Comparative of Samurai and Medevil Knights

The Knights of Medieval Europe and the Samurai of Feudal Japan were similar in some ways and very different in others. Two broad topics I will discuss in this paper are the comparatives in the weapons, armor and tactics; and perhaps most importantly, each warrior-class code of conduct and ethics. To successfully compare the two, you must first look at the time period both were both part of respectively. Some historians will argue that the seeds of the Samurai were started in 660 BC when Emperor Jimmu Tenno set up the Yamato State and the production of armor and weapons developed.

Most accept the fact that Buddhisms arrival to Japan in the 500s formed the concrete platform to what the Samurai are based upon.. By the time the crusades occurred in the 12th century, Knights were an integral part of life in Europe. This paper will focus mainly on the Japanese and Samurai side of the two warrior classes due to the nature of this course. One major problem in researching these subjects is the reference material; a lot of it originates from the period.

Because the Samurai and Knights, and the time periods they occur within, are romanticized so widely in the literature of the time and following centuries, getting true accounts of events is difficult. The Japanese felt it necessary to make a very fine line between deities and humans when writing about their greatest Samurai. Also, European knights, due to literature and most recently television and motion pictures, have been placed on a pedestal themselves. Japanese Weapons, Armor and Tactics The Yamato clans conducted many military campaigns on the Asian mainland. Their targets included Korea and China.

These campaigns led to the importation of Korean and Chinese culture, technology and martial arts. Legend states that Emperor Keiko was the first person with the title of “Shogun. ” The word meant “Barbarian-subduing General. ” Legend continues that Keiko had a son named “Prince Yamato. ” He was cunning, fearless, strong and a great martial artist. Many believe that Yamato was a role model for future Samurai. Ancient warriors developed weapons, armor and a code during the ensuing centuries that became the centerpiece for the Japanese Samurai. Early weapons included bows, arrows and swords.

The Samurai rose out of the continuing battles for land among three main clans: the Minamoto, the Fujiwara and the Taira. The Samurai eventually became a class unto themselves between the 9th and 12th centuries. They were known by two names: Samurai (knights-retainers) and Bushi (warriors). Some of them were related to the ruling class, while others were hired men. They gave complete loyalty to their Daimyo (feudal landowners) and received land and position in return. Each Daimyo used his Samurai to protect his land and to expand his power and rights to more land.

The Samurai became expert in fighting from and on horseback and from and on the ground. They practiced armed and un-armed combat. The early Samurai emphasized fighting with the bow and arrow. Armor and Defenses changed with times as well as the Samurais enemies. More specifically, the battles began and continued within Japan between the larger rivaling clans. With the implementation of larger weapons and firearms, Defensive tactics became more important than defending the individual with armor. Also protecting the warrior be mounting him on a horse became a preferred choice of defensive and offensive attacks.

They used swords for close-in fighting and beheading their enemies. The Samurai wore two swords (daisho). One was long; the other short. The long sword (daito – katana) was more than 24 inches. The short sword (shoto – wakizashi) was between 12 and 24 inches. The Samurai’s desire for tougher, sharper swords for battle gave rise to the curved blade that is still existent today not only for weapons, but for decoration as well. After forging the blade, the sword polisher did his work to prepare the blade for the “furniture” that surrounded it.

Next, the sword tester took the new blade and cut through the bodies of corpses or condemned criminals. They started by cutting through the small bones of the body and moved up to the large bones. Test results were often recorded on the nakago (the metal piece attaching the sword blade to the handle). Battles with the Mongols in the late 13th century led to a change in the Samurai’s fighting style. They began to use their sword more and also made more use of spears and horseback fighting. One of the most important factor in the development of tactics was the introduction of firearms from Europe in 1542.

Stephen Turnbull said in his book Samurai Warfare, “The usual conclusion is to see the introduction of firearms as the cause, and the change in warfare as the result. ” The Daimyo could no longer use the cavalry charge, which was the most successful tactic until firearms. Because of the destructive nature of firearms, if a Daimyo didn’t get his hands on as many as possible, he would lose. However, most Daimyo didn’t like guns because they lessened the importance of honorable hand-to-hand fighting that had gone on for centuries.

Firearms also brought about changes in the Samurai’s armor, and even the recruitment of non Samurai to fight in battle. Armor now had to be thicker and heavier for the upper class Samurai; yet, even this was not enough. This extra cost, in money and life, was offset by the Daimyo recruiting commoners to fight their battles. These commoners were called “ashigaru”, or light feet. Ashigaru, too, were against the Samurai idea of honor. Their widespread and sometimes uncontrolled use contradicted much of the Samurai ideal of elite combat, but large numbers had to be used by any successful leader. European Weapons, Armor and Tactics

Armor during most of the middle ages was built for protection against small arms. For instance, during the 1300s and 1400s, chain mail served as a major form of protection. Suits of chain mail covered the knights from head to toe – protecting them from swords and other sharp weapons. The knights also wore helmets which protected them. Most of the helmets were decorated with beautiful art and designs, which caught the eyes of all who viewed them. In the following centuries, the weaponry used in battle became larger and more dangerous, thus causing chain mail to become less and less effective in times of war.

The next step in armor was plates of steel that only covered soldiers’ chests, knees, and thighs. Gradually, into the late 1400s and early 1500s, many more soldiers turned to full body plate armor. Even though the head-to-toe steel plating was relatively heavy, it provided excellent protection in battle along with a major factor of intimidation. During the Elizabethan Period, spanning from the late 1500’s to the early 1600’s, the main objective of armor makers was to make the suits more and more elaborate with decoration. One of the factors which made a difference in how elaborate one’s armor would be was how much money he had.

Full body armor of this period cost great sums of money. For one suit of armor, many men paid an armorer as much as a small farm. Weapons ranged from daggers to catapults, but the most famous was the warriors sword. Medieval swords were neither unwieldably heavy nor all alike. There was infinite variety in their shape and considerable differences in their purpose. Men were trained to use the sword from the age of seven. The weight of a 3 lb. sword alone could go through bone or a sapling tree. The stories we read of head-removing and limb-lopping blows are probably true. Samurai Code of Conduct and Ethics

The code was developed from the Chinese concept of the virtues of warriors doing battle to the Samurai code of chivalry known as Kyuba no michi (“The Way of Horse and Bow”) to the Bushido code. Bushido means “Way of the Warrior. ” It was at the heart of the beliefs and conduct of the Samurai. The philosophy of Bushido is “freedom from fear. ” It meant that the Samurai transcended his fear of death. That gave him the peace and power to serve his master faithfully and loyally and die well if necessary. “Duty” is a primary philosophy of the Samurai, even if that duty meant death.

Seppuku, a type of suicide, was the embodiment of Bushido. Seppuku was a means for a dishonored Samurai to regain honor. If a Daimyo lost a battle, and was about to be captured or killed by some nameless foot soldier, he would commit Seppuku. It was also called hara-kiri, translated means belly cut, which is a fitting name. The dishonored Samurai would sit on his knees, take out his short sword, and cut himself deeply across the abdomen. It took a while for the man to die. This painful process was sometimes shortened by a second man cutting off the head of the dishonored man at the moment of utmost agony.

Seppuku was not only suicide, it was a ceremonial saving of honor. There were some Samurai who had no regard for the rules of Bushido and honor. Lack of honor in Samurai was the second worst thing to a Daimyo, the worst being the use of Ninja. Ninja were stealthy assassins used by Daimyo to get rid of rivals. They were the most shameful weapon a Daimyo had. Medieval Knights Code of Conduct and Ethics The System of ethical ideals that grew out of Feudalism and had its zenith in the 12th and 13th centuries were known as Chivalry. Chivalric ethics originated chiefly in France and Spain and spread rapidly.

They were a fusion of Christian and military concepts of morality. The chief chivalric virtues were piety, honor, valor, courtesy, chastity, and loyalty. The knight’s loyalty was due to God, to his ruler, and to his sworn love. Love in the chivalrous sense was largely platonic. In practice, chivalric conduct was never free from corruption, and the outward trappings of chivalry declined in the 15th cent. Medieval secular literature, such as the Arthurian Legend and the Chansons De Geste, was concerned primarily with knighthood and chivalry. In the 19th century Romanticism revived chivalrous ideals.

During the research for this paper, while picking apart the truth and fiction of both warrior classes, I found that both classes were based on the same rudimentary elements. Religion played a large part in both their codes of conduct. Both were guided not only in their service to God but also to their service to the throne. One point that makes Samurai and Knights different is the sense of duty to self. To the Samurai culture it was much more important to be true to ones self than anything else. To the medieval knights service to God and the king came above any personal well-being.

Even though the Japanese and European Feudal cultures have been romanticized by literature I believe that there is no shame in that. They were both outstanding warriors for the people, rulers and Gods respectively. People should have a better understanding about the true meaning an seeds of the two. These two warrior classes were born in violence and necessity. They achieved victory through bloodshed and their strong belief systems. Both were effective for the time they evolved. Both proved valuable towards the development of the cultures that ensued and both make wonderful tales of heroism and honor to reflect on.

The Japan-American Trade War

For years after the end of the second world war, the Japanese suffered from an inferiority complex. This was the result of the American aid to Japan which helped to rebuild their country. Soon the Japanese started producing goods, small stuff at first, like junky toys in the earlier years – but then came better items, much better items. Now it is the Americans that suffer from the inferiority complex, not familiar with being economically vulnerable and not entirely in control of their destinies. Who to blame – the Japanese of course.

If Americans can not learn to compete ith the Japanese, then there is going to be some serious trouble because the economic problem will not just “go” away. When Japan lost World War II, six million Japanese had to return home from the colonies Japan lost. These people had to be fed, clothed and housed. The outlook for Japan’s recovery did not look very hopeful. The Americans had no intention of helping the Japanese, but the communist victory in China changed this, because the Americans wanted to stop the further advance of communism.

Americans started to help Japan out by not aking them pay reparations for war damages and opened Japanese trade to other countries. The Americans dissolved the powerful family businesses which opened business to more competition and in the countryside, they took land from the landlords and gave it to the tenant farmers. By the time American occupation ended in 1952, Japan had returned to prewar levels of production. With their recovery now ensured, Japan embarked on a period of great economic growth which is growing at a faster rate every day.

The Japanese are now at the head of a powerful economy which is the econd largest in the world, exceeded only by the Americans. Many beleive that the Japanese economy will overtake the U. S. economy by the year 2000. Polls in the United States have indicated that the Americans rank the Japanese economic threat higher than the Russian military threat. Yoshio Sakurachi, the speaker for the Lower House of the Diet (the Japanese Parliament), called American workers lazy and illiterate.

These remarks came just after George Bush and the leaders of American Auto Corporations had visited Japan, a trip that left everyone with an mpression of American weakness and whining. A few weeks ago, Minoru Arakawa, president of Nintendo of America made a bid to purchase the Seattle Mariners. To a lot of Americans, there are two items which are located near the centre of their folklore and psyche. These are cars and baseball.

Now that these items are under threat from the Japanese, it is causing unusual resentment and distress to some Americans, especially after watching the Japanese buy heavily into Hollywood and other parts of their lives. Americans are now trying to figure out ways to get the economy back on ine after about a 19 month recession from which it is still recovering. Dr. William Lippy, for example, offered the 75 employees of his clinic $400 cash if they bought a new American car. He started inviting all other companies to join in his “Jump-Start America” campaign.

He claims to have enlisted a total of 175 firms with 60,000 workers to offer similar incentives. This is nothing new to the Japanese though, where this has been going on for a long time. For example, Mitsubishi and other corporate groups, called keiretsu have the power to order employees to wage personal arfare on the commercial brands of a rival. A common story was of a group of Japanese men that walk into a bar and shout “Biru” (Beer). The bartender offers them Asahi Beer, a common brand but they shout, “Were Kirin men! “.

The Kirin men are literally that – employees of any one of the 148 companies associated with the Mitsubishi group, whic ontrols Kirin. Americans are running scared now, and you probably did not need this essay to tell you that – and Japan is aware of this. So now opinion is growing in Japan in favour of an almost revolutionary idea – to back off. Corporations should raise prices, pay workers more for fewer hours and distribute fatter dividends. This came after the President of Sony made a speech saying that Americans will not take much more of the way the Japanese are competing with them.

They should in short then, become more like their western rivals. Already change is afoot in Japan’s most competitive industries. Since January, the two biggest auto companies, Toyota and Nissan, have said that they would raise vehicle prices and lengthen new product cycles from four to five years. Similar moves were ade by consumer electronics giants such as Sony and Matsushita. All these changes would benefit foreign competitors worn down by the back-breaking pace of the Japanese. There have been some problems inside Japan as well that are hurting American companies.

For the last while, The Nikkei stock average has been falling (See Graph #1) and Japan is in the beginning of a recession which is getting deeper and deeper although nowhere near as severe as the American recession. When domestic economic weakness is combined with a weak currency, it is a recipe for fewer Japanese imports and more Japanese exports. This pattern is already showing up. In the past year, Japan’s total imports have fallen by one quarter, and it’s non-oil imports by 10 percent.

In the case of Canada and the United States, both of which are mounting recoveries in their own economies – Japan is each ones second largest trading partner. Needless to say, the last thing either of these two economies needs is a Japan that buys less and sells more, and becomes a roadblock in their road to recovery. Americans are looking for a way to come out of their recession and become a growing world economy once again. Japan is right in their way. America, so used to being on top, has never been so vulnerable.

I believe that if Americans don’t do anything, like provide incentives to “buy American” and change the way they work and compete, then it is going to stay this way. Japan may help them, now and then, like they are starting to now, but that may not last. I believe that they can either become more like the Japanese, giving up the lifestyles so grown accustomed to, by working harder for less money, or learn to live with not always being on top of the world economy. It is always hard to change, but sometimes you have to.

Kamikaze Pilots

During World War II in the Pacific, there were pilots of the Japanese Imperial Army and Navy who made suicide attacks, driving their planes to deliberately crash into carriers and battle- ships of the Allied forces. These were the pilots known as the Kamikaze pilots. Because right-wing organizations have used the Kamikaze pilots as a symbol of a militaristic and extremely nationalistic Japan, the current Japanese respond to the issue with ignorance and false stereotypes and with generally negative and unsympathetic remarks.

However, the Kamikaze fighters added a new wrinkle to navel warfare. Kamikaze expressed their feelings and thoughts about the missions through haiku poems. In many of the haiku that the Kamikaze pilots wrote, the Emperor is mentioned in the first line. According to those who have lived through the early Showa period (1926-1945), the presence of Emperor Showa was like that of a god and he was more of a religious figure than a political one (Scoggins 276-277). In public schools, students were taught to die for the emperor.

By late 1944, a slogan of Jusshi Reisho meaning “Sacrifice life,” was taught (Morimoto 148-151). Most of the pilots who volunteered for the suicide attacks were those who were born late in the Taisho period (1912-1926) or in the first two or three years of Showa. Therefore, they had gone through the brainwashing education, and were products of the militaristic Japan. In 1944 the General Staff had considered mounting organized suicide attacks, (Ikuta 25) “suicide attacks” had been made since the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (Shinbusha 266) Two types of suicide attacks had been made.

The first was an organized attack which would, in 90% of the cases, result in the death of the soldiers. However, if the plan had worked on the battlefield as it did in theory, there was some possibility that the soldiers would survive (Ibid 49). The other type of suicide attack that had been made was completely voluntary, and the result of a sudden decision. This was usually done by aircraft. The pilots, finding no efficient way to fight the American aircraft, deliberately crashed into them, and caused an explosion, destroying the American aircraft as well as killing themselves (Ikuta 35-42).

Because these voluntary suicide attacks had shown that the young pilots had the spirit of dying rather than being defeated, by February, 1944, the staff officers had started to believe that although they were way below the Americans in the number of aircraft, battleships, skillful pilots and soldiers, and in the amount of natural resources (oil, for example), they were above the Americans in the number of young men who would fight to the death rather than be defeated. By organizing the “Tokkotai,” they thought it would also attack the Americans psychologically, and make them lose their will to continue the war (Ibid 28).

The person who suggested the Kamikaze attack at first is unknown, but it is often thought to be Admiral Takijiro Onishi. However, Onishi was in the position to command the first Shinpu Tokubetsu Kogekitai rather than suggest it (Kusayanagi 48) In October, 1944, the plans for the organized suicide attacks became reality. Having received permission from the Minister of the Navy, Admiral Onishi entered Clark Air Base prepared to command the first organized suicide attacks (Shinbun 25-33).

Onishi had not thought the organized suicide attacks to be an efficient tactic, but that they would be a powerful battle tactic, and he believed that it would be the best and most beautiful place for the pilots to die. Onishi once said, “if they (the young pilots) are on land, they would be bombed down, and if they are in the air, they would be shot down. That’s sad… Too sad… To let the young men die beautifully, that’s what Tokko is. To give beautiful death, that’s called sympathy” (Kusayanagi 28). This statement makes sense, considering the relative skills of the pilots of the time.

By 1944, air raids were made all over Japan, especially in the cities. Most of the best pilots of the Navy and the Army had been lost in previous battles. Training time was greatly reduced to the minimum, or even less than was necessary in order to train a pilot. By the time the organized suicide attacks had started, the pilots only had the ability to fly, not to fight. Although what happens to the pilot himself in doing the suicide attack is by no means anywhere near beauty, to die in such a way, for the Emperor, and for the country, was (at the time), honorable.

One thing that was decided upon by the General Staff was that the Kamikaze attacks were to be made only if it was in the will of the pilot himself. It was too much of a task to be “commanded” (Ikuta 43-44). The first organized suicide attack was made on October 21, 1944 by a squadron called the Shinpu Tokubetsu Kogekitai (Shinbun 48-51). Tokubetsu Kogekitai was the name generally used in the Japanese Imperial Navy and Army. The public had known them as the Tokkotai, the abbreviated form. Tokkotai referred to all the organized suicide attacks. Shinpu is what is better known as Kamikaze (52).

The captain of the first attack was to be Captain Yukio Seki (49). According to the subcommander of the First Air Fleet, Tamai, who brought the issue up to Captain Seki, the Captain had in a short time replied “I understand. Please let me do it” (48). According to another source, the reply that Captain Seki gave was, “Please let me think about it one night. I will accept the offer tomorrow morning” (Mori 626-627). The document which seems to have the most credibility is the book, The Divine Wind by Captain Rikihei Inoguchi and Commander Tadashi Nakajima.

According to this account a graduate of the Naval Academy, Naoshi Kanno, was originally nominated as the leader of this mission. However, he was away from Mabalacat on a mission to mainland Japan. Therefore, to take Kanno’s place Captain Seki was chosen, and was called to Commander Tamai’s room at midnight. After hearing of the mission, it appears, Seki remained silent for a while, then replied, “You must let me do it” (Inoguchi 32). Captain Seki agreed to lead the first Kamikaze attack, and, on October 25, 1944 during the battle off Samos, made one of the first attacks, on the American aircraft carrier Saint Lo (Shinbun 56).

Twenty-six fighter planes were prepared, of which half were to escort and the other half to make the suicide mission. That half was divided into the Shikishima, Yamato, Asahi and Yamazakura (Inoguchi 32). The youngest of the Kamikaze pilots of the Imperial Army was 17 years old, and the oldest, 35 (Kosaka 43-44). Most of them were in their late teens, or early twenties. As the battle in Okinawa [April to June 1945] worsened, the average age of the pilots got younger. Some had only completed the equivalent of an elementary school and middle school combined. Some had been to college.

There was a tendency for them not to be first sons. The eldest sons usually took over the family business. Most were therefore the younger sons who did not need to worry about the family business. Most of those who had come from college came in what is called the Gakuto Shutsujin. This was when the college students’ exemption from being drafted into the military was lifted, and the graduation of the seniors was shifted from April 1944 to September 1943 (Shimabarra 85). Many of these students were from prestigious colleges such as Tokyo, Kyoto, Keio, and Waseda Universities.

These students from college tended to have more liberal ideas, not having been educated in military schools, and also were more aware of the world outside of Japan. All the pilots involved in the “Okinawa Tokko” had been trained in/as one of the following: The Youth Pilot Training School, Candidates for Second Lieutenant, The Imperial Army Air Corps Academy, Pilot Trainee, Flight Officer Candidates, Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet, Pilot Training Schools, or Special Flight Officer Candidate (Ikuta 134).

Since the Kamikaze attacks were to be made only if the pilots had volunteered, and could not be “commanded,” there were two methods to collect volunteers. One was for all pilots in general, and another was for the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet (College graduates) only. The former was an application form, and the latter was a survey. The survey asked: “Do you desire earnestly/wish/do not wish/to be involved in the Kamikaze attacks? ” They had to circle one of the three choices, or leave the paper blank. The important fact is that the pilots were required to sign their names (Kusayanagi 32).

When the military had the absolute power, and the whole atmosphere of Japan expected men to die for the country, there was great psychological pressure to circle “earnestly desire” or “wish. ” The Army selected those who had circled “earnestly desire. ” The reason that the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet had to answer such a survey rather than send the applications at their own will was probably because the military had known that the students who had come from college had a wider vision, and would not easily apply for such a mission.

For the regular application, the Army was confident that there would be many young pilots who would apply. They were correct. Every student of the 15th term of the Youth Pilot Training School had applied. Because there were so many volunteers, the military had decided to let the ones with better grades go first (Naemura 146). There are several factors which made so many young pilots volunteer for such a mission. Extreme patriotism must have been one factor for sure. Added to that, there was the reverence for the Emperor, a god.

Some say that it was generally believed that if one died for the emperor, and was praised in Yasukuni Shrine, they would become happy forever (Araki 43). The pilots were, as a matter of fact, not radical nor extremely patriotic, but were the average Japanese of the time. It was a dream for the young boys of late Taisho period and early Showa to serve in the military, especially in the Air Force, as a career. Not all pilots who wanted to become Kamikaze pilots could become one.

Although this may sound strange, there were so many volunteers to make the suicidal and fatal attacks, that the military, to be fair, had to let the ones with the better grades go earlier. Because of the aura that had covered Japan, the young pilots of 18 and 19 were eager to go. Those of the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadets who had their own thoughts like Second lieutenants Suzuki, Uehara, and Anazawa were able to separate their personal life from what was required of them to do for the war.

They felt the responsibility to go. In any case, it seems that they were all optimistic. They volunteered, believing their death might save their family, the ones they loved, and Japan. However, as a student investigating fifty years after the events, it was not possible for me to understand exactly how the pilots had felt towards their mission. The overall picture in this paper, is that the Kamikaze missions had a huge effect in Japanese naval warfare.

The Bubble Economy of Japan

The Economy of Japan had experience a tremendous growth since the end of the Korean war. The growth of GNP in 1967 and 1968 was above 10 % (double digit growth period) which exceed countries such as Britain, France and Germany. The economy experienced a boost is due to many reasons, such as: enlargement of industrial facilities, massive adaptation of western technology and education, lower the military expense to 1% of GNP, relation with power nation, human resources and their spirit to achieve “zero defect program”. But after the first and second oil crisis that occur from 1973 onward.

The economy move downwards artially due to the poor management of economic policy. Although the government had attempt to adjust the economic policy but the recovery was slow. As the soaring of yen continues the demand for export has increase tremendously. With the concern of the United State of this problem, president Reagan and the G5 have signed an agreement with Japan called “Plaza Agreement” , the agreement stated that the exchange rate of Japan and Deutschmark can appreciate against the U. S. . Since then the yen value began to appreciate, Japan was going through a period of trade balance adjustment.

While Japan is prepare to go hrough a period of trade balance adjustment, it will also suffer a period of recession, so the government strongly encourage business activities to strengthen the economy in order to prevent backwash effect. It was this event which boost up the GNP and raise the exchange rate. With this exchange rate advantage it stimulate business activity on housing and stock investment which created a bubble economy. During this period almost the entire country was involve in land speculation or other speculate activities.

In this essay it will prove that land speculative activities had create many negative impacts to he Japanese society and economy. Firstly, it will describe the cause of land speculation. Secondly it will discuss on the society and political effects in Japan and lastly it will focus on the economy effects, more over it will include the aftermath when the bubble collapse. The root of this bubble economy is due the wave of land speculation. The wide spread of land speculation activities were mainly because it is profitable. The speculative transactions in assets grew and grew and many believe that this will last for very long period of time.

One of the reason that leads to massive nvestment in the risky activities is because of the success of the Japanese in the international market during 70*s – 80*s. Many Japanese enterprises and business man had become very wealthy. These people have a large sum of equity to invest. Some of these people have focus on risky asset such as stocks and land, therefore many of the regular ventures were left behind. One of the major cause of the massive transaction in the land market was due the incremental of loans by banks. Financial institution was very positive in lending money to the enterprise.

This enhance the accessibility to the land speculate market. Each size of this loan is very large. This is because the size of mortgage in Japan financial institutions are based on the collateral, (house) while in North America the size of the mortgage is based on the borrower*s income stream. Therefore the size of loan can be obtain by borrower is larger in Japan than North America. Also 62% of Japanese households own the home that they live and in average the value is near 4 million yen. Therefore there are lots of potential investors.

And during the period of speculative activities, borrowers increase the value of their loans as the value of their collateral increases. Since asset is highly liquidate, the number of potential speculators are high and borrowers in Japan were able to get a larger size loan on real estate therefore speculative activities sink into the level of common home owner and large enterprise. Beside the method of calculating mortgage size, another reason why the size of loan was so large is probably that both the bank and the investor were behind the land speculation activity (banking scandal).

Investors were paying some key money (sort of a bribe) to financial institution in order to obtain a larger size loan. Therefore many financial institutions were over loan during this period. Another form of raising cash flow for the speculate market was by braking down a loan that obtain from a large financial institution to a specific enterprise, then lend a small piece of this loan to those who was not eligible to obtain a loan from the bank. These companies that act as the funnel will earn a certain amount of interest from these smaller companies (branch effect).

Therefore all classes of companies and society can easily access in the speculate market. Other large corporate, construction company, rganize crime group and even temple (religious) were also involve in land speculation. Another encouragement to the speculative market was because the government (liberal democratic party) had originally lower the capital gain tax in the early 80*s. Therefore the profit for owner to resale their land was large. Flaws in government policy also indirectly allow investor to get away of property tax expense.

For example some land owner could just plant little crops over a large piece of expensive vacant land in urban city and declare them as agriculture land. As a result they will be tax very little. Therefore the incremental of land speculative activities were due to over size loan, high accessibility to the land speculative market and indirectly by the government flaws. During the peak of the land speculation there is a quite interesting study of land price in Japan.

“If you sell the entire property of Tokyo you can actually buy the entire United state and by just selling the surrounding land of the Imperial palace you can buy Canada. ” Although it might of been a little over exaggerate, but the point is that the land value in Japan compare to North America is much higher. Since there is no one side of a coin, Land speculation had create many social problems in Japan. Firstly, land speculation had rise the rent and housing cost tremendously.

As a result many young couples and low income families were unable to form their own house hold. In average the cost of a house in Tokyo had raise to about 500 million yen. The younger group with low income cannot afford it and the mid age workers may also not able to afford it. Primary is because they would have to give up at least three- fifth of their income in loan repayment. Also if they have a relatively low mount of down payment, there working age may not be long to repay a mortgage.

The longer the amortization period, the larger the amount of interest they bare. The white collar had become the slavery or sacrifice of the never ending mortgage payment and high cost of housing. In 1990 the births live in Japan was 1. 2 million, in fact the number is the lowest since 1893. Many analysts believe that one of the reason that lead to this slow growth of population could be create by high house prices. So Japanese people have stopped having children and large family is rare. Therefore this is one of the causes of Japan is unning our of Japanese.

This is also a very big social issue of the modern Japanese society but the precedent of the slow growth of population has now move from high housing cost to other social problems. During this period, there were lots of cases regarding on the robbery and suicidal in the police force. This was mainly because of the heavily debts that these police bare and they have no other choice than to attempt to go above the law. Due to the financing problems in the real estate market, it leads to the founding of what is program call “2 generations mortgage plan”.

The founding of this plan was propose to suit the majority of the white collar in the Japanese society. This plan was develop since 1983 but it became more useful from 1985 onwards and the qualification of this program must be father-son that plan or already living together. (son must be older than 20 and must repay the loan by the age at 70) The size of the mortgage is determined by the borrower, interest is flexible and the applicants must purchase an life insurance in order to protect the risk of un collectible due to death. Pay by the bank) Husband and wife can also join this program.

Banker said that the applicant may able to repay this loan in 40 yr. and this type of program also encourage a bonding relationship between father and son. On one side this program may allow a regular income worker to be a home owner but on the other side this person will bare a debt for the entire life and passes on to the next generation. Moreover it may limit on the consumption of the borrower on other composite good.

The booms in land prices also discourage people’s incentive to work. 2) “Because if any lucky individuals inherited or own a piece of land in metro Tokyo, they will suddenly gain a net worth of 250 o 300 million yen. ” This amount of money is equivalent to honest man*s life time income plus retire pension. Since may people get rich during this period, the number of middle class income in Japan had tremendously increase. Under these circumstances, many believe they have already achieved the good life therefore people lose the incentive to work hard and get ahead.

Therefore it will distort the social structure in Japan and create many problems to the government (taxations). Since the sacrifice and cost of home ownership is so high therefore many Japanese had prefer to rent. Since the demand of rental arket increase, it also attracted many investor and speculator. Therefore tenants also suffer from the incremental raise of land price. In Japan, young couples, low income group and the elderly participated as the major group of tenant in Japan.

During this period, owners were looking to sell their property for high return and in order to force the tenant to move (after tenant moves landlord can chose higher quality tenant or resale the property for a larger profit) rent rises extremely high. Many elderly were unable to afford such high rent so many were force to move. As a result many had become homeless. In some ases tenant refuses to move so some owner will hire organize gang group to force them out. Some of these unfortunate tenants will give up the hope in home ownership in the core and move further and further away from the center.

Therefore many of them will spend over 2 to 3 hours to commute from their place to work. So either way, home owner ship and tenants suffer from the raise of housing price. The natural populations are not the only civilian of this incident. Many foreign students also suffer from the housing problem. (3) “In 1986, there was a statistic taken over a total number of 8116 foreign students. Apparently only 17% lives in an adequate resident facility. ” The primary reason was due to the cost of rent, high exchange rate and lastly it was because the local people do not wish to rent their property to foreign student.

Student associate had propose to built new resident housing but due to the heat of land speculation (create an increase in the demand of land) and high construction cost, the new residential housing will be very costly. Therefore this new construction will probably raise the rent 2 to 3 times. While the housing problem continues for foreign students from 80 onward the Japanese government ad still declare that they (4) “expect a total of 100,000 new foreign student will be coming in during the 21st century.

This reflects that the government has pay very little awareness not only on the natural population but also foreign student. Beside foreign students and the natural population, another group that affects by the high land prices was foreign ambassador. As the price continued to rise (specially in Tokyo), the ambassadors of the lower wealth countries (such as Africa or Uganda ) were force to move their location away from Tokyo due to high rent. Although this problem was reflect to the Japanese government but it was remain un solve.

Other side effects of the land speculation was the new residential construction during that era. In (thousand leaf city) many of the new construction area no longer have a large plain or play ground that similar to a traditional residential area. In one of the Japanese newspaper there is an advertise article that describes their forecast on the living condition of the Japanese in the 21st century. (5) “The husband should not return home until weekend, during weekdays just live in worker*s resident near their workplace.

This resident housing should be similar to hotel where it has an into desk that can wash your cloths, postal service and take your message. Their home should be in some rural or less urban area that 100 km away from work. ” This reflected that the rise of land value did not just only effect the affordability of the housing but also distort the lifestyle of the Japan workers as it had reflect in the earlier incident of the 2 generations mortgage. (6) “During the bubble economy period the zoning regulation in Tokyo has revise to allow builder to built more capital on the piece of land.

So this ndirectly rises the potential of building space in Tokyo. It will again raised the real estate value, property taxes and traffic congestion level of the area. ” According to the (7) “National Land Agency statistic, about half of firms surveyed in the mid to late 1980s responded that they had no development plans for the land that they acquired. ” They rarely built homes or apartments, but instead constructed office buildings that would bring in steady revenues.

From the developer*s point of view, houses and apartment are the least profitable projects. So land would almost never allotted for housing”. With land speculation and the shortage supply of new construction on housing the Japanese residents are very difficult to find an affordable place to live beside the houses that are very far from work place. In the current Japan election the percentage of participant voters in Japan has drop below 60% of the total population and the liberal democractic did not receive 50 % of the seat through election.

This percentage was the lowest since WWII and mainly was because the populations in Japan no longer believe the liberal democratic party can bring them back from recession. Also they did not have a good control system during the bubble economy, failure of the recovery program after the bubble splash. (program such as expansion in public investment, lowering the interest rate and series of economic counter measure but the yen is still pretty high which discourage export)

In more specific, during the bubble economy the government did not really propose an effective tax law until 1990. National Land Value Tax- prohibitive tax on profits from the sale or transfer of land national land law 1974) This revitalizes the local property tax and assessment ratio for the fixed asset tax. Another official policy was issue during 1990 was through the financial market in which the government regulates on the loan activity. This eventually slow down the loan activities largely in 1991. But still the government really lagged their response for those who already suffer for 5 years of high housing cost.

More over during the period of bubble economy, many politics were either involve in land speculation or was bribe by organize gang group and large enterprise in order for these people to be more conveniently to have more benefits in the land market. One incident is involve y a business man Kyowa and a cabinet minister Fumio Abe, where Abe sold the details of where a new road construction in Hokkaido in return for 480 million yen. Political scandal was expose to the public not long after the bubble economy was splash.

Lastly, most of the asset of the politicians are in the real estate market therefore neither the bank or the officials admit the fall in land prices. So when this incident was expose to the public, the prices of land fall sharply around 50 %. And mainly because of the period of cover up. So many big and small investors suddenly woke up from their happy dreams and face the orrible reality. With the above reasons the government has lost the trust of many Japanese.

Therefore the land speculate activities had also effect the image of the strong liberal democratic. During the bubble splash period, many pre- graduates and graduated university students were unable to find jobs in the labor market due to the diet all companies therefore many students were frustrate about their future. Therefore the supply of the labor market is distorted by the bubble burst. Therefore you can see that the land speculation activities had create many social problems to the Japan society during the ubble period and after the bubble burst.

During the bubble period the economy was strongly boost by the sudden rise of land value and stock market. On the other hand the after math of the bubble splash was a pain for the economy. In general we will look at the effects on the rise and fall of the Japan*s economy. In 1985 the trade balance in Japan need to have adjustment therefore the government declare that it needs some force to grow in order to prevent recession during this adjustment period. (8) “In 1989 the GNP has increased by 481,000,000,000,000 yen and this was mainly due to the speculate market. People put their profit from land to stock market or vice versa) Many companies were mainly focus on the speculate market. (9)

“The Tokyo Stock exchange soared to almost 40,000 points, the value of stock and land was far above the real value and value of property was not rise due to its demand but was due to speculation. Eventually when the bubble splash, the vacancy rate went rocket high due to lack of demand. Many companies had to go on a strict diet to survive, and they made deep cuts in expenditures for entertainment, advertising, communications and much else. And the above statement is the general picture of hat happen during the bubble economy.

During the golden period of land speculation, many investors know that the land market in Japan was limited (due to the potential and limited geographic area) so they began to purchase land over sea in Hawaii. (10) “The Non water front housing price in Hawaii during 1987 went up by 51 % and the water front housing price went up more than 100%. ” This resale land market in Hawaii was primarily between the Japanese; in 1987 the land prices was estimate has rise over 60. % and many tenants have suddenly realize that the rent has tremendously increase and cannot afford it, so many eople have no place to stay (especially the elder).

There are several reasons that Japanese wants to invest in Hawaii such as; the waterfront view is similar to Japan so it will be a good place for vacation and retirement, the distance between Japan is relatively close ( 3 hours trip by plane) and massive left over of equity and advantages in the exchange rate that has tremendously increase the nominal value of their equity so it is an encouragement for investment.

Therefore the wave of land speculation did not only distort the land market in Japan but also affected foreign country. Looking back at the Japanese economy (11) “in 1987, 77 out of the top 100 most heavily taxed people were involve in land speculation (either have resale their lands or have large land properties). This created a very unhealthy economy because most of the economy is depend on the land market and if any thing happen to the land market, it will distort the economy greatly. 12)

“In 1989 the top 100 most heavily tax people 95 of them were involve in land speculation. ” Therefore the situation was worst in the later period this is mainly because of the profitability in the land market. Since many enterprises only focus on speculate market therefore the real growth of GNP of the country was only 4 to 6 %. The growth of the economy was mainly on the nominal sector.

The increase in nominal GNP has created massive appreciate of yen, which had tremendously affect the export businesses and the manufacture industries. the nominal price of the good has increase therefore foreigner has less interest on Japan goods but this mainly effect small and medium enterprise) While some export business was not doing too well, consequently the workers are not getting an appropriate rise in income. 13) “In 1986 (Nissan) several of the high executive had experience an income cut by 5 to 10% and many of them are very frustrated because most of these people were in their 40*s and have to pay for mortgages and children*s tuition.

In later years Nissan had announced to cut 500 in order to balance out their lost. Therefore large manufacture as Nissan was not doing so well during this period. This was worst in the case of the small and medium enterprise. Many small and medium size export companies had contract or even close down during the mid 80*s and as the wave of income cuts continued, every level and lass of the employees were involve. On the other hand the high exchange rate was really an advantage for importer (same value buy more) such as energy, petroleum and primary material. These companies were suddenly becoming so wealthy and the income of their employees were much higher compare to those working in the export enterprise.

Therefore there was a large gap on the profit and income between the two distinct groups of company and it was very unhealthy for the white collar. This period of high exchange rate continues until the bubble burst. The decline of the bubble economy occurs during the Gulf war period, the economy in Japan as very quite and at the same time the government had tighten their policy. (Both tax policy and restriction in loans) As a result, the land speculation market and land prices fall continuously. The real estate market is totally frozen.

The National Land Agency measures that land price of Tokyo and Osaka has dropped 30 to 50 percent. (Total land wealth is near 2000 trillion yen which is really a lot) Many real estate properties were unable to be resale and at the time many companies were unable to pay such high interest payment therefore many of them went bankrupt. While the banks rarely make any loan, many companies cut ack in their capital spending. In fact this had dampen the recovery of economy. Most of these companies that went bankrupt were either small or medium size enterprise which lack of its separate bank center.

Large enterprises with separate bank center also suffer from non performing loans by the borrowers (small and medium size enterprise). Others large lending institution also suffer largely, since the major economic powers at the bubble period was on the land market therefore any decline in land values would strongly influence the balance sheets of Japan*s lending institution. As reported in June 18 1996 The News Times International News that the (14) “parliament approves a $ 6. 3 billion bailout for bankrupt housing lenders.

The vote clears the way for the establishment of an institution to liquidate the assets of the housing lender which collapsed under bad loans made to real estate speculators before Japanese land prices plummeted in the early 1990s. The seven companies are believed to have more than $65 billion in bad debts. ” This $. 6. 3 billion is only a piece of the big picture because (15) “the Finance Ministry said that Japan*s financial institutions held about $324 billion in bad loans as of March 31 1996. Analysts believe the total could be considerable higher.

The government in recent days has been working to persuade banks and farm cooperative to agree to take on a bigger share of the bailout burden to reduce the cost to taxpayer”. According to a current financial post in Tokyo: (16) “Most of the financial banks declare yesterday that with the experience of deficit in last year, this year (ended till September) they had turn deficit into net profit. Banks had systematically write off many of the un collectible accounts. But their revenue is still not very high because of low interest rate and the ncremental of bad debts.

Therefore financial institution will still probably experience quite a long period of recession. ” Therefore residue effects of the land speculation spill over still continues. Land developers also suffer largely. Before the land market crash was expose to the public, there were nearly 1,200 golf course was either approve or under construction. Many pre- member ships were sold but unfortunately many of the construction are never finish because of banks were pulling back the loan. At peak, the total value of golf member ships market in Japan was near 200 billion for 1,700 golf courses.

Therefore closing down 1,200 golf course construction was quite a lost for the economy. Another aftermath of the bubble burst is the high vacancy rate in the office buildings in Tokyo. During the late 1980*s, the new constructing rate (for the office buildings) was double compare with the tradition. After the bubble burst, the value of asset decreases and demand for space also decreases. Therefore many office buildings are unoccupied. As you can see, the after math of the bubble burst did not only affect the business enterprise, government but also the grass root people. 17)

“In last year the economic growth rate was nly around 1% or less and the government had introduce economic revitalization policies such as lowest ever interest rates and increased public investment but judging by the fact that consumer demand has cooled off and capital investment by the corporate sector is not making headway as expected therefore the outlook for economic recovery in Japan remain hazy”. The bubble bursting has affected everyone in Japan. (18) “The country has clearly become a victim of the same wrenching process of debt deflation that had already been visible for several years in so many other economies.

Japan faces the reality of outright deflation n terms of falling prices. With all that implies for companies inability to maintain their profit margins. Japan was facing by the autumn of 1993 an unpleasant combination of excess production capacity, falling demand and a rampantly high yen. By August 1993 wholesale prices were declining at an annualized rate of 4. 2 percent. ” Once again you can see that many Japanese are not very optimistic about the future economy. Therefore you can see that the land speculation had create many negative impacts to the Japan economy not only during the bubble period but also after the bubble burst.

Dual structure in Japan

The word “dual” has the meaning of double, twofold or in two parts according to The Australian Oxford Dictionary (1996). Applying the word to an economic context, I would describe the term “dual structure of an economy” to indicate the co-existence of two different sectors alongside each other with disparities in technology and productivity between them. Take for instance, the existence of a traditional primary sector along with a modern non-primary sector constitutes to a “dual structure”.

Duality can exist within a particular sector of the economy. The existence of traditional subsistence agriculture alongside export agriculture among the Southeast Asian countries during colonial period is an example of duality within a sector. Minami (1994, p. 239) defined “dual structure” to mean the existence of two distinct sectors; one that has modern technology, a high capital-labour ratio, high labour productivity and wages, against another one, which has all the opposite characteristics.

Therefore, one can infer that if large-scale industries with high capital intensity (K) were promoted at the stage in which labour supply (L) is relatively abundant then differentials in labour productivity (Y/L) and the wage rate would arise and lead to a dual structure. For Japan, three characteristics of the economy indicated the existence of a “dual structure”. First, the coexistence of a very low unemployment rates and continued low incomes in agricultural and small business.

Second, the existence of large (“industrial giants”) and small scale firms within the manufacturing sector. Third, the existence of peculiar characteristics of the labour market such as enterprise unions, wages differentials according to the size of the firm and long term employment (Odaka, 1967 p. 50). Furthermore, duality existed in the manufacturing sector too. In general, “dual structure” of the Japanese economy began before the Second World War as seen in a widening of income differential between agricultural and non-agricultural.

The widening income differential was due to two main reasons. Firstly, productivity differential widen as productivity in the industrial sector increases faster due to relative ease in technology borrowing than productivity in agriculture. Secondly, the existence of surplus labour in traditional industries has tended to hinder increases in productivity due to limited arable land for agriculture so the farmland area per worker increased very slightly.

With reference to Table 1 (Appendix)(Hayami Y, 1997 p. 3), the ratio of real labour productivity in agriculture to that of industry declined from 75% in 1885 to 24% in 1935. However, intersectoral terms of trade remained more or less stable hence the drop is mostly reflected in decreases in the ratio of agricultural income to that of non-agricultural from 76% to 38%. Although there were improvements in the ratio in the post-war period, it could partly be attributed to improvements in terms of trade due to protection policies and an increase in non-agricultural income for agricultural households.

As for the ‘duality’ within the manufacturing sector, it emerged during the interwar period. Several factors namely: age, sex, education and training, work-status and scale of firm could contribute to such wage differentials. In the case of Japan, evidence had suggested that the scale of firm has been very important in Japan (Paine, 1971). As shown in Table 2 and 3 (Appendix), the general trend prior and after the Second World War were the larger the size of capital, higher the wages; the lower the labour productivity, lower the wages and lower the capital productivity, lower the wages.

In all, ‘duality’ developed in response to increased demand for better-educated and trained workers by large-scale industries. The reason being that industrialization reached the stage whereby heavy and chemical industries were the main focus, therefore large-scale industries were willing to pay higher wages to employ better-educated labourers and keep them to internalize investment in the skill formation (Paine, 1971).

To explain for the ‘duality’ of the manufacturing sector in Japan, two theories of dual structure could be of help. The first being Miyazawa-Shinohara’s capital concentration hypothesis, which attributes wage differentials to the differences in average productivity, which are in turn, explained by differentials in capital intensity due to imperfection in capital markets (Odaka, 1967 p. 58). This hypothesis suggests that larger firms were able to obtain bank loans relatively easily as compared to smaller firms.

Moreover, large firms incur a lower cost of capital then smaller firms henceforth with adequate financial capability it was possible for large firms to introduce relatively capital-intensive methods of production thus leading to higher levels of labour productivity. However, this hypothesis required the assumption that large firms draw from a different labour market to small firms to explain persistent wage differentials (Minami, 1994 p. 244).

The second theory is the skill concentration hypothesis developed by Teranishi and Minami, whereby they attempted to explain the ‘duality’ in terms of skilled and unskilled labour. They argued that large firms employ primarily skilled workers while small firms were mainly unskilled workers. In addition, Teranishi and Minami believed that the increase in supply of unskilled labour in the 1920s and the relatively decline in wages to that of skilled labour led to a lower average wages for small firms than large firms.

As a result, wage differentials developed and led to differentials in both the capital-labour ratio and labour productivity because large firms found it profitable to employ labour-saving technology but small firms did not. This second theory is a direct opposite of the Miyazawa-Shinohara’s hypothesis whereby differential in capital-labour ratio leads to differential in labour productivity thus resulted in wage differential. For this skill concentration hypothesis, the assumption that unskilled workers cannot be substituted for skilled workers had to be made (Minami, 1994 p. 4).

The main idea that both theories may be driving at is that a large-scale capital-intensive firm requires better-educated and trained labour to operate new technology machinery and require a stable supply of workers for production operations. But the labour market had only a limited supply of workers with appropriate skills. This led to an increase in the demand for such workers and resulted in the development of the nenko joretsu system.

The nenko joretsu system is whereby large firms select and train certain new entrants to the labour force, offering them guaranteed wage increases as their length of service increased (Paine, 1971 p. 213). In conclusion, there is some truth in both assumptions made in the respective theory. However, both assumptions probably over-simplify the reality. In my own perspective, there exist a combinations of factors that could explain for the ‘dual structure’ within the manufacturing sector although an abundance of labour and the ability to pay of large-scale firms are consistent with the concept of wage differentials.

The abundance of labour does not last forever so as labour surplus decrease, both large and small firms would compete for new workers. Moreover, as technology advances, the introduction of automated production process does not necessary requires skilled workers. Instead the job scope becomes a routine and unskilled workers would be more than able to handle the job (Minami 1994). Despite all the above mentioned, wage differential still prevail in Japan.

In an economy, as long as labourers have different level of skills that requires time to acquire, and the demand for these skills changes with economic progress then some wage differentials would persist (Paine, 1971 p. 234). Furthermore, in Japan, the continued existence of the two unique systems namely; lifetime employment and seniority wage systems. Then differences in wage levels, productivity and capital-labour ratios between large and small firms still exist therefore “dual structure” in the manufacturing in Japan still persist but the differential gap is becoming narrowed.

Trip To Japan

There is a great deal of planning that goes into booking a vacation in a foreign country. Passports have to be taken care of, flights have to be scheduled, and accommodations have to be arranged for when the flight arrives. Also, it is important that some entertaining sites have been chosen ahead of time that would be nice to visit. By doing this, it will make the trip much easier to manage and much more enjoyable. Vacationing in a foreign country can be a great experience for family and friends, but it is important that travel arrangements, accommodations, and entertainment options are researched thoroughly before going.

Japan is where the vacation will take place, but before that can happen, some travel arrangements will have to be made. Before departing from home, every person must have a passport. A valid U. S. passport is required to enter and leave most foreign countries (“U. S. Department of State”). Acceptance facilities include courts, post offices, and some public libraries. There are also 13 regional passport agencies which require appointments.

According to the U. S. Department of State: To obtain a passport for the first time, you need to go in person to one of 6,000 passport acceptance facilities located throughout the United States with two photographs of yourself, proof of U. S. citizenship, and a valid form of photo identification such as a driver’s license. The closest place in Indiana to obtain a passport would be the Indiana Main Post Office on South 7th Street. Passport acceptance hours are from 9 am – 2 pm. Now that the passport has been taken care of, its time to find a flight and hotel.

Most places will have round trip air fare and the cost of the hotel as a package deal, which is the best way to go. It will cost less doing it this way then booking the flight and hotel separately. In General Tours Japan travel guide produced by the United States Tour Operators Association, there are different package deals to choose from. I chose a fully-escorted tour for nine days, two of which will be spend traveling to and from Japan. The problem is, the flight to Japan is leaving from New York, so another flight must be purchased from Indiana to New York.

No flights were available from Indiana to New York City, so I selected Pittsburgh to New York City instead. The price is $292 round trip on United Airlines. During the trip, there will be four stops from Tokyo to Hakone to Kyoto to Osaka. The price for this is $2,599 which includes round trip airfare and also the cost of the four different hotels that will be visited over the course of the week. This also includes a daily breakfast at the hotel restaurant. The trip is scheduled for April 2nd – 10th which is the heart of the spring season in Japan.

Early April is a great time to visit Japan because it is cherry-blossom season there. A wave of pink and white blossoms travel across the island from the southern tip of the country to the north (“Tokyo 3”). “Tokyo – where the blooms typically appear from late March to early April provides ample viewing opportunities, with thousands of cherry trees” (“Tokyo 3”). This will create a beautiful atmosphere for the trip, especially because three of the seven days will be spent in Tokyo.

A great feature of Japan is the experience you will receive in their western-style hotels, which is equivalent to the United States. Japan is known for having great customer service and staff. “The staff at the hotels are able to speak English to their guests and provide excellent facilities” (“Yokoso Japan”). Among western-style hotel options in Japan are: deluxe, business, or capsule (“Yokoso Japan”). The deluxe hotels will be the ones selected for the trip, because the staff members are trained to speak English.

Deluxe hotels also include swimming pools, interpreters, and shopping malls (“Yokoso Japan”). Throughout the trip, the sites and events attended are all scheduled ahead of time through your guide. This is a great feature because the tour guide can show some great cultural sites as well as shops and theaters and great restaurants. During the first stop in Tokyo, the tour guide will show the Imperial Palace Plaza as well as the Asakusa Kannon Temple, the oldest in the city. After leaving Tokyo, Mt. Fuji is the next stop. There will be a station for views and photo opportunities.

Also during the trip, some of Japan’s finest temples and shrines will be visited in Kyoto and Osaka. Not only will these great sites be explored, but there will also be a day to spend however you would like. This will be spent in Tokyo, “one of the most dynamic and changeable cities of all time” (Cybriwsky 1). All factors must be accounted for in order for your vacation to go smoothly. Passports, travel arrangements, and accommodations must all be taken care of. If research is done in these areas and effort is put into finding the best prices, the trip to Japan will be very enjoyable.

The Samurai: Warrior and Ruler of Ancient Japan

Few countries have a warrior tradition as long and exciting as Japan. It is a tradition found in the Samurai, the loyal and self-sacrificing knight of ancient Japan. The Samurai is a valiant warrior who can both appreciate the beauty of nature in that of a rose blossom but will also kill or die for his master in an instant. This well-rounded warrior was the ruling class of Japan for almost seven hundred years. He fought for control of his country and to keep Japan free from outside influences. (Turnbull 1)

This aristocratic warrior class arose during the 12th century wars between the Taira and Minamoto clans and was consolidated in the Tokugawa period. Samurai were privileged to wear two swords, and at one time had the right to cut down any commoner who offended them. They cultivated the martial virtues, indifference to pain or death, and unfailing loyalty to their overlords. Samurai were the dominant group in Japan. Under the Tokugawa shogunate, the samurai were removed from direct control of the villages, moved into the domain castle towns, and given government stipends.

They were encouraged to take up bureaucratic posts. The Hagakure, has been dubbed the book of the samurai. It was written after a century of peace around 1716. It came to be the guide of samurai ethics until the end of the feudal period. Its short passages reflect and outline the qualities that make a samurai. Yamamoto Tsunetomo expresses in the hagakure the framework and mindset of being a samurai. “Although it stands to reason that a samurai should be mindful of the Way of the samurai, it would seem that we are all negligent.

Consequently, if someone were to ask, what is the true meaning of the Way of the Samurai? ‘ the person who should be able to answer promptly is rare. This is because it has not been established in one’s mind beforehand. From this, one’s unmindfulness of the Way can be known. Negligence is an extreme thing. ” (Wilson, 17) “The Way of the Samurai is found in death. When it comes to either/or, there is only the quick choice of death. It is not particularly difficult. Be determined and advance. To say that dying without reaching one’s aim is to die a dog’s death is the frivolous way of sophisticates.

When pressed with the choice of life or death, it is not necessary to gain one’s aim. We all want to live. And in large part we make our logic according to what we like. But not having attained our aim and continuing to live is cowardice. This is a thin dangerous line. To die without gaining one’s aim is a dog’s death and fanaticism. There is no shame to this. This is the substance of the Way of the Samurai. If by setting one’s heart right every morning and evening, one is able to live as though his body were already dead, he gains freedom in the Way.

His whole life will be without blame, and he will succeed in his calling. (Wilson, 17) The samurai had extreme religious ideals. One samurai in particular, Tsunetomo, he began to despair of ever gaining a position as a retainer, and her began to visit a man who was to have no small influence on his life. This was the Zen Buddhist priest Tannen (? – 1680), a man of unbending integrity and will, who had resigned his post as head priest at the major Nabeshima temple as a protest against the death sentence of another priest, and when recalled, refused to return.

Zen Buddhism and the samurai had been closely related since the thirteenth century in Japan, when the Hojo regents had discovered that its vitality and rejection of life as an object of special craving had much to offer the warrior. Tannen had his own ideas concerning the relationship of Zen and the warriors. “He declares that religious matters are for old men, and if young samurai learn about Buddhism it will only bring them disaster, for they will begin to look at the world from two sets of values rather than one. ” (Wilson, 13) The warriors of early Japan bore only a passing resemblance to the later samurai.

Weaponry and armor were of a distinctly Chinese flavor, and the earliest warriors carried shields, a device evidently out of vogue even before the Heian period. Some of our knowledge of the weapons and protection the early Japanese warrior carried comes from artifacts excavated from the tombs constructed in the 4th and 5th centuries to house departed royalty. Another, just as valuable resource are the haniwa, which were clay statues evidently used as grave markers. A good number of these haniwa depict warriors, and these provide us some insight into the nature of home-grown’ Japanese armor of the time.

The horse was imported to Japan sometime in the 4th or 5th century, and quickly became a valuable commodity. Also brought over from the continent were Keiko, or suits of lamellar scaled armor. This type, which is traditionally associated with horsemen, provided the foundation from which the classic patterns of samurai armor construction would build. Just as important is the samurai’s weaponry is the code of ethics by which they lived by which is known as the code of Bushido. This term refers to the moral code principals that developed among the samurai class of Japan, on a basis of national tradition influenced by Zen and Confucianism.

The first use of the term apparently occurred during the civil war period of the 16th century; its precise content varied historically as samurai standards evolved. Its one unchanging ideal was martial spirit, including athletic and military skills as well as fearless facing of the enemy in battle. Frugal living, kindness and honesty were also highly regarded. Like Confucianism, Bushido required filial piety; but, originating in the feudal system, it also held that supreme honor was to serve one’s lord unto death.

If these obligations conflicted, the samurai was bound by loyalty to his lord despite the suffering he might cause to his parents. The final rationalization of Bushido thought occurred during the Tokugawa period, when Yamaga Soko equated the samurai with the Confucian “superior man” and taught that his essential function was to exemplify virtue to the lower classes. Without disregarding the basic Confucian virtue, benevolence, Soko emphasized the second virtue, righteousness, which he interpreted as “obligation” or “duty”.

This strict code of honor, affecting matters of life and death, demanded conscious choice and so fostered individual initiative while yet reasserting the obligations of loyalty and filial piety. Obedience to authority was stressed, but duty came first even if it entailed violation of statue law. In such an instance, the true samurai would prove his sincerity and expiate his crime against the government by subsequently taking his own life. By mid-19th century, Bushido standards had become the general ideal, and the legal abolition of the samurai class in 1871 made Bushido even more the property of the entire nation.

In the public education system, with the emperor replacing the feudal lord as the object of loyalty and sacrifice, Bushido became the foundation of ethical training. As such, it contributed both to the arise of Japanese nationalism and to the strengthening of wartime civilian morale up to 1945. The term “Samurai” means those who serve. These mystical knights served many functions in Japanese society. During time of war, they were the masters of the battlefield. In peace they were the administrators and the aristocrats. As statesmen, soldiers, and businessmen, former samurai took the lead in building modern Japan.

The American occupation of Japan

Fifty years after the end of the second World War, it is easy to look back on the American occupation of Japan and see it as a mild nudge to the left rather than a new beginning for the country. We still see an emperor, even if only as a symbol. Industry, when it was rebuilt, was under much of the same leadership as before the war. Many elements of the traditional lifestyle remained-with less government support and in competition with new variants. The Japanese people remained connected to a culture which was half western and half Japanese.

Nevertheless, it is irrefutable that the surrender in 1945 had a major impact on the lives of the Japanese. Political parties, elected by the populous, became a great deal more influential in the government. This changed the dynamics of Japanese industry, even if the zaibatsu were sill the foundation of the economy. Financial success took on a new character; the production of high tech goods for sale to the world’s most developed countries was now a better source of income. The affluence of the upper class was more evenly distributed.

On a broader scale, for the first time, America had more influence than European powers. The prevention of the formation of a military put the focus of the government on trade, the United Nations, and the cold war rather than an empire in Asia. Simultaneously, social attitudes and lifestyle were more independent of the government and consumer led. The American military occupation of Japan was the driving reason for all of the changes in postwar Japan. Its first task, determined even before the surrender was to disarm Japan and to remove the wartime leaders from their influential government positions.

This was part of America’s plan to demilitarize and democratize. The goal was to purge the government, media, and education system of war criminals. Once this was accomplished, the American focus shifted to reform. The American plan for reform was based on the idea that Japanese aggression had developed because of fundamental faults in the government, (not, as the Japanese said, from a temporary deviation from the course set during the Meiji period) and that these faults had to be corrected before Japan could ever become a respected member of the developed world.

Democratization was what America wanted. The first steps in the reforming process were obstructive to America’s goal of democracy. Under the request of General MacArthur, the emperor denied his divinity; Shinto shrines, which had been closely linked to the myth of Amaterasu, lost their government funding; and a ban was put on militaristic and ultra nationalistic teachings in school. These are some of the alterations that the Japanese went through.

The sudden change in the Japanese lifestyle caused by the new laws and new constitution shocked Japanese citizens. There was a period of confusion and disturbance among the Japanese because of the new system. As Americans, we have never gone through a period of such sudden and extreme change. It is hard for us to imagine the turmoil caused by a complete switch in government. Because of our liberal government, we say that it would have been easy to democratize Japan in one quick step, but, revolution is not easy in a country so steeped in tradition as Japan.

The war related purges in Japan ended and the United States government even restored some of them to their old position. The zaibatsu were also allowed to return to reconsolidate in order to help the economy. These changes, among others were necessary to the survival of the nation of Japan. The important thing is that the Japanese now had their own constitution, untouched by reverse course.

Japanese Media Overview

Physically, the mass media in Japan are quite similar to those in any developed nation, although perhaps somewhat more advanced. In organizational structure, however, Japanese media are unique. Individual elements of the Japanese media mix may resemble counterparts in other nations, but the combination is purely Japanese. The primary characteristics of Japanese mass media are the influence of the national daily newspapers and the Japan Broadcasting Corporation (Nihon Hoso Kyokai, or NHK) and the relative lack of localism. The importance of newspapers

Japanese media are dominated by five national daily newspapers. The Asahi, Mainichi, Nihon Keizai, Sankei and Yomiuri Shimbun (newspaper) all publish both a morning and an evening edition, with total circulation of more than 40 million copies per day (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 53). Of the world’s ten highest daily circulation newspapers, the top three are Japanese, with the fourth highest having a circulation of just over one-third of the circulation of the Yomiuri Shimbun (The United States is not represented in this list) (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 54).

It is not surprising that Japan has the highest ratio of newspapers to people in the world, with 578 copies per day for every 1000 people (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 52). Local newspapers are smaller than the nationals, and many are published only once or twice a week, even in cities with populations above 100,000. However, the national newspapers all have regional sections. The national daily newspapers are also involved in other media. All of the commercial television networks are either affiliated with or owned by a national newspaper (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 115).

They are also heavily involved in radio broadcasting, although their presence is less influential. Japanese book and magazine readership are also quite impressive. In addition, Japan has a thriving comic book, or manga, industry. Japanese comic books are for all ages and all types of people. One can see people reading manga in restaurants, coffee shops, trains, buses, even schools and offices. Sales of manga for 1984 totaled 297 billion yen (US$ 1. 2 billion), although this figure does not include any of the income from manga-related products (Schodt, 1986, p. 38).

Nature of television broadcasting There are five major commercial and two public television networks in Japan. The public networks, Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK) general and education, are funded by annual license fees paid for every television set in the country. Although NHK is an independent entity, it enjoys a close and favored relationship with the government. NHK is modeled after the British Broadcasting Corporation in many ways. NHK also oversees radio networks, including shortwave broadcasts.

In addition, NHK runs a publishing arm that prints workbooks that accompany its educational programs and guidebooks that provide additional insight into its historical dramas. On average, Japanese citizens watch over three hours of television per day. The average Japanese television set is turned on for eight hours and eight minutes per day (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 105). 54. 9 percent of Japanese citizens surveyed by NHK (1995) watch at least three hours of television per day on average. Generally speaking, Japan is a heavy television viewing nation.

Local broadcasting is relatively uncommon in Japan. With a population approaching 200 million, there are barely more than 100 local affiliates of national television networks, with these local affiliates carrying the network schedule for 70 to 90 percent of the broadcast day (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 113). Large cities, such as Tokyo and Osaka, certainly get a great amount of local broadcasting, whereas a city of more than 250,000 (Mito in Ibaraki prefecture) has no local television broadcasting, but retransmits a signal from Tokyo, 100 km away.

Retransmission is the nature of Japanese television broadcasting. Of the 1,502 VHF and 9,453 UHF television stations operating in 1992, NHK used 1,113 and 5,338 of them, respectively, to retransmit its signals (DeMente, 1992, p. 276). The remaining stations were operated by 46 commercial broadcasting companies, with the majority owned by the “big five” commercial networks — NTV, TBS, Fuji, ABC and TV Tokyo (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 113). Other traditional media NHK was the only player in broadcasting until 1950. Commercial radio broadcasts began in that year.

Growth continued steadily so that by the end of the decade, all of Japan could receive both NHK and commercial radio broadcasts (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 108). Localism is more common in radio broadcasting than in television. Most cities of even moderate size have their own radio station. As of 1992, there were 1,018 radio stations in Japan. 504 were AM stations, 491 were FM stations and 23 were short-wave stations. NHK owns 315 of the AM stations, 484 of the FM stations and 21 of the short-wave stations (DeMente, 1992, pp. 239-240). Starting in 1970, “mini-FM” radio stations began broadcasting in densely populated areas.

Although these stations had signals that only carried a kilometer, they could reach thousands of people in urban areas. An incident in 1985 resulted in the arrest of a mini-FM broadcaster and, since that time, mini-FMs have become much less common (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 109). New media It is ironic that Japan, a nation with a high-tech image, until very recently had one of the lowest rates of Internet use. A 1996 study found that Japan had only three percent of the world’s Internet-connected computers (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 221). The United States had 70 percent. This is a great disparity, but is worded ambiguously.

Stated differently (and taking into account the relative proportions of computer ownership), Japan was only one-tenth as “wired” as the United States. Some of the reasons for this: Computer ownership is, by some estimates (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 221) more than three times more common in the United States than in Japan; Japan’s telephone company (NTT) was extremely slow in meeting customer needs; Internet expenses were considerably higher in Japan; and there was very little Japanese content on the Internet. More recently, Internet adoption has picked up its pace in Japan (Cooper-Chen, 1997, pp. 21-222).

In other ways, Japan is a technological trendsetter. It began HDTV broadcasts in 1989 (under the direction of NHK), although only 2. 1 percent of households in Japan had a receiver in 1995 (NHK, 1995, p. 17). It had major a DBS system in place in the same year (under the direction of NHK) (Cooper-Chen, 1997, pp. 218-219). Satellite receiver penetration was 27. 9 percent in 1995 (NHK, 1995, p. 17). Cable television penetration, however, is relatively low, with figures varying between 7 percent (NHK, 1995, p. 17) and 25 percent (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 107).

The Economic Effect on Japan during Post World War II

Japans economy was greatly affected by the atomic bombs dropped on both Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japans economic recovery as a result of this incident transformed Japans economic growth which has become known as the Economic Miracle. The bombs caused Japan to reconstruct many more facilities in which the economy moved forward. The Economic Planning Agency, which used to be known as the Economic Stabilization Board, helped Japan to become one of the leading economic nations.

The United States also contributed to much of Japans recovery by occuping it from 1945-1951. After the bombs shattered the cities on August 6 and August 9 in 1945 the war was concluded. Japan had many parts to pick up such as the deaths of innocent citizens and the dilapidation of their major cities. Peter Tasker (40) mouthed When the casualties were counted they calculated to more than three million people and left more than ten million people lacking housing. The war forced the economy to be cut off from its normal flow of trade.

That was hurtful because Japan needed to trade with other nations to receive money to rebuild their damaged cites. Many Japanese people suffered severely because they were forced to live on the black market to stay alive which helped them in some ways because they could purchase goods for a much cheaper price. Even though the black market is illegal, Japan stayed on it to survive the post war age. Edwin Reischauer (103) uttered that The unfortunate circumstance about the tragedy was that the hearts of many civilians had been burned out as well as their cities.

What Reischauer said is probably correct because many Japanese civilians were presumably so shocked at what surrounded them that they id not know what to do in this astonishing situation. Because of the war Japan experienced shortages of food, clothing and other goods and services. This was very harmful because many people had lost all their food and clothing during the explosions and they needed to change their lives drastically. The only fortunate thing about the bombs was that they did in fact leave the railways and electric power with little damage.

That was very positive for Japan because they still had power to the factories where people could go to work and get money to reconstruct their lives. In Paul Langers book, Japan Yesterday and Today (135) he said, The bombs left the prices to rise 10 per cent a month in which the civilians had to pay because of the United States destruction to Japan. The ruins that were leftover from the attack left Japan in a time for a major recovery. The destruction from the war is one of major items that will go down in Japanese history forever.

The United States, the nation which caused this frightful and fatal period, engaged in Japan from the day after the releasing of the bomb until 1951 when a treaty was signed forcing the United States to leave Japan. General Douglas Mac Arthur led the American army into Japan to give them help. The United States helped Japan by bringing in food and in the year of 1946, 800,000 tons of American food was rushed into Japan. Paul Langer (136) mouthed, From the damages done the United States had to pay about one million dollars per day which included the bill for food, fertilizer and other major essentials.

The United States had to pay this enormous amount of money because they were forced to help Japan recover both physically and economically. Japan, a nation that was in great need of aid, accepted the United States support but ried to pretend that they did not need them. While the Americans stayed in Japan they wanted to destroy the power, privileges and wealth of Japanese ruling classes who were blamed for Japanese militarism. The United States occupation of Japan led to the distribution of many of the American ideas and practices into the Japanese culture.

This was a negative aspect because Japan and the United States are two different countries who have different ideas and practices. So, in fact the American occupation of Japan tore away from the Japanese culture and filled it with American ulture and traditions which was harmful to the Japanese civilized life. Besides destroying Japan, the United States introduced many new reforms. One of the improvement programs that was broken up was called the Zaibatsu which was a land-reform program that required landlords to sell land cheaply to their tenants.

This was broken up because after the war the land was destroyed and many of the landlords tenants wanted to buy the land cheaply to begin a new life. While the United States was in Japan, they wanted to turn it into a military power and help to get them out of the epressing time they were in. The Japanese people did not really have a choice but to listen to the Americans because they did not have enough money and they still needed support from the Americans. The United States continued to help Japan in its defense so Japan used a lot of its money to rebuild their countrys industries.

William L. Neuman (296) stated, What was good for the United States must be good for Japan. The United States helped Japan both positively and negatively throughout their occupation. The war caused many disasters in which new facilities were needed to be built. Some of the facilities that were damaged had to be completely rebuilt in newer and more advanced models which helped Japan to become more powerful. The newer machinery was more updated compared to the old machinery. After World War II ended over thirty million people made up the working population.

That shows how many people were ready to rebuild their lives and to forget the past. Of the thirty million people that worked about half were involved in agriculture and farming. Interesting enough, 3/4 of the Japanese farmers either rented the land they cultivated or rented some land to supplement their own poor oldings. That means that some Japanese farmers grew their crops from someone elses fields and paid to rent the land. The manufacturing industry in Japan expanded after the 1950s because of the serious emphasis on export items.

Due to the many unemployed Japanese, the government worked to raise the level of technology and production capacity in the heavy industry and steel machinery. The new machinery was very helpful to the Japanese because they were more advanced and the Japanese had to do less work because of the well-developed machinery. With the new aterials, the local government was strengthened and farmers were given the opportunity to own their own land. Many labor unions were encouraged which helped the people of Japan have better working conditions.

Also around the post war period, which was from 1945 to about 1955, many educational changes came about which had a positive affect on Japan because the more children that got educated in school, the better for Japan. As education became popular Social Studies was emphasized so the students could learn about the history of Japan and other nations. As the new programs and facilities came about Japan advanced itself and helped itself economically at the same time. The Economic Planning Agency played a very important role during Japans post World War II period.

The Economic Planning Agency had a lot of different names before it became known as the EPA. The EPA was once known as The Economic Stabilization Board and was founded in 1946. When the ESB was founded in 1946 it suddenly began to take Japan on the road to recovery. Under the Economic Stabilization Board the economy was able to recover by the end of the 1940s and transformed from a controlled system to a free market system. In 1952 the EDB took over the Economic Stabilization Board . Then in 1955 the Economic Deliberation Board changed its name to the Economic Planning Agency.

The EPA drew a five year plan for the economic self-support and it was Japans first post war economic plan. In Roy Thomas book, Japan: The Blighted Blossom, (177) Hiroshi Kishida voiced that Japan has grown into an economic power. But we do not feel that our country is an economic power… You must understand that we live in small homes called rabbit hutches, work hard all year long and still worry about life in old age. In that quotation Kishida is saying that Japan did recover from the bombs but they still are not a very powerful economic nation.

The Economic Planning Agency said, This is no longer the post war period . The high growth unfolding before us is supported by modernization and technological innovation. The Economic Planning Agency launched many plans such as the Doubling National Income Plan of 1960, and the Comprehensive National Development Plan of 1962. The Economic Planning Agency helped to get Japan out of the post war period and helped them through what is known as the Economic Miracle. Japan suffered many hardships from the time the bomb was dropped and for many years later.

Japan recovered from the deaths and destruction and started to build again with the help of the Economic Planning Agency and the United States. With all this aid Japan recovered so quickly from the slump that it became known as the, Economic Miracle and to this day it is still known as that. Japans recovery became known as the economic miracle because it recovered so quickly after war. Much of Japans recovery was because of the help from other nations such as the United States.

The Bubble Economy of Japan

The Economy of Japan had experience a tremendous growth since the end of the Korean war. The growth of GNP in 1967 and 1968 was above 10 % (double digit growth period) which exceed countries such as Britain, France and Germany. The economy experienced a boost is due to many reasons, such as: enlargement of industrial facilities, massive adaptation of western technology and education, lower the military expense to 1% of GNP, relation with power nation, human resources and their spirit to achieve “zero defect program”. But after the first and second oil crisis that occur from 1973 onward.

The economy move downwards partially due to the poor management of economic policy. Although the government had attempt to adjust the economic policy but the recovery was slow. As the soaring of yen continues the demand for export has increase tremendously. With the concern of the United State of this problem, president Reagan and the G5 have signed an agreement with Japan called “Plaza Agreement” , the agreement stated that the exchange rate of Japan and Deutschmark can appreciate against the U. S. . Since then the yen value began to appreciate, Japan was going hrough a period of trade balance adjustment.

While Japan is prepare to go through a period of trade balance adjustment, it will also suffer a period of recession, so the government strongly encourage business activities to strengthen the economy in order to prevent backwash effect. It was this event which boost up the GNP and raise the exchange rate. With this exchange rate advantage it stimulate business activity on housing and stock investment which created a bubble economy. During this period almost the entire country was involve in land speculation or other speculate activities.

In this essay it ill prove that land speculative activities had create many negative impacts to the Japanese society and economy. Firstly, it will describe the cause of land speculation. Secondly it will discuss on the society and political effects in Japan and lastly it will focus on the economy effects, more over it will include the aftermath when the bubble collapse. The root of this bubble economy is due the wave of land speculation. The wide spread of land speculation activities were mainly because it is profitable. The speculative transactions in assets grew and grew and many believe that this will ast for very long period of time.

One of the reason that leads to massive investment in the risky activities is because of the success of the Japanese in the international market during 70*s – 80*s. Many Japanese enterprises and business man had become very wealthy. These people have a large sum of equity to invest. Some of these people have focus on risky asset such as stocks and land, therefore many of the regular ventures were left behind. One of the major cause of the massive transaction in the land market was due the incremental of loans by banks. Financial institution was very positive in lending money to the nterprise.

This enhance the accessibility to the land speculate market. Each size of this loan is very large. This is because the size of mortgage in Japan financial institutions are based on the collateral, (house) while in North America the size of the mortgage is based on the borrower*s income stream. Therefore the size of loan can be obtain by borrower is larger in Japan than North America. Also 62% of Japanese households own the home that they live and in average the value is near 4 million yen. Therefore there are lots of potential investors.

And during the period of speculative activities, borrowers ncrease the value of their loans as the value of their collateral increases. Since asset is highly liquidate, the number of potential speculators are high and borrowers in Japan were able to get a larger size loan on real estate therefore speculative activities sink into the level of common home owner and large enterprise. Beside the method of calculating mortgage size, another reason why the size of loan was so large is probably that both the bank and the investor were behind the land speculation activity (banking scandal).

Investors were paying some key money (sort of a bribe) to financial institution in order o obtain a larger size loan. Therefore many financial institutions were over loan during this period. Another form of raising cash flow for the speculate market was by braking down a loan that obtain from a large financial institution to a specific enterprise, then lend a small piece of this loan to those who was not eligible to obtain a loan from the bank. These companies that act as the funnel will earn a certain amount of interest from these smaller companies (branch effect).

Therefore all classes of companies and society can easily access in the speculate market. Other large corporate, construction company, rganize crime group and even temple (religious) were also involve in land speculation. Another encouragement to the speculative market was because the government (liberal democratic party) had originally lower the capital gain tax in the early 80*s. Therefore the profit for owner to resale their land was large. Flaws in government policy also indirectly allow investor to get away of property tax expense.

For example some land owner could just plant little crops over a large piece of expensive vacant land in urban city and declare them as agriculture land. As a result they will be tax very little. Therefore the incremental of land speculative activities were due to over size loan, high accessibility to the land speculative market and indirectly by the government flaws. During the peak of the land speculation there is a quite interesting study of land price in Japan.

“If you sell the entire property of Tokyo you can actually buy the entire United state and by just selling the surrounding land of the Imperial palace you can buy Canada. ” Although it might of been a little over exaggerate, but the point is that the land value in Japan compare to North America is much higher. Since there is no one side of a coin, Land speculation had create many social problems in Japan. Firstly, land speculation had rise the rent and housing cost tremendously.

As a result many young couples and low income families were unable to form their own house hold. In average the cost of a house in Tokyo had raise to about 500 million yen. The younger group with low income cannot afford it and the mid age workers may also not able to afford it. Primary is because they would have to give up at least three- fifth of their income in loan repayment. Also if they have a relatively low mount of down payment, there working age may not be long to repay a mortgage.

The longer the amortization period, the larger the amount of interest they bare. The white collar had become the slavery or sacrifice of the never ending mortgage payment and high cost of housing. In 1990 the births live in Japan was 1. 2 million, in fact the number is the lowest since 1893. Many analysts believe that one of the reason that lead to this slow growth of population could be create by high house prices. So Japanese people have stopped having children and large family is rare. Therefore this is one of the causes of Japan is unning our of Japanese.

This is also a very big social issue of the modern Japanese society but the precedent of the slow growth of population has now move from high housing cost to other social problems. During this period, there were lots of cases regarding on the robbery and suicidal in the police force. This was mainly because of the heavily debts that these police bare and they have no other choice than to attempt to go above the law. Due to the financing problems in the real estate market, it leads to the founding of what is program call “2 generations mortgage plan”.

The founding of this plan was propose to suit the majority of the white collar in the Japanese society. This plan was develop since 1983 but it became more useful from 1985 onwards and the qualification of this program must be father-son that plan or already living together. (son must be older than 20 and must repay the loan by the age at 70) The size of the mortgage is determined by the borrower, interest is flexible and the applicants must purchase an life insurance in order to protect the risk of un collectible due to death. Pay by the bank) Husband and wife can also join this program .

Banker said that the applicant may able to repay this loan in 40 yr. and this type of program also encourage a bonding relationship between father and son. On one side this program may allow a regular income worker to be a home owner but on the other side this person will bare a debt for the entire life and passes on to the next generation. Moreover it may limit on the consumption of the borrower on other composite good. The booms in land prices also discourage people’s incentive to work. 2)

“Because if any lucky individuals inherited or own a piece of land in metro Tokyo, they will suddenly gain a net worth of 250 o 300 million yen. ” This amount of money is equivalent to honest man*s life time income plus retire pension. Since may people get rich during this period, the number of middle class income in Japan had tremendously increase. Under these circumstances, many believe they have already achieved the good life therefore people lose the incentive to work hard and get ahead.

Therefore it will distort the social structure in Japan and create many problems to the government (taxations). Since the sacrifice and cost of home ownership is so high therefore many Japanese had prefer to rent. Since the demand of rental arket increase, it also attracted many investor and speculator. Therefore tenants also suffer from the incremental raise of land price. In Japan, young couples, low income group and the elderly participated as the major group of tenant in Japan.

During this period, owners were looking to sell their property for high return and in order to force the tenant to move (after tenant moves landlord can chose higher quality tenant or resale the property for a larger profit) rent rises extremely high. Many elderly were unable to afford such high rent so many were force to move. As a result many had become homeless. In some ases tenant refuses to move so some owner will hire organize gang group to force them out. Some of these unfortunate tenants will give up the hope in home ownership in the core and move further and further away from the center.

Therefore many of them will spend over 2 to 3 hours to commute from their place to work. So either way, home owner ship and tenants suffer from the raise of housing price. The natural populations are not the only civilian of this incident. Many foreign students also suffer from the housing problem. (3) “In 1986, there was a statistic taken over a total number of 8116 foreign students. Apparently only 17% lives in an adequate resident facility. ” The primary reason was due to the cost of rent, high exchange rate and lastly it was because the local people do not wish to rent their property to foreign student.

Student associate had propose to built new resident housing but due to the heat of land speculation (create an increase in the demand of land) and high construction cost, the new residential housing will be very costly. Therefore this new construction will probably raise the rent 2 to 3 times. While the housing problem continues for foreign students from 80 onward the Japanese government ad still declare that they (4) “expect a total of 100,000 new foreign student will be coming in during the 21st century.

This reflects that the government has pay very little awareness not only on the natural population but also foreign student. Beside foreign students and the natural population, another group that affects by the high land prices was foreign ambassador. As the price continued to rise (specially in Tokyo), the ambassadors of the lower wealth countries (such as Africa or Uganda ) were force to move their location away from Tokyo due to high rent. Although this problem was reflect to the Japanese government but it was remain un solve.

Other side effects of the land speculation was the new residential construction during that era. In (thousand leaf city) many of the new construction area no longer have a large plain or play ground that similar to a traditional residential area. In one of the Japanese newspaper there is an advertise article that describes their forecast on the living condition of the Japanese in the 21st century. (5) “The husband should not return home until weekend, during weekdays just live in worker*s resident near their workplace.

This resident housing should be similar to hotel where it has an into desk that can wash your cloths, postal service and take your message. Their home should be in some rural or less urban area that 100 km away from work. ” This reflected that the rise of land value did not just only effect the affordability of the housing but also distort the lifestyle of the Japan workers as it had reflect in the earlier incident of the 2 generations mortgage. (6) “During the bubble economy period the zoning regulation in Tokyo has revise to allow builder to built more capital on the piece of land.

So this ndirectly rises the potential of building space in Tokyo. It will again raised the real estate value, property taxes and traffic congestion level of the area. ” According to the (7) “National Land Agency statistic, about half of firms surveyed in the mid to late 1980s responded that they had no development plans for the land that they acquired. ” They rarely built homes or apartments, but instead constructed office buildings that would bring in steady revenues.

From the developer*s point of view, houses and apartment are the least profitable projects. So land would almost never allotted for housing”. With land speculation and the shortage supply of new construction on housing the Japanese residents are very difficult to find an affordable place to live beside the houses that are very far from work place. In the current Japan election the percentage of participant voters in Japan has drop below 60% of the total population and the liberal democractic did not receive 50 % of the seat through election.

This percentage was the lowest since WWII and mainly was because the populations in Japan no longer believe the liberal democratic party can bring them back from recession. Also they did not have a good control system during the bubble economy, failure of the recovery program after the bubble splash. (program such as expansion in public investment, lowering the interest rate and series of economic counter measure but the yen is still pretty high which discourage export) In more specific, during the bubble economy the government did not really propose an effective tax law until 1990.

National Land Value Tax- prohibitive tax on profits from the sale or transfer of land national land law 1974) This revitalizes the local property tax and assessment ratio for the fixed asset tax. Another official policy was issue during 1990 was through the financial market in which the government regulates on the loan activity. This eventually slow down the loan activities largely in 1991. But still the government really lagged their response for those who already suffer for 5 years of high housing cost.

More over during the period of bubble economy, many politics were either involve in land speculation or was bribe by organize gang group and large enterprise in order for these people to be more conveniently to have more benefits in the land market. One incident is involve y a business man Kyowa and a cabinet minister Fumio Abe, where Abe sold the details of where a new road construction in Hokkaido in return for 480 million yen. Political scandal was expose to the public not long after the bubble economy was splash.

Lastly, most of the asset of the politicians are in the real estate market therefore neither the bank or the officials admit the fall in land prices. So when this incident was expose to the public, the prices of land fall sharply around 50 %. And mainly because of the period of cover up. So many big and small investors suddenly woke up from their happy dreams and face the orrible reality. With the above reasons the government has lost the trust of many Japanese.

Therefore the land speculate activities had also effect the image of the strong liberal democratic. During the bubble splash period, many pre- graduates and graduated university students were unable to find jobs in the labor market due to the diet all companies therefore many students were frustrate about their future. Therefore the supply of the labor market is distorted by the bubble burst. Therefore you can see that the land speculation activities had create many social problems to the Japan society during the ubble period and after the bubble burst.

During the bubble period the economy was strongly boost by the sudden rise of land value and stock market. On the other hand the after math of the bubble splash was a pain for the economy. In general we will look at the effects on the rise and fall of the Japan*s economy. In 1985 the trade balance in Japan need to have adjustment therefore the government declare that it needs some force to grow in order to prevent recession during this adjustment period. (8) “In 1989 the GNP has increased by 481,000,000,000,000 yen and this was mainly due to the speculate market. People put their profit from land to stock market or vice versa) Many companies were mainly focus on the speculate market. (9)

“The Tokyo Stock exchange soared to almost 40,000 points, the value of stock and land was far above the real value and value of property was not rise due to its demand but was due to speculation. Eventually when the bubble splash, the vacancy rate went rocket high due to lack of demand. Many companies had to go on a strict diet to survive, and they made deep cuts in expenditures for entertainment, advertising, communications and much else. And the above statement is the general picture of hat happen during the bubble economy.

During the golden period of land speculation, many investors know that the land market in Japan was limited (due to the potential and limited geographic area) so they began to purchase land over sea in Hawaii. (10) “The Non water front housing price in Hawaii during 1987 went up by 51 % and the water front housing price went up more than 100%. ” This resale land market in Hawaii was primarily between the Japanese; in 1987 the land prices was estimate has rise over 60. % and many tenants have suddenly realize that the rent has tremendously increase and cannot afford it, so many eople have no place to stay (especially the elder).

There are several reasons that Japanese wants to invest in Hawaii such as; the waterfront view is similar to Japan so it will be a good place for vacation and retirement, the distance between Japan is relatively close ( 3 hours trip by plane) and massive left over of equity and advantages in the exchange rate that has tremendously increase the nominal value of their equity so it is an encouragement for investment.

Therefore the wave of land speculation did not only distort the land market in Japan but also affected foreign country. Looking back at the Japanese economy (11) “in 1987, 77 out of the top 100 most heavily taxed people were involve in land speculation (either have resale their lands or have large land properties). This created a very unhealthy economy because most of the economy is depend on the land market and if any thing happen to the land market, it will distort the economy greatly. 12) “In 1989 the top 100 most heavily tax people 95 of them were involve in land speculation. ”

Therefore the situation was worst in the later period this is mainly because of the profitability in the land market. Since many enterprises only focus on speculate market therefore the real growth of GNP of the country was only 4 to 6 %. The growth of the economy was mainly on the nominal sector. The increase in nominal GNP has created massive appreciate of yen, which had tremendously affect the export businesses and the manufacture industries. the nominal price of the good has increase therefore foreigner has less interest on Japan goods but this mainly effect small and medium enterprise) While some export business was not doing too well, consequently the workers are not getting an appropriate rise in income. 13)

“In 1986 (Nissan) several of the high executive had experience an income cut by 5 to 10% and many of them are very frustrated because most of these people were in their 40*s and have to pay for mortgages and children*s tuition. In later years Nissan had announced to cut 500 in order to balance out their lost. Therefore large manufacture as Nissan was not doing so well during this period. This was worst in the case of the small and medium enterprise.

Many small and medium size export companies had contract or even close down during the mid 80*s and as the wave of income cuts continued, every level and lass of the employees were involve. On the other hand the high exchange rate was really an advantage for importer (same value buy more) such as energy, petroleum and primary material. These companies were suddenly becoming so wealthy and the income of their employees were much higher compare to those working in the export enterprise.

Therefore there was a large gap on the profit and income between the two distinct groups of company and it was very unhealthy for the white collar. This period of high exchange rate continues until the bubble burst. The decline of the bubble economy occurs during the Gulf war period, the economy in Japan as very quite and at the same time the government had tighten their policy. (Both tax policy and restriction in loans) As a result, the land speculation market and land prices fall continuously. The real estate market is totally frozen.

The National Land Agency measures that land price of Tokyo and Osaka has dropped 30 to 50 percent. (Total land wealth is near 2000 trillion yen which is really a lot) Many real estate properties were unable to be resale and at the time many companies were unable to pay such high interest payment therefore many of them went bankrupt. While the banks rarely make any loan, many companies cut ack in their capital spending. In fact this had dampen the recovery of economy. Most of these companies that went bankrupt were either small or medium size enterprise which lack of its separate bank center.

Large enterprises with separate bank center also suffer from non performing loans by the borrowers (small and medium size enterprise). Others large lending institution also suffer largely, since the major economic powers at the bubble period was on the land market therefore any decline in land values would strongly influence the balance sheets of Japan*s lending institution. As reported in June 18 1996 The News Times International News that the (14) “parliament approves a $ 6. 3 billion bailout for bankrupt housing lenders.

The vote clears the way for the establishment of an institution to liquidate the assets of the housing lender which collapsed under bad loans made to real estate speculators before Japanese land prices plummeted in the early 1990s. The seven companies are believed to have more than $65 billion in bad debts. ” This $. 6. 3 billion is only a piece of the big picture because (15) “the Finance Ministry said that Japan*s financial institutions held about $324 billion in bad loans as of March 31 1996. Analysts believe the total could be considerable higher.

The government in recent days has been working to persuade banks and farm cooperative to agree to take on a bigger share of the bailout burden to reduce the cost to taxpayer”. According to a current financial post in Tokyo: (16) “Most of the financial banks declare yesterday that with the experience of deficit in last year, this year (ended till September) they had turn deficit into net profit. Banks had systematically write off many of the un collectible accounts. But their revenue is still not very high because of low interest rate and the ncremental of bad debts.

Therefore financial institution will still probably experience quite a long period of recession. ” Therefore residue effects of the land speculation spill over still continues. Land developers also suffer largely. Before the land market crash was expose to the public, there were nearly 1,200 golf course was either approve or under construction. Many pre- member ships were sold but unfortunately many of the construction are never finish because of banks were pulling back the loan. At peak, the total value of golf member ships market in Japan was near 200 billion for 1,700 golf courses.

Therefore closing down 1,200 golf course construction was quite a lost for the economy. Another aftermath of the bubble burst is the high vacancy rate in the office buildings in Tokyo. During the late 1980*s, the new constructing rate (for the office buildings) was double compare with the tradition. After the bubble burst, the value of asset decreases and demand for space also decreases. Therefore many office buildings are unoccupied. As you can see, the after math of the bubble burst did not only affect the business enterprise, government but also the grass root people. 17)

“In last year the economic growth rate was nly around 1% or less and the government had introduce economic revitalization policies such as lowest ever interest rates and increased public investment but judging by the fact that consumer demand has cooled off and capital investment by the corporate sector is not making headway as expected therefore the outlook for economic recovery in Japan remain hazy”. The bubble bursting has affected everyone in Japan. (18) “The country has clearly become a victim of the same wrenching process of debt deflation that had already been visible for several years in so many other economies.

Japan faces the reality of outright deflation n terms of falling prices. With all that implies for companies inability to maintain their profit margins. Japan was facing by the autumn of 1993 an unpleasant combination of excess production capacity, falling demand and a rampantly high yen. By August 1993 wholesale prices were declining at an annualized rate of 4. 2 percent. ” Once again you can see that many Japanese are not very optimistic about the future economy. Therefore you can see that the land speculation had create many negative impacts to the Japan economy not only during the bubble period but also after the bubble burst.

Comparing the Meiji and MacArthur Constitution

Two major changes in government were the driving force for the Meiji and 1947 (MacArthur) Constitutions to be drafted in Japan. The Meiji Constitution presented in 1889, was created during an era of restoration that reestablished the Emperor as head of the Japanese government and its people. This document served to not only bring back an old form of government to the Japanese, but effectively ended a disorganized duel system of government (Emperor and Bakufu) and unified a nation in order to compete with western powers.

The occupation of Japan by the United States after Word War II also served to bring about great change in Japanese government. The result of this occupation was a drastic alteration of Meiji government along with its constitution in order to quill fears of Japanese aggression reemerging in the future. Both the Meiji and 1947 constitutions were major turning points in Japanese history, and can be compared due to their similarity. Known as the Meiji Era (1868-1912) Japan was in a process of reconstructing its self into a modern nation when the right elements existed to make a constitution.

With the Emperor as their national symbol, Japans people railed to the threat of Western powers taking over their country. Beginning in 1853 a policy of isolation that was well established for close to 200 years came to an end. Commodore Matthew Perry and a fleet of American warships sailed into Tokyo bay with a request to open its ports for trade. Out matched by western technology and aware of imperialism being posed on china the Japanese had no choice but to open their nation to the world.

The arrival of the west not only opened Japans ports but also resulted in a series of unequal treaties signed between the feudal Takugawa Shogunate and the Americans, British, and Dutch. To the Japanese people any treaties signed were unacceptable and something had to be done about it. Open rebellion eventually took place and the Shogun was overthrown. With the Takugawa gone marked an end to a duel system of government placing a figurehead Emperor in Edo, and a military government in Kamakura. In its place rose new central authority under the symbol of the Emperor.

Before this new authority could give rise the Japanese searched for suitable examples of government that they could use to make there own government. Representatives were sent to Europe and brought back many ideas that were used to create Japans government. The information the Japanese brought back ended up shaping the new government into what it was during the Meiji Era. With this new government shaped by western and Japanese ideals still something was missing, the idea of a Constitution was being considered.

Eventually this idea became reality and a constitution consisting of seven chapters, establishing an Emperor as ruler, diet (legislative body) as representation for the people, Penal laws, land rights, and the abolishment of the confusion style class system came into being. Along with the Emperor and a constitution came the build up of Japans military. With the threat of western powers winning a war against Japan, the Emperor was convinced that he should build up a strong Navy, Army, and Air Force to ensure Japans security.

Envoys were once again sent to western countries to gain knowledge of modern warfare and organization of a military. Upon there return delegates from these envoys suggested that a conscript law be established to draft solders for a modern military. This system effectively replaced the samurai and ensured the abolishment of feudalism. By the start of World War II the Japanese were a superpower in Asia Japans military had beaten the Russians, Chinese, and Korean giving the United States a reason to feel threatened by Japan.

The event that brought the United States to a panic came with the signing of treaties with Italy and Germany, and the invasion of Indochina by Japanese troops in the summer of 1941 . In response to these treaty and invasion the United States along with Britain placed embargos on Japan effectively cutting off supplies of oil and rubber. These two products were essential to the Japanese military and without them Japan would be sure to run out of their reserves quickly.

This ensured a war between Japan and the United States because of Japans isolation in the Pacific, and after all debate was over Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941. From 1941-45 Japan fought intensely against the United States but ultimately lost. Atomic bombs dropped on Nagasaki, and Hiroshima, and the Russians declaring war on Japan proved to be the endgame on August 14th Japan officially surrendered. With this surrender marked a new turning point for Japan. For the first time in its history Japan had lost a war, and had a foreign country occupying their land.

After the war Japan as a country laid in ruin, she had to be rebuilt from the inside out. The Japanese responded to this challenge with a speed unseen by any nation. The reason for this was simple for two reasons, one Japan was allowed to keep the Emperor, and two Japanese government with modifications remained intact with the United States as its guide. After the occupation was established the United States began a plan to rebuild Japan by Demilitarization, Democratization, and Rehabilitation. General Douglas MacArthur Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers was placed in control of these efforts.

First MacArthur set out to dismantle the military and return Japan to its original size before expansionism occurred. Next MacArthur decided to establish a new Constitution; this is often considered one of the most important changes enacted. MacArthur kept some elements of the original constitution, but similarities and differences can be drawn when looking at both documents. Major differences in the 1947 and Meiji Constitution were a new definition of the Emperor, a totally elected Diet with the establishment of a Cabinet, and Article nine.

In the original constitution the Emperor was described as a monarch that with almost absolute power, in the 1947 constitution Article 1. The Emperor shall be the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people, deriving his position from the will of the people with whom resides sovereign power. This meant that the people were the reason the Emperor held the office he did. In the original Meiji Constitution the people served the Emperor and the State in more of a dictatorship however they could still vote him out of they choose.

The second change that can be observed is the establishment of a Cabinet that made both houses of the Diet elective. Next was the Decentralization of the national police force, Human rights guaranteed through a Bill of Rights, and lastly and most importantly Article Nine. Article Nine is important because it again shows the fear that the west had of a reemergence of Japanese aggression. Article Nine stated, The Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right and that as a result no military forces will be kept or recognized.

The only exceptions to this article would be in case of Self-defense, Collective self-defense, Participation in UN enforcement actions, and Peace- keeping operations. Now Japan was Demilitarized, Democratized, and all that was left was Rehabilitation. Much was done to try and rebuild the economic, and educational system in Japan. Labor unions, and land reform was instituted along with the rebuilding of Japanese economy. Education was also an important factor set along a western standard a grade system of 6-3-3-4 was set along with college afterward.

The Meiji and 1947 MacArthur Constitution were both important documents. Equally these constitutions represented major turning points in Japans history. The Meiji Constitution represented an end to feudalism and the establishment of a strong central government run by the Emperor. The 1947 Constitution established by the United States redefining the Emperor as a ruler chosen by the people, established a cabinet making the Diet elective, Decentralizing the police force, Guaranteed human rights for everyone through a Bill of Rights, and restricted Japan from having a military with Article nine.

Japanese Animation Essay

Thirty-five years ago, Japans entertainment industry found an answer to its problems. Still developing in the aftermath of defeat in World War II, and the subsequent restructuring plan instituted by the United States, Japan was without surplus resources. There was no money for the production of films. American films soon began invading the Japanese entertainment industry. Yet the Japanese people longed for entertainment which would reflect their own culture. And so animation… developed in Japan to fill the void of high-budget film-making (Marin, 69).

In the years that followed, animation would take a pop-cultural foothold in Japan that has grown and transformed, and yet exists today. Even with the onset of increasing economic fortitude, animation continued to flourish within Japans entertainment industry. The creative possibilities of animations unparalleled visual story-telling capacities had been discovered by Japanese filmmakers, and would continue to be exploited into the present age. Japanese animation, more commonly referred to as anime, or Japanimation, has somewhat different origins than western animation.

Where animation developed to entertain European and American children through comedic exploits, anime was created to entertain wider audience groups. Indeed, one might find difficulty in characterizing all anime together; the Japanese have viewed animation as a medium of creation rather a form of entertainment limited in audience and expression. Anime is included in a group from which the United States has traditionally banned animation; specifically, anime is considered a form of creative expression, much as are literature, modern art, live-action films, and other arts.

A man by the name of Osamu Tezuka first envisioned animations possibilities in Japan in the 1960s (Ledoux, 1). Tezuka realized the power animation could lend to story-telling, and produced a myriad of animated films and television programs from which modern-day anime has made its genesis. At first heavily influenced by Disneys animation, Tezukas animation soon transcended the confines within which American animation had placed itself. Tezuka can be credited today with being the first to produce animation for a sophisticated audience.

Osamu Tezuka adapted comics, the most popular form of entertainment in Japan, to his animation. Tezuka was a creative dynamo whose comics tackled nearly every possible subject: science fiction, action/adventure, romance, horror, and adult drama, creating a readership which encompassed nearly every possible age group (Ledoux, 2). When he began producing animation, it too was varied in subject matter. Keeping with Tezukas creative process, nearly all animation in Japan has been derived from comics, which are known there as manga.

This tradition for the most part still exists today. In the present age, anime is extremely popular in Japan and abroad. In Japan itself, anime constitutes approximately sixty percent of all television programming (Ed Goodwin, president of CA West). In Europe and Asia, Japanese animation has been widely accepted as well (DUinfo). One anime property, known as Sailormoon… moves $250 million a year in tie-in toys world widefive times the U. S. sales for the once mighty Power Rangers(Karp, 36).

Only one type of animation in the world can stand comparison to the nation of Japans animation as a whole: the animation of Disney. Disney animation is generally regarded to be the worlds most technically superior animation. But is Disney animation of superior quality to anime? Comparing the patrons of these two groups of animation, Walt Disney and Osamu Tezuka is like comparing Rembrandt to da Vinci. Both pairs have been aknowledged as masters in their respective fields. Rembrandt and da Vinci were painters, Disney and Tezuka were animators.

However, the creative processes of the individuals within each pair are vastly different. Like Rembrandt, Disney had a studio of artists; much of the animators work was produced by others under his limited supervision and then given his signature. Tezuka on the other hand, was a renaissance man like da Vinci; Tezuka produced all of his own work, and was a master of multiple topics and genres as opposed to Disneys one (i. e. family entertainment). These comparisons hold true for modern day anime and Disney animation.

In addition, Disney has greater resources than anime. According to Carl Macek, who has been responsible for the American importation of various anime titles including Robotech and Akira, Disney spends on average eight times more money to produce a feature-length animated film than does the typical Japanese animation studio (Matsumoto, 72). Considering Disneys enormous resources, compairing a Disney animated film to the average anime might seem indecorous; and yet, an intimate connection has been drawn between Disney and Japanese animation by anime fans of late.

When American animation fans familiar with anime made their way to theatres during the summer of 1994 to see Disneys current animated feature they were shocked. The Lion King seemed to a direct plagiarization of Osamu Tezukas Jungle Taitei, meaning Jungle Emperor(known in the U. S. as Kimba, the White Lion) an animated venture predating the former by nearly twenty-five years. In the years since, discussions considering the possibility of such an impropriety have appeared in such American publications as Newsweek, The New York Times, and The Los Angeles Times, as well as a plethora of anime fanclub newsletters and animation magazines.

Trish Ledoux, author of The Complete Anime Guide: Japanese Animation and publisher of the magazine Animerica best described the similarities between the two films that have upset fans: In 1994, Disney studios released the theatrical animated feature The Lion King which, although promoted as an original story was perceived by many anime buffs to be more than a little beholden to Tezukas Kimba, the White Lion.

Both stories are tales of young male lions whose fathers are done in by the trencher of a nefarious older male relative (Scar in the Disney version, Claw in Tezukas); both include anthropomorphic talkative parrots(Zazu in Disneys, Coco in Tezukas); both provide wizened baboon sages for their young protagonist(Disneys Rafiki, Tezukas Mandy the Mandrill), not to mention the cackling evil hyena henchmen; both feature morale-boosting visages of ghostly patter lions in the clouds above [Ledoux, 16].

Manga artist Machiko Satonaka circulated a petition demanding that Disney acknowledge its debt to Tezuka; with over 400 signatures, eighty percent of which came from fellow artists, the petition was sent to Disney (Ledoux, 39). Disney issued a statement that none of their animation staff had ever heard of Kimba, the White Lion or Tezuka, despite a statement from Simba (The Lion Kings lead character) voice actor Matthew Broderick claiming that he thought he was being cast for a remake of Tezukas classic.

Whether or not anime has directly influenced Disneys animation, Japanimation aficionados agree that overall, Japanese animation is superior to American animation. Anime fans may not be aware of the methods of production involved with animation, and its finished quality; nevertheless, animes superior utilization undoubtedly contributes to what is liked about Japanese animation better than American animation. Most of those familiars with anime realize that it is of a more sophisticated nature than is animation of the U. S.

And anyone who has watched Japanese animation will bear witness to the fact that it must appeal to a wider variety of audiences than American animation. But a fraction of animes collective qualities, these characteristics establish the core of its transcendence of Americas animation. Japanese animation is produced with care and quality unseen by American animation. A number of aspects of animation production lend exemplary evidence of Japanimations superiority. Foremost among these is the usage of modern technology in the process of animation.

In this, the computer age, animation technology most certainly encompasses the use of computers to enhance animation. Anime does not simply use computer effects though. Instead it assimilates computer effects into hand-painted frames of animation, resulting in a symbiosis of fluid color and movement. Computer animation is by nature very different from hand-painted animation; a disparity in the smoothness of movement and the visual texture of computer and hand-painted animation exists that makes the incorporation of one into the other a difficult process.

In order for the process to be achieved smoothly, the animators involved must be masters of both arts. Japanese animators have mastered this incorporation process, and achieve it in a manner that does not appear contrived. Todays cutting-edge Japanese directors havent neglected computer animation as an option… theyve worked to incorporate it into traditional cel-based features to create even more startling effects (Goodwin). By contrast, American animation typically does not utilize computers, and when it does, the computer effects tend to be utilized inappropriately, in a choppy manner that interferes with the animation.

Photography, essential to the animation process, also presents an example of animes superior utilization of technology. A recent technique used by Japanese animators to enhance their work has been to photograph three-dimensional models in order to add an element of realism to animation backgrounds. This technique brings Japanese animation to a whole new level; it allows the viewer to imagine that the animated storys courses of events are proceeding in a conceivable setting. Three-dimensional model photography has been pioneered by Japanese animators and is yet to be seen at all in American animation (Pollack, 32).

American animators generally do not experiment with such creative uses of technology. For this reason, Japanimation tends to have a cutting-edge quality that is not associated with American animaton. In an artform that is primarily hand-painted though, the painting technology itself is quite important. The Japanese make use of airbrushes more commonly and effectively than do Americans in animation (DUinfo). This of course adds an aesthetic quality to anime generally not achieved in American animation.

What The United States Can Learn From Japan

Japan and the Four Little Dragons in order to achieve their industrialization goals have a diverse set of policies ranging from limited entitlement programs to a education and government bureaucracy that stresses achievement and meritocracy. But one of the most significant innovations of Japan and the Four Little Dragons is there industrial policy which targets improving specific sectors of the economy by focusing R&D, subsidies, and tax incentives to specific industries that the government wants to promote.

The United States could adopt some of these industrial policies to help foster emerging high tech businesses and help existing U. S. business remain competitive with East Asia. In Japan the government both during the Meiji period and the post World War II period followed a policy of active, sector selective industrial targeting. Japan used basically the same model during both historical periods. The Japanese government would focus its tax incentive programs, subsidies, and R&D on what it saw as emerging industries. During the Meiji period Japan focused it’s attention on emulating western technology such as trains, steel production, and textiles.

The Meiji leaders took taxes levied on agriculture to fund the development of these new industries. Following World War II Japanese industries used this same strategic industrial policy to develop the high-tech, steel, and car industries that Japan is known for today. Some American industries are currently heavily supported by the government through subsidies and tax breaks to farmers, steel producers, and other industries that have been hurt by foreign competition because they are predominantly low-tech industries.

But this economic policy of the U. S. is almost a complete reversal of the economic policies of Japan and the Four Little Tigers; instead of fostering new businesses and high tech industry t supports out of date and low tech firms who have political clout. The existing economic policy of the United States fails to help high tech businesses develop a competitive advantage on the world market instead it stagnates innovation by providing incentives primarily to existing business.

The structure of U. S. industrial policy like the structure of an advance welfare state has emphasized rewarding powerful lobbying groups and has not targeted emerging sectors of the economy. The current U. S. industrial policy is a distribution strategy and not a development strategy. Instead of this ad-hoc industrial policy the United States should follow Japan’s model of strategic targeting of emerging technology.

The U. S. nstead of pouring its money into subsidies and tax breaks for failing low-tech industries should provide loans, subsidies and R&D money for firms that are producing high technology products. Unfortunately, there are several impediments to copying Japan’s model: first, tremendous political pressure from interest groups forces politicians to give corporate welfare to failing established firms and not emerging firms. Second, it is difficult for a government to select which sectors f the economy it will target.

But despite these obstacles the U. S. s now confronted with trading powers who have coordinated government programs to foster the development of new technology; in comparison the U. S. governments reliance on individual initiative and a lack of government support for new industries has allowed Japan and the Four Little Dragon’s to catch up to the U. S. in the area of high technology. In the coming years the U. S. could not just lose its advantage but fall behind if it fails to redirect government subsidies from failing firms to emerging sectors of the economy copying Japan’s industrial development model.

Was it entirely necessary that we drop such a devastating weapon

August 6th 1945, 70,000 lives were ended in a meter of seconds. The United States had dropped an atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima then on Nagasaki. Today many argue over whether or not the US should have taken such a drastic measure. Was it entirely necessary that we drop such a devastating weapon? First look at what was going on at the time the decision was made. The US had been fighting a massive war since 1941. The outcome was obvious but both sides continued to fight, and both were determined to win. Obviously the best thing would have been to bring the war to a quick end, with a minimum of casualties.

In a meeting on the 8th of June the Joint War plans Committee gave Truman projected death rates ranging from a low of 31,000 to a high of 50,000. This number is much lower than estimates from other sources. AC Snow, a News and Observer editor, wrote The invasion was expected to be the Armageddon of world war II. Some historians project that a million or more lives would have been lost. President Truman and secretary of war, Henry Smitten, said that dropping the bomb was a military action that avoided the loss of many lives in the upcoming invasion of Kyushu.

I wonder what would have happened had the A-bomb not been used? The most bvious thing is that the war would have continued for much longer. Us forces therefore, would have had to invade the home island of Japan. Some historians say the number of casualties could have reached a million us soldiers, dead or wounded. Also, our forces would not only have to fight off the Japanese military, but they would have to defend themselves against the civilians of Japan as well. The Japanese would have continued to fight the US with all they had.

No one can say exactly what would have happened, because lets face it, no one knows. Its possible Japan was just about to hand over its unconditional surrender, but ost evidence would not agree with that. One thing that points to the Japanese not surrendering would be Kamikaze pilots. Kamikaze were suicide pilots. They would load an airplane up with explosives and try to nose-dive it into an enemy target. The Japanese Soldier would fight until the end, for his Emperor and his country. They scary thing about this is the majority of the Japaneses military thought this way.

The fact that the enemy is ready to die as long as you die with him is not something that a soldier wants to think about before he goes into battle. People today still wonder why the bombs were dropped. The atomic bomb took 6 years to develop (1939-1945). The bombs used on the cities cost (about) 2 billion dollars to develop. Hiroshima was a major military target and they had spent 2 billion dollars on the greatest scientific gamble in history and won. The bomb dropped on Hiroshima weighed 4. 5 tons and the bomb used on Nagasaki weighed 10 tons.

The single weapon ultimately dropped on Hiroshima, nicked named little boy. produced the power of about twenty thousand tons of TNT, which is roughly seven times grater than all of the bombs dropped by all the allies on Germany in 1942. The first city bombed was Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. An American B-29 bomber, named Enola Gay flown by the pilot Paul W. Tibbets, dropped the Little Boy atomic bomb. Three days later a second bomb named fat boy was dropped on the Japanese city of Nagasaki. After being released it took approximately one minute for little boy to reach the height of detonation.

Which was about 2,000 feet. The impact of the bombs on the cities and people was massive. Black rain containing large amounts of nuclear fallout fell as much as 30km from the original site. A mushroom cloud rose to twenty thousand feet in the air, and sixty percent of the ity was destroyed. The shock wave reached speeds close to the speed of sound. The wind generated by the bombs destroyed most of the houses and buildings within a 1. 5 mile radius. Within Hiroshima, 48,000 buildings out of a total of 76,000 were completely demolished. The fires lasting for several more days after destroyed much more.

A mile from the explosion center, where the wind velocity was close to 190 miles an hour all brick buildings were completely destroyed. The people who entered the area within a half mile radius from the explosion center in the first 100 hours after were also effected by emaining radiation. It was a kind of hell on earth, the ones who died instantly were the lucky ones. Thousand died, vaporized, crushed or burned. But there were tens of thousands more who were still alive, milling about the city, seeking relief from the shock, fire and pain.

Thousands threw themselves into the Ota River, which was awash with corpses by the end of the day. By 1946 the 2 bombs caused 240,000 deaths and in 1950 it had reached 340,000. If the US had chosen not to uses the bomb on Japan, their death rate would have been lower, but ours would be close to a million. The research for the first Atomic bomb was done in the US by a group of the best scientists around. This research was given the code name of the Manhattan Project. The project was brought on by fear of Germany and its atomic program.

But once Germany surrendered the problem was what to do with the bomb. So they turned toward Japan. The focus of the war was changing. Germany was starting to lose the war so the US the decided to focus much of their attention on the war with Japan. A committee was formed to advise the President on the best course of action to easily defeat Japan with the owest loss of American lives. The committee came up with some choices. The first was to negotiate a peace treaty. Second, to cooperate with the Russians and continue fighting the war as they hoped for a quick end.

The third choice was to organize an invasion with the help of the Army and Navy. Another choice was to test the bomb on an unpopulated island to show its capabilities of destruction. Their last choice was to use it one a city in Japan. There were many disadvantages to all of the decisions that could be made. The US would not accept anything but an unconditional surrender, and the Japanese were insisting hat they keep their emperor and current government. To cooperate with Russia meant that the Us would be in debt and would possibly be in a undesirable position with the Russian Communist Rule.

The invasion of the Japanese mainland would, like the previous choice, sacrifice hundreds of thousands of American soldiers. A problem with showing the testing of the bomb was the possible failure of the bomb. On August 6th, the bomb named Little Boy, completely flattened four miles of Hiroshima. Three days later on August 9th, the bomb named Fat Man was dropped on Nagasaki. It did not cause the devastation of Hiroshima because of the different land features. But it still resulted in about 39,000 deaths.

My grandfather David Warren Redfearn, was a Corporal in the Marines when they dropped the bombs. He was a construction worker. He worked on a airbase in the Mayanas. He said that the US needed to drop the bombs because thousands of US soldiers would have died in a invasion that wouldnt have worked. And that every one that I knew agreed with me. They were vicious bastards who would torture the soldiers captured during the invasion. He also said that it probably saved some Japanese lives because each ight bombers would leave his airstrip and perform fire raids on Japanese cities.

My grandfather believes that the bomb saved his life along with thousands of others. The decision to drop the bomb was one of the most controversial decisions of the 20th century, But in my paper I have proved that Trumans decision was the right one. And many veterans owe their lives to him. There is no doubt that the Japanese would have definitely lost the war but the problem was that it was against everything in their culture to surrender. They just needed a little jump start to realize that they had no choice but unconditional surrender.

Kamikaze Pilots Essay

During World War II in the Pacific, there were pilots of the Japanese Imperial Army and Navy who made suicide attacks, driving their planes to deliberately crash into carriers and battle- ships of the Allied forces. These were the pilots known as the Kamikaze pilots. Because right-wing organizations have used the Kamikaze pilots as a symbol of a militaristic and extremely nationalistic Japan, the current Japanese respond to the issue with ignorance and false stereotypes and with generally negative and unsympathetic remarks.

However, the Kamikaze fighters added a new wrinkle to navel warfare. Kamikaze expressed their feelings and thoughts about the missions through haiku poems. In many of the haiku that the Kamikaze pilots wrote, the Emperor is mentioned in the first line. According to those who have lived through the early Showa period (1926-1945), the presence of Emperor Showa was like that of a god and he was more of a religious figure than a political one (Scoggins 276-277). In public schools, students were taught to die for the emperor.

By late 1944, a slogan of Jusshi Reisho meaning “Sacrifice life,” was taught (Morimoto 148-151). Most of the pilots who volunteered for the suicide attacks were those who were born late in the Taisho period (1912-1926) or in the first two or three years of Showa. Therefore, they had gone through the brainwashing education, and were products of the militaristic Japan. In 1944 the General Staff had considered mounting organized suicide attacks, (Ikuta 25) “suicide attacks” had been made since the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (Shinbusha 266) Two types of suicide attacks had been made.

The first was an organized attack which would, in 90% of the cases, result in the death of the soldiers. However, if the plan had worked on the battlefield as it did in theory, there was some possibility that the soldiers would survive (Ibid 49). The other type of suicide attack that had been made was completely voluntary, and the result of a sudden decision. This was usually done by aircraft. The pilots, finding no efficient way to fight the American aircraft, deliberately crashed into them, and caused an explosion, destroying the American aircraft as well as killing themselves (Ikuta 35-42).

Because these voluntary suicide attacks had shown that the young pilots had the spirit of dying rather than being defeated, by February, 1944, the staff officers had started to believe that although they were way below the Americans in the number of aircraft, battleships, skillful pilots and soldiers, and in the amount of natural resources (oil, for example), they were above the Americans in the number of young men who would fight to the death rather than be defeated. By organizing the “Tokkotai,” they thought it would also attack the Americans psychologically, and make them lose their will to continue the war (Ibid 28).

The person who suggested the Kamikaze attack at first is unknown, but it is often thought to be Admiral Takijiro Onishi. However, Onishi was in the position to command the first Shinpu Tokubetsu Kogekitai rather than suggest it (Kusayanagi 48) In October, 1944, the plans for the organized suicide attacks became reality. Having received permission from the Minister of the Navy, Admiral Onishi entered Clark Air Base prepared to command the first organized suicide attacks (Shinbun 25-33).

Onishi had not thought the organized suicide attacks to be an efficient tactic, but that they would be a powerful battle tactic, and he believed that it would be the best and most beautiful place for the pilots to die. Onishi once said, “if they (the young pilots) are on land, they would be bombed down, and if they are in the air, they would be shot down. That’s sad… Too sad… To let the young men die beautifully, that’s what Tokko is. To give beautiful death, that’s called sympathy” (Kusayanagi 28). This statement makes sense, considering the relative skills of the pilots of the time.

By 1944, air raids were made all over Japan, especially in the cities. Most of the best pilots of the Navy and the Army had been lost in previous battles. Training time was greatly reduced to the minimum, or even less than was necessary in order to train a pilot. By the time the organized suicide attacks had started, the pilots only had the ability to fly, not to fight. Although what happens to the pilot himself in doing the suicide attack is by no means anywhere near beauty, to die in such a way, for the Emperor, and for the country, was (at the time), honorable.

One thing that was decided upon by the General Staff was that the Kamikaze attacks were to be made only if it was in the will of the pilot himself. It was too much of a task to be “commanded” (Ikuta 43-44). The first organized suicide attack was made on October 21, 1944 by a squadron called the Shinpu Tokubetsu Kogekitai (Shinbun 48-51). Tokubetsu Kogekitai was the name generally used in the Japanese Imperial Navy and Army. The public had known them as the Tokkotai, the abbreviated form. Tokkotai referred to all the organized suicide attacks. Shinpu is what is better known as Kamikaze (52).

The captain of the first attack was to be Captain Yukio Seki (49). According to the subcommander of the First Air Fleet, Tamai, who brought the issue up to Captain Seki, the Captain had in a short time replied “I understand. Please let me do it” (48). According to another source, the reply that Captain Seki gave was, “Please let me think about it one night. I will accept the offer tomorrow morning” (Mori 626-627). The document which seems to have the most credibility is the book, The Divine Wind by Captain Rikihei Inoguchi and Commander Tadashi Nakajima.

According to this account a graduate of the Naval Academy, Naoshi Kanno, was originally nominated as the leader of this mission. However, he was away from Mabalacat on a mission to mainland Japan. Therefore, to take Kanno’s place Captain Seki was chosen, and was called to Commander Tamai’s room at midnight. After hearing of the mission, it appears, Seki remained silent for a while, then replied, “You must let me do it” (Inoguchi 32). Captain Seki agreed to lead the first Kamikaze attack, and, on October 25, 1944 during the battle off Samos, made one of the first attacks, on the American aircraft carrier Saint Lo (Shinbun 56).

Twenty-six fighter planes were prepared, of which half were to escort and the other half to make the suicide mission. That half was divided into the Shikishima, Yamato, Asahi and Yamazakura (Inoguchi 32). The youngest of the Kamikaze pilots of the Imperial Army was 17 years old, and the oldest, 35 (Kosaka 43-44). Most of them were in their late teens, or early twenties. As the battle in Okinawa [April to June 1945] worsened, the average age of the pilots got younger. Some had only completed the equivalent of an elementary school and middle school combined. Some had been to college.

There was a tendency for them not to be first sons. The eldest sons usually took over the family business. Most were therefore the younger sons who did not need to worry about the family business. Most of those who had come from college came in what is called the Gakuto Shutsujin. This was when the college students’ exemption from being drafted into the military was lifted, and the graduation of the seniors was shifted from April 1944 to September 1943 (Shimabarra 85). Many of these students were from prestigious colleges such as Tokyo, Kyoto, Keio, and Waseda Universities.

These students from college tended to have more liberal ideas, not having been educated in military schools, and also were more aware of the world outside of Japan. All the pilots involved in the “Okinawa Tokko” had been trained in/as one of the following: The Youth Pilot Training School, Candidates for Second Lieutenant, The Imperial Army Air Corps Academy, Pilot Trainee, Flight Officer Candidates, Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet, Pilot Training Schools, or Special Flight Officer Candidate (Ikuta 134).

Since the Kamikaze attacks were to be made only if the pilots had volunteered, and could not be “commanded,” there were two methods to collect volunteers. One was for all pilots in general, and another was for the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet (College graduates) only. The former was an application form, and the latter was a survey. The survey asked: “Do you desire earnestly/wish/do not wish/to be involved in the Kamikaze attacks? ” They had to circle one of the three choices, or leave the paper blank. The important fact is that the pilots were required to sign their names (Kusayanagi 32).

When the military had the absolute power, and the whole atmosphere of Japan expected men to die for the country, there was great psychological pressure to circle “earnestly desire” or “wish. ” The Army selected those who had circled “earnestly desire. ” The reason that the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet had to answer such a survey rather than send the applications at their own will was probably because the military had known that the students who had come from college had a wider vision, and would not easily apply for such a mission.

For the regular application, the Army was confident that there would be many young pilots who would apply. They were correct. Every student of the 15th term of the Youth Pilot Training School had applied. Because there were so many volunteers, the military had decided to let the ones with better grades go first (Naemura 146). There are several factors which made so many young pilots volunteer for such a mission. Extreme patriotism must have been one factor for sure. Added to that, there was the reverence for the Emperor, a god.

Some say that it was generally believed that if one died for the emperor, and was praised in Yasukuni Shrine, they would become happy forever (Araki 43). The pilots were, as a matter of fact, not radical nor extremely patriotic, but were the average Japanese of the time. It was a dream for the young boys of late Taisho period and early Showa to serve in the military, especially in the Air Force, as a career. Not all pilots who wanted to become Kamikaze pilots could become one.

Although this may sound strange, there were so many volunteers to make the suicidal and fatal attacks, that the military, to be fair, had to let the ones with the better grades go earlier. Because of the aura that had covered Japan, the young pilots of 18 and 19 were eager to go. Those of the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadets who had their own thoughts like Second lieutenants Suzuki, Uehara, and Anazawa were able to separate their personal life from what was required of them to do for the war.

They felt the responsibility to go. In any case, it seems that they were all optimistic. They volunteered, believing their death might save their family, the ones they loved, and Japan. However, as a student investigating fifty years after the events, it was not possible for me to understand exactly how the pilots had felt towards their mission. The overall picture in this paper, is that the Kamikaze missions had a huge effect in Japanese naval warfare.

Marriage in Japan

Why people get married? There would be many reasons; to save money, to escape from loneliness, to have a better life, and so on. But in most case people marry for love. Though it is almost always true, a married life is different between in the western culture and in Japan. A marriage in modern western culture is based on mutuality and companionship. In Western there is a tendency to be independent. Most college graduates live apart from their family and find an apartment near the working place.

They have learned how to survive in single and marriage is an optional. However, a person in Japan who graduates from a college and has a job still lives with ones family until one gets married, which means one keeps the parent-child relationship. Therefore it is hard for a Japanese man to learn to be independent. After he gets married, he now relies on his bride for having foods, doing laundry, and many other things. Takeo Doi explains it with the term of amae that means the seeking or causing of oneself to be loved, nurtured, and indulged.

He says it is an active attempt to make oneself into a passive love object. One reason why a man continues depending on someone else is that he has been witnessed what his parents have been done and now he considers himself as a head of his own family. In case of woman, it is difficult to keep her job after the marriage, because she needs to take care of her child, which is considered to be a wifes job. She has to do everything else except making money for the family, which makes her dependent on her husband who has the economic power.

However in western culture, it is natural for both partners to have their own jobs and to be responsible for every single household job after marriage. Until recently it has been true in Japan but now it is changing. More women have their jobs rather than prepare to be a bride after the graduate. They dont need to get married if they dont want to. It has also become common not to have many children and some couples dont have a child at all. A younger bride could decide to divorce her husband if she wants to because she has a chance to get an economic independence easily nowadays.

Everything becomes more and more westernized, but male chauvinism has not been changed rapidly. Even though Japanese people become more liberalized, the unchanged living pattern, living with parents until the marriage, keeps their behavior same: depending on someone who can take care of. Though Japanese people justify amae and teishu kampaku by explain these are the ways of manifestation of love in marriage, it is not suitable to an independent adult. Unless Japanese people find out solve it, the problems related to marriage would increase continuously.

The Fading Of The Ie In Corporate Japan

The Japanese culture has allowed for very little diversity. This started very early in their history. The social controls used to eliminate diversity are the family, the power of gender, the poor treatment of minority groups, the corporate Japanese mentality, and the respect required by the people in authority. However, due to the globalization and the shrinking of the world, Japanese society is starting to make the change to diversity. The individualistic mentality shared by the new technology driven younger generation is putting pressure on the old Japanese system.

The transformation is happening very slow, but as the population ages and the old conservatives are being replaced by the new liberals, the old way of thinking is also being replaced by the new. The traditional family system known as the ie is used as a model for the large Japanese corporations. The family is very important to the Japanese. Japan has seen the nuclear family replace the extended family as the dominant form of family life. In premodern Japan, the extended family was not a large kinship group consisting of all or most family members living together.

Rather, the Japanese extended family consisted of the main family and separate branch families. Nowadays, the nuclear family, consisting of the parents and their children with, on occasion, one or two grandparents is the most common type in Japan. As it applies to the Japanese extended family, the ie system refers to a lineal up and down structure, with the main family at the top and the various branch families arranged downward. In the ie, continuity of the main family is very important. Special privilege is given to the eldest son so that one day he would become successor of the family.

Also, just as in the rest of Japanese culture and other cultures, the elderly are respected by the younger. The ie system fostered sexual discrimination and status distinctions both within and between families. The highest status went to males of the main family, while the branch families and especially females were considered less important. Although there was no reason to suppose that daughters and younger sons were loved any less by their parents, the ie system was normative, requiring them to leave and form their own branch families.

In the same sense, the Japanese corporation serves in the same tradition of the ie. Just as parents expect respect and loyalty from their children, company authorities expect the same loyalty from their workers. Males are given privileges over females in the companies. Most young male workers once entering a company stay with it for their entire life. These workers come to view their company as almost a benevolent parent. A worker’s identity is shaped not by their individual title but by the company they belong to. Female workers are not treated with the same consideration.

Since female workers usually become housewives later on in their life, it is hard for them to fill a long-term position, especially since they are usually the first to go if a company needs to cut back. In addition, outsiders are rarely welcomed into the company, adhering to the ie and keeping the business within the corporate family. However as the newer generation comes into the corporate world, the tradition of this ie system could possibly be fading, thus making room for more diversity. Old conservatives that have become powerful businessmen control most of the industry in Japan.

They are sort of like the modern equivalent of the samurai in many ways. They instill the sense of honor and loyalty in the people that work for them. The business leaders today lead by example. The only way to reach their level someday is to adapt to their ideals and goals. Lifetime employment is almost guaranteed to those who adapt the goals and ideals of the company. However the tide is changing in the country today. The globalization of industry around the world has necessitated a change in Japanese diversity.

In order to be successful in the new global marketplace, the old conservative views are starting to be shed for new liberal ones. An area of the economy that is changing much faster than the rest is the computer and internet technology companies. The young leaders of these new companies are enjoying unmatched success in the Japanese market. This success has instilled a sense of respect by these younger industrial warriors. These new era samurai are helping to change the tide for all of the younger generation. The system in place represses the desire for freedom and diversity in these younger generations.

Finally they are seeing successful self-starters that are turning away from the traditional conformist mentality. They are heroes and icons of a new culture to the youth of Japan. The new champions of industry would never have come into power under the old system, but with new technology comes new cultural influences. People today enjoy more personal freedom than past generations, but the tide is changing remarkably slow. The balance between the old and the new will definitely happen over a long period of time.

Perhaps generations will pass before the country’s views of diversity and conformity will change. Perhaps after the revolution underway presently, the country will accept diversity as a necessity of the new world economy, but still hold onto some conventional views of the ie system in the companies it has had throughout its’ modern history. The movement has been started by the younger generation and the successful technology based companies they have founded. Only time will tell whether the Japanese society is ready to accept these changes.

The occupation of Japan

The occupation of Japan was, from start to finish, an American operation. General Douglans MacArthur, sole supreme commander of the Allied Power was in charge. The Americans had insufficient men to make a military government of Japan possible; so t hey decided to act through the existing Japanese gobernment. General Mac Arthur became, except in name, dictator of Japan. He imposed his will on Japan. Demilitarization was speedily carried out, demobilization of the former imperial forces was complet ed by early 1946.

Japan was extensively fire bomded during the second world war. The stench of sewer gas, rotting garbage, and the acrid smell of ashes and scorched debris pervaded the air. The Japanese people had to live in the damp, and col d of the concrete buildings, because they were the only ones left. Little remained of the vulnerable wooden frame, tile roof dwelling lived in by most Japanese. When the first signs of winter set in, the occupation forces immediately took over all the s team-heated buildings.

The Japanese were out in the cold in the first post war winter fuel was very hard to find, a family was considered lucky if they had a small barely glowing charcoal brazier to huddle round. That next summer in random spots new ho uses were built, each house was standardized at 216 square feet, and required 2400 board feet of material in order to be built. A master plan for a modernistic city had been drafted, but it was cast aside because of the lack of time before the next winte r. The thousands of people who lived in railroad stations and public parks needed housing. All the Japanese heard was democracy from the Americans.

All they cared about was food. General MacAruther asked the government to send food, when they refus ed he sent another telegram that said, “Send me ood, or send me bullets. ” American troops were forbidden to eat local food, as to keep from cutting from cutting into the sparse local supply. No food was was brought in expressly for the Japanese durning the first six months after the American presence there. Herbert Hoover, serving as chairman of a special presidential advisory committee, recommended minimum imports to Japan of 870,000 tons of food to be distributed in different urban areas.

Fi sh, the source of so much of the protein in the Japanese diet, were no longer available in adequate quantities because the fishing fleet, particularly the large vessels, ad been badly decimated by the war and because the U. S. S. R. closed off the fishing g rounds in the north. The most important aspect of the democratization policy was the adoption of a new constitution and its supporting legislation. When the Japanese government proved too confused or too reluctant to come up with a constitutional reform that satisfied MacArthur, he had his own staff draft a new constitution in February 1946.

This, with only minor changes, was then adopted by the Japanese government in the form of an imperial amendment to the 1889 constitution and went into effect on May , 1947. The new Constitution was a perfection of the British parliamentary form of government that the Japanese had been moving toward in the 1920s. Supreme political power was assigned to the Diet. Cabinets were made responsible to the Diet by having the prime minister elected by the lower house. The House of Peers was replaced by an elected House of Councillors.

The judicial system was made as independent of executive interference as possible, and a newly created supreme court was given the power to review the constitutionality of laws. Local governments were given greatly increased powers. The Emperor was reduced to being a symbol of the unity of the nation. Japanese began to see him in person. He went to hospitals, schools, mines, industrial plants; he broke ground for public buildings and snipped tape at the opening of gates and highways. He was steered here and there, shown things, and kept muttering, “Ah so, ah so. ”

People started to call him “Ah-so-san. Suddenly the puybli c began to take this shy, ill-at-ease man to their hearts. They saw in him something of their own conqured selves, force to do what was alien to them. In 1948, in a newspaper poll, Emperior Hirohito was voted the ost popular man in Japan. Civil li berties were emphasized, women were given full equality with men. Article 13 and 19 in the new Constitution, prohibits discrimination in political, economic, and social relations because of race, creed, sex, social status, or family origen. This is one of the most explicitly progressive statements on human rights anywhere in law.

Gerneral Douglas MacArthur emerged as a radical feminist because he was “convinced that the place of women in Japan must be brought to a level consistent with that of women in the western democracies. ” So the Japanese women got their equal rights amendment long before a concerted effort was made to obtain one in America. Compulsory education was extened to nine years, efforts were made to make education more a traning in thinking than in rote memory, and the school system above the six elementary grades was revised to conform to the American pattern.

This last mechanical change produced great confusion and dissatisfaction but became so entrenched that it could not be re vised even after the Americans departed. Japan’s agriculture was the quickest of national activities to recover because of land reform. The Australians came up with the best plan. It was basis was this: There were to be no absentee landlards. A person who actually worked the land could own up to 7. 5 arcers. Anyone living in a village near by could keep 2. 5 acres. Larger plots of land, exceeding these limits, were bought up by the government and sold on easy terms to former tenants.

Within two years 2 million tenants became landowners. The American occupation immediately gained not only a large constituency, for the new owners had a vested interest in preserving the change, but also a psychological momentum for other changes they wanted to ini tiate. The American labor policy in Japan had a double goal: to encourage the growth of democratic unions while keeping them free of communists. Union organization was used as a balance to the power of management. To the surprise of the American authorties, this movement took a decidedly more radical turn.

In the desperate economic conditions of early postwar Japan, there was little room for successful bargaining over wages, and many labor unions instead made a bid to take over industry and o perate it in their own behalf. Moreover large numbers of workers in Japan were government employees, such as railroad orkers and teachers, whose wages were set not by management but by the government. Direct political action therefore seemed more meani ngful to these people than wage bargaining. The Japanese unions called for a general strike on February 1, 1947.

MacArthur warned the union leadership that he would not countenace a nationwide strike. The strike leaders yieled to MacArthur’s will. The re after the political appeal of radical labor action appeared to wane. The Americans wanted to disband the great Zaibatsu trust as a means of reducing Japan’s war-making potential. There were about 15 Zaibatsu families such as – Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Yasuda, and Sumitomo. The Zaibatsu controled the industry of Japan. MacArthur’s liaison men pressured the Diet into passing the Deconcentration Law in December 1947.

In the eyes of most Japanese this law was designed to cripple Japanese business and i ndustry forever. The first step in breaking up the Zaibatsu was to spread their ownership out among the people and to prevent the old owners from ever again exercising control. The stocks of all the key holding companies were to be sold to the public. Friends of the old Zaibatsu bought the stock. In the long run the Zaibatsu were not exactly destroyed, but a few were weakened and others underwent a considerable shuffle.

The initial period of the occupation from 1945 to 1948 was marked by reform, the second phase was one of stabilization. Greater attention was given to improvement of the economy. Japan was a heavy expense to the United States. The ordered breakup of the Zaibatsu was slowed down. The union movement continued to grow, to the ult imate benefit of the worker. Unremitting pressure on employers brought swelling wages, which meant the steady expansion of Japan domestic onsumer market. This market was a major reason for Japan’s subsequent economic boom.

Another boom to the economy was the Korean War which proved to be a blessing in disguise. Japan became the main staging area for military action in Korea and went on a war boom economy with out having to fight in or pay for a war. The treaty of peace with Japan was signed at San Francisco in September 1951 by Japan, the United States, and forty-seven other nations. The Soviet Union refused to sign it. The treaty went into effect in April 1952, officially terminating the United States military ccupation and restoring full independence.

What is extraordinary in the Occupation and its aftermath was the insignificance of the unpleasant. For the Japanese, the nobility of American ideals and the essential benignity of the American presence assuaged much of the bitterness and anguish of defeat. For the Americans, the joys of promoting peace and democracy triumphed over the attendant fustrations and grievances. Consequently, the Occupation served to lay down a substantial capital of good will on which both America and Jap an would draw in the years ahead.

The Necessity Of Japanese Internment

Much controversy has been sparked due to the internment of the Japanese people. Many ask whether it was justified to internment them. It is a very delicate issue that has two sides, those who are against the internment of the Japanese-Americans and those who are for it. With World War II raging in the East, America was still, for the most part, very inactive in the war. When America took a stand against Japan by not shipping them supplies, Japan became very upset.

Japan, being a big island that is very overpopulated with little natural resources, depended on America to provide them with an assortment of supplies including scrap metal and oil, vital items that are needed in a time of war. Japan retaliated by declaring war on America and attacking Pearl Harbor. This surprise act led to many soldiers deaths and millions of dollars of damaged army equipment, including air craft carriers and planes. As a result to Japan declaring war, the Japanese-Americans were asked to and eventually forced to do their duty to the country and report to internment camps until the war conflict was over.

Many opposed this act for a couple of reasons. One reason was that people felt that it was a huge hypocrisy that the Japanese were being interned while the Italians and Germans, also our enemies, were still walking around free in America. Another reason why many were against the internment was because many of the Japanese had already been in America for some time now. The Issei, the first generation of Japanese people that immigrated from Japan, had immigrated many years ago. A whole another generation of Japanese children had already began growing up in America called the Nissei. They were automatically U. S. tizens for they were born in America and for the most part were like other American children. Anti-Internment activists also said that the Japanese were being robbed of their rights as U. S. citizens. However, there are two sides to everything. There are a number of reasons why the internment of the Japanese people had to take place. Japan was a major threat to the United States which made anyone of Japanese descendent a potential traitor and threat to Americas security. No one was quite sure what they were capable of. The Japanese people were also foreigners and very different from the people that lived in America.

They had slanted eyes, they were somewhat smaller, they ate very different food, and they had an unusual obsession of being very clean. It was shown that they were very sneaky too, which was demonstrated by the attack on Pearl Harbor. It was justifiable to intern the Japanese-Americans because one, they attacked our mainland, two, this triggered a chain reaction of discrimination and distrust towards them, and three, if they were truly Americans, they would show their patriotism by going to the camps and understanding the concern the government had with them.

The Japanese-Americans had to be interned because the Japanese people were the first country to formally declare war on the United States and attack our mainland. Some question the United States government on why they did not intern the Italians and Germans, for they too were at war with the United States. The answer to that is simple. Germany and Italy never declared war on the United States, we simply intervened with their plans. Japan on the other hand attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii with no warning what-so-ever.

President Roosevelt continually met with representatives from Japan to try and make a peace arrangement, it did not work out though. Japan did not stop there. They also made an effort to try and take over Alaska. It was a plan to start in the tip of America, Alaska, and then slowly fight south of Alaska to conquer the rest of America. It did not work though for the United States stationed a fair amount of soldiers in Alaska and built many other air bases there.

One wittiness said, It was June 3, 1943, a huge carrier-based Japanese force attacked Dutch Harbour, and all hell broke loose (Annette Island, Alaska in World War II). It was very clear that the Japanese were serious about going to war with the United States and they were willing beat us no matter how they had to do it. The Japanese also had to be interned for their own safety. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor and attacks in Alaska, many Americans had strong feelings against Japanese people. Much propaganda was made to encourage the removal of Japanese-Americans from cities and to be put in internment camps.

One man in California said, It was a bitter-sweet day when the Japanese went to the interment camps for they contributed much to our society, but at the same time much hate was directed towards them (Japanese Internment 1942 — Military Justification? ). Although it seems like a cruel thing to do, the truth is the government was trying to protect them and at the same time keep some kind of composure among the public of the United States. Various hate crimes were also occurring to Japanese people such as vandalism to their homes and stores. Due to the war, the government did not have much money to put them in the greatest conditions.

However, they were still living much more comfortably than the soldiers fighting in war and the Jews in ghettos and concentration camps. The Japanese-Americans also a variety of activities that they could participate in, such as sports and even schooling for children. The Japanese-Americans could not be trusted too. Due to a number of factors, the war being the main one, America was marked by xenophobic tendencies. When Japan declared war on the United States, many felt it was an acceptable reason to have xenophobic tendencies and hate towards the Japanese, even those who lived in America.

You can not blame them, these immigrants killed thousands of our men that were protecting our country in Pearl Harbor and off the coast of Alaska. This was a clear sign that they could not be trusted. Even if they were born in America, they could still be involved in plotting against the United States. Many of the rumors that were spread around accused the Japanese of immigrating to the America with intentions to take over the world, to send spies and to sabotage different things.

Many of these accusations were taken seriously, too, because the majority of the Japanese people seemed to be very intelligent and very capable of being involved in an anti-American conspiracy that has to do with Japan. They also were bilingual and could communicate in Japanese making it hard for America to try and uncover their plans. Although there was no conclusive evidence of this, the government had to take the proper precautions to protect U. S. citizens and its interest in the war so they could win. Lastly, the Japanese had to go the internment camps as their civil duty.

Although they were very skilled people and many were educated well, they still could not function properly in a Americas society during the war. In order for Americas general public to stay under control and protect itself from any possible conspiracies, the government felt they had to shield them from society. Doing this helped Americans gain much respect for the Japanese-Americans though.. Many people from the Nissei generation decided to enroll in the army and fight against the Axis powers. One of these units was the 442nd regiment, an all Japanese unit.

They were known as one of the toughest units and came out of the war as one of the most decorated soldiers. By respecting the United States governments wishes, the Japanese-Americans were able to receive approval from the general public once again. Although it may have been tough, the internment of the Japanese was very justifiable. If it was any other country, the same precautions would had to have taken place. By helping fight in the war and being rather obedient in the internment camps, the Japanese-Americans truly showed that they could be trusted, even though their brothers and sisters across the Pacific had attacked America.

Post WW II and Japan

World War II took place beginning at 1939 and ending in 1945. Japan was the last opposing country to surrender to the US Allies on September 2nd, 1945. Ending the long, horrific seven-year war. Upon Japan’s admitted defeat, the U. S. invaded and took occupation of the country for seven years. Though assumed to be a distressing circumstance and expected total domination, it was a benefit to Japan, for the United States to take control of them, rather than being a disadvantage. The occupation helped the recovery and development of Japan’s economy and also clarified understanding between the two countries.

When the United States took control of Japan during late summer of 1945, it proved to be a milestone for the entire world. Never before had one advanced nation attempted to reform the supposed faults of another advanced nation from within (Reischauer 221). Both countries were uneasy, complaining the regarded issue at first. For the Americans, the very notion of democratizing Japan represented a stunning revision of the propaganda they had imbibed during the war. When the media had routinely depicted all Japanese as children, savages, sadists, madmen, or robots.

In the most pervasive metaphor of dehumanization, they were portrayed in word and picture as apes, or “monkey-men” (Dower 213). There was much hatred for the Japanese by the American people, because of the negative depiction of them by the media and the remembrance of the bombing of Pearl Harbor by the Japanese that drove the U. S. to declare war on Japan in the first place. Many Americans displayed extreme prejudice for the Japanese people calling them “jaundiced baboons” or the more unsophisticated racial term, “Jap.

The United States viewed Japan as a collapsing nation that needed strict guidance from them in order to change into the correct form of government. For the first time in history, Japan was a conquered nation. The slogan, which Japan used to cope during the occupation, was “enduring the unendurable. ” For some Japanese people, the U. S. occupation seemed like more of the same totalitarian leadership as of the emperor, therefore was indifferent to the new order. The rest feared that the Americans would be vengeful, cruel conquerors.

The wildest rumors circulated about the expected rape and looting, and many women left town and retreated to the country (Morton 204). Many Japanese people still felt bitter about the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which they tried to exploit the immorality of it by writing books, bashing the U. S. President Truman and the Americans. However, the U. S. government during the occupation period censored it. Surprisingly, the American occupation wasn’t such an unpleasant experience the Japanese anticipated it to be.

The occupation proved to be an important, constructive phase of Japanese history, a veritable rebirth, comparable only to the Meiji Restoration (Reischauer 222). What the Japanese expected the U. S. to be a vindictive and relentless sovereignty, were basically friendly and fair-minded people. The Japanese, for their part, were far from the fanatical fighters the Americans had come to know on the battlefield, and proved to be a docile, disciplined, cooperative people at home (Reichauer 222).

The United States dominating of Japan transformed the brutal war charged with overt racism into an amicable peace in which the issue of race seemed to have disappeared. The army of occupation became an undisputed figure of authority, and the government and its people obeyed without question. Since militarism and authoritarianism lead Japan into disaster, many Japanese believed that the democratic rule the Americans eulogized must be the correct way of governing. They enthusiastically accepted Western influences instead of sticking to traditional values.

The suffering, which the Japanese experienced during the war, made most turn away from any form of militarism in abhorrence. Upon discovering that they were detested in other Asian and Western countries, they wanted to change their self-image for the better. They no longer see themselves as a proud and powerful nation, but longed for lasting peace. The United States was in the process of making Japan into a democracy in the fullest sense. American General Douglas MacArthur was the Supreme Commander of Allied Powers.

He was chosen to be the leader of the military occupation of Japan. MacArthur thought that his primary task was to reform Japan, not to punish it. Since America’s ultimate goal was democratization, MacArthur took careful steps necessary to meet that standard. First he needed demobilization, demilitarization, decentralization, and “demythification” of Japan (Perez 150). General MacArthur took proper precautions of disarming over three million Japanese soldiers, democratizing most of the functions of Japanese government and destroying the myth of imperial divinity.

The rapid economic growth of Japan after World War II can be attributed, to a large degree, to the influence of American business ideals and the financial backing to allow Japanese industry to enter into the technological age. Most historians emphasize the key role that the U. S. government played in the creation of postwar Japan. Experts on Japanese history are more skeptical of U. S. influence, when researching Japanese government and business records. At any rate, by the late 1940’s, Japan and the U. S. together paved the way such that by the 1970’s, Japan was made one of the world’s most productive and stable societies.

Although they are currently considered trusted allies, they are also fierce rivals of economic competitiveness. The occupation, however, did not always go smoothly. Cultural Differences at times divided American and Japanese officials. Military and civilian officials often clashed over objectives and bureaucratic issues. The United States pulled back some of their ambitious reformist goals to instead sought to make Japan a strong ally. Stressing of friendship rather than dictatorship helped win favor from many of the Japanese officials.

In September 1951, Japan signed the treaty of peace in San Francisco with fifty-one other nations. Thus formally ending the occupation. Japan renounced all claims to neighboring territories and promised to conduct reparation negotiations with afflicted nations. Japan addressed that their country will no longer take any participation of war and declared them to be neutral. They would only have a small army and navy to protect themselves from any hostilities, if which needed, the United States promised to give military assistance. The U. S. d Japan also concluded a security treaty that allowed the stationing U. S. Forces in and around Japan.

The process of changing from enemies to allies by the United States and Japan is certainly an impressive achievement. Due to the aid and influences contributed by the United States, Japan is now a peaceful, fully restored nation that has improved beyond expectations. The economy is one of the best in the world, and there is no longer any hostility between the two nations. America helped Japan restore its economy and society to build it into a better nation that it is today.

Employee Performance in Japan: Evaluation and Reward

Postwar economic development provided quite and immense amount of status and income to the Japanese. Since the 1960s, close to 90% of the Japanese people consider themselves to fall somewhere in the middle-class according to a survey conducted by the Prime Minister’s office. Today, status in society is determined mostly by one’s employment. Out of the labor force that consists of more than 60 million people, 45 million of those are regular employees. And for those who are working in a large firm, they are usually hired at the time of school graduation and retire at the compulsory age of 60.

This kind of long-term employment system makes employers feel that labor is more of a fixed cost than a variable cost. Regular employment is not determined by a legal contract, but more in the style of a social relationship, where performance in a by-product of the whole process and not a cause and effect of getting paid. In western societies, industrial identity is more focused on skill, or what one does, but in Japan it is where the employee belongs, or which company he works in is the main concern.

Performance is not the purpose or goal of the Japanese firm, instead it is a corporate reality in itself. The Japanese firm also exists in two levels, one which lies in the firm and one that lies outside the firm. Within the firm, the Japanese company tends to be a much more homogeneous group compared to its western counterpart. Large firms hire their workforce, mainly university graduates, from preferred schools to which they subtly assign quotas. These new recruits are hired for their potential. Training and development are essentially an internal affair which the firm is responsible for.

This would lead to a system of job rotation and on the job training which is further nurtured by the classic Japanese system between junior and senior (sempai-kohai) found ubiquitously in Japanese society. The firm invests heavily on training generalists, or company specific skills in the sense that any employee should adept all the skills needed for the task assigned to the group, and that the overall work organization be as flexible to allow innovation, maintain internal competition and promote participation. Outside of the firm, there is a vast network of banks and other companies that the Japanese firm is vigorously connected to.

This is commonly known as ‘Keiretsu’ or a type of inter-personal relationship amongst various levels of the business. The regular workforce is thus the main core of stakeholders, the stake being corporate survival and thus their own. Under the Japanese system which emphasizes lifetime employment as one of its unique traits, companies produce workers who have company specific skills This means that mergers and acquisitions are not much favored in Japan for the obvious reason that diverse corporate cultures are difficult to combine harmoniously.

The people working in a company that is being bought over has serious problems because his skills is not easily allocated in a different company even though it might be the case that they are in the same industry. Individual performance evaluation is a long-term basis and thus much less about short-term results and more about a steady improvement of one’s potential. This evaluation is made by numerous superiors who themselves at one time were the subordinates, assuming that both the appraiser and the appraised have and will work for quite some time.

Evaluation is for two related purposes, promotion and remuneration. It is then a complex task that can be handled neither by an individual superior nor on the basis of short-term considerations. It can only be handled over time and collectively. It is no accident that managerial experience with human resources is valued substantially higher in Japan than in the West. Japanese CEO’s regard experience in human resource very highly. Whereas other corporate functions can turn to numerical data to outline experience, experience of human resources is more of an art than just numbers.

This is especially true in Japan where human resources are not managed by the organization as a factor that is placed in and out of the labor market but are instead recruited for their potential and constantly upgraded through training and development. In Japanese companies, the major incentive for a worker is promotion from within, a competitive process reflecting the merit in years, otherwise known as ‘nenko’, namely the years spent in the enterprise and the accumulated experience of both corporate human and material resources.

Competition among peers is pretty severe. The above-average performer is promoted two or three years earlier than his peers. On the other hand, the below-average performer sees the pace of promotion slowing down and soon reaches the zenith of his career at section chief. As in general in Japanese society, authority over people tends to be looked at as a bad thing. The decision-making process in Japanese industry puts successful managers more in a role of coordinator who promotes communication and cooperation than supervisor who enforces rules and procedures.

Titles are valued more for their social prestige than for the formal authority they give. The purpose is to lengthen the hierarchical ladder and please more employees. Though often assumed to be traditional, the current system in Japan of employee performance evaluation and reward is a postwar innovation. In the years of rapid economic growth, it contributed to stable employment for a core of regular employees.

What was meant as a device to secure stability of employment under pressure from labor unions, turned out to be a basic factor making the Japanese enterprise a flexible learning institution by motivating employees to develop their careers through long-term association with the firm. ‘Regular’; Employment in Japan Postwar Japan saw its population increase from 75 to 125 million while achieving respectable affluence, and its economy, though short on natural resources, reach the second in the world in terms of gross national product.

Favorable circumstances were indeed at work, but credit must go to the Japanese people too. Japanese human resources are thriving in an industrial environment where their high and uniform level of education supports a peculiar employment system described as lifetime employment. Though change is an age-old tradition in Japan, its increasing rapidity tends to upset the older generations, exhilarates the younger ones, and creates havoc in lifestyles. Changes are everywhere, in society as well as in the economy.

Given that Japan enjoys one of the longest life expectancies in the world, rapid aging of the Japanese population will combine with the prospect of severe labor shortage in the near future. This affluent society is promoting new values. In particular, young employees are starting to prefer present over future income, more free time over increased income and reward of capabilities over patient accumulation of experience. The economy is reaching maturity. The rapid evolution of technology demands creativity and knowledge of a more professional and immediate nature.

Growth in production is slowing down and the service sector is getting larger. Globalization of business and yen appreciation impose on Japanese firms new developments, such as international division of labor, shorter working hours, emergence of foreign labor and also mergers and acquisitions. Hence the lifetime employment system and the concomitant salary system were thought of by many as being out-of-date and that it is impossible to maintain, especially when the economy takes a downturn.

However, the fact that it has continued to function effectively as a stable system suggests that these arguments put forward in times of economic downturn mistook cyclical changes in economic fortunes for long-term structural changes. Postwar labor unions in their drive for stable employment popularized the radical concept of ‘no dismissal’. Dismissal, however, is not prohibited by the Japanese law. Employers have the right to terminate employment but in reality, they try their best not to do so.

Since ‘no dismissal’ is a part of the precepts of regular employment, the firm has to devise employment and compensation practices flexible enough to accommodate business fluctuations and use them with varying intensity. Besides the flexibility of the salary system itself, regular employment is kept flexible through various practices, in particular concerning working hours, part time and female employment, turnover of regular employees and personnel transfers. In order to constantly upgrade their core workforce and nurture information exchange, internal job rotation, at the rate of every two or three years, is common among regular employees.

A fairly common occurrence among manufacturers, in the case of a business slowdown, is to send for a time, managers, technicians and even production workers into the field to help with sales. In more serious cases, larger enterprises take advantage of their size to transfer regular employees permanently to other activities within the firm, which often leads to a new subsidiary. Transfer involves an employee resigning from the original company and being re-employed by another. Usually it starts with the employee being seconded and after a period of time, transferred.

In particular, the transfer of redundant personnel is considered socially as a better solution than unavoidable layoff. The postwar innovation referred to as lifetime employment is a norm that the Japanese industry has constantly adjusted to the changing circumstances in the economy and in society. The norm, even when and where it could not be applied in its full complexity, as was the case of most small firms and during bad times suffered by the larger ones, provided regular employees with their major work motivation and a congenial work environment.

It also allowed a steady upgrading of firm-specific human capital in the form of a core workforce composed of regular employees. Japan’s ‘Regular’; Salaries In the early 1990s and in the context of the protracted recession that resulted from the economic bubble, observers of Japanese industry, once again, expressed discrepancy about the twin employment/salary system that has been the root of Japan’s postwar success.

Quite a number of critics visualize a fall of both the lifetime employment system and the seniority based salary system. The key characteristic of compensation under the lifetime employment system is its time dimension. For example, the average age of the regular workforce is most significant. It is a vital piece of information when comparing the business performance of Japanese companies. This is why firms are eager to hire new graduates who still have not earned their merits in years.

Because of the aging population at large, this average age has been increasing at an incredible rate of one year every five years and thus the average salary has increased quite an amount too. Indeed, this general aging process is one of the reasons why this seniority based salary system is losing its validity in recent years. Salary differentials are implicit in the starting salary, a notion used in reference to the recruiting of new school graduates. In the overall salary system, it would be the closest approximation of a market rate.

The competition to hire new school graduates remains keen among Japanese firms because they are the lowest paid in the system. The performance of the individual employee affects the basic salary by varying the speed of its progression. Appraisal is made not so much in terms of a job that keeps changing over the years but more in terms of the person and his interaction with fellow employees. As a result, increases in individual salaries are small, with little immediate significance, but with great impact in the long run.

Japanese companies feel that a sudden increase in the short run would upset the human balance which is essential to an efficient team and isolate the individual from the team. It is normal to say that after ten or more years of employment, people would not be getting the same amounts of salary as their fellow workers who came in at the same time. The twin system of regular employment/compensation has proven resilient not only to relatively short-term adverse times, but also to the long-term evolution of Japan’s postwar economy and society.

Prospects are that the flexibility of the system will be maintained over the next decade or so, namely over the span of time firms can manage with some confidence while experimenting with new practices. Although there might be imperfections in the Japanese firm, it is a fact that it has survived through many bad times and showed to critics that it had been the system that brought Japan to today’s economic power. Although it might be outdated in some senses, improvements can be made which does not require a complete makeover.

Role of The Emperor in Meiji Japan

Japan is a society whose culture is steeped in the traditions and symbols of the past: Mt. Fuji, the tea ceremony, and the sacred objects of nature revered in Shintoism. Two of the most important traditions and symbols in Japan; the Emperor and Confucianism have endured through Shogunates, restorations of imperial rule, and up to present day. The leaders of the Meiji Restoration used these traditions to gain control over Japan and further their goals of modernization. The Meiji leaders used the symbolism of the Emperor to add legitimacy to their government, by claiming that they were ruling nder the Imperial Will.

They also used Confucianism to maintain order and force the Japanese people to passively accept their rule. Japanese rulers historically have used the symbolism of the Imperial Institution to justify their rule. The symbolism of the Japanese Emperor is very powerful and is wrapped up in a mix of religion (Shintoism) and myths. According to Shintoism the current Emperor is the direct descendent of the Sun Goddess who formed the islands of Japan out of the Ocean in ancient times. Footnote1 According to these myths the Japanese Emperor unlike a King is a living escendent of the Gods and even today he is thought of as the High Priest of Shinto.

Despite the powerful myths surrounding Japan’s imperial institution the Emperor has enjoyed only figure head status from 1176 on. At some points during this time the Emperor was reduced to selling calligraphy on the streets of Kyoto to support the imperial household, but usually the Emperor received money based on the kindness of the Shogunate. Footnote2 But despite this obvious power imbalance even the Tokugawa Shogun was at least symbolically below the Emperor in status and he claimed to rule so he could carry out the Imperial rule.

Footnote3 Within this historical context the Meiji leaders realized that they needed to harness the concept of the Imperial Will in order to govern effectively. In the years leading up to 1868 members of the Satsuma and Choshu clans were part of the imperialist opposition. This opposition claimed that the only way that Japan could survive the encroachment of the foreigners was to rally around the Emperor. Footnote4 The Imperialists, claimed that the Tokugawa Shogunate had lost its imperial mandate to carry out the Imperial Will because it had capitulated to Western powers by allowing them to open p Japan to trade.

During this time the ideas of the imperialists gained increasing support among Japanese citizens and intellectuals who taught at newly established schools and wrote revisionist history books that claimed that historically the Emperor had been the ruler of Japan. Footnote5 The fact that the Tokugawa’s policy of opening up Japan to the western world ran counter to the beliefs of the Emperor and was unpopular with the public made the Tokugawa vulnerable to attack from the imperialists. The imperialists pressed their attack both militarily and from within the Court of Kyoto.

The reat military regime of Edo which until recently had been all powerful was floundering not because of military weakness, or because the machinery of government had broken but instead because the Japanese public and the Shoguns supporters felt they had lost the Imperial Will. Footnote6 The end of the Tokugawa regime shows the power of the symbolism and myths surrounding the imperial institution. The head of the Tokugawa clan died in 1867 and was replaced by the son of a lord who was a champion of Japanese historical studies and who agreed with the imperialists claims about restoring the Emperor.

So in 1868 the new shogun handed over all his power to the Emperor in Kyoto. Shortly after handing over power to the Emperor, the Emperor Komeo died and was replaced by his son who became the Meiji Emperor. Footnote8 Because the Meiji Emperor was only 15 all the power of the new restored Emperor fell not in his hands but instead in the hands of his close advisors. These advisers such as Prince Saionji, Prince Konroe, and members of the Satsuma and Choshu clans who had been members of the imperialist movement eventually wound up involving into the Meiji Bureaucracy and Genro of the Meiji Era.

Once in control of the government the Meiji Leaders and advisors to the Emperor reversed their policy of hostility to Foreigners. Footnote10 They did this because after Emperor Komeo (who was strongly opposed to contact with the west) died in 1867 the Meiji Emperor’s advisors were no longer bound by his Imperial Will. Being anti-western also no longer served the purposes of the Meiji advisors. Originally it was a tool of the imperialist movement that was used to show that the Shogun was not acting out the Imperial Will. Now that the Shogun and Komeo Emperor were dead there was no longer a reason to ake on anti-foreign policies.

The choice of the imperial thrown by the imperialists as a point for Japan to rally around could not have been more wise. Although the imperial institution had no real power it had universal appeal to the Japanese public. It was both a mythic and religious idea in their minds. Footnote11 It provided the Japanese in this time of chaos after coming in contact with foreigners a belief in stability (according to Japanese myth the imperial line is a unbroken lineage handed down since time immortal), and it provided a belief in the natural superiority of Japanese culture.

The symbolism of the Emperor helped ensure the success of the restorationists because it undercut the legitimacy of the Shogunate’s rule, and it strengthened the Meiji rulers who claimed to act for the Emperor. What is a great paradox about the Imperialist’s claims to restore the power of the Emperor is that the Meiji rulers did not restore the Emperor to power except symbolically because he was both too young and his advisors to power hungry. Footnote13 By 1869 the relationship between the Emperor and his Meiji bureaucracy and the Emperor and the Tokugawa Shogun before the restoration were very imilar.

Both the Meiji Bureaucrats and the Shogun ruled under the authority of the Emperor but did not let the Emperor make any decisions. In Japan the Emperor reigned but did not rule. This was useful for the new Meiji bureaucrats, it kept the Emperor a mythic and powerful symbol. Footnote14 The traditions and symbols of Confucianism and the Imperial Institution were already deeply ingrained in the psyche of the Japanese but the new Meiji rulers through both an education system, and the structure of the Japanese government were able to effectively inculcate these traditions into a new generation of Japanese.

The education system the Meiji Oligarchy founded transformed itself into a system that indoctrinated students in the ideas of Confucianism and reverence for the Emperor. Footnote15 After the death of Okubo in 1878; Ito, Okuma, and Iwakura emerged as the three most powerful figures among the young bureaucrats that were running the government in the name of the Meiji Emperor. Iwakura one of the only figures in the ancient nobility to gain prominence among the Meiji oligarchy allied with Ito who feared Okuma’s progressive ideas would destroy Japan’s culture.

Iwakura it is thought was able anipulate the young Emperor to grow concerned about the need to strengthen traditional morals. Thus in 1882 the Emperor issued the Yogaku Koyo, the forerunner of the Imperial Rescript on Education. Footnote17 This document put the emphasis of the Japanese education system on a moral education from 1882 onward. Previous to 1880 the Japanese education system was modeled on that of the French education system. After 1880 the Japanese briefly modeled their education system on the American system.

However, starting with the Yogaku Koyo in 1882 and ending with the 885 reorganization of the department of Education along Prussian lines the American model was abolished. The new education minister Mori Arinori after returning from Europe in 1885 with Ito was convinced that the Japanese education system had to have a spiritual foundation to it. Footnote19 In Prussia Arinori saw that foundation to be Christianity and he decreed that in Japan the Education system was to be based on reverence for the Imperial Institution.

A picture of the Emperor was placed in every classroom, children read about the myths surrounding the Emperor in school, and they learned that the Emperor was the head of the giant family of Japan. Footnote20 By the time the Imperial Rescript on Education was decreed by the Emperor in 1889 the Japanese education system had already begun to transform itself into a system that did not teach how to think but instead what to think. The Imperial Rescript on Education in 1889 was according to Japanese scholars such as Hugh Borton , the nerve axis of the new order.

Burton believes that the Imperial Rescript on Education signaled the rise of nationalistic elements in Japan. The Imperial Rescript on Education was the culmination of this whole ovement to the right. The Rescript emphasized loyalty and filial piety, respect for the constitution and readiness to serve the government. It also exalted the Emperor as the coeval between heaven and earth. Footnote22 The Constitution of 1889 like the changes in the education system helped strengthen reverence for the Imperial Institution.

The 1889 constitution was really the second document of its kind passed in Japan the first being the Imperial Oath of 1868 in which the Emperor laid out the structure and who was to head the new Meiji government. Footnote23 This Imperial Oath was refereed to as a onstitution at the time but it only very vaguely laid out the structure of government. The constitution promulgated by the Emperor in 1889 did much more then lay out the structure of Japanese government it also affirmed that the Emperor was the supreme sovereign over Japan.

The signing ceremony itself was an auspicious event on the way to it Mori Arinori one of the moderate leaders of the Meiji government was attacked and killed by a crazed rightist. Footnote25 The ceremony itself evoked both the past and present and was symbolic of the Meiji governments shift toward the right and the overnments use of the Emperor as supreme ruler. Before signing the document Emperor Meiji prayed at the palace sanctuary to uphold the name of his imperial ancestors he then signed the constitution which affirmed the sanctity of the Emperor’s title (Tenno Taiken), and his right to make or abrogate any law.

The constitution also set up a bicameral legislature. Footnote27 The constitution codified the power of the Emperor and helped the Meiji oligarchy justify their rule because they could point to the constitution and say that they were carrying out the will of the Emperor. The Meiji Emperor even after the Constitution of 1889 enjoyed little real power. The Meiji Emperor did not even come to cabinet meetings because his advisors told him if the cabinet made a decision that was different then the one he wanted then that would create dissension and would destroy the idea of the Imperial Institution.

So even after the Meiji Constitution the Emperor was still predominantly a symbol. Footnote28 The Constitution ingrained in Japanese society the idea that the government was being run by higher forces who new better then the Japanese people, it also broadened the base of support of the Meiji Rulers who now had a ocument too prove they were acting on Imperial Will and their decisions were imperial decisions not those of mere mortals.

The symbolism of the Emperor and use of Confucianism allowed the Meiji rulers to achieve their goals. One of their goals was the abolishment of the system of fiefs and return of all land to the Emperor. At first the new Meiji Rulers allied themselves with the Daimyo clans in opposition to the Tokugawa Shogun. But once the Meiji leaders had gained a control they saw that they would need to abolish the fief system and concentrate power in the hands of a central government.

The Meiji rulers achieved their goals by having the Choshu, Satsuma, Tosa, and Hizen clans give up their lands, granting the Daimyos large pensions if they gave up their clans, and by having the Emperor issue two decrees in July 1869, and August 1871. Footnote30 The role and symbolism of the Emperor although not the sole factor in influencing the Daimyo to give up their fiefs, was vital. The Meiji Oligarchs said that not turning in the fiefs to the Emperor would be disloyal and pointed to the historical record which Meiji scholars claimed showed that historically all fiefs were the property of the Emperor.

They showed this by claiming that the Shogun would switch the rulers of fiefs and this proved that the Daimyos did not control the title to their land but merely held it for the Emperor. Imperial decrees and slogans of loyalty to the Emperor also accompanied the abolishment of the Samurai system. Footnote32 In the abolishment of both these feudal systems the symbolism of the Emperor as both the director of the initiative and recipient of the authority afterwards played a vital role in ensuring there success.

The abolishment of fiefs and the samurai class were essential or the stability and industrialization of Japan. Footnote34 Without the concentration of land and power in the hands of the Meiji oligarchs and the Emperor the Meiji oligarchs feared they would receive opposition from powerful Daimyos and never gain control and authority over all of Japan. Historical examples bear out the fears of the Meiji Oligarchy; in 1467 the Ashikaga Shogun failed to control many of the fiefs and because of this a civil war raged in Japan.

The centralization of power allowed the Meiji government to have taxing authority over all of Japan and pursue national projects. Footnote36 The unity of Japan also allowed the Meiji Oligarchs to focus on national and not local issues. The use of Confucianism and the Emperor also brought a degree of stability to Japan during the tumultuous Meiji years. The Emperor’s mere presence on a train or in western clothes were enough to convince the public of the safety or goodness of the Meiji oligarchy’s industrial policy.

In one famous instance the Japanese Emperor appeared in a train car and after that riding trains became a common place activity in Japan. The behavior of the Imperial family was also critical to adoption of western cultural practices. Before 1873 most Japanese women of a high social position would shave their eyebrows and blacken their teeth to appear beautiful. But on March 3rd 1873 the Empress appeared in public wearing her own eyebrows and with unblackened teeth. Following that day most women in Tokyo and around Japan stopped shaving their eyebrows and blackening their teeth.

The Imperial institution provided both a key tool to change Japanese culture and feelings about industrialization and it provided stability to Japan which was critical to allowing industrialists to invest in factories and increase exports and production. Footnote38 The symbols and the traditions the Meiji leaders inculcated Japanese society with helped the Meiji government maintain stability and pursue its economic policies but it also had severe limitations that limited the revolutionary scope of the Japanese government and helped bring about the downfall of the Meiji era.

The use of Confucianism and the Emperor to bolster the Imperial restoration laid the foundation for a paradox of state affairs. The system that sought to strengthen Japan through the use of modern technology and modern organization methods was using traditional values to further its oals. Footnote39 This caused some to turn toward the west for the enlightenment the Meiji era promised this was the case with Okuma who was eventually forced out of the increasing nationalist Genro. Footnote40 For others it lead them to severe nationalism rejecting all that was western.

This was such the case of Saigo who believed till his death on his own sword that the Meiji leaders were hypocritical and were violating the Imperial Will by negotiating and trading with the west. Footnote41 The Meiji government used the same symbols and traditions that the Tokugawa used and like the Tokugawa ave the Emperor no decision making power. The Meiji Emperor although he had supreme power as accorded in the constitution never actually made decisions but was instead a pawn of the Meiji Genro who claimed to carry out his Imperial Will.

This Imperial Will they decided for themselves. Like the Shogunate the Meiji governments claim to rule for the Emperor was fraught with problems. The Imperial Will was a fluid idea that could be adopted by different parties under changing circumstances. And just like the Meiji rulers were able to topple the Shogun by claiming successfully that they were the true administrators f the Imperial Will; the militarist elements in the 1930’s were able to topple the democratic elements of Japan partially by claiming the mantle of ruling for the Emperor.

From this perspective the Meiji Oligarchs building up of the Imperial Myth was a fatal flaw in the government. The constitution which says in article I, The empire of Japan shall be governed over by a line of Emperors unbroken for ages eternal gave to whoever was acting on the Imperial Will absolute right to govern. Footnote43 The symbols of the Emperor and the tradition of Confucianism did not end with the end of the Meiji era or world war two. Today the idea of filial piety is still strong, multiple generations of a family still usually live together even in cramped Japanese housing.

The religion of Shinto that the Meiji leaders rejuvenated during their rule in order to help foster the imperial cult is still thriving as the thousands of Tori gates and Shrines around Japan attest. Footnote44 But the most striking symbol to survive is that of the Emperor stripped after world war two of all power the Emperor of Japan is still revered. During the illness of Emperor Showa in 1989 every national newspaper and television show was full of reports related to he Emperor’s health. During the six months the Showa Emperor was sick before he died all parades and public events were canceled in respect for the Emperor.

Outside the gates of the Imperial palace in Tokyo long tables were set up where people lined up to sign cards to wish the Emperor a speedy recovery. The news media even kept the type of illness the emperor had a secret in deference to the Emperor. At his death after months of illness it was as if the Imperial Cult of the Meiji era had returned. Everything in Japan closed down , private television stations went as far as to not air any commercials on the day of his death. And now almost six years after his death more then four hundred and fifty thousand people trek annually to the isolated grave site of Emperor Showa.

The traditions and symbolism of Confucianism and the Emperor were critical to the Meiji oligarchs gaining control of power and goals of industrialization. The oligarchy inculcated the Japanese public with these traditional values through an education system that stressed moral learning, and through a constitution that established the law of Japan to be that of the Imperial Will. The values of Confucianism and symbol of the Emperor allowed the Meiji government to eaceful gain control of Japan by appealing to history and the restoration of the Emperor.

But the Meiji oligarchs never restored the Emperor to a position of real political power. Instead he was used as a tool by the oligarchs to achieve their modernization plans in Japan such as the abolishment of fiefs, the end of the samurai, the propagation of new cultural practices, and pubic acceptance of the Meiji oligarchs industrialization policies. The symbols and traditions of Japan’s past are an enduring legacy that have manifested themselves in the Meiji Restoration and today in Japans continued reverence for the Emperor.

The occupation of Japan

The occupation of Japan was, from start to finish, an American operation. General Douglans MacArthur, sole supreme commander of the Allied Power was in charge. The Americans had insufficient men to make a military government of Japan possible; so t hey decided to act through the existing Japanese gobernment. General Mac Arthur became, except in name, dictator of Japan. He imposed his will on Japan. Demilitarization was speedily carried out, demobilization of the former imperial forces was complet ed by early 1946.

Japan was extensively fire bomded during the second world war. The stench of sewer gas, rotting garbage, and the acrid smell of ashes and scorched debris pervaded the air. The Japanese people had to live in the damp, and col d of the concrete buildings, because they were the only ones left. Little remained of the vulnerable wooden frame, tile roof dwelling lived in by most Japanese. When the first signs of winter set in, the occupation forces immediately took over all the s team-heated buildings.

The Japanese were out in the cold in the first post war winter fuel was very hard to find, a family was considered lucky if they had a small barely glowing charcoal brazier to huddle around. That next summer in random spots new ho uses were built, each house was standardized at 216 square feet, and required 2400 board feet of material in order to be built. A master plan for a modernistic city had been drafted, but it was cast aside because of the lack of time before the next winte r.

The thousands of people who lived in railroad stations and public parks needed housing. All the Japanese heard was democracy from the Americans. All they cared about was food. General MacAruther asked the government to send food, when they refus ed he sent another telegram that said, “Send me food, or send me bullets. ” American troops were forbidden to eat local food, as to keep from cutting from cutting into the sparse local supply. No food was was brought in expressly for the Japanese durning the first six months after the American presence there.

Herbert Hoover, serving as chairman of a special presidential advisory committee, recommended minimum imports to Japan of 870,000 tons of food to be distributed in different urban areas. Fi sh, the source of so much of the protein in the Japanese diet, were no longer available in adequate quantities because the fishing fleet, particularly the large vessels, had been badly decimated by the war and because the U. S. S. R. closed off the fishing g rounds in the north. The most important aspect of the democratization policy was the adoption of a new constitution and its supporting legislation.

When the Japanese government proved too confused or too reluctant to come up with a constitutional reform that satisfied MacArthur, he had his own staff draft a new constitution in February 1946. This, with only minor changes, was then adopted by the Japanese government in the form of an imperial amendment to the 1889 constitution and went into effect on May 3, 1947. The new Constitution was a perfection of the British parliamentary form of government that the Japanese had been moving toward in the 1920s.

Supreme political power was assigned to the Diet. Cabinets were made responsible to the Diet by having the prime minister elected by the lower house. The House of Peers was replaced by an elected House of Councillors. The judicial system was made as independent of executive interference as possible, and a newly created supreme court was given the power to review the constitutionality of laws. Local governments were given greatly increased powers. The Emperor was reduced to being a symbol of the unity of the nation. Japanese began to see him in person.

He went to hospitals, schools, mines, industrial plants; he broke ground for public buildings and snipped tape at the opening of gates and highways. He was steered here and there, shown things, and kept muttering, “Ah so, ah so. ” People started to call him “Ah-so-san. ” Suddenly the puybli c began to take this shy, ill-at-ease man to their hearts. They saw in him something of their own conqured selves, force to do what was alien to them. In 1948, in a newspaper poll, Emperior Hirohito was voted the most popular man in Japan.

Civil li berties were emphasized, women were given full equality with men. Article 13 and 19 in the new Constitution, prohibits discrimination in political, economic, and social relations because of race, creed, sex, social status, or family origen. This is one of the most explicitly progressive statements on human rights anywhere in law. Gerneral Douglas MacArthur emerged as a radical feminist because he was “convinced that the place of women in Japan must be brought to a level consistent with that of women in the western democracies.

So the Japanese women got their equal rights amendment long before a concerted effort was made to obtain one in America. Compulsory education was extened to nine years, efforts were made to make education more a traning in thinking than in rote memory, and the school system above the six elementary grades was revised to conform to the American pattern. This last mechanical change produced great confusion and dissatisfaction but became so entrenched that it could not be re vised even after the Americans departed.

Japan’s agriculture was the quickest of national activities to recover because of land reform. The Australians came up with the best plan. It was basis was this: There were to be no absentee landlards. A person who actually worked the land could own up to 7. 5 arcers. Anyone living in a village near by could keep 2. 5 acres. Larger plots of land, exceeding these limits, were bought up by the government and sold on easy terms to former tenants. Within two years 2 million tenants became landowners.

The American occupation immediately gained not only a large constituency, for the new owners had a vested interest in preserving the change, but also a psychological momentum for other changes they wanted to ini tiate. The American labor policy in Japan had a double goal: to encourage the growth of democratic unions while keeping them free of communists. Union organization was used as a balance to the power of management. To the surprise of the American authorties, this movement took a decidedly more radical turn.

In the desperate economic conditions of early postwar Japan, there was little room for successful bargaining over wages, and many labor unions instead made a bid to take over industry and o perate it in their own behalf. Moreover large numbers of workers in Japan were government employees, such as railroad workers and teachers, whose wages were set not by management but by the government. Direct political action therefore seemed more meani ngful to these people than wage bargaining. The Japanese unions called for a general strike on February 1, 1947.

MacArthur warned the union leadership that he would not countenace a nationwide strike. The strike leaders yieled to MacArthur’s will. The re after the political appeal of radical labor action appeared to wane. The Americans wanted to disband the great Zaibatsu trust as a means of reducing Japan’s war-making potential. There were about 15 Zaibatsu families such as – Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Yasuda, and Sumitomo. The Zaibatsu controled the industry of Japan. MacArthur’s liaison men pressured the Diet into passing the Deconcentration Law in December 1947.

In the eyes of most Japanese this law was designed to cripple Japanese business and i ndustry forever. The first step in breaking up the Zaibatsu was to spread their ownership out among the people and to prevent the old owners from ever again exercising control. The stocks of all the key holding companies were to be sold to the public. Friends of the old Zaibatsu bought the stock. In the long run the Zaibatsu were not exactly destroyed, but a few were weakened and others underwent a considerable shuffle.

The initial period of the occupation from 1945 to 1948 was marked by reform, the second phase was one of stabilization. Greater attention was given to improvement of the economy. Japan was a heavy expense to the United States. The ordered breakup of the Zaibatsu was slowed down. The union movement continued to grow, to the ult imate benefit of the worker. Unremitting pressure on employers brought swelling wages, which meant the steady expansion of Japan domestic consumer market. This market was a major reason for Japan’s subsequent economic boom.

Another boom to the economy was the Korean War which proved to be a blessing in disguise. Japan became the main staging area for military action in Korea and went on a war boom economy with out having to fight in or pay for a war. The treaty of peace with Japan was signed at San Francisco in September 1951 by Japan, the United States, and forty-seven other nations. The Soviet Union refused to sign it. The treaty went into effect in April 1952, officially terminating the United States military occupation and restoring full independence.

What is extraordinary in the Occupation and its aftermath was the insignificance of the unpleasant. For the Japanese, the nobility of American ideals and the essential benignity of the American presence assuaged much of the bitterness and anguish of defeat. For the Americans, the joys of promoting peace and democracy triumphed over the attendant fustrations and grievances. Consequently, the Occupation served to lay down a substantial capital of good will on which both America and Jap an would draw in the years ahead.

The occupation of Japan

The occupation of Japan was, from start to finish, an American operation. General Douglans MacArthur, sole supreme commander of the Allied Power was in charge. The Americans had insufficient men to make a military government of Japan possible; so they decided to act through the existing Japanese gobernment. General MacArthur became, except in name, dictator of Japan. He imposed his will on Japan. Demilitarization was speedily carried out, demobilization of the former imperial forces was completed by early 1946.

Japan was extensively fire bomded during the second world war. The stench of sewer gas, rotting garbage, and the acrid smell of ashes and scorched debris pervaded the air. The Japanese people had to live in the damp, and cold of the concrete buildings, because they were the only ones left. Little remained of the vulnerable wooden frame, tile roof dwelling lived in by most Japanese. When the first signs of winter set in, the occupation forces immediately took over all the steam-heated buildings.

The Japanese were out in the cold in the first post war winter fuel was very hard to find, a family was considered lucky if they had a small barely glowing charcoal brazier to huddle round. That next summer in random spots new ho uses were built, each house was standardized at 216 square feet, and required 2400 board feet of material in order to be built. A master plan for a modernistic city had been drafted, but it was cast aside because of the lack of time before the next winter. The thousands of people who lived in railroad stations and public parks needed housing. All the Japanese heard was democracy from the Americans.

All they cared about was food. General MacArthur asked the government to send food, when they refus ed he sent another telegram that said, Send me food, or send me bullets. ” American troops were forbidden to eat local food, as to keep from cutting from cutting into the sparse local supply. No food was was brought in expressly for the Japanese durning the first six months after the American presence there. Herbert Hoover, serving as chairman of a special presidential advisory committee, recommended minimum imports to Japan of 870,000 tons of food to be distributed in different urban areas.

Fish, the source of so much of the protein in the Japanese diet, were no longer available in adequate quantities because the fishing fleet, particularly the arge vessels, had been badly decimated by the war and because the U. S. S. R. closed off the fishing grounds in the north. The most important aspect of the democratization policy was the adoption of a new constitution and its supporting legislation. When the Japanese government proved too confused or too reluctant to come up with a constitutional reform that satisfied MacArthur, he had his own staff draft a new constitution in February 1946.

This, with only minor changes, was then adopted by the Japanese government in the form of an imperial amendment to the 1889 constitution and went into effect n May 3, 1947. The new Constitution was a perfection of the British parliamentary form of government that the Japanese had been moving toward in the 1920s. Supreme political power was assigned to the Diet. Cabinets were made responsible to the Diet by having the prime minister elected by the lower house. The House of Peers was replaced by an elected House of Councillors.

The judicial system was made as independent of executive interference as possible, and a newly created supreme court was given the power to review the constitutionality of laws. Local governments were given greatly increased powers. The Emperor was reduced to being a symbol of the unity of the nation. Japanese began to see him in person. He went to hospitals, schools, mines, industrial plants; he broke ground for public buildings and snipped tape at the opening of gates and highways. He was steered here and there, shown things, and kept muttering, “Ah so, ah so. ”

People started to call him “Ah-so-san. Suddenly the puyblic began to take this shy, ill-at-ease man to their hearts. They saw in him something of their own conqured selves, force to do what was alien to them. In 1948, in a newspaper poll, Emperior Hirohito was voted the ost popular man in Japan. Civil liberties were emphasized, women were given full equality with men. Article 13 and 19 in the new Constitution, prohibits discrimination in political, economic, and social relations because of race, creed, sex, social status, or family origen. This is one of the most explicitly progressive statements on human rights anywhere in law.

Gerneral Douglas MacArthur emerged as a radical feminist because he was “convinced that the place of women in Japan must be brought to a level consistent with that of women in the western democracies. ” So he Japanese women got their equal rights amendment long before a concerted effort was made to obtain one in America. Compulsory education was extened to nine years, efforts were made to make education more a traning in thinking than in rote memory, and the school system above the six elementary grades was revised to conform to the American pattern.

This last mechanical change produced great confusion and dissatisfaction but became so entrenched that it could not be revised even after the Americans departed. Japan’s agriculture was the quickest of national activities to recover because of land reform. The Australians came up with the best plan. It was basis was this: There were to be no absentee landlards. A person who actually worked the land could own up to 7. 5 arcers. Anyone living in a village near by could keep 2. 5 acres. Larger plots of land, exceeding these limits, were bought up by the government and sold on easy terms to former tenants.

Within two years 2 million tenants became landowners. The American occupation immediately gained not only a large constituency, for the new owners had a vested interest in preserving the change, but also a psychological momentum for other changes they wanted to initiate. The American labor policy in Japan had a double goal: to encourage the growth of democratic unions while keeping them free of communists. Union organization was used as a balance to the power of management. To the surprise of the American authorties, this movement took a decidedly more radical turn.

In the desperate economic conditions of early postwar Japan, there was little room for successful bargaining over wages, and many labor unions instead made a bid to take over industry and operate it in their own behalf. Moreover large numbers of workers in Japan were government employees, such as ailroad workers and teachers, whose wages were set not by management but by the government. Direct political action therefore seemed more meani ngful to these people than wage bargaining. The Japanese unions called for a general strike on February 1, 1947.

MacArthur warned the union leadership that he would not countenace a nationwide strike. The strike leaders yieled to MacArthur’s will. The reafter the political appeal of radical labor action appeared to wane. The Americans wanted to disband the great Zaibatsu trust as a means of reducing Japan’s war-making potential. There were about 15 Zaibatsu families such as – Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Yasuda, and Sumitomo. The Zaibatsu controled the industry of Japan. MacArthur’s liaison men pressured the Diet into passing the Deconcentration Law in December 1947.

In the eyes of most Japanese this law was designed to cripple Japanese business and industry forever. The first step in breaking up the Zaibatsu was to spread their ownership out among the people and to prevent the old owners from ever again exercising control. The stocks of all the key holding companies were to be sold to the public. Friends of the old Zaibatsu bought the stock. In the long run the Zaibatsu were not exactly destroyed, but a few were weakened and others underwent a considerable shuffle.

The initial period of the occupation from 1945 to 1948 was marked by reform, the second phase was one of stabilization. Greater attention was given to improvement of the economy. Japan was a heavy expense to the United States. The ordered breakup of the Zaibatsu was slowed down. The union movement continued to grow, to the ult imate benefit of the worker. Unremitting pressure on employers brought swelling wages, which meant the steady expansion of Japan domestic onsumer market. This market was a major reason for Japan’s subsequent economic boom.

Another boom to the economy was the Korean War which proved to be a blessing in disguise. Japan became the main staging area for military action in Korea and went on a war boom economy with out having to fight in or pay for a war. The treaty of peace with Japan was signed at San Francisco in September 1951 by Japan, the United States, and forty-seven other nations. The Soviet Union refused to sign it. The treaty went into effect in April 1952, officially terminating the United States ilitary occupation and restoring full independence.

What is extraordinary in the Occupation and its aftermath was the insignificance of the unpleasant. For the Japanese, the nobility of American ideals and the essential benignity of the American presence assuaged much of the bitterness and anguish of defeat. For the Americans, the joys of promoting peace and democracy triumphed over the attendant fustrations and grievances. Consequently, the Occupation served to lay down a substantial capital of good will on which both America and Japan would draw in the years ahead.

How Does Japan Do It

Japan has performed a miracle. The country’s economic performance following its crushing defeat in World War II is nothing short of astounding. The economic expansion of Japan is second to none. All of the elements are in place for Japan to continue increasing its share of the world’s wealth as America’s gradually declines. The country is on track to becoming the world’s largest economy. How did Japan do it? There are many theories and studies that have traced the Japanese miracle without success. The answer to the mystery can be found by examining Japan’s culture, education, and employment system.

Japan’s success is ot just a case of good technique and technology in business, but a real recognition and development of the necessary human skills. A better understanding of the Japanese society provides the framework to understanding the workings of Japanese business (and possibly the Japanese mind. ) The ways of the Japanese provide a foundation for their economic adaptability in modern times. Japan is a culture where human relations and preservation of harmony are the most important elements in society. It is their sense of identity and destiny which gives their industrial machine its effectiveness. “1

“Among the Japanese, there exists an instinctive espect for institutions and government, for the rules of etiquette and service, for social functions and their rituals of business. Japan is a traditionally crowded island, the people are forced to share the limited space with each other and to live in harmony.. The Japanese are very protective of their culture. They are very conservative to outside intrusion. Their distinctive ways are a source of pride and national strength. 2

Japan’s striving for purity is very different form a North American idea of open doors and diversity as strength. Japan is relatively closed to immigration to outside countries. However, this feeling of superiority oes not stop them from being careful. “This is probably because the Japanese know their economic house is on shaky ground, literally. Japan is eternally at nature’s mercy, vulnerable to the sea that surrounds it, to earthquakes of the soil beneath it and a real shortage of raw materials, particularly food and fuel. 3

A period of extended isolation could be disastrous to the country. Japan’s trade surplus is its only generator of wealth. This is a fact of life that is preached through the media and taught constantly to Japanese throughout their lives in school, from parents, and when they enter the working world. The message is clear: Japan is always vulnerable, we must protect her. “Obsessed with national character, the Japanese are proud and ambitious, constantly measuring themselves against the world’s best and biggest.

Accordingly, one of the main sources of Japan’s strength is its people’s willingness to sacrifice, to be regimented and homogenized, and to subordinate personal desires to the harmony of the working group. “4 The Japanese people have had to become a group-oriented society. While in the western world, individuality and independence are highly valued, Japanese society emphasizes group activity and rganization. The people accept that they will belong to one social group and work for one company for life. The crowded island conditions have driven society to value conformity.

“The highest priority is placed on WA, or harmony. 5 The Japanese have learned to share their limited space and value the precious distance between themselves and others. The culture that Japanese people are brought up in causes them to recognize that they have to work together to succeed. Only harmony will provide improvement. This development of the human nature and attitude relates directly to Japan’s business practice and provides a asis for good business relations.

Japan’s education system has grabbed the world’s attention as it is specifically designed to teach the children skills and aptitudes to give them an edge in the business world. The educational system, based on the principle of full equality of educational opportunity, is widely recognized as having greatly contributed to the prosperity of Japan by providing a highly qualified work force supplemented by extensive intraining programs by many of the major employers. “6

“The primary and secondary educational system is probably the most comprehensive and most disciplined in the world. 7 Where North American students attend school 175 days a year, Japanese students attend 240 days. . Japanese students attend elementary and secondary school six days a week and for two months longer each year than North American students.

In addition, they have long hours of homework. A large majority of Japanese students attend juku, or preparatory schools, in the evenings and on Sundays. In higher education, while lacking the strong University system which exists in North America, the curriculum is equally rigorous, and “Japan is graduating 75 000 engineers per year, 3 000 more than the U. S. , from a University opulation one fifth the size. “8 “The education system itself is a unifying force. It molds children into group oriented beings by demanding uniformity and conformity form the earliest ages.

The attainment of excellence within this complex environment, and the importance it holds for one’s future is stressed early. “9 This emphasis places a great burden on the young to perform well in school an to earn admittance to high status universities. The public school system not only produces good, obedient citizens, it produces good workers. A willingness to give oneself to the corporation’s best interest, to arrive early and tay late, and to produce good work are attributes learned in the Japanese schools. Those who cannot learn these skills do not do well in school or do not rise in the ranks of the corporate world.

The education system is an excellent example of how the Japanese recognize and develop the necessary human skills that are needed in society and stressed in the business world.. One of the most important aspects of Japan’s successful economics is the countries employment system. The system is very complex and has many hidden but powerful aspects that help Japan maximize its output. The system’s three main principles of lifetime mployment, company unions, and seniority pay, work together to form a system worthy of notice.

The system is based on comprehensive labour regulation, and it has been consciously invented as Japan’s answer to a Western labour system that Japanese leaders have long believed is inappropriate for an advanced economy. “10 “The whole system is based around a people-centered management. Japanese companies undertake their annual hiring of recent graduates expecting all the people they hire to work with them until retirement. “11 Lifetime employment is often regarded as a key factor behind Japan’s ndustrial success. Yet, “lifetime employment as practiced in Japan is no more than a general guiding principle.

It is by no means a guarantee and only the large companies can afford to assure employment. “12 The obvious value of such a system is the sense of stability it presents. But there are many advantages to such a system. “Consider how valuable the lifetime employment system is in winning worker cooperation for the introduction of productivity enhancing new technologies. Japanese workers see no downside risk in helping their employers improve productivity, they embrace new echnology knowing it will enhance their company’s future and their own jobs.

Workers can then be reassigned to different work, typically making improved products. “13 “The American hire-and-fire system sets works and managers against each other over new technology. American workers are suspicious of new technology because employers often use such technology to cut jobs. If a company is to innovate, it must train its workers to handle ever more sophisticated tasks. “14 “Here again the Japanese labour system provides Japanese employers with a vital advantage in that they can undertake expensive training rograms knowing they will enjoy a good return on the investment. 15

By contrast, American employers see such training as a risk because the workers are free to take their skills to rival employers. Japanese management is also a major source of Japan’s success. “A Japanese manager knows that the decisions he makes today remain permanently on his record and he may be asked to account for them many years down the road. He cannot simply sweep problems away. The company’s long term success always has to be on the mind of the manager. “16

“The lifetime employment system also enables Japanese orporations to groom prospective executives for many years. The managers know that the path to success is to dedicate themselves single- mindedly to the success of their companies. The lifetime employment system contributes greatly to raising employees’ desire to work and to fostering loyalty and commitment to the company. “17

The merits of the Japanese employment system are endless. The healthy relations provide a basis for growth. All the aspects of the employment system develop skills necessary for a stable company. Ever since the Tokyo stock market entered a period of decline in 1990, the Western ress has attacked aspects of Japan’s economics and portrayed Japan as in an economic slump.

Westerners endlessly attack the Japanese employment system. It is true that the system was supposed to make workers fiercely dedicated to their employers, but it prevented Japanese companies from cutting the size of the work force in hard times. “While Canadian companies emerged from the recession leaner and more competitive, Japanese firms stagnated. “18 The argument is always the same: as the world economy “globalizes”, Japanese corporations are being drawn into increasingly head-to-head ompetition with Western counterparts and face extinction if they do not adopt the “more efficient” Western system of employment.

This argument was “never more insistent than in the recession of the early 1990’s”19, but, as on previous occasions, the Japan Employment system triumphantly silenced its critics by emerging from the recession as strong as ever. Westerners cut jobs to increase profits, the Japanese cut profits to increase jobs. Western critics also attack the Japanese education system. “Although often noted for their rigor and high test results, the school system is seen as presenting a dark side with onservatism and conformity. 20

A modern economy is argued to “need creative thinkers willing to take risks, which Japan’s schools are not producing. “21 This may be true as Japan has a history of copying Western products detail by detail. The lack of creativity is dismissed by the Japanese. They feel that “copying is common sense. Relieved of the burden of having to come up with original designs, Japanese manufacturers can concentrate all their creative talents on the far more economically effective task of beating Western rivals in productivity. “22 The school systems are producing thinkers and problem olvers.

All of these attacks are underestimating the power of the Japanese. Is it an economic slump when “in the first four years of this decade, Japanese exports soared by 32 percent, the yen rose 27 percent, and Japanese employers created 3. 2 million new jobs. Japan is not crumbling, it has now surpassed the U. S. to become the world’s largest manufacturing economy and is ready to claim the lion’s share of the world’s growth. “23 Attacks on Japan’s ways are countless. Obviously there are many problems with the way they run their country. Yet, no one can ignore the economic success that Japan has ad.

The roots of the success can be traced back to the skills developed through culture and education, and the healthy attitudes developed by the Japanese employment system. The Western world could learn much from what makes the Japanese successful in business. It is not just a case of adopting Japanese techniques and technology but of recognizing and developing the necessary human skills. The East has borrowed heavily from the West in improving its business performance; the West could also take note of the lessons of Japanese history and culture and consider applying them in its own organizations.

The occupation of Japan

The occupation of Japan was, from start to finish, an American operation. General Douglans MacArthur, sole supreme commander of the Allied Power was in charge. The Americans had insufficient men to make a military government of Japan possible; so t hey decided to act through the existing Japanese gobernment. General Mac Arthur became, except in name, dictator of Japan. He imposed his will on Japan. Demilitarization was speedily carried out, demobilization of the former imperial forces was complet ed by early 1946.

Japan was extensively fire bomded during the second world war. The stench of sewer gas, rotting garbage, and the acrid smell of ashes and scorched debris pervaded the air. The Japanese people had to live in the damp, and col d of the concrete buildings, because they were the only ones left. Little remained of the vulnerable wooden frame, tile roof dwelling lived in by most Japanese. When the first signs of winter set in, the occupation forces immediately took over all the s team-heated buildings.

The Japanese were out in the cold in the first post war winter fuel was very hard to find, a family was considered lucky if they had a small barely glowing charcoal brazier to huddle round. That next summer in random spots new ho uses were built, each house was standardized at 216 square feet, and required 2400 board feet of material in order to be built. A master plan for a modernistic city had been drafted, but it was cast aside because of the lack of time before the next winte r. The thousands of people who lived in railroad stations and public parks needed housing. All the Japanese heard was democracy from the Americans.

All they cared about was food. General MacAruther asked the government to send food, when they refus ed he sent another telegram that said, “Send me ood, or send me bullets. ” American troops were forbidden to eat local food, as to keep from cutting from cutting into the sparse local supply. No food was was brought in expressly for the Japanese durning the first six months after the American presence there. Herbert Hoover, serving as chairman of a special presidential advisory committee, recommended minimum imports to Japan of 870,000 tons of food to be distributed in different urban areas.

Fi sh, the source of so much of the protein in the Japanese diet, were no longer available in adequate quantities because the fishing fleet, particularly the large vessels, ad been badly decimated by the war and because the U. S. S. R. closed off the fishing g rounds in the north. The most important aspect of the democratization policy was the adoption of a new constitution and its supporting legislation. When the Japanese government proved too confused or too reluctant to come up with a constitutional reform that satisfied MacArthur, he had his own staff draft a new constitution in February 1946.

This, with only minor changes, was then adopted by the Japanese government in the form of an imperial amendment to the 1889 constitution and went into effect on May , 1947. The new Constitution was a perfection of the British parliamentary form of government that the Japanese had been moving toward in the 1920s. Supreme political power was assigned to the Diet. Cabinets were made responsible to the Diet by having the prime minister elected by the lower house. The House of Peers was replaced by an elected House of Councillors.

The judicial system was made as independent of executive interference as possible, and a newly created supreme court was given the power to review the constitutionality of laws. Local governments were given greatly increased powers. The Emperor was reduced to being a symbol of the unity of the nation. Japanese began to see him in person. He went to hospitals, schools, mines, industrial plants; he broke ground for public buildings and snipped tape at the opening of gates and highways. He was steered here and there, shown things, and kept muttering, “Ah so, ah so. ”

People started to call him “Ah-so-san. Suddenly the puybli c began to take this shy, ill-at-ease man to their hearts. They saw in him something of their own conqured selves, force to do what was alien to them. In 1948, in a newspaper poll, Emperior Hirohito was voted the ost popular man in Japan. Civil li berties were emphasized, women were given full equality with men. Article 13 and 19 in the new Constitution, prohibits discrimination in political, economic, and social relations because of race, creed, sex, social status, or family origen. This is one of the most explicitly progressive statements on human rights anywhere in law.

Gerneral Douglas MacArthur emerged as a radical feminist because he was “convinced that the place of women in Japan must be brought to a level consistent with that of women in the western democracies. ” So the Japanese women got their equal rights amendment long before a concerted effort was made to obtain one in America. Compulsory education was extened to nine years, efforts were made to make education more a traning in thinking than in rote memory, and the school system above the six elementary grades was revised to conform to the American pattern.

This last mechanical change produced great confusion and dissatisfaction but became so entrenched that it could not be re vised even after the Americans departed. Japan’s agriculture was the quickest of national activities to recover because of land reform. The Australians came up with the best plan. It was basis was this: There were to be no absentee landlards. A person who actually worked the land could own up to 7. 5 arcers. Anyone living in a village near by could keep 2. 5 acres. Larger plots of land, exceeding these limits, were bought up by the government and sold on easy terms to former tenants.

Within two years 2 million tenants became landowners. The American occupation immediately gained not only a large constituency, for the new owners had a vested interest in preserving the change, but also a psychological momentum for other changes they wanted to ini tiate. The American labor policy in Japan had a double goal: to encourage the growth of democratic unions while keeping them free of communists. Union organization was used as a balance to the power of management. To the surprise of the American authorties, this movement took a decidedly more radical turn.

In the desperate economic conditions of early postwar Japan, there was little room for successful bargaining over wages, and many labor unions instead made a bid to take over industry and o perate it in their own behalf. Moreover large numbers of workers in Japan were government employees, such as railroad orkers and teachers, whose wages were set not by management but by the government. Direct political action therefore seemed more meani ngful to these people than wage bargaining. The Japanese unions called for a general strike on February 1, 1947.

MacArthur warned the union leadership that he would not countenace a nationwide strike. The strike leaders yieled to MacArthur’s will. The re after the political appeal of radical labor action appeared to wane. The Americans wanted to disband the great Zaibatsu trust as a means of reducing Japan’s war-making potential. There were about 15 Zaibatsu families such as – Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Yasuda, and Sumitomo. The Zaibatsu controled the industry of Japan. MacArthur’s liaison men pressured the Diet into passing the Deconcentration Law in December 1947.

In the eyes of most Japanese this law was designed to cripple Japanese business and i ndustry forever. The first step in breaking up the Zaibatsu was to spread their ownership out among the people and to prevent the old owners from ever again exercising control. The stocks of all the key holding companies were to be sold to the public. Friends of the old Zaibatsu bought the stock. In the long run the Zaibatsu were not exactly destroyed, but a few were weakened and others underwent a considerable shuffle.

The initial period of the occupation from 1945 to 1948 was marked by reform, the second phase was one of stabilization. Greater attention was given to improvement of the economy. Japan was a heavy expense to the United States. The ordered breakup of the Zaibatsu was slowed down. The union movement continued to grow, to the ult imate benefit of the worker. Unremitting pressure on employers brought swelling wages, which meant the steady expansion of Japan domestic onsumer market. This market was a major reason for Japan’s subsequent economic boom.

Another boom to the economy was the Korean War which proved to be a blessing in disguise. Japan became the main staging area for military action in Korea and went on a war boom economy with out having to fight in or pay for a war. The treaty of peace with Japan was signed at San Francisco in September 1951 by Japan, the United States, and forty-seven other nations. The Soviet Union refused to sign it. The treaty went into effect in April 1952, officially terminating the United States military ccupation and restoring full independence.

What is extraordinary in the Occupation and its aftermath was the insignificance of the unpleasant. For the Japanese, the nobility of American ideals and the essential benignity of the American presence assuaged much of the bitterness and anguish of defeat. For the Americans, the joys of promoting peace and democracy triumphed over the attendant fustrations and grievances. Consequently, the Occupation served to lay down a substantial capital of good will on which both America and Jap an would draw in the years ahead.

Miamoto Musashi and Bushido

During the ancient period of Japan there existed a time of war and power struggles. There were many people who followed the Bushido code or way of the warrior. These people were called samurai. Of the countless men who devoted their lives to the Bushido code there were none greater than Miyamoto Musashi. Musashi was one of if not the most famous samurai to ever walk the lands of medieval Japan. He was a legend in his own time. Miyamoto Musashi was born in 1584 in the village of Miyamoto in the province of Mimasake. Musashi’s full name was Ben no suke Shimmen Genshin no Fujiwara no Kami Miyamoto Musashi Masana no Kensei.

When Musashi was a child his mother died when he was six years old and his father abandoned the family a year after her death. Musashi was raised by a number of family members and started to train in the ways of Kendo (fencing) under his uncle’s guidance. Musashi proved to have tremendous talent with a blade. He was also very big and strong for a boy of his age. But with this strength and size came aggression. Musashi was not known a calm and mannerly youth. Rather he was considered a troublemaker and a uncontrollable child by the town elders.

Musashi used his strength and demeanor in his first real duel with a known samurai when he was thirteen years of age. He fought against Arima Kigei from the Shinto Ryu school of Military Arts. Unarmed, Musashi threw the samurai to the ground and beat him savagely with a stick until Arima died vomiting his own blood. Musashi’s next duel came when he was age sixteen. He fought Tadashima Akiyama. Tadashima was challenging anyone who would accept his challenge to a duel. Musashi accepted and killed Tadashima with just one swing of his sword.

During this time period Japan was in a bloody civil war to unite the country. The two sides were Shogun Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Musashi joined ranks with Shogun Hideyoshi in hopes of fame and riches. In one huge battle called the battle of Seki ga Hara, seventy thousand samurai lost their lives in the three day skirmish. Tokugawa Ieyasu won the battle and the war. A man-hunt was conducted for all samurai who swore allegiance to Hideyoshi. Musashi survived both the three day fight and Tokugawa’s man hunt. Musashi finally returns to his hometown of Miyamoto but was not welcomed back as a hero.

The people remembered what Musashi was like as a youth. He was falsely accused of a crime but could not be captured by the locals. Musashi was too powerful for the people to beat. In the end it took only one man with little battle experience to capture him. That one man was a Zen priest named Takuan Soho. Legend has it that the priest captured the runaway Musashi without resorting to violence. The captured Musashi was then held at Hejime castle for three years. It was here where Musashi matured and studied the ways of the samurai. He read and studied the Chinese classic The Art of War.

When Musashi was finally released he went off on his own to further study the way of the warrior and improve his swordsmanship skills. Musashi’s travels brought him straight to Kyoto, the capitol of Japan. Musashi came here for a reason. He had an old vendetta to settle with the Yoshioka family. Years before, Musashi’s father, Munisai, was killed in a duel with the Yoshiokas. He was able to win two fights before he lost his life. Musashi blames the Yoshioka family for his father’s death and challenged them to a duel when he arrives. He fought in three duels against three brothers, Seijiro, Denshichiro, and Hanshichiro.

Musashi first fought Seijiro. Musashi used a wooden sword while Seijiro used a real one. Seijiro’s injuries to his arm forced him to amputate it. Musashi then fought Denshichiro. The fight lasted mere minutes with Musashi quickly breaking Denshichiro’s skull. In the last fight Musashi hid and waited at the battle sight. The last brother, Hanshichiro came to the battle in full armor with a unit of a hundred samurai. They planed to ambush and kill Musashi. Musashi finally appeared and killed Hanshichiro. He then made a run for it, killing anyone who was in his way. Musashi was involved in sixty duels during in his lifetime.

He won every one of them. Musashi’s most famous duel was against Sasaki Kojiro in the year 1612. Sasaki was well known for the fighting style that he developed. It was called Tsubame-gaeshi or swallow counter. It was based on the motion of a swallow’s tail when the bird is in flight. The duel was to be held on an island a few miles off of Ogura. Musashi left the place he was staying for the night in an effort to play mind games with his opponent, trying to make him think that Musashi was scared. Musashi then arrived late to the duel in an effort to make Kojiro impatient and cocky.

When Musashi finally arrived he made a wooden sword from a spare oar and then fought Kojiro. Musashi was able to kill Kojiro with one swift blow to his skull. After seeing the condition that Kojiro was in, Musashi dropped his sword and walked back to his boat. It was after this duel Musashi stopped ever using real swords. He was unstoppable. He dedicated his life to improve and master his technique. In 1643 Musashi settled down in a cave and spent his time writing his book called Go Rin No Sho or A Book of Five Rings. Musashi also created many ink paintings and sculptures that highly valued in Japan.

Musashi was given the title of “Kinsei” or Sword Saint. Musashi’s masterpiece, The Book of Five Rings is used in almost every Kendo class there is. In the Introduction of his book, Musashi gives a very brief look at his life. Musashi’s personality is best summed up in his own words, “When I reached thirty I looked back on my past. Perhaps it was natural ability, or the order of heaven, or that other school’s strategy was inferior. ” Musashi invented the style of fighting with two swords which was called Ni Ten Ichi Ryu. The writings that Musashi left behind are sort of like his final teachings to the world of his form.

The first chapter in Musashi’s book talks about the basics of his strategy. He compares the way of the warrior with other arts like carpentry. He sets up an outline of what each of the other books will be about. He talks about what kinds of weapons to use in certain situations.

He gives us nine basic guidelines to live by: 1. Do not think dishonestly. 2. The Way is in training 3. Become aquatinted with every art. 4. Know the Way of all professions 5. Distinguish between gain and loss in worldly matters. 6. Develop intuitive judgment and understanding for everything. 7. Perceive those things which cannot be seen. 8. Pay attention even to trifles. 9. Do nothing which is of no use.

In the second chapter Musashi goes into more detail about the actual fighting and swordplay. He shows us the basis of different cuts and moves and when to apply them in a fight. He talks about how a proper stance and footwork are vital to victory. Musashi tells us that every cut should be swung at the same strength. He says that you should swing the same for cutting a man or cutting a board. Focus is the most important thing. The third chapter is more about a person’s attitude and focus during a fight.

Musashi writes, “There is nothing wrong with the principle “one man can beat ten, so a thousand men can beat ten thousand. ” He writes about how to distract and forestall your enemy. You must have your timing down on when to strike and when to react. If you can frighten or startle your opponent by shouting them do so. Your spirit is as important as your skills. The fourth chapter discusses other schools strategies. Musashi says that one must know your opponent is you are to truly beat him. He dislikes schools that use longer or lighter weapons that use length and speed to make up for lack of true skill and knowledge.

In the last page of his book we find the final chapter. Musashi tells us that there is no beginning or end. One can never become a true master. There will never be a time where a person can not improve or learn something new. In conclusion we see just how dicated and powerful Musashi was. We also come to realize how he thinks and his point of view about many things concerning training and life. Musashi is considered one of the greatest swordsmen that ever walked the face of the Earth. We were able to learn from Musashi through his book and legends.

Role of The Emperor in Meiji Japan

Japan is a society whose culture is steeped in the traditions and symbols of the past: Mt. Fuji, the tea ceremony, and the sacred objects of nature revered in Shintoism. Two of the most important traditions and symbols in Japan; the Emperor and Confucianism have endured through Shogunates, restorations of imperial rule, and up to present day. The leaders of the Meiji Restoration used these traditions to gain control over Japan and further their goals of modernization. The Meiji leaders used the symbolism of the Emperor to add legitimacy to their government, by claiming that they were ruling nder the “Imperial Will.

They also used Confucianism to maintain order and force the Japanese people to passively accept their rule. Japanese rulers historically have used the symbolism of the Imperial Institution to justify their rule. The symbolism of the Japanese Emperor is very powerful and is wrapped up in a mix of religion (Shintoism) and myths. According to Shintoism the current Emperor is the direct descendent of the Sun Goddess who formed the islands of Japan out of the Ocean in ancient times. 1 According to these myths the Japanese Emperor unlike a King is a living escendent of the Gods and even today he is thought of as the High Priest of Shinto.

Despite the powerful myths surrounding Japan’s imperial institution the Emperor has enjoyed only figure head status from 1176 on. At some points during this time the Emperor was reduced to selling calligraphy on the streets of Kyoto to support the imperial household, but usually the Emperor received money based on the kindness of the Shogunate. 2 But despite this obvious power imbalance even the Tokugawa Shogun was at least symbolically below the Emperor in status and he claimed to rule so he could carry out the Imperial rule.

Within this historical context the Meiji leaders realized that they needed to harness the concept of the Imperial Will in order to govern effectively. In the years leading up to 1868 members of the Satsuma and Choshu clans were part of the imperialist opposition. This opposition claimed that the only way that Japan could survive the encroachment of the foreigners was to rally around the Emperor. 4 The Imperialists, claimed that the Tokugawa Shogunate had lost its imperial mandate to carry out the Imperial Will because it had capitulated to Western powers by allowing them to open p Japan to trade.

During this time the ideas of the imperialists gained increasing support among Japanese citizens and intellectuals who taught at newly established schools and wrote revisionist history books that claimed that historically the Emperor had been the ruler of Japan. 5 The fact that the Tokugawa’s policy of opening up Japan to the western world ran counter to the beliefs of the Emperor and was unpopular with the public made the Tokugawa vulnerable to attack from the imperialists. The imperialists pressed their attack both militarily and from within the Court of Kyoto.

The reat military regime of Edo which until recently had been all powerful was floundering not because of military weakness, or because the machinery of government had broken but instead because the Japanese public and the Shoguns supporters felt they had lost the Imperial Will. 6 The end of the Tokugawa regime shows the power of the symbolism and myths surrounding the imperial institution. The head of the Tokugawa clan died in 1867 and was replaced by the son of a lord who was a champion of Japanese historical studies and who agreed with the imperialists claims about restoring the Emperor.

So in 1868 the new shogun handed over all his power to the Emperor in Kyoto. Shortly after handing over power to the Emperor, the Emperor Komeo died and was replaced by his son who became the Meiji Emperor. 8 Because the Meiji Emperor was only 15 all the power of the new restored Emperor fell not in his hands but instead in the hands of his close advisors. These advisers such as Prince Saionji, Prince Konroe, and members of the Satsuma and Choshu clans who had been members of the imperialist movement eventually wound up involving into the Meiji Bureaucracy and Genro of the Meiji Era.

Once in control of the government the Meiji Leaders and advisors to the Emperor reversed their policy of hostility to Foreigners. 10 They did this because after Emperor Komeo (who was strongly opposed to contact with the west) died in 1867 the Meiji Emperor’s advisors were no longer bound by his Imperial Will. Being anti-western also no longer served the purposes of the Meiji advisors. Originally it was a tool of the imperialist movement that was used to show that the Shogun was not acting out the Imperial Will. Now that the Shogun and Komeo Emperor were dead there was no longer a reason to ake on anti-foreign policies.

The choice of the imperial thrown by the imperialists as a point for Japan to rally around could not have been more wise. Although the imperial institution had no real power it had universal appeal to the Japanese public. It was both a mythic and religious idea in their minds. 11 It provided the Japanese in this time of chaos after coming in contact with foreigners a belief in stability (according to Japanese myth the imperial line is a unbroken lineage handed down since time immortal), and it provided a belief in the natural superiority of Japanese culture.

The symbolism of the Emperor helped ensure the success of the restorationists because it undercut the legitimacy of the Shogunate’s rule, and it strengthened the Meiji rulers who claimed to act for the Emperor. What is a great paradox about the Imperialist’s claims to restore the power of the Emperor is that the Meiji rulers did not restore the Emperor to power except symbolically because he was both too young and his advisors to power hungry. 13 By 1869 the relationship between the Emperor and his Meiji bureaucracy and the Emperor and the Tokugawa Shogun before the restoration were very imilar.

Both the Meiji Bureaucrats and the Shogun ruled under the authority of the Emperor but did not let the Emperor make any decisions. In Japan the Emperor reigned but did not rule. This was useful for the new Meiji bureaucrats, it kept the Emperor a mythic and powerful symbol. 14 The traditions and symbols of Confucianism and the Imperial Institution were already deeply ingrained in the psyche of the Japanese but the new Meiji rulers through both an education system, and the structure of the Japanese government were able to effectively inculcate these traditions into a new generation of

Japanese. The education system the Meiji Oligarchy founded transformed itself into a system that indoctrinated students in the ideas of Confucianism and reverence for the Emperor. 15 After the death of Okubo in 1878; Ito, Okuma, and Iwakura emerged as the three most powerful figures among the young bureaucrats that were running the government in the name of the Meiji Emperor. Iwakura one of the only figures in the ancient nobility to gain prominence among the Meiji oligarchy allied with Ito who feared Okuma’s progressive ideas would destroy Japan’s culture.

Iwakura it is thought was able anipulate the young Emperor to grow concerned about the need to strengthen traditional morals. Thus in 1882 the Emperor issued the Yogaku Koyo, the forerunner of the Imperial Rescript on Education. 17 This document put the emphasis of the Japanese education system on a moral education from 1882 onward. Previous to 1880 the Japanese education system was modeled on that of the French education system. After 1880 the Japanese briefly modeled their education system on the American system.

However, starting with the Yogaku Koyo in 1882 and ending with the 885 reorganization of the department of Education along Prussian lines the American model was abolished. The new education minister Mori Arinori after returning from Europe in 1885 with Ito was convinced that the Japanese education system had to have a spiritual foundation to it. 19 In Prussia Arinori saw that foundation to be Christianity and he decreed that in Japan the Education system was to be based on reverence for the Imperial Institution.

A picture of the Emperor was placed in every classroom, children read about the myths surrounding the Emperor in school, and they learned that the Emperor was the head of the giant family of Japan. 20 By the time the Imperial Rescript on Education was decreed by the Emperor in 1889 the Japanese education system had already begun to transform itself into a system that did not teach how to think but instead what to think. The Imperial Rescript on Education in 1889 was according to Japanese scholars such as Hugh Borton , “the nerve axis of the new order.

Burton believes that the Imperial Rescript on Education signaled the rise of nationalistic elements in Japan. The Imperial Rescript on Education was the culmination of this whole ovement to the right. The Rescript emphasized loyalty and filial piety, respect for the constitution and readiness to serve the government. It also exalted the Emperor as the coeval between heaven and earth. 22 The Constitution of 1889 like the changes in the education system helped strengthen reverence for the Imperial Institution.

The 1889 constitution was really the second document of its kind passed in Japan the first being the Imperial Oath of 1868 in which the Emperor laid out the structure and who was to head the new Meiji government. 23 This Imperial Oath was refereed to as a onstitution at the time but it only very vaguely laid out the structure of government. The constitution promulgated by the Emperor in 1889 did much more then lay out the structure of Japanese government it also affirmed that the Emperor was the supreme sovereign over Japan.

The signing ceremony itself was an auspicious event on the way to it Mori Arinori one of the moderate leaders of the Meiji government was attacked and killed by a crazed rightist. 25 The ceremony itself evoked both the past and present and was symbolic of the Meiji governments shift toward the right and the overnments use of the Emperor as supreme ruler. Before signing the document Emperor Meiji prayed at the palace sanctuary to uphold the name of his imperial ancestors he then signed the constitution which affirmed the sanctity of the Emperor’s title (Tenno Taiken), and his right to make or abrogate any law.

26 The constitution also set up a bicameral legislature. 27 The constitution codified the power of the Emperor and helped the Meiji oligarchy justify their rule because they could point to the constitution and say that they were carrying out the will of the Emperor. The Meiji Emperor even after the Constitution of 1889 enjoyed little real power. The Meiji Emperor did not even come to cabinet meetings because his advisors told him if the cabinet made a decision that was different then the one he wanted then that would create dissension and would destroy the idea of the Imperial Institution.

So even after the Meiji Constitution the Emperor was still predominantly a symbol. 28 The Constitution ingrained in Japanese society the idea that the government was being run by higher forces who new better then the Japanese people, it also broadened the base of support of the Meiji Rulers who now had a ocument too prove they were acting on Imperial Will and their decisions were imperial decisions not those of mere mortals.

The symbolism of the Emperor and use of Confucianism allowed the Meiji rulers to achieve their goals. One of their goals was the abolishment of the system of fiefs and return of all land to the Emperor. At first the new Meiji Rulers allied themselves with the Daimyo clans in opposition to the Tokugawa Shogun. But once the Meiji leaders had gained a control they saw that they would need to abolish the fief system and concentrate power in the hands of a central government.

The Meiji rulers achieved their goals by having the Choshu, Satsuma, Tosa, and Hizen clans give up their lands, granting the Daimyos large pensions if they gave up their clans, and by having the Emperor issue two decrees in July 1869, and August 1871. 30 The role and symbolism of the Emperor although not the sole factor in influencing the Daimyo to give up their fiefs, was vital. The Meiji Oligarchs said that not turning in the fiefs to the Emperor would be disloyal and pointed to the historical record which Meiji scholars claimed showed that historically all fiefs were the property of the Emperor. 31

They showed this by claiming that the Shogun would switch the rulers of fiefs and this proved that the Daimyos did not control the title to their land but merely held it for the Emperor. Imperial decrees and slogans of loyalty to the Emperor also accompanied the abolishment of the Samurai system. 32 In the abolishment of both these feudal systems the symbolism of the Emperor as both the director of the initiative and recipient of the authority afterwards played a vital role in ensuring there success.

The abolishment of fiefs and the samurai class were essential or the stability and industrialization of Japan. 34 Without the concentration of land and power in the hands of the Meiji oligarchs and the Emperor the Meiji oligarchs feared they would receive opposition from powerful Daimyos and never gain control and authority over all of Japan. Historical examples bear out the fears of the Meiji Oligarchy; in 1467 the Ashikaga Shogun failed to control many of the fiefs and because of this a civil war raged in Japan.

The centralization of power allowed the Meiji government to have taxing authority over all of Japan and pursue national projects. 36 The unity of Japan also allowed the Meiji Oligarchs to focus on national and not local issues. The use of Confucianism and the Emperor also brought a degree of stability to Japan during the tumultuous Meiji years. The Emperor’s mere presence on a train or in western clothes were enough to convince the public of the safety or goodness of the Meiji oligarchy’s industrial policy.

In one famous instance the Japanese Emperor appeared in a train car and after that riding trains became a common place activity in Japan. The behavior of the Imperial family was also critical to adoption of western cultural practices. Before 1873 most Japanese women of a high social position would shave their eyebrows and blacken their teeth to appear beautiful. But on March 3rd 1873 the Empress appeared in public wearing her own eyebrows and with unblackened teeth. Following that day most women in Tokyo and around Japan stopped shaving their eyebrows and blackening their teeth.

The Imperial institution provided both a key tool to change Japanese culture and feelings about industrialization and it provided stability to Japan which was critical to allowing industrialists to invest in factories and increase exports and production. 38 The symbols and the traditions the Meiji leaders inculcated Japanese society with helped the Meiji government maintain stability and pursue its economic policies but it also had severe limitations that limited the revolutionary scope of the Japanese government and helped bring about the downfall of the Meiji era.

The use of Confucianism and the Emperor to bolster the Imperial restoration laid the foundation for a paradox of state affairs. The system that sought to strengthen Japan through the use of modern technology and modern organization methods was using traditional values to further its oals. 39 This caused some to turn toward the west for the “enlightenment” the Meiji era promised this was the case with Okuma who was eventually forced out of the increasing nationalist Genro. 40 For others it lead them to severe nationalism rejecting all that was western.

This was such the case of Saigo who believed till his death on his own sword that the Meiji leaders were hypocritical and were violating the Imperial Will by negotiating and trading with the west. 41 The Meiji government used the same symbols and traditions that the Tokugawa used and like the Tokugawa ave the Emperor no decision making power. The Meiji Emperor although he had supreme power as accorded in the constitution never actually made decisions but was instead a pawn of the Meiji Genro who claimed to carry out his Imperial Will.

This Imperial Will they decided for themselves. Like the Shogunate the Meiji governments claim to rule for the Emperor was fraught with problems. The Imperial Will was a fluid idea that could be adopted by different parties under changing circumstances. And just like the Meiji rulers were able to topple the Shogun by claiming successfully that they were the true administrators f the Imperial Will; the militarist elements in the 1930’s were able to topple the democratic elements of Japan partially by claiming the mantle of ruling for the Emperor.

From this perspective the Meiji Oligarchs building up of the Imperial Myth was a fatal flaw in the government. The constitution which says in article I, “The empire of Japan shall be governed over by a line of Emperors unbroken for ages eternal” gave to whoever was acting on the Imperial Will absolute right to govern. 43 The symbols of the Emperor and the tradition of Confucianism did not end with the end of the Meiji era or world war two. Today the idea of filial piety is still strong, multiple generations of a family still usually live together even in cramped Japanese housing.

The religion of Shinto that the Meiji leaders rejuvenated during their rule in order to help foster the imperial cult is still thriving as the thousands of Tori gates and Shrines around Japan attest. 44 But the most striking symbol to survive is that of the Emperor stripped after world war two of all power the Emperor of Japan is still revered. During the illness of Emperor Showa in 1989 every national newspaper and television show was full of reports related to he Emperor’s health. During the six months the Showa Emperor was sick before he died all parades and public events were canceled in respect for the Emperor.

 

The Spread of Christianity to Japan

Japan has been a home for Shinto and Buddhist religions for centuries. The Christian missionaries during the 16th, 19th and 20th centuries worked hard to evangelize the Japanese nation but could not get desired success. There efforts in past failed partly due to sanctions imposed by the local rulers. The Jesuits missionaries traveled with Spanish and Portuguese traders to many areas of America and Asia-Pacific and established their churches and religious missions. They were funded, sponsored and trained by their respective governments in order to spread Christianity.

At several places they preached the Christian faith by force but the aboriginal population did not accept it wholeheartedly. Initially the Jesuits targeted the elite class of the country and a large number was converted. The rulers also forced their subject to embrace the same faith. About 300,000 Japanese were converted in the first phase. Later on, Christianity was prohibited as the rulers started seeing them as a threat to their authority. Following a change of regime, the ban was lifted and missionaries were again allowed to enter Japan. Like many Native American tribes, the Japanese also resisted the new religion.

As a result, presently Christians form only 1% of the total population in Japan. This paper is focused on how the Christian religion was introduced in Japan, the evolution of evangelism, establishment of churches, the restrictions and hurdles faced by the missionaries and priest of the new religion and the response of Japanese nation towards an alien faith. All these queries are answered in detail given as follows. Christianity in Japan spread in various phases. Like many other parts of world, it was brought by religious missionaries and the European traders and invaders.

It is almost in middle of the 16th century that the Portuguese traders arrived on the “land of rising sun”. The traders, who landed at Kyushu, brought along gunpowder that was not previously known to the Japanese. The local barons cordially responded to these traders mainly because of the weapons they possessed. The traders were also accompanied by Christian missionaries who were allowed to conduct their religious preaching by the local barons. A large number of Japanese were converted by these missionaries. The formal conversion to Christianity began when Francis Xavier, the Spanish born Jesuit missionary came to Japan in 1549.

He was among pioneers of the Society for Jesus or commonly called Jesuits. As a missionary, Xavier went to Asia and carried out his missionary activities in India and Malacca. In Malacca he met a Japanese rebel, Anjiro who urged him to visit Japan. Xavier went to Japan with two other missionaries and started his mission. He confronted some problems because of the language barrier. The Kodansha’s Encyclopedia of Japan describes Xavier’s arrival in Japan as, “In 1547 he met in Malacca a Japanese fugitive named Anjiro, whose glowing account of his naive country fired Xavier with enthusiasm to evangelize Japan.

Xavier reached Kagoshima with two Jesuit companions on 15 August 1549, and with Anjiro as his less than adequate interpreter, he preached Christianity and compiled a simple catechism, with the result that about 100 people accepted baptism. A year after his arrival Xavier visited Hirado and Yamaguchi, but wishing to obtain permission to preach throughout Japan, he made his way to Kyoto in an unsuccessful bid to meet Emperor Gonara. He left Japan for India at the end of 1551”. The activities of missionaries were generally supported by the local landlords and rulers who wanted to get monetary benefits from the foreigners.

The main centers where the missionaries were settled include Kyushu, Nagasaki and Honshu. The religion of Jesus was initially taught to ordinary masses however, by 1563 Omura Sumitada, a daimyo (regional military lord) was converted to the new faith. It was followed by the conversion of six more daimyo in 1579. The Kodansha’s Encyclopedia of Japan however, tells that many of those converted to the Christ’s faith were forced by their Christian masters. “By that time the number of Christian was estimated at 100,000 but this figure includes those converts who embraced the faith of the Lord at the behest of their Christian Lords”.

After Xavier, the Jesuit missionary Luis Frois came to Japan in 1563, who later on wrote a book about his experiences in Japan. The treatise named Historia de Japam contains information about the activities of Jesuit missionaries in Japan. The Christian missionaries came from Europe, America and Russia and started social and educational activities and introduced their cultural trends in Japan. They also established churches in various part of the country. Father Vilela constructed the first church at Nagasaki in 1569. The site initially meant to build a pagoda, was given to him by a Christian lord of the area.

Father Vilela converted about 1500 of Japanese by 1571. The year 1579 is marked by the arrival of Jesuit supervisor for Asia, Alessandro Valignano in Japan. Valignano took with him four local Japanese boys who established an embassy in Rome to represent the Christian Daimyo of Kyushu. By that time, Christianity was recognized by the high ranking military and other officials of the country. Initially the military lords were helpful towards the missionaries mainly driven by their own interests, but with passage of time they noticed the increasing influence of missionaries.

The situation was alarming for them and ultimately made them rethink about their relation with the Jesuits. It was therefore in 1564 that the Christian missionaries were ousted from Kyoto by Emperor Ogimachi but were allowed to come back in 1569 by Oda Nobunaga. Nosco writes that Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1587 again ordered the missionaries to leave Japan but the orders were not materialized until the Expulsion Edict of 1614 by Tokugawa Ieyasu was implemented. Ieyasu and his successors did not want the aliens to control the political and economic order of their country and also wanted to avoid any internal political and religious rivalry.

In 1638, another edict was issued by the Shogun (title for Japanese rulers) that absolutely restricted the entry of foreign traders in the country except for a limited relaxation provided to Chinese and Dutch traders. This edict also banned the practice of Christianity and everyone was directed to register in the Buddhist temples. David Reid writes that “danka seido” was established by the government in 1638 and “every Japanese household to register with and financially support a local temple”.

Another temple namely “terauke seido” was formed in 1662 , from which all adult Japanese were compelled to get every year “a certificate attesting that he or she was innocent of association with subversive religion, namely, Christianity”. Not only was a certificate considered enough for the suspected Christians, they were called to step on a photo or “fumie” of their Lord Jesus in order to proof denouncement. Finally, in the mid-16th century, an attempt was made to execute all the converts and the missionaries were forced to leave the country and the process of Christianization was halted.

At that time there were about 300,000 Christians of which around 3000 were put to death and a large number abandoned its religion whereas, the remaining practiced Christianity secretly. “In 1622, 51 Christians were executed at Nagasaki, and two years later 50 were burned alive in Edo (now Tokyo). A total of 3000 believers are estimated to have been martyred; this figure does not include the many who died as the result of sufferings in prison or in exile. In 1633 some 30 missionaries were executed, and by 1637, only five were left at liberty”. This phenomenon continued for almost two centuries.

These hidden Christians could not practice all the rituals of their religion because of the ban imposed by the Buddhist rulers. Christianity was reintroduced in Japan after it gave up its policy of isolation and established relations with Europe and America. This change resulted after the conclusion of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Japan at Edo on July 28, 1858. Following that, foreign religious missions were allowed to operate in the country. This time the protestant and orthodox missionaries also came to Japan along with the Catholics.

In 1868, the Meiji regime was restored in Japan. This phase accordingly ended with the end of Meiji era in 1912. During that time even, the Christian were not able to evangelize publicly till 1873. “During this period over 30,000 “hidden” Christians came forward; they belonged to groups that had worshipped clandestinely during the more than 200 years of persecution”. The Kondansha’s Encyclopaedia of Japan however, informs that it was in 1865 when a group of hidden Christian’ known as Kakure Kirishitan at Nagasaki publicly declared themselves as follower of Christ. Located in more remote areas where the government surveillance was at its weakest, these communities had preserved their religion in secret for more than two centuries. Of approximately 60,000 Kakure Kirishitan discovered at that time only half chose to return to the reintroduced church. The anti Christian laws were still in effect, and many of the discovered Christians were jailed or exiled to other parts of the country. It was only in 1873 that the Meiji government withdrew religious sanctions, although freedom of religion was not specifically granted.

Even the 1889 constitution of Japan guaranteed only qualified religious freedom “within limits not prejudicial to peace and not antagonistic to duties as citizens”. Ivan Kasatkin alias Nikolai, a Russian missionary, was the founder of Orthodox Church in Japan. Nikolai arrived in Japan in June, 1861 after the country came out of two hundred years of isolation. He worked with the Russian embassy and operated secretly until 1873 when Christianity was legalized by the government. “Hundreds of Japanese were converted each year. Lay ministry was successful. The church was independent.

If few recruits could be obtained among the elite, humble commoners listened and came to Christ. By the time of Nikolai’s death, the Japanese Orthodox church numbered 33,000 converts”. The Protestant missionaries first entered Japan after July 1858. It is said that a large number of Protestant missionaries came in the year 1873 and within a decade, the number of Japanese converted to Protestant faith reached 4987. The Christian missionaries not only preached their religion through sermons but also used education as the main tool for their fulfillment of their task.

The missionaries established educational institutions where the main target was the youth. During the first phase, the missionaries set up educational institutions that acted as evangelizing agencies. Their cause was not to train the local population in sciences or languages instead the places were used to communicate their faith to the people. Initially the academic classes were conducted at homes of missionaries where they found enough time to convince the Japanese people and attract them towards evangelism.

After the home institution evolved in full-fledged institutions and were shifted into proper buildings, they acted as extension of churches. Hisayama quotes a missionary at Shizuoka Eiwa Women’s School saying, “Our purpose is to make this school the true center of evangelism and to provide each Christian student with the self awareness that she is to be a servant of Christ”. These schools were the most effective source of conversion to evangelism. Students have been the easiest target of the missionaries mainly because they lived away from the influences of their families.

A large number of conversions took place in the same way. The Japan Christian Yearbook survey shows, “The school at Fukuoka has 70% of its students Christians. One at Himei reports all teachers Christians and every girl in the boarding department a Christian. ” [sic] At Kwassui Jo Gakko in Nagasaki 132 girls decided for Christ under the inspiration of the Kanamori meetings. Several schools report the entire graduating class as Christian, and even in the conservative centers on the west coast usually large numbers have taken their stand openly for Christ”.

Similarly the Missionary Intelligencer 1914 of provides another evidence of students’ conversion to Christianity in missionary schools. In the year 1914, a large number of students Joshi Seigakuin (Margaret K. Long Girl’s School) were evangelized. “This has been a record year thus far in the evangelistic work of the school and of the Takinogawa station. All the graduates from the beginning of the school, excepting one, are Christians. As the school grows in numbers possibly this standard cannot be maintained, but the ideal is that every girl who leaves the school shall go out a Christian, and all the Christian teachers work to that end.

Sixteen girls have been baptized this year. Most those who have not yet taken a decided stand for Christ are enrolled as inquirers”. Since the missionaries attached great importance to education, a large number of academic institutions were established at different cities throughout Japan. The Kondansha’s Encyclopaedia of Japan states,” In the first decade after missionary activity resumed in Japan, the Protestant was represented by four denominations (Anglican-Episcopal, Presbyterian, Dutch Reformed, and American Baptist Free Mission Society) joined later by representatives of other churches.

From the beginning, the importance was attached to education as a means of spreading the Christian message. Doshisha English School (Now Doshisha University) was founded in Kyoto in 1875, and Aoyama Gakuin ( now Aoyama Gakuin University) and St. Paul’s School (Now Rikkyo University) in Tokyo in 1874. In 1953 international Christian University (Kousai Kirisutokyo Daigaku) was founded in Tokyo”. The third wave of Christianization in Japan came during the World War II. The rate of conversion however, remained slow as it was during previous phases.

During war, the Japanese clergy took charge of the churches and a large number of foreign missionaries left Japan. In 1941, the government forced about 30 Protestant churches to unite and form a single body called Nihon Kirisuto Kyodan or United Church of Christ in Japan. The Japanese parliament Diet passed the Religious Organizations Law ( Shukyo dantai ho ) in 1939, which empowered the government to disband religious groups whose teachings differed from the “Imperial Way”. The government also took other similar steps that resulted many churches to change and operate in accordance to the local customs and traditions.

Mullins writes that the old indigenous theologies of the land described Japan as a kingdom of God and Japanese people as the selected people to create a kingdom of peace in Asia. The government also created a special police force named Tokko designated to identify and control the groups possessing deviant beliefs. A number of socialist and communists were arrested by Tokko initially followed by detention of Christians. Muller says that during that period the number of religious detainees outnumbered the political captives.

The Christian groups were scrutinized on basis of their beliefs and teachings and those who differed most with the Japanese views were put to task. Mullins states that from1939 to 1941 about fifty-three Jehovah’s Witnesses were arrested and investigated. The main conflict between the local religious beliefs and Christianity was the belief in one God. Japanese believed their emperor as supreme and the Christian view directly clashed with their version. After going through the above three phases, Christianity is still a minority religion in Japan.

The current number of Christians in Japan is not more than 1% of the total population. There are a number of reasons responsible for the non-popularity of Christianity in the region. Primarily evangelism was seen as an alien faith by the Japanese and was therefore, not taken in high esteem especially by the political and military elite. Initially the local nobility welcomed the missionaries and traders from the west and many of them embraced the new faith. However, these leaders soon noticed the rising influences of the foreigners and regarded it as threat to their authority.

Moreover, the first converts to Christianity came from clans different from those of the rulers and were thus not appreciated by them. Christianity in Japan was confronted with a well-established ideology, Confucianism, which had its deep roots in the Japanese soils. As observed by George Elison, “Edo period Confucians… maligned Buddhism in practically the same language they used for Christianity. They and their employers knew, however, that history can at best be bent, not done away with. Buddhism had set deep roots in Japan and adapted to Japanese conditions.

Christianity could do neither, and was an alien religion. That was the crucial difference. Buddhism could not be erased and was used; Christianity could not be used and was erased”. In the second phase i. e. , during the Meiji regime, the evangelist saw their religion flourishing for some time. Japan came out of two centuries of isolation and went through a process of westernization. The mission schools that were established first in homes of the missionaries offered better education facilities especially to women.

The youth that hailed from middle class of society and those who migrated from rural areas and settled in cities were especially attracted towards those institutions. In order to compete with the nobility, the new class adopted western religion and way of life. “For the young samurai Protestant converts… , the radicalness of their choice of a Christian value system to replace the past one, was as much subject to their taste for their past positions and values as to a sense of dissatisfaction with them.

Their estrangement from power and from the institutions that gave status meant that they had to build an intellectual structure which could restore their sense of identity and a new world within which they could succeed to authority. Christian samurai lent their strength to associate themselves with a value system that seemed to offer structural similarities to their past order, gave a meaningful order to the new world, and promised future success for the believer…. ” The survival of Christianity in Japan however, depends on to what extent it operates in accordance with the norms and traditions of the society.

Hamish Ion explains the phenomenon as, “In the context of their own society and its values, Japanese Christians were outsiders, representing a heterodox alternative. Many Christian leaders sought to remove this stigma by accommodating themselves to Japanese society, which meant that the Christian movement tended to align itself with the Japanese status quo. During the late nineteenth century, the Christian movement had been identified with opposition to the government; after 1905, it was largely unable to attract those who were opposed to the status quo”.

Japanese are generally not committed to a specific belief or ideology but strictly observe rituals of Shinto and Buddhist religion. For centuries the Japanese social fabric is closely knitted by their ancient traditions and family ties and regards for ancestors is considered as the core of their society. Those who deviate from these norms are not encouraged and often isolated by their families and clans. This has been one of the main reasons why Christianity or any other foreign religion failed to get a considerable response in Japan.

Mullins observes that, “transplanted Christian traditions have tended to clash with Japanese religious sensibilities by demanding exclusive commitment. Their pre-existing religious duties and obligations made it extremely difficult for most Japanese to make a personal commitment to Christianity. When such a commitment has been made, the consequences have often been disruptive. The history of Christianity in Japan abounds with stories of individuals being cut off from their families or isolated in communities.

This isolation comes because of newfound faith and perhaps a consequent refusal to participate in Buddhist ancestor rites or community festivals related to the Shinto tradition”. However, Mullins also opines that during the current century specifically, Japanese have adopted some of the rituals of Christianity and are commonly observed. For instance, Christian style of wedding has been very popular among youth born in the post-World War II period. Mullins to a survey conducted in 1991, which “discovered that the percentage of Christian or church-related weddings was 35 percent in the Kanto area and 23. 8 percent in the Kansai region.

At the very least, the fact that scores of younger Japanese are choosing Christian weddings indicates that the present environment is much more open to Christianity and that the stigma once attached to the Christian faith has declined during the past several decades”. Mullins further states that this observance of Christian rituals may not be considered as an indication of solid faith in the religion instead it could be associated with “popular movie stars and all of that”. At the turn of century, the total number of Christians living in Japan is estimated at about 1,075,000 that accounts to less than 1 % of the total residents.

The Kondansha’s Encyclopaedia describes that, “There were 436,000 Catholics with some 800 parishes in 16 dioceses, while Protestants numbered 639,000 with nearly 7,000 churches”. The statistics shows that overall the evangelist faith has not received the desired response in the Japanese society. No significant conversions have been witnessed during the last half century. It is still a foreign religion and the one practiced by a small minority is also more Japanized rather than Christianized.

Japanese Internment in Canada

The core of the Japanese experience in Canada lies in the shameful and almost undemocratic suspension of human rights that the Canadian government committed during World War II. As a result, thousands of Japanese were uprooted to be imprisoned in internment camps miles away from their homes. While only a small percentage of the Japanese living in Canada were actually nationals of Japan, those who were Canadian born were, without any concrete evidence, continuously being associated with a country that was nothing but foreign to them.

Branded as “enemy aliens”, the Japanese Canadians soon came to the realization that their beloved nation harboured so much hate and anti-Asian sentiments that Canada was becoming just as foreign to them as Japan was. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese Canadians lost almost everything, including their livelihood. Their dignity as a people was being seriously threatened. Without any proper thought, they were aware that resistance against Canada’s white majority would prove to be futile.

Racial discrimination had its biggest opportunity to fully reveal itself while the Japanese silently watched the civil disdain take action, the time slip by throughout the evacuation and internment, and their daily lives simply fall apart at the seams. The term “Canadian” offered no redemption as the Japanese Canadians were involuntarily regarded as potential treats to national security by their own fellow citizens. In a country they knew only as home, the “yellow” race was a culture many felt they could never accept with open arms.

In essence, as the prejudice impelled the Japanese to enclose themselves in a separated society, they were decidedly doomed to remain a permanently alien, non-voting population. As visible minorities, the Japanese were easy targets for discrimination in every social aspect of their lives. In 1907, a race riot took place in a district called “Little Tokyo” in Vancouver. There, an estimated five thousand racist Canadians sought to destroy the homes and stores of the Asian community. By 1928, W. L.

Mackenzie King proposed that one hundred fifty Japanese immigrants be permitted to enter Canada each year to prevent future mishaps. The bombing of Pearl Harbor was merely a trigger point for the public distaste to truly emphasize itself. With such close relations with the United States, Canadians feared that Japan would also attempt an assault against them. It was naively assumed that if there was an attack, the response would be aid from the Japanese Canadians in British Columbia through the accessibility of the Pacific Ocean.

The initial reaction to Pearl Harbor was to take cautious emergency actions to avert civil unrest. Soon, the Canadian government passed the War Measures Act. It gave permission to intern all undesirable Japanese, tie up every Japanese-owned fishing boat in British Columbia, close all Japanese language schools, forbid the publishing of newspapers in Japanese, and seize all Japanese property. All of which were subsequently carried out. In 1941, there were twenty-three thousand five hundred Japanese persons in Canada, residing mainly on the coast of British Columbia.

Of that, six thousand seven hundred were Canadian born, seven thousand were naturalized citizens, and the rest were nationals of Japan. However, nothing could make any difference. To the typical, white British Columbian, the Japanese were all lower-class citizens. Five hours after the attack on Pearl Harbour, forty-eight Japanese planes bombed Hong Kong where two Canadian battalions were stationed, and were inflicted with heavy casualties. The “problem” of the resident Japanese in British Columbia was then quickly set into the mainstream focus.

Prior to declaring war on Japan, Mackenzie King had stated that the “enemy country” had “wantonly and treacherously” attacked British territory, and that “Japan’s actions [were] a threat to the defence and freedom of Canada. ” On December 30, 1941, Ottawa was told there were going to be “interracial riots and bloodshed”, and was advised that the Japanese be removed from the Pacific coast. Government officials insisted they could not trust anyone of Japanese origin. The Japanese Canadians had unfortunately come to witness the true extent of the bitterness that reeked from the Caucasian population.

In addition to the feelings of hostility towards the Japanese, all their hard work to successfully develop a stable living became worthless as evacuation and internment were seen to be the only logical solutions. The “partial” evacuation of the Japanese nationals was still not enough. All had to go. A multitude of political, economic and social organizations, as well as other pressure groups from British Columbia began a constant flow of propaganda against the Japanese. They demanded that further, immediate action be implemented.

It was the pressure from these regional groups, who were anxious to expel the Japanese forever, that eventually propelled the government to sway in their favour. By early 1942, it was decided that all Japanese Canadians be rounded up and relocated to the interior of British Columbia where they were to be held in detention camps. Mass internment had begun. The Japanese were fingerprinted, photographed, and then given identification numbers, which were considered as “formal tokens of their second-class status”.

Just one suitcase was allowed to be brought to the camps, while all other property was taken into government possession to be auctioned off for costs of the internment. The Japanese captivity called for the division of all families into three groups: Japanese nationals or aliens in one, women and children in another, and men over eighteen in the last to be sent to road-construction camps. All those who resisted were sent to a concentration camp in Angler, Ontario. In many of the camps, the Japanese were forced to reside in uninsulated tar paper shacks, while other families had to share one and its facilities.

Their confinement created large amounts of tension and anxiety, but overriding even those emotions was an atmosphere of complete hopelessness. In 1945, the Japanese Canadians were faced with yet another dilemma. They either had to be deported to Japan or once again be displaced, this time east of the Rocky Mountains to Central Canada. Without any rights that would allow them to refuse, the evacuation of Japanese Canadians clearly exposed an issue not of national security, but of national ignorance and prejudice.

Prior to the evacuation, the country’s racial suspicion had come to a degree at which the Japanese Canadians recognized solely as the onset of the deterioration of their lives. Many Japanese people did not resist the internment for culturally, they were inclined to follow norms of conformity and obedience. The elderly often quoted that “one must not make a nuisance of oneself to other people. ” Due to this, the evacuation was easily made successful. Within the camps, they no longer felt a sense of national pride, but of great shame.

The men who were separated from their families constantly wondered if they would ever see their wives and children again, or if they could survive the heartache. Some of the Japanese even hoped that justice and morality would still have a chance to prevail. Many had begun with much faith in the government and expected aid, but none ever came. When the attack of Pearl Harbor was announced, the Japanese Canadians appeared to live their lives with two convictions. On one hand, they had huge amounts of love and nationalism for their country, as well as deep devotions to the Union Jack, like many other Canadians.

Some had even served as World War I veterans for the Allied forces. On the other hand, they lived only in Japanese communities, spoke Japanese, and knew all too well that anyone person of Japanese descent was made to feel unwelcome in Canada. As time passed, the Japanese had come to a sense of finality in them—British Columbia did not ant them back. Along with that, they had to deal with great depths of pain and outrage for they felt betrayed, but still clung to their loyalty to Canada. It was only until 1988 when the Canadian government recognized that the Japanese were treated “unjustly”.

The survivors and family members were then given compensation money, yet it was no where near enough to repair the damage. The Japanese Canadian existence meant almost nothing to all those who disliked them, and soon that same conception was being adopted by the Japanese minority. The Japanese Canadians had no other option but to endure the constant assaults to their social welfare. As aliens, they could only do so much in a country that was populated mostly by the white race. However, little did it upset them in the beginning, since they were still proud to be Canadian.

When the public scorn, evacuation and internment took place, the Japanese were compelled to remain in a stagnant state as all they had earned through much labour became stripped away. After Pearl Harbor, their small and restricted world so abruptly collapsed that nothing would ever be the same again. The government lacked the courage and political will to refuse public opinion in British Columbia, and so chose the path of least resistance. Consequently, the Japanese became subjected to serious limitations of their civil liberties as citizens, and more importantly, human beings.

The passing years, have brought overdue regrets and apologies, but the memory of the internment acts as a reminder that the denial of an entire race’s rights is never the solution. Japanese Internment in Canada The core of the Japanese experience in Canada lies in the shameful and almost undemocratic suspension of human rights that the Canadian government committed during World War II. As a result, thousands of Japanese were uprooted to be imprisoned in internment camps miles away from their homes.

While only a small percentage of the Japanese living in Canada were actually nationals of Japan, those who were Canadian born were, without any concrete evidence, continuously being associated with a country that was nothing but foreign to them. Branded as “enemy aliens”, the Japanese Canadians soon came to the realization that their beloved nation harboured so much hate and anti-Asian sentiments that Canada was becoming just as foreign to them as Japan was. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese Canadians lost almost everything, including their livelihood.

Their dignity as a people was being seriously threatened. Without any proper thought, they were aware that resistance against Canada’s white majority would prove to be futile. Racial discrimination had its biggest opportunity to fully reveal itself while the Japanese silently watched the civil disdain take action, the time slip by throughout the evacuation and internment, and their daily lives simply fall apart at the seams. The term “Canadian” offered no redemption as the Japanese Canadians were involuntarily regarded as potential treats to national security by their own fellow citizens.

In a country they knew only as home, the “yellow” race was a culture many felt they could never accept with open arms. In essence, as the prejudice impelled the Japanese to enclose themselves in a separated society, they were decidedly doomed to remain a permanently alien, non-voting population. As visible minorities, the Japanese were easy targets for discrimination in every social aspect of their lives. In 1907, a race riot took place in a district called “Little Tokyo” in Vancouver. There, an estimated five thousand racist Canadians sought to destroy the homes and stores of the Asian community. By 1928, W. L.

Mackenzie King proposed that one hundred fifty Japanese immigrants be permitted to enter Canada each year to prevent future mishaps. The bombing of Pearl Harbor was merely a trigger point for the public distaste to truly emphasize itself. With such close relations with the United States, Canadians feared that Japan would also attempt an assault against them. It was naively assumed that if there was an attack, the response would be aid from the Japanese Canadians in British Columbia through the accessibility of the Pacific Ocean. The initial reaction to Pearl Harbor was to take cautious emergency actions to avert civil unrest.

Soon, the Canadian government passed the War Measures Act. It gave permission to intern all undesirable Japanese, tie up every Japanese-owned fishing boat in British Columbia, close all Japanese language schools, forbid the publishing of newspapers in Japanese, and seize all Japanese property. All of which were subsequently carried out. In 1941, there were twenty-three thousand five hundred Japanese persons in Canada, residing mainly on the coast of British Columbia. Of that, six thousand seven hundred were Canadian born, seven thousand were naturalized citizens, and the rest were nationals of Japan.

However, nothing could make any difference. To the typical, white British Columbian, the Japanese were all lower-class citizens. Five hours after the attack on Pearl Harbour, forty-eight Japanese planes bombed Hong Kong where two Canadian battalions were stationed, and were inflicted with heavy casualties. The “problem” of the resident Japanese in British Columbia was then quickly set into the mainstream focus. Prior to declaring war on Japan, Mackenzie King had stated that the “enemy country” had “wantonly and treacherously” attacked British territory, and that “Japan’s actions [were] a threat to the defence and freedom of Canada. On December 30, 1941, Ottawa was told there were going to be “interracial riots and bloodshed”, and was advised that the Japanese be removed from the Pacific coast. Government officials insisted they could not trust anyone of Japanese origin. The Japanese Canadians had unfortunately come to witness the true extent of the bitterness that reeked from the Caucasian population. In addition to the feelings of hostility towards the Japanese, all their hard work to successfully develop a stable living became worthless as evacuation and internment were seen to be the only logical solutions.

The “partial” evacuation of the Japanese nationals was still not enough. All had to go. A multitude of political, economic and social organizations, as well as other pressure groups from British Columbia began a constant flow of propaganda against the Japanese. They demanded that further, immediate action be implemented. It was the pressure from these regional groups, who were anxious to expel the Japanese forever, that eventually propelled the government to sway in their favour.

By early 1942, it was decided that all Japanese Canadians be rounded up and relocated to the interior of British Columbia where they were to be held in detention camps. Mass internment had begun. The Japanese were fingerprinted, photographed, and then given identification numbers, which were considered as “formal tokens of their second-class status”. Just one suitcase was allowed to be brought to the camps, while all other property was taken into government possession to be auctioned off for costs of the internment.

The Japanese captivity called for the division of all families into three groups: Japanese nationals or aliens in one, women and children in another, and men over eighteen in the last to be sent to road-construction camps. All those who resisted were sent to a concentration camp in Angler, Ontario. In many of the camps, the Japanese were forced to reside in uninsulated tar paper shacks, while other families had to share one and its facilities. Their confinement created large amounts of tension and anxiety, but overriding even those emotions was an atmosphere of complete hopelessness.

In 1945, the Japanese Canadians were faced with yet another dilemma. They either had to be deported to Japan or once again be displaced, this time east of the Rocky Mountains to Central Canada. Without any rights that would allow them to refuse, the evacuation of Japanese Canadians clearly exposed an issue not of national security, but of national ignorance and prejudice. Prior to the evacuation, the country’s racial suspicion had come to a degree at which the Japanese Canadians recognized solely as the onset of the deterioration of their lives.

Many Japanese people did not resist the internment for culturally, they were inclined to follow norms of conformity and obedience. The elderly often quoted that “one must not make a nuisance of oneself to other people. ” Due to this, the evacuation was easily made successful. Within the camps, they no longer felt a sense of national pride, but of great shame. The men who were separated from their families constantly wondered if they would ever see their wives and children again, or if they could survive the heartache. Some of the Japanese even hoped that justice and morality would still have a chance to prevail.

Many had begun with much faith in the government and expected aid, but none ever came. When the attack of Pearl Harbor was announced, the Japanese Canadians appeared to live their lives with two convictions. On one hand, they had huge amounts of love and nationalism for their country, as well as deep devotions to the Union Jack, like many other Canadians. Some had even served as World War I veterans for the Allied forces. On the other hand, they lived only in Japanese communities, spoke Japanese, and knew all too well that anyone person of Japanese descent was made to feel unwelcome in Canada.

As time passed, the Japanese had come to a sense of finality in them—British Columbia did not ant them back. Along with that, they had to deal with great depths of pain and outrage for they felt betrayed, but still clung to their loyalty to Canada. It was only until 1988 when the Canadian government recognized that the Japanese were treated “unjustly”. The survivors and family members were then given compensation money, yet it was no where near enough to repair the damage. The Japanese Canadian existence meant almost nothing to all those who disliked them, and soon that same conception was being adopted by the Japanese minority.

The Japanese Canadians had no other option but to endure the constant assaults to their social welfare. As aliens, they could only do so much in a country that was populated mostly by the white race. However, little did it upset them in the beginning, since they were still proud to be Canadian. When the public scorn, evacuation and internment took place, the Japanese were compelled to remain in a stagnant state as all they had earned through much labour became stripped away.

After Pearl Harbor, their small and restricted world so abruptly collapsed that nothing would ever be the same again. The government lacked the courage and political will to refuse public opinion in British Columbia, and so chose the path of least resistance. Consequently, the Japanese became subjected to serious limitations of their civil liberties as citizens, and more importantly, human beings. The passing years, have brought overdue regrets and apologies, but the memory of the internment acts as a reminder that the denial of an entire race’s rights is never the solution.

The Economy of Japan remendous growth since the end of the Korean war

The Economy of Japan had experience a tremendous growth since the end of the Korean war. The growth of GNP in 1967 and 1968 was above 10 % (double digit growth period) which exceed countries such as Britain, France and Germany. The economy experienced a boost is due to many reasons, such as: enlargement of industrial facilities, massive adaptation of western technology and education, lower the military expense to 1% of GNP, relation with power nation, human resources and their spirit to achieve “zero defect program”. But after the first and second oil crisis that occur from 1973 onward.

The economy move downwards partially due to the poor management of economic policy. Although the government had attempt to adjust the economic policy but the recovery was slow. As the soaring of yen continues the demand for export has increase tremendously. With the concern of the United State of this problem, president Reagan and the G5 have signed an agreement with Japan called “Plaza Agreement” , the agreement stated that the exchange rate of Japan and Deutschmark can appreciate against the U. S. . Since then the yen value began to appreciate, Japan was going through a period of trade balance adjustment.

While Japan is prepare to go through a period of trade balance adjustment, it will also suffer a period of recession, so the government strongly encourage business activities to strengthen the economy in order to prevent backwash effect. It was this event which boost up the GNP and raise the exchange rate. With this exchange rate advantage it stimulate business activity on housing and stock investment which created a bubble economy. During this period almost the entire country was involve in land speculation or other speculate activities.

In this essay it will prove that land speculative activities had create many negative impacts to the Japanese society and economy. Firstly, it will describe the cause of land speculation. Secondly it will discuss on the society and political effects in Japan and lastly it will focus on the economy effects, more over it will include the aftermath when the bubble collapse. The root of this bubble economy is due the wave of land speculation. The wide spread of land speculation activities were mainly because it is profitable. The speculative transactions in assets grew and grew and many believe that this will last for very long period of time.

One of the reason that leads to massive investment in the risky activities is because of the success of the Japanese in the international market during 70*s – 80*s. Many Japanese enterprises and business man had become very wealthy. These people have a large sum of equity to invest. Some of these people have focus on risky asset such as stocks and land, therefore many of the regular ventures were left behind. One of the major cause of the massive transaction in the land market was due the incremental of loans by banks. Financial institution was very positive in lending money to the enterprise.

This enhance the accessibility to the land speculate market. Each size of this loan is very large. This is because the size of mortgage in Japan financial institutions are based on the collateral, (house) while in North America the size of the mortgage is based on the borrower*s income stream. Therefore the size of loan can be obtain by borrower is larger in Japan than North America. Also 62% of Japanese households own the home that they live and in average the value is near 4 million yen. Therefore there are lots of potential investors.

And during the period of speculative activities, borrowers increase the value of their loans as the value of their collateral increases. Since asset is highly liquidate, the number of potential speculators are high and borrowers in Japan were able to get a larger size loan on real estate therefore speculative activities sink into the level of common home owner and large enterprise. Beside the method of calculating mortgage size, another reason why the size of loan was so large is probably that both the bank and the investor were behind the land speculation activity (banking scandal).

Investors were paying some key money (sort of a bribe) to financial institution in order to obtain a larger size loan. Therefore many financial institutions were over loan during this period. Another form of raising cash flow for the speculate market was by braking down a loan that obtain from a large financial institution to a specific enterprise, then lend a small piece of this loan to those who was not eligible to obtain a loan from the bank. These companies that act as the funnel will earn a certain amount of interest from these smaller companies (branch effect).

Therefore all classes of companies and society can easily access in the speculate market. Other large corporate, construction company, organize crime group and even temple (religious) were also involve in land speculation. Another encouragement to the speculative market was because the government (liberal democratic party) had originally lower the capital gain tax in the early 80*s. Therefore the profit for owner to resale their land was large. Flaws in government policy also indirectly allow investor to get away of property tax expense.

For example some land owner could just plant little crops over a large piece of expensive vacant land in urban city and declare them as agriculture land. As a result they will be tax very little. Therefore the incremental of land speculative activities were due to over size loan, high accessibility to the land speculative market and indirectly by the government flaws. During the peak of the land speculation there is a quite interesting study of land price in Japan. ) “If you sell the entire property of Tokyo you can actually buy the entire United state and by just selling the surrounding land of the Imperial palace you can buy Canada. ” Although it might of been a little over exaggerate, but the point is that the land value in Japan compare to North America is much higher. Since there is no one side of a coin, Land speculation had create many social problems in Japan. Firstly, land speculation had rise the rent and housing cost tremendously. As a result many young couples and low income families were unable to form their own house hold.

In average the cost of a house in Tokyo had raise to about 500 million yen. The younger group with low income cannot afford it and the mid age workers may also not able to afford it. Primary is because they would have to give up at least three-fifth of their income in loan repayment. Also if they have a relatively low amount of down payment, there working age may not be long to repay a mortgage. The longer the amortization period, the larger the amount of interest they bare. The white collar had become the slavery or sacrifice of the never ending mortgage payment and high cost of housing.

In 1990 the births live in Japan was 1. 2 million, in fact the number is the lowest since 1893. Many analysts believe that one of the reason that lead to this slow growth of population could be create by high house prices. So Japanese people have stopped having children and large family is rare. Therefore this is one of the causes of Japan is running our of Japanese. This is also a very big social issue of the modern Japanese society but the precedent of the slow growth of population has now move from high housing cost to other social problems.

During this period, there were lots of cases regarding on the robbery and suicidal in the police force. (1) – Wood, “The Bubble Economy”, Sidgwick & Jackson, London 1992 pg. 50 This was mainly because of the heavily debts that these police bare and they have no other choice than to attempt to go above the law. Due to the financing problems in the real estate market, it leads to the founding of what is program call “2 generations mortgage plan”. The founding of this plan was propose to suit the majority of the white collar in the Japanese society.

This plan was develop since 1983 but it became more useful from 1985 onwards and the qualification of this program must be father-son that plan or already living together. (son must be older than 20 and must repay the loan by the age at 70) The size of the mortgage is determined by the borrower, interest is flexible and the applicants must purchase an life insurance in order to protect the risk of un collectible due to death. (Pay by the bank) Husband and wife can also join this program . Banker said that the applicant may able to repay this loan in 40 yr. d this type of program also encourage a bonding relationship between father and son. On one side this program may allow a regular income worker to be a home owner but on the other side this person will bare a debt for the entire life and passes on to the next generation. Moreover it may limit on the consumption of the borrower on other composite good. The booms in land prices also discourage people’s incentive to work. (2) “Because if any lucky individuals inherited or own a piece of land in metro Tokyo, they will suddenly gain a net worth of 250 to 300 million yen.

This amount of money is equivalent to honest man*s life time income plus retire pension. Since may people get rich during this period, the number of middle class income in Japan had tremendously increase. Under these circumstances, many believe they have already achieved the good life therefore people lose the incentive to work hard and get ahead. Therefore it will distort the social structure in Japan and create many problems to the government (taxations). Since the sacrifice and cost of home ownership is so high therefore many Japanese had prefer to rent.

Since the demand of rental market increase, it also attracted many investor and speculator. Therefore tenants also suffer from the incremental raise of land price. In Japan, young couples, low income group and the elderly participated as the major group of tenant in Japan. During this period, owners were looking to sell their property for high return and in order to force the tenant to move (after tenant moves landlord can chose higher quality tenant or resale the property for a larger profit) rent rises extremely high. Many elderly were unable to afford such high rent so 2) – Wood, “The Bubble Economy”, Sidgwick & Jackson, London 1992 pg. 1 many were force to move. As a result many had become homeless. In some cases tenant refuses to move so some owner will hire organize gang group to force them out. Some of these unfortunate tenants will give up the hope in home ownership in the core and move further and further away from the center. Therefore many of them will spend over 2 to 3 hours to commute from their place to work. So either way, home owner ship and tenants suffer from the raise of housing price. The natural populations are not the only civilian of this incident.

Many foreign students also suffer from the housing problem. (3) “In 1986, there was a statistic taken over a total number of 8116 foreign students. Apparently only 17% lives in an adequate resident facility. ” The primary reason was due to the cost of rent, high exchange rate and lastly it was because the local people do not wish to rent their property to foreign student. Student associate had propose to built new resident housing but due to the heat of land speculation (create an increase in the demand of land) and high construction cost, the new residential housing will be very costly.

Therefore this new construction will probably raise the rent 2 to 3 times. While the housing problem continues for foreign students from 80 onward the Japanese government had still declare that they (4) “expect a total of 100,000 new foreign student will be coming in during the 21st century. ” This reflects that the government has pay very little awareness not only on the natural population but also foreign student. Beside foreign students and the natural population, another group that affects by the high land prices was foreign ambassador.

As the price continued to rise (specially in Tokyo), the ambassadors of the lower wealth countries (such as Africa or Uganda ) were force to move their location away from Tokyo due to high rent. Although this problem was reflect to the Japanese government but it was remain un solve. Other side effects of the land speculation was the new residential construction during that era. In (thousand leaf city) many of the new construction area no longer have a large plain or play ground that similar to a traditional residential area. ) – Cao Man Kit, “The Life of Foreign Student in Japan”, Ming Chang, H. K. 1991, pg. 160 (4) – Cao Man Kit, “The Life of Foreign Student in Japan”, Ming Chang, H. K. 1991, pg. 167 In one of the Japanese newspaper there is an advertise article that describes their forecast on the living condition of the Japanese in the 21st century. (5) “The husband should not return home until weekend, during weekdays just live in worker*s resident near their workplace. This resident housing should be similar to hotel where it has an into desk that can wash your cloths, postal service and take your message.

Their home should be in some rural or less urban area that 100 km away from work. ” This reflected that the rise of land value did not just only effect the affordability of the housing but also distort the lifestyle of the Japan workers as it had reflect in the earlier incident of the 2 generations mortgage. (6) “During the bubble economy period the zoning regulation in Tokyo has revise to allow builder to built more capital on the piece of land. So this indirectly rises the potential of building space in Tokyo.

It will again raised the real estate value, property taxes and traffic congestion level of the area. ” According to the (7) “National Land Agency statistic, about half of firms surveyed in the mid to late 1980s responded that they had no development plans for the land that they acquired. ” They rarely built homes or apartments, but instead constructed office buildings that would bring in steady revenues. From the developer*s point of view, houses and apartment are the least profitable projects. So land would almost never allotted for housing”.

With land speculation and the shortage supply of new construction on housing the Japanese residents are very difficult to find an affordable place to live beside the houses that are very far from work place. In the current Japan election the percentage of participant voters in Japan has drop below 60% of the total population and the liberal democractic did not receive 50 % of the seat through election. This percentage was the lowest since WWII and mainly was because the populations in Japan no longer believe the liberal democratic party can bring them back from recession.

Also they did not have a good control system during the bubble economy, failure of the recovery program after the bubble splash. (program such as expansion in public investment, lowering the interest rate and series of economic counter measure but the yen is still pretty high which discourage export) In more specific, during the bubble economy the government did not really propose (5) Cao Man Kit, “The Strategic of Japan Enterprise”, Ming Chang, H. K. 1992, pg. 68 (6) Mc Millian Charles, “The Japan Industrial System”, Berlin, New York, 1996 , pg. 6 7) Wood, “The Bubble Economy”, Sidgwick & Jackson, London 1992 pg. 89 an effective tax law until 1990. (National Land Value Tax- prohibitive tax on profits from the sale or transfer of land national land law 1974)

This revitalizes the local property tax and assessment ratio for the fixed asset tax. Another official policy was issue during 1990 was through the financial market in which the government regulates on the loan activity. This eventually slow down the loan activities largely in 1991. But still the government really lagged their response for those who already suffer for 5 years of high housing cost.

More over during the period of bubble economy, many politics were either involve in land speculation or was bribe by organize gang group and large enterprise in order for these people to be more conveniently to have more benefits in the land market. One incident is involve by a business man Kyowa and a cabinet minister Fumio Abe, where Abe sold the details of where a new road construction in Hokkaido in return for 480 million yen. Political scandal was expose to the public not long after the bubble economy was splash.

Lastly, most of the asset of the politicians are in the real estate market therefore neither the bank or the officials admit the fall in land prices. So when this incident was expose to the public, the prices of land fall sharply around 50 %. And mainly because of the period of cover up. So many big and small investors suddenly woke up from their happy dreams and face the horrible reality. With the above reasons the government has lost the trust of many Japanese. Therefore the land speculate activities had also effect the image of the strong liberal democratic.

During the bubble splash period, many pre-graduates and graduated university students were unable to find jobs in the labor market due to the diet all companies therefore many students were frustrate about their future. Therefore the supply of the labor market is distorted by the bubble burst. Therefore you can see that the land speculation activities had create many social problems to the Japan society during the bubble period and after the bubble burst. During the bubble period the economy was strongly boost by the sudden rise of land value and stock market.

On the other hand the after math of the bubble splash was a pain for the economy. In general we will look at the effects on the rise and fall of the Japan*s economy. In 1985 the trade balance in Japan need to have adjustment therefore the government declare that it needs some force to grow in order to prevent recession during this adjustment period. (8) “In 1989 the GNP has increased by 481,000,000,000,000 yen and this was mainly due to the speculate market. ” (People put their profit from land to stock market or vice versa) Many companies were mainly focus on the speculate market. )

“The Tokyo Stock exchange soared to almost 40,000 points, the value of stock and land was far above the real value and value of property was not rise due to its demand but was due to speculation. Eventually when the bubble splash, the vacancy rate went rocket high due to lack of demand. Many companies had to go on a strict diet to survive, and they made deep cuts in expenditures for entertainment, advertising, communications and much else. ” And the above statement is the general picture of what happen during the bubble economy.

During the golden period of land speculation, many investors know that the land market in Japan was limited (due to the potential and limited geographic area) so they began to purchase land over sea in Hawaii. (10) “The Non water front housing price in Hawaii during 1987 went up by 51 % and the water front housing price went up more than 100%. ” This resale land market in Hawaii was primarily between the Japanese; in 1987 the land prices was estimate has rise over 60. 2% and many tenants have suddenly realize that the rent has tremendously increase and cannot afford it, so many people have no place to stay (especially the elder).

There are several reasons that Japanese wants to invest in Hawaii such as; the waterfront view is similar to Japan so it will be a good place for vacation and retirement, the distance between Japan is relatively close ( 3 hours trip by plane) and massive left over of equity and advantages in the exchange rate that has tremendously increase the nominal value of their equity so it is an encouragement for investment. Therefore the wave of land speculation did not only distort the land market in Japan but also affected foreign country. (8) Iwami Toru, “Japan in International Financial System”, MacMillian Press, New York 1995, pg. 5 (9)

Iwami Toru, “Japan in International Financial System”, MacMillian Press, New York 1995, pg. 135 (10) Kenneth V. Smith, “Inman News”, June 1996 Version, Section B4 email address: [email protected] com Looking back at the Japanese economy (11) “in 1987, 77 out of the top 100 most heavily taxed people were involve in land speculation (either have resale their lands or have large land properties). This created a very unhealthy economy because most of the economy is depend on the land market and if any thing happen to the land market, it will distort the economy greatly. 2) “In 1989 the top 100 most heavily tax people 95 of them were involve in land speculation. ”

Therefore the situation was worst in the later period this is mainly because of the profitability in the land market. Since many enterprises only focus on speculate market therefore the real growth of GNP of the country was only 4 to 6 %. The growth of the economy was mainly on the nominal sector. The increase in nominal GNP has created massive appreciate of yen, which had tremendously affect the export businesses and the manufacture industries. he nominal price of the good has increase therefore foreigner has less interest on Japan goods but this mainly effect small and medium enterprise)

While some export business was not doing too well, consequently the workers are not getting an appropriate rise in income. (13) “In 1986 (Nissan) several of the high executive had experience an income cut by 5 to 10% and many of them are very frustrated because most of these people were in their 40*s and have to pay for mortgages and children*s tuition.

In later years Nissan had announced to cut 500 in order to balance out their lost. ” Therefore large manufacture as Nissan was not doing so well during this period. This was worst in the case of the small and medium enterprise. Many small and medium size export companies had contract or even close down during the mid 80*s and as the wave of income cuts continued, every level and class of the employees were involve. On the other hand the high exchange rate was really an advantage for importer (same value buy more) such as energy, petroleum and primary material.

These companies were suddenly becoming so wealthy and the income of their employees were much higher compare to those working in the export enterprise. Therefore there was a large gap on the profit and income between the two distinct groups of company and it was very unhealthy for the white collar. (11) – Iwami Toru, “Japan in International Financial System”, MacMillian Press, New York 1995, pg. 178 (12) Iwami Toru, “Japan in International Financial System”, MacMillian Press, New York 1995, pg. 178 (13) Cao Man Kit, “The Strategic of Japan Enterprise”, Ming Chang, H.

K. 1992, pg. 135 This period of high exchange rate continues until the bubble burst. The decline of the bubble economy occurs during the Gulf war period, the economy in Japan was very quite and at the same time the government had tighten their policy. (Both tax policy and restriction in loans) As a result, the land speculation market and land prices fall continuously. The real estate market is totally frozen. The National Land Agency measures that land price of Tokyo and Osaka has dropped 30 to 50 percent.

Total land wealth is near 2000 trillion yen which is really a lot) Many real estate properties were unable to be resale and at the time many companies were unable to pay such high interest payment therefore many of them went bankrupt. While the banks rarely make any loan, many companies cut back in their capital spending. In fact this had dampen the recovery of economy. Most of these companies that went bankrupt were either small or medium size enterprise which lack of its separate bank center. Large enterprises with separate bank center also suffer from non performing loans by the borrowers (small and medium size enterprise).

Others large lending institution also suffer largely, since the major economic powers at the bubble period was on the land market therefore any decline in land values would strongly influence the balance sheets of Japan*s lending institution. As reported in June 18 1996 The News Times International News that the (14) “parliament approves a $ 6. 3 billion bailout for bankrupt housing lenders. The vote clears the way for the establishment of an institution to liquidate the assets of the housing lender which collapsed under bad loans made to real estate speculators before Japanese land prices plummeted in the early 1990s.

The seven companies are believed to have more than $65 billion in bad debts. ” This $. 6. 3 billion is only a piece of the big picture because (15) “the Finance Ministry said that Japan*s financial institutions held about $324 billion in bad loans as of March 31 1996. Analysts believe the total could be considerable higher. The government in recent days has been working to persuade banks and farm cooperative to agree to take on a bigger share of the bailout burden to reduce the cost to taxpayer”.

According to a current financial post in Tokyo: (16) “Most of the financial banks declare yesterday that with the experience of deficit in last year, this year (ended till September) they had turn deficit into net profit. (14) – Kenneth V. Smith, “Inman News”, June 1996 Version, Section B4 email address: [email protected] com (15) – Kenneth V. Smith, “Inman News”, June 1996 Version, Section B4 email address: [email protected] com (16) – Herman Li, “Sing Tao News”, November 23 1996, Toronto, Section B 12 Banks had systematically write off many of the un collectible accounts.

But their revenue is still not very high because of low interest rate and the incremental of bad debts. Therefore financial institution will still probably experience quite a long period of recession. ” Therefore residue effects of the land speculation spill over still continues. Land developers also suffer largely. Before the land market crash was expose to the public, there were nearly 1,200 golf course was either approve or under construction. Many pre-member ships were sold but unfortunately many of the construction are never finish because of banks were pulling back the loan.

At peak, the total value of golf member ships market in Japan was near 200 billion for 1,700 golf courses. Therefore closing down 1,200 golf course construction was quite a lost for the economy. Another aftermath of the bubble burst is the high vacancy rate in the office buildings in Tokyo. During the late 1980*s, the new constructing rate (for the office buildings) was double compare with the tradition. After the bubble burst, the value of asset decreases and demand for space also decreases. Therefore many office buildings are unoccupied.

As you can see, the after math of the bubble burst did not only affect the business enterprise, government but also the grass root people. (17) “In last year the economic growth rate was only around 1% or less and the government had introduce economic revitalization policies such as lowest ever interest rates and increased public investment but judging by the fact that consumer demand has cooled off and capital investment by the corporate sector is not making headway as expected therefore the outlook for economic recovery in Japan remain hazy”.

The bubble bursting has affected everyone in Japan. (18) “The country has clearly become a victim of the same wrenching process of debt deflation that had already been visible for several years in so many other economies. Japan faces the reality of outright deflation in terms of falling prices. With all that implies for companies inability to maintain their profit margins. Japan was facing by the autumn of 1993 an unpleasant combination of excess production capacity, falling demand and a rampantly high yen.

By August 1993 wholesale prices were declining at an annualized rate of 4. 2 percent. ” Once again you can see that many Japanese are not very optimistic about the future economy. (17) Wood, “The Bubble Economy”, Sidgwick & Jackson, London 1992 pg. 205 (18) Wood, “The Bubble Economy”, Sidgwick & Jackson, London 1992 pg. 206 Therefore you can see that the land speculation had create many negative impacts to the Japan economy not only during the bubble period but also after the bubble burst.

The Japanese Economy

The prewar economy of Japan was a Socialist economy and the country was ruled by an emperor up to WW2 and after WW2 it started to lean towards a mixed market economy until what it is today although its government is Socialist it is leaning towards a mixed market economy. The Japanese economy is a mixed economy that leans towards market, it is like this because almost all business are run by private corporations or people and that is the market in the economy. And the reason that they are thriving and are so competitive is because of the trade tariffs and quotas that the government has in place.

These regulations include heavy taxes on some products and denial on some others for example: the way Japan will only let certain foreign cars in to Japan and even then they are so heavily taxed that the average Japanese person cant pay that much and will have to buy a Japanese made car and at the same time in other countries they are selling their cars for less than anyone else in that country and that is what they do with most of their products and is how they get a trade surplus year after year. Manufacturing is the most important economic activity in Japan it accounts for about 28% of its GDP.

The Japanese people import more than half of the products that they manufacture from other countries in their crudest form and manufacture them into transportation equipment, iron, steel, chemicals, petroleum and coal products and textiles. Most of these products are produced by large corporations with many employees and the happier the employees are the more it will be done. An aspect of a market economy that Japan has is the way the companies treat their workers. The way the Japanese treat their workers is so different form the way we treat our workers here.

The Japanese are so much more respectful owards their employer( the exact opposite from other countries especially those with a centralised economy) and often work for one employer until retirement. Some of the special treatment that the workers receive is housing; some of the companies namely Honda have a special housing unite for their workers and their families and a company cemetery for all the workers and their families. Because of this the employees work habits are much more productive and a larger profit can be turned and they can get a jump on the competition.

In centralised economies very few lucturies are returned to the people nd in market economies most of them are, in Japan there are to kinds of people farmers and city dwellers, the farmers get no lucturies and live in poor conditions while the city dwellers on the other hand get just about all the lucturies like mass transit, hospitals and if you have a job financial security. The government keeps whatever is necessary and whatever the people will buy and will export the rest. In the farmlands there is a strong sense of a command system and in the city there is capitalistic economy.

Farming is one of the larger employers in Japan it employs 9% of the work force but it only accounts or 3% of the GDP. There are few government owned companies the only ones they own are some power plants, railways and some airlines as well as the commuting services and civil services. The government employs about 1 in 10 people in Japan mostly civil services. There are some strict regulations set forth by the government to insure that the countries stores are filled with Japanese goods rather than forgien goods and they include trade restrictions such as tariffs, bands and quotas.

After reviewing all this evidence the Japanese economy is leaning heavily towards a market economy but does have some socialist government views nd laws but the market out weighs the command. BIBLIOGRAPHY Comptons learning company 1988. InComptons encyclopedia (vol. 12 pp. 34-39. ). Chicago: devision of encyclopedia Britannica, inc. John J. Curran(May 18, 1992). Why Japan will emerge stronger. Fortune, pp. 46-60. Ross Laver( nov. 1991). The company man. Macleans. pp. 55-57. Richard Swift(May 1992). Prisoners of prosparity. New Internationalist. p. 4-8.

The Japanese Economy The Japanese Economy Jonathan Allen The prewar economy of Japan was a Socialist economy and the country was ruled by an emperor up to WW2 and after WW2 it started to lean towards a mixed arket economy until what it is today although its government is Socialist it is leaning towards a mixed market economy. The Japanese economy is a mixed economy that leans towards market, it is like this because almost all business are run by private corporations or people and that is the market in the economy.

And the reason that they are thriving and are so competitive is because of the trade tariffs and quotas that the government has in place. These regulations include heavy taxes on some products and denial on some others for example: the way Japan will only let certain oreign cars in to Japan and even then they are so heavily taxed that the average Japanese person cant pay that much and will have to buy a Japanese made car and at the same time in other countries they are selling their cars for less than anyone else in that country and that is what they do with most of their products and is how they get a trade surplus year after year.

Manufacturing is the most important economic activity in Japan it accounts for about 28% of its GDP. The Japanese people import more than half of the products that they manufacture from other countries in their crudest form nd manufacture them into transportation equipment, iron, steel, chemicals, petroleum and coal products and textiles. Most of these products are produced by large corporations with many employees and the happier the employees are the more it will be done. An aspect of a market economy that Japan has is the way the companies treat their workers.

The way the Japanese treat their workers is so different form the way we treat our workers here. The Japanese are so much more respectful towards their employer( the exact opposite from other countries especially those ith a centralised economy) and often work for one employer until retirement. Some of the special treatment that the workers receive is housing; some of the companies namely Honda have a special housing unite for their workers and their families and a company cemetery for all the workers and their families.

Because of this the employees work habits are much more productive and a larger profit can be turned and they can get a jump on the competition. In centralised economies very few lucturies are returned to the people and in market economies most of them are, in Japan there are to kinds of people armers and city dwellers, the farmers get no lucturies and live in poor conditions while the city dwellers on the other hand get just about all the lucturies like mass transit, hospitals and if you have a job financial security.

The government keeps whatever is necessary and whatever the people will buy and will export the rest. In the farmlands there is a strong sense of a command system and in the city there is capitalistic economy. Farming is one of the larger employers in Japan it employs 9% of the work force but it only accounts for 3% of the GDP. There are few government owned companies the only ones they wn are some power plants, railways and some airlines as well as the commuting services and civil services.

The government employs about 1 in 10 people in Japan mostly civil services. There are some strict regulations set forth by the government to insure that the countries stores are filled with Japanese goods rather than forgien goods and they include trade restrictions such as tariffs, bands and quotas. After reviewing all this evidence the Japanese economy is leaning heavily towards a market economy but does have some socialist government views and laws but the market out weighs the command.