helping ensure that health-care providers and consumers are alerted to the dangers associated with accidental overdoses of lead- containing products (Hingley, 1996). Today the FDA is headed by the Commissioner David A. Kessler, M. D. Government officials face many key arguments or points each day. One argument that I would encourage governmental official to look at is the amount of lead allowed in gasoline. Today the burning of leaded gasoline is the number one pollution dealing with lead.

So in my opinion I would suggest that they reduce the amount of lead in gasoline so that are children and the following generations do not have to deal with this problem. Another point is what is the government and their agencies doing in order prevent this pollution from causing problems in our future. (Supporting non-governmental Organizations) Besides governmental organization there are organizations that work throughout different communities that try too help people that are in need. One example of this is the Program Development Department Kiwanis International.

Is Wrestling Suitable for Children

Children all over the world are watching wrestling now more than ever. Some say it is very entertaining while others say it is garbage. Nonetheless, tickets are selling in less than an hour. Besides matches, which are when two or more wrestlers compete in a ring, there are also interviews where the wrestlers state how they feel to the fans. In these interviews, some wrestlers curse and say disgusting phrases that parents feel their children should not hear, said a high-school student-wrestling fan.

This is one of the many reasons why parents ban their children from watching wrestling. Although some strict parents would never let their children watch wrestling, it is still suitable for children over a certain age of about twelve or thirteen. Today, many people over the age of ten watch wrestling. Kids love to talk about Federation television programs with their friends. Attending a live event allows a family, friends and even football fans to exercise their First Amendment rights. Fans express themselves with self-styled signs that they bring to Federation live events.

They even take pictures of their favorite superstars and mock them as well said a student. It is not right for a child to know these words but they still do learn them in school and other social places, said a parent. Parents should not immediately think that their child is doing these things all from wrestling or something else on television. Wrestling teaches children some interesting things that they should know. The parent could let them watch it not only for the entertainment side of it, but also for its learning experience.

The announcers at the show call the match move-by-move and also use some interesting words that helped me on the SATs, said a student. Parents must not ban their children from wrestling all because they feel the wrestlers have no intelligence. The only reason why they might have a real reason to ban their children from watching wrestling is the sex appeal involved, stated a parent. It is not fair that if an eleven-year-old boy, who probably does not like girls yet, watches wresting and sees what happens. Parents do not want to let their children watch a woman and a man celebrate after a victory by kissing.

If parents do not want their children to watch the Monday Night Raw show and the Thursday night Smackdown show, then they should let them watch the two weekend shows. These shows (WWF Superstars and WWF Livewire) are summaries of what went on in the past week without showing any violence, stated another student. In conclusion, wrestling is suitable for children depending on the maturity of that child. It is up to the parent whether their child should watch wrestling although it is practically the same as watching a rated R movie or even HBO.

Down Syndrome Essay

Have you ever been in a situation where you were confronted by a child who has Down Syndrome and were unsure of how to act around that child? I’m sure many of us have experienced the awkwardness that accompanies such a situation. Many people feel guilt or pity for these children, I believe these reactions result from a lack of knowledge about the condition. Which is why I have chosen this topic. Down Syndrome is a condition that cannot be physically passed on from one person to the next. It is a genetic disorder that is inherited through our parents when something goes wrong during pregnancy.

As a result, they have a combination of features typical of Down Syndrome, including some degree of cognitive disability, as well as other developmental delays. One thing we should always keep in mind is that they are children and having Down Syndrome comes second. In 1866 British doctor John Langdon Down defined and described the characteristic symptoms of Down Syndrome but was unsure of the cause. It wasn’t until 1959 that Dr. Lejeunne and his team in Paris showed that people with Down Syndrome have an additional chromosome. We normally have 23 pairs of chromosomes, each made up of genes.

The cells of people with Down Syndrome include three chromosome #21 instead of two. The extra 21st chromosome causes an extra dose of proteins. These Page proteins cause the typical features of Down Syndrome. While the fetus with Down Syndrome is developing, its body cells do not reproduce as fast as usual. That is the main reason why these babies are smaller than average after birth and their brain not as big as those of other newborn children. A child who has Down Syndrome will have exclusive individual characteristics which they have inherited from their parents.

The child may resemble their father, mother, grandmother, or aunt. This is true not only for their outward appearance but also for their temperament and physical and intellectual abilities. Children with Down Syndrome have different traits, for instance some can be easy-going while other are stubborn, some may like music while others show no interest. matter what, each of these children are unique and special in their own way. Children with Down Syndrome have distinct physical characteristics. They are short in stature and have a small, round face with a high flattened forehead and fissured, dry lips and tongue.

Another typical feature is a fold of skin, on either side of the bridge of the nose, between the corner of the eyes. The hands are often broad and the fingers short. The feet are compact with a gap between the first and second toe, and their hair is soft and sleek. Such persons are also subject to congenital heart defects, many of which can be corrected surgically. They are also more likely to develop leukemia than other members of the general population. There are three common types of Down Syndrome, the most common one being trisomy 21, which is found in about 95% of people with Down Syndrome.

During pregnancy the formation of the egg or sperm, from a woman’s or a man’s pair of Page chromosomes normally split, so that only one chromosome is in each egg or sperm. In trisomy 21, the 21st chromosome pair does not split and a double-dose goes to the egg or sperm. The second type is known as translocation, found in about 3% to 4% of people with Down Syndrome. With this type an extra part of the 21st chromosome gets “stuck” onto another chromosome. The third type, mosaicism, is found in about 1% to 2% of people with Down Syndrome. With this type an extra 21st chromosome is found in only some of the cells.

There are two tests that can be done to detect if the child you are carrying has any type of Down Syndrome, they are diagnostic and screening tests. A diagnostic test samples fetal cells and gives a definitive diagnosis. This test is usually done between 14 and 18 weeks of pregnancy. Although fairly safe, there is a small risk of miscarriage with this test. Screening tests, on the other hand, are relatively simple tests that find most of the fetuses with Down Syndrome, but they also find some without. It is because of this that screening tests must be confirmed by a diagnostic test.

In addition to these tests, a maternal blood test can suggest the presence of a fetus with Down Syndrome when levels of alphafetoprotein are lower than usual. It is said that one out of every 700 babies will be infected with Down Syndrome. However, these odds may vary depending on the age of the mother. A child born to a woman 25 years of age has approximately a 1 in 1200 chance. A child born to a woman 40 years of age and over has a 1 in 120 chance. Children who are born with this condition can neither be cured with medical treatment nor can they outgrow the condition.

Their life expectancy is generally reduced by 10 to 20 years. However, some people with Down Syndrome have been known to live into their 80’s. The effects of Down Syndrome can be Page modified by providing good medical care, good education, and good parental support, all of which, unlike long ago when these children were called “mongols” and institutionalized, are provided for most children today with Down Syndrome. In conclusion to my studies I have found Down Syndrome to be a rare, yet present condition that can be found in all parts of the world.

Most people might look at the individual infected and tell themselves how lucky they are , not to have to go through what most of them do. But tell me this, how many will actually take the time to better understand the situation and actually see what makes them who they are? It’s human nature to ignore or criticize the unknown, this will always be true to a certain point. Just as the truth will always remain the same, in that these people are beautiful human beings that deserve the same respect and rights as anyone else.

Television Violence and Its Effect on Children

The children of today are surrounded by technology and entertainment that is full of violence. It is estimated that the average child watches from three to five hours of television a day! (Neilson 1993). Listening to music is also a time consuming pastime among children.

With all of that exposure, one might pose the question, “How can seeing so much violence on television and video games and hearing about violence in in music affect a child’s behavior? Obviously these media have a big influence on childrens’ behavior: we can see it n the way they attempt to emulate their favorite rock stars by dressing in a similar style and the way children play games, imitating their favorite cartoon personalities or super heroes. Studies have shown that extensive television viewing may be associated with, aggressive behavior, poor academic performance, precocious sexuality, obesity, and the use of drugs or alcohol (Deitz).

Television, video games, and music are very influential and if there is too much violence available for children to watch, play, or listen to, this can sway their attitudes in a negative direction. Television is especially influencial on the children today. The hard truth is that children spend an average of 28 hours a week in front of the television (Neilson 1993). This is almost two times the amount of time that some children are in school. At this very impressionable age it is no wonder that the images that kids see sometimes has a profound impact on their behavior.

Fifty-five percent of children watch television with a friend or alone. (TV-Free America). Too often parents assume that their children are responsible enough to choose suitable programming. But the sad fact is that even some shows deemed as children’s television are violent. A survey in Mediascope showed that a staggering sixty-six percent of children’s programming contained violence. Many times the violence occured in cartoons which were the least likely to show the long term consequences of violence and in many cases portrayed the violence in a humorous way (Mediascope 2/96).

Studies done in various countries across the world show the homicide rates doubling 10 to 15 years after the introduction of television even though the study was taken at different times in each country Centerwall). Another study showed that eight year old boys who watched the most violent programming were the most likely to get into fights or problems with the police (Eron). If parents knew what their children were watching maybe they could help to point out the shortcomings in television. Music is also a large part of children’s lives today.

A recent study showed that between the seventh to twelveth grade alone children listen to almost as many hours of rock music as they spend in school, for a full twelve years (Entertainment Monitor, 1995). As a teenager I can personally attest to the fact that most parents don’t know what their children are listening to. Much of the popular music of today contains messages about sex and violence. The artists who sing the music often become the idols of countless children across the country, many of whom copy everything from the singers habits (drugs, alcohol, violence, etc. ) to their style of dress.

Another threat to children are video games. Today’s most popular video games include many different fighting games. These games such as Mortal Kombat nd Street Fighter include graphic images of blood and violence. Other popular types of games include sports games such as NHL 96 also include many violent aspects. The violence in these video games can desensitize children to violence and alter their perception of reality. It can give them the idea that violence is the way to deal with problems and conflict. Little is known of the actual numbers of how video games affect children because the technology is so new.

It has been assumed that studies dealing with other forms of media will also apply ere (McAfee). In the first few year of a child’s life he is very impressionable. Much of his personality is formed by the time he goes to his first day of kindergarten. There is nothing wrong with him listening to music, watching television, or even playing video games. It becomes a problem when the parents lose control of what a child sees and how he interprets it. Many of the facts in this paper are startling, but does this mean we should ban all violence from everything? That will never happen.

In all of the examples I have presented ne thing is very clear: If parents played a more active role in what children watched, listened to, or games they played, things would be fine. All too often children are left to make up their own minds about things. Next time you wonder about how easily children can be convinced of something think of the myth of Santa Claus: One man bringing presents to the WHOLE world, in one sled, pulled by flying reigndeer. All in the couse of one night. If they believe that, how hard can it be to convince them of other falsehoods?

The Sentencing of Juveniles

Today, we live in a society faced with many problems, including crime and the fear that it creates. In the modern era, juveniles have become a part of society to be feared, not rehabilitated. The basis of the early juvenile justice system was to rehabilitate and create safe havens for wayward youth. This is not the current philosophy, although the U. S. is one of the few remaining countries to execute juveniles.

Presently, our nation is under a presidential administration that strongly advocates the death penalty, including the execution of juveniles. The media and supporters of capital punishment warn of the “superpredator,” the juvenile with no fear, remorse, or conscience. Opponents of this view encourage the idea that another death is only revenge, not deterrence. We will examine the rights allotted to juvenile offenders, and the punishments inflicted upon them for violations of the law. Juvenile Transfers and Waivers

For those juveniles deemed dangerous, or those that have committed a serious crime, a different process would follow their initial contact with the court. This involves the removal of the offender from the juvenile system, to be transferred to the adult criminal court. These offenders are adjudicated as an adult if certain factors are present. The waiver to the adult court is often a critical step in receiving a harsh sentence for juveniles. Two Supreme Court cases have addressed the issue of juvenile waivers and transfers, Kent v.

United States and Breed v. Jones. The two cases resulted in specific requirements for transfer hearings, including a) a legitimate transfer hearing b) sufficient notice to family and defense attorney c) right to counsel d) a statement regarding reason for the transfer. However, the waiver of juveniles is often criticized by experts for various reasons. “Minors are likely to be looked upon as special persons by prosecutors, probation officers, and judges in the criminal courts.

They are younger than the main population of defendants before the criminal courtswhile a minor may be looked upon as a hardened criminal in the juvenile court, (s)he may be viewed as a mere innocent youngster in criminal court. ” (Abadinsky 72). Some research has shown that the transfer of juveniles is a waste of both time and money. Why? Because the offender often receives the same treatment or sentence as they would had they remained in the juvenile system. For example, New York’s system has been criticized on the ground that seventy percent of juvenile offenders arraigned in adult court are waived to juvenile court.

Of the remaining children who are tried in adult court, forty percent get probation; only three percent of juvenile offenders tried in adult court received longer sentences than they would have been given in juvenile court. (Allinson). There are options available when sentencing juveniles, before deciding on the ultimate sentence of death. Although, the alternatives discussed here are only applicable to less violent offenders. Traditionally, indeterminate sentencing is used in the juvenile system, which does not specify the length of the sentence, correctional officials will decide when the offender is to be released.

However, due to the trend in harsh sentencing, some states have created determinate sentencing and the sentence must be served in its entirety. Some mandatory sentences exist for serious violent offenders. However, there will be offenders we cannot identify in time, those that commit acts that cannot be attributed to a “child. ” This group of offenders will face incredible amounts of prison time, or even pay with their life for the crime they committed. Juvenile Death Penalty The U. S. is part of only a handful of countries that allow the execution of juvenile offenders.

Currently, 38 states authorize the death penalty; 23 of these permit the execution of offenders who committed capital offenses prior to their 18th birthdays. Victor Streib in his article, “Moratorium on the Death Penalty for Juveniles,” gives a picture of the young offenders on death row today. Almost all juvenile offenders (ninety-eight percent) sentenced to death were males. The four cases involving female juveniles were in the deep south (Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia) and in Indiana. The thirteen very young offenders (age fifteen at crime) were scattered across ten different states.

All sixty-nine juvenile offenders on death row were male and had been convicted and sentenced to death for murder. More than three-quarters of these cases involved seventeen-year-old offenders, and two-thirds of them were minority offenders. In contrast, eighty-three percent of the victims were adults. Two-thirds of the victims were white, and nearly half were females. The paradigm case of the juvenile offender on death row is that of the seventeen-year-old African-American or Latino male whose victim is a white adult. (Streib).

Debate about the use of the death penalty for juveniles has grown more intense in light of calls for the harsher punishment of serious and violent juvenile offenders, The cry for the death penalty is most loudly heard when referring to it as a deterrent. According to Allen Kale, “it is estimated that about 76% of the American public support the use of the death penalty as a deterrent, however that support drops to less than 9% when referring specifically to juveniles. ” (Kale). Opponents believe it fails as a deterrent and is inherently cruel and point to the risk of wrongful conviction.

The constitutionality of the juvenile death penalty has been the subject of intense national debate in the last decade. Let us examine a few of the cases that have influenced our current laws. Juveniles and The Supreme Court In the 1980’s, the Supreme Court agreed to hear a case arguing whether it was constitutional to execute a juvenile (based on age) in Eddings v. Oklahoma. Eddings was ordered to stand trial as an adult, and Oklahoma’s death penalty statute provides that in the sentencing proceeding, evidence may be presented as to “any mitigating circumstances.

In mitigation, the defendant presented substantial evidence of a turbulent family history, of beatings by a harsh father, and of severe emotional disturbance. The trial judge found that the state had proved each of the three alleged aggravating circumstances beyond a reasonable doubt and considered the defendant’s youth as a mitigating circumstance, but found, as a matter of law, that he could not consider in mitigation the circumstances of the defendant’s unhappy upbringing and emotional disturbance, and it sentenced the defendant to death.

On appeal, the Court of Criminal Appeals of Oklahoma affirmed the sentence of death, finding that each of the aggravating circumstances alleged by the state had been present and agreed with the trial court that only the fact of the defendant’s youth was properly considered as a mitigating circumstance (616 P2d 1159). The court avoided specifically answering this question but did rule that “the chronological age of a minor is itself a relevant mitigating factor of great weight. “. (Streib, Lexis Nexis). Justice Powell, in writing for the majority, stated: “[Y]outh is more than a chronological fact.

It is a time of life when a person may be the most susceptible to influence and psychological damage minors, especially in their earlier years, generally are less mature and responsible than adults. ” Most juveniles are dealing with enormous amounts of stress everyday. These pressures affect the deterrence of the juvenile death penalty. Each juvenile deals with this stress in a different way, and because of this stress, many adolescents act impulsively at times. Henry Heft explains that “Peer pressure and family environment subject adolescents to enormous psychological and emotional stress.

Adolescents respond to stressful situations by acting impulsively and without the mature judgments expected from adults. These characteristics are shared by all adolescents… Thus, the possibility of capitol punishment is meaningless to juveniles and has no deterrent effect. ” (Heft 30) The court did not address the specific issue of the juvenile death penalty until 1987 in Thompson v. Oklahoma. The 5-3 decision vacated the defendant’s death sentence (at the age of 15, Thompson had participated in the murder of his former brother-in-law).

However, only four justices agreed that the execution of a 15-year-old would be cruel and unusual punishment under all circumstances. In sum, the boy was convicted of first-degree murder, and after a sentencing hearing the trial judge accepted the jury’s recommendation that the boy be sentenced to death. In affirming the boy’s conviction and sentence, the Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals held that a minor who has been certified to stand trial as an adult may be punished as an adult, including a death sentence, without violating the cruel and unusual punishment clause of the Eighth Amendment (724 P2d 780).

On certiorari, the United States Supreme Court vacated the judgment of the Court of Criminal Appeals and remanded the case with instructions to overturn the boy’s death sentence. Although unable to agree on an opinion, five members of the court agreed that the imposition of the death penalty against this defendant would violate the cruel and unusual punishment clause of the Eighth Amendment because of the boy’s age at the time of his offense.

The next year, in Stanford v. Kentucky and Wilkins v. Missouri, the Supreme Court held, in a 5-4 decision, that the eighth amendment does not prohibit the death penalty for crimes committed at age 16 or 17. In both cases, the Supreme Court upheld the death penalty sentence. It is possible that juveniles see the death penalty as a deterrent as a lesson in hypocrisy. Juveniles are expected not to murder when they regularly see it being done by the government with the apparent approval of society. Streib states, “Now they see government officials struggling with a problem of their own, a person whose behavior is unacceptable to them.

How do government officials solve their problem? They kill or execute the person who is causing the problem. Is it wrong to kill someone to solve a problem?… It is akin to a lecture to children about the evils of smoking being delivered by a lecturer who is puffing on a cigarette. ” (Streib 61). Finally, the Court found that capital punishment of juveniles ages 16 or 17 did not offend societal standards of decency. Recently, the U. S. and the Supreme Court have experienced intense criticism from international agencies because of its human rights implications and violations of international law.

Since these decisions, juveniles have still received the death penalty at a steady rate, accounting for 2 to 3 percent of current sentences, although there has been a huge increase in juvenile violent crime arrests. Additionally, racism can be found both in charging, sentencing, and imposition of the death penalty. Steve Radic states, “Presently, about half the people on death row are from minority groups that represent only about twenty percent of the country’s population.

About forty percent of those who have been executed since the death penalty was allowed to resume in 1976 have been African-Americans, even though they constitute only twelve percent of the population. ” (Radic 4). Examination of arguments both for and against the death penalty gives us a glimpse of the rationale behind the juvenile system.

There are a countless number of appeals granted in every capital case. All of these cases require prosecutors, defense attorneys, and other court fees. The policies resulting from this approach are costing our society a tremendous price in money, in the corruption of the judiciary, and in diverting millions of dollars from education, drug programs, community policing, and other programs that would actually help to prevent crime. ” (Bright 6)

The opponents of the death penalty argue a) all juvenile offenders have a “terrible” childhood. because of their age, these juveniles have not had the advantage of “aging out” of their past or their crimes. c) most juveniles do not comprehend death, so therefore the death penalty cannot be used as a deterrent. d) harsh punishments are only temporary solutions; instead the societal issues should be corrected. Few studies of convicted juvenile offenders exist, however, most have troubling backgrounds. These circumstances are not always revealed in court, many juvenile offenders are presented by public defenders.

These attorneys have neither the time or the resources to complete a lengthy background history to present in court during sentencing. In 9 of 23 juvenile cases it examined, lawyers handling later appeals identified mitigating evidence that had not been presented at the trial or sentencing hearing (Amnesty International, 1991). So how are these juveniles ultimately sentenced in court? There have been recent societal and political trends in which the demand is high for harsh punishment of the juvenile offender. The majority of jurisdictions in the U.

S. allow for life without the possibility of release for those under the age of 16, it is even mandatory for some crimes. This sentence has been challenged in court, based on its unconstitutionality for being cruel and unusual. In cases involving juveniles, attempts at overturning this sentence have been unsuccessful. In conclusion, examination of the current status of the juvenile death penalty is necessary. The U. S. has imposed around 200 death sentences since 1973, with approximately 73 remaining on death row.

Texas is the primary advocate of continuing this practice, despite pressure from international human rights groups being imposed upon the jurisdictions that continue to execute juvenile offenders. Following the 1994 peak of seventeen sentences (5. 3% of all death sentences in 1994), the year 2000 saw only six sentences (only 2. 0% of all death sentences in 2000) (Streib). There are always two opposing views to any high profile issue, and in this case we are dealing with the lives of young offenders, many of which claim their age excuses their “mistake.

While society must recognize the issues that often fuel adolescent rage, we should be hesitant to withhold punishment. In death row cases, many inmates will reside on death row for more than ten years before being executed. During this time, they undergo many changes, both physically and psychologically and often feel like a different man, and certainly not a violent threat to society. Moreover, we are not executing men (and women) for the people they have become, but for the crime they committed.

Their victims did not receive a second chance, so why should we as a society grant convicted killers the chance to live, love, and grow? However, the death penalty must be examined for flaws, including incorporating DNA technology whenever possible. Age has obviously been an important factor in the debate over the death penalty, but we must realize we live in an age of violent school shootings and declining alternatives for misplaced youth. Society should not advocate the death of innocents, but vindicate a willful and deliberate loss of life.

User Friendly in Childhood’s End

In Arthur C. Clarkes novel Childhoods End, people or beings use each other for selfish reasons. Sometimes it is subtle, even subconscious; other times it is a blatant usage. Three obvious examples occur and kind of chase each other around in a triangular fashion. 1) The Overlords use humans/humanity. 2) The Overmind uses humans. 3) The Overmind uses the Overlords. Humans also attempt to use the Overlords even though the Overlords are omnipotent and seem to already have humanitys fatal future planned out.

Other than these overlying uses, small examples exist between characters throughout the novel. These will be cited and explained in a somewhat chronological One of the first instances is Wainwright and the Freedom League using Stormgren for information about the Overlords. Next time you speak with the Supervisor, Mr. Stormgren, ask him that! (17), says Wainwright referring to why Karellen wont show himself. Wainwright and the league want information like this so they can form their revolt against the Overlords takeover.

This brings about one of the bigger uses: The Overlords need a human mediator to communicate with the rest of the world on a personal level. On page 36, Joe says, …but the Overlords have to use human agents. Karellen uses Stormgren to speak to In the chain of events surrounding Stormgrens capture, Joe and the kidnappers are holding Stormgren hostage. They use him to try and gain information. You know what our motives are here…you are the only man who can tell us anything of the Overlords, (40) says one of the leaders. This turns into a reciprocal situation when from Stormgrens thoughts it is written, There were acute minds here, and perhaps they could uncover something new (41). Also, …he [Stormgren] was hoping that they might help him unravel Karellens secret (42-43).

So, while this undercover organization seeks information from Stormgren, he takes advantage of the circumstance in an attempt for the acute minds to help him solve his puzzle. These little reciprocal use situations take place many times throughout the novel. While Stormgren is reminiscing the events of the kidnapping, he realizes that with all of Karellens power, Karellen could have saved him at anytime. He thinks, It was more than obvious now that Karellen had used him as bait (49). Then, Karellen puts a tracer on the terrorists and lets them go. He gives them their freedom, but uses this to his advantage.

I can trace their movements anywhere on Earth…far better than locking them Despite the small examples cited in the first section of the novel, the larger theme is the Overlords getting the human race to conform to their ideas. The Overlords are turning the inhabitants of Earth into a well-oiled machine. This process will allow them to use the planet and people–whether it be for research and knowledge or the collection of specimens–how they want before its future end. Right from the start, …with a human child resting on either arm, (68) Karellen uses children as an additional cover for his alarming body structure.

This brilliant idea Rupert is a rich selfish prick who uses all the material goods he can to impress his guests. He greets George and Jean with his image projector and Georges reply is, Have you ever known Rupert not to get anything he wanted (78)? The couple go on to discuss how nice his new house is. Rupert refers to Rashaverak as Rashy around his guests and treats him as an equal at most. Concerning this, George states, …[Rupert] likes to show Rupert uses his guests for self-gratification. Clearly, the majority of the people in attendance are mere acquaintances who get the opportunity to spend an elegant night at Ruperts. The narrator suggests, [a]bout three-quarters…[are] perfect strangers (79).

On a reciprocal note, Rupert also uses the Overlords and the Overlords use Rupert. Rashy gets to read from the psychic phenomena library, and Rupert gets an image projector for personal use. Just a bit of bargaining (87), explains Rupert, to strike The other significant example from the second section of the book is Professor Sullivan helping out Jan. Jan goes five kilometers deep in the ocean because he thinks he can use Sullivans position and wisdom to get aboard an Overlord ship. After the initial meeting and exchange of ideas, Jan thinks, Right into my hands (120), referring to George uses Jean.

He might have been in love with her once, or thought he was–at least enough to live and raise a family together. Now, their partnership has allowed them to move into Athens and appear to be upstanding citizens. It seems Georges intent to move there was with disregard for Jeans ideas or happiness. Granted, she ends up being quite happy, but Georges push to move was so he could take part in Genes interest is for the children. [T]he children would love it. That…was all that mattered (142), she says. A kiss from George is described as perfunctory (143). He is busy with plans for the future, …too much occupied by his work and his children This passage from George sums up his thoughts for Gene and their partnership: George looked down at her with sympathy, but nothing more. He was fond of her: she had borne his children and was part of his life.

But, of the love which…George Greggson had once known towards…Jean Morrel, how much remained? His love was divided between Jeff and Jennifer…and Carolle. He did not believe that Jean knew about Carolle. (165) Since the Overlords found out that Jean was special at Ruperts party, theyve been monitoring her. Theyve waited for her offspring so they could observe them and possibly further their understanding of the Overmind. This is quite possibly the entire reason the Overlords use the human race.

They appear to be helping humanity when all along they were preparing the world for the Overmind. They were selfishly playing God so that when the children started to mutate, the Overlords could examine them and maybe gain more knowledge about their own masters. Why else would they have saved Jeff from While the Overlords are carrying out their various side projects to gain knowledge, the Overmind is using them. And you [Rashaverak] do not resent being used as a tool by the Overmind, (206) asks Jan.

For whatever specific reason the Overmind needs the Overlords, it is unclear, but it is evident that the Overmind must have the Overlords for the implementation of their harvesting process. In a similar way the Overmind uses the human race. In its higher power of existence, it preys off of colonies of beings. The Overmind continues to search for more overall power, maybe? Whatever its reasons are, with regard to human morals, the Overmind uses humanitys last offspring to further the development of its being.

As You Like It

The forest of Arden is the setting where the majority of As You Like It takes place. As inhabitants of the court enter the forest they experience people and an environment very different from what they are accustomed to and each perceive this experience differently. The environment is consistent so how each character views the forest as an alternative to life in the court reveals insights into the nature of the characters. The forest of Arden can invoke paradisiacal sentiments for some but feelings of meagerness for others but most find the forest a simple place of escape from the city.

Only from a pastoral perspective can one truly see the full effects of nature on characters just as only from a fortune-or courtly perspective-can we see how characters are limited and confined from full enjoyment of pastoral life. The extent to which characters can adapt to the forest of Arden and accept such a life not only reveals insights into the true nature of characters but it also attempts to answer whether or not people are better suited to live in the country or the court.

The audience’s first impression of the forest of Arden is from Charles, the undefeated wrestler whom Orlando is about to defeat. Charles informs Oliver, in regard to the usurped Duke Senior, that “they say many young gentlemen flock to him everyday, and fleet the time carelessly as they did in the golden world” (Shakespeare 7). The inhabitants of the court see the forest of Arden as an Eden-like place, a reference that is continued in regard to some of the forest’s inhabitants. Such optimism of the forest is true for Celia and Rosalind as well for in their banishment Celia remarks that “now go in we content to liberty, and not to banishment” (24).

Upon entering the forest both Rosalind and Celia complain to great lengths but eventually both warm to the country experience. With Celia’s remark that “I like this place and willingly could waste my time in it” (35), it is clear that the forest is a viable option and can be favored over the court. Yet others find the opposite, making the forest of Arden a place of “easy ambivalence about the place which characters find themselves and easy ambivalence among the characters” (Westlund 74). Since both Rosalind and Celia are dressed as shepherd and shepherdess respectively, they free themselves from any physical ties with their past courtly lives and are free to enjoying the ambivalent atmosphere of the country.

Orlando’s experience is rather different from that of Rosalind and Celia. He has been repressed and treated in contempt by his older brother, Oliver, who we find out is going to kill him. Oliver refers to his younger brother as “gentle, never schooled and yet learned, full of noble devices, of all sorts enchantingly beloved” (Shakespeare 8). Orlando appears to be well suited for country life and to have been rather unsuited for courtly life. The division that separates Orlando and Oliver is one of love and hate, a gap that closes upon their mutual experiences in the forest of Arden. Orlando leaves the court with Adam, an old servant of his father, who gives Orlando his money for retirement and offers his assistance, stating “my age is as a lusty winter, frosty but kindly” (30). Adam appears unsuited to courtly life as well for he values his friend, Orlando, so highly that he is willing to give his complete servitude and his savings. He is uncorrupt and trustworthy, perhaps naive as well, and this is noted in Orlando’s remark that “thou art not for the fashion of these times” (31). These two set out in exile from the court in anticipation of a more simple life, perhaps one more suited to their natures.

Duke Senior, banished in the forest of Arden at the start of the play, has the most idealized and paradisiacal perception of the country life. He reflects this perspective during his first speech where he states:

Are not these woods more free from peril than the envious court? Here feel we not the penalty of Adam… and our life, exempt from public haunt, finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, sermons in stones, and good in everything (25).

Criticism of the Duke’s speech ranges from him “invoking the pastoral vision and the idea of a new society in extraordinary specific terms” (McFarland 101) to the Duke providing a “norm of wisdom” (Peterson 28) upon which all other characters wisdom can be measured. Duke Senior does set an example, however he is by no means free from “the penalty of Adam.” Such an overstatement is not justified but it does exemplify the fact that the forest of Arden is a place where people can get what they want out of it. The forest is “a place halfway between reality and paradise” (McFarland 102) and a place of “testing and education” (Leggatt 190) and has no single purpose universal to all.

For some of the characters in Arden it turns out to be a place where one can escape reality and try to reach paradise. This is especially true for Orlando and Adam who are escaping their own deaths in the city and entering the country with dreams of a simpler life. Orlando may have entered the forest thinking “that all things had been savage here” (Shakespeare 42) but is promptly converted by Duke Senior into understanding that “gentleness shall force more than your force move us to gentleness” (42). Orlando lets the audience and Duke Senior know that he has internalized his new environment for his analogy that, “like a doe, I go to find my fawn and give it food” (43), reflects his newly found pastoral surroundings.

Despite his subservient role to Rosalind, Orlando has several Christ-like qualities and roles. He provides for the aged Adam and mercifully saves his brother, who openly stated his hate towards him, by battling and slaying a lioness. A snake that threatened the life of Oliver “unlinked itself and with indented glides did slip away” (85) at the sight of Orlando as if the serpent knew of the vice of Oliver and the virtue of Orlando. Orlando’s virtuous character of “kindness, nobler ever than revenge, and nature, stronger than his just occasion” (86) converts the vengeful Oliver into a simple, pastoral character. The lion and serpent are also thematic tools, representing “venom and fury, they symbolically accept the burden of the venom and fury generated by the Cain and Abel contest of Oliver and Orlando” (McFarland 103). This Biblical analogy allows for the tension and violence to be suppressed into one incident and allows the play to continue to pursue it’s primary pastoral themes.

Oliver is an extreme example of the power of the forest of Arden to convert court-associated values such as greed, envy and hypocrisy into the country-associated values of honesty and simplicity. Oliver, the man who states that “my soul, yet I know not why, hates nothing more than [Orlando]” (Shakespeare 8), becomes completely reformed from his evil ways upon his entrance into the forest of Arden. It seems that the enlightenment of Duke Senior that was passed on to Orlando is now passed on to Oliver, a chain reaction of acceptance of virtue over vice that the pastoral setting encourages. However Oliver was the most devious and wicked in the court and suddenly repents all his treachery and vows to live virtuously and modestly in the forest. Hence Oliver bestows Orlando with, “my father’s house, and all the revenue that was old Sir Rowland’s, will I estate upon you, and here I live and die a shepherd” (91), forfeiting all he once worshipped. This example illustrates both the subjective perspective of Oliver and the strength of the pastoral experience in the forest of Arden.

There are two characters whom react very differently than the others to their experiences in the forest: the melancholic attendant to Duke Senior, Jacques, and the humorous clown, Touchstone. The audience’s first impression of Jacques is through the First Lord when he recalled a past hunt and Jacques had called the hunting party “fat and greasy citizens, tis just the fashion.” The First Lord concludes “thus most invectively he pierceth through the body of the country, city, court, yea, and of this our life, swearing that we are mere usurpers, tyrants…” (27). Critics compare Jacques to Hamlet in that “he calls into question all aspects of life that fall below an exalted ideal of human conduct” (McFarland 104). Jacques is not a pastoral character and is an excellent foil of character’s authenticity, as Duke Senior is for his wisdom and pastoral perspective. Jacques criticizes everyone in the play, and it appears true that he has a “misguided conviction that man’s life is altogether evil and detestable” (Phialas 232).

Although Jacques critiques man in all environments he appears most content in the country because here he can at least compare man to nature and appreciate the beauty of nature. This is true when he is left sobbing over a fallen deer or willingly staying alone in the forest of Arden to dwell in a cave. Jacques is intelligent; although it is easy to appear smart when constantly criticizing everyone else, he is consistent and argues a fair case. Duke Senior, a man who appears rather contrary to Jacques, is intrigued by his philosophy and admits “I love to cope him in these sullen fits’ for then he’s full of matter” (Shakespeare 27).

Jacques intelligence may be in fact the cause of his melancholic disposition, as noticed by Rosalind who states “I had rather have a fool to make me merry than experience to make me sad” (74). Jacques seams to be searching for a place in nature similar to that of the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau who believed that solitary man enjoyed original happiness because he was free from the sins of society, such as jealousy and envy, and could peacefully co-exist with nature. Thus from being an attendant to Duke Senior in Court to being immersed in nature with courtly men, Jacques finally leaves to be free from vice of his main antagonist-man.

Touchstone and his relationships with people in the forest of Arden reveals several insights into country life. Touchstone is the main source of comedy in the play and one major vehicle for his comedy is to play on the various perspectives of others in regard to country life. “Instead of representing or expressing a forthright point of view, [Touchstone] is intended to expose and mock, in straightforward statements or by means of irony, the attitudes of other people” (Phialas 227). His role is similar to Jacques in that they both rely on others to express themselves and yet they hold opposite attitudes towards the court versus country debate. Touchstone is a courtly character and expresses this upon his entrance to the forest of Arden that “when I was at home, I was in a better place, but travelers must be content” (Shakespeare 32).

Touchstone’s time with Corin begins his play on perspectives, partly in the fact that Corin is a born and raised shepherd and enjoys a simple life in nature. Touchstone’s speech to Corin that begins “truly, shepherd, in respect of itself, it is a good life; but in respect that it is a shepherd’s life, it is naught…” (47) reveals that his own perspective is malleable and will change with regard to his company. Touchstone is not ‘experienced’ as Jacques is in a philosophical sense; rather experienced in human relations upon which he draws his comedy. Touchstone condemns Corin for he has never been in the court, and Corin responds in the simplistic statement that “those that are good manners at court are as ridiculous in the country as the behavior of the country is most mockable at the court” (48).

In this respect the simple shepherd has detected Touchstone’s courtly wit and, although not openly, Touchstone is willing to give country life a chance. He eventually departs with Corin “not with bag and baggage, yet with scrip and scrippage” (52). However Touchstone’s “comments on the conflict between pastoral life and life at court cannot be taken in a strict biographical and psychological consistent sense” and he “refuses to idealize life in Arden or the ways of pastoral wooing” (Phialas 228-30). Touchstone’s role in As You Like It is cynical towards wooing lovers, optimistic Dukes, and simple shepherds alike for he completely opposes pastoral values.

Although Touchstone attempts to enjoy the country life, he cannot let go of courtly conventions, mainly his reliance on his wit. Touchstone’s wit is acknowledged by courtly characters such as Rosalind and Celia, but is usually lost on the shepherds such as Corin, Silvius and William. This enables him to maintain a tone of dominance over the country dwellers that result in his ability to control conversation and, in effect, their actions. Touchstone’s ability to manipulate people in the country with his rhetoric results in his marriage to Audrey, for she sees his wit as wisdom. Touchstone easily breaks the bond between Audrey and William by unleashing his rhetoric to make William see Touchstone as a wise man who threatens “to wit, I kill thee, make thee away” (Shakespeare 90). Touchstone’s wit enables him to be completely ignorant of country values and limits him from any enjoyment of the pastoral life except in its exploitation.

The reliance on or lack of reliance on time is another way one can view a character’s life in nature. For some, like Celia, who “willingly could waste my time in [the forest of Arden]” (35), Jacques, who mocks the clock as an instrument that lets one know that “from hour to hour, we ripe and ripe, and then, from hour to hour, we rot and rot” (39), and Duke Senior all appear to be enjoying endless afternoons. Others, such as Rosalind, who instructs Orlando on punctuality and its importance in courtly love, bluntly exclaims that “Time is the old justice that examines all such offenders, and let Time try” (79). At first Orlando is willing to “lose and neglect the creeping hours of time” (42) but is quickly instructed on the proper use of time by Rosalind and uses it when saving Oliver from the lioness. At that moment “he determines for him as well as for his brother the course of future events” (Peterson 29), internalizing courtly time in Orlando and the opposite for Oliver. Although the awareness of time is a direct relation to city life, this instance allows Oliver to let go of time and join the endless afternoon in the country and allows Oliver to realize the importance of time, specifically in regard to love.

The division of characters who favor either court or country is very even in the final scene of the play. Rosalind and Oliver, the time-worshipping, wooing lovers will undoubtedly return to courtly life as the two protagonists living happily ever after. Touchstone and Audrey will most likely return to courtly life as well for Touchstone has only cynicism for country life and his wit would be completely useless there. Duke Senior is perhaps the most remarkable example of ambivalence between man and his surroundings, for only a short time after praising nature for its ideal way of life contradicts himself and returns to his usurped dukedom.

On the other hand, Oliver and Celia, two figures that had bourgeoisie status in court abandon all to live in nature as shepherds. Silvius and Phebe remain for they were never tempted by city life at all. Jacques fulfils his role as melancholic philosopher, yet leaves the party not with cynicism but compassion for a life forfeited, for he is “for other than dancing measures” (103). The actions of Duke Frederick are remarkably similar to that of Oliver for they were both usurping, powerful figures in the court who become converted by virtuous characters in the forest. The ambivalence of Duke Frederick and Duke Senior trading their respective roles seems to be a final twist of plot that allows Shakespeare to further complicate and overshadow the court versus country debate.

As You Like It concludes with the realization that there is no environment best suited to all. Although the forest of Arden gives its courtly guests the atmosphere to let go of the constraints of society and search for an ideal life, most characters have constrained themselves by bringing their own reality with them. Conventions such as time and wit are brought to the forest to highlight those from the court and to demonstrate basic differences between people experienced in either the court or the country. The complicated theme of perception in forest reveals that:

One’s sense of the forest of Arden is a place that changes from moment to moment and from character to character… Arden has objective reality, but its reality is not simply objective… [Shakespeare] does not reduce reality to one truth or to the other (Berry 141).

The different views of the forest reflect the various realities of the characters themselves. Shakespeare gives examples of these, even the extreme positions held by Jacques and Touchstone, to portray a wide range of beliefs for those who favor country life and those who prefer the court. The play ends in an ambiguous manner that allows the audience to debate and conclude as it likes.


Berry, Edward. Shakespeare’s Comic Rites. London: Cambridge UP, 1984. Leggatt, Alexander.

Shakespeare’s Comedy of Love. London: Chaucer Press, 1974. McFarland, Thomas.

Shakespeare’s Pastoral Comedy. Chapel Hill: North Carolina UP, 1972. Peterson, Douglas L.

Time, Tide and Tempest. San Marino: Huntington, 1973. Phialas, Peter G. Shakespeare’s Romantic Comedies. Chapel Hill: North Carolina UP, 1966. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques.

A Discourse on Inequality. London: Penguin Books, 1984. Shakespeare, William., and Albert Gilman, ed.

As You Like It. New York: Signet, 1963. Westlund, Joseph. Shakespeare’s Reparative Comedies. Chicago: Chicago UP, 1984.

Jane Eyre – Critical Evaluation

The novel “Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Bronte consists of the continuous journey through Jane’s life towards her final happiness and freedom. This is effectively supported by five significant physical’ journeys she makes, which mirror the four emotional journeys she makes. 10-year-old Jane lives under the custody of her Aunt Reed, who hates her. Jane resents her harsh treatment by her aunt and cousins so much that she has a severe temper outburst, which results in her aunt sending her to Lowood boarding school. At the end of the eight years, she has become a teacher at Lowood.

At the age of eighteen she seeks independence and becomes governess at Thornfield Hall. Over time, Jane falls in love with its master, Edward Rochester, who eventually proposes to her. On their wedding day, the sermon is abruptly halted by the announcement that Rochester’s insane wife is kept locked up in the attic of Thornfield. Jane runs away. Penniless and almost starving, Jane roams the countryside in search of shelter, until she finds the house of St John, Mary, and Diana Rivers, who take her in and nurse her back to health.

Jane then acquires an unexpected inheritance from her uncle. One night, Jane hears’ Mr Rochester’s voice calling for her, and decides to return to Thornfield immediately. On her return, she finds Thornfield to be a “blackened ruin” due to a fire which has left Rochester blind with only one arm and killed his wife. Jane goes to Rochester’s new home, and they are married. Jane’s physical’ journeys contribute significantly to plot development and to the idea that the novel is a journey’ through Jane’s life.

Jane Eyre’s” chronological structure also emphasises this idea, the journey progresses as time goes on. Each journey causes her to experience new emotions and an eventual change of some kind. These actual’ journeys help Jane on her four figurative’ journeys, as each one allows her to reflect and grow. The journey only ends when she finds true happiness. Jane makes her journey from Gateshead to Lowood at the age of ten, finally freeing her from her restrictive life with her aunt. Before making her journey, Jane’s feelings are conveyed by Bronte through the use of pathetic fallacy: … he grounds, where all was still petrified under the influence of hard frost. ”

The word choice here reflects Jane’s situation – she is like the ground, petrified’ under the influence of her aunt, whose behaviour is mirrored in the term “hard frost” because of the icy discipline she bestows. Mrs Reed’s attitude towards Jane highlights one of the main themes of the novel, social class. Jane’s aunt sees Jane as inferior as she had humble beginnings: she is “less than a servant”. Jane is glad to be leaving her cruel aunt and of having the chance of going to school.

Eight years later, when Jane travels from Lowood to Thornfield, she is much more contented. She has come to be respected by the teachers and pupils at Lowood, largely due to the influence of her teacher, Miss Temple, to whose instruction she “owed the best part of her acquirements” and who had stood her “in the stead of mother, governess, and latterly, companion”. Jane has found in Miss Temple what Mrs Reed always denied her. This particular journey marks a huge change in Jane’s life; it is a fresh start for her: “A new chapter in a novel is something like a new scene in a play… ”

This comment also shows that Jane herself thinks of the move as a new beginning and is looking forward to her “new duties” and her “new life”. When Jane arrives in the town of Millcote, she is fearful: “… I am not very tranquil in my mind…… I looked anxiously around….. all sorts of doubts and fears are troubling my thoughts. ” Her anxiety, though, is counterbalanced by the “charm of adventure”; Jane is finally independent and in control of her own life.

Although journeying into the completely unknown, Jane does not look back, only forward to her new life and her freedom at Thornfield: … I saw a galaxy of lights… ” Jane’s reference to galaxy’ highlights the idea that she is not only alone in the world but alone in the whole universe at this point, yet she is excited and fascinated by this. The third important journey which Jane makes is from Gateshead back to Thornfield having visited her Aunt Reed on her deathbed. By then Jane realises that she loves Rochester, but has no idea that her feelings are reciprocated. A key theme is raised: Jane has a fierce desire to love and be loved.

She feels alone and isolated when she has no friends around her. This is a stark contrast to the search for money, social position, God etc. – which drive the other characters. These contrasting themes reinforce Jane’s affectionate nature, intelligence, and sense of justice, all of which are strengthened with every journey she makes. During this journey, Jane is afraid of what the future holds for her. She believes at this point that Mr Rochester is going to marry Blanche Ingram, and that she will have to leave Thornfield and never see Mr Rochester again.

For a week before Jane’s departure, she dreams of a baby each night: “… a dream of an infant… it failed not for seven successive nights to meet me.. ” This recurrent image is possibly personification of the innocence and vulnerability of Jane herself: she has to support herself and still feels alone because she does not believe that Rochester loves her. Jane is not enthusiastic about returning to a place so filled with bad memories, but doing so allows her to finally put her experiences at Gateshead behind her.

Making this journey shows that she has become strong enough to face her aunt as an equal and that she no longer resents her. When returning to Thornfield Jane is unhappy; she feels a mixture of anticipation and fear for the future. Preparation for the pain she will feel when Rochester marries distresses her. Nature again mimics Jane’s situation and emotions: “… the sky, though far from cloudless, was such as promised well for the future… it seemed as if there was a fire lit, an altar burning behind its screen of marbled vapour, and out of apertures shone a golden redness. ”

The sky, here, symbolises what is to happen to Jane – the clouds depict that only heartache seems to be ahead for her, but actually she is about to become indescribably happy. The fire represents Jane’s strength of character – although so many terrible things are happening to her, her spirit remains unbroken. “Golden” symbolises her goodness and purity, while the “redness” symbolises the passionate feelings she has for Rochester. However, her happiness is short-lived.

When Jane flees from Thornfield after the discovery of Mrs Rochester, she is more distraught than she has ever been: … ay you never feel what I then felt! May your eyes never shed such stormy, scalding, heart-wrung tears as poured from mine. ” Alliteration displays the depth of her anger, and Bronte’s use of strong metaphors is highly effective in conveying Jane’s sorrow.

“Stormy” describes her turmoil. Her tears cause her so much pain that they “scald” her face. There seems no hope or happiness left in her heart. Despite this journey being so traumatic for Jane it is an important one for her personal development, she shows astonishing bravery amidst total despair.

Religious imagery highlights this: Jane has vowed to “keep the law given by God, not by man. ” She is doing what she thinks God would consider right, sacrificing her happiness rather then committing a sin. Jane “hearing” Rochester’s voice calling to her prompts her final physical journey from Marsh End to Ferndean: “… it did not seem in the room – nor in the house – nor in the garden: it did not come out of the air – nor from under the earth – nor from overhead… where, or whence, for ever impossible to know! ”

Jane has not actually “heard” Rochester in a literal way; she senses that he is crying out for her. This event takes place after she asks God for guidance, linking the theme of religion to that of the supernatural, guiding hers and Rochester’s fate. On arrival at Ferndean, Jane and Rochester’s relationship blossoms once again, but differently than before. In the past, Jane felt like an inferior to Rochester because he was her employer and was wealthy. Jane now feels at “perfect ease”, her “whole nature” having been “brought to life and light.

Her personality has developed; she can now tease Rochester and make him jealous as they are now on a more equal footing, both emotionally and financially: “I love you better now, when I can be really useful to you, than I did in your state of proud independence…. ” Rochester has been made a better man because of his disabilities, he is no longer the arrogant master, he must depend physically on Jane as much as she depends emotionally on him. The great irony here is that Rochester can only see the way to happiness now that he is blind. Their marriage is what finally brings Jane true happiness.

These five journeys mirror Jane’s four emotional journeys. She transforms from an immature child to an intelligent, accomplished adult at Lowood. Jane also changes gradually from innocent and naive to mature and strong-willed. Both her experiences at Thornfield, where she learns what it is like to love and to feel loved, and her time of reflection at Marsh End, where she has time to clear her head and discovers her true family roots facilitate this. The time Jane spends at Marsh End allows her to gain a new perspective, she now sees that loving Rochester is not enough, they must be equals and have no secrets.

She sees that she was right when she “adhered to principle and law, and scorned and crushed the insane promptings of a frenzied moment. ” To start with, Jane is oppressed by her aunt and is allowed no will of her own, she is completely “a dependant” and has “no money”. This situation improves enormously when Jane goes to Lowood, although she is still a servant in Thornfield until she runs away to Marsh End, where she must still depend on others in order to survive. Jane eventually gains her freedom through her inheritance, and the fact that she no longer has to depend on Rochester.

China’s One-Child Policy

In our society, the United States, children are seen potentially as the as the future. Whether they are male or female, they have the power to be something when they grow up. But if their life is cut short, the opportunity to do so is taken away. In 1976, China implemented what is known as the “One-Child Policy” in order to try and solve their problem of overpopulation (McDonald, 1996). Although the policy may seem as though it is a good idea in solving the problem, the consequences of this policy has lead to female infanticide.

Throughout centuries, China has been battling with overpopulation, one of the biggest issues that the nation has been faced with, forcing the government to enforce the one-child policy. The desire to control the rapidly growing population dates back to the Mao Zedong era where the population number was at a ripe 602 million people (Stycos, 1989). He believed that with every mouth comes “two hands”. What he did not realize at the time was that too many mouths bring hardship, poverty, and paucity of food supplies.

In 1979, the Chinese government decided to enforce a policy that would help minimize the growth of their population (McDonald, 1996). The one-child policy was what they thought would solve the problem. Married couples would have to sign an agreement known as the one-child certificate. This certificate served as a contract between the couple and the Chinese Government stating that the couples and the one child that they have will be granted economic and educational advantages in return for promising not to have more than one child (Audubon, 1994).

Since each couple is allowed one child, the gender of that child determines whether or not it stays in China as part of the family. Since the beginning of time, females were always seen as being inferior to males in any society. The females’ ultimate duties were to have and take of the children, the household duties and be the servant to their husband while the males worked and took care of the family in terms of financial status.

In China, the males are the ones that the majority of the couples chose because they are the ones who not only carry on the family name, but also are most likely the ones who are able to provide support for their parents in their old age (Li &Choe, 1997). In China, when a female is born, especially first, there are many different choices the couple must make. First of all, are they willing to keep the child since it is the only one they can legally keep? If the couple decides that the child they want is a male, they must decide on what to do with this child.

What happens to the child ranges from giving them up to state orphanages to murder. Due to the enforcement of the one-child policy, many female children end up in orphanages (Beijing Review, 1997). Being put into an orphanage in our society would give the child a chance to live and maybe even be adopted by another family. In China, the conditions in the orphanages are so filthy that the neglect that they would have at home if the couple decided to keep the female would be better than the maltreatment they would receive.

Many female children end up in orphanages in China rarely having males occupy them unless there was something wrong with the child. Each month 90 percent from 50 to 60 baby girls arrive in one of the many orphanages and end their lives their (Choe, 1995). The children sit on bamboo benches with their hands and feet tied to the armrests and legs of the chair. Below them are buckets that are placed under the holes in the seats to catch their excretions. When it is time for bed, the children are taken out of the seats and tied to their beds (Geographical Magazine, 1996).

This is the treatment that that the children face everyday and the Chinese do not see a problem with such harsh behavior. If anything of this sort occurred in the United States, the people would see to it that those who are involved get punished for such unimaginable behavior. Another way in which female children are gotten rid of is for the family to get rid of it or family planning officials will see to it that they are gotten rid of. Many times, when a female child is born, the hospital would not even record it because it should not exist (Woods, 1995).

If they take the child home, they must keep her a secret because if family planning officials find out, they will take her. Others may choose to abandon the child to starve and die. Or they might send her to a special room where the child is forgotten all about – to die. In one instance, family planning officials found out that someone was going to have a baby girl and they ordered that she be injected with saline. The child was born alive and the family planning officials ordered the husband to kill the child and he refused.

When they arrived at home, more family planning officials were there to take the baby. They took the baby and drowned it at a near by paddy (McDonald, 1996). Such cruel acts are being looked away at, all to simply try and control the population growth in China. These acts in the United States will lead a person to be sentenced with the death penalty. There is no excuse in killing innocent children. Instead, China should inform their population of birth control methods.

Although such behavior is seen in our society as cruel, China and its citizens see the policy as a benefit not only to themselves, but to everyone else. Since China is already overpopulated, this method (although not a very good method) will help to control the number of people in China, which is the main purpose of the policy. By keeping up with the policy in keeping the numbers down in China, they are keeping the economy in good condition. If the policy was ignored, the rise in population would result in the downfall of the economy and bring famine to the population (Choe, 1995).

By having one child benefits the child in the sense that the parents are able to concentrate on them. They try to ensure that the child grow sup healthy with the best care. By keeping down the numbers in China, there would be more employment. For those couples who signed the one-child policy certificate, the government provides them with interest free loans, cheaper fertilizer, and retirement funds (Beijing Review, 1997). All entities that would be nice to have are provided to them in order to follow the policy.

Gender and who is born first is major issue to families in China who are trying to keep up with the one-child policy. One child per family has had a good effect on the population although the means of following the policy is unimaginable behavior. The values that they have in their culture differ so much from the United States. Such behavior would lead to harsh punishment. There has not been a policy that controls the amount of children we have yet, but too many people in the United States may ultimately lead to such a policy.

Anti-Crime Programs

The basis of our justice system has learned to treat criminals with punishing sentences to jail. The problem is, our jails are beyond their intended capacity. This has forced our way of justice to shift from jail sentencing to more help type programs. This has paved the road for Anti-crime legislation and other help programs. These programs were created for people with a wide variety of problems. However, I am going to concentrate on sex crimes and violent crimes programs and laws. A sex crime program that attacks the core of child pornography is the programs ACPO (Anti-Child Pornography Organization).

This program was set up to rid the Internet of loose links. By loose links, meaning the links that transfer an online user to a site that they are not looking for. For example, if you typed in car, and were sent to a pornographic site, that would classify as a loose link. The people who shut these sites down are called net nannies. They surf the web looking for sites where average words will send the link to a pornographic site. This is especially aimed at the types of words persons younger than 18 would look for. This program has been extremely effective because it attacks the source of the problem.

Once the net nannies find a site that violates this conduct they contact the site provider, and shut it down. This penalty may be harsh, but the web providers know the rules, and if they violate those rules they should be shut down. A law dealing with the prevention of child pornography that was created in 1994, was the Cyber Law. This law protected the rights of the net nannies to shut down private sites that people could gain access to. This law strengthened the ACPO, because it gave them more power to deal with the legal ramifications of shutting down private web sites.

However, it gave the porn sites slightly more leeway, because instead of only finding one word to shut a site down, the ACPO would have to find 3 words. Meaning if the site had 2 words that a child might use, they could not shut the site down until they had 3 words. A crime that is more prominent in the US, and often more heard about is rape. Rape accounts for 60% of the sex crimes in the US. However, startling facts show that only 55% of these rapes were reported to police officials, and only 17% were by strangers. This means, that 83% of the rapists were of people the victims knew.

Various rape prevention sites concluded that you are 4 times more susceptible to get raped by a person you know then a stranger. The second aspect of anti crime programs that I am going to discuss is how do deal with violent crime. There are many programs that have grown in the past 10 years to reform past violent offenders. The ADL (Anti-Defamation League) is an anti racism organization. This program is to assist people by educating them about racial conflicts. A law that has been administered to stop children from bringing guns into school is the Cease-Fire Movement.

This movement remarkably was organized and issued to congress by children. This law was passed by a unanimous congressional vote in 1992. This law has been significant, because instead of making a direct arrest for the child who choose to bring guns into school; instead, they serve many hours of community service, and go to counseling. I have a hard time accepting the fact that the punishment is so little for such a monumental event. If a firearm is brought into a school the holder should with out a question be in custody.

The last and possibly the most effective program that was created is All Stars. All Stars is a mentoring based program. Like the ACPO for child pornography it attacks the problem at the source. It is designed to keep kids off the street and becoming gang members. This program is prominent is inner city settings, where the most at risk children live. This program is structured for children 11-14 years old. It tried to prevent the mishaps that children these ages might be coming involved in. Also, it does take 1st time offenders into the program to reform the kids.

The program deals with children that have experienced substance abuse, violent behavior, and pre mature sex. This program has been very effective so far and in turn receives a lot of money for the government. The overall effectiveness of these programs is moderate in terms of turning offenders of violent and sex crimes straight. The web sites that offer up the information are also questionable in that some of their statistics sound far fetched. A majority of them talk about what the violent crime is and how much instead of what they are doing to prevent and stop it. The same goes for the sex crime web sites.

Madonna Of Raphael And Bellini

The subject matter of Maddona and Child was a very popular one for artists of the sixteenth century. Rapahel, and Giovanni Bellini both painted numerous versions of the Maddona and Child. While both of the artists viewed the subject as a religious and highly emotional expression, their portrayal of many other aspects differed greatly.

While Raphael portrayed what seems to be a loving, warm relationship between mother and child, a lifelike Christ child, and serenity within his paintings, Bellini portrayed a relationship that seems distant elationship between mother and child, a deathlike image of the Christ child and a sense of depression and uneasiness within his works. Differences between the views of the artists on the portrayal of Maddona and Child can clearly be seen through the artists’ use of colour, backgrounds in which the figures are placed, the poses of the figures and their relationships to one another.

These can all be seen in many of the works by Bellini and Raphael, specifically, “The Small Cowper Madonna”, and “Maddona Del Granduca” by Raphael and Greek Madonna” and “Madonna of the Meadow” by Bellini. The subject of Maddona and Child is one that is highly emotional. Raphael and Bellini portray the Virgin and Child in two very different emotional states. Raphael, in his paintings, “The Small Cowper Madonna” and “Madonna Del Granduca”, illustrates a very intense feeling of love between the Virgin and Child and a feeling of content with the love that the mother and child share.

In both The Small Cowper Madonna and Madonna Del Granduca, the Virgin is looking at her son with an expression that seems very ranquil. She is almost smiling yet at the same time praying, in The Small Cowper Madonna. She seems to be totally engrossed with her child, (Web Museum). At the same time, the Child seems totally comfortable with this mother. He looks out at the viewer with a visionary, yet amiable gaze, showing his carefree, comfortable state of mind, as any happy toddler would have (Web Museum).

In both “The Small Cowper Madonna” and “Madonna Del Granduca”, the Virgin holds her child very close to her body and the Child holds onto his mother in return. The two figures seem totally at ease with one and other. Bellini’s depiction, on the other hand, is a very different one from Raphael’s. Bellini, in his “Madonna of the Meadows” and “Greek Madona”, shows a mother who does not seem to be very blithe. In “Madonna of the Meadows”, the Virgin seems to be praying. The expression on her face seems to be one of discontent, perhaps even concern. Her eyes do not seem to be focused on her child.

The distance between the Virgin and Child is expressed even more strongly in “Greek Madonna”. The Virgin has a despondent look on her face. She is looking in the direction of her child but almost seems to be looking through him. In both paintings, the Virgin does not hold her child close to her body as a mother would naturally do to her child, rather she is just close enough to his body that she could support it. In “Madonna of the Meadow”, the Child’s body lays on his mother’s skirt, while the Virgin has no contact with him at all; her hands do not support the Child and the Child does not grab onto his mother.

In “The Greek Madonna”, though the Virgin does hold her child, she does not cradle him in a loving way, rather, she upports his body, though he does not touch her in any way. The relationship between the Virgin and Child depicted by Bellini in the two paintings portrays a peculiar and subtle tension that binds the Virgin and Child (Oliviari, page 4). Aside from their different expressions of emotions in their works on Madonna and Child , Bellini and Raphael also differ in their depiction of the Christ-child. Raphael portrays a animated child.

In Raphael’s “Small Cowper Madonna” and in his “Madonna Del Granduca”, the Christ-child is depicted as a hubby baby with rosy cheeks and wide eyes, the way most healthy children appear. In both paintings, the Child has turned his head, and has linked his arms around his mother, giving an image of movement in the child. His gesture is a very natural one; each body part looks comfortable and well supported. The vision portrayed can be comprable to any portrait of a child of his age. The depiction does not foreshadow any tragedy for the future. Bellini depicts the Christ-child in a very different way than Raphael.

In “Madonna of the Meadow” and “Greek Madonna” the Child is portrayed in a most ethargic manner. In “Madonna of the Meadow”, the child lies in the virgin’s lap, rigid and motionless. His right arm holds his heart in a way that can be reminding of a heart attack victims grabbing onto his heart as he dies. The Child’s eyes are closed and the expression on his face is blank. He has very little colour in his cheeks, as he lacks the same colour over the rest of his body. His head tilted to one side looks almost as though it is falling. In “Greek Madonna”, the Child looks as though he is falling and only the arms of the Virgin support him.

His facial expression is a troubled one. His arms hang limp, though he does grasp an apple in his right hand, and his legs do not seem to support him. His head, like in “Madonna of the Meadows” if falling to one side, as if he cannot support it. His body is thin and elongated, appearing longer than most children would. Perhaps the distinction which could be made between Bellini’s works and Raphael’s works is the level of passiveness which the Child is portraying. Bellini’s paintings of the Child foretell the tragic future for which the Christ-child will live to experience.

Ohio Proficiency Test

When most people think of their childhood, they think of happy times, when they had no cares, no responsibilities. Most people would never think of putting unneeded pressures on little kids. However, I feel that this has happened. Today children are put under a large amount of pressure in school, to pass the Ohio Proficiency Test (O. P. T). In 1995 the fourth grade O. P. T was administered for the first time, then in 1996 the science portion was added, and the sixth grade O. P. T was administered for the first time.

Surely a big test like this would put enough pressure on young kids. In July of 1998 it was decided the pressure was not enough, senate bill 55 was passed. Bill 55 required districts to assess reading skills of students at the end of grades, one, two, and three, identifying students reading below grade level. Third grade students reading below grade level, are offered an intense summer remediation. Districts must also offer summer remediation for students who are below proficient three or more fourth or sixth grade proficiency test.

Bill 55 also made it possible for districts to retain students who are below proficient in three or more fourth or sixth grade proficiency test. As of July 1, 2001 school year, districts must begin to administer the fourth grade reading section of the proficiency test during the fall, spring and summer. Districts must retain fourth grade students if they do not meet the score identified on the proficiency test in reading. They must also offer another chance to take the reading test in the summer after fourth grade.

Kids now have the fear of being held back if they are not able to score proficiently. Kids are of course offered an intense summer remediation for reading help. This however, still puts pressure on the child to pass. As for the other sections of the proficiency test, there are no extra courses offered to help the kids. The only second chance the children will get to take other parts of the test will be in their second year of fourth or sixth grade. Its understood that everyone wants younger generations to be well educated.

The O. P. T may not be the best way to tell if the children are learning well. Taking into consideration all the pressure the kids are put under to pass the test, the results may not be 100 % accurate. Childhood along with education is very important. When we take away the feeling of no responsibilities, and the care free feeling, we are taking away a big part of childhood. Kids should be able to cherish there childhood, rather than worry so much about school. Testing children is not a bad thing, however, putting so much pressure on a child to do good can be a bad thing.

The early childhood socialization

The early childhood socialization plays a major role in a person’s life. Socialization is best described as “a process by which a society’s values and norms, including those pertaining to gender is taught and learned”. This is perhaps the first thing that a child goes thought. As soon as a child is old enough to play with toys, they’re thought that the boys play with the big and strong action figures, while the girls are playing with the Barbie’s. Studies have shown that children as early as eighteen months show preference for gender-stereotyped toys. That leads us to the category of learning gender.

It is also said that children by the age of two are already aware of their own and others’ gender. Also between the ages of two and three, they begin to identify specific traits and behaviors between genders. This leads us to the identification theory, which was presented by an Austrian physician by the name of Sigmund Freud. Freud says that children pass through a series of stages in their development. During the first two stages the oral and the anal stage, a similarity is shown between both boys and girls. Boys and girls know the difference of their own genitals and the genital difference between the two sexes.

This is referred to as the phallic stage the third stage of development. It is during this stage that identification takes place. The children start to model their parent of the same sex’s behavior. Considerably, identification occurs differently for boys and girls. The boys go through a castration anxiety where the love they have for their mother becomes more of a sexual feeling and he views his dad as a rival. The child is cured from this stage as soon as he gets his first glimpse of the female genitalia. The little boy is scared off by thinking that if he stays in competition with his dad he might castrated the same way the female was.

For girls in the other hand, they go through something different in a way but similar in others. Girls go through what is called penis envy. Penis envy is developed at a girl’s first sight of the male genitals. The girl builds a jealousy of the boys extra body parts. Where than she looks at her dad as a superior to her mom. And just like the male she feels she’s in competition with her mother. Although boys and girls are very much different, it is pretty safe to say that their learning theories of gender are very alike.

The Loss Of Innocence

Innocence is such a precious gift. For those who do not know what exactly innocence is, the Merriam-Webster dictionary defines innocence as, freedom from guilt or sin through being unacquainted with evil. When do humans in general have little or no guilt and worries? In the days of our youth, everything is much simpler. Remember never going to work, paying bills, supporting a family, and doing all the other things that is expected from an adult? All children worry about is having a good time. Children take almost nothing seriously.

They can care less about women, popularity, money, or the future. Some people however, feel that innocence is the worst time of anyones life. This brings up the question whether or not innocence is important in life or not. Although it seems as if decisions and events made during a persons childhood are totally irrelevant towards the rest of his/her life, these factors make a tremendous impact on the type of adult a person becomes. For example, it is commonly known that most children who had abusive parents have grown up to be just the same.

If a child had very loving and caring parents, chances are the child will grow to be very loving towards his/her children. A child doesnt know any better during the stage of innocence and is unable to reasonably distinguish the differences between right and wrong. The child who abuses his kids as an adult was brought up that way himself. In his own mind, he feels this is the right way to discipline his children. This shows that innocence does play an important part in everyones life.

Just imagine never having to worry about anything, having a guilt free mind, and being able to do just about anything that can not be done as adults. Holden Caufeild from the book The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, wishes innocence was never lost. To Holden, the perfect example of innocence is his little sister Phoebe. Phoebe has absolutely no hatred towards anyone or anything, as well as no worries. Holden wants to save this kind of innocence from being lost in the transition from childhood to adulthood. What would the world be like if innocence were never lost?

One way it would benefit humanity is the lack of hatred among the world. During youth, their may be an occasional argument of some sort, maybe even a little physical fight, but nothing like firing a handgun at a fellow human being. Children are blind towards the race and ethnicity of others. A kid will hang out with another kid no matter what, it is the lack of innocence and the ignorance we learn from adults that manipulate children otherwise. Think of all the things that the human race can achieve if we all put our minds together.

Another way keeping innocence alive would benefit humanity is the constant craving for fun and adventure. As adults, people have very little if any time at all do things that they enjoy. The adventurous mind is lost in time with the responsibilities that are bestowed upon adults. Once again, if innocence were kept alive, these ambitions would never depart from our lives. As adults people also have more freedom to go places and to do certain things, making it easier to do the things, which they wanted to but could not do during childhood.

Who wouldnt want to live in a world were having fun was always the main priority of life? Some people actually despise the idea of innocence lasting for all eternity. They do believe that innocence is probably the greatest time of anyones life. They do however, feel that the lack of organization and mental capacity of those without innocence would have a tremendously devastating impact on society in general. With the ongoing life of innocence, a large portion of individuals would never have the urge to learn, work, and act upon the necessary needs for humanity to survive.

Without a proper education which is usually provided by those who no longer live in a world of innocence, people would not have the mental abilities to get a good job in life, thus providing little income for families and hurting the lives of children. The lack of a good education and career would also harm the economy. Society would than take on a state much like communism. With the lack of hatred and worries people have as children, People would feel that work is simply something they need to do to raise money.

As long as innocence is kept alive, no one would be terribly angered at the lack of effort people put out in the workplace, resulting in a strong decline in production and quality of needed goods. Maybe Hodlen Caufeild was wrong in wanting to save innocence. It sure is a nice thought though. Perhaps innocence was meant to be lost. There are certain things in life that probably should not be toyed around with. It was gods will to make things the way they are, and I am sure god has a good purpose for everything. All that remains to be said about innocence is to enjoy it while it lasts. It certainly is the happiest time of anyones life.

Life as a Child in the Renaissance

There have been many classic rag-to-riches stories, and while they may seem almost cliche, there are so few that are overlooked. For example, many musicians in the rock era who we know today grew up in lesser homes, and they struggled to earn a dime. Elton John, as well known and wealthy as he is today, spent the greater part of 10 years fighting diligently to fill small clubs to make a living off of his wonderful musical talent.

While it may be hard for many people to believe, not all quintessential icons in our day ere bathed from golden faucets in oversized mansions; quite the contrary, rather. The famous William Shakespeare is a thriving example of this theory; however, there is a main difference between Shakespeare’s fame from the normal rag-to-riches story, and his eminence is most comparable to Van Gogh. During the time when he was alive, his literature was not taken seriously.

It was merely viewed as a form of writing not meant to be explored, and much less, praised. Aside from this, he came from an extremely poverty-stricken family, where most of them died from diseases. Also, the quality of education in those days was determined by how much money families could lay down to have their children accepted into pristine schools, which was not possible for the great William Shakespeare. In Shakespeares’ days of inadequate education, he must have had a very strong ambition to become a world-reknown writer and poet.

As mentioned, Shakespeare’s family was plagued with much sickness, and it spread like wildfire since they were such a large family crammed into a small, musty English cottage. Third-born William was accompanied by his 6 siblings, Joan, Margaret, Gilbert, Amney, Richard, and Edmund. According to “In the Days of Shakespeare’s Childhood,” most of his siblings lived only into their teen years due to diseases such as yellow fever and malaria. Because of so many child deaths, the exact number of children is debatable, because many died before coming out of infanthood.

In fact, when William was born to his parents, John and Mary, he was the first surviving infant. To give an idea of just how many people were affected by various diseases of the time, as stated by John F. Andrews, in 1592, there were 15,000 deaths. This number was significant enough to have the globe theater close down! The home they grew up on was in Stratford-Upon-Avon on Henley Street, a small village that now houses his home as a museum and it features much of his praised work.

At this time, children of the renaissance were considered to be young adults, and they were expected to exude the utmost of proper manners. Shakespeare’s work, along with all drama literature, was not taken seriously at this time. “Drama litereature was severely underpraised at this time,” as agreed in “Shakespeare’s life” . Also, the first attempts at learning Shakespeare’s childhood were made 50 years after his death, which is why there are so many conflicting pieces of information on his life.

Shakespeare’s home-life qualifies him perfectly for a rag-to-riches story. In addition to his mediocre family and upbringing, Shakespeare’s schools were not of very high quality unless families had enough money to pay for a higher tuition; thus, a better education. At this time, there were two main schools: grammar schools and petty schools, grammar schools being far more advanced than lesser petty schools. Top eve schools catered to the sons of elite businessmen, while the lower level schools had one grammar master and a few pupils.

As web. vic. ca points out, “If the modern primary school is a complex organic being, centrally controlled and elaborately articulated, the petty school of Shakespeare’s day was a primitive, unstable creation,” which shows the variation in schooling quality, as emphasized by Shakespeare-online. com: the grammar schools varied almost as much as the petty schools in size, wealth, and composition. At the top the great midevial colleges like Winchester (1387) nd Eton (1440) possessed buildings, endowments, and facilities comparable to Oxford and Cambridge.

The schools accessible to Shakespeare were clearly not as simpatico as Oxford or Cambridge. Also, pupils, at this time, were taught by usually a man in a classroom filled with both boys and girls. In Shakespeare’s school, many teachers were fired because of drinking problems which caused the students to fall behind. Even further so when a replacement came in, this new teacher had no way of knowing where the previous teacher left off, and this caused holes to be left in many chidren’s education.

Shakespeare finally started school around the age of 6 going on 7 at the Stratford-Upon-Avon Grammar School, which is a step above a petty school, but was still on the poorer side of the education spectrum. The Stratford-Upon-Avon Grammar School still stands today, and is also a museum of Shakespeare’s. Judging by John Shakespeare’s income (William’s father), it is assumed that the school was not of a very high quality. William also studied much Latin; mainly the famous Latin writers of the past, such as Seneca, Cicero, Ovia, Virgil, and Horace.

Many of William’s adored childhood writers name’s were made famous again in his plays, as one can easily note. Unfortunately, at the age of 13, John Shakespeare fell into financial debt, and William’s education ceased. William Shakespeare was not simply handed a life full of riches and a large cushion which he could fall upon, should he make wrong decisions in his life. For William to become world-reknown in a time when his style of writing was merely viewed as taboo, and coming from such a battered upbringing, it is obvious that William had a very strong internal drive to become so prominent.

Mother Love In Infancy Is As Important For Mental Health As Are Vitamins And Proteins For Physical Health

During the 1930s and 1940s John Bowlby, considered one of the most influential child psychiatrics, worked at a clinic for mentally disturbed adolescents. It was in this context that, between 1936 and 1939, he conducted a research on the case history of 44 patients, among whom a few had been convicted for various minor crimes, particularly for theft. The outcome of his research revealed that that 17 of them had been separated from their mother for more than six months, before the age of five.

From a later similar research on other 44 adolescents mentally disturbed but with no criminal tendency, emerged that only two had been deprived of the mothers care. Basing on these observations Bowlby concluded that maternal deprivation contributes to delinquency. His scientific publication entitled 44 Juvenile Thieves, gives an accurate explanation on how he reached his conclusion. He seems to have overlooked several other variables which could have well explained this criminal tendency, including the reasons of the separation in the first place.

Despite the relevance of his research it appears that, only 40 per cent of a small sample of just 44 subjects deprived of their mothers care sometime in the childhood, had manifested deviant behaviours. Moreover, it has to be taken into account the environment in which these children were somehow reared. The pre-war economic depression could have well been a dominant factor in shaping their personality. Another relevant research was carried out by William Goldfarb during the 1940s. He studied two groups of 15 orphans in New York matched for sex, age and social background of their deceased parents.

Goldfarb visited these two groups four times, at the age of three, six, eight and twelve, measuring their progress, language skills and ability to form relationships. He reported that the children adopted earlier did far better than the children who had spent more time within the orphanage walls. This practically was the kind of evidence highlighted by Bowlby in terms of early deprivation of mothers care. Again, from this longitudinal study, other conclusions can be drawn. For instance, being almost impossible to measure babies intelligence, there is no evidence of the pre-existing capacities of these two groups sample.

The fact that some of them had been chosen for adoption rather than others, could mean that they were already more intelligent or lively or inclined to form relationships easier. In opposition to Bowlbys theories there are equally relevant studies. Ann and Alan Clarkes observation on six war orphans for example, consistently challenge the point of view that early deprivation permanently affects child development. This case history sees six one-year-old children confined into a concentration camp, soon after their fathers died in World War Two.

Although the conditions were severely proving, lack of food, scarce attention and not to mention that occasional strangers were rearing them, these children seemed to be fairly close to each other. They would cope with daily problems almost independently and turn to adults only when they effectively needed something. The six children eventually learned to speak with no apparent difficulty and started to form solid relationships with adults, though they remained close to each other. This form of attachment, despite of the under-stimulating rearing environment, shows that children can survive without mothers.

Another example of challenging theories comes from Czech researcher Jarmila Koluchova. In 1972 she reported the case of two 12-year-old twins who had suffered severe deprivation. Their mother died shortly after they were born at the age of one and they were taken to the hospital and found normal and healthy infants. The father remarried and their new stepmother turned to be cruel and insensitive towards them, inflicting severe physical punishments. Many other factors had also worsened their growing.

The father was for most of the time absent from home because of his job and the economic condition of the family was far below the average low-working classs. At the age of seven the twins were finally examined and found physically and mentally retarded. Numerous scars and bruises covered their bodies and the lack of nutrition and vitamins resulted in a major bone disease. They could not walk straight and their coordination was very poor. After being hospitalised, the twins went to live with a loving and caring woman who took particular care of them. At the age of eleven they totally recovered.

Their speech was normal for their age, they seemed to particularly enjoy school activities, learned to play a piano and achieved important goals. There is no evidence though of the twins later lives to conclude that no major effects have taken place from early deprivation. Bowlbys first official statement of attachment entitled The Nature of the Child’s Tie to his Mother raised heavily criticism, particularly from notable exponents of the psychoanalytic society.

Bowlby himself at the end of 1950s realised that his and others statements (such as Goldfarbs, Katherine Wolfs, Rene Spitzs etc. n terms of attachment, sometime tent to be exaggerate, even though he has always insisted on the importance of the mother-child bonding in early life for later development. Nevertheless, other cases proved that some of the children severely deprived and without adequate bonding, recovered later in their life (e. g. Clarkes observation and Koluchovas report). Some other children, according to James and Joyce Robertson for instance, had shown no ill effect after suffering from temporary deprivation of their mother.

The research mentioned so far is from western cultures and it sees the mother as primarily caregiver and key figure in the attachment process. As well as Bowlby, many others have demonstrated that a large majority of the European and west countries babies with sensitive mothers are securely attached (type A). Within other cultures different patterns of bounding occur. Relevant studies on different mothering roles come from Mary Ainsworth. She conducted a research on some Ugandan mothers and children of the Ganda Tribe.

As for many poorer communities, Ugandan children spend most of their time close to their mothers since the birth. Researches show that mothers are less likely to neglect their babies if a skin-to-skin relationship occurs. Separate these children from mothers causes anxiety and distress. An alternative kind of mothering is found, for instance, in a small percentage of agricultural population in Israel, commonly called Kibbutzim. The main feature of this 4 per cent of the entire Israelite population is that they try to be self-sufficient and keep everyone fully employed.

Therefore, in order to readily return to work, the mother spends a limited period of time with her baby (normally four to six weeks). Thus, this short direct contact time is characterised by an intense bonding behaviour. After the initial mother involvement, childrens houses look after babies while parents spend with them one or two intense hours each day. This system seems to work for two reasons. First because the short but highly qualitative contact between parents and children makes the latter feel wanted and secure. Second, because the surrogate childminding is appropriate.

Going back to Bowlbys quotes, part of the reason for which children temporarily or permanently separated from their mothers suffered, could well be addressed in an inadequate alternative care. Bowlbys theories and studies have had an important impact in post-war society. They have contributed in modifying numerous aspects of children rearing and improving the quality and the flexibility of contacts between mother and child. However, it has also been criticised to be politically convenient. In the late 1940s and 1950s it would have suited the government if women had not gone out to work, leaving more space to men.

In conclusion, it is clear that some of Bowlbys original ideas may not be completely correct. The flexibility of children often leads to overcome major difficulties occurred in early stage and the surrounding in which they are reared plays an important role in shaping them. Furthermore, quoting the studies of Shaffer and Emerson (60 Glasgow Children, 1964) and Skeels (orphans reared by mentally retarded women, 1966) in terms of bond formation, babies are naturally inclined to form multiple attachments, thus the mothers role is not as important as some people have believed. Childminding can be successfully shared among several people.

Dramatic Irony in Macbeth


William Shakespeare effectively uses dramatic irony to intrigue the reader and deepen the impact of the consequences Macbeth ultimately faces. Dramatic Irony Definition: Dramatic Irony is a literary term that defines a situation in the play where the reader knows more than the character does. Thesis: Throughout the play Macbeth, the reader is given the advantage of knowing more things than the characters in the play through the literary device, dramatic irony.

This results in suspense and heightens the flaws of the characters.

Dramatic Irony In Macbeth

Macbeth by William Shakespeare
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Background Knowledge

Point #1- Witches lie to Macbeth: Quote: “All hail Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor”! – Second Witch (Act 1 Scene 3). This is ironic because Macbeth does not actually know that King Duncan has already made him the Thane of Cawdor. This is meaningful due to the fact that it makes Macbeth trust the witches. It relates to villainous nature because the witches have their evil schemes all planned out beforehand. This is significant because Macbeth needs to be the Thane of Cawdor so that he can have the King sleep in his castle to fulfill their prophecy.

Point #2- Macbeth wears a mask: Quote: “There’s no art to find the mind’s construction in the face. He was a gentleman on who, I built an absolute trust. ” – King Duncan (Act 1 Scene 4). The irony in this extract is made obvious when King Duncan, a noble and truthful king, trusts the Thane of Cawdor, and immediately after he says this- Macbeth enters. Shakespeare presents dramatic irony to the audience when Macbeth enters the room.

Duncan is talking about trust and this is ironic because Macbeth will ultimately kill King Duncan. Macbeth’s duplicity is displayed when Duncan greets Macbeth by saying “O worthiest cousin” to which he responds “the service and loyalty I owe in doing it pays itself.

Point #3- Macbeth wishing Banquo safety on his journey: Quote: “This castle hath a pleasant seat; the air nimbly and sweetly recommends itself unto our gentle senses. ”- King Duncan (Act 1 Scene 6). This section highlights the incredible Irony of the situation.

King Duncan has been invited into Macbeth’s home, to dine and enjoy himself. He expects to have a great time and is ridiculously thankful, yet what makes this ironic is the fact that the hostess that he is praising is conspiring to kill him he will be murdered that night. This represents the duplicitous nature of Macbeth, as the outward nobility of his character is contrasted greatly to his true spirit.

Point #4- Macbeth planning to kill Banquo: Quote: “I wish your horses swift, and sure foot- and so I do commend you to their backs. Farewell. Let every man be master of his time till seven at night- To make society the sweeter welcome, we will keep yourself till supper-time alone- While then, god be with you”- Macbeth. (Act 3 Scene 1). The irony is shown because we (the readers) know that Macbeth is plotting the murder of Banquo due to the witches’ prophecy. This is meaningful because we are learning more about Macbeth’s character and it develops tension for the reader keeping them interested. This relates to the plays dramatic irony as it shows how he is trying to be friendly to Banquo; meanwhile, he is trying to murder King Duncan.

Dramatic Irony highlights character development.

Point #5- Macbeth and Lady Macbeth switch roles: Quote: “Naught’s had, all’s spent, where our desire is got without content. ‘Tis safer to be that which we destroy than be destruction dwell in doubtful of joy. ” – Lady Macbeth (Act 3 Scene2). Dramatic irony is present because just prior to this scene, Macbeth has convinced murderers to kill Banquo to prevent him from getting his way. Although, Lady Macbeth speaks to how she would rather be killed than be the killer.

The irony is that Lady Macbeth, the original killer of Duncan (person who convinced Macbeth) now hates killing, but Macbeth, the originally feeble one now loves it. It relates to evil genius by highlighting that Macbeth will not let anyone, not even his best friend, stop him in his insatiable quest of power. Shakespeare has done this to position the audience to further hate Macbeth.

Point #6- Witches fool Macbeth for the second time: Quote: “Macbeth shall never vanquished be, until Great Birnham wood to high Dunsinian Hill shall come against him. ”- Witches (Act 4 Scene 1).

The witches are stating that Macbeth will always be king, until the day that the trees of Great Birnham wood march up to Dunsinian Hill, and that day will almost certainly never come true. This is very much ironic due to the fact that Macduff was able to kill Macbeth because he did not have a natural “woman born” birth. The witches have made a very ironic prophecy.

Point #7- Lady Macduff lies to her son: Quote: “Son: Was my father a traitor, Mother, Lady Macduff: Ay, that he was, Son: What is a traitor, Lady Macduff: Why one that swears and lies”. Act 4 Scene 2). This scene is between Lady Macduff and her son when Macduff has “run off” to England. This scene displays dramatic irony because while Lady Macduff is telling her son that his father is a traitor and liar, Macduff is gone to England to save the horrors that Scotland is now facing because of the evil King Macbeth. It is also dramatic tension as the audience knows that this is leading up to the hazards of living in the kingdom. The scene foreshadows the knowledge that something bad will happen.

Point #8- Ross sugar coats the news to Macduff: Quote: “Macduff: How does my wife? Ross: Well, too. ” (Act 4, Scene 3). This is an instance of dramatic irony because not only do we (the readers) know that Ross is lying about Macduff’s family but we also know that Macduff’s family has been murdered. This quotation is significant to the understanding of Macbeth’s character. Evidently, Macbeth is willing to go to any extent to keep his position as king and abuses his power in the massacre of many innocent people.


Clift, Rebecca. (1999). Irony in conversation. Language in Society. 28. 10.1017/S0047404599004029. This article proposes the adoption of Goffman’s concept of to characterize irony across its forms; the suggestion that this framing is achieved by a shift of footing reveals links between verbal irony and other forms of talk. Examination of irony in conversation shows how the shift of footing allows for detachment, enabling the ironist to make evaluations in response to perceived transgressions with reference to common assumptions.

Questions and Answers

Q: I am trying to look for dramatic irony in acts 1 and 2 from Macbeth. 

A: Dramatic irony is, simply put, when the audience knows something the characters in a book or play do not know. (You knew that already) 

So foul and fair a day I have not seen.
How far is ’t called to Forres?—What are these
So withered and so wild in their attire,
That look not like th’ inhabitants o’ th’ Earth,
And yet are on ’t?—Live you? Or are you aught
That man may question? You seem to understand me,
By each at once her choppy finger laying
Upon her skinny lips. You should be women,
And yet your beards forbid me to interpret
That you are so.

This is an example of Dramatic Irony because the audience knows the witches are plotting to put a curse on Macbeth, but Macbeth and Duncan do not know this.


Q: Examples of dramatic irony that revals character in act one, scene 4.

A: In Act 1 Scene 4, King Duncan praises Macbeth:

DUNCAN … Only I have left to say,
More is thy due than more than all can pay.

And Macbeth responds:

MACBETH The service and the loyalty I owe,
In doing it, pays itself. Your highness’ part
Is to receive our duties; and our duties
Are to your throne and state children and servants,
Which do but what they should, by doing every thing
Safe toward your love and honour.

Basically, Macbeth tells Duncan that it’s his honour and duty to look after Duncan and his family with service and loyalty. Macbeth portrays himself to the king as devoted to Duncan’s service, and not intending anything treacherous against the king.

But Duncan then names his eldest son as his heir to the throne, which puts a barrier in the way of Macbeth’s ambitions to the Scottish throne. Macbeth hints at his ambitions as being dark:

MACBETH: The Prince of Cumberland! that is a step
On which I must fall down, or else o’erleap,
For in my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires;
Let not light see my black and deep desires:
The eye wink at the hand; yet let that be,
Which the eye fears, when it is done, to see.

Yet even after Macbeth reveals that he has such dark ambitions after the kingship, King Duncan praises him after he leaves the scene.

DUNCAN True, worthy Banquo; he is full so valiant,
And in his commendations I am fed;
It is a banquet to me. Let’s after him,
Whose care is gone before to bid us welcome:
It is a peerless kinsman.

The contrast between Macbeth’s revelation of his true intentions, and Duncan’s high opinion of him, makes for a strong dramatic irony at the close of the scene.


Essay Keywords: Macbeth Introduction, Dramatic irony, impact of the consequences Macbeth, play Macbeth, Dramatic Irony Definition.

Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder in children

Sam was your average 4-year-old boy. He had many friends and was well liked by everyone. All in all he seemed be well adjusted. However, when he started kindergarten, his teacher started sending notes home to his mother telling her that Sam was causing trouble and not following the rules. His mother was concerned, and would constantly try to get him to behave. But no matter how much he tried, Sam just kept on getting into trouble.

Finally his mom took him to see a psychologist – maybe he would be able to tell her why Sam was always running around when he was supposed to be sitting, or why he was always fidgeting and not paying attention in class. After the conversation between the psychologist and Sam, which included Sam running around the room three times, knocking over a pile of papers, and a bit of conversing, the psychologist diagnosed Sam with ADHD. Sam’s Mom was relieved to hear that there was a reason for his mischievous behavior, but was anxious to learn more about it. This is what she found out:

Attention Deficit Disorder, or ADD, as it is better known, is an inability to use skills of attention effectively. This results in children who are restless and easily distracted. The situation can be further exacerbated if a child also shows signs of hyperactivity, or an abnormal need for activity. In this case, the disorder is referred to as ADHD. There are many more symptoms or signs that a child has ADD. For example, if a child, fails to pay close attention and constantly makes careless mistakes, gets easily distracted, talks excessively, is really impatient and relentlessly interrupts others, he most probably has ADHD.

However, normal children also tend to have these tendencies, so how can one tell the difference between a normal child and one with this disorder? The National Institute on Mental Health addresses this question. “Behaviors can be judged as normal, or “problem” ADD by evaluating them in relation to the person’s age and developmental maturity. For example, the same behaviors that are acceptable in a 5-year old may be problematic for a 10-year old. Problem behaviors are also long lasting, tend to occur more often and create more problems as time goes on.

Children with ADD/ADHD will have more problems than other children their age experience in the same settings. “1 Note: Since all children, at times, behave in these ways, only a professional can diagnose a child with ADHD. ADD has a very interesting history. In 1902 the first clinical description of ADHD emerged, and was called “Morbid Defect of Moral Control. ” Time progressed and by the 1920’s, ADHD encountered yet another name change. This time it was to be called, “Post-encephalitic Behavior Disorders.

The mid 1960’s were the years in which physicians first took into account that hyperactivity among children might be attributed to the structure of the brain, consequently the name was changed once again, this time to, “Minimal Brain Dysfunction”. In 1980 the National Institute of Mental Health labeled this syndrome as Attention Deficit Disorder. One can have this disorder with or without hyperactivity; the former is called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD. Amphetamines, a medication that was used to treat behavioral disturbances in children made its debut in 1937.

In 1956, Methylphenidate, or better known as Ritalin was introduced as a treatment for hyperactivity. In the past decade prescriptions for stimulant medications to treat ADHD and Attention Deficit Disorder skyrocketed. The FDA approved 4 major treatments for ADD and ADHD. These treatments are: Concerta, Metadate, Focalin, and Strattera. Yet despite the long history of ADHD and millions of children currently taking ADHD medications, there is still a lack of adequate data on the long-term effects that ADHD treatments have on children.

Although these medications may calm the child down, there are those who feel strongly against using them. I have had such an experience when dealing with an ADD child who was under my supervision during camp. My co-counselor refused to give this child his Ritalin, because he felt that medication prevented the camper from being himself. I, on the other, felt that the camper needed his medication so as not cause harm to himself or others around him by acting up. This is one of the many moral issues that come up when discussing ADD.

Many children with ADHD have additional conditions that can complicate the diagnosis and treatment. Learning disabilities are the most frequent of these conditions. They include difficulty with reading, mathematics and written expression. These disabilities can cause the children to have a low self-esteem and poor social skills. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) are also commonly found in children with ADHD, especially in boys. ODD is the defiant, negative and hostile behavior toward authoritative figures.

CD is a disorder that includes aggression toward people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness, lying, or stealing, and serious violation of rules. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry states, “research shows that youngsters with conduct disorder are likely to have ongoing problems if they and their families do not receive early and comprehensive treatment. Without treatment, many youngsters with conduct disorder are unable to adapt to the demands of adulthood and continue to have problems with relationships and holding a job.

Another set of symptoms that is commonly found amongst those who suffer from ADHD are mood and anxiety disorders. These mood disorders can go unnoticed until the child reaches adolescence or adulthood. Many experts believe that the effects of ADHD themselves may cause this anxiety or depression and lower self-esteem. When present, a mood or anxiety disorder can be treated in addition to the ADHD. Due to the uncertainty of its origin many psychologists have theorized what the cause of ADHD may be.

The most popular of these misconceptions were those blaming food, excessive television watching, or parents for their child’s uncontrolled behavior. These factors were initially believed to be causes of ADHD because they appear to be connected. Parents claimed that when they fed their children sugar or various other foods, they became more hyperactive, while other diets claimed to eliminate hyperactivity. These and other mistaken beliefs were studied more in depth, and determined to be unfounded.

For example, according to Robert D. Hunt, “contrary to parental beliefs, sugar did not make children significantly more hyperactive. No diet, in fact, was found to reduce ADHD symptoms. Parenting techniques did not improve symptoms; parental frustration was in fact found to be an effect, not a cause, of ADHD. Excessive television watching and video game playing also was determined to be a symptom, not a cause, of ADHD. It is a form of stimulation that helps children with the disorder sustain focus and control internal feelings of agitation via a mechanism similar to that at work with medication. “3

To this day, experts are not certain as to the cause of ADD. However, they mainly suspect that it is due to a weakness in the brain’s use of its chemicals, or neurotransmitters. This can be due to exposure to toxins, alcohol or drugs before birth. Poor nutrition, chemical or food allergies, and toxins in the environment may be the cause of the low levels of norepinephrine and dopamine, which in effect causes them to seek stimulation to raise the arousal in their central nervous system. Increasingly it has become clear that ADHD is a neurological disorder that requires a medical diagnosis and treatment.

Before treating ADHD, one should realize that there is no cure yet. These are only treatments that help a child with this syndrome behave better for a short period of time, so that he can develop and learn normally. The two main treatments for ADHD are stimulant drugs and a talking treatment called behavioral therapy. Medication such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) and dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) can help your child concentrate, which will in effect cause him to feel calmer and to think before acting. Due to the fact that stimulant drugs affect the central nervous system, they do occasionally have side effects.

Holly Hanke, Tula Karras, and Annette Spence explain that the most common of these “include decreased appetite, stomachache or headache, mild insomnia, and jitteriness. Children also report feeling moody when the drug wears off (this is called “rebound”) or strangely subdued when their dose is too high. “4 Another important factor as stated by Saul Kassin, is that “if Ritalin is prescribed, one should make certain to combine its use with psychologically oriented therapy”5. Behavior therapy recognizes the limits that ADHD puts on a child.

It focuses on how the important people and places in the child’s life can adapt to encourage good behavior and discourage unwanted behavior. Unlike play therapy or other therapies that focus mainly on the child and his emotions, the aim of behavioral therapy is to change the child’s physical and social environments, and to help the child improve his behavior. One very interesting treatment that I found was implemented by Alan Pope, Ph. D. who is the NASA psychologist and electrical engineer who invented virtual reality biofeedback, and Olafur Pallson, Psy. D. They have invented a way for Nintendo and Play Station games to be used to treat Attention Deficit Disorder.

“When players produce faster brain waves – beta waves – the game pad or joy stick for the video game works better, and they can better control the characters on the screen When players use slower, more lethargic brain waves – theta waves – the game pad is more sluggish. Now your youngster can play their favorite video game and learn to pay attention better at the same time. “6

Interestingly enough there are those people who deny the whole idea of ADD completely. In his article “The Great ADD Hoax”, David Kiersay tries to convince his readers that there is no such thing as Attention Deficit Disorder. He reasons that the whole disorder is based on so called symptoms that can be observed. His objection to this is that attention isn’t something that can be observed, “rather it’s something that we guess is going on in the brain of the person we’re observing, when all we can see or hear is what the person is doing.

When a schoolboy is observed just sitting and seemingly doing nothing it’s impossible to tell what he’s paying attention to. Of course it’s obvious he’s not actively engaged in doing his assignment; whatever he’s thinking about can only be a matter of conjecture. “7 His other point of argument is that he says that medics seem to believe that Attention Deficit is caused by symptoms. He feels that the medics are mistaken, “It’s preposterous to say that the symptoms of attention deficit cause the deficit of attention.

Even though preposterous, the medics seem to mean what they say. For example they say that some hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that cause impairment must have been present before age 7 years. ‘ Also they say that “Some impairment from the symptoms must be present in at least two settings (e. g. at school [or work] and at home). “7 At my professors suggestion, I put some thought into a very intriguing question, has ADD always been around and just not identified, or did it evolve with the humans?

Although I did not any find evidence proving one way or another, I did come up with my own conclusion. I believe that there have always been people with ADD, but it was never identified. Back in the day, children would spend a lot their time doing their chores, either in the fields or in their homes. Whatever the circumstance, they where constantly moving about and using up their energy. Skipping ahead to the 21st century, children are now required to sit in a classroom for long periods of time; being dictated what they must do.

Teachers demand that children use their energy mentally as opposed to physically. Some children just aren’t cut out for this; they need to employ their energy by doing physical activities. So the natural result is that these children cannot concentrate on what their teacher is saying, they start fidgeting, and get into trouble. This syndrome is becoming more evident now than any other time in history. Three and a half million children under the age of 18 are now diagnosed with ADD; it only makes sense that the rest of us should educate ourselves about this issue.

The Fatherhood Movement

Throughout the United States, more than one-third of children don’t live with their biological fathers, and about 17 million of those children don’t live with any father at all. Of those, roughly 40 percent haven’t seen their fathers in the last year. The over 500 Father’s Rights organizations are trying in a variety of ways to change these statistics because they believe that fathers are necessary to the intellectual, psychological and emotional well- being of all children. \”Family values\” groups encourage long lasting stable, marriages and tough divorce laws to increase the number of two- parent households.

Some organizations focus on reasonable child support and visitation, as well as creative joint custody arrangements to combat fatherless ness after divorce. Still other sects within the movement encourage responsible fatherhood through counseling for \”Deadbeat\” or \”Dead-broke\” Dads, job training and placement to increase the likelihood of child support payments and educational seminars to teach men how to be emotionally supportive fathers. The unique coalition of conservative pro-marriage groups, white middle-class divorces and low- income fathers is an unusual alliance.

But regardless of philosophical and tactical differences, the essential mission is the same- to improve the relationship between our nation’s fathers and their children. A Brief History Throughout the 18th and 19th Centuries, wives and children were considered property of the husband. Divorce was very rare, but when it did occur, children would automatically become custody of the father. Even if a father died, his wife was not assured custody of the children unless his will explicitly stated so.

In the Early 1900’s, courts and state legislatures began to support maternal rights, viewing the mother as the more nurturing parent. The \”tender years\” doctrine, implemented in many states, encouraged courts to place young children with mothers because mothers were seen as essential to emotional development. The maternal preference continued to increase throughout the 1950’s and 60’s. With the spread of no-fault divorce laws throughout the late 1970’s, and the increase of women’s participation in the work force, women were more able to obtain divorces from unhappy marriages.

Maternal preference in custody battles gave women a huge advantage, and a vast majority of women obtained sole custody of children in the increasingly more prevalent divorce proceedings. The 1980’s saw the emergence of a new and powerful father hood movement, focused on discrimination in divorce laws and unfair child support orders. 1986, The National Convention for Men, an umbrella group for 36 organizations representing roughly 6,000 men, centered their attention of the issues of child support and custody rights.

The men were outraged by the gender bias men suffer in courts, with 87 to 90 percent of divorce cases giving sole custody to the mother with our without visitation for the father . They emphasized that the feminist movement had changed parenting roles and equalized parental involvement, and demanded that custody laws be changed to reflect this. The president of the NCM, Peter Cyr, urged the men to fight against isolation and alienation from their children. In 51 percent of sole- custody arrangements, the children saw their father less than once a year, according to the Commission on Child and Family Welfare.

The NCM supported joint custody, which was a key issue of fledgling Father’s Rights movement and is still central plank of the father’s rights platform today. In the late 1980’s and early 1990’s, criticism of single mothers began to mount. The number of two parent families dropped over 11 percent from 1970 to 1980 and continued to drop into the 90’s. Between 1969 and 1992, the percent of AFDC cases involving children born to unwed mothers grew by over 20 percentage points, with over 77% of \”illegitimate\” children becoming enmeshed in the welfare system before they were a year old.

Pro- marriage father’s groups began to site empirical research which concluded that a lack of father influence can lead to a higher rate of juvenile delinquency, teen pregnancy and general neglect, according to the Children’s Rights Council. Activists reasoned that the break down of the family was leading to societal disarray, and that social policy should create incentives for marriage and decrease incentives for divorce. Feminist groups defended single mothers; citing studies that proved that income was a greater indicator of juvenile delinquency than female- headed households.

They also questioned the premise that fathers were an essential component of child development. They pointed to studies, such as the one recently released from Yeshiva University, which concludes \”raising a healthy child hinges on the quality and reliability of the parents relationship with the child. If the relationship is strong, it doesn’t matter whether the parenting is by the mother, the father, two moms, two dads… \” They were concerned that government incentives for marriage would increase the likelihood of negative involvement by abusive or substance- using fathers.

Feminist groups also challenge the premise that joint custody will serve the best interests of the child, saying that children are often torn between two fighting and emotional parents after divorce. The early Father’s Rights groups swelled with size and power until the early 1990’s, when harsh criticism of dead-beat dad’s was brought to public attention by President Clinton. The Child Support Recovery Act of 1992 allowed criminal prosecution of deadbeat parents, and created a Most Wanted Deadbeat Parents Website. States, such as Massachusetts and Illinois also began posting pictures and lists of parents behind in child support payments.

The state of Washington began demanding that fathers acknowledge paternity before leaving the hospital. Since 1992, the popularity and success of this program has spread nation-wide. Clinton’s welfare reform package, which was enacted in 1996, allows the Federal and state government to garnish wages directly from parents behind in payments. Since 1992, The Federal government has increased the amount of child support collected by 80%, and in 1999, Clinton vowed to increase spending for investigation and prosecution of dead-beat parents by $46 million.

The attack on dead- beat Dads only fueled the fire of Father’s Rights groups. In 1994, the First National Summit on Fatherhood in Dallas indicated the power, prestige and potential of the Father’s Rights Movement. . This summit involved hundreds of community leaders, and attempted to build a national consensus on the need to quickly reduce the rate of father absence. Numerous famous speakers including Al Gore, George Gallup and James Earl Jones presented during the conference, showing their support for the snowballing movement, and encouraging creative strategies for reducing fatherless families.

The National Fatherhood Initiative, a marriage-oriented group, was created as a result of the conference, headed by Wade Horn (see case study: National Fatherhood Initiative. ) The National Fatherhood Initiative has been largely successful in its goals, partly because of the Family Values momentum created by the 1994 Republican Revolution in the House of Representatives. The Million-Man March of 1995 showed that the black community was ready and willing to embrace fatherhood as important and that black men were willing to take responsibility for their families.

This was especially significant because it created a loose, but important inter-racial, mixed income coalition between liberals and conservatives. By 1997, Father’s rights groups had convinced the House and the Senate to form bi-partisan congressional task forces on fatherhood and examine its role in Federal Policy. National newsmagazines such as TIME and Newsday have featured articles on this topic, and the Fatherhood lobby has gained immense credibility in Washington.

Overall, the Father’s Rights movement has made significant strides in the last two decades, and their success continues because of their passion for their children and the mounting popularity of the cause. Case Studies Through presentation of the following in- depth analysis of three Father’s Rights groups, I hope to capture the diversity of people, philosophy and approaches found with the movement. I will address key legislation and policy initiatives as well as local programs that seek to re-affirm the importance and increase abundance of father involvement.

The three groups examined are large umbrella organizations for local grassroots efforts. They are representative of various types of local groups and work to implement their changes on a national level. In my presentation, I hope to give an objective analysis of each group’s goals and accomplishments, as well as a commentary on the objections of opposing groups. The first group I examine is the National Fatherhood Initiative. This is a conservative, pro-marriage group, which seeks to use public policy to alter social norms regarding pre-marital sex and out of wedlock pregnancy.

Next is the American Fathers Coalition, which believes men are systematically discriminated against in the courts and laws, and legally isolated from their children. Because fathers are often denied custody or visitation rights, the AFC believes that men are discouraged from emotional involvement and therefore care little about being financially involved in their children’s lives. Lastly, the Partnership for Fragile Families is a liberal organization that seeks to address the needs of young, low- income, minority fathers.

They feel that fathers are often uninvolved financially and emotionally because they are unemployed or underemployed, not psychologically or emotionally ready to be fathers, or inexperienced because of a lack of parental role models when they were growing up. It is important to note that these groups do not represent the views of every organization found in the Father’s Rights Movement. These are mainstream groups which a majority of Father’s Rights activists can appreciate and understand, but not all Father’s Rights groups agree with the goals of these three.

There are organizations that focus on highly specific issues like domestic violence against men, or false domestic and sexual abuse charges. Certain groups, like Veto4Fathers, support a man’s right to veto an abortion, while organizations like Choice for Men aims to allow fathers a legal right to \”abort\” their responsibilities for unwanted children. There are also highly reactionary groups like Fathers Manifest, which aims to ban public education and relinquish women’s suffrage.

For the sake of brevity, I will allow these groups to remain hovering on the fringe, because they are not representative of the movement as a whole. Case Study: The National Fatherhood Coalition The National Fatherhood Coalition is a self- proclaimed, \”non- partisan, non- profit, non- religiously affiliated organization. \” Created in 1994, after the First National Summit on Fatherhood, its mission is to stimulate a broad-based social movement to restore responsible fatherhood as a national priority. They are a politically acceptable group with a conservative, marriage- oriented agenda.

They feel that fathers are essential to the upbringing of a child, and that the government should provide incentives to encourage fathers to stay involved with the their children. The NFI stresses the importance of stable marriages, and tries to promote policy initiatives that discourage divorce and children born out of wedlock. The President, Wade Horn, was previously leader for the Federal Commission on Children, Youth and Families and the Head of the Children’s Bureau within the United States Department of Health and Human.

He also serves on the board of Marriage- Savers, a Maryland group which promotes \”Community Marriage Covenants. \” These covenants aim at increasing the life of a marriage by making divorces more difficult to attain. He, as are the other three members of the Board of Directors, is highly educated and has devoted his professional life to studying and implementing policy that espouse \”Family Values. \” Respected in Washington, he influences policy through dependable research such as \”Father Facts,\” a publication of statistics relevant to fatherhood and marriage and numerous advisory councils.

One of NFI’s central activities is public outreach and education. They advertise in newsmagazines, create public service announcements and cable television spots, and generate editorials for many national newspapers and newsmagazines. Under the direction of the leaders at the First National Summit on Fatherhood, they have been building coalitions of local and national groups to share strategies and information, as well as to increase their political clout. They’ve also built partnerships with organizations like the United Way and the Boys and Girls Club.

The NFI also provides consultation for local and state government officials. The Council of Governor’s Policy Advisors published their informative pamphlet \”Seven Things a State Can Do to Promote Responsible Fatherhood. \” They have also worked with the Governors of Massachusetts, Colorado, Indiana and California to enact state- specific strategies to combat father absence. In Virginia, the NFI is working with the Virginia Department of Health to implement a statewide fatherhood promotion campaign as part of the Governor’s \”citizen empowerment initiative\”.

The NFI developed a series of public service announcements, hosted local fatherhood forums throughout the state, and developed a resource center to assist grassroots organizations and individual citizens implement local fatherhood promotion efforts. Nationally, NFI has worked on key legislation such as the Fathers Count bill, sponsored by Rep. Nancy Johnson (R-CT) and Benjamin Cardin (D-MD). This bill allocates $140 million to private groups for job and skills training for non- custodial fathers to decrease child support delinquency.

The House passed this bill in 1999, which authorizes $140 million over six years to help welfare fathers find jobs and fund religious and community groups the encourage marriage and teach parenting skills. These can be charitable organizations, which means that religious groups are eligible for funding. The Religious Right is strongly supportive of this ingredient, while liberal opponents feel it’s wrong for the government to support moral crusades. Although the bill was not able to pass the Senate, it has been resurrected in the 2000 session as the Child Support Distribution Act.

The new bill increases the NFI influence on funding distribution by allowing a council of experts, one of which is Wade Horn, to decide whether or not community-based groups will receive grants. Liberal activists also strongly oppose this element of the bill because they fear that the interests of more powerful single fathers will be advances over those of single mothers. Lastly, the new bill forgives child support owed to the state welfare system if fathers marry the mother of their children, or begin living with their children. This provides a serious monetary incentive to marry or fight for sole custody.

The Child Support redistribution Act bill has also languished in the Senate, partly because of serious debate about the government infringing on moral issues of marriage and family. Also, many feminist groups, such as NOW, fear that the emphasis on marriage will provide manipulative or abusive fathers a monetary incentive to remain in the lives of their children, ex-wives or girlfriends. Nonetheless, the NFI has proven itself a major political force on the Federal and State level in its young existence, and is not likely to stop exerting pressure on Congress any time soon.

Case Study: American Fathers Coalition/ American Coalition for Fathers and Children The American Coalition for Fathers and Children is a non- profit organization that is attempting to \”create a family law system and legislative system that promotes equal rights for all parties affected by divorce, the break up of a family or establishment of paternity. \” It was created as an off- shoot of the AFC, a lobbyist group that will be examined below.

The ACFC seeks to balance lobbying with outreach and education, legal advice and support for fathers embroiled in legal battles and emotional support for \”parental alienation syndrome. (Parental Alienation Syndrome is the \”systematic alienation of one parent by another parent. \” ) The ACFC believes that \”the best parent is both parents\” (a slogan common to other Father’s Rights Organization such as the Children’s Rights Council and Fathers and Families). The ACFC believes that joint custody and shared parenting are the best ways to handle divorce, and that both parents are fundamentally responsible for the emotional, psychological and financial needs of children.

They also believe that the child support and custody systems need to be reformed to be more reasonable and better reflect the parenting contributions of both parents. Created only in 1998, they have already made impressive strides and their goals are very ambitious. Because they try to encourage existing father’s rights groups to incorporate under their umbrella, they already have 50 chapters nationwide. They have written a Chapter Development Guide to encourage fathers to start up a chapter in their community. They encourage grassroots efforts and input, but maintain centralized leadership within the organization.

The have set up a nation-wide crisis line for support and communication amongst fathers going through divorce or separation. They have also made tool kits with legal advice and recommendation for each problem that Dads may face; paternity suits, obtaining sole or joint custody, enforcing visitation rights, civil rights violations, false abuse allegations or domestic violence. The ACFC also plans to write textbooks that teach children about the biological moral necessity of two parent families. They believe that the political correctness infused in to elementary and high school curricula encourage the break down of the American family.

Various civil liberties and advocacy groups oppose this initiative, feeling that it will allow discrimination against women and homosexuals to be taught in schools. Because of the strong criticism these textbooks will receive, it’s unlikely they will ever find their way into a public school classroom, but it’s quite possible that private schools or religiously affiliated charter schools will utilize the texts. The American Fathers Coalition is the lobbying arm of the ACFC, founded by Stuart Little, a Federal lobbyist. The goal of the AFC is to \”promote positive father- inclusive policies.

The AFC feels that current Federal and State policy discriminates against two-parent families, and that single mothers receive a disproportionate amount of social support. Little, the senior lobbyist for the AFC has testified before Congress, state legislatures, Congressional Committees and White House Task Forces on the importance of eliminating the gender bias from legal proceedings and family- related laws. He’s worked with the White House Domestic Policy Counsel, the Welfare Reform Task Force, the Administration for Children and Families and the Office of Child Support.

His experience on Capitol Hill is second only to Wade Horn among fatherhood activists, but his influence and credibility pales in comparison. The legislation proposed by the AFC is much harsher on single mothers, particularly welfare recipients, and is much more politically controversial. Although the AFC attempts to influence policy in such areas as domestic violence against men, elimination of no- fault divorces, and automatic presumption of joint custody, their must interesting policy initiative is their welfare reform proposal.

The feel that the current welfare system is embedded with incentives for unwed pregnancy and discriminates against married couples. The 7-point proposal which follows, because of its highly controversial nature, has not been sponsored by a House or Senate member. In my analysis of this legislation, I try to explain both AFC’s rationale for each ingredient of the proposal, as well as the rationale for opposing it. 1. First, any mother applying for AFDC money will automatically lose custody of her children to their father if he is able to financially support the children.

Therefore, no single mother could be eligible for AFDC payment unless the father had rejected custody or proven to be an unfit parent. Women would be able to devote themselves to job training or education while the father took responsibility for the children, and would be able to regain joint custody of the children once she was able to support herself. Opponents of this proposal fear that many women will turn to illegal or questionable means to make ends meet rather than lose their child to a father they don’t feel is fit to raise their children.

Also, there is a great danger that abusive, substance- addicted or otherwise unfit parents will receive sole custody simply because the custodial parent lacked the financial means or the emotional strength to bring formal charges against the other parent. 2. Women must responsible for paying back welfare assistance. Under the current system, child support for women on welfare goes directly to the state for repayment. This proposal would make women responsible for at least half of that payment, which she would have to pay back as soon as she left the rolls.

Opponents believe that this would further push single women into poverty, as they will incur debts while on welfare that they will not be able to repay later. 3. Recipients must provide receipts for prove that the AFDC payments are going to the benefit of the child, and they can lose benefits if the spend money of non- government approved luxuries. The argument against this proposal is that welfare payments are so low that families are unable to afford luxuries, so there is little reason for an invasion of privacy and degradation of dignity.

States must establish the paternity of the child at birth. Once paternity is established, there will be a legal link between children and their fathers. Mothers must also disclose paternity in order to be eligible for welfare. Feminists groups such as NOW and the Coalition for the Prevention of Domestic Violence fear that this too will give abusive or unfit fathers a legal open door. This can be a threat to the psychological, emotional and physical well being of the mother and her children.

Also, this may unfairly punish women who are unable to provide paternity information because they simply doesn’t know it 5. States must presume joint custody in all divorce cases and for all \”illegitimate\” children if paternity is known. Joint custody is a critical pillar of the father’s rights movements, and many feminists and children’s advocates feel it is a simplified solution to a complex, emotionally- charged problem. 6. Gives non- custodial parents whose children are on welfare preference at jobs and employment agencies.

This \”affirmative action\” is designed to increase the ability of men to pay child support, but many think it will result in discrimination against women and those without children. 7. Lastly, parents on welfare will be required to complete 40 hours of job training, work, community services and/or job searching per week. Upon leaving the welfare rolls, recipients will be responsible for repaying the cost of training programs or job placement fees. Also, the AFC’s proposal will eliminate the bias against married families by requiring only one spouse to complete the 40 hours in a two-parent family.

Opponents argue that single women will not be able to find quality childcare and transportation, but the AFC refutes that, saying, \”Most current working parents utilize some low-cost combination of family, friends and school to satisfy day care needs. \” This implies that single mothers will be given no added benefit in consideration of childcare or transportation, and will accrue even greater financial burdens while on welfare than if she didn’t accept benefits at all.

The AFC has been greatly criticized for this proposal, but they feel that it demands that women accept responsibility for their actions and eliminates the gender bias in public assistance.. While it’s true that many of the policies endorsed by the AFC are unfair and even vindictive to women, the men proposing these solutions are hurt and angry because they have lost their children to a court system that unfairly gives them the burden of proof in custody cases.

Like all victims of discrimination, the men in this group are frustrated- they’ve lost the most important things in thier lives- their children, and they’re unsure what they can do about it. I’m certainly not suggesting that they should be given credibility on Capitol Hill because they have suffered a loss, but I think it’s important to look at this group from that perspective. Case Study: The National Center for Strategic Non- Profit Planning: Partnership for Fragile Families

The National Center for Strategic Non- Profit Planning (NPCL) is a non- profit organization dedicated to helping community based organizations and public agencies to better serve young, low- income fathers and fragile families. (A fragile family is defined as a young, low- income, never married couple and their children. ) This organization was developed in 1996, in response to the welfare reform measures enacted that year. The NPCL believes that the new, improved welfare system drives apart fragile families.

Young fathers are expected to pay back child support if they establish paternity, which at an 18% interest rate, can be an overwhelming burden for a man that is struggling to make and meet on his own. Also, the money never even reaches his children directly; it goes to the state’s welfare system at repayment of benefits to his kids. Thus, while young fathers have little incentive to establish paternity, single mothers stand serious consequences if they don’t.

Single mothers can lose 25- 100 percent of AFDC benefits if they fail to report the paternity of their children, as well as provide contact information. The increased strain on these often tenuous relationships may cause fathers to disappear from the lives of their partner and children entirely. Led by experienced non- profit administrator Jeffrey M. Johnson, the NPCL created the Partnerships for Fragile Families (PFF) initiative to try to combat this problem.

They recognize that 61 percent of fathers whose children are on welfare have an income below the poverty level, and that 86 percent of these fathers have an income below the poverty level for a family of four. In fact, according to the Census Bureau, even if we reunited every single child in the United States with both biological parents — a move that would clearly not be healthy for children in many instances — two-thirds of the children who are poor today would still be poor, because their fathers and mothers do not earn enough to lift the family out of poverty.

The PFF realizes that the marriage incentives that conservative father’s rights groups support alone will not end the cycle of poverty for the children involved, and tries to address the problems of families where marriage is not a feasible solution. In 1996, the PFF launched a 3-year pilot program in 10 cities to partnerships between community-based organizations and child support enforcement agencies. The idea behind this initiative is to help \”dead beat dads\” alleviate the debts they owe to their children and the welfare system, rather then scare them into payment.

Like conservative father’s rights groups, they recognize the need to make delinquent dads responsible and employable, but unlike conservative groups they focus on actually supplying training and support services, rather than giving fathers ultimatums and forcing them to fend for themselves. The PFF holds workshops for community based groups to share knowledge on how best to help fragile families and young fathers. The PFF has developed \”Fatherhood Development: A Curriculum for Young Fathers,\” a suggestion manual to aide community groups in working with young fathers.

It focuses on personal development; encouraging fathers to examine their values, stressing liberal definitions of man hood and encouraging self- sufficiency. They also strive to develop life skills like communication, dealing with stress and handling discrimination. Third, the Curriculum teaches responsible parenting. This involves discussions on fathers’ impact on their children, the daily needs of children, facts about children’s cognitive and emotional development and effective discipline techniques.

The PFF curriculum also stresses anger management techniques, conflict resolution and techniques for dealing with tumultuous relationship between fathers and the mothers of their children. Lastly, the PFF Curriculum encourages young men to focus on long-term careers and provides recommendations and assistance in getting training that will help them leave unfulfilling, minimum wage jobs. They try to improve the work attitudes of jaded youth, and use mock interviews to help young fathers get jobs. On a national level, the PFF holds Peer Workshops for child support enforcement agencies and federal policy makes.

It seeks to inform officials of the importance of treating \”dead-beat\” dads with respect, and helping them become better fathers, both emotionally and financially. They also focus on the systemic barriers which many young fathers face and encourage policy makers to implement creative strategies for overcoming these obstacles. The PFF initiative and the NCPL do not have the political clout of the NFI, but they are being listened to largely because of the positive results of their programs. They are trying to reach fathers while they and their children are young and prevent irreparable damage to the fragile relationship of the family.

Opponents to this group’s liberal strategy feel that money should not be wasted on fathers unwilling to financially contribute to their own children, but PFF argues that they are helping men who are simply unable to help their children. This organization, and the many community- based groups it represents, is the liberal front of the Father’s Rights Movement, and the strategies they employ have been largely successful in positively influencing the lives of children whose fathers they have helped.

Unfortunately, these pilot programs are small, and a broader, more serious commitment must be made is real change is going to occur. Conclusion: Prospectives for the Future If the fatherhood movement is going to become a comprehensive coalition with widely known accomplishments, it will need to find a common ground between the left and the right components of the group. Will both can support a review of child support and custody laws that more fairly judges the best interest of the children, neither thinks that changes in custody laws alone will solve the \”crisis of fatherlessness in America,\” as Wade Horn refers to it.

The pro-marriage sector of the movement feels that we cannot make strides in father absence as well as reduce dependency on welfare, our government must encourage \”marriage, fidelity, love, affection, nurturing and compassion. ” But, these are difficult things to legislate. The left wing believes that we must help people learn and use compassion and nurturing towards their children and the mothers of those children. \”Fatherhood programs are learning how to help never- married and divorced or separated father remain involved in their children’s lives,\” says Ron Mincy of the Ford Foundation.

“If a marriage is feasible, marriage promotion can be a part of a practitioner’s strategy for threat family. But for children born to divorced, separated, unmarried or dysfunctionally married parents, the practitioner should work only on ensuring that the relationship of the parent doesn’t become a barrier to the relationship between father and child. \” Unfortunately, intensive programs that can be flexible enough to help each family are very costly, and without a guarantee that it will work, the right wing doesn’t want to make the commitment. I believe th

Social Acceptance Essay

A child goes to school, the teacher asks, “Have your mom come in for a ‘teacher mother conference’. ” Suddenly, the child is confused. For the first time he thinks about his home setting and wonders, “Which mom is supposed to come in? I have two moms. ” The example given is not an unusual one. It is something that happens all the time in today’s society in which homosexual couples live with and rear children together.

Where most children have a mother and a father, children of gay or lesbian parents have either two moms or two dads. While some may look at this s a “taboo” or , being in the Baptist belt, “a sin”, in today’s society more than 15% of families are with same sex parents who are raising one or more children.

Legally, homosexual marriages are not binding, thus causing difficulty in adopting or fostering children. Due to society it is often difficult to birth a child, as well, without a “husband” or a “father” in a mother’s life. Therefore, those who have children, via pregnancy, foster, or adoption have conquered a very difficult task. So, is this family an abnormal family because there are no opposite sex parents.

Or is it a normal family because of the love its’ members share? Can we say what it is that makes a family. Perhaps, if we can answer these questions, we will find the solutions we need to fulfill the doubts in our minds. Should we ever condemn someone for loving? When we judge, is this what morality is?? I think not! If we would teach our children to accept “love” as that which it is, a mutual feeling of love and respect, perhaps the prejudice and conclusions that society sees will change. We must teach that “gay” is not a “bad” word, it is merely the same love as others feel, but done in a special way.

Why is the Internet so enticing for pedophiles

Its created easily accessible stimulation for child molesters. Anybody can download pictures in complete anonymity. They do not have to make any kind of human contact (Trebilcock 102). There may be definitions to describe pornography, but they do not truly examine the destruction, degradation, and the pathetic nature of the concept. The word pornography is more destructive than one might believe. It would fit perfectly into Sonia Maasik and Jack Solomons essay entitles Cheap Thrills. The essay talks about the influencing images of music, video and television.

The computer is becoming more and more influencing because f the internet these days. The problem with this type of material today is it is assessable on every computer that is connected on-line to the Internet. Pornography should be eliminated on the Internet so that impressionable individuals can not access the degrading Al Gore says Some say that we should refrain from action, that all action to block childrens access to objectable content amounts to censorship. To them I say, blocking your childs access to objectionable Internet content is not censoring thats called parenting( Simons B10).

Eliminating pornography on the net will help to decrease the arge amount of pornography users, which will decrease crime. Dr. Victor Cline, from the University of Utah, conducted a study regarding serial murders and rapists. He observed users developing a four-step pattern with pornography. The first step in his study was the addiction. The serial murders and rapist claimed that at first they become addicted to the material. Dr. Clines study didnt stop there. The serial murderers and rapists claimed to continue on with their addiction. They increased to the next step of Dr. Clines observed patterns.

The use of pornography material escalated. They felt as if they needed more and ore pornography with hard core material to meet their needs. Becoming indifferent to others was the third stage. The serial murderers and rapists felt after becoming addicted and escalating their habits, they needed to desensitize. This is when they stopped caring about others. As long as their needs were fulfilled they felt that no harm was done. They were the only innocence in the picture. The last step in Dr. Clines observation was the actualization, which is the acting out what he/she saw regarding pornography.

This is the final stage that serial murderers and rapists concluded themselves in this four-stage process. Therefore, this is the end for innocent adults, children, and animals to get hurt. Pulling all pornography from the Internet will allow fewer people to have access to the degrading material. This is the material that is a common character trait among serial murderers and rapists, which are a belief, held by Dr. Calvin. These four steps of Dr. Calvins need to be prevented by us the users of the Internet and the people of the world. We need to take it off the Internet now before it gets any worse.

Years ago people believed if pornography was to be legalized, the demand for the aterial would decrease. Now with the experience and technology today, the demand for the material is increasing. A study was directed in many cities with de facto legalization. The results of this study concluded men becoming addicted to the pornography material This study also determined, in the last two decades, the number of rapes and child sexual abuse has increased tremendously due to the men who are acting out their desires. This material is like a deadly weapon. It encourages one to strike a gun when they have it in their hand.

Then the criminal uses it as an excuse to react on the topic. It was resolved in this study that when pornography addicts become bored with a certain type of material, they continue on to much harder material. Material that consumes much more than they have previously observed. They want the hard core pornography. They want it all and this is where the situation becomes a problem. With these two studies from Is it Pornography article, the conclusions were both acted out as a result. When a person consumes hard core pornography, this is when most of the violent crimes occur.

We must not allow this degrading material to destroy our people, futures and world. People need to realize the damage pornography does and stop it Pornography is illegal for the same reason crack cocaine, steroids, and heroin are illegal. Peoples lives are consumed and often destroyed by it and those who use it are a threat to others (Elmer-Dewitt 636). This quotation, from the Censorship II: Should Electronic Networks Be Restricted? article, allows us to compare how destructive this topic really is to a drug that we all know the level of destruction. The only problem with this is, it is easier to get pornography today, than cocaine.

All one has to do is turn on his omputer and down load on the Internet. Its much too easy which makes it incredibly scary. Anybody can down load images in a public library, a friends house, at local schools, and at any computer that is accessible to the Internet. There is no demand for ID checking; all thats needed is a mouse and a few clicks. Its more assessable than one might think. A child or an adult can load images at any age. A Veteran Internet surfer opposes, If you dont want them you wont get them (Walsh 7). He claims that one must show proof of ID to obtain such material and the material is off limits to minors/kids.

This is absolutely not true. If one is connected to the Internet, all they have to do is type the word PORNOGRAPHY and its that easy. Just as curiosity kills the cat, it also poisons the mind. Clifford L. Linedecker says, The chances of randomly coming across them are unbelievably slim (7). Coming across them which is pornography, is much easier than one must believe. Typing a word is dealing with pornography (for the sake of research) into the computer and a few clicks from the mouse can disprove by Linedeckers message. Its much easier than one must believe. This unwanted material can be accessed nytime with just a click from the mouse.

In Internet Child-Pornography Peddlers, Sex Predators Targeted by White House, John Simons claims that since 1960 the rape percent has increased over 500%. This is an enormous amount of rapes that occur due to the use of pornography. This article also acknowledges the fact that 57% of serial rapists that were studied claimed that they imitated scenes that were learned from types of pornography (B10). Among all the crimes in the America, sexual violence is driven to the maximum, due to hard core pornography. According to Robert M. Baird, Pornography in the United States, is the third largest money-maker in systematic crime.

After following drugs and gambling, pornography has a $8-$10 billion per year enterprise (117). This is a large amount of money for this one topic to make in a year, but the real issue is the human lives that are being tormented. This material needs to be eliminated in all areas. On the Internet, this material should be taken off 100%. It is obvious that pornography does more harm than good. This material degrades the nature of impressionable individuals. This material hurts the innocent and by taking it off the nternet, the crime rates of rape and murders will decrease in numbers tremendously.

If we dont give the addicts their material, hopefully they will move on to bigger and better ideas. Being able to define the word pornography truly, is a question we all need to ask ourselves. We can get the definition from a dictionary or encyclopedia, but can we agree with the definition. Is it bias on our beliefs? Taking this material off the Internet will help to pursue the innocence of many individuals and make it harder of the addicts to get the material. The road to pornography, is also the road to destruction.

Child Pornography on the Internet

In this new age of Information, the Internet has made all types of information readily available. Some of this information can be very useful, some can be malicious. Child pornography, also known as Paedophilia is one of these problems. Any one person can find child pornography on the internet with just a few clicks of the mouse using any search engine. Despite webmaster’s and law enforcement officials’ efforts to control child pornography and shut down illegal sites, new sites are posted using several ways to mask their identity. The Internet provides a new world for curious children.

It offers ntertainment, opportunities for education, information and communication. The Internet is a tool that opens a window of opportunities. As Internet use grows, so do the risks of children being exposed to inappropriate material, in particular, criminal activity by paedophiles and child Many children first come in contact with the Internet at a very young age. Some children become victims of child pornography through close relatives who may have abused them. Some children become involved with chat services or newsgroup threads.

It is usually through these sites that they meet child pornographers. Children may be asked to send explicit pictures of themselves taken either by a digital camera or scanned from a polaroid. The pornographer will then post the pictures on their web site, sometimes hiding them through encryption, steganography or password protecting them using a javascript or applet. Certain efforts have been made to control child pornography through legislation. In 1977 the Sexual Exploitation of Children Act was put into Legislation. (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2253)

The law prohibits the use of a minor in the making of pornography, the transport of child across state lines, the taking of a pornographic picture of a minor, and the production and circulation of materials advertising child pornography. It also prohibits the transfer, sale, purchase, and receipt of minors when the purpose of such transfer, sale, purchase, or receipt is to use the child or youth in the production of child pornography. The transportation, importation, shipment, and receipt of child pornography by any interstate means, including by mail or computer, is also prohibited.

The Child Protection Act of 1984 (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2255) efines anyone younger than the age of 18 as a child. Therefore, a sexually explicit photograph of anyone 17 years of age or younger is child pornography. On November 7, 1986, the U. S. Congress enacted the Child Sexual Abuse and Pornography Act (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2256) that banned the production and use of advertisements for child pornography and included a provision for civil remedies of personal injuries suffered by a minor who is a victim.

It also raised the minimum sentences for repeat offenders from imprisonment of not less than two years to imprisonment of not less than five years. On November 18, 1988, the U. S. Congress enacted the Child Protection and Obscenity Enforcement Act (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2256) that made it unlawful to use a computer to transmit advertisements or visual depictions of child pornography and it prohibited the buying, selling, or otherwise obtaining temporary custody or control of children for the purpose of producing child pornography.

On November 29, 1990, the U. S. Congress enacted US Code : Title 18, Section 2252 making it a federal crime to possess three or more depictions of child pornography that were mailed or shipped in nterstate or foreign commerce or that were produced using materials that were mailed or shipped by any means, including by computer. With the passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, it is a federal crime for anyone using the mail, interstate or foreign commerce, to persuade, induce, or entice any individual younger than the age of 18 to engage in any sexual act for which the person may be criminally prosecuted.

The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 amends the definition of child pornography to include that which actually depicts the sexual conduct of eal minor children and that which appears to be a depiction of a minor engaging in sexual conduct. Computer, photographic, and photocopy technology is amazingly competent at creating and altering images that have been “morphed” to look like children even though those photographed may have actually been adults.

People who alter pornographic images to look like children can now be prosecuted under the law. Abstracts for these laws can be found at http://www4. law. cornell. edu/uscode/18/. The current legislation in place at the federal and state level clearly defines child pornography, and the standard sentencing for offenders. It also clearly defines a minor and what activity involving a minor is illegal. What the legislation does not do is set the standards for retreival of evidence from an electronic device, namely computers.

Also, the current legislation does not set standards for decrypting child pornography that is protected. One example is the use of Steganography. Steganography uses a bitstream algorithm to hide information in the form of raw binary code within other files suitable to hold information. The most commonly used form of Steganography uses the least significant bit f a bitmap image to store virtually any type of information. Every three bytes in a bitmap file represents a pixel. Each of these bytes represents a level of red, blue or green.

Since there are eight bits in a byte, there can be up to 256 different combinations of 1’s and 0’s in a single byte. In the case of a bitmap, each unique combination of 1’s and 0’s represents a level of red, blue or green. When the colors are combined, there is the possibility of 256^3 or 4,294,967,296 different colors. In order to hide information within a bitmap file, the file in which you want to hide must be opied bit for bit into the last bit of each byte in the bitmap file.

This will change each pixel of the bitmap file at the most by 1 / 2,097,152, depending on whether the bit being copied is the same as the bit it is replacing. Since the human eye can only physically distinguish between an average of 250 different colors, a difference of 1 / 2,097,152 is indistinguishable. Since only one bit of the target bitmap is being used to store information, the source file can at most be 1/8 of the size of the target file. In the case of a bitmap, a high resolution picture can easily hold lower resolution picture that may contain child pornography.

Legally, if a bitmap image is found to contain a hidden image using steganography, there is no legal procedure for extracting that evidence for a court case. The prosecution would have to somehow explain how steganography works to a jury, and to the judge, and would have to prove in some way that the information found did in fact come from that bitmap file. Currently, evidence found in this manner is inadmissible in court because there is no legislation dealing with this type of evidence. Also, there is no standard approved software that will decode these files.

There are several software programs readily available on the internet which will encode or decode information using the least significant bit algorithm. One example is called Hide and Seek. Anyone can obtain this software free of charge, making it easy for child pornographers to hide their work. Another problem is illicit material that is stored on a remote computer. If the perpetrator of child pornography does not own the computer that the material is stored on, it would be difficult for law enforcement officials to obtain a warrant to search a third party’s computer.

How The Simpsons Affects Kids

The Simpsons is one of Americas most popular television shows. It ranks as the number one television program for viewers under eighteen years of age. However, the ideals that The Simpsons conveys are not always wholesome, sometimes not even in good taste. It is inevitable that The Simpsons is affecting children. Matt Groening took up drawing to escape from his troubles in 1977. At the time, Groening was working for the L. A. Reader, a free weekly newspaper. He began working on Life in Hell, a humorous comic strip consisting of people with rabbit ears. The L. A. Reader picked up a copy of his comic strip and liked what they saw.

Life in Hell gradually became a common comic strip in many free weeklies and college newspapers across the country. It even developed a cult status. (Varhola, 1) Life in Hell drew the attention of James L. Brooks, producer of works such as Taxi, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, and Terms of Endearment. Brooks originally wanted Groening to make an animated pilot of Life in Hell. Groening chose not to do so in fear of loosing royalties from papers that printed the strip. Groening presented Brooks with an overweight, balding father, a mother with a blue beehive hairdo, and three obnoxious spiky haired children.

Groening intended for them to represent the typical American family “who love each other and drive each other crazy”. Groening named the characters after his own family. His parents were named Homer and Margaret and he had two younger sisters named Lisa and Maggie. Bart was an anagram for “brat”. Groening chose the last name “Simpson” to sound like the typical American family name. (Varhola, 2) Brooks decided to put the 30 or 60 second animations on between skits on The Tracy Ullman Show on the unsuccessful Fox network. Cast members Dan Castellaneta and Julie Kavner did the voices of Homer and Marge.

Yeardley Smith (later to star in Herman’s Head) did the voice of Lisa. Nancy Cartwright did the voice of Bart. Cartwright previously supplied the voices for many cartoons, including Galaxy High, Fantastic Max, Richie Rich, Snorks, Pound Puppies, My Little Pony, and Glo-Friends. Tracy Ullman later added Cartwright to her cast. (Dale and Trich, 11) Brooks, Groening, and Sam Simon, Tracy Ullman’s producer, wanted to turn the Simpson family into their own show. The Fox network was looking for material to appeal to younger viewers.

The only show they had that drew a young audience was Married With Children. To Fox’s pleasure, The Simpsons saved the network from near failure. (Varhola, 3) On December 17, 1989, The Simpsons got their break. The Christmas special, “Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire” aired. (Dale and Trich, 19) In the episode, Bart got a tattoo, much to Marge’s dislike. She quickly spent all of the family’s Christmas money to remove Bart’s tattoo with a laser. At the same time, Homer, still on his morning coffee break at 4:00 in the afternoon, learns that he will not receive a Christmas bonus.

When he learns that Marge is relying on the money for Christmas, he decides that he will do the Christmas shopping for the year. He quickly buys Marge panty hose, Bart paper, Lisa crayons, and Maggie a dog toy. When he realizes that he is not doing very well, he gets a second job as a mall Santa for the extra money. On the way home from work, he steals a Christmas tree. The next day at the mall, Bart sits on his Dad’s lap and pulls down his beard. Homer responds by choking Bart and making him help make Christmas better. On Christmas Eve, Homer receives his check, $13. 70 for over 40 hours work.

Homer takes Bart to the dog track as a final chance for Christmas money. They discovered a gem in the third race, Santa’s Little Helper. How could this dog loose on Christmas Eve? The odds were 99 to 1, they were going to be rich. Homer put all of his money on Santa’s Little Helper, and to his horror, he never even finished. As Homer and Bart were scouring the parking lot for winning tickets into the night, they saw the track manager throw out a dog. It was not just any dog, it was Santa’s Little Helper. When Bart and Homer came home to their worried family, they had a good Christmas after all.

Now they had a dog. (Pond) “Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire” was not the typical Christmas story. It dealt with body art, sleeping in the work place, sibling rivalry, stealing a Christmas tree, a misbehaved son, and gambling. Although it was unorthodox, it was very successful. The Fox network decided to air it again on Christmas Eve. (Dale and Trich, 19) In a little over a month, The Simpsons made it’s debut as a weekly show, “Bart the Genius” was the first regular episode. In the middle of a feared assessment test, Bart switches his test with the completed one of Nelson Prince, Class Nerd.

Bart and his parents are called into Principal Seymour Skinner’s office where they are told that Bart has a 216 IQ. (Homer thought is was 912. ) Skinner requests that Bart attends The Enriched Learning Center for Children. Suddenly, Homer takes a liking to his son. They joke together, play ball together, embarrass Marge at an opera together. (“Toreador, oh don’t spit on the floor. Use the cuspidor. That’s what it’s for. ” Bart sings along with the opera Carmen. ) Soon at Bart’s old school, Springfield Elementary School, Bart’s graffiti is roped off and tagged, “The Principal.

By Bart Simpson. IQ 216. ” Bart’s friend no longer like him, they refer to him as Poindexter. The kids at his new school trick him into giving up his lunch. In frank, Bart is miserable. Then, after turning himself green in an uneducated science experiment, Bart reveals to his new principal that he cheated on the test. That night, as Homer is helping Bart clean himself off, Bart tells Homer the same. Homer instantly transforms into a murderous rampage again. The episode ends with Bart locking himself in his room and Homer trying to knock down the door so he can tear Bart into pieces.

Vitti) Soon, Simpsons merchandise was all over America. Every kid wanted an “Underachiever and Proud of It, Man” or an “I’m Bart Simpson, Who the Hell Are You? ” shirt. Hats could be seen everywhere that had Bart dressed like a devil saying “Go For It, Dude! ” or with Homer, his arms open, lunging forward saying “Why You Little. ” The most popular shirt was a family picture with Homer choking Bart. During the first week of school in 1990, two thirds of the sixth graders in America wore Simpsons paraphernalia. (Dale and Trich, 43) As the popularity of The Simpsons grew, so did parents’ fears.

To their horror, Bart Simpson became a role model. “Aye Carumba! ” was a popular expression among kids. Almost anything a child did wrong was attributed to “last Sunday’s Simpsons. ” (Dale and Trich, 45) Bad ideas continued to be broadcast into kids’ minds. In the third episode, a baby-sitter robbed the Simpson household of most of it’s belongings. In the fourth episode, Homer caused a nuclear accident, got fired, and attempted suicide. Bart stole the head off of the statue of Jebidiah Springfield, Springfield’s founder in the sixth episode.

In the eighth episode, Bart took a picture of Homer with an exotic dancer and distributed them to the entire town. Marge had an affair in the ninth episode. Homer stole cable, and almost everything else imaginable in the fifteenth episode. (Groening, 37) The Simpsons is often viewed as one of the biggest threats to Christianity. The Simpson family goes to church on a regular basis, but Bart and Homer loath it.

A typical Sunday School conversation is as follows: Child: “Will my dog, Fluffy go to heaven? ” Sunday School Teacher: “No” Other Child: “How about my cat? Teacher: “No, Heaven is only for people. ” Bart: “What if my leg gets gangrene and has to be amputated? Will it be waiting for me in heaven? Teacher: “Yes” Bart: “What about a robot with a human brain? ” Teacher: “I don’t know! Is a little blind faith too much to ask for? ” (Pepoon) The pastor, Reverend Lovejoy is a hypocrite. In “22 Short Films About Springfield” he leads his dog to the Flanders’ yard to go to the bathroom. He praises the dog until Ned Flanders comes outside. He then acts angry and threatens the dog with hell. When Ned leaves, he praises the dog again.

Swartzwelder) In one episode, Homer quits going to church and falls in love with life. He claims to have his own religion so he doesn’t have to go to work on holidays, such as the Feast of Maximum Occupancy. In a conversation with Lisa: Lisa: “Dad, I don’t understand, why have you dedicated yourself to living a life of blasphemy? ” Homer: “Don’t worry Lisa, if I’m wrong, I’ll repent on my death bed. ” (Meyer) The Simpsons is not just an enemy of Christianity, though. In one episode, where Krusty the Clown is reunited with his father, a rabbi, almost the entire episode is spent making fun of Judaism.

Homer got angry at Marge once for spending lots of money to vaccinate Maggie against diseases she doesn’t have. His advice on how to get out of jury duty is “to tell them that you’re prejudiced against all races. ” His self proclaimed, best advice is, “Sometimes the only way you can feel good about yourself is to make other people look stupid. ” (Groening, 26) Personally, I believe that The Simpsons affects children, but not necessarily in a bad way. Children never hurt themselves mimicking The Three Stooges, nor do they with The Simpsons. Almost every episode ends with a family that loves each other.

Some episodes have answered the question of them affecting children on their own. Once, Marge began to protest Itchy and Scratchy cartoons. Itchy is a psychopathic mouse who’s only purpose is to kill and torture Scratchy, a cat. Nearing the end of the episode, Marge realizes that Itchy and Scratchy is not hurting anyone. They take a satirical view to the situation when a group of mothers try to stop Michaelangelo’s David from visiting the Springfield Museum of Art by means that it is pornographic. (Koger and Wolodarsky) Unlike many sitcoms, The Simpsons is more like everyday life.

Homer works in a power plant. In many other sitcoms, the father works a popular job, such as an accountant, or with a television studio. The Simpson family is not a wealthy family living in a $300,000 house. Many children can relate to this. (Rebeck, 622) In some cases, The Simpsons is educational. Karen Brecze credits Homer Simpson with saving her 8-year-old son, Alex’s life. Bence, of Auburn, Washington, says the boy was choking on an orange when his 10-year-old brother, Chris, used the Heimlich maneuver, which he learned from “Homer at the Bat”, where Homer is choking on a doughnut.

Unlike Alex, Homer doesn’t receive help and coughs up the doughnut as his co-workers look at the Heimlich maneuver poster. (Dyer, D3) The Simpsons affects kids, just as anything around them will. Perhaps people fear The Simpsons because they can see a little of The Simpsons in themselves. We all have inner child’s trying to get out that behave just like Bart. We all do “pull a Homer” sometimes. It just happens. The show doesn’t make us do it. It just happens. If this world did not have The Simpsons children would behave in the same manner, they just might laugh quite as much.

Impresionable Children Essay

Over the pas couple of decades American society has undergone some vast changes. The concept of the family has been greatly altered. No longer is such emphasis put on the “traditional” family. A majority of children are being raised in single parent households. Single parent adoption rights have been granted. Now an entirely new sort of family is being disputed. Should gays and lesbians be granted the right to adopt a child? Today’s view of gays and lesbians is drastically differen t than it was in the past. As more people “come out of the closet” gays and lesbians are becoming more socially accepted.

They currently are battling for equality in a variety of areas. In Hawaii gays and lesbians can be granted marriage righ ts, which was a huge victory until DOMA was passed. The Defense of Marriage Act, otherwise known as DOMA, was a bill proposed by conservative Congressmen and Senator Bob Dole. Dole says, “DOMA defines marriage as between one man and one woman for a ll federal purposes (taxes, Social Security, veterans’ benefits, etc. ) and says that states don’t have to pay attention to the Constitution if they don’t want to recognize same-sex marriages that are legal in any other state” (Winters 1).

President Bill Clinton, who openly expresses his opposition to same-sex marriages, signed the bill making it a law. Gays and lesbians continue to fight. Recently the fights have been centered on adoption. This new dilemma has created quite a stir in society. It is estimated that the number of children being raised by gay or lesbian parents is between 2 and 6 million. It is extremely hard to get an accurate estimation due to the fact that many gays and lesbias are not open about their family structure. These people do not want to be surveyed for fear of losing their children.

In a population where roughly 10% or 25 million people are reported to be homosexual the numbers of those raising children are outstanding (Collum 1). There are three main ways that gays and lesbians are raising children and acquiring families without the courts becoming involved. The first way, which is also the most common way, is when heterosexual marriages dissolve after one parent apparentl y “comes out. ” With this situation, as long as there isn’t a messy custody battle in court most often the child is raised by the gay or lesbia parent, and is also fully aware of his or her parent’s sexual tendencies.

The second method is lesbi ans receiving artificial insemination. Estimates of the number of children born to lesbians through artificial insemination range in the tens of thousands. Pacific Reproductive Services is a clinic in San Francisco where a growing number of lesbians are becoming clients. The clinic reports that more than a 100 lesbians use the sperm bank each month. Lastly, there is one of the newer methods: gays and lesbians going into an agreement with each other to produce a child. In some cases they share duties and custody in raising the child.

In other cases the men or women avoid any attachment with the child at all (Henry III 67-68). Lesbian and gay parents go throughout the daily routines of life no differently than heterosexual parents do. In most cases everyone just wants what is best for the child. This brings on the question if being raised in a same-sex dominated environment will have a psychological effect on the child. The fact still remains that the traumas and hardships fac ed by both the parents and the children of gay and lesbian households will be totally different from those faced by heterosexual families.

This is why many gay and lesbian families keep their family structure so secretive, to avoid the comments, teasing, and publicity surrounding their private lives. Though we all recognize the fact that the traditional view of the family has been altered significantly, can the family be altered to that much of an extent? Adoption is the only other method for gays and lesbians to acquire children. This is the most difficult, technical, and risky way to have a child. It is so risky because cases can vary depending on the judge’s personal views and opinions on this issue.

Most courts make their jurisdiction based on what they feel will be the result of a child growing up in a gay or lesbian household. Homosexual couple’s custody rights are nearly always at risk in the common jurisdictions. Continually courts rule that a child’s best interest is met in the homes of heterosexual parents. One major reasoning for this is due to the fact that though the court does acknowledge that a gay or lesbians’ sexuality is beyond their control, living with someone of the same s ex can be controlled.

Substance Use and Abuse Among Children and Teenagers

During the past several years, there has been a renewed national concern about drug abuse, culminating in the current “war on drugs. ” In this review, we emphasize that even though child or teenage drug use is an individual behavior, it is embedded in a sociocultural context that strongly determines its character and manifestations. Our focus is on psychoactive substances both licit (cigarettes and alcohol) and illicit (e. g. , cannabis and cocaine).

We feel that it is critical to draw a distinction between use and abuse of drugs and to do so from a multidimensional perspective that includes aspects of the stimulus (drug), organism (individual), response, and consequences. Our selective review of substance use and abuse among children and adolescents covers epidemiology (patterns and extent of drug use), etiology (what generates substance use), prevention (how to limit drug use), treatment (interventions with drug users), and consequences (effects and outcomes of youthful drug use).

In this abbreviated review, we selectively examine the recent literature and current status of substance use and abuse among children and adolescents. Our focus is on psychoactive substances both licit and illicit, including cigarettes, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and other drugs. We examine the use and abuse of substances by children and teenagers from five perspectives: epidemiology, etiology, prevention, treatment, and consequences (see Rogers, 1987 , for additional overviews and references).

The United States is a drug culture. Drugs are used commonly and acceptably to wake up in the morning (coffee or tea), get through the stresses of the day (cigarettes), and relax in the evening (alcohol). The Marlboro Man and the Virginia Slims woman are widely seen models, and licit drugs are pushed to remedy all of the ills one may face-stress, headaches, depression, physical illness, and so on. Children face a monumental task of sorting out the many images and messages regarding both licit and illicit drugs.

Adolescents are quite adept at spotting hypocrisy and may have difficulty understanding a policy of “saying no to drugs” when suggested by a society that clearly says “yes” to the smorgasbord of drugs that are legal as well as the range of illicit drugs that are widely available and used. A few words are in order on the distinction between use and abuse of drugs. This differentiation is critical to such diverse topics as societal justification for limiting access to drugs (whether By legal or other means) or for considering psychological intervention.

This distinction has been a difficult one to determine. Accepted definitions among professionals or citizens do not exist because abuse is clearly a multidimensional phenomenon. From our study of this literature (e. g. , Long & Scheli, 1984 ), negative reactions and other adverse consequences to self, others, or property form the backbone for defining abuse, although several distinct but related dimensions are also critical.

Taken together, these dimensions present a comprehensive appreciation of the difference between what constitutes benign use of a drug and what is clearly abuse and destructive use of a substance. The major relevant dimensions include the classic concepts of stimulus, organism, response, and consequences. Stimulus involves the nature of the drug and the context of its use ( Newcomb, 1988 ). All drug use occurs in environmental contexts, some of which are problematic, holding constant all other dimensions, while some are not so.

Ingestion of drugs in inappropriate settings such as the workplace, classroom, driver’s seat, or in isolation can be considered abuse, even though some potential consequences may not have occurred yet for an individual (e. g. , a crash after drinking and driving or being fired from a job). Different substances have different physiological and psychological effects, doseresponse curves, and potentials for negative consequences. For each substance, consuming large quantities or intermediate quantities over prolonged time periods is probably abuse, again because of the potential for harm.

Holding everything else constant, abuse depends on the organism. Not all individuals respond the same way to drugs; nor does the same individuals respond the same way at different times in the life course. Regular use of drugs at developmentally critical life periods such as when an individual is very young or has not yet reached puberty can be considered abuse because of the potential for interfering with crucial growth and adjustment tasks.

Ability to deal maturely with the challenge of drug use depends on personal resources, as well as physiological parameters that determine the response to drug ingestion. Unhealthy attitudes toward use, such as to flaunt independence, are signs of abuse. Inability to evaluate adequately the known potential consequences of use may indicate inadequate organismic resources to deal with use: For example, choosing to use drugs such as crack, phencyclidine (PCP), or strychnine, which are known to have a high probability of dependence, death, toxicity, or other adverse effects, is more than likely abuse.

Stronger response signs of abuse may involve drug dependence when associated with using increased amounts of the substance to achieve the same effect, needing it to get through the day, being unable to stop using it, craving it when not available, showing withdrawal symptoms, and experiencing negative consequences (as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third Edition-Revised) , American Psychiatric Association, 1987 ).

Finally, adverse or negative consequences of use on self, others, or property, such as having deleterious health sequelae, impaired relationships, getting arrested, causing an accident, blacking out, or starting fights, indicate that use has progressed to abuse, whether or not physical dependence is involved. With this multidimensional perspective for distinguishing use from abuse, some general descriptions can be applied to children and teenagers. Any regular use of a psychoactive drug by a child can be considered abuse. This is true regardless of the context, substance, quantity, maturity, reaction, or obvious consequences involved.

It is difficult to imagine any type of child drug use that is not abuse, except for, in our society, the occasional, irregular, and low-quantity sampling of alcohol in a positive social context. This type of guided experimentation is probably quite prevalent (e. g. , taking a sip of mother’s beer). For adolescents, however, the distinction becomes more complicated. Occasional use of beer, wine, or marijuana at a party is not abuse. However, overindulgence of any substance to the point of being very high or stoned is at least acute or temporary abuse, and if it continues this is chronic abuse.

Getting into trouble at school, having problems with the police, causing an accident, or starting a fight while high is consequential evidence for abuse. Getting loaded in the classroom or at work is a circumstantial event indicating abuse. Donovan and Jessor (1985) have combined some of these dimensions to define a problem-drinking teenager as one who engages in heavy drinking on a regular basis, resulting in negative outcomes. Our perspective on use and abuse questions the generally accepted emphasis on illicit drugs as an especially important focus for professional and citizen attention.

Within the past several years, there has been renewed national interest and commitment toward dealing with drug problems. It is difficult to determine what has caused this most recent concern, but such national attention is not new. There is a cyclical process to society’s willingness to face drug problems. For example, there were the cocaine patent medicines of the early 1900s, the brave attempt at prohibition, reefer madness of the 1930s, the drug cultures of the 1960s, the heroin war of the 1970s, and now the current concern about people getting high on cocaine and killing themselves with crack.

It is interesting that aside from the lethal toxicity of certain drugs such as crack, relatively little attention has been given to the two drugs with the most proven record of abuse in terms of the population affected and the magnitude of the consequences; these are, of course, alcohol and cigarettes. Although efforts are made, in schools, for example, to provide a balanced picture, youngsters too often are provided with the mixed message that marijuana and cocaine are bad, destructive, and will rot their brains while seeing media idols holding a drink in one hand and a cigarette in the other.

Perhaps this is one explanation of why so many prevention efforts have failed. Substance use and abuse during adolescence are strongly associated with other problem behaviors such as delinquency, precocious sexual behavior, deviant attitudes, or school dropout. Any focus on drug use or abuse to the exclusion of such correlates, whether antecedent, contemporaneous, or consequent, distorts the phenomenon by focusing on only one aspect or component of a general pattern or syndrome.

Heroes: The Child Within

The epic tale has entertained and inspired since the beginning of recorded history. Whether told by a wise elder or read about in an old, leather-bound volume, accounts of heroes traversing the unknown and encountering mystical beasts have always aroused feelings of excitement in children. However, beneath these feelings, the essence of a child is cultivated; throughout a lifetime, the conscience is a significant force which guides and directs. Since young children are easily influenced, the exposition of literature will have a lasting impact, and themes that are presented will undoubtedly leave an impression.

Tales such as Alfred Lord Tennyson’s “Idylls of the King” recounts scenes of Sir Geraint’s knightly gallantry and valor, while Virgil’s Aeneid contains a recurring motif of perseverance as the Trojan hero Aeneas persists despite facing numerous hardships. Although the aforementioned characters seem legendary in nature, they are no different from the common individual. J. R. R. Tolkien’s “Lord of the Rings” is a tale that readers can readily associate with, as it revolves around an ordinary, but hesitant individual, Frodo, embarking on an extraordinary journey, which later results in his evolution into a heroic figure.

Having a fault is common to all three heroes; however, throughout their respective journeys, opportunities are presented in which these faults may be faced. Throughout the course of history, hero-figures in literature, much like children, have embodied high moral standards and persistence while embarking upon a quest that leads to the resolution of a personality flaw. As the heroic quest involves numerous trials of character, high moral standards are vital to the success of the journey; since the beginning of childhood, proper and just actions are encouraged by parents in hopes of producing a youth who will benefit mankind.

As well, many religions and societies encourage high moral standards as they promote virtuous acts and the preservation of character within the individual. When Enid of “Idylls of The King” was faced with the decision of either accepting Earl Doorm’s invitation to dine with him, or to stay by her wounded husband Geraint’s side, she said, “Pray you be gentle, pray you let me be: I never loved, can never love but him: Yea, God, I pray you of your gentleness, He being as he is, to let me be. ” Despite Sir Geraint’s doubts of Enid’s fidelity due to a prior misunderstanding, Enid honoured the vow that was taken when she married.

She clearly displays her love for Sir Geraint to be unwavering throughout the poem; high moral standards are exemplified as Enid resists temptation by staying true to herself. Finally, when she cries out, believing that Geraint is dead, he springs to life and slaughters the Earl, symbolic of the good, embodying high moral standards, conquering evil temptation. As well, Aeneas was faced with temptation; however, rather than in the form of an evil earl, it came in the shape of the beautiful Helen of Troy.

As he was fleeing the city during the sack of Troy, Aeneas encounters Helen, the woman who had inadvertently caused the Trojan War. Just as he was about to slaughter her, believing that he would win praise for appeasing his ancestors, his mother, Venus, appeared before him. “It is not the hated beauty of the Spartan woman, the daughter of Tyndareus, that is overthrowing all this wealth and laying low the topmost towers of Troy, nor is it Paris although you all blame him, it is the cruelty of the gods. ”

At this point, Venus reveals the deception waved by the other Gods, like a parent revealing to a child the true state of the world, allowing them to make a wise decision. Although Aeneas’ judgement was initially clouded, once he saw through the erroneous perception that had been thrown upon him by the Gods, he held back his sword in integrity, sparing her life. Aeneas embodied a high moral standard as he resisted the temptation that was presented to him. As parents guide children into the right direction when they stray down the wrong path, the forces of Destiny guide the hero.

As a parent reassures a child that everything will be fine when he or she stumbles, Fate gives the same reassurance to the hero. As the heroic quest involves numerous trials of endurance and resolve, persistence is essential for the duration of the adventure. In the first book of the “Aeneid”, a scene is painted in which Aeneas is being tossed about in a ship during a torrential downpour. He despairs, as he believes that he has lost all favour with the gods. “Wherever the Trojans looked, death stared them in the face. A sudden chill went through Aeneas and his limbs grew weak.

Aeneas had already been sailing for two years in a bold attempt to find a site to found a new city; however, his endeavours had been plagued with mishaps. At this point, he wonders if he’ll ever live to fulfill his destiny, but despite all the hardship that he is faced with, he presses onwards. Turnus, the battle-crazed leader of the opposition proved to be a formidable foe that disheartened Aeneas. “There it was moored in a sheltered position along the side of the camp, protected by the water of the river, and to the landward by ramparts.

There he made his attack. ” Turnus set the Trojan fleet on fire, in hopes of stranding the enemy troops and demoralizing them, but the persistence of Aeneas existed not only in terms of the endurance of life, but as his faithfulness throughout the years to his pietistic duty. Being highly respectful of the gods, painstakingly offering sacrifices despite what he had to deal with, Aeneas was favoured by the Berecentian Cybele, the mother of all gods, who saved the ships by turning them into water nymphs.

Despite hardships, the perseverance of the epic hero conquers the opposition. Although Aeneas was able to defeat the opponent that stood in his way, Frodo Baggins of “Lord of the Rings” had to concede that in order to succeed, hardships of nearly invincible proportions had to be endured. Relentlessly pursued through many lands by Dark Horsemen for the powerful ring he possessed, Frodo encountered many difficulties. In addition to being wounded several times, he was betrayed by one of the members of his own travelling company.

Following the betrayal, Frodo decides to continue, “Frodo rose to his feet. A great weariness was on him, but his will was firm and his heart lighter. He spoke aloud to himself. ‘I will do now what I must. ’…” Accepting the fact that are all odds were against him, faced with an invincible enemy with deceitful travelling partners, Frodo journeys into the unknown void by himself. In the end however, his persistence is rewarded by Fate with the successful completion of the quest, as the persistence of a child receives praise from a parent.

Whether in the form of the sucking of the thumb or the biting of the fingernails, every child has had a bad habit at some time or another. Just as the parent endeavours to resolve these habits, Fate and Destiny conspire to resolve the personality flaws of the hero. When an epic tale contains an ordinary mortal character, being only human, the individual possesses a flaw, which must be faced and resolved during the course of the heroic quest.

At the beginning of book one of the “Aeneid”, Aeneas, weary from years of sailing, invokes death, “O Diomede, bravest of the Greeks, why could I not have fallen to your right hand and breathed out my life on the plains of Troy…” Doubtful of his destiny, Aeneas despairs for his life and is tempted to give up; thus, his flaw is his unwillingness to accept his destiny of founding Rome. However in book six, he journeys to the underworld to meet his father Anchises, and is told, “Your task, Roman, and do not forget it, will be to govern the peoples of the world in your empire.

Aeneas is informed that his destiny is to found the city of Rome and a powerful race that shall rule over the world. Upon hearing this, Aeneas is inspired with confidence, ready to fulfill his destiny; throughout the second half of the “Aeneid”, he steps forward to accept challenges with certainty. As the habit of biting one’s nails may foster feelings of embarrassment due to ridicule from peers, the resolution of the habit allows a child to face the world with assurance. Although ridicule is a battle with external forces, the battle with oneself is certainly more difficult, such as overcoming a fear of the dark, as one must turn inward.

Sir Geraint of “Idylls of The King” was plagued with an uncertainty of the fidelity of his wife, Enid which eventually let matters into a hopeless predicament. However, upon his deathbed, the wail of Enid sprung him to life as it assured him of the very love he had once doubted. Following a tender embrace, Geraint says, “Not tho’ mine own ears heard you yestermorn – You thought me sleeping, but I heard you say, That you were no true wife: I swear I will not ask your meaning of it: I do believe yourself against yourself, And will henceforward rather die in doubt. ”

At this point, the mighty knight of the Round Table has faced himself and cast aside all doubt, just as a child faces the darkness and confronts a dreaded fear, dissipating it. Fear comes in many forms, but most common is the fear of the unknown; children and heroes alike may draw parallels in this respect as it was the hesitation of Frodo that was his personality flaw. “To tell the truth, he was very reluctant to start, not that it had come to the point. ” Until Frodo was entreated by Gandalf the Wise to set out upon his quest, he would have been content living out his life at Bag-End.

Whether it be the shove of Destiny and Fate or the gentle nudge of a concerned individual, the resolution of a personality flaw is inevitable. “Without heroes we’re all plain people and don’t know how far we can go” Bernard Malamud’s statement accurately describes the influence of Aeneas, Sir Geraint and Frodo as they all complete epic quests despite being mere mortals. The epic hero is an eternal figure as he or she is a prime model of integrity and perseverance, which is exemplified during a quest which provides a solution to the problem of a flawed disposition.

The epic tale is a reflection of human character as the themes that are presented closely mirror universal problems that are faced by everyone. As one sheds the skin of youth, although it may be possible to analyze the literary meaning of these wonderful tales, the magic that they once contained is often gone. More than writings of scholarly value, these pieces of literature exude inspiration and provoke awe in younger audiences worldwide. Like children, one day adults shall, forgetting their worldly troubles, embrace the stories they once loved, be inspired, and once again become heroes.

Victims Of School Failure

In this day and age learning disabilities are attracting people’s attention. Many kids go through school almost in a daze not knowing exactly what is going on. At times, teachers will ignore the problem and teach the rest of the class. There is a wide variety of learning disabilities, but the most common one is Attention Deficit Disorder (A. D. D. ). Problems occurring at school are usually the reason for a diagnosis of ADD. Children with this disability experience difficulties in many skills needed for academic success. Their poor learning skills cause academic problems and under-developed social skills.

Children with ADD are often mistreated. In many cases, children with ADD feel left out from the rest of the class. These children are being pushed aside and overlooked. “ADD has been estimated to affect three to five percent of school-age children nationwide, with fewer than three percent actually receiving medication. ” (Barisic A8. ) With so many children being diagnosed, ADD is becoming a norm. People Bolenbaugh 2 ssume these children need specific drugs or special classes for appropriate teaching; however, these children simply need more attention, they are not dumb.

For some reason learning different, does not seem like a disability to me. “School has always been the only place I have felt really worthless. ” (Ungerleider 178. ) Throughout my junior and senior year in high school, my best friend and I had three classes together. Except he only went to his classes twice a week. On the other days he would go to the special-ed class. This might seem all right to some people, but I think he was treated like an outcast. He did not have a choice in the matter that is what he had to do because he had ADD.

At any rate he was still my friend and still a great person. At a younger age this method may be necessary, but in high school there should be better education for ADD students. When kids are treated different they know there is a problem, and try to hide it. “My mom knows the secret why I do so bad in school, so stop asking me! “(Ungerleider 87. I remember back in junior high at lunch – time there would be line of kids outside the principal’s office. At the time I was clueless of what they were doing.

I finally found out that these kids were taking ritalin. Once more and more people found out what these kids were doing they started getting made fun of. Most of the kids didn’t want to explain what they were doing at the principal’s office everyday. This is just another example of frustration these kids are put through. School failure is a very important issue. If kids are not taught properly then they are not receiving education. Consequently they are receiving schooling; not all students benefit from schooling.

Schooling is when a teacher does the minimum amount of work he or she has to do. Most disabled kids like their teachers, but get frustrated when they are stuck or confused. At that time it is the teachers responsibility to help that student. I am not bashing teachers in any way, but it seems some just do not care. My brother is a freshman in high school and is having a hard time. He just turned fifteen this fall, and has no clue what he wants to do after high school. Earlier this year he took drivers training, but wasn’t suppose to.

My parents fought for him to be able to take drivers training. You must have good grades to take the course through the school. It seems fair for most people, but when a student has a tough time in class he is punished by the teacher and then again by extra cirricular rules and regulations. My brother also played soccer this fall, well at least for half the season until he got kicked off the team for bad grades. When does it stop, how many disabled kids get the old double-whammy simply because of school failure?