Invaded By Immigrants

Canada being a relatively new country, as far as the history of the world goes was built by immigration. Every single resident of North America can trace his ancestry back to the cradle of life in Europe. Even Native Americans found their way to the new world over a frozen ice pack, spreading out across the land, weaving a rich culture and prospering. The Canada that we know today began only in the last 200 years. Settlers poured in from all over the world, tempted with free land and religious liberty Europeans settled in Canada by the thousands.

They brought with them traditions and a legal system modeled after he English governments. Although is undeniable that Immigration made Canada into the strong nation that it is, I feel that Immigration as it is set up these days does not build our country but tears it down. The open gates policy implemented by our government leaves the Canadian social system wide open to be abused by would-be migrants in other countries. It is quite obvious that the system currently running is quite imperfect. This paper will attempt to show flaws in Canada’s immigration policy and suggest new policy’s which fit better with Canada’s social landscape.

All over the world populations are growing at tremendous rates. Nothing in this world happens by accident, the populations are moving because they expect an increase in quality of life in the new country. Country’s all over the world view Canada as a great place to live, the United Nations bills Canada as the best place to live. When third world people look at their present situations, they think that they could instantly improve their surroundings by moving to Canada. By pure logic it would seem like madness to open Canada’s doors wide open to any immigrant which wishes to come to Canada.

We would be swamped! But that is precisely what Canada has done. There is no end in sight. With a growing world population more and more people will see Canada as the premier place to live and will come flocking to our gates. Many Canadian’s do not agree with the current immigration policy our the idea that we should let even more immigrants in. Many issues need to be debated and settled such as should we allow further immigration into Canada, to what degree should immigrants segregate or integrate, who should be allowed to immigrate, and on what conditions.

These are very serious questions and the answers to them will have a profound effect on life in Canada and indeed all over the world. Until the great depression at the beginning of the century Canada had encouraged immigration from Europe, especially Britain. During the Great Depression Immigration was brought to a halt, the reason being that foreign workers coming to Canada looking for jobs were unwanted. Bands of men roamed the country searching for any kind of work. After W. W. II Canada’s economy grew so fast that thousands of immigrants were let in, mostly from Europe.

The time in-between Canada shut it’s gate to when it reopened them is called the first great digestion period. A period with no immigrants allowed Canada to set up social programs, ake jobs, and integrate the existing new citizens into our economy. Since W. W. II the basic immigration policy has remained the same with no such period, we have steadily let larger numbers of foreigners into our country. In the past 60 years there has been no such period and the population has outgrown the job base. One of the main arguments that immigration enthusiasts use is that Immigrants will fill jobs and produce more then they consume.

At this moment Canada has upwards of eleven percent unemployment. What use do we possibly have for thousands of new people flooding the job market. Our economy needs to strengthen and grow so it can support itself before we burden our welfare system by bringing in more unneeded workers. The issue of immigration is permanently with Canada and important because every single Canadian can trace his lineage back to an immigrant somewhere. The flow of people into Canada is not going to stop unless we pass and bill to make immigration standards tougher.

Lately there has been a movement to remove discriminatory law from the Canadian constitution and it is getting so we are too politically correct. In 1996 so many Asians flooded Vancouver that a separate school system had too be set up to accommodate these students who would not learn English or fit into the full English schools. This represents astronomical costs to British Columbia’s already stretched educational system all because Canada does not regulate the flow of immigrants from any country. This type of law would be “discriminatory”.

Another example of where Canada’s polite policy falls short of common sense is that we let cancer patients, and people who carry the virus that leads to AIDS into our country where they are sure to cost thousands of dollars to our health care ystem, and those with the virus could pass it on. Common sense says that if a immigrant is going to cost a lot of money to support and then die without contributing to the society then that immigrant should not be granted entrance. If Canada wants to keep it’s status as a wealthy country, and a good place to live it had better modify it’s immigration policy.

Canada’s multicultural pol….. icy where immigrant’s are not expected to assimilate and the unchecked flow of immigrants from countries abroad has led to visible minorities in Canada which do not want to be “Canadian”, but want to set up communities ike the ones they once occupied in their old countries. The Doukhobour sect in Canada declares “They have never given, nor will they ever give their votes during elections, thereby are free from any responsibility before God or man for the acts of any government established by men” A truly assimilated immigrant would be unrecognizable in the host society.

There are essentially 2 types of assimilation, the first of which is behavioral assimilation. In behavioral assimilation all minority groups adhere to the values of the majority and behave accordingly. This theory could be applied to the American model. Immigrants are expected to learn English, dress, and behave like “Americans” do. The second type of assimilation is structural assimilation. In this system all groups in the society have equal access and utilize the same institutions, and social structures but do not necessarily behave or believe alike.

This theory is especially well adept to describing the Canadian multicultural system. It has been argued that by keeping their old identities immigrants “enrich and strengthen” our society. What this has ultimately resulted in is isolating these groups from society. When we think of what being Canadian means, no one is quite sure. Multiculturalism has resulted in several visible minorities. These minority’s because they generally vote together control a considerable portion of the vote. One of the best examples of this is The French speaking population is the province of Quebec.

The population of Quebec makes up about thirty percent of the Canadian population yet has succeeded in running the Canadian agenda for over 30 years. Politicians scrambling to please this large section of voting power has given Quebec a level of power and voice in the federal government that is ridiculous and bordering on dangerous. Quebec has demanded special status, gets four new seats in the house of commons at every census and has set up discriminatory language laws in the province in order to keep it’s own English minority under check.

This is a prime example of how a minority has refused to assimilate and ends up causing problems for a country. The more functions that a ethnic group can perform inside a closed community the less obligation it’s members will feel to learn the law, language, and traditions of the host culture. This creates a isolated communities where the people of the community don’t feel part of the society in which they live. One solution for this is to spread immigration from a country out over our country, this would prevent closed community’s to a large degree.

When immigrants come they swear allegiance to Canada and they should respect our culture and try to fit in a little bit. The plain fact is that immigration is bad for the economy. The majority of immigrants that come to Canada have no material possessions at all. Screening immigrants based on wealth is illegal by our constitution. Before the Immigrants arrived on Canada’s shores there was already 11% of Canada’s citizens which had no jobs. With each new arriving immigrant this figure will increase. In 1990, spent $16 billion more in welfare payments to immigrants that they paid back in taxes.

Perhaps what is most disturbing is that immigrants feel they can steel from us in order to maintain a high standard of life in our country, immigrants compose 25 percent of the prisoners in federal penitentiaries, which our taxes support. The fact is that the immigration problem is not going to go away. By 2050 third world country’s with 245 million people will have population density’s of 1,700 people per km2. Our cities are already flooded with illions of jobless immigrants annually, this problem is only going to get worse.

As the citizens in a democracy we must give the government a mandate to shut down, or slow down as much as possible immigration! Canada does not have a lot of money to share with the worlds poor, we have created a system which makes money and we cannot let immigration get in the way of the welfare of Canada’s citizens. If a potential immigrant can show convincingly that he can bring a meaningful contribution to our country’s welfare he is welcomed, but the practice of letting immense amounts of immigrants must be brought to a halt.

The Canadian Government

The Governor General represents the monarch in Canada. He/she is appointed by the monarch on advice of the Canadian Government. Governors General open Parliment and read the speech from the throne which outlines the governments plans. They also give royal assent to bills, appoint important officials, greet foreign leaders, and give out awards and medals. The role of the Governor General is formal and symbolic. The current Govener General is Ray Hnatyshyn. The Last one was Jeanne Sauve. The Senate is, in essence, an independant House of Commons. It appoints its own Speaker and runs its own affairs.

The Prime Minister I’ll call him the PM) chooses new members for the senate whenever a vacancy occurs. The Senate acts as a check on the power of the House of Commons by rejecting bills. The Senate may also introduce bills itself, pass them, and send ’em to the House of Commons. Elections for the House of Commons occur every five years, unless the PM wants one sooner. Elected members of the House of Commons (MPs) each represent a Constituency. How many members in the commons depends on how many people in Canada. MPs must be over 18, and not disqualified by law.

The House only has to meet once a year, but usually there’s so much to do hey have to put in many months of work. Any MP can try to introduce a bill, but the Cabinet usually controls the number of bills introduced. Most bills come from the Cabinet, but the ideas can come from things like: A senator, public servant, the media, party platform etc. The PM chooses The Cabinet from fellow party members who have been elected to the House of Commons. When choosing Cabinet members, the PM must choose representatives of all regions and cultural groups of Canada who together, represent and understand all of Canada.

A Cabinet member is usually made head of, and responsible for a department of government. For example, the Minister of Finance prepares the federal budget and assumes a big role in managing our economy. The Cabinet members meet together under the leadership the of the PM to discuss the important decisions that the government must make concearning proposed laws or bills. Each Cabinet member is expected to accept decisions made by the Cabinet on the whole. The Cabinet must always appear unified and capable to Parliment and to the country.

How A Bill Becomes A Law: -Cabinet Minister has idea for a bill -Idea explained to Cabinet -Cabinet approves idea -Lawyers Draft bill -Cabinet committee examines bill Cabinet and caucus approve bill -Bill introduced to House of Commons or Senate (first reading) -Second reading -House debates and votes on principle of bill -Parliamentary committee examines bill -House amends bill -Third reading, debate and vote -Bill passes House -Senate (or House of Commons if introduced in Senate) examines, debates, amends bill -Bill passes Senate -Govener general gives royal assent, Bill is now Law.

Criminal Law deals with the punishment of people who commit crimes against the public such as murder, arson, and theft. These are considered to be crimes against society. The rules for this are set down in the Criminal Code of Canada. The federal government is responsible for bringing criminal offenders to trial. Civil Law deals with the protection of private rights.

It is concearned with disputes between individuals or groups. In civil cases, it is up to the injured party to take the case to court. For an exmaple of a civil case, let’s say that a friend of yours pulls out a gun and shoots a hole through your wall, but doesn’t want to pay for it. It would be up to you to sue your friend for the cost of the wall in a civil court. Supreme Court of Canada

Supreme (or Superior) Court of The Province Trials Division Appeals Division District (or County) Courts Provincial (Magistrate’s) Court Family Court Youth Court Indictable Offences Summary Conviction Offences Classification Hearing Alleged Offence Rights Guaranteed by the Canadian Charter of rights and Freedoms Fundamental freedoms: Worship as you like, believe what you want, express your opinions, associate with whomever you like, and gather together peacefully. Democratic rights: Vote in elections, run as a candidate in elections, elect a new government t least every five years. except, possibly in times of war. )

Mobility rights: Enter or remain in or leave Canada, live and work wherever you wish within Canada. Equality rights: Live and work and be protected by the law without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, arge, or mental or physical disability. (There are also Language rights and Enforcement. ) The Rights of The Accused in The Legal Process: (As outlined in the legal rights of all Canadians in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The right to be secure from unreasonable search and seizure.

This prevents the police from searching you, your home, or your personal belongings unless they have a good reason to believe that the search will help them discover some information about a criminal activity. The right of Habeus Corpus. This means that you have to be told the reason you are being arrested. You must also be brought to trial without undue delay. The right to a fair trial. This means that you a right to have a lawyer. If you cannot afford one, the court must appoint one to defend you. You have a right to give your side of the case. The judge must treat you in a fair manner.

The right not to be tried twice for the same crime. this means that once you have been tried and sentenced, the government cannot decide to take you to court again for the same crime. The right not to be subject to cruel and unusual punishment. This means that if you are found guilty of a crime, the courts cannot decide to torture you. (pity. ) Also, your sentance must be the same as the sentance of other people who have been found guilty of a similar crime. Some other rights outlined in the same section of the charter are: The right not to be arbitrarily detained and imprisoned. The right against self-incrimination.

The right to an interpreter. The right to be considered innocent until proven guilty. The right to bail. Governor Sir Guy Carleton was convinced that the Thirteen Colnoies were on the verge of rebellion and he felt that he had to secure the loyalty of the Canadiens (The French-speaking inhabitants of New France) to prevent them from joining with the rebels. To accomplish this goal, he convinced the British government to pass The Quebec act in 1774. The Anglophone Colonists in Quebec felt that the act made Quebec a French Colony instead of a British colony. Generally, Canadiens were pleased.

The act meant that they could keep their land, religion, and language and participate in politics. Basically, here are the Main points of the Quebec Act: – Quebec border is expanded far to the west. The new area included the best fur- trapping lands. – Freedom of religion is granted for Roman Catholics. Roman Catholics are also permitted to hold public office. – French civil law is retained, but British (fag) criminal law is established. – Roman Catholic churches are permitted to own property and collect tithes. – No land is taken from the French. – No elected assembly is created. Red River resistance

The settlement of Red River was occupied by some Metis, (people of mixed European (usually French) and Native Ancestry) and some Anglophone settlers. When the Canadian Government bought the Northwest from the Hudson Bay Company in the 1860s, the Metis were angered that they were not consulted in the sale of the land, nor had their intrests been safeguarded. A Metis leader, Louis Riel felt that Metis rights had to be safeguarded before Canada took over the settlement. So he organized groups of Metis who forced a surverying team to leave, and prevented the new Governor, Mcdougall, from entering the colony.

In November 1869, The Metis organized a provisional government (a temporary government) with Riel as president. They drew up a list of rights which they wanted the government to grant before Red River joined confederation. While these were being negotiated, some Anglophones got mad at the provisional government and one of them, Thomas Scott, was arrested and executed for treason. This execution stopped the negotiations with the federal government. Macdonald had wanted to bring Red River into confederation peacefully, but he had to forget about that.

Citizens of Ontario were outraged that an Anglophone had been killed by Francophones. he longer Macdonald delayed action in the Read River settlement, the more complex the problem became. English speaking Canadians wanted a military force to be sent to Red River to stop Riel’s uprising. French speaking Canadians wanted the Metis rights to be protected. Finally Macdonald acted. His government passed a bill that made the province of Manitoba, sent over a new governor who the Metis agreed on, gave each Metis 240 acres of land, gave the Metis the right to vote, and gave Red River a representative in Parliment.

French was made an official language. Macdonald also sent a military force to Red River to keep order n the colony. The crisis was over, in 1870 the French-English relations looked good. The Northwest Rebellion During the 1880s many Metis moved farther west near to present day Saskatchewan in search of buffalo, and because of loss of land in Red River due to more settlers. By 1885 the buffalo again disappeared and more settlers moved into Saskatchewan. The federal Government sent out surveryers. The Metis demanded payments of money and land and were getting concearned about their rights again.

Anglophones too wanted the land issue resolved. Macdonald’s government, did not respond. Riel came to Saskatchewan on request of the Metis. He drew up yet another bill of rights for the Metis and sent it to Ottawa. Macdonald still ignored the situation in the Northwest. After waiting about four months, Riel concluded that the government wasn’t going to meet any demands, so Riel decided to use force and he appointed Gabriel Dumont as his military commander and an armed clash between the Metis and the North West Mounted police occured.

The Anglophone settlers withdrew their support when Riel decided to use force. Meanwhile, the Cree’s economy was hurt by destruction of the Buffalo and hey used the unrest caused by the Metis to launch several attacks on the Blackfoot. The government mistakingly thought that the Metis were encouraging the Cree to rebel. People in eastarn Canada were in a fenzy after the news of these events reached them, so Macdonald ordered General Middleton, the commander of the Canadian Militia to go to Red River and kick some %&! So, using the new Canadian Pacifac Railway, troops were rushed to the disturbances.

Dumont and his allies beat the government in early battles, but the government had superior military equipment and greatly outnumbered the Metis, so ventually their stronghold at Batoche was surrounded and defeated on May 12, 1885. Riel surrendered on May 15 and he was tried and executed for treason, which became a national French-English conflict. Strains on French-English relations worsened with the outbreak of World War I. In the early years of the war, Canadians were eager to help Britain and its allies, and Canadians served in the war on a voluntary basis and it seemed like there would be enough volunteers.

By 1916, however, the death tolls in Europe were staggering. No matter how hard Canada tried, they couldn’t recruit enough volunteers. It became apparent that Quebec was providing fewer volunteers than Ontario, although their populations were similar in size. The government had to resort to other methods of recrution such as conscription. (The compulsory enlistment of citizens into military service. ) The government was hesitant to bring in conscription, because they knew it would damage French-English relations. (Which it did. Many Francophones had refused to volunteer for the army.

How would they react if they were forced to join? Robert Borden was PM of Canada when World War I broke out. He felt that Britain and its allies would need all the help Canada could give. He thought Canada should supply arms, ships, food, and above all, soldiers. In 1917 he attended the Imperial War Cabinet, which convinced him even more that Britain needed help. Consequently, when he found that he couldn’t wait for enough men to volunteer, he passed the Military Service act (which made conscription legal) in 1917.

In 1918, conscription began, but a large number of Canadians (mostly Francophones) refused to join the army. What wimps! Henri Bourassa was the founder of the Francophone daily paper, Le Devoir. He used the paper to express his ideas. Bourassa felt that Canada hould think of itself as an independant nation, not as a colony of Britain, and as far as he was concearned, World War I had nothing to do with Canada so we shouldn’t help Britain. He thought that Britain and France were imperealistic and that they were just fighting Germany to see who could build up the greatest empire.

In 1960 the “impatient generation” (Basically, these people were proud of being Francophones and felt that Francophones were not being treated as well as they deserved to be by Anglophones. They wanted to change this by gaining political power. ) gained political power and great changes occurred n Quebec. This period of Radical change has become known as the Quiet Revolution. These changes were introduced by the Liberal government of Jean Lesage, who became premier of Quebec in the 1960 election. Here is a list of some of the concearns of Quebeckers in 1960: – Wages in Quebec were less than the national average.

The unemployment rate in Quebec was 9. 1%. – Only 18% of Canada’s federal jobs were given to Francophones. – Majority of businesses in Quebec were owned by Anglophones. – Hospital and health care were not adequate. – Education system was not geared towards an industrial society. Here are the Lesage Government’s solutions to Quebec’s concearns: – Get more hospitals and doctors in Quebec. – Increase old age pensions. – Have new laws which increase wages paid to workers. – Provide more schools and education facilities. – Provide jobs by providing money to start businesses.

Develop Quebec’s vast natural resources. – Take over all the hydro-electric companies in Quebec. In 1962 Lesage campaigned under the slogan “maitres chez nous”. This suggested that he wanted to change the relationship between Quebec and Ottawa. He felt that English Canada had too much control over the economy and the federal government. After the Conscription Crisis, English Canada thought that Quebec was reletively satisfied with their situation, ergo they were suprised when Lesage used that above mentioned slogan.

The federal government and English Canada did not see why Quebec should be given special status over the other provinces. (i. e. Quebec wanted complete control over all of its taxes. ) French Canada argued that they are one of Canada’s founding people, and they are Canada’s largest minority, (28%) and they have their own language and culture to preserve, therefore they should have special status to determine their unique way of life. Thus, during the ’60s Canada was divided into two parts. On one side were French Canadians who demanded special status.

On the other side were the rest of Canadians, who felt that Quebec should not be given special privileges. The Official Languages Act of 1969 had four main points: – English and French are the official languages of Canada. – Both languages must be recognized in parts of the country where there are large minorities of French or English speaking people. – Both languages must be recognized in certain sections of the federal civil service. – Both languages must be offered as the language of instruction in all chools in Ottawa.

When Trudeau made this act, it led to big changes such as all labels being bilingual, and all civil servants learning french. Bilingualism was a symbol that all Francophones were accepted in Canada. The government wanted to prove that the French didn’t have to seperate form Canada to protect their way of life. Trudeau was so sure that this act was the solution to all French-English relation problems that he made four more proposals, which were: – All of the provinces of Canada should provide French services for their French- speaking minorities.

Provinces with large French-speaking minorities should recognize both French and English as an official language. – All provinces should provide both French and English schools. – Businesses in Quebec should use both French and English. Meanwhile, Anglophones were unhappy with being asked to give a greater share of power and influence to Francophones. They were afraid that they would either learn French, or be excluded form many jobs and politics. Also, they didn’t like that fact that Trudea was spending so much of their tax money on bilingualism.

In October 1970, members of the FLQ (Front de liberation du Quebec. This is a political terrorist group in Quebec which used violence to promote the eparation of Quebec from the rest of Canada during the 1960s and early 1970s. ) kidnapped James Cross, the Britsh Trade Commissioner, and Pierre Laporte, the Quebec Labour Minister. As a result of this, the War Measures Act was put into effect. (This is an act giving police and the armed forces sweeping powers of arrest, search and detention. It was also used in World War I and II. The FLQ killed Laporte and then released Cross.

The kidnappers were allowed to fly to Cuba. Some people were arrested in connection with the Laporte case, and they are tried and sentanced. Meech lake is a lake in Quebec near Ottawa where the Mulroney cabinet oes for it’s out ot town meetings. The Meech Lake Accord is a deal between Ottawa and the Provinces for changing the Constitution, worked out at Meech Lake on April 30, 1987 and refined in an all- nighter June 2-3 1987, at the Langevin Block across the street from the Parliment buildings in downtown Ottawa.

The objective of this accord is to get Quebec to sign the constitution of April 17, 1982. All provinces must ratify the Meech Lake amendment or it dies because it tries to change parts of the 1982 Constitution that need agreement by Ottawa and all provinces. Mulrony’s government has set the eadline for all the provinces to sign the accord for June 23, 1990, although some people say there is no deadline. Here are some of the key points in the accord: – The “Quebec Clause” is the key clause in this accord.

It means that no matter what happens, Quebec must always be recognized within Canada as a distinct society and the Quebec government must be allowed to preserve and promote the distinct society. – Other provinces are just given the job of preserving the fundamental characteristic of Canada, which is the fact of Francophones centered in Quebec and present in the rest of Canada, and Anglophones concentrated utside of Quebec but also present inside Quebec. – Changes to the Senate will need consent of all province.

Supreme Court goes into constitution, provinces get right to propose people when new justices are being names, Quebec gets 3/9 judges. – Each province gets a guarantee on it’s share of immigrants The International Joint Commission handles conflicts in which an action by a country on one side of the border effects the country on the other side of the border. It was created in 1912 and has three American and Three Canadian members which are appointed by each country’s federal government. It makes dicisions by majority rules. It has one headquarter in Ottawa and one in Washington.

There are three main functions of the commission: – To regulate. – To investigate. – To survey and coordinate. With the creation of The Autopact in 1965, the makers of cars could freely move cars across the Canadian-US border without tariffs. The pact required that a certain proportion of the cars manufactured in North America be made in Canadian factories. Despite the tensions of the two countries being mad that the flow of trade sometimes went in the other countries favour, the Autopact allowed car makers to better plan roduction. This was to the benefit of both Canada and US.

In 1957 Canada and US made a formal agreement to join defence efforts against attack from the air. This is the North American Aerospace Defence Command (NORAD). Billions of dollars from Canada and US have been spent on radar stations, fighter planes, and command centres. Also, Canadians and Americans train with each other. The basic function of NORAD is to detect any attack on North America and respond to it quickly. The American bomber forces need to be kept from suprise attack, so the US wanted Canada’s help to provide the land for radar warning sights.

There is a big debate as to whether or not Canada should remain in NORAD, some arguments for Canada remaining in NORAD are: – NORAD provides protection of Canada’s airspace. – North America would be a single target in any nuclear war. – NORAD protects the US deterrent force. Some arguments for Canada not remaining in NORAD are: – The US doesn’t need Canada to help with air defence. – It is unlikely that the Soviet Union would Launch an all-out war on NA. – Costly CF-18 fighters are not needed to meet intruders into our airspace. Canada’s contribution to victory in World War I.

The Canadian army entered combat in the spring of 1915. Thousands of Canadians died, and Canada’s army soon gained a reputation for its bravery and good organization. (note – a lot of Canadians were forced to join the army with conscription) General Currie, Commander of the Canadian Corps, was rated among the best generals on the Allied side. Some Canadian victories were the battle of Ypres, and Hill 70. Canadians also fought in Britsh Empire forces. Billy Bishop, a Canadian in the flying corps, was an outstanding pilot. Canada’s contribution to victory in World War II.

In World War II, Canada only sent a few soldiers to the war (there was NO conscription, as PM Mackenzie King didn’t want the country divided again like in world war I. Most Canadian help took the form of food and manufactured goods such asvehicles and weapons. After the defeat of France in 1940, Canada made a full-scale war effort. In 1941, Canada declared war on Super Mario 3 Japan. By 1942, Canada, with its many volunteers, was ready to make a major contribution to the fighting. By 1944, King was forced to send 13 000 soldiers oversees because the war was going pretty badly.

Sitting Bull Exile To Canada

Many things influenced Sitting Bull’s decision to cross the border into Canada. After Custer’s defeat at Little Bighorn, Sitting Bull had to live life in fear. He fought on the defensive for years. Sitting Bull and his followers fled from the onslaught of American howitzers. He then was able to find sanctuary in the White Grandmother’s Country, north of the international boundary. “Most of the band drifted back in the next few years; Sitting Bull himself was to return in 1881 to end his exile” (Andrist 298)). They faced unknown obstacles, and challenges, all for a chance to live the way they wanted to.

When times were bad they looked to the Canadians for assistance. When they could not help Sitting Bull struggle ended and asylum. Canada was no longer an option for Sitting Bulls starving people. For Sitting Bull and his people “the winter of 1876-77 was a winter of despair. “Soldiers occupied the hunting grounds and kept the war going even when the snow fell and the temperature plunged”(Utley 174). Sitting Bulls options for the survival his people were being held in the hands of the soldiers surrounding his winter encampment.

Who could at any time ” burst into their village, shoot down the people, and destroy their homes and food supplies”(Utley 174). Sitting Bull disliked the alternative of an unconditional surrender, which was out of the question. This surrender would have cost Sitting Bull and his people their guns, and horses. This was unreasonable for people who relied on these valuable tools in almost every aspect in their lives. In April of 1877 the Miniconjoous, Sans Arcs, Hunkpaps, and others of equal prominence conviened a council at Beaver Creek. Spotted Eagle and Sitting Bull would make speeches advocating continuing the war against the white man.

They would eventually realize them necessity to act in the best interest of the people. Sitting Bull stood firm in his way of life, as a hunter. Around this time Crazy Horse made his decision to surrender. On May 6, Crazy horse surrendered at the Red Cloud agency in Robinson Nebraska. The group which consisted of 889 people, surrendered “12,00 ponies and 117 arms”(Utley182). Sitting Bull faced new uncertainty in Canada. He had traveled to this country before “following Buffalo or seeking Slotas to trade with” (Utley184). He also knew from experience the contrast between the Grandmother (Canada) and the Great Father of the United States.

He would also begin to somewhat trust the Canadians Sitting bull would soon develop a relationship with a 34-year-old lawman by the name of James M. Walsh. Walsh was a 34-year-old Major for the Northwest Mounted police. Walsh would go on to play an influential role in the issues involving Sitting Bull’s stay in Canada. Walsh was very aware of the actions involving the Sioux. Even before the Battle of Little Bighorn, Walsh and other Mounties had realized that the U. S. military operations against the Sioux and Cheyenne were to drive hostile Indians north across the border” (Anderson 1).

On May 7, 1877 Walsh would follow a trail “that led up from the Montana, about 50 miles to the south” his scouts had said that “A good-sized band had passed over this ground”(Anderson 1). Walsh and his scouts “would have no small task preserving law and order in the border country” (Anderson 1). The Canadians “were already having problems with their own plains Indians and did not want to add to the numbers for which they were responsible” (Adams 337). These problems arrived at the end of company rule in 1869. American whiskey traders had “spread demoralization and bloodshed among tribes” (Utley 184).

This put the Canada in a situation it would have to deal with. Sitting bull had reached a Slota trading camp on the Big Bend of Milk River by April 16th. Apparently heading for international boundaries. The movement had a total of around one thousand people, occupying 135 lodges. Some of these lodges were new, “but most were old, raged, and patched, all that could be salvaged agreed the Missouri River floodwaters swept through their village in March” (Utley 183). The Lodge of Sitting Bull and his extensive family was the shabbiest of any of the lodges. This showed the true generosity and devotion he had towards his people.

In early May of 1877, when Sitting Bull crossed the international boundary into “The White Mothers Country”, as it would come to be known (Anderson 2). His movements were under the watchful eye of Walsh’s scouts who had been anticipating the arrival of the Humkapapa leader. Sixty miles above the boundary, Sitting Bull camped near Pinto Horse Butte, where they were first introduced to the North West Mounted Police. Major Walsh and his six men “rounded the hill to find a large camp spread before them. They sat in their saddles while a group of Indians rode toward them” (Anderson 2).

The strangers then rode to the very edge of the village, dismounted and set up their own camp. Spotted Eagle informed Walsh and his men that they were the first white men to approach Sitting Bulls camp so close. Walsh and his men met with Sitting Bull in a council lodge that afternoon. Sitting Bull spoke of the “misdeeds inflicted on him by the Americans” (Utley 185). Walsh informed him “the Sioux were in the land of the Great White Mother her laws protected every person whatever color. They were but would also punish any person who violated them” (Utley 185). Walsh also informed them that they had sanctuary in this land.

Walsh also made it clear that no Indian would return to the United States to steal or kill or strike across the border against American soldiers. No Indian would steal horses they must this “forfeited the privilege of asylum in Canada” (Utley 185). Sitting Bull agreed to Walsh’s terms, stating “he had buried’ his weapons before crossing into the White Mothers Land” (Anderson 2). Sitting Bull asked Walsh for ammunition for his people for buffalo hunting, because they had used all of their bullets fighting against Americans. Walsh agreed to allow them enough bullets to hunt as long as they didn’t use them to fight warfare across the border.

The next morning on May 8, Sitting Bull would witness firsthand the enforcement of the laws of the Great White Mother. “White Dog and two their Assinboines from the Missouri River rode into the village trailing five horses”(Utley 185). Walsh’s scouts recognized three of the horses as property of a Roman Catholic priest who had been in Cypress Hills. An undeterred Walsh was quick on apprehending White Dog who was very defiant, attempted to seek aid from Sioux warriors watching the escalading drama who were “dumbfounded by the Mounties courage” (Anderson 3).

He offered “an explanation about finding the horses grazing on the prairie”(Utley 185). He also stated that he was unaware that it was wrong to do so. In the end Walsh gave the Assinboine the benefit of the doubt. White Dog surrendered the horses to Walsh who intern gave him a lecture on obeying law in the White Mother’s country. Walsh had shown courage in front of the warriors, which was admirable to them. The “red coats laid down the rules unambiguously and then enforced them fearlessly, even at the risk of their own lives”(Utley 186). Walsh showed Sitting Bull and his chiefs a lesson that they would soon not forget.

On May 26, 1877 three Americans arrived in the camp near Pinto Horse Butte. The Sioux would have probably killed the American scouts, but they decided to seek council at Fort Walsh. These men were on a mission to track down sitting bull in order to arrange peace. One was the Catholic bishop of Dakota. On the afternoon on June 2, two councils took place. The Bishop spoke on behalf of the U. S. government, but not officially. He also assured that all the promises made would be carried out. Sitting Bull and other prominent tribal members spoke of there intent to stay in Canada. Sitting Bull said, “what would I return for?

To have my horses and arms taken away? What have the Americans to give me? Once I was rich; but the Americans stole it all in the Black Hills? ” (Adams 337). Sitting Bull ending his speech by saying ” The Great White Mother takes care of everyone in her land in every part of the world. In the Queens land we all live like one family” (Utley 188). During the meeting Canadian Lieutenant Irvine told Sitting Bull that he would be protected, as long as he behaved himself. The Lakota leaders started to realize that life in Canada a very appealing prospect. They now had protection against bluecoat (American) attack.

They also had an abundance of buffalo between Cypress Hills and Wood Mountain. They had a new vision for the future On the other hand the chiefs still had thoughts of returning to their homeland to fight for it’s return. They knew that they had been defeated for the time being, for now renewing the fight was out of the question. To add to the vision of a new life, and the old way of the buffalo. Walsh “granted traders the authority to sell strictly limited quantities of powder and ball” (Utley 190). The Sioux could then return to hunting the plentiful amount of buffalo in Canada.

The Buffalo hunt would cause many young Lakota and Slotas to cross paths. “Inevitably, some would steal stock or commit other offenses” (Utley 191). Sitting Bull had plenty of mouths to feed by the time the spring of 1878 came along. His band grew by 240 lodges when Crazy Horses band made it’s way across the border, to what would be called the Canadian sanctuary. “45 of White Bird’s Nez Perces had also attached themselves to the Sioux” (Utley 200). This brought Sitting Bull camp up to a total of 800 lodges, with a total of around 5,000 people (Utley 200). The Buffalo supplies were not a plentiful as thought before.

The Canadian government had estimated that there were enough buffalo to feed its western Indians for at least another five years” (Anderson 6). This projection didn’t account for the presence of 5,000 Sioux in Canada who were “making drastic inroads into the numbers of buffalo” (Anderson 6). The Canadian tribes began to see the dwindling numbers of buffalo. They did not hesitate on blaming the Sioux. The Dwindling Buffalo was a burden in eyes of the Canadian government. They knew it would lead to intertribal warfare. The Canadian government did not want to feed the Sioux when the buffalo ran out.

The attitude of Canada remained; the Sioux would eventually have to return to their own country. In the Beginning of 1878 buffalo began becoming scarce in Canada. Sitting Bull’s hunting “bands fell into the habit of straddling the line”(Anderson 6). Sitting Bull remained very hesitant to cross the boundary, so he often set the camps just slightly north of the border. On July 17, 1879, a hunting Party that included sitting bull, ventured across the border were they exchanged shots with Bear Coat Miles’ soldiers, and Crow scouts. Sitting Bull and his party was forced back across the line as a result of Miles’ Howitzers.

This strengthened the hatred Sitting Bull had toward the Americans. He was certain that he was going to be punished for what happened at Little Bighorn. The continual slaughter of buffalo throughout the Great Plains by whites and Indians, led to the end of large herds migrating north of the border. By 1879 there were only scattered herds in Canada. Canadian Indians and Sioux were starving. This forced many of Sitting Bull’s people to surrender at Fort Keogh. Surrendering in some cases was the only alternative to starvation. In the early summer of 1879, a party of young Sioux raided 50 or more horses the Metis, a native Canadian tribe.

The Sioux laughed at one Metis named Poitras, rode into the Sioux camp to demand the return of his horses. Poitras then rode to Walsh’s post at Wood Mountain, and complained. Walsh intern rode to the Sioux encampment and threatened to force them to move back across the border, if they didn’t return the horses. The lack of food had led the Sioux to ask for provisions from the Canadians. During the meeting with Walsh after the horse raid, Sitting Bull complained about the White Mothers lack of compation toward the Sioux. Walsh was insulted by his comments, he said Have you forgotten that you’re American Indians?

You haven’t any right to be in Canada. You’ve caused us police any amount of trouble. You’ve stolen horses. You’ve been a goddamn nuisance. You seem to think that all white men are afraid of you. Well, Get your god dam provisions at the trading post. If you keep on making trouble, I’ll put the whole damn lot of you in jail (Anderson 7). During the dispute Sitting Bull attempted to pull out his revolver, but was quickly halted by another chief. Then he got up and walked away. By June of 1879 the Canadian government resolved to end the put an end to the encouragement to the Sioux, and they should be pressed to return to the United States.

Walsh was not the man to carry out such a policy. This only because he liked the Sioux, understood them, and believed that they were abused by the United States. “Walsh’s superiors at Fort Walsh and Ottawa sensed his Liabilities, and in the spring of 1880 they moved discreetly to separate him from the Sioux”(Utley 214). Prime Minister Sir John MacDonald, who started the Mounted Police in 1873, was convinced that Walsh was being too sympathetic to Sitting Bull. So he transferred Walsh from Wood Mountain to Fort Qu’Appelle, 160 miles northeast.

Sitting Bull was devastated when he heard of the departure of Walsh; he also was in need of assistance. He presented Walsh “with a eagle feathered war bonnet, telling him: “take courage when the Lakota were strong” (Anderson 8). Walsh. Before the departure Sitting Bull asked if Walsh could plead for a reservation in Canada. Walsh said, “that it would be useless for him to do this… he would have to eventually return to the United States” (Anderson 9). Sitting Bull wanted Walsh to assure that he and his people would be treated fairly when they returned. He feared retaliation for the victory over Custer.

Walsh told Sitting Bull that he would try to go to Washington if the Prime Minsiter permitted him. Walsh “had told himself that he had done no more than promise to make known the wishes of the Sioux in Ottawa and, if permitted Washington. What he had actually done was planted large expectations in the minds of the Sioux” (Utley 214). Walsh would not be allowed to travel to Washington though. He was not even able to travel back to Wood Mountain to report the outcome of his mission to Sitting Bull. Sitting Bull continued to hold out, and in desperation he went to a Canadian post at Qu’ Appelle river.

He begged the Canadian authorities to give his people a reservation. But the answer was, No. The Americans had a reservation south of the border if they would only comply with the demands of the United States Government. Sitting Bull then asked them for food” (Adams 348). Sitting Bull was finally starting to realize his fight was almost over. Sitting Bull did not have a large number of followers. “There were no longer thousands of massive warriors as there had been at Little Bighorn, just a handful of immediate followers, numbering in les than two hundred, who remained faithful to the ideal of resistance.

Sitting Bull dream of living free in Canada was soon to end. Inspector Liet N. F. replaced Walsh at Wood Mountain, with the intent to rid Canada of Sitting Bull. He was unable to gain the respect of sitting bull. He lacked the true dedication that Walsh had they would act quick and steadfast in expelling sitting bull from Canada. Jean Louis Legare’ who was trader at Wood Mountain had assisted many Sioux with provisions and accompanied them to Ft Buford. He had hoped to be reimbursed by the American and Canadian governments for feeding and assisting the Sioux in moving back into the states.

On July 12, a caravan of thirty-seven carts hauled food and supplies necessary to get the remaining Sioux from Canada to Fort Buford. Sitting Bull surrendered on July 19, 1881 putting and end to his exile. Alexander Macdonnell of the Mounted police accompanied him Sitting Bull’s long struggle for the trational Indian way of life ended with the depletion of the buffalo herds. He spent for years in Canada under a close watchful eye of Walsh, Canadian Mounties. In the end sitting Bull was able to escape the terror of the United States had for four years.

The Biggest Conference

Welcome ladies and gentlemen to the biggest conference since July 4, 1776. I come to you today to inform you of a new relationship we have formed with our neighboring country Canada. Many of you know that experiments of cloning have been becoming more and more elaborate with each year and some of you know that a number of these experiments have been successful. I am here today to tell you that one of our neighboring countries have perfected this process. We on the other hand have not. Canada perfected the entire process of cloning in 2047.

Being the quiet peaceful country 52 years ago, the United States government saw this new knowledge as no threat and decided to keep the information from the American people. However, it has become a threat. One week ago, Canada sent cloned troops towards the United States in hopes to overthrow our government. American troops were also sent for retaliation. Unfortunately because the United States has not properly funded our cloning program over the past few decades, hopes of victory have diminished to very slim chances.

Over the past few days, the Canadian clones have wiped out two-thirds of our American forces. Since every clone can be reproduced once destroyed, this battle has become an inevitable loss to the United States. On this basis, the United States government and all officials with influence on our society have decided to surrender to Canada so that no more lives will be lost. It is a sad day and probably the last of the United States of America. Under the terms set for surrender the border between Alaska, Canada, and the United States shall be dropped.

A new country shall be formed entitled UNITED CANADA. Clones have been enabled to use deadly force to insure the protection of others so panicking will only insure ones death. Our economies will merge, as will our governmental systems. All risk-taking jobs shall be abolished and will be worked only by clones. Clones will become our new police force, firemen, armed forces, navy, army, National Guard, coast guard, marines, et cetera. The border between Canada and the United States is being removed as we speak and the border between all other countries and us has been closed.

Canadians and Canadian clones are one their way south this very moment. Please do not put up any resistance to this movement for already too many lives have been lost. Everyone except those who are employed by the county, state, or United States government will have only minor changes in their every day lives. All United States government, state, and county officials will be relieved of their jobs and must report to the formerly secret base 719 in Toronto, our new capital.

You will then be cloned and your clone will then replace you at your current job. Toronto officials will assign a more useful occupation to you. These are all the orders we have received from Toronto so far. I will keep you up to date, as further details become available. As my last word as an influential member of this changing society, I wish you all the best of luck with your new government and I hope that we can merge together without any resisting bodies. Ladies and Gentlemen, welcome to United Canada.

Mining in Canada

The importance of mining is definitely significant to Canada. Mining, is an important industry, and Canadians are very advanced in their mining technology, but during the mining process, there is certain level of pollution produced. The Canadian government and the mining companies have very good plans and controls toward this problem, while ensuring the smooth running of the industries, and also helping to create strong economy and The world of today could not exist without mineral products.

Canada produces about 60 minerals and ranks first among producing ountries1. As well, Canada is the largest exporter of minerals, with more than 20 per cent of production shipped to world markets2. In a typical year, the mining industry is responsible for almost 20 per cent of Canada’s total export earnings3 (See Appendix A). As for the employment rate, over 70 per cent of the mines are owned by Canadians and approximately 108,000 Canadians are directly employed in the mining industry4. Mining is very important in Canadian life.

Not only do the products power the family car and heat the family home, the manufacturing sector, he high tech industries and even the better known resource industries are all dependent, in some way, on the mining industry. The mining industry will continue to be an important Mining is taking full advantage of the quick expansion of computers and microelectronics. These technologies are found in nearly every aspect of mineral development activity – from exploration methods, through production, mineral processing and even marketing.

Computers and related equipment now have a lot of different applications in geophysical logging, geochemistry, geological mapping and surface contouring5. At the mine planning tage, the job of designing a mine is now greatly simplified by automation. Through the use of advanced software, geological models can be produced from drill hole data. Computers are also being used to develop plans for mine expansion, develop mining schedules for yearly, quarterly and in some cases, weekly operations. At the operating stage, this new technology is everywhere6.

Both in research and operational applications, automated mine monitoring systems now determine immediate information on the status of equipment in underground or remote Canada produces its 60 mineral products from roughly 300 mines cross the country7. Before these products can make the trip from mines to the marketplace, they must be searched for, staked, tested, analyzed, developed. There are many difference methods to mine for minerals, an “open pit” mine is one of the method we use today.

The ore – waste material along with the minerals, is recovered directly from the surface. Drilling rigs are used to drill holes into the ore areas and blasting charges will be set in them to break loose the ore. The ore: first stop is at the primary crushing station, often located underground, where the arge chunks of ore are crushed to a finer size. Further crushing is required prior to sending the ore to the mill where it is ground to a fine powder8. The purpose of crushing and grinding is to free the minerals from the rock.

Treatment may consist of gravity or chemical concentration techniques. The end product of the mill is a concentrate, whereby the percentage of valuable mineral has been increased by a factor of 10 to as much as 50 times contained in the ore9. The concentration operation may be complicated or relatively simple, depending on the mineral content of the ore. Milling processes are designed to separate the valuable minerals from the undesired minerals. Although the milling process separates valuable minerals from waste, it does not actually recover the metals in final form.

The smelting operation treats the metal-bearing concentrate further, up-grading it to purer form called “matte”. Basically: The ore concentrates are mixed with other materials and treated at high temperatures to change the material to other chemical forms. The metal in the matte can be separated further. Further treatment is applied to the final purification of the etal and finishing to the standards required in the metal-using Mining, as we understanding, is a very important industry. But there are underlying dangers to our environment.

Mining companies and the government have realized this problem, and regulations and controls have been applied to it. The major environmental problem usually results from the processing and transportation of mineral products rather than from the actual mining process. Example: when an oil spill has occurred in the ocean, the problem caused to the environment is very big, because gallons of oil is spilling over the ocean’s surface, resulting in he death of many ocean organisms, and in the pollution of the ocean. See Appendix B)

In this article, it shows how much an oil spill can endanger the environment. To prevent this problem, special attention is given by the captain to watch out for other ships and rocks – since this huge tanker ship would have to take two kilometres to come to a full stop. Moreover, mining also is an indirect cause to acid rain – one of a very important environmental problems. Acid rain unquestionably contributed to the acidification of lakes and streams, causing problems with the agricultural crops and forest rowth, and has the potential to contaminate drinking water systems 10.

Sulphur dioxide is responsible for about two thirds of the acidity in precipitation; the other one third is from nitrogen oxide. The major source of sulphur dioxide in eastern Canada is nonferrous metal smelters, which produce more than 40 per cent of the region’s total emission11 – where smelting is one of the important processes of refining minerals. Over the past decade, sulphur dioxide emissions at some eastern Canadian nonferrous operations have been significantly reduced.

For example, emission at the Inco smelter in Copper Cliff were educed from 5500 tonnes per day in 1969 to 2270 tonnes per day in 1980. The Falconbridge nickel smelter, which emitted about 940 tonnes per day in 1969, now emits about 420 tonnes per day12. In eastern Canada, more than 50 per cent of the sulphur dioxide comes from the United States, while Canada’s contribution to total American deposition is only about 10 per cent13.

The Canadian government has noticed this problem, and has setup a Memorandum of Intent signed by the two governments setting up the framework for negotiation of a transboundary air pollution agreement. This agreement ensures both countries control their mission and makes sure they do not cause any damage to the environment of the other country. As well, not only the government is trying to control this problem, smelting companies are also paying a large amount of money to control pollution and reducing sulphur dioxide emissions.

Department of environment (DOE) estimates that a capital investment of $620 million (in 1980 $) would be required by eastern Canadian nonferrous smelters to reduce emissions by 57 per cent. The cost of an 80 per cent reduction is estimated to be $1. 0 billion The environment problem happens in the mine itself as well, companies have added newer, larger and more effective filters on their chimneys to reduce the amount of damaging fumes that previously had been released into the atmosphere.

Also, money has been spent on research to plant vegetation on the mine tailings so that the dust is held in place and not blown around to damage the environment. Companies are becoming more and more aware of the problem today, and government agencies are also trying to keep our environment clean and heathy, and have set out some guidelines. (See Appendix C). Mining process, and mineral exploration, requiring access to large areas of lands, if minerals are discovered, mining – especially “open pit” mining – can degrade the immediate environment and have off-property effects on water quality.

To minimize this problem, most of the mines in Canada are found in places far from the people. From all of these examples, Canadian companies and the government are investing money, trying very hard to continue taking care of our environment, and their efforts are certainly helping to keep the Our economy, values of exports, employment rate, and to our veryday needs in society – we are always direct or indirectly dependent on the mining industry. But as we discover, the mining industry does contribute pollution to the environment.

Nevertheless government and mining companies have realize this problem, and have contributed money and effort to correct it, helping to keep the environment clean and heathy, also ensuring this industry will be running smoothly and bringing in money to Canada: Value of Mineral Exports Source: Energy, mines and Resources Canada – 1986 The following attached articles are concern the damage created by il spills, and shows what the government has done to help this problem.

In the article “Worse than disastrous”, the damage to the environment is more that what is expected. The wildlife are being killed. For example, 350,000 to 390,000 sea birds have been killed after the spill. From this article, we realize how much an oil spill can destroy the environment, and this is partly related to the mining industry because it is necessary to transport these minerals. For the second article “Tanker captain charged”, which took place in Alaska, the captain of the tanker was charged. Due to the influence of alcohol.

Poverty in Canada

Poverty is an issue which society faces each day. It is a constant struggle that cannot be ignored. Defeating poverty would take great efforts and contributions from all. Canada and the third world are examples of countries which are experiencing poverty, yet each differ in different ways. Once seeing the multitudes of condominiums, expensive restaurants, and streets jammed with cars, one would never see Canada as a place suffering from hunger, lack of food or clothing. Yet poverty exists. Poverty in Canada cannot be compared to that of a 3rd world country, since many of the poor have access to transportation and television.

What people lack is ability to see the inadequate nutrition overcrowded housing and chronic unemployment. A visitor to Canada from Africa or Asia, if told if told that there is a widespread poverty in this country, might find the statement hard to credit. (Schlesinger 89) In most places, the poor are thought to be isolated, away from shopping zones as well as residential areas. They are seen as a crowded cluster, living in shantytowns drinking a bottle of whisky, uselessly lying there in search for a job, or some method of employment.

This is just one of the stereotypes given to the poor person, we must first define poverty. Individuals and families whose financial resources and/or other resources (including educational and occupational skills, the condition of the environment at home and at work, and material possessions) fall seriously below those commanded by the average person or family in society, are in poverty. (Schlesinger 105) The poverty line, is a method used by the government to determine the number of poor people living in a certain area. It is based on an individuals income.

Anyone below the annual level of income is classified as being poor. Who Are Our Poor? The Special Senate Committee on Poverty, using a poverty line, calculated that approximately five million Canadians live in poverty (NCW 10) Studies show various groups in society tend to be poorer in comparison to others. Over 1 million Canadians who work are poor. The working poor are usually employed in service sales, farming, fishing and clerical jobs characterized by low pay, limited opportunities for advancement, and instability. It is said 1 person in every eight who lives alone is member of the working poor.

The second highest group is individuals that live in poverty are the elderly. 500 000 elderly people in Canada are poor. Many of them, live on fixed amounts from pension. They rely on transfer payments from the government as their main source of income. Old Age Security, Guaranteed Income Supplements and Spouse Allowances are the basic public pensions for elderly persons, but they still find themselves 15% below they poverty line. The third group of poor people living in poverty is the unemployed. There are approximately 480 000 unemployed people in Canada.

Unemployment insurance provides benefits for those who have been employed and contributed and then lost their jobs; it cannot help the disabled elderly or those tied down by parental responsibilities that are not part of the labor force. Disabled persons make up the next largest category of poor people. There are 460 000 disabled people presently living in poverty. It is very difficult for a disabled person to find work since they are constantly prone to discrimination. Conditions will not change until the attitudes of others change. Single-parent families are the next in line to face the struggles set down by poverty.

Over 150 000 single parent families are poor. About on in every four marriages end in divorce. (Schlesinger 56) These parents cannot afford the expenses for daycare facilities as well as lunchtime and after school supervision for their child therefore, and required staying home. They can receive up to $500 a month in Family Benefits and Baby Bonus. Finally, the last category or group, which live in poverty, is the Canadian Indians. 105 000 Canadian Indians are unemployed. Their housing units are overcrowded and , have no running water.

Available social services do not develop Indian people either individually or as a whole. Why are some Canadians Poor? After acknowledging which Canadians are poor, we ask ourselves why them? There basically 5 broad categories which each can be placed in. 1) Those who are not able to work because they are too old, too young, disabled, or tied down by social responsibility. 2) Those who are able and qualified to work but can not find it. 3) Those who are not equipped to fill available job either because they are undereducated. (Immigrants have language barriers) Or, because theyre old skills have become outdated. Those social and personal problems have brought them to a point of self-defeating discouragement. 5) Those who are underemployed, underpaid, or unable to get a fair price for what they have to sell. (Ex. Farmers)

What is being done? There are many social programs available to help the poor. However, there are always some conditions of eligibility. Others depend on the individual s income, the household income and participated on the labor market. Poverty in Third World Countries In 1994 more than one billion people live in absolute poverty. This means they cannot afford essential nutrition, clothing, and shelter.

India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Africa are most known for their third world one can state and acknowledge that there is little hope for change. It has reached the state where citizens have given up on trying. Yet are they the ones to blame? For every time they have tried to improve their standards of living, they have only experienced failure. Poverty in third world countries does not occur overnight. There are many signs that reveal if a county is underdeveloped. The most popular symptoms, which may also be in the most evident, are hunger and malnutrition.

In most low income nations food supplies are at or below the minimum required to feed the population. (Aubert 70) In poor countries distribution of food is not equal. The wealthier citizens are able to receive twice as much food as compared to those of the lower class. Diphtheria, Leprosy, Yellow fever and Kwashiorkor are examples of childrens diseases due to the lack of nutrition (protein). Fighting these types of diseases has become a problem among the people of poverty. A great deal of deaths has occurred because of these overpowering diseases, which is one explanation of povertys overpopulation rate.

The men and women of poverty believe that one way to fight poverty is by having children. Their theory behind this statement is that by having more children they all will be able too work, either on farms or in the city. It is these children who represent the labour an income the poor need to survive especially in old age. (Bender 121) People in wealthier countries usually think that people are poor because of bearing too many children. Surprisingly enough it is the opposite way: people have many children because they are poor. Another sign, which is just as important as over population, is unfair land and food distribution.

Developing countries (known as third world) such as Indonesia and Peru depend on their land for farming which will bring employment to the city. The problem though is that rent costs are too high and the wages are low. This results in most of the pay going towards the land, therefore leaving no money to be sent for the family to buy food. The cost of food imported to developing countries is controlled by multinational companies (Aubert 94) People who work for low pay may not always be able to afford food at whatever price it maybe.

It is these people who eventually end up developing a disease from malnutrition or starvation and eventually die. Even though food is bought into the country, it is not distributed evenly among the population. Some may be receiving twice as much calorie intakes than needed as compared to those who dont receive any at all. Which goes to show that if one is able to pay then they are able to eat, if not they go hungry. Low income salaries also results in no education for the children and harmful living condition such as bad situation and poor shelter. What is being done?

In order for those problems to be resolved programs must be created to promote development in countries such as Africa, and parts of Asia. Overpopulation must be controlled and resource development should be focused on. Programs such as World vision Canada, Green Peace, UNICEF, and Oxfam have already begun to help these countries in need. Since the government has been force to decrease their spending on health and education these non-government organisations had decided to take it upon them selves to help out the poor. (Bender 82) A popular way in which their organisations are able to receive the money to help out is through the public.

By sponsoring children in developing countries, the monthly donation will be used towards immunising children, providing loans for communities to begin income projects, teaching literacy, providing the children with an education and educating women on basic health, nutrition and family planning. Family planning is one effective way of helping development in third world countries. (Bender 97) If there are fewer births, the government will not have to supply as many schools, hospitals, or other institution needed for raising a child. Parents can better feed clothes and care for fewer children they have.

Although some countries are the processes of these programs they are still dependent on foreign aid. The only problem, with foreign aid is that most of the time the food is never directly given to those in need of it. For example, in Somalia 80 percent of the food ended up in the hands of the military officers and government officials. (Aubert 119) This able to explain why there are still so many people going hungry? Yet for those who are lucky enough to receive it, it does improve their standard of living and gives hope to do well in the future. In order for future development of third world countries one most consider new technologies.

Technology has always been directed to the North since progress is always noticed. (Bender 22) These nations have preferred to ignore countries such as Africa since their modern skills may be more successful elsewhere. If technologies were to be created in third world countries which the North already has for some years of these utilities one already may notice that it wont be cheap. Thousands of dollars must be spent. Once again the same problem exists: there is not enough money to provide all of these commodities which may help the development of the third world nations.

Canada’s Institutional Landscape and The Government’s Ignorance of Farmer’s Needs

Saskatchewan farmers have been continually ignored in Canada’s institutional landscape. Never has the situation been more evident as it is with the possibility of Quebec separation. The Canadian governments ignorance of farmers’ needs has caused a cynical view of the political process in the eyes of farmers. One of the major sources of the cynicism is that Canadian federal institutions are developed so that most political of the clout is developed from the east. The eastern domination of the House of Commons, and indirectly the Senate, means that Saskatchewan wheat farmers do not have a strong voice in

Canadian political decisions. But what does the Saskatchewan lack of representation in Canada’s political institutions in Ottawa mean? What can Saskatchewan wheat farmers do to rectify the situation? And, following a Quebec separation what can wheat farmers do to uphold their livelihood? The intent of this report is to focus on the actions Saskatchewan wheat farmers can take to ensure their success in the future. A focus on the recent political policy decisions by the federal government, the need for intrastate institutional reform, and effects of a possible Quebec separation will all be analyzed.

The current institutional landscape of Canada has not acted favorably for Saskatchewan wheat farmers. The development of the institutions, ie. the House of Commons and the Senate, and the policies that have developed from these institutions have continually ignored the needs of prairie farmers, emphasizing the cynicism Saskatchewan wheat farmers have towards the political process. The antipathy towards the political institutions has developed because of recent cost-cutting initiatives and deregulatory procedures by the government and by mis-representation of farmers’ needs in government today.

The failure of Saskatchewan wheat farmers to express their needs in the Canadian political arena successfully, when compared to other constituencies, is based on the fact that Saskatchewan’s representation in Canada’s political institutions is weak. The result is the development of policies contrary to what would be accepted by farmers. Saskatchewan wheat farmers, in accordance with most constituencies in the west, have desired a institutional change to the Upper House in Canada. In 1867, when the institutions were developed, the goal was to develop two different political “bodies”.

One, the House of Commons, would represent the Canadian people by means of elected representatives in a representation by population scenario. The second, the Senate, would be a source of “sober second thought. ” In its creation the senate was intended to protect the ideals of individual regions. However, to the chagrin of Saskatchewan wheat farmers, the intended regional focus of the senate never developed and, hence, the senate has been an institution that has been the focus of a lot of antipathy from the West.

The drive for modifications to the Senate has been pressed by Saskatchewan wheat armers in an attempt to uphold their livelihood in a nation in which they’re ignored. The development of intrastate federalism in the senate is typically the most desired institutional change. Intrastate federalism aids in bringing regional representation to the national political arena. The desire for regional representation in the Senate is held in high demand by Saskatchewan wheat farmers.

The most prominent suggestion is for a Triple E senate (equal, effective, and elected) instead of the current form of the Upper House. Support for a Triple E senate is virtually guaranteed by Saskatchewan wheat farmer, ecause their views would have better representation in a central political institution which historically has ignored their needs. The reasoning behind the lack of regionalism in the Canadian senate is based on two important factors. “First, Canadian senators were not selected by provincial legislatures or governments, but rather were appointed by the federal government…

Secondly, Canadians opted for equal representation by region rather than equal representation by province. ” Thus, the senate’s actions are extremely similar to the actions of the House of Commons. To answer the question of what Saskatchewan wheat farmers need to do to uphold their livelihood concentrates on the necessity for a senate reform based on intrastate federalism. The hope is that by doing so Saskatchewan farmers would have a strong voice in the national political arena. However, modifying the senate is an extremely arduous task.

Senate reform would most likely have to follow the current amending formula of the seven-fifty rule. The seven-fifty rule declares that any amendments made to the constitution have the support of two-thirds of the provincial legislatures (seven, in the current Confederation) ontaining fifty percent of the population agreeing to the modification. The modifications would be difficult to achieve because the politicians in the east, who currently hold a lot of the clout in the current landscape, would be opposed to any changes that would see them lose power.

Upon Quebec separation senate reform would be even more difficult to achieve. Without Quebec, Ontario currently has 49. 8% of the remaining population. According to Statistics Canada demographics from July 1st, 1996. So, using the current amending formula without Quebec in confederation , the likelihood of Saskatchewan farmers having voice in central political institutions becomes even less likely as modifications to the institutions would only be possible if all the provinces, besides Ontario, were in favor of the change.

Without provincial representation in a central institution the needs of Saskatchewan wheat farmers will be continually ignored as the provinces with the largest population continue to develop policies to achieve their own goals. One suggestion has been modification to the House of Commons, however, this seems even more unlikely then reform to the Upper House. The goal of the senate in ts creation, as was noted earlier, was to provide “sober second thought. ” Regional leaders can argue that the senate does not fulfill the goals it was created to attain, and hopefully modify the senate to attain the regional needs they desire.

The House of Commons intent was always to be an elected body that was selected through representation by population and, thus, modifications to the House of Commons are less likely then changes to the Senate because the intentions of the House of Commons have been achieved. The fact that the institutional landscape in Canada currently favors the ast can be seen in three recent policy initiatives by the federal government. The policy changes have not been beneficial to farmers in Saskatchewan, and continue to be focused on what will help the east develop.

The policy changes have involved 1) the elimination of the monopoly the Canadian Wheat Board had; 2) deregulatory initiatives involving the creation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); and, 3) a cost-cutting policy initiative that saw the elimination of the Crow’s Nest Pass Agreement. Each policy change has caused deep cuts at the roots of Saskatchewan wheat farmers. A focus on the policy hanges shows that the policies have gained some support in other provinces, namely Alberta, but the policies have considerably hurt Saskatchewan farmers.

Making modifications to price-support systems, such as the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB), is not a pragmatic solution in the minds of Saskatchewan wheat farmers. Price-support systems have always been supported by Saskatchewan wheat farmers but recently Alberta wheat farmers have complained that the CWB is not effective and elected for a free-market system. Currently, the CWB operates under a pooled-payment system in which, “Farmer’s are currently paid an average rice based on the board’s sales profits.

The strength of the CWB in Saskatchewan was firmly developed in the CWB’s ability to rescue farming life during the Depression of the 1930’s. It is for that reason that many Saskatchewan wheat farmers are skeptical of losing the CWB and the possibility of returning to a financially insecure market, as was prominent in the 1930’s. For any change to be made by the federal government there has to be support for the change in some part of the country. In the case of developing a free-market system most of the support came from Alberta wheat farmers.

Alberta heat farmers support a free market system because of the recent high prices which are not reflected in the CWB, as it sets a moderate price so that it can support farmers in times of trouble. Desiring to take advantage of the high prices Alberta wheat farmers seemingly ignore the problems that a free-market system brings with it, especially in the fluctuating market that would likely develop following Quebec separation. Both the price-support and free-market systems have there pro’s and con’s and perhaps only time will tell which system is more effective.

Alberta farmers, however, were not affected by the Depression as much as Saskatchewan farmers which is much of the reasoning behind the support for the CWB. The development of Free Trade has been another deregulatory concept that has been detrimental to Saskatchewan wheat farmers. The passing of the Canada- United States Trade Agreement (CUSTA), which has since developed into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), has caused the agricultural economy to drop considerably. The National Farmers Union 1991 statement assists in highlighting the effects that free trade has had on farmers.

For example, milling wheat for consumption was $7. 00 per bushel before the introduction of CUSTA and almost instantly the price dropped to $3. 75 per bushel. The current price is now $3. 10 per bushel. The net loss forced unwillingly on the prairie wheat farmers was $300 million dollars. The loss of which is certain to have a detrimental effect on the lifestyle and progress of Saskatchewan wheat farmers. With the continuing focus of the east towards free trade and the loss of power held by the CWB, the international market becomes very important.

A focus on the international market is extremely important as it highlights the effects of Saskatchewan farmers as the market proceeds in its current direction. The competition that is waged between the United States, European Community, and Canada causes the price of wheat to drop due to the elasticity of wheat on the world market. Wheat is an elastic commodity, especially with the inception of free-trade, because of the vast number of available substitutes. What the elasticity of wheat means to Saskatchewan farmers is that any price changes will have a serious effect on the quantity of goods bought by consumers.

With even a modest price increase consumers will simply look elsewhere for wheat, an option available to them because of Free Trade. The result is a drop in prices as the ompetition looks for means to attract the masses towards their product. Unfortunately for farmers the low prices mean low profits, and a deprivation of their livelihood. Quebec separation would develop yet another arena of competition from Quebec farmers, despite their small numbers. The argument that Canadian farmers would be successful in a free-market system where they can compete with international competitors is false.

The elasticity of wheat means that, even if Canadian farmers were to become the largest wheat suppliers in the world, they would do so only with low prices and insignificant advantages to Saskatchewan wheat farmers. One recent federal cost-recovery initiative involved the abolition of the Crow’s Nest Pass Agreement. The agreement was arranged in 1898 when the Canadian Pacific Railway was granted “a $3. 3 million subsidy to build a railway over the Crowsnest pass… In return, the CPR agreed to reduce in perpetuity its eastbound freight rates on grain.

In practice, the Crow, as it was commonly referred too, protected wheat farmers from outlandish high transportation costs that the CPR previously used in the prairies to cover its expensive maintenance osts in the Rocky Mountains and Lake Superior areas of Canada. With the elimination of the Crow on August 1st, 1996 a modest increase in the cost of transportation costs placed on farmers to $15 a tonne was seen. “To soften this blow, the federal government [shelled] out $1. 6 billion in land payments to farmers and [spent] $300 million improving the transportation system.

Unfortunately for farmers, the one-time support of the federal government after the crow will not prevent continuing transportation prices in the future. With the death of the Crow, small railways and grain elevators will shut down in avor of larger and more centralized means of collecting and preparing grain for transport meaning that small-scale farmers will have to travel farther with their wheat to get it off to market. Additionally, as the quasi free-market develops, an expectation for lower wheat prices gives the small-scale farmers another slap-in-the-face.

One author predicts, “… hundreds of miles of railway track will be abandoned, scores of elevators close, large swathes of farmland will be returned to native grasses and dozens of small communities will die as development shifts to larger regional centers. ” The abolition of the Crow has gained a small amount of support from farmers in Alberta. The reason being that the transportation costs will not affect the farmers as bad as they will in Saskatchewan and the development of large regional centers, already present in Alberta, will bring new initiatives and diversity.

In the meantime, the Saskatchewan wheat farmers have been forced to sacrifice their lifestyle to survive in a new economic agenda pushed by the bureaucrats in the east and by an open market competition to the south. Survival for the common farmer in Saskatchewan has become increasingly more ifficult as the federal government continues on its policy changes based on the idea that bigger is better, to the demise of the common farmer.

One of the alleviating factors during the abolition of the crow was the possibility of Saskatchewan wheat farmers to use the St. Lawrence Seaway as a means of finding lower costs to farmers. However, with the possible separation of Quebec, the use of the St. Lawrence Seaway is unknown. Depending on the agreements made by the Quebec and Canadian governments following separation the price of transportation may go up even further as Saskatchewan wheat farmers ould lose a possible location to ship their grain.

This would assuredly cause an influx of prices in transportation costs to farmers as the Canadian Pacific Railways would undoubtedly continue its trend of charging high prices to prairie farmers transporting their goods to the west, to combat the expenses of getting through the treacherous Rocky Mountains. Exports are a concern to Saskatchewan farmers on a whole, but more so to those involved in the egg, poultry, and dairy aspects of agriculture. Egg, poultry, and dairy are produced under a Supply/Management organization.

In ther words, there is a strict management of goods to ensure that farmers produce only what will satisfy domestic needs. When the system works efficiently no surpluses or shortages of egg, poultry, and dairy are created in Canada. If Quebec were to separate, especially with Quebec being a primary dairy producer in Canada, a number of initiatives would need to be developed to ensure that there is neither a shortage or surplus of goods. The repercussions of this would involve the need for farmers in Saskatchewan to focus more on dairy production, so that the needs of the nation are matched.

Also, egg and oultry producers in Saskatchewan may be down-scaled or forced to close as the goods they produce would no longer be needed by the rest of the country. To prevent any developing problems it is imperative that the Saskatchewan farmers have some voice in the political discussion following a Quebec separation. Theoretically, we could simply import from Quebec after separation is made to ensure that the demand of Canadians are met by Quebec supply. However, the solution is not an easy one because the cost of dealing with Quebec would likely be a high one due to an increase in transaction costs.

Transaction costs are, the costs arising from finding a trading partner, negotiating an agreement about the price and other aspects of the exchange, and of ensuring that the terms of the agreement are fulfilled. ” Simply put there would be an influx in the transaction costs between Quebec and Canada as the trading agreement is modified. Again Saskatchewan farmers, upon Quebec separation, are faced with yet another hurdle to clear in their attempts to uphold their lifestyle.

In sum, the political policy development that has been developed in the East has seriously effected Saskatchewan wheat farmers. They have lost a means or protection from a fluctuating market because of modifications to the price- support structure of the CWB, which could be extremely detrimental with the development of a new country and unstable economy. The international competition, witnessed through the eastern politicians focus for free trade, has caused the price of grain to drop considerably because of the elasticity of wheat caused by an increase in competition and substitutes.

Finally, the rising transportation costs, due to the elimination of the Crow’s Nest Pass Agreement, has meant that Saskatchewan wheat farmers spend more money to get their product o a market which has gotten progressively worse. Saskatchewan farmers are forced to spend more money to get their product to a weak market, which could get weaker in a new developing country due to an unstable economy and the increase in transaction costs.

The importance of the institutions ability to steer Canada’s policy needs to be analyzed here to ensure its power and importance is understood. “Institutions are like channels or grooves along which economic, ideological, cultural and political forces flow. ” Simply, the power of political institutions is not an abstract quality . With the branches of government built nder the principle of representation by population the political clout is going to be held where the largest population is held, the east.

The result is that of small constituencies are weakly represented in national governments which fail to realize the practical implications their policy developments have to constituencies not prominent in the east, such as Saskatchewan wheat farmers. The policies the national government have developed in recent events have spoiled the agricultural community in Saskatchewan. However, a change to the political institutions would cause a change in the policies that the governments reated simply because the “grooves” would cause policies to follow a different political, cultural, and economic flow.

Canadian political institutions have a serious effect on policy development in the nation. With the power being held almost solely in the east small constituencies, such as Saskatchewan wheat farmers are forced to concentrate on methods to modify the institutions so that they serve their needs. Recent policy developments have had a detrimental effect on Saskatchewan wheat farmers growth and the only means for farmers to prevent this in the future is o modify the institutions.

However, Quebec separation poses a difficult problem for Saskatchewan wheat farmers. Not only does separation mean that the economy farmers rely heavily on will drop but it separation also means that institutional reform is even less likely. The situation is not futile, and although the road is a difficult one Saskatchewan wheat farmers have faced adversity before. It appears that their unity and strength will be called upon again as they attempt to gain representation in Canada’s national institutions before their lifestyle becomes a concept of the past.

Quebecs Quiet Revolution

The English-French relations have not always been easy. Each is always arguing and accusing the other of wrong doings. All this hatred and differences started in the past, and this Quiet revolution, right after a new Liberal government led by Jean Lesage came in 1960.

Thus was the beginning of the Quiet Revolution. Lesage had an excellent team of cabinet ministers which included Rene Levesque. The Liberals promised to do two things during the Quiet Revolution; one was to improve economic and social standards for the people of Quebec, and the other was to win greater respect and recognition for all the French people of Canada.

The Liberals started a program to take control of hydro-electric power companies. French-Canadian engineers from all over Canada returned to Quebec to work on the project. Slogans during these times were we can do it and masters in our own homes. The government also started to replace programs the Church previously ran, which included hospital insurance, pension schemes and the beginning of Medi-Care. For these programs, the Quebec Liberals had to struggle with Ottawa for a larger share of the tax dollars. One of the greatest reforms was the modernization of the entire school system.

The Church used to own the schools of Quebec. Most of the teachers were Priests, Nuns and Brothers. They provided a good education but Quebec needed more in business and technology. Lesage wanted a government-run school system that would provide Quebec with people in engineering, science, business and commerce. With the new freedom of expression, lots of books, plays and music about French culture were all developed in Quebec. French contemporary playwrights were very famous during that time. However, not all was going well in Quebec. The French-English relation was going bad.

Many studies showed that French-Canadian Quebecers were earning the lowest wage in all of the ethnic groups in Canada. Other complaints were that the top jobs in Quebec were given to English speaking Canadians. Canada was going through the worst crisis in its history, and unless equal partnership was found a break-up would likely happen. Some Quebecers thought that separation was the only solution. They thought that as long as Quebec was associated with the rest of Canada, French-Canadians would never be treated equal. The FLQ (Front De Liberation Du Quebec) was founded in 1963.

It was a smaller, more forceful group of separatists. They were a collection of groups of young people whose idea was to use terrorism to achieve independence for Quebec. The ALQ (Arm de Liberation de Quebec) was even more of a violent separatist group. Some of their actions included robbing banks in order to get money. For their ammunition they had to raid arms depots of the Canadian Armed Forces. There were many Federalists that believed that separatism had no future and that French-Canadians could play a role in a bilingual Canada.

There were three Quebec men that believed in Federalism. These men were Liberals and their names were Pierre Trudeau, Jean Marchand and Gerard Pelletier. The President of France, General De Gaulle came to Quebec in 1967 and gave speeches to separatist groups that deemed him an enthusiast of the thoughts of the separatists in the struggle to fight for the liberation of Quebec. The Prime Minister at the time, Lester B. Pearson, criticized De Gaulle’s remarks and said that Quebec belonged to Canada and there was no need for their liberation.

In 1970, British Trade Commissioner James R. Cross was kidnapped by FLQ and wanted in return for Cross, 23 political prisoners. Quebec Labour Minister, Pierre Laporte was also kidnapped which started a Quebec crisis. After a few months Cross returned when Laporte was assassinated. The Quebec crisis ended several years of violence in Quebec. This crisis made many Quebecers upset because Ottawa sent the army into Quebec. Therefore English-French turmoil did not end. Rene Levesque was a leader who became very popular in Quebec with his views on independence. In 1976, Rene Levesque and the Parti Quebecois won the Provincial election.

Now many Quebecers thought he could build up Quebec. Since many French were lower then English in status, Quebecers thought the Parti Quebecois could do something about it. Then the two languages became a major issue. Many businesses had a sign in French only, and doctors and nurses had to speak French. These were all effects on Bill 101 by the Parti Quebecois. Immigrants were educated only in French. Businesses accused the Parti Quebecois of practising economic blackmail. Quebec Nationalists wanted an independent state so that they could have full control over their territory.

But many top authorities in Canada say it is not legal for a Province to leave. Levesque said that he wanted a Quebec that was independent but joined Canada in the market. Levesque wanted to protect Quebec culture. Many people in Quebec opposed the separation. An organization called the Positive Action Committee was formed to help fight the separation dispute. Quebec was not the only Province that wanted more political power for themselves. Canada was working an a new Constitution and wanted to replace the BNA Act of 1867. If a new Constitution was made, Quebec might remain a part of Canada.

The Constitution had to make all the Provinces happy. It would have to recognize the partnership between the French and the English in the history of Quebec. The Federal Liberals probably helped tip the balance in favour of the no vote. The referendum campaign in the early 80’s was intense. The Premier of Quebec, Rene Levesque and the PQ desperately wanted the vote to be a resounding oui. The referendum was a critical test for the PQ government. The PQ’s (Parti Quebecois) was elected out of the separatist platform. Their party represented the bone of forming independence of Quebec.

In order for the independence movement to take greater strides, the Parti Qubecois would have to encourage an our vote in the Referendum. There were intense battles to win the opinion and admiration of the Quebec population with ads in newspapers, magazines, on T. V and radio. With a resounding no vote in the makings, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau was prepared to bring on the Constitution. Trudeau made a speech on May 14th, which was a sincere commitment to a new Canada. He was determined that Canada would have a new Federal system of government.

Multiculturalism in Canada

Canada has long been called “The Mosaic”, due to the fact that it is made up of a varied mix of races, cultures and ethnicities. As more and more immigrants come to Canada searching for a better life, the population naturally becomes more diverse. This has, in turn, spun a great debate over multiculturalism. Some of the issues under fire are the political state’s policies concerning multiculturalism, the attitudes of Canadians around these policies, immigration, the global market, and a central point is the education and how to present the material in a way so as to offend the least amount of people. There are many variations on these themes as will be discussed in this paper.

In the 1930’s several educators called for programs of cultural diversity that encouraged ethnic and minority students to study their respective heritages. This is not a simple feat due to the fact that there is much diversity within individual cultures. A look at the 1991 Canadian census shows that the population has changed more noticeable in the last ten years than in any other time in the twentieth century, with one out of four Canadians identifying themselves as black, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, Metis or Native. (Gould 1995: 198)

Most people, from educators to philosophers, agree that an important first step in succe4ssfully joining multiple cultures is to develop an understanding of each others background. However, the similarities stip there. One problem is defining the tem “multiculturalism”. When it is looked at simply as meaning the existence of a culturally integrated society, many people have no problems. However, when you go beyond that and try to suggest a different way of arriving at theat culturally integrated society, everyone seems to have a different opinion on what will work.

Since education is at the root of the problem, it might be appropriate to use an example in that context. In 1980, the American school, Stanford University came up with a program – later known as the “Stanford-style multicultural curriculum” which aimed to familiarize students with traditions, philosophy, literature and history of the West. The program consisted of fifteen required books by writers such as Plato, Aristotle, Homer, Aquinas, Marx and Freud.

By 1987, a group called the Rainbow Coalition argued the fact that the books were all written by DWEM’s or Dead White European Males. They felt that this type of teaching denied students the knowledge of contributions by people of colour, women, and other oppressed groups. In 1987, the faculty voted 39-4 to change the curriculum and do away with the fifteen book requirement and the term “Western” for the study of at least one non-European culture and proper attention to be given to the issues of race and gender. (Gould 1995: 201).

Because Canadian University’s also followed a similar plan, even though this example took place in the United States it centered on issues that effect multiculturalism in all North America. This debate was very important because its publicity provided the grounds for the argument that Canada is a pluralistic society and to study only one people would not accurately portray what really makes up this country.

Proponents of multicultural education argue that it offers students a balanced appreciation and critique of other cultures as well as our own. (Stotsky 1992:64) While it is common sense that one could not have a true understanding of a subject by only possessing knowledge of one side of it, this brings up the fact that there would never be enough time in our current school year to equally cover the contributions of each individual nationality. This leaves teachers with two options. The first would be to lengthen the school year, which is highly unlikely because of the political aspects of the situation. The other choice is to modify the curriculum to only include what the instructor (the school) feels are the most important contributions, which again leaves them open for criticism from groups that feel they are not being equally treated.

A national standard is out of the question because of the fact that different parts of the country contain certain concentrations of nationalities. An example of this is the high concentration of Asians in British Columbia or Blacks in the East. Nonetheless, teachers are at the top of the agenda when it comes to multiculturalism. They can do the most for children during the early years of learning, when kids are most impressionable. By engaging students in activities that follow the lines of their multicultural curriculum, they can open young minds while making learning fun.

In one first grade classroom in Vancouver, an inventive teacher used the minority students to her advantage by making them her helpers as she taught the rest of the class some Chinese words and customs. This newly acquired vocabulary formed a common bond among the children in their early years, an appropriate time for learning respect and understanding. (Pyszkowski 1994: 154)

In order to give a well rounded multicultural discussion, as James Banks explains, teachers need to let students know how knowledge reflects the social, political and economic context in which it was created. Knowledge explained by powerful groups in society differs greatly from that of its less powerful counterparts. (Banks 1991:11) For example, it should be pointed out how early Canadians are most often called “pioneers” or “settlers” in social studies texts, while foreigners are called “immigrants”.

They should realize that to Natives, pioneers were actually the immigrants, but since the “pioneers” later went on to write the textbooks, it is not usually described that way. Another important aspect students need to realize is that knowledge alone isn’t enough to shape society. The members themselves have to be willing to put forth the time and effort and show an interest in shaping their society in order for it to benefit all people.

There certainly is no easy answer to the problem of multicultural education. Proponents will continue to argue the benefits that unfortunately seem to be too far out of reach for our imperfect society. The hard truth is that it is impossible for our public school system to fairly cater to hundreds of nationalities that already exist, let alone the hundreds more that are projected to arrive during the next century. In order for us to live together in the same society, we must sometimes be willing to overlook parts of our distant past in exchange for a new hope in the future.

Our countries sense of nationalism and identity is based in our attitudes toward multiculturalism. This is one thing that separates us from the Americans or any other westernized country. In 1991 the Department of Multiculturalism and Citizenship were contracted to provide public opinion information that was to be used for developing policy, public educations and communications initiatives. (N.S.R. 1991: 2)

The research objectives were to:

Study the values and view shared by Canadians on Canadian identity, citizenship and ethnic diversity. To measure the degree of public understanding, acceptance and support of the government’s multiculturalism policy and of the distinctive elements of that policy. To establish the current character of public attitudes related to the ethnocultural diversity, racial discrimination and multiculturalism policies, as well as their role in Canadian nation building. To identify the key demographic, social and psycho-social factors which have an impact on perceptions of citizenship, multiculturalism and race relations within Canada…and to identify the thrusts for long-term public education initiatives in support of the government’s multiculturalism policies. (N.S.R. 1991:3)

The survey found high levels of Canadian values and identity. 89% of those surveyed identified with being Canadian while only 6% did not. Six in ten described a “deep emotional attachment to Canada” and 95% believe they can be proud of being a citizen as well as being proud of their ancestry at the same time.

There is much ethnic diversity in Canada and there are four out of five citizens that live in neighborhoods with some or many persons of different ethnic or racial backgrounds. In fact, 40% of people surveyed said they have family members of different ethnic or racial backgrounds. 79% said they believed “multiculturalism is vital to uniting Canada and 90% believed that promoting equality among Canadians of all origins regardless of racial or ethnic origin was important. (N.S.R. 1991:26)

One of the biggest steps forward in achieving a ethnically diverse country is the Canadian Multiculturalism Act. It was passed unanimously by the Parliament of Canada in 1988. The Preamble declares that its aim is to preserve and enhance multiculturalism by promoting the recognition of Canada’s ethnocultural diversity:

…the Government of Canada recognizes the diversity of Canadians as regards…national or ethnic origin, colour and religion, as a fundamental characteristic of Canadian society, and its committed to a policy of multiculturalism designed to preserve and enhance the multicultural heritage of Canadians while working to achieve the equality of all Canadians in the economic, social, cultural and political life of Canada…(C.M.A. 1988:3)

Our growing ethnocultural diversity requires making certain adjustments to ensure that all Canadians can participate fully in our society. The policy enables the integration of minority Canadians while encouraging our institutions to remove discriminatory barriers. (Blackman 1993: 29)

On similar lines with the Multicultural Act is the Employment Equity Act because both involve dealing with minorities. The Employment Equity Act was proclaimed in 1986 to achieve equity in employment. Employers covered by this Act must ensure that members of four general groups achieve equitable representation and participation in the work force. These four groups are women, Aboriginal people, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities.

This concern with members of visible minority groups and Aboriginal people, among the other groups, means that the Employment Equity Act also arises from the fact of Canada as a multicultural society. Both policies seek to gain the commitment of federal institutions to employ, manage and serve all Canadians fairly and equally. This, too, may account for some of the confusion. However, there are several important distinctions between the policies: Employment Equity focuses on the workplace, whereas multiculturalism policy, which has strong social, cultural, political and economic dimensions, has a wider scope and focuses on the whole of society.

Multiculturalism addresses all Canadians, not just ethnocultural communities. Employment Equity focuses on four designated groups: women, Aboriginal people, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities. Employment Equity has an enforcement or regulatory aspect. Thus organizations that do not comply with its provisions can be penalized. Multiculturalism policy, on the other hand, is persuasive and has a political accountability mechanism, which is the annual report on implementation that is tabled before a House of Commons committee.

The Beginnings of a National Literary Tradition

Canadians throughout their history have been concerned over the status of their national literature. One of the major problems facing early Canadian writers was that the language and poetic conventions that they had inherited from the Old World were inadequate for the new scenery and conditions in which they now found themselves. Writers such as Susanna Moodie, Samuel Hearne, and Oliver Goldsmith were what I would consider “Immigrant” authors. Even though they were writing in Canada about Canada their style and their audiences were primarily England and Europe.

These authors wrote from an Old World perspective nd therefore were not truly Canadian authors. It took a group of homespun young writers in the later part of the 19thCentury to begin to build a genuine “discipline” of Canadian literary thought. This group, affectionately known as The Confederation Poets’, consisted of four main authors: Charles G. D. Roberts, Bliss Carman, Duncan Campbell Scott, and Archibald Lampman. The Poets ofConfederation “established what can legitimately be called the first distinct “school” of Canadian poetry”(17, Keith).

The term The Poets of Confederation’ is a misnomer since not one of these poets/authors was more than ten years old hen the Dominion of Canada was formed in 1867. However, all of these writers were aware of the lack of a distinctive Canadian literary tradition and they made efforts to create one for their successors. While each of these men had their own distinctive writing style they all sought to contribute and create a national’ literature. According to R. E. Rashley in Poetry in Canada: The First Three Steps ” there is no Canadian poetry before [The Confederation Poets] time”(98).

These men were the first in a long line of authors and artists to conceive of the need for a discernible national literature. The Confederation Poets function was to “explore the new knowledge that they had acquired of themselves that had been created by the interaction of environment and people and the concept of evolutionary growth”(Rashley 98). Archibald Lampman was a key note in the beginnings of a national literary movement. Before Lampman and the other Confederation poets there seemed to be a mere repetition of European ideas in literature in Canada.

Even though Lampman was influenced by the great Romanticists in Britain, such as Keats and Wordsworth, he is still one of the most integral writers in Canadian poetry and literature in general. Lampman signaled the move from the Immigrant’ authors like Moodie and her counterparts toward a true and distinct Canadian literary movement. It is important to note that in order to appreciate the quality of 19th Century Canadian literature, an effort of sympathy and a leap of imagination are both needed because it is here in the 19th Century that our nations true poetic history begins.

In early Canadian poetry the most influential and universal poet is undoubtedly Archibald Lampman. While his career, like his life, were short- lived his poetry remains as a reminder to the origins of Canadian literary hought. Lampman was one of our first major literary figures to try and identify a “national” literature. He realized the importance of having a specifically Canadian literary tradition. An important stepping point in Lampman’s career came after he read the work Orion by Charles G. D. Roberts.

Lampman describes his over powering emotion when as a youth he came across this published work(in the quote on the title page). The importance of having this distinct literary “school” was a driving inspiration in his art. Lampman is regarded “as the most talented of The Confederation Poets”( W. J. Keith 18). It is amazing that this unspectacular man could have such a profound effect on the evolution of Canadian literary tradition. His upbringing was in a very conservative environment as Lampman descended from Loyalists on both sides of his family and his father was an Anglican clergyman.

It seemed that “every element in Lampman’s upbringing told against the development of Canadianism in [him], but Canadianism did develop very early”(E. K. Brown 97). As a child growing up around Ontario he had the pleasure of holding acquaintance with both Susanna Moodie and Catherine Parr Trail at Rice Lake. Both of these writers were in their 70’s when Lampman met them but perhaps they were an influence on his desire to explore the Nature of Canada. As a young adult Lampman was educated first at Trinity College and then he pursued his studies at the University of Toronto.

After he had graduated, he taught High School for a few unhappy months before he chose a career as a clerk in the Post Office Department in Ottawa where he remained for the rest of his life. This position allowed for him to have a generous amount of free time which coincidently allowed him to write poetry at his leisure. The mobilizing point in Lampman’s career was during his explorations of the countryside around Ottawa, sometimes by canoe but most often on foot. During these times he was often alone to contemplate his thoughts; there was occasion when he would be accompanied by close friends such as Duncan Campbell Scott.

These intimate walks through the wilds of Ontario provided Lampman with the subject matter and inspiration for his verse. It is no surprise that Archibald Lampman published two major volumes of verse in his lifetime. The first being Among the Millet in 1888, which consisted of ainly sonnets and poetry of natural description, and the second being Lyrics of the Earth in 1895, which was “not as interesting as the first [volume] but contained more perfect poetry”(115, Guthrie). When Lampman died in 1899 at the age of 37, his third volume of poetry Alcyon was in the process of being published.

In the years that followed his death there were poems that were found and published by friends and family specifically Duncan Campbell Scott who seemed particularly interested in discovering and publishing Lampman’s work. Scott must have seen the influence and potential of Lampman’s work. Lampman’s career cannot be described in terms of development from apprenticeship to maturity as his career was influential but short- lived. Although there is an absence of human elements to Lampman’s poetry he makes us aware of our human relation and tie to nature.

Lampman makes us feel as though it was nature that makes us human. In Among the Millet, Lampman’s first published work displayed him as “an Apostle of beauty, feeling, and meaning of the Canadian scene, a title which he will always be best and most widely known”(Connor 102). This first volume contains thirty sonnets of which Lampman uses to Landscape’ the nation. Lampman is a pictorial artist. He uses images to allow the reader to see what he sees. Connor describes this first volume of poetry as the “exponent of a great soul, a gentle heart, a refined taste, and a pure life”(97).

Among the Millet is a delicate record of the surface of nature. To Lampman nature was the surest of subjects. He once said that “for the poet the beauty of external nature and the aspects of the most primitive life are always a sufficient inspiration”(Brown 89). This first volume of published poetry held thirty sonnets while his second published work eld none. It is thought that the sonnet was Lampman’s favored vehicle for disclosing what was going on within himself. Lampman’s poetry is that of Reflection, rather than of Inspiration.

The Poet “does not unveil for us the hidden workings of his own heart and life”(Crawford 29). Objectiveness rather than Subjectiveness is characteristic of his poetry. Lampman’s poems are “chiefly the result of long and lonely contemplations, and in consequence uniformly serious, meditative, [and] austere”(Barry 17). The circumstances of Lampman’s life allowed him plenty of leisure time to explore his surroundings nd at the same time explore his literary work. It has been said of Lampman’s work that “such strong imagery produces a powerful effect on the mind of the reader.

It peoples woods and meadows for [them] with a life that is almost human, and interests [them] to fascination. It compels [the reader] to habits of close observation and awakens within him something of the ardor which stimulates the poet in his constant quest of beauty”(Barry 13). Lampman’s poetry directs the readers to what he is seeing. His imagery can conjure the scene like a dream in our minds. Lampman’s poetry has a preoccupation with dreams and everie. Landscaping for him was a way of exploring consciousness: the aesthetic, moral, mythical, and religious aspects of human existence, of Canadian existence.

Nature poetry had been one of the dominant genres for nearly a century and a half, and by the 1890’s many critics were tired of it. Therefore while Lampman was alive, his popularity as a poet had not yet reached its full potential. However, Lampman’s skill as a naturistic poet allows us to experience his poetry not just to read it. His poems are of a “natural description and those in which he communicated and recreates his own response to ountryside, have stood the test of time”(Keith 22). Lampman’s poetry is fundamentally emotional and retrospective on one hand, and on the other it is intellectual and progressive.

His intellectual position tended to be idealistic and austere. While Lampman’s poetry can be accused of being limited in range, it is notable for its descriptive precision and emotional restraint. Lampman wanted very much to affirm the sweetness of life and the virtue of hope unfortunately his circumstances often made that difficult. Poor health, financial worries, the death of a son, and an especially painful extramarital ttachment to fellow postal worker Kate, as we find out in the 1940’s after the publication of a book of poems about her, took their toll on him.

However, the poet’s own personal attitude toward his art can be best summed up in his poem “The Poet’s Possession” from The Poems of Archibald Lampman: Think not, O master of the well-tilled field, This earth is only thine: for after thee When all is sown and gathered and put by, Comes the grave poet with creative eye, And from these silent acres and clean plots, Bids with his wand the fancied after-yield A second tilth and second harvest be, The crop of images and curious thoughts. This poem depicts Lampman’s method of creating his poems.

He looks at the scene and then tries to give it a second life through poetry. Lampman’s poetry is an introspective study of the individual in relation to nature. Lampman states “I feel and hear and with quiet eyes behold”(qtd. in Rashley 77). Lampman can feel Nature as it exists. The Canadian wilds hold a type of magic for him. He was drawn to nature because “in the energies of his own soul he is aware of a kinship to the forces of nature and feels with an eternal joy as if it were part f himself, the eternal movement of life”(Connor 128). To Lampman, man is part of Nature and Nature is an expression of the spirit.

The conflict of science and religion has been replaced with a new concept of man and Nature. To be “in contact with Nature there is a heightening of sensitivity, a feeling of limitations having been lifted”(Rashley 91). This idea that we are somehow linked with Nature is an integral part of Lampman’s poetry. It is here that a parallel can be drawn from Lampman’s poetry to that of the Romantics. Although Lampman has been criticized for copying’ the style and ontent of the English Romanticists movement, it is evident that while he is influenced by this movement he is by no means duplicating it.

Lampman and his contemporaries shared a respect for tradition. He sought from the English Romantics “instruction not in what to see or how to feel, but in how to express what he saw and how he felt”(Brown 90). He used their skill and knowledge to better his expression of himself. Lampman admired much about the Romanticists because he saw the post-Romanticists movement of his own time as “dreary and monotonous realism and [a] morbid unhealthiness of [the] soul”(Early 142). This admiration of Nature and its relationship with man was as much moral as it was aesthetic.

Truly great poetry strengthens the understanding and the spirit. The poetry of the English Romanticist movement served to remove the gloom’ of human existence. Lampman had many qualities within himself that attracted him to the English Romanticists. Lampman, like most of the Romanticists, saw science and poetry as cooperative modes of knowledge. He shared the Romanticists “concern for salvaging spiritual values from what he believed to be an obsolete religious system and for adopting these values to a human, rather han supernatural, dispensation”(Early 141).

The similarity in the belief that poetry’s true purpose is to advance the human spirit toward ultimate renovation and transfiguration engaged Lampman to the English Romanticist movement. To Lampman and the English Romanticists “nothing in Nature is ugly either in itself or in its relations to its surroundings, and that any other condition is due to the perverting hand on men”(Connor 148). Lampman’s sense of identity as a poet developed in the “tradition of prophetic humanism”(Early 142). However, while Lampman was devoted to this art there were qualities that separate him from ompletely imitating the English Romantics.

His desire for sharp accuracy in his poetic descriptions of nature separated him from the sometimes faulty poetry of the Romanticist movement. Furthermore, Lampman had a nervous sensibility in his poetry that detached him from the intense passion felt in many of the Romanticists poetry. Lampman lacked the “drive [of the Romanticists] toward ultimate synthesis”(Early 142). Ultimately, Lampman’s variety of influence and attitudes in his poetry indicate an uncertain and eclectic disposition that differentiates him from the poets of the English Romanticist movement.

Lampman remained exceptionally open to influences throughout his career yet he managed to retain his own brand of “Canadian” poetry. In Lampman’s poetry he finds companionship in Nature. We can see through many of his poems that he was “solitary so far as human beings are concerned, but we know from the poem [“Solitude”] that he is anything but lonely”(Keith 19). The poem “Solitude” found in The Poems of Archibald Lampman depicts the whole feeling that the poet gets when he is on one of his treks in the woods: How still it is here in the woods. The trees Stand motionless, as if they did not dare To stir, lest it should break the spell.

The air hangs quiet as spaces in a marble frieze. Even this little brook, that runs at ease, Whispering and gurgling in its knotted bed, Seems but to deepen, with its curling thread Of sound, the shadowy sun-pierced silences. Sometimes a hawk screams or a woodpecker Startles the stillness from its foxed mood With his loud careless tap. Sometimes I hear The dreamy white-throat from some far off tree. This poem gives Nature an almost human face. Lampman’s ability to create an image in the mind of the reader is perhaps his greatest gift. Even today the magery of his poems can be seen in the minds of those with imagination.

Lampman’s poetry creates “a mood, usually of reverie and usually approaching melancholy”(Rashley 77). All Canadians, past and present, can relate to Lampman’s poetry because we are all connected to the land in some manner. We all identify with the seasonal extremes, the changing terrains, and just the sheer vastness of the country. Lampman’s poetry “reminds us of what we might otherwise be in danger of forgetting; that we are part of a larger world, that we share the environment with other living things, and that natural beauty is a ecessary background for what makes us human”(Keith 22).

Lampman responds to a relationship he sees man as having with nature. He is meticulous with details and takes delicate care in his descriptions and landscaping as if it were of the utmost importance in connecting the reader and himself to the land. The poetry of Lampman is an introspective study of the individual in relation to nature. Nature is a “release of energy, discovery which for a time, [gives] a fresh, eager enthusiasm and a boundlessly idealistic concept of life”(Rashley 90-91). Likewise, if Lampman observes natural objects with accuracy and love hen what must opinion of the man-made be?

Nature drew Lampman into its folds not only because it was great and beautiful in itself but because it was a refuge from the society he had found to have neither. Nature is a refuge for man from the angst and frustration of day to day urban life. While his published verse was for the most part naturistic, living in Ottawa had given him a sense of disgust for urban civilization. This is perhaps most evident in the poem “The City of the End of Things” written in 1895. The poem sees urban settings as “valleys huge of Tartarus/ Lurid and lofty and vast it seems”(Brown,

Bennet & Cooke 156). The most evident part of the poem in which he sees urban life and mankind as being in an apocalyptical situation is in the final passage: And into rust and dust shall fall From century to century; Nor ever living thing shall grow, Nor trunk of tree, nor blade of grass; No drop shall fall, no wind shall blow, Nor sound of any foot shall pass; Alone of its accursed state, One thing the hand of time shall spare, For the grim Idiot at the gate Is deathless and eternal there.

The idea that urbanization and industrialization will somehow destroy mankind is visionary and prophetic view of the globalization and environmental damage we are currently facing. Lampman felt that man can resist corruption by maintaining close and passionate contact with Nature. These ideas are reflected throughout Lampman’s poetry, from the poetry that depicts his feelings of the natural world such as “Solitude” as well as the poetry that condemns the urbanized/industrialized world as in “The City Of the End if Things”.

Society does corrupt man and E. K Brown even felt that Ottawa had almost corrupted Lampman(106). Lampman was privately inclined by both temperament and ircumstance. His despair went deep but never so deep as to destroy or even disturb his “intuition that the core of the universe is sound”(Brown 106). His own private demons shaped his poetry. It is evident that while Lampman could see the beauty in life and in nature he had a true contempt for the society of urban life. Ottawa had even given him a disgust for politicians.

An unpublished verse that he kept within his circle of friends asserted his condemnation of the system which he was forced to live in : From the seer with his snow-white crown Through every sort and condition of bipeds, all the way down To the pimp and the politician (qtd in Brown 93). Lampman appeared to believe that political trickery and financial exploitation were permanent staples of the city. His contempt for an urban civilization seemed to draw out and depend on the worst elements of human nature.

He believed that the function of Nature was to “increase the good . . . to make man nobler so that his guiding concepts and social organization will implement that nobility”(Rashley 91). Societal restrictions make it difficult for man to live in the midst of nature. Lampman felt that society makes it difficult for a elationship to occur between man and nature. He wants to leave behind the city and its toil and tension to go into the country in search of rest and renewal.

Even in present times human interest in the natural world has remained strong despite the great impact that urbanization has had upon our lives. At the time of Lampman and The Confederation Poets’ Canada was young. It had “no antiquity, no legends, no impressive monuments, no places hallowed by the memory of heroic achievement, no noble architecture past or present. Everything [seemed] new and raw”(Marshall 36). With the writings of Archibald Lampman, Canadian poetry started to reach for consciousness. The significance of life was in its meanings in terms of the environment and Nature.

The recognition of the identity man has with Nature brings with it a feeling of spiritual release. The recognition that we as Canadians can identify with our land, its vastness, its extreme brings us closer to identifying with a national literature. In “Let Us Much Be With Nature” Lampman expresses just that: “I feel the tumult of new birth;/Waken with the wakening earth”(qtd. in Rashley 77). For Lampman the proper approach to our nations poetry was “self-critical Canadianism” that is still very much relevant to the poets succeeding him.

There is an appreciation of the poetry’s individuality combined with judgement informed by the highest standards. According to L. R. Early Lampman “felt he was in a literary void and was deeply interested in the prospects of Canadian poetry”(137). Lampman contributed to the Canadian sense of national literature through many instruments. His depictions of the seasons and their extremes and his use of Canadian flora and fauna eased Canadians into poetry that the nation ould relate to and be familiar with.

Lampman encouraged a Canadian sense of place that we can still relate to today. He wrote to a Canadian audience about Canadian images; the previous writers tended to write for European audiences that were “back home” whereas Canada was home to Lampman. Lampman felt that the “Canadian poet should make himself its sensitive recorder and thus reflect the nation without tarnishing his poetry”(Brown 95). The Canadian poet must depend on Nature and on himself, and on these alone. Lampman’s Canadianism was of the rarest and most precious kind. It was instinctive.

The Economic Impact of The New Telecommunications Legislation

Canada has been transformed in recent years into an information based society. Nearly half of the labour force in Canada works in occupations involving the collection and processing of information. In a society in which information has become a commodity, communications provide a vital link that can mean the difference between success or failure. Telecommunications is a fundamental infrastructure of the Canadian economy and society. For these reasons, an efficient and dynamic telecommunications industry is necessary to ensure economic prosperity.

Deregulating the Long Distance Industry is the nly ure way to ensure that prosperity. Telecommunications in Canada, which include services and manufacturing, employ more than 125,000 people and generate over $21 billion in revenues (Dept. of Communications, 1992, p7). Telecommunications helps to overcome the obstacles of distance in a vast country such as Canada, permitting remote communities to benefit from services taken for granted in large urban centres.

More than 98 percent of Canadian households have a telephone, and there are more than 15 million telephone lines for a population of nearly 27 million(Dept. Communications, 1992, p7). It is therefore not surprising that Canadians are among the biggest users of telecommunications in the world. For example, in 1990, Canadians made more than three billion long-distance calls (Dept. of Communications, 1992, p8). Innovations made possible through telecommunications have also contributed significantly to the phenomenal growth of the Canadian telecommunications industry.

For example, the total value of the major telephone companies’ investment in their facilities rose from $17. 8 billion in 1979 to $40. billion in 1990. In the same year, Canadian telecommunications companies reported more than $15 billion in revenues, accounting for an estimated 2. 7 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In addition, in 1990 the telecom industry achieved a real growth rate (after inflation) of 8. 6 percent compared to 0. 3 percent for the Canadian economy as a whole. Telecommunications is also Canada’s leading high-technology industry; its Research and Development costs of $1. 4 billion in 1990 represent about 24 percent of total expenditures in this area.

This shows how telecommunications has come to play such a vital role in ur society, in addition to being our most important high technology industry (Dept. of Communications, 1992, p9-12). Changes are constantly taking place in the telecom industry. These changes are caused by rapid progress in telecommunications technology, growing demand for new services, the globalization of trade and manufacturing operations, and increasing competition worldwide. It is also important to note that the Canadian telecommunications market of $15 billion is small compared to those of our major trading partners, the United States ($185 billion), the European Community ($125 billion) and Japan ($65 billion) (Blackwell, 1993, p26).

These factors were a mounting source of pressure on the previous regulatory structure of the Canadian telecom system. As regulation was eased in other countries around the world, Canada was beginning to lose its competitiveness. The USA and Britain have made strategic decisions to increase competition in telecommunications services and to modernize their “information infrastructures”. Other countries such as Japan, Australia, and New Zealand are following their lead.

The European Community is considering legislation to unify the European telecommunications market next year (Blackwell, 1993, p22). In order to not be left behind, Canada updated its telecommunications legislation to bring it in line with world developments. For example, a key piece of legislation that regulated telecommunications, the Railway Act, dated back to 1908 (Beatty, 1990, p135). Clearly, with such “ancient” legislation, new policy was required that would allow a more flexible regulatory system, and not hamper the development of our telecommunications industry (as the Railway Act did).

The first steps toward such a policy were taken in 1987 by the Minister of Communications, who outlined three basic principles to guide telecommunications policy making: Maintaining a basic telephone service which is affordable and universally accessible; Encouraging development of an effective and efficient telecommunications infrastructure; and Permitting Canadians in all regions to have access to the same levels of competitive services (Beatty, 1990, p42). Bill C-62 – the Telecom Act, passed in June of 1993, brought these principals to reality.

In addition, the legislation ave Canadian Parliament legislative authority over the principal telecommunications “common carriers” (i. e. Bell Canada, Alberta Gov’t Telephone, BC-Tel) in Canada. The new legislation defines the powers of the federal government and the regulation that is required to bring Canada’s telecommunications policy into the twenty-first century. It ensures the efficient operation of our telecommunications system, maintains and promotes and internationally competitive telecommunications industry, and guarantees all Canadians access to reliable, affordable, and high-quality services.

In order to achieve this, the ew law centres on two major principals: the first is to open the telecommunications market by having a workable policy for the whole country under the guidance of a single regulatory agency (i. e. the CRTC); the second is to establish a more flexible regulatory framework. The new legislation modernizes and improves the existing system in three ways:

1. By updating and modernizing existing legislation that governs telecommunications. Namely, the Railway Act, the National Telecommunications Powers and Procedures Act, and the Telegraphs Act. 2. By making a single agency responsible for regulating elecommunications, and 3. By ensuring consistent conditions in regards to access to facilities, local and long-distance rates, and introduction of competition for providing telecommunications services across the country (Beatty, 1990, p42).

In addition, the legislation resulted in the creation of a more open domestic market so that all Canadians will have access to relatively high- quality services, regardless of where they live. Advances in telecommunications technology enable companies to offer a wide variety of new services to satisfy the needs and interests of consumers.

One of the goals on the legislation is to ensure that all Canadians benefit from innovations in communications. In addition to promoting the economic benefits of telecommunications technology, the legislation also tackles the social needs and interests of users. The legislation also contains measures to protect consumers against possible abuse, including the sending of unsolicited information by telephone or fax machine (Beatty, 1990, p66). The Telecom Act gives the government the power to issue licenses to Canadian telecommunications companies and to set standards for equipment and facilities.

In order to be eligible to hold a telecommunications license, the company ,must meet specific requirements respecting Canadian ownership and control. A main requirement is that 80 percent of the companies shares must be owned and controlled by Canadians (Angus, 1993, p17). The legislation, and related regulations, therefore promote Canadian control over the country’s information infrastructure. As well as this, the new legislation ensures that telecommunications policy takes into account the interests of the regions and provinces.

Given the fundamental role of communications in Canadian society, and he vital importance of this sector in the Canadian economy, deregulation (or more accurately, easier regulation) of the telecom market will ensure that the Canadian telecommunications industry can successfully meet the challenges of the coming decades. By promoting the establishment of a more open telecommunications market, deregulation will contribute to improving Canada’s competitiveness, which is essential to the country’s prosperity and well-being. Telecommunications is the country’s leading high-technology industry (Dept. f Communications, 1992, p1).

It is one of the few industries in which Canada is a world leader, and it provides an essential infrastructure for Canadian businesses. The economic importance of this sector has been proved, and the deregulation of telecommunications recognizes the urgent need to give Canada the ability to maintain and promote competitiveness in telecommunications, both nationally and internationally. Deregulation thereby ensures that the telecommunications industry, which is vital for the country’s economy and for all Canadians, can successfully meet the challenges of the next century.

The Adoption Of The Controllable Pitch Propeller By The Outside World

Canada is not exactly known for having produced several ground-breaking inventions or discoveries in her time. However, the period of rapid technological advancement that she incurred during the third period of the history of engineering in Canada brought with it several important engineering inventions which had their roots in Canada. The creation of the controllable pitch propeller was one such invention which was perfected in Canada and was so successful that this primarily Canadian development spread throughout the world.

Wallace Rupert Turnball lived in Rothesay and it was there that he carried out his experiments in aeronautical theory beginning in 1902. His specialty was that of dihedrals which he studied in a wind-tunnel. He looked at water borne hydroplanes propelled by motor-driven airscrews. An airscrew the Great Britain term for a propeller. A standard propeller consists of anywhere from two to four blades each a section of a helix, the geometric form of a screw thread, hence the term airscrew.

The first plane had two air-screws on each side whereas the second one had only one, more highly efficient propeller located at the rear end of craft, near the pilots seat. However, both had an uneven torque of engine that was in fact destructive to the efforts of the propeller. Turnball experimented with all different types of air-screws; some with a 30 gauge track that were 300 long for truck. With each air-screw he tested, he recorded the propeller thrust, rpm and the forward speed. What determines the forward speed is the distance that a propeller will move in the forward direction when the shaft of the propeller is rotated 360o.

Assuming that there is no slippage, this distance is termed the geometric pitch. The propellers that Turnball tested had diameters ranging from 1. 5 up to 3. 5, all different dimensions and shapes. Upon his return to Rothesay in 1918, after the war, he dove into his research and experimentation on a possible controllable pitch propeller, an idea that he had been developing since the autumn of 1916. He ran several tests using rotating electric motor apparatus in order to spin the blades of his propeller.

The finished product was a propeller whose pitch can be adjusted by the pilot, at different angles, during flight giving the pilot the ability to command the optimal combination of torque and speed for the situation at any given moment from his aircraft. By means of a small electric motor mounted just in front of the propeller, the pitch of the propeller itself could eventually be adjusted which makes for more efficient take-offs and regular flight than what would be achieved with an everyday fixed blade propeller incapable of any pitch change.

Under the supervision of both the Ontario government and the Canadian Air Force, a ground test was run in 1923 on Avro aircraft at Camp Borden, Ontario only to conclude that more research and experimentation was necessary. Four years later, on June 6, 1927, again at Camp Borden on Avro Biplane, Flight Lieutenant G. G. Brookes took Turnballs controllable pitch propeller for its first air test. Funding was granted immediately to perfect the invention it was such a success. The news of the Canadian invention spread rapidly.

Turnball wrote a treatise based on his discoveries and new found technology called The Efficiency of Aerial Propellers which was published in the Scientific American on April 3, 1909. His second and third publications on the subject were entitled Laws of Air-Screws and appeared in The Aeronautical Journal, in the October 1910 and January 1911 issues. For his studies and discoveries, Turnball was awarded the Bronze Medal of Royal Aeronautical Society and was, in addition, elected a Fellow.

Come 1914, Turnball had published several scientific articles and found himself one of the worlds authorities on the subject. He sold the patents to the controllable pitch propeller in December of 1929. The Curtiss Wright Corporation won the American rights and the Bristol Aeroplane Company, the English rights. In 1935, the Norseman, the most highly successful bush plane in the world at the time, was designed in Canada by Robert Noorduyn, an aviation engineer trained in Holland. The Norseman quickly caught the attention of the entire world due to the effectiveness of its design.

It had a large capacity for cargo, flexible take-off and landing capabilities, ability to withstand harsh weather, can be easily flown in either day or night and is capable of flying great distances. Noorduyns Norseman, which utilized Turnbulls controllable pitch propeller, was adopted around the world by countries that required short take off and landing (STOL) planes for their own reasons, most of which involved mining, lumbering and exploring isolated expanses of land which could not otherwise be reached quite as easily.

W. R. Turnballs invention of the controllable pitch propeller was clearly one of the most successful Canadian innovations in terms of world recognition. Once perfected, it was quickly bought up by major aircraft manufacturing companies around the world and mass produced to fulfill the global demand, at the time, for such a development in technology.

A Flag for Canada

Canada has been a country for many years but has always lacked one thing. Up until 1965, we did not have our own official flag. The first thoughts of Canada adopting its own flag started in 1925. A Privacy Council committee looked at the possibilities but their work was never completed. This meant that the Red Ensign and the Union Jack would continue to represent Canada. In 1946 a committee was again formed to determine a national flag.

Over 2,600 designs were submitted but yet again, no flag was picked. In 1964, the Canadian government decided that they wanted a flag chosen before the centennial 1967. A request was issued for designs. More than 2000 ideas poured in. they got many designs that were very different . There were beavers to the north star to fags which combined many other flags. They definitely had variety in the choices. After much thought the committee was able to narrow the field down to three choices.

The three remaining designs included The Red Ensign combined with the Union Jack and the fleur-de-lis, which was the favorite choice of Diefenbaker and the Conservatives. Diefenbaker liked this idea because it was new and reflected our roots and historical past with France and Britain. The second choice was three maple leafs in the middle on white which reflected the English , the French , and all the other cultures that make up Canada, topped off with a blue stripe going down each side representing the oceans.

This flag was the personal preference of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson and was nicknamed The Pearson Pennant. The third and final choice was by far the boldest and most simple of the three designs. The third had a single maple leaf in a white square with red on each side. In 1921 King George V proclaimed Canadas national colours red and white, therefore it would be ideal to incorporate the national colours into the countries flag. After much debate, a Flag was finally chosen. The committee, which chose the flag, had met 46 times.

The two men which get the most credit for creating and choosing a flag for our country were George Stanley and John Matheson. They played key roles in advisory and decision making for the committee. The final decision was made on December 15, 1964, The House of Commons passed the bill which instituted the Maple Leaf.. It was not till February 15, 1965, at noon that the Maple Leaf flew in Ottawa on Parliament Hill for the first time. Canada finally had a flag almost 100 after becoming a country.

Quebec Nationalism Essay

The question of whether Quebec will secede from Canada to become an independent nation has been a hot topic in the country for several years now. It dates back to the abortive rebellions of 1837-38. In 1980, a referendum to secede was rejected by a 60-40 margin. Since then though, the numbers of Quebeckers that want to become sovereign has significantly increased. There is so many questions of what will happen if this does happen. In this paper I plan to take a deeper look at this situation and try to figure out what it would actually be like if Quebec was its own country.

The premier of Quebec, Lucien Bouchard has been attempting to separate from Canada for quite sometime. If he had it his way this topic would be old news by now. His main problem is the Federalist, English speaking citizens of his province. They have been very vocal on their stance to stay apart of Canada. They have sent around several resolutions stating this. It all started in Allumette Island East, which has a population of 458. It has since spread to municipalities along the borders with Ontario and the United States, and in the Montreal area.

Unfortunately this means very little considering the fact that these municipalities only represent approximately 6% of the provinces population. When the Parti Quebecois government called for the first referendum on secession in 1980, only 40% were in favor of separatism. When the party took over control again in 1995 the approval rose just about 49%. The fear of the PQ is that if several of the floating voters out there feel that a sovereign Quebec must mean a partitioned, patchwork Quebec, the separatists might well fall back to 40% if that.

One group of Quebeckers with the strongest-and geographically the widest claims for self determination, the Cree, Inuit, and Innu who occupy the resource-rich northern two-thirds of the province. The views of these nations oddly enough seem to go unmentioned. During the 1995 attempt to secede these three groups all voted by more than 95% to stick with Canada. People outside of Canada are baffled at how Canada ended up in such a state of affairs. Canada as a country has a lot going for it. A high GNP, and high per capita income in international terms.

It is ranked at the top of the list by the United Nations for quality of life. Canada is also considered a constructive member of the international community. They take part in just about all international organizations in existence. Dont get me wrong, there are also many problems within the Country. For instance the rocky relationship between the majority and the indigenous people. There is also a great differential of wealth between regions, and inequalities in personal incomes. Despite all of this, many feel that this is not the reason for Quebec secession.

Quebec has 24 percent of the total population of Canada, and 25 percent of its Gross National Product. The majority of Quebecs population is of French descent and language. It reaches approximately 83 percent of the entire province. About 60 percent of the French voted for secession in the 1995 referendum, at a remarkably high turn out, 94 percent of the total electorate. It is noteworthy that of those francophone Quebeckers favoring federalism were the older group over 50 years of age. However, in the younger age group pro-secessionists had the majority.

The anglophones, allophones, and the indigenous people were all strongly against secession. The premier of Quebec Lucien Bouchard has in fact stated that there will be another referendum. Although under Quebec Law this cannot take place until another provincial election has been held. However, the Government is now more concerned with rebounding Quebecs struggling economy which has struggled as a result of the political uncertainty. The drive for secession is currently on the political back burner in the province for the moment. Most Quebeckers see themselves as having two identities, first as Quebeckers, and then as Canadians.

The Parti Quebecois has concentrated on the politics of reassurance. Their goal is to make citizens feel stable if in fact they were to secede from Canada. An independent Quebec would still be able to continue to use the Canadien dollar, Canadien passports, and have a mutually beneficial economic association with Canada. The core argument still remains that the French speaking Quebeckers possess a common language, history, culture, that they formed a people, and that they could only feel comfortable if they were to have their own state.

There is no doubt that the economy has been greatly affected by the talks of secession. Unemployment has also increased as a result of this. Montreal which was once the leading city in Canada, now has an unemployment ranking of 12%. Its share of private capital formation has dropped to 15%. Quebec is also in high governmental debt and budget deficits and is now only beginning to work on these problems. There have been several studies done based on secession. It is felt that if Quebec did in fact secede from Canada they would suffer in the short term.

If Quebec wanted to enter the NAFTA Trade Agreement several of their economic practices could be called in to question by the United States. It is thought that if Quebec were to use the Canadien dollar it would only be for the short term. Eventually they would be better off with there own currency. Jeffrey Simpson feels that Quebec would suffer for some ten years or so from separation, but he personally felt that Quebec could become a viable economic state. The majority of Canadiens do not want Quebec to leave. However, many feel that Quebec is the spoiled child of the confederation.

Would Canada be able to keep together if Quebec were to secede? If Quebec secedes, how would the international community react? It will be interesting to see if the United States would accept Quebecs secession, or would they wait to see Canadas reaction? So far in this paper we have seen the effect that the secession of Quebec has had on the economy. Now we are gonna take a deeper look at why exactly they so desperately want to secede from Canada. The main fear in Canada is that the separation of Quebec will lead to a domino effect in the country, which could result in a bunch of small countries.

This could eventually lead to North America unraveling. Ironically, both the Quebec government and the Canadien government in Ottawa feel that even if Quebec were to secede the rest of Canada will remain united. Several outsiders feel that the secession of Quebec would be good for Canada. This is because of all the money that is spent on bilingualization and transferred needlessly from rich province to poor province in an effort to keep Quebec inside the confederation that after separation both Quebec and English-speaking Canada would be better off, financially and otherwise.

The proposal to secede was defeated by a mere 53,000 voters, out of a constituency of 7. 5 million, defeated the sovereigntist. It is obvious that secession is of great importance to Quebeckers. A phenomenal 94 percent of registered voters showed up to voice their opinion. No one expected that the vote would be this close. An enormous last minute rally in Montreal by the no vote halted the separatist charge. Most polled after the vote said that if there was another referendum they planned to vote the same way in the future.

To fulfill Quebecs desire for separation, Prime Minister Jean Chretien has proposed 3 things: acknowledgment that Quebec is a distinct society; creation of a veto against constitutional change, usable by every region including Quebec; and Quebec control over worker retraining. In a poll conducted late in 1995 it was found that there was a massive discontent among the English-speaking citizens with such attempts to save Canada. Eighty-three percent of the respondents across Canada did not want Quebec to have a Constitutional veto.

It was the same percentage that disagreed with Quebec nationalists on the issue of whether Canada is composed of two founding peoples, preferring to think of Canada as ten equal provinces. Some 61 percent said that Quebec should not even be constitutionally recognized as a distinct society. Quebeckers as a whole reject this because they would not be embedded in the constitution. They cannot be faulted for being skeptical that the legal reforms will ever be constitutionally entrenched. The bottom line is neither French speaking or English speaking Canada, in the end accept the terms of these initiatives.

Conclusion: In the end, it is a win/lose situation. No matter what happens in Quebec someone will be left unhappy. A lot has to be cleared up before any decision can be made. There are still several questions that are pending. It is unclear how a seceded Quebec would deal with money, or relations with other countries especially Canada. A decision should be made soon because as we all wait with great anticipation to see what will happen. The Quebec economy is suffering. Unemployment continues to increase. With all the focus being on becoming a sovereign nation, the citizens are suffering.

I understand where the French-speaking Canadians are coming from. With the majority of French Canadians residing in the province of Quebec they feel like they are different than the rest of the country. As it stands now, Quebec is one of the more prosperous provinces in Canada, and I wonder if secession were to take place what would happen? We all know that it would take time to become successful, but who knows if they would ever return to the way it is now. Is the price too big to play? With the opposing sides at almost equal size it is important to come to a final situation. Before possible violence breaks out within the province.

Endangered Species in Canada

There are many trillions of living creatures, and millions of different kinds of animals and plants share our planet (pg 46, Savage). Each Kind, or species, is special and unique. But, some of these species are in danger of disappearing forever, just as the passenger pigeon did. When the last member of a species disappears, that species is said to be extinct. Never again will there be another creature of that type on the planet for eternity. In the following essay it will be proven that Canadian Wildlife is becoming endangered due to the actions of man.

Our Country was once filled with wildlife, and in the past, people unted without worrying about the future. It seemed as though there was an unlimited amount of wildlife to be found. But overhunting has changed this and caused the extinction of many species. Canadian people of the past thought that if you protected animals from hunting, that would be enough. Today we now know that we must also protect there habitats. This is where they find food, water, shelter, and a place to have their young. Even if they are not hunted, animals will die out if these necessities cannot be met.

In this century, loss of habitat has been one of the main caused of extinction (pg 8, Silverstein). People share the country and the planet with all the other creatures that live here. As human population grows, people spread out into areas that once were wild, and they compete with animals for living space. Mort times than not the animals lose in this battle. People cut down forests for lumber, clear fields for farms, and fill swamps to build towns, highways, and factories. Land can also be cleared for such things as mineral extraction.

Wild animals get fenced out from areas that were once their homes. Larger animals are affected the worst because they need large open spaces, and when these areas shrink it is much ore difficult to find food, and live without the fear of man. When a small lot of land is cleared for a home, not much is affected. When a whole city is built in what was once a wild area, an entire species of animal may be endangered. People often see wild animals as a nuisance and drive them away into the remaining wildland. But, as the Canada’s wildland disappears, there will be fewer places for the wildlife to go.

Even habitats that are left intact and not disturbed by human intervention, may infact be unsafe for wildlife because of pollution. Oil spills pollute the oceans and injure or kill water mammals and birds. When farmers spray their crops with pesticides to keep insects from eating their crops, many animals are harmed as well. Industries send out chemicals into the air, water, and land, with no concern about what it may be doing to the environment. Garbage dumps leak toxic chemicals into neighbouring lakes and rivers, also affecting birds and fish. The garbage that is dumped straight into the ocean poisons wildlife severely.

Also, animals may mistake plastics and styrofoam for food or become strangled by plastic six-pack holders. Not all animals environments are poisoned by accident. Some rancher, or example, have put out poison for coyotes and wolves because these animals sometimes kill there cattle or sheep. People and industries must be more aware of what they are doing to the environment and how they affect the wildlife in general. Until recently, most people believed that the earth and everything on it belonged to humans and that we could do whatever we wa nted with any of the creatures that shared our planet.

Human activities have driven many species to the verge of extinction, but there have been some encouraging examples of how society can save endangered animals. One of these is the American bison, or buffalo. The buffalo once was the symbol of the American wilderness. These huge animals roamed the plains, grazing in enormous herds. There were 30 million buffalo in the West in the 1860’s. But, by 1883, hunters had killed all but 1,00 of them (pg 14, Silverstein). Fortunately, several people had captured some buffalo to raise in captivity.

By 1890, 600 of the 700 remaining buffalo were in private hands. Growing numbers of people became concerned that with so few buffalo left they could soon become extinct. There are many ways that people, working through government and other organizations, can help save our wildlife. One is to pass laws that revent endangered animals from being killed or taken from their natural habitats. Another is to set up parks, refuges, and preserves where the wild habitat is kept intact so that the creatures living on it will remain undisturbed.

Today there are more that 400 National Wildlife Refuges in Canada and 3,500 wildlife parks and refuges around the world (pg 16, Silverstein). The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) was a giant step toward helping endangered animals (defined as animals that are in danger of becoming extinct) as well as threatened animals (those that may become endangered if they are not protected)in Canada and around the world. It established a program that brings together the federal government, the states, conservation groups, individuals, business and industry, and foreign governments in a cooperative effort to save endangered wildlife.

The ESA restricts the killing, collection, or harming of endangered and threatened animals and makes it illegal to buy or sell, imports or export them without special permission. Violators can face a fine of up to $20,000 (pg 56, Silverstein). The habitat of endangered species (the land, water, and air that members of the species need for survival, including places where the live nd breed) is also protected under the act. Each year habitats of endangered species are bought up with money from the Land and Water Conservation Fund (pg 120, Savage).

The endangered and threatened species are listed by the U. S Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service. Candidates are submitted by anyone concerned about a species of animal or plant, and information has to be gathered to support the claim that the species are endangered ( pg 37, Taylor). There are more that 1,117 plant and animal species on the Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants list (Pg 65, Silverstein). Each year bout fifty more species are added. More that 4,000 additional species are currently waiting to be added to the list (pg 65, Silverstein).

The case for them may be just as convincing, but limited manpower and funding have kept them from being processed for protected status. Unfortunately, some species cannot wait for all the red tape. According to the Fish and Wildlife Service, 300 species waiting to be put on the list may have become extinct before they could be listed (pg 76, Taylor). When the ESA program was set up, the goal was to re- establish endangered species in the wild so they could be removed from the list. Few f these species have recovered enough thought to remove them from the list.

After a species is placed on the endangered or threatened list, the nest step is to determine a recovery plan that will help increase the number of animals or plants. Measures include buying more land to preserve their habitats or breeding the species in captivity so they can be released. But setting up effective recovery plans takes a lot of time and money, and only one-third of the species on the list even have recovery plans. Activist groups and concerned citizens have halted many development projects around the nation to preserve wildlife habitats.

But often the bitterness is just increased on both sides of the political battle, and the victory for wildlife is only temporary. Realistic and workable solutions usually involve some compromises on both sides. When people benefit by allowing a threatened or endangered animal to prosper, both sides win a longer-lasting victory. Compromises like this help make re- introduction programs successful. Scientists are quick to remind us that endangered animals may be a valuable resource in the future. When wildlife species are threatened or wiped out, the whole world loses.

People in Canada and many other countries re concerned not only about their own endangered animals but also about those in developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America. Many species that share our world face frightening threats that may ultimately lead to their extinction. But, as we have seen, the picture is not all bleak. Today there are more opportunities than ever before for caring people to help in the fight to save endangered wildlife. With many animals being brought back from the brink and new improved recovery programs, the animals have a much better shot at survival than they would have a decade ago.

The Effects of World War One on Canadas People

When Britain called on Canada to help in World War One, Canadians dutifully volunteered. Many Canadians thought that this would be a glamorous adventure that they could not miss. However, Canadians were in for a rude awakening as this glamorous adventure turned out to be more than they bargained for. This was a new kind of war, one that cost Canadians dearly. Poor organization among troops, appalling war conditions Canadians endured and lack of effective leadership that did not support the best interests of Canadian troops all contributed to the pointless suffering Canadians endured in this supposed glamorous adventure.

In the beginning, the poor organization among the troops resulted in some of the mishaps that occurred in battle. In particular, soldiers were all very inexperienced and needed a great deal of training. Many recruits had only two hours of target practice a day-not nearly enough to prepare them for battle (Newman 139). These green soldiers went into battle only knowing the basic necessities of combat. Without these vital techniques and lack of practice, the basic Private stood a slim chance of survival in the front lines.

Poor organization was also evident when equipment was being outfitted for the Canadian troops. On one occasion a load of boots arrived, all for the right foot (Newman 139). As well, when Canadian troops were given equipment, it was often found to be inadequate. A Canadian soldier commented, We have been given new black boots, magnificent things, huge, heavy ammunition boots, and the wonderful thing is they dont let water in. They are very big and they look like punts, but its dry feet now. (Newman 140).

In this, we are given the impression that the Canadian troops were provided with adequate boots; however they did not fit properly. The evident lack of organization caused unnecessary anguish for Canadian troops and their misconception of the war. Canadian soldiers endured much pointless suffering through the appalling conditions they encountered. The worst experience for Canadians was in the trenches. These endless zigzag trails were the soldiers home for as long as they were assigned duty to them. The trenches were often infested with rats and lice There are millions!

Some are huge fellows, nearly as big as cats The soldiers often went weeks without washing or changing clothes, and most were infested with body lice (Newman 141). Conditions were so wet and dirty and the men had to live with it. As a result of the wet and dirty conditions, many soldiers got trench foot. Their feet swelled up to two or three times their normal size and went numbbut when the swelling went down, the pain was agonizing. If gangrene set in, the soldiers feet and legs were amputated (Newman 141).

Soldiers were expected to patrol in sometimes knee-deep trenches with only the large, clumsy boots provided. Their feet were always cold and wet, basically meaning they were in constant discomfort. Many Canadians were committed to battles in which they had no chance of surviving and those who survived, watched others die. Of 801 men who went into battle only sixty-eight unwounded men answered roll call the next day. (Giesler 2). Many of these battles were just meat grinders in which the soldiers were the meat.

These horrendous conditions and experiences provide further evidence to Canadians misconception of the war. The lack of effective leadership that did not support Canadian troops also resulted in some of the misery that they endured. The Ross rifle was not ideal for the trench fighting soldier because in some cases soldiers literally had to kick the firing mechanism to get it un-jammed. Sam Hughes, the minister of militia, insisted on using the Ross Rifle because it was his favourite rifle. It was excellent for sharpshooting but useless in trench warfare.

It was long and heavy and easily jammed by dirt. When it was fired rapidly, the firing mechanism overheated and seized up (Newman 143). Hughes based his decision to use this rifle on his personal preference, not on what would be best for the soldiers. Sam Hughes also incorrectly overestimated the abilities of the troops. He was suspicious of professional soldiers and their plans. He thought that amateur soldiers could out think and outfight professionals (Newman 139). Thus, he made the decision not to properly train these amateur soldiers for combat.

Subsequently, Canadian generals such as Arthur Currie, began refusing to send men into battle because some conditions could not be overcome. At Passchendaele, General Currie inspected the muddy battlefield and protested that the operation was impossible without heavy cost. He was overruled (by General Haig), and so began careful and painstaking preparations for the assault (Giesler 3). Military authorities often knew that they would not gain anything in some battles. General Haig held the final decision and did not consider the welfare of Canadian troops.

To conclude, Canadians did great things during World War One. However, these small victories came at considerable costs, solidifying the great misconception of this glamorous adventure called World War One. Canadians enlisted in the war only to face great disorganization that led to many unnecessary deaths. While in battle, these soldiers experienced appalling war conditions. Finally, the best interests of Canadian troops were not evident in leaders decisions. The lives of these Canadian soldiers and their families were changed forever. This was the price they paid for this war.

Alternatives For Extending Spousal Status In Canada

Charter litigation and the advocacy of gays and lesbians is forcing Canadian lawmakers to deal with issues related to the regulation and support of domestic relationships, and in particular to consider how to extend legal recognition to same sex relationships. A legislative response would be preferable in terms of consistency, fairness and expense. There is a substantial financial and psychological burden placed on those who make individual Charter based claims, and, as recognized by the Supreme Court of Canada in M v. H,(2) the courts are not well structured as institutions for developing coherent legal egimes to deal with the myriad of issues that arise.

The regulation and support of same sex relationships, and other domestic relationships, requires some combination of marriage, contract, and ascription. There may also be a role for the enactment of registered domestic partnership (RDP) legislation. This paper identifies and comments on some issues that lawmakers will need to address as they consider alternatives and respond to the challenge posed by M v H to extend the concept of “spouse.

Until now, most legislators in Canada have displayed a marked reluctance to legally recognize same sex relationships, and he responsibility for providing legal recognition to these relationships largely has fallen to the courts. Like others who have written in this area, I hope for a legislative response, but fear that politicians may be reluctant to deal with potentially contentious issues relating to the nature of the family.

One may hope that if scholars, policy analysts, practitioners and concerned citizens can help clarify and illuminate some of the issues that arise, and can explain the value of a legislative response, politicians may be more likely to accept the challenge of providing for a fair and coherent legislative response for he definition of “familial relationships. ” Advocates for gays and lesbians have powerful equity and social policy based claims to have laws that allow same sex partners to enter into a status with all the rights and obligations of other spouses.

There may also be utility in enacting legislation to allow a “near married” status that couples may chose to acquire, such as the registered domestic partnership; however, due to the constitutional division of powers in Canada, there will be considerable complexity in enacting a coherent “near married” RDP scheme in this country. There is also a role for domestic contracts between same sex and other domestic partners, though there are real limitations on contracts as a “solution” for the issues faced by those in domestic relationships.

There is a range of situations in which the law should treat those in who have lived in conjugal domestic relationships for a certain period as “spouses,” even though they have taken no steps to formalize their relationship (by marriage, or registration if that is available. ). This process of “deeming”individuals to be spouses is referred to as “ascription. There are important reasons for having ascription, even though it “imposes” spouse-like rights and obligations upon those who have not chosen (or been permitted) to recognized acquire spousal status.

However, if those who live in conjugal relationships (including same sex partners) have the option of formalizing their relationships, there are justification for having some distinctions between those who have chosen to formalized their relationships and those who live together and acquire rights and obligations only by “ascription. ” Same Sex Marriage & Registered Partnerships: A Peculiarly Canadian Problem There are strong equity and social policy based arguments in favour of giving same sex partners the same right as other Canadians have to marry.

Recent public opinion poles suggest that a majority of Canadians would support such action,(3) though our politicians have been very reluctant to act. Shortly after the Supreme Court decision in M v H, the House of Commons, by a vote of 216 to 55, supported a resolution affirming that “marriage is and should remain the union of one man and one woman to the exclusion of all others, and that Parliament will take all necessary steps … to preserve this definition in Canada. 4)

While some opponents of legal recognition of same sex relationships are homophobic, some of the opposition has psychological, social, political and religious roots. And some in the gay and lesbian communities reject “marriage,” with its heterosexual and gendered connotations, as a desired legal alternative. (5) In the near future, if same sex partners are to gain the right to “marry” it seems most likely that they will have to look to the courts to secure this right, though there is interest from some politicians in exploring various alternatives that do not totally equate same sex partnership with marriage.

It is noteworthy that in M v H and other Charter cases the successful discrimination argument was based on the unequal treatment between same sex and heterosexual unmarried cohabitation, and the Supreme Court did not purport to legally equate same sex unions to marriage. (6) While same sex partners have recently had very significant success in using the courts to gain “spousal status” similar to unmarried heterosexual cohabitants, there has yet to be a successful claim in Canada (or any other country) by same sex partners to the right to “marry. “(7)

The Supreme Court in M v. H. accepted that individuals in same-sex relationships are not “less worthy of recognition and protection” than unmarried heterosexual cohabitants. (8) Accordingly the Charter requires governments to recognize same sex partners in the same way that it recognizes opposite sex “common law” partners. However, this does not necessarily mean the courts will rule that the Charter requires that the federal (or provincial) government enact legislation that gives same sex partners the legal right to enter into the legal status of matrimony, with all the rights and obligations that might

This country’s division of constitutional responsibility between the federal and provincial governments creates a peculiarly Canadian set of legal problems with both registered domestic partnerships and “same sex marriage. ” Both levels of government have some responsibility within their respective areas of jurisdiction in responding to the claims posed by M v H. for legal recognition of same sex relationships. The federal government has responsibility for “marriage and divorce” under s. 91(26) of the Constitution Act, 1867.

This ives the federal government the responsibility for enacting laws governing capacity to marry, while the provinces have jurisdiction over “solemnization of marriage” under s. 92 (12) of the Constitution Act, and “property and civil rights” under It is clear that in 1867 the definition of marriage was “the voluntary union of one man and one woman to the exclusion of all others,”(10) and that the ability to consummate the marriage by having heterosexual intercourse was an essential element of “marriage. (11)

While the federal government has modified some of the common law rules governing the capacity of a man nd a woman to marry, for example to allow an uncle to marry his neice,(12) it has not tried to change the basic common law definition of marriage. (13) There is an argument that it would be ultra vires s. 91(26) for the federal government to enact legislation that would fundamentally alter and expand the very nature of “marriage” by allowing same sex couples to “marry. An argument could be made that the federal government could not expand its jurisdiction by fundamentally altering the legal concept of “marriage” from what it was in 1867.

Ultimately I do not find this argument I persuasive, but it is an argument that ill need to be considered in any law reform undertaking. I believe that under s. 91 (26) of the Constitution Act the federal government can change the legal rules about “capacity” to marry and could enact legislation amending the common law and allowing same sex partners to “marry”, and that if it did so, this change would be binding for all purposes of provincial (or territorial) law.

And as noted above, there is a strong argument that under the Charter the federal government is obliged to do this, but this argument has yet to succeed in the While I think that the federal government could simply enact legislation that allows partners of the same sex to “marry,” if it wished to do so it would also be constitutionally permissible for the federal government could use a different term for a formalized same sex relationship.

Clearly the parties to a “same sex marriage” would not be called “husband” and “wife,” though these gendered terms are used at common law and in some provincial marriage statutes, and could still be used for opposite sex spouses. (14) So I think that the federal power could extend to the recognition of the rights of same sex artners(15) to enter a relationship that is called something other than marriage, such as a “domestic partnership,” as long as the rights and obligations conferred by the status are fully equivalent to marriage for all purposes of Canadian law. 16)

The relationships would then be formalized in accordance with a process determined by provincial law, enacted under the “solemnization of marriage” power. Such full legal recognition of same sex marriage in “all but name” would address some of the political, religious and psychological concerns reflected in the recent House of Commons resolution. Having a legally equivalent formally recognized same sex partnership with a distinct name may also help address some of the legal concerns that will arise in the international context, since some jurisdictions will not recognize Canadian same sex marriages. 17)

I think that the federal government could validly legislate under s. 91(26) to give same sex partners the full legal right to “marry,” but recognize this conjugal union with a distinctive name; as I noted, there are political and legal arguments that might justify this distinctive treatment. However, I do not think that the federal government could invoke s. 91(26) to create a new “marriage-like” status (which I will refer to in this paper as the registered domestic partnership), which would give the parties most but not all of the rights and obligations of a spouse, for example by excluding rights in regard to children.

Any federal RDP legislation that does not equate the essential rights and obligations of same sex and opposite sex spouses would be creating a new type of “near-marital” status and would be limited by the Constitution Act , 867 to areas within exclusive federal jurisdiction, such as the Canada Pension Plan, immigration and federal income tax. Such federal “near-marital” RDP legislation could not affect legal status for purposes of provincial areas of responsibility such as property rights on termination of the relationship.

There is a significant area of provincial jurisdictional responsibility under the provincial power over “property and civil rights” under s. 92(13) of the Constitution Act for creation of a set of “near-marital”(or “spouse-like”) rights and obligations for those in a RDP. The provinces have the jurisdiction under s. 2(13) to grant limited “spousal status” for many important legal purposes to same sex partners and other cohabitants, on such terms as the provinces may chose (subject to the Charter provisions prohibiting discrimination).

Thus, there are this complex jurisdictional issues to address in establishing a near-marital RDP scheme. There would need to be both federal and provincial RDP laws to have a comprehensive scheme. Hopefully any federal law would recognize RDP’s made under any provincial laws as valid for federal purposes as well as allowing RDP’s for federal purposes for those ho reside in provinces that have failed to enact RDP legislation. Similarly, provincial laws should provide for recognition of RDP’s made in other jurisdictions or under federal law.

The constitutional complexity of enacting RDP legislation may be an argument in favour of not pursing this alternative at all, and simply expecting the federal government to allow same sex partners to marry. The lobbying from some gay and lesbian advocates has prompted of some law reform commissions(18) and politicians to begin to explore the near marriage Registered Domestic Partnership concept. The May 1999 Supreme Court decision in M v. H may also increase pressure to act, though federal and provincial governments are responding more narrowly to the immediate issue presented by that decision.

Governments are responding by extending the statutory “ascription” definition to place same sex partners in the same position as unmarried heterosexual partners. (19) Governments, such as that in Ontario, are responding begrudgingly to the Supreme Court decision, emphasizing that they are only acting because they have been forced to do so by the Court. Rather than changing the definition of “spouse,” Ontario legislation adds the new concept of the “same sex partner,” with all the rights and obligations of the unmarried heterosexual cohabitant, provided that there has been a period of shared residence, usually three years.

There is a clear effort by politicians to preserve the traditional definition of “spouse” for heterosexual “conjugal” relationships (married or unmarried). Ontario Premier Harris disparagingly commented on same sex partners: “It is not my definition of the family. “(20) Although the rights (and obligations) for same sex couples that are imposed by “ascription” as a result of M v. H. and other court decisions are significant, there remain some very important differences between ascription and full legal recognition.

There is an obvious and profound psychological and social difference that results from gays and lesbians being treated unequally and not having the option that allows them to have formal legal recognition for their relationship at any time they wish. A major legal difference is that until the parties have cohabited for the prescribed period, they are not “spouses” and ot do not have the rights and obligations towards each other or other parties that spouses have.

There may also be a lack of clarity for the partners and others as exactly when the ascribed status is (or is not) attained. Further, there remain some significant legislative differences between ascribed spouses and married spouses, such as in regard to marital property. While differences in treatment may be justified if partners who cohabit have chosen not to formalize their relationship, discriminatory treatment may not be justifiable if do not have this opportunity.

Should Quebec (or other provinces) Separate From Canada In Order To Best Protect Its Constitutional Rights?

In my opinion, all provinces in Canada, including Quebec should not separate. Quebec has been one of the provinces of Canada for a long period of time. Most people in the world view that it is one of the component in Canada. French-Canadian and English-Canadian seem to live together peacefully without conflict, even many people with different cultures and languages come to Canada in recent years. I thick Quebec has no reason to become independence from a multicultural nation.

Some people who agree Quebec to separate state that separation can protect heir French culture and language. I think it is an unacceptable reason in a multicultural nation. Multicultualism is a special identity of Canada. It allows people to maintain their own culture. If Canada does not have multiculturalism, there will be no Chinatown in most big cities in Canada. So it is not necessary to separate in order to protect French culture and language. Furthermore if French-Canadian wants to avoid any influence from other culture, France is the greatest place for them.

Moreover, the Canada government will lose money if Quebec separates by ealing with the separation affairs, like to help people in Quebec back to Canada who do not want to separate. Separation also leads to the decreasing of trade in Canada, and even the whole world. Quebec is a big trade market in Canada. People will lose this big market if Quebec is no longer a province of Canada. This will not only harmful to Canada, but also the separated Quebec. Quebec separation is also a morality problem. In fact, it is part of Canada.

People in a nation are like brothers and sisters, they should help and protect ach other. If Quebec separates, it will act like one of the family members leave the family and no longer maintains his last name. Nobody wishes to have this happens in his family. Beside, identity of a nation is very important. It makes difference between country and country. People in the world know that Canada is mainly formed by French-Canadian and English-Canadian, and it has bilingual and muiltcultural culture. Most French-Canadian lives in Quebec.

If Canada loses Quebec, the French-Canadian culture will surly be lost. If there is no French-Canadian culture, then the identity of bilingual will no longer need. Multiculturalism will no longer support by the French culture. Canada will hurt a lot because it loses one of the most special identities. Canada, including Quebec belong to every Canadian, not only the Quebecers. Every Canadian should have the right to determine Quebec should leave or stay. It is normal in a democratic country and government should respect to what the citizens say.

In Canada, only 22% of people agree that Quebec should separate, s well as 27% in Alberta. By these percentages, we can see that most people disagree Quebec to separate. Moreover, 80% people in Alberta oppose letting a separate Quebec use the Canadian money dollar, and 69% against letting Quebecers commute from their homes to a job in a Canadian province. Overall, Canadian should help to create and improve its society. If we treat people with different cultures kindly and friendly, Quebec may won’t have the idea to separate. Beside, separation will hurt the national unity.

Reforms Are Need In Canada’s Government

Canada is a country who’s future is in question. Serious political issues have recently overshadowed economic concerns. Constitutional debate over unity and Quebec’s future in the country is in the heart of every Canadian today. Continuing conflicts concerning Aboriginal self-determination and treatment are reaching the boiling point. How can Canada expect to pull herself out of this seemingly bottomless pit? Are Canadians looking at the right people to lay their blame?

In the 1992 Referendum, “The Charlottetown Accord” addressed all of these issues, giving Canadians the opportunity to finally let the dead horse be – but h, if it were that simple. A red faced Brian Mulroney pontificated that a vote against the accord would be one against Canada. Canadians would essentially be expressing the desire for Quebec to remain excluded from the constitution. How could the Right-Honorable Mulroney expect anyone to vote on a document that contained so much more than simply the issue of Quebec sovereignty?

Ironically, hidden deep within “The Charlottetown Accord,” was the opportunity for Canadians to make a difference; to change the way the government ran, giving less power to the politicians and more to the people. This was the issue of Senate Reform. Why is Senate Reform such an important issue? An argument could be made that a political body, which has survived over one hundred years in Canada, must obviously work, or it would have already been reformed.

This is simply not true, and this becomes apparent when analyzing the current Canadian Senate. In its inception, the Senate was designed to play an important role in the Government of Canada, representing various regions of the federation. Quebec, Ontario, the maritimes and the west were allotted twenty-four Senators each. Considered to be the heart of the federal system, the Senate was to be a crucial alancing mechanism between Upper and Lower Canada (Mallory pg. 247).

It was important for there to be equal representation, and not representation by population. Senators were to be appointed, in order to ensure that the House was independent and had the freedom to act on its own. As well, Senators had to be seen as a conservative restraint on the young, the impressionable, and the impulsive in the House of Commons (Van Loon and Whittington pg. 625). They therefore had to be over thirty years old and own property exceeding four thousand dollars in the province they represented.

This idea was called ‘second ober thought. ‘ As this independent, intellectual body, the Senate’s main function wasto ensure that all power did not come from one source. In theory, this prevented a dictatorial government, since any action (such as the passing of a Bill into law) had to receive the ‘O. K. ‘ from the Senate. This was protecting Canada’s democracy. In 1949, six addition seats were given to Newfoundland, and in 1975, two more seats were added to give the Northwest Territories and the Yukon representation; a total of 104 Senators.

Over 100 years later, it is clear that the Canadian Senate does serve the unction for which it had originally been designed. In fact, it is flawed in many ways. Firstly, the Senate does not have a voice to set the priorities for the Cabinet, and it lacks the expertise to handle policy making. Secondly, since the party in power appoints Senators when vacancies occur, the tendency has been to appoint people with connections to that party. This means that the Senate is neither representative of all ideologies nor reflective of the people’s interest.

No member of the Senate, for example, reflects the New Democratic Party’s view, since that party has never been in power. Therefore that portion of Canada who upports the NDP is certainly not represented. How legitimate is the Senate when its members are appointed and not elected? Thirdly, the Senate is not necessarily comprised of members with political experience, and this brings about the question of efficiency; how effective can the Senate be if its membersare not all comprised of ‘experienced’ politicians?

Another flaw in the Senate is that, due to appointment, the Upper House has been viewed as an old-folks home for retired politicians, having demonstrated faithful service for the party in power for many years. Many appointments to the Senate are rewards for ‘a job well done’. This, as well as the fact that Senators are appointed until they reach seventy-five years of age, has caused the Senate to appear more like a ‘Party-Members-Only’ club, and not the independent force for which it was designed. Sadly, it is the citizens of Canada who are paying the membership fees.

The Senate does perform a few functions that may warrant some of the expense to Canadians. Since the Senate mainly handles private bills, this allows the House of Commons to focus on government legislation (Van Loon and Whittington pg. 627). As well, the Senate committees are becoming involved in investigations into olitical affairs, which would otherwise be left to expensive royal commissions. By alleviating some of the pressures on the House of Commons, the Senate does act as a go-between on many political issues.

Even still, the Senate costs Canadians millions of dollars a year in salaries, pensions, and other miscellaneous expenses, which are unnecessary. There are therefore three choices: Canada can maintain the Senate as it stands, an outdated, expensive, and ineffective body in the government; the Senate can be abolished, meaning the Prime Minister becomes the dictator of a one-party overnment; the Senate can be reformed so that it is effective and representative of the population.

Clearly, the best choice is for Senate reform, since a reformed Senate plays an important role in a democratic government. Looking at the U. S. Senate, as well as the Polish Kancelaria Senatu, provides some insight into the way Canada may wish to reform her Senate. The U. S. Senate provides an excellent model for a reformed Canadian Senate. While still with weaknesses, the U. S. Senate is an effective and efficiently run body of the U. S. government. It reinforces the notion of checks and balances, nd allows a separation of powers between the two branches of government.

The citizens elect two Senators from each state, regardless of size, for a term of six years. To be eligible to run in a Senatorial election, each person must be at least thirty years old, have been a citizen of the United States for nine years, and be a resident in the state in which he or she is running. In terms of representation, each state has equal representation, ensuring that every state has two voices. As well, it allows for the possibility that the majority party in the Senate is not necessarily the majority party in the congress, eliminating he party bias.

The Vice President is the president of the Senate, and has the right to vote in the case of a tied-vote. This is a largely ceremonial function, one that is not usually carried out (Wasserman pg. 99). The majority leader of the Senate, the Senator from the majority party who has served the longest, schedules debates, assigns bills to committees, coordinates party policy, and appoints members of special committees (Wasserman pg. 99). The Senate is both a deliberative and a decision-making body (U. S. Senate Homepage: Introduction).

The main function of the U. S. Senate is to debate bills either introduced in the Senate, or passed to it, approving then, amending them, or killing them. Since it is a separate body from the Congress, in order for a bill to be passed, it must be approved by both bodies. One of the criticisms of the U. S. Senate is that it is a large body consisting of many committees and sub-committees. Since the process to passing a bill must first go through these committees before it is debated upon, the procedure tends to be quite slow and expensive.

Another criticism is that, while the Senate does represent each state equally, women and minorities are not equally represented. However, as compared to the Canadian Senate, the U. S. Senate is more efficient and effective in its procedures. The Polish Senate, the Kancelaria Senatu, is similar to that of the U. S. Senate. What is significant is that Poland’s modern Senatu has only been six years in existence, with amendments as recent as 1994. Senators are elected in free, public, direct and open voting.

A simple majority is required for a candidate to be elected based on plurality. The general population, political parties, or social organizations can nominate candidates for the Senatu. These candidates must be supported by at least three thousand voters who reside in each constituency. Poland is divided up into territories called voivodship territories, and two Senators are elected from each territory, excluding Warsaw and Katowice, who are represented by three Senators. Each Senator is elected for a term of four years, but may run for any number of terms.

Unlike the U. S. Senate, the Polish Senatu works in conjunction with the legislative branch called the Sejm, and they deliberate jointly. The Senatu examines bills passed by the Sejm, and can accept, amend, or reject them. If the Senatu’s amendments have financial implications for the state budget, it must indicate how these are to be met. The Sejm must have an absolute majority to reject the Senatu’s proposals for the bill, or else the Senatu’s decision is final. The Senatu also approves the decision of the President for national referendums on matters of interest to the State.

No member of the Polish Senatu belongs to an official registered party. This is significant because it removes the risk of party bias. As well, any citizen may run for the Senatu, allowing for a more direct form of representation. While the Senatu is not as powerful as the U. S. Senate, it still plays an important role in the notion of checks and balances. Both the U. S. Senate and the Polish Senatu demonstrate how an effective Senate is an asset to any government, and to the people it represents. Reforming Canada’s Senate is therefore very important.

However, the difficulty in achieving any reformation depends solely on the ‘powers-that-be. ‘ The goals of a reformed Senate are to give more representation to all areas of Canada, to make Senators accountable to all Canadians, and to ensure that the Senate is a separate power from the legislature; in essence a more democratic Senate. Since it is so apparent that the Senate requires reform, the question isn’t so much as o why and if it should be reformed, but rather to how? How can this be achieved?

The general population must elect Senators, in order for there to be true democracy. The tradition of stacking the Senate, due to appointment, must not be allowed to continue. Much like the U. S. and Polish Senates, any Canadian, thirty years or older, and having been a resident in Canada for eight years, may run for the Senate. Candidates can be nominated by any political or social organization, or by the general population, but must have five thousand supporters from the constituency represented, and must live in that constituency.

The candidates will not run on a party platform, and instead will run as independents. By eliminating party platforms, three things are accomplished. Firstly, candidates will be elected based on what they believe and not what a party believes. The electorate would decide on the candidate best suited for the position based on his or her own opinions, plans, and accomplishments. Secondly, this allows the Senate to be more objective, and therefore more effective. Thirdly, there would be no need for party discipline, and no risk of fixed voting.

Since the Senate remains independent from the executive branch of the government, iming of elections must be separate from parliamentary elections. The Prime Minister is not the head of the Senate, and therefore should not decide the actions of the Senate. Therefore, having a fixed date will ensure that there is no conflict of interest. Senators would be elected to a six-year term, with a fixed election every three years for half of the Senate. This allows the population the opportunity to choose who should represent then more often.

A term of more than six years would mean that the Senate would lose its effectiveness, and risk succumbing to the influences of the Members of Parliament. Even in a six-year term, the possibility for Senators to become influenced and lose their objectivity by other sources is a risk. There would certainly be an objection to this aspect of Senate reform by the current members of the Upper House. However, in order to ensure that Senate reform takes place, both the provinces andthe current Senators must make sacrifices for the benefit of the country as a whole.

Therefore, the first election will be to fill half of the Senate. By some form of lottery, one half will be forced to resign their position, and will have the opportunity to run in the election. After three ears, the other half will follow suit and resign their position. This will allow a slow filtering out of the old school appointed Senators, to be replaced with elected ones. There would be eight Senators elected by each province, regardless of the size of the province and its population. As well, eight Senators would be given to the territories.

Each province would be divided into four constituencies, with two Senators coming from each constituency. The Yukon and North West Territories would be combined, and divided into four constituencies as well. Each Senator has an equal voice in the Senate, allowing for equal representation for each onstituency and each province. In total, eighty-eight Senators would be elected. Eighty-eight voices in the Senate are more than enough to represent the constituencies, saving Canadians the unnecessary costs of addition salaries.

Although Canada is a large country, it still has a low population. Even the United States, with ten times the population, maintains only one hundred Senators. With too many Senators there becomes the risk of having two Lower Houses. Despite being elected, however, the Senators would be given the mandate to act on behalf of the people in their constituencies, and would not be irectly responsible to the people. In order to remain independent from the executive, it would be the responsibility of the Members of Parliament to present their constituents’ viewpoints in the House of Commons.

It is only through elections that the population can decide whether or not the Senators have fairly represented their constituencies. The most difficult aspect to Senate reform deals with the functions of the new Upper House. Much like the United States, the Canadian Senate must have the power to introduce policy into the House of Commons as well as accepting bills. As a safeguard against a power hungry House of Commons, the Senate is also responsible for bringing up the interests of the country. By allowing the Senate this power, the issues are given more attention by both sides of the legislature.

The Senate should still function in the same way as it has in the past, with the power to accept, amend or reject bills passed by the House of Commons. As before, a majority from both the Senate and the House of Commons is required to pass a bill into law, but in the case of a deadlock, the House of Commons should be able to override the Senate. When dealing with constitutional affairs, or, due to current issues involving Quebec, cultural affairs, there must be a sixty-five percent majority in the Senate.

As well, veto power should be grantedto the Senate in regards to constitutional issues. The Senate should maintain its system of committees, and continue to perform investigations into political affairs instead of royal commissions. In order for Senate reform to be enacted, a majority of the provinces must vote for it. Each premier from each province, and a leader from each territory, gets one vote. Getting support for Senate reform from Ontario and Quebec will prove o be the most difficult challenge, for they have had the balance of power since Confederation.

However, having mandatory Quebecois Senators is not possible in this reformed system. Since most of the debate recently has been over Quebec’s recognition as a distinct society and protection of its culture, Quebec will certainly be opposed to having less power in the Senate, when in reality it desires more power. There is no clear way to appease the province of Quebec, and perhaps there never will be under any system. Senate reform is for the benefit of the entire country, and after all, the rest of Canada should have a say as to hat transpires within her borders.

As stated earlier, in order for there to be reform, many people, provinces and Senators alike, will have to makesacrifices. If Quebec is unhappy with the notion of Senate reform, but there is a majority vote for Senate reform, then Quebec is a member of the minority. This proposal for Senate reform is a suggestion to improve the current state of the Senate. While many of these suggestions may not occur, the need for some form of Senate reform is crucial. Countries such as Poland and the United States have a more effective Senate, and therefore a more efficient government.

With many questions about Canada’s future left to be decided, what is more important than the state of the country’s democratic system? After all, the government’s purpose is to listen to the people and make decisions for the benefit of the people. Without Senate reform, the Canadian political structure may eventually crumble, much like an old house crumbles when its foundation has degraded. In order for Canada to survive in the twenty-first century, the old-school British system must be revamped, for it is outdated. Canada must cast aside old traditions and replace them with modern ideology and thought.

Poverty, an issue which society faces each day

Poverty is an issue which society faces each day. It is a constant struggle that cannot be ignored. Defeating poverty would take great efforts and contributions from all. Canada and the third world are examples of countries which are experiencing poverty, yet each differ in different ways. Once seeing the multitudes of condominiums, expensive restaurants, and streets jammed with cars, one would never see Canada as a place suffering from hunger, lack of food or clothing. Yet poverty exists. Poverty in Canada cannot be compared to that of a 3rd world country, since many of the poor have access to transportation and television.

What people lack is ability to see the inadequate nutrition overcrowded housing and chronic unemployment. A visitor to Canada from Africa or Asia, if told if told that there is a widespread poverty in this country, might find the statement hard to credit. (Schlesinger 89) In most places, the poor are thought to be isolated, away from shopping zones as well as residential areas. They are seen as a crowded cluster, living in shantytowns drinking a bottle of whisky, uselessly lying there in search for a job, or some method of employment.

This is just one of the stereotypes given to the poor person, we must first define poverty. Individuals and families whose financial resources and/or other resources (including educational and occupational skills, the condition of the environment at home and at work, and material possessions) fall seriously below those commanded by the average person or family in society, are in poverty. (Schlesinger 105) The poverty line, is a method used by the government to determine the number of poor people living in a certain area. It is based on an individuals income.

Anyone below the annual level of income is classified as being poor. Who Are Our Poor? The Special Senate Committee on Poverty, using a poverty line, calculated that approximately five million Canadians live in poverty (NCW 10) Studies show various groups in society tend to be poorer in comparison to others. Over 1 million Canadians who work are poor. The working poor are usually employed in service sales, farming, fishing and clerical jobs characterized by low pay, limited opportunities for advancement, and instability. It is said 1 person in every eight who lives alone is member of the working poor.

NCW 6) The second highest group is individuals that live in poverty are the elderly. 500 000 elderly people in Canada are poor. Many of them, live on fixed amounts from pension. They rely on transfer payments from the government as their main source of income. Old Age Security, Guaranteed Income Supplements and Spouse Allowances are the basic public pensions for elderly persons, but they still find themselves 15% below they poverty line. The third group of poor people living in poverty is the unemployed. There are approximately 480 000 unemployed people in Canada.

Unemployment insurance provides benefits for those who have been employed and contributed and then lost their jobs; it cannot help the disabled elderly or those tied down by parental responsibilities that are not part of the labor force. Disabled persons make up the next largest category of poor people. There are 460 000 disabled people presently living in poverty. It is very difficult for a disabled person to find work since they are constantly prone to discrimination. Conditions will not change until the attitudes of others change. Single-parent families are the next in line to face the struggles set down by poverty.

Over 150 000 single parent families are poor. About on in every four marriages end in divorce. (Schlesinger 56) These parents cannot afford the expenses for daycare facilities as well as lunchtime and after school supervision for their child therefore, and required staying home. They can receive up to $500 a month in Family Benefits and Baby Bonus. Finally, the last category or group, which live in poverty, is the Canadian Indians. 105 000 Canadian Indians are unemployed. Their housing units are overcrowded and , have no running water.

Available social services do not develop Indian people either individually or as a whole. Why are some Canadians Poor? After acknowledging which Canadians are poor, we ask ourselves why them? There basically 5 broad categories which each can be placed in. 1) Those who are not able to work because they are too old, too young, disabled, or tied down by social responsibility. 2) Those who are able and qualified to work but can not find it. 3) Those who are not equipped to fill available job either because they are undereducated. (Immigrants have language barriers) Or, because theyre old skills have become outdated. Those social and personal problems have brought them to a point of self-defeating discouragement. 5)

Those who are underemployed, underpaid, or unable to get a fair price for what they have to sell. (Ex. Farmers) What is being done? There are many social programs available to help the poor. However, there are always some conditions of eligibility. Others depend on the individual s income, the household income and participated on the labor market. Poverty in Third World Countries In 1994 more than one billion people live in absolute poverty. This means they cannot afford essential nutrition, clothing, and shelter.

India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Africa are most known for their third world one can state and acknowledge that there is little hope for change. It has reached the state where citizens have given up on trying. Yet are they the ones to blame? For every time they have tried to improve their standards of living, they have only experienced failure. Poverty in third world countries does not occur overnight. There are many signs that reveal if a county is underdeveloped. The most popular symptoms, which may also be in the most evident, are hunger and malnutrition.

In most low income nations food supplies are at or below the minimum required to feed the population. (Aubert 70) In poor countries distribution of food is not equal. The wealthier citizens are able to receive twice as much food as compared to those of the lower class. Diphtheria, Leprosy, Yellow fever and Kwashiorkor are examples of childrens diseases due to the lack of nutrition (protein). Fighting these types of diseases has become a problem among the people of poverty. A great deal of deaths has occurred because of these overpowering diseases, which is one explanation of povertys overpopulation rate.

The men and women of poverty believe that one way to fight poverty is by having children. Their theory behind this statement is that by having more children they all will be able too work, either on farms or in the city. It is these children who represent the labour an income the poor need to survive especially in old age. (Bender 121) People in wealthier countries usually think that people are poor because of bearing too many children. Surprisingly enough it is the opposite way: people have many children because they are poor. Another sign, which is just as important as over population, is unfair land and food distribution.

Developing countries (known as third world) such as Indonesia and Peru depend on their land for farming which will bring employment to the city. The problem though is that rent costs are too high and the wages are low. This results in most of the pay going towards the land, therefore leaving no money to be sent for the family to buy food. The cost of food imported to developing countries is controlled by multinational companies (Aubert 94) People who work for low pay may not always be able to afford food at whatever price it maybe.

It is these people who eventually end up developing a disease from malnutrition or starvation and eventually die. Even though food is bought into the country, it is not distributed evenly among the population. Some may be receiving twice as much calorie intakes than needed as compared to those who dont receive any at all. Which goes to show that if one is able to pay then they are able to eat, if not they go hungry. Low income salaries also results in no education for the children and harmful living condition such as bad situation and poor shelter. What is being done?

In order for those problems to be resolved programs must be created to promote development in countries such as Africa, and parts of Asia. Overpopulation must be controlled and resource development should be focused on. Programs such as World vision Canada, Green Peace, UNICEF, and Oxfam have already begun to help these countries in need. Since the government has been force to decrease their spending on health and education these non-government organisations had decided to take it upon them selves to help out the poor. (Bender 82) A popular way in which their organisations are able to receive the money to help out is through the public.

By sponsoring children in developing countries, the monthly donation will be used towards immunising children, providing loans for communities to begin income projects, teaching literacy, providing the children with an education and educating women on basic health, nutrition and family planning. Family planning is one effective way of helping development in third world countries. (Bender 97) If there are fewer births, the government will not have to supply as many schools, hospitals, or other institution needed for raising a child. Parents can better feed clothes and care for fewer children they have.

Although some countries are the processes of these programs they are still dependent on foreign aid. The only problem, with foreign aid is that most of the time the food is never directly given to those in need of it. For example, in Somalia 80 percent of the food ended up in the hands of the military officers and government officials. (Aubert 119) This able to explain why there are still so many people going hungry? Yet for those who are lucky enough to receive it, it does improve their standard of living and gives hope to do well in the future. In order for future development of third world countries one most consider new technologies.

Technology has always been directed to the North since progress is always noticed. (Bender 22) These nations have preferred to ignore countries such as Africa since their modern skills may be more successful elsewhere. If technologies were to be created in third world countries which the North already has for some years of these utilities one already may notice that it wont be cheap. Thousands of dollars must be spent. Once again the same problem exists: there is not enough money to provide all of these commodities which may help the development of the third world nations.

Quebec’s impact on North America

Roger Gibbons asked in his writing Canada Without Quebec: Thinking Through the Unthinkable1 could Canada survive without Quebec? (CWQ pg. 116) Not only is this a question that is not easily answered, but one that can be brought to an even more straightforward question. Can North America remain the same without Quebec belonging to Canada? To imagine Canada without Quebec is like watching the news with no sporting event highlights, a possibility but unlikely to say the least. A Quebec departure from Canada will not only reshape Canada, but will also reshape the entire continent of North America.

As the two governments of Quebec and Canada continue to talk about separation, they hold decisively the future of North America. Quebec leaving Canada will open doors for new nations to be built and for other current nations, such as the United States, to consume Canada that is lost in pandemonium. When or if Canada should lose Quebec, those remaining outside of Quebec would be lost in their Canadian distinctiveness and Canadian foundation of life. Canadas uniqueness is one of multiculturalism, bilingualism, rights and freedoms, and well being for all.

With the departure of Quebec, Canada loses one of its strongest identities. Canada is known as a French speaking country and an English speaking country; Canada would lose their whole French language characteristics. However, dont think that a language forms a complete identity, for it doesnt, but it does give a sense of belonging and historical background. As stated before, Quebec leaving Canada will form a new nation on the North American Continent. This formation being the most important, for it will allow the others to follow.

As soon as Quebec is granted or achieves separation, the James Bay Cree will be the first to follow. The Cree argue that Quebec separating from Canada should allow the Cree from separating from Quebec, much to Quebecs chagrin. Matthew Coon Come wrote in Dishonourable Conduct: The Crown in Right of Canada and Quebec, and the James Bay Cree2, we Crees feel that our rights and interests will be best protected if we remain within Canada (DC pg. 98) Though this would no longer be relevant after Quebecs departure. Come did say this however, how can people who claim these rights deny these rights to us?

Where is the logic? (DC pg. 91) This referring to Quebecs stand that the James Bay Cree have no need or right to separate from Quebec. Though this will be a much-debated problem for years to come, the logic will never come around, and the James Bay Cree will separate from Quebec, creating the second new nation in North America. So now with the French Canadians content, and the James Bay Cree content, what about the rest of the Canadians that are lost in all the disorder? The United States will be one of the first to take advantage of Canadas misery.

Roger Gibbons points out the absorption of Canada would be with interest to Americans. (CWQ pg. 106) Why wouldnt the United States want to expand their boundaries and power of North America and the World? The US would be keen on gaining more territory, especially the fertile land that would boost the American economy. Not only that but having an American soil gateway to Alaska would prove to be very beneficial. The United States main prize would be in gathering the two great cities of Toronto and Vancouver, the two most Canadian cities that resemble an American city.

Not just for the fact that these accommodate two or did accommodate two of the Americans National Basketball Associations (NBA) teams, but the economic advance of these cities would certainty enhance the American economy. Though this sounds easy and simple to expand the American border to gain a few ports, cities and gateways, the border around the new land itself would be of disarray and create lots of turmoil. Gibbons explains how the American absorption would pan out, picking off provinces or even regions one at a time would make no sense for the United States.

It would require a series of institutional accommodationsCanada will be absorbed holus-bolus or not at all. (CWQ pg. 107) Now what was formerly known as Canada, is an expanded United States, and two new nations of Quebec and the James Bay Cree, with a lost and utterly confused Canadian remain. Canada now remains a small, weak, and struggling nation, but one that is surrounded by allies. The remains of Canada would be ones that are still strong on multiculturalism and the Canadian way of life.

Those Canadians that fit in none of the new nations and forbid to be consumed by the US, remain in what is a small nation, most likely located in north Alberta, Saskatchewan, the Northwest Territories and Manitoba. This remaining country would become as Gibbons suggests, a new set of political institutions that would be much closer to the American model than to Canadian parliamentary tradition. (CWQ pg. 113) So now North America stands as a reshaped continent, one with two new nations and one that has become even stronger and one that is much smaller and still recovering from the departure of Quebec.

The Western Canada Concept

The Western Canada Concept is a separatist party led by Alberta lawyer Doug Christie. The party is devoted to a peaceful secession of the four Western provinces and the two territories from Canada. By means of four referenda held in each respective western province, the Western Canada Concept would establish an independent nation. A wide spectrum of reasons, encompassing political, economic, and cultural issues, fuels the groups drive for a sovereign, united, West.

The Western Canada Concept, through referenda and economic stability, insists that a sovereign West would better serve the needs of Western Canadians, which have been ignored by governments of the recent past. Reasons for Western Independence According to David Christie, leader of the Western Canada Concept, reasons for western separation abound, touching each area of Western Canadians lives. Many of these stem from a deep-rooted feeling of western alienation. During the Trudeau era, the majority of Liberal seats in the House of Commons was heavily concentrated east of the Manitoba border.

Through unpopular government decisions, such as the management of Albertas petroleum industry, some westerners began to feel that the government did not serve their needs. Manipulating a famous Abraham Lincoln quote illustrates this belief perfectly – since the government was elected by Central Canada, it must be a government of Central Canada, for Central Canada. This distribution of power in the House of Commons, a primary reason for Western Independence, has become a platform for many western politicians.

One concern is that there is little or no checks on the Prime Ministers agenda where regional equality is concerned. The Prime Minister is from one province, can be elected into power with only the support of a single region, and can run the entire country accordingly. Christie believes that the only way to keep Central Canada, the primary source of power for most recent governments, in check is to amend the Senate. The system by which Canada should model their Senate is the American system, in which the President is kept in check by equally distributed Senators.

Such wishes for Senate reform have long been embraced by western parties of the past such as the Progressives, Social Credit, the CCF, the United Farmers of Alberta, and most recently, the Reform Party of Canada. Since the Reform Party merged with splinter Conservatives to form the Canadian Alliance Party, its agenda, according to Christie, has become more national. If the Alliance, once a defender of western ideals, wishes to come to power, support from Central Canada is necessary. Thus, they seemingly have abandoned their fight for Senate reforms to appear more palatable to Ontario voters.

If Western Canadians want these reforms, they cannot expect a national party desperate for Central Canadian support to act on their behalf. Rather, secession is seen as the only way to draw attention to our concerns. As Christie put it, The major reason the political power of Ontario and Quebec has never been challenged is simply because the West has never considered the option of independence. In addition to the aforementioned political reasons, the Western Canada Concept has put forward economic reasons for Western Independence.

In light of the fact that the West produces 52% of the Gross National Product in primary sector industries such as fishery, forestry, mining, and agriculture, and 90% of the petroleum production with only 27% of the population, the West should be able to sustain itself economically. Furthermore, the West fares well on the international market. Of the provinces, only British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan export more than they import. Although the West seems to make a profit internationally, it is, according to Christie, being robbed from home.

A colonial economy, where Central Canada produces 80% of the countrys manufactured goods, and where tariffs prevent the other provinces from buying elsewhere, is preventing the West from flourishing economically. Again, since national parties with an interest in staying in power cannot effect any change in policy that might anger Central Canadians, the only answer is independence. The most difficult to defend, but most important reasons for independence, according to Christie, are cultural reasons. It is tricky for Western Canadian Concept members to air their views on culture as they contrast starkly with present Canadian values.

The Western Canada Concept feels that recent changes in legislation, such as bilingualism and immigration laws, have changed the Canadian identity for the worse. Bilingualism laws, as the Western Canada Concept sees it, have made it impossible for Anglophones to get government jobs. This alleged monopoly on government jobs given to Francophones is said to amount to domination of the civil service by one interest group. Furthermore, these laws are seen as useless in the West where English is seen as heavily predominant over French (somehow Manitoba has been overlooked).

Multiculturalism, or what Christie calls The euphemism.. or] a cyanide pill of cultural suicide of historical proportions, is another policy which is weakening the Western Canada Concepts definition of Canadian identity: a European Christian cultural heritage. Present immigration laws are seen as the reason for the influx of immigrants that are neither European nor Christian. This change in demographics is seen by Christie and his followers as a threat to European Christian culture and values, placing them in competition with others in their own land. These non-European and non-Christian immigrants are seen to corrupt the country by bringing in values that conflict with the cultural norm.

While Canada embraces this as diversity, members of the Western Canada Concept feel assimilation, where a common language, value system, and standard of self-discipline will maintain Canadas cultural heritage. How Life in an Independent Western State as Defined by the Principles and Goals of the Western Canada Concept Would Differ from Life in Present-Day Canada Once the Western Canada Concept has achieved independence through four successful referenda in each of the western provinces, it will go to work establishing an Independent West built on these principles.

Built on European Christian values, this policy will bring the Independent West back to its roots as defined by the Western Canada Concept. This state, through embracing policies such as assimilation, isolationism, and compulsory military service, would contrast greatly with Canada today. Language Rights: In accordance to a belief that the predominant language in the West is English, it will become the official language. Thus, all government services would be provided in English only. All other languages will be seen equally as second languages. This will prove to be a problem in Manitoba, where a large Francophone population exists.

Culture: The right of each Western Canadian to celebrate their ancestral culture would be jeopardized by these principles. The Western Canada Concept is committed to protection of a genuine national culture true to our existing European heritage and values. This inherent belief that one cultures values have the lone right to dictate in a country inhabited by immigrants from across the globe contrasts greatly with Canadas present policy. In order to avoid racial conflict, all immigrants must voluntarily assimilate to foster tolerance and understanding.

This policy will change the way citizens of the Independent West view the world, ultimately narrowing its citizens world view. Immigration and Refugee Laws: Immigration is one of the threats to the European Christian Heritage the Western Canada Concept feels this country was built upon. Consequently, immigration will likely be reduced. Since Christie and his fellow party members feel we cannot solve the problems of the third world by importing them, and that Poverty in the third world is not our responsibility, numbers for refugees will undoubtedly also be cut.

This will lead to difficulties for the Independent West in the International community. Foreign Affairs: A policy of isolationism would be put into effect for the new Independent West. Since the Western Canada Concept feels the United Nations is not effective in achieving peace, but rather at fuelling international socialism, they will not seek to become a member. The Independent West will not be a player in foreign aid campaigns, especially those involving Marxist dictatorships. The only trade in which the Independent West would engage itself would be mutually beneficial.

This policy will lead to a loss of security as a result of not participating in the United Nations. Furthermore, reluctance to help less fortunate countries will cause difficulties in the international community. Should a time of trouble arise, few countries will offer to help – the same cannot be said for Canada. Defense: All citizens of the Independent West will be obligated to fulfill two years worth of compulsory military service. Furthermore, the armed forces would be responsible for public service tasks such as reforestation, search-and-rescue, forest firefighting, and development of irrigation systems.

This program will cost a great deal, and although the Western Canada Concept asserts the program can sustain itself through defense industries, the pinch will most likely be felt in other areas of the public service. First Nations Land Claims: The Western Canada Concept views the idea of settling aboriginal title by means of land claims as tribalist, and thus, unjust. Such settlement would, according to Christie, amount to a special right based on status. Reserves, special privileges extended to First Nations, and tribal lands would all be taken away, as they all lead to ghettoization, conflict, and destruction of initiative.

First Nations citizens of the Independent West would be offered reasonable compensation by the new government that would extinguish aboriginal title. Undoubtedly, this will provoke hard feelings in the First Nations community, who will feel like they have been bought out. Freedom: The Western Canada Concept asserts that they would maintain the traditional fundamental freedom of speech, thought, belief, and opinion. In order to bring full freedom through complete disaffection of the government with our rights, the Charter will not be applied as law as frequently as it is now.

In fact, it will only be used when it could prevent violence. This could lead to an inability of the government to fully protect its citizens from emotional harm. Moreover, the government will not become involved in human rights tribunals, language commissions, or other activities seen as forms of state moralizing. This will create a country where the government could not be held accountable for any human rights violation it has committed. Although freedom from government might seem liberating to an extent, this policy also frees the government from a certain degree of responsibility to its citizens.

Parliament: The Senate of a newly-created Independent West would be elected. This would be in accordance with the government modelled after that of the Americans. With this comes the concerns associated with an elected Senate. Doubts as to whether Senators will be able to work as independent thinkers when their job is on the line will undoubtedly arise. Furthermore, the Prime Minister will be able to sit in either or both houses. Having the Prime Minister sit in the Senate will impede it from acting impartially, as Senators elected with a Prime Minister would not wish to damage party solidarity.

Also, a Senate where the Prime Minister holds a seat is unlikely to reject cabinet legislation. Based on the information available, there is no suggestion whether the lower house and Senate would switch lawmaker and reviewer roles depending on where the Prime Minister sits. In conclusion, the Western Canada Concept is a complicated movement which hopes to bring about an Independent West built on ideals of the past that will be expected to exist in and compete with the present-day world.

Rallying behind their leader, Doug Christie, the Western Canada Concept wish to break free of a Canada on which two provinces, Ontario and Quebec, are seen to have a political, economic, and cultural stranglehold. As the coming to power in every federal election rests in winning the majority in this region, the Western Canada Concept feels that Canadian politicians, even the somewhat western-oriented Canadian Alliance, cater their needs to Central Canada.

According to Christie, it is because of this disparity in the House of Commons that the concerns of Western Canadians will never be truly taken into account by Canadas lawmakers. The only productive solution, therefore, is secession. Through establishment of a sovereign nation, Western Canada Concept policies not currently in place in Canada, such as assimilation, isolationism, compulsory military service, dishonouring of land claims, and unwillingness to participate in human rights tribunals, could become part of the laws that govern Western Canadians.

Although their numbers appear to be relatively small, western separatist movements can only pick up steam as long as the West is not adequately represented in the House of Commons. Thus, the pressure is on Canadians who wish to see a united Canada to rally for political changes that will make the western provinces represented as equals within Canada.

The Economic Impact of The New Telecommunications Legislation

Canada has been transformed in recent years into an information based society. Nearly half of the labour force in Canada works in occupations involving the collection and processing of information. In a society in which information has become a commodity, communications provide a vital link that can mean the difference between success or failure. Telecommunications is a fundamental infrastructure of the Canadian economy and society. For these reasons, an efficient and dynamic telecommunications industry is necessary to ensure economic prosperity.

Deregulating the Long Distance Industry is the only ure way to ensure that prosperity. Telecommunications in Canada, which include services and manufacturing, employ more than 125,000 people and generate over $21 billion in revenues (Dept. of Communications, 1992, p7). Telecommunications helps to overcome the obstacles of distance in a vast country such as Canada, permitting remote communities to benefit from services taken for granted in large urban centres. More than 98 percent of Canadian households have a telephone, and there are more than 15 million telephone lines for a population of nearly 27 million(Dept. Communications, 1992, p7).

It is therefore not surprising that Canadians are among the biggest users of telecommunications in the world. For example, in 1990, Canadians made more than three billion long-distance calls (Dept. of Communications, 1992, p8). Innovations made possible through telecommunications have also contributed significantly to the phenomenal growth of the Canadian telecommunications industry. For example, the total value of the major telephone companies’ investment in their facilities rose from $17. 8 billion in 1979 to $40. billion in 1990.

In the same year, Canadian telecommunications companies reported more than $15 billion in revenues, accounting for an estimated 2. 7 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In addition, in 1990 the telecom industry achieved a real growth rate (after inflation) of 8. 6 percent compared to 0. 3 percent for the Canadian economy as a whole. Telecommunications is also Canada’s leading high-technology industry; its Research and Development costs of $1. 4 billion in 1990 represent about 24 percent of total expenditures in this area.

This shows how telecommunications has come to play such a vital role in ur society, in addition to being our most important high technology industry (Dept. of Communications, 1992, p9-12). Changes are constantly taking place in the telecom industry. These changes are caused by rapid progress in telecommunications technology, growing demand for new services, the globalization of trade and manufacturing operations, and increasing competition worldwide. It is also important to note that the Canadian telecommunications market of $15 billion is small compared to those of our major trading partners, the United States ($185 billion), the European

Community ($125 billion) and Japan ($65 billion) (Blackwell, 1993, p26). These factors were a mounting source of pressure on the previous regulatory structure of the Canadian telecom system. As regulation was eased in other countries around the world, Canada was beginning to lose its competitiveness. The USA and Britain have made strategic decisions to increase competition in telecommunications services and to modernize their “information infrastructures”. Other countries such as Japan, Australia, and New Zealand are following their lead.

The European Community is considering legislation to unify the European telecommunications market next year (Blackwell, 1993, p22). In order to not be left behind, Canada updated its telecommunications legislation to bring it in line with world developments. For example, a key piece of legislation that regulated telecommunications, the Railway Act, dated back to 1908 (Beatty, 1990, p135). Clearly, with such “ancient” legislation, new policy was required that would allow a more flexible regulatory system, and not hamper the development of our telecommunications industry (as the Railway Act did).

The first steps toward such a policy were taken in 1987 by the Minister of Communications, who outlined three basic principles to guide telecommunications policy making: Maintaining a basic telephone service which is affordable and universally accessible; Encouraging development of an effective and efficient telecommunications infrastructure; and Permitting Canadians in all regions to have access to the same levels of competitive services (Beatty, 1990, p42). Bill C-62 – the Telecom Act, passed in June of 1993, brought these principals to reality.

In addition, the legislation ave Canadian Parliament legislative authority over the principal telecommunications “common carriers” (i. e. Bell Canada, Alberta Gov’t Telephone, BC-Tel) in Canada. The new legislation defines the powers of the federal government and the regulation that is required to bring Canada’s telecommunications policy into the twenty-first century. It ensures the efficient operation of our telecommunications system, maintains and promotes and internationally competitive telecommunications industry, and guarantees all Canadians access to reliable, affordable, and high-quality services.

In order to achieve this, the ew law centres on two major principals: the first is to open the telecommunications market by having a workable policy for the whole country under the guidance of a single regulatory agency (i. e. the CRTC); the second is to establish a more flexible regulatory framework. The new legislation modernizes and improves the existing system in three ways: By updating and modernizing existing legislation that governs telecommunications. Namely, the Railway Act, the National Telecommunications Powers and Procedures Act, and the Telegraphs Act.

By making a single agency responsible for regulating elecommunications, and 3. By ensuring consistent conditions in regards to access to facilities, local and long-distance rates, and introduction of competition for providing telecommunications services across the country (Beatty, 1990, p42). In addition, the legislation resulted in the creation of a more open domestic market so that all Canadians will have access to relatively high- quality services, regardless of where they live. Advances in telecommunications technology enable companies to offer a wide variety of new services to satisfy the needs and interests of consumers.

One of the goals on the legislation is to ensure that all Canadians benefit from innovations in communications. In addition to promoting the economic benefits of telecommunications technology, the legislation also tackles the social needs and interests of users. The legislation also contains measures to protect consumers against possible abuse, including the sending of unsolicited information by telephone or fax machine (Beatty, 1990, p66). The Telecom Act gives the government the power to issue licenses to Canadian telecommunications companies and to set standards for equipment and facilities.

In order to be eligible to hold a telecommunications license, the company ,must meet specific requirements respecting Canadian ownership and control. A main requirement is that 80 percent of the companies shares must be owned and controlled by Canadians (Angus, 1993, p17). The legislation, and related regulations, therefore promote Canadian control over the country’s information infrastructure. As well as this, the new legislation ensures that telecommunications policy takes into account the interests of the regions and provinces.

Given the fundamental role of communications in Canadian society, and he vital importance of this sector in the Canadian economy, deregulation (or more accurately, easier regulation) of the telecom market will ensure that the Canadian telecommunications industry can successfully meet the challenges of the coming decades. By promoting the establishment of a more open telecommunications market, deregulation will contribute to improving Canada’s competitiveness, which is essential to the country’s prosperity and well-being. Telecommunications is the country’s leading high-technology industry (Dept. f Communications, 1992, p1).

It is one of the few industries in which Canada is a world leader, and it provides an essential infrastructure for Canadian businesses. The economic importance of this sector has been proved, and the deregulation of telecommunications recognizes the urgent need to give Canada the ability to maintain and promote competitiveness in telecommunications, both nationally and internationally. Deregulation thereby ensures that the telecommunications industry, which is vital for the country’s economy and for all Canadians, can successfully meet the challenges of the next century.

Poverty in Canada

Poverty is an issue which society faces each day. It is a constant struggle that cannot be ignored. Defeating poverty would take great efforts and contributions from all. Canada and the third world are examples of countries which are experiencing poverty, yet each differ in different ways. Once seeing the multitudes of condominiums, expensive restaurants, and streets jammed with cars, one would never see Canada as a place suffering from hunger, lack of food or clothing. Yet poverty exists. Poverty in Canada cannot be compared to that of a 3rd world country, since many of the poor have access to transportation and television.

What people lack is ability to see the inadequate nutrition overcrowded housing and chronic unemployment. A visitor to Canada from Africa or Asia, if told if told that there is a widespread poverty in this country, might find the statement hard to credit. (Schlesinger 89) In most places, the poor are thought to be isolated, away from shopping zones as well as residential areas. They are seen as a crowded cluster, living in shantytowns drinking a bottle of whisky, uselessly lying there in search for a job, or some method of employment.

This is just one of the stereotypes given to the poor person, we must first define poverty. Individuals and families whose financial resources and/or other resources (including educational and occupational skills, the condition of the environment at home and at work, and material possessions) fall seriously below those commanded by the average person or family in society, are in poverty. (Schlesinger 105) The poverty line, is a method used by the government to determine the number of poor people living in a certain area. It is based on an individuals income.

Anyone below the annual level of income is classified as being poor. Who Are Our Poor? The Special Senate Committee on Poverty, using a poverty line, calculated that approximately five million Canadians live in poverty (NCW 10) Studies show various groups in society tend to be poorer in comparison to others. Over 1 million Canadians who work are poor. The working poor are usually employed in service sales, farming, fishing and clerical jobs characterized by low pay, limited opportunities for advancement, and instability. It is said 1 person in every eight who lives alone is member of the working poor.

NCW 6) The second highest group is individuals that live in poverty are the elderly. 500 000 elderly people in Canada are poor. Many of them, live on fixed amounts from pension. They rely on transfer payments from the government as their main source of income. Old Age Security, Guaranteed Income Supplements and Spouse Allowances are the basic public pensions for elderly persons, but they still find themselves 15% below they poverty line. The third group of poor people living in poverty is the unemployed. There are approximately 480 000 unemployed people in Canada.

Unemployment insurance provides benefits for those who have been employed and contributed and then lost their jobs; it cannot help the disabled elderly or those tied down by parental responsibilities that are not part of the labor force. Disabled persons make up the next largest category of poor people. There are 460 000 disabled people presently living in poverty. It is very difficult for a disabled person to find work since they are constantly prone to discrimination. Conditions will not change until the attitudes of others change. Single-parent families are the next in line to face the struggles set down by poverty.

Over 150 000 single parent families are poor. About on in every four marriages end in divorce. (Schlesinger 56) These parents cannot afford the expenses for daycare facilities as well as lunchtime and after school supervision for their child therefore, and required staying home. They can receive up to $500 a month in Family Benefits and Baby Bonus. Finally, the last category or group, which live in poverty, is the Canadian Indians. 105 000 Canadian Indians are unemployed. Their housing units are overcrowded and , have no running water.

What is being done? There are many social programs available to help the poor. However, there are always some conditions of eligibility. Others depend on the individual s income, the household income and participated on the labor market. Poverty in Third World Countries In 1994 more than one billion people live in absolute poverty. This means they cannot afford essential nutrition, clothing, and shelter.

India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Africa are most known for their third world one can state and acknowledge that there is little hope for change. It has reached the state where citizens have given up on trying. Yet are they the ones to blame? For every time they have tried to improve their standards of living, they have only experienced failure. Poverty in third world countries does not occur overnight. There are many signs that reveal if a county is underdeveloped. The most popular symptoms, which may also be in the most evident, are hunger and malnutrition.

In most low income nations food supplies are at or below the minimum required to feed the population. (Aubert 70) In poor countries distribution of food is not equal. The wealthier citizens are able to receive twice as much food as compared to those of the lower class. Diphtheria, Leprosy, Yellow fever and Kwashiorkor are examples of childrens diseases due to the lack of nutrition (protein). Fighting these types of diseases has become a problem among the people of poverty. A great deal of deaths has occurred because of these overpowering diseases, which is one explanation of povertys overpopulation rate.

The men and women of poverty believe that one way to fight poverty is by having children. Their theory behind this statement is that by having more children they all will be able too work, either on farms or in the city. It is these children who represent the labour an income the poor need to survive especially in old age. (Bender 121) People in wealthier countries usually think that people are poor because of bearing too many children. Surprisingly enough it is the opposite way: people have many children because they are poor. Another sign, which is just as important as over population, is unfair land and food distribution.

Developing countries (known as third world) such as Indonesia and Peru depend on their land for farming which will bring employment to the city. The problem though is that rent costs are too high and the wages are low. This results in most of the pay going towards the land, therefore leaving no money to be sent for the family to buy food. The cost of food imported to developing countries is controlled by multinational companies (Aubert 94) People who work for low pay may not always be able to afford food at whatever price it maybe.

It is these people who eventually end up developing a disease from malnutrition or starvation and eventually die. Even though food is bought into the country, it is not distributed evenly among the population. Some may be receiving twice as much calorie intakes than needed as compared to those who dont receive any at all. Which goes to show that if one is able to pay then they are able to eat, if not they go hungry. Low income salaries also results in no education for the children and harmful living condition such as bad situation and poor shelter. What is being done?

In order for those problems to be resolved programs must be created to promote development in countries such as Africa, and parts of Asia. Overpopulation must be controlled and resource development should be focused on. Programs such as World vision Canada, Green Peace, UNICEF, and Oxfam have already begun to help these countries in need. Since the government has been force to decrease their spending on health and education these non-government organisations had decided to take it upon them selves to help out the poor. (Bender 82) A popular way in which their organisations are able to receive the money to help out is through the public.

By sponsoring children in developing countries, the monthly donation will be used towards immunising children, providing loans for communities to begin income projects, teaching literacy, providing the children with an education and educating women on basic health, nutrition and family planning. Family planning is one effective way of helping development in third world countries. (Bender 97) If there are fewer births, the government will not have to supply as many schools, hospitals, or other institution needed for raising a child. Parents can better feed clothes and care for fewer children they have.

Although some countries are the processes of these programs they are still dependent on foreign aid. The only problem, with foreign aid is that most of the time the food is never directly given to those in need of it. For example, in Somalia 80 percent of the food ended up in the hands of the military officers and government officials. (Aubert 119) This able to explain why there are still so many people going hungry? Yet for those who are lucky enough to receive it, it does improve their standard of living and gives hope to do well in the future. In order for future development of third world countries one most consider new technologies.

Technology has always been directed to the North since progress is always noticed. (Bender 22) These nations have preferred to ignore countries such as Africa since their modern skills may be more successful elsewhere. If technologies were to be created in third world countries which the North already has for some years of these utilities one already may notice that it wont be cheap. Thousands of dollars must be spent. Once again the same problem exists: there is not enough money to provide all of these commodities which may help the development of the third world nations.

Canada’s Institutional Landscape and The Government’s Ignorance of Farmer’s Needs

Saskatchewan farmers have been continually ignored in Canada’s institutional landscape. Never has the situation been more evident as it is with the possibility of Quebec separation. The Canadian governments ignorance of farmers’ needs has caused a cynical view of the political process in the eyes of farmers. One of the major sources of the cynicism is that Canadian federal institutions are developed so that most political of the clout is developed from the east. The eastern domination of the House of Commons, and indirectly the Senate, means that Saskatchewan wheat farmers do not have a strong voice in

Canadian political decisions. But what does the Saskatchewan lack of representation in Canada’s political institutions in Ottawa mean? What can Saskatchewan wheat farmers do to rectify the situation? And, following a Quebec separation what can wheat farmers do to uphold their livelihood? The intent of this report is to focus on the actions Saskatchewan wheat farmers can take to ensure their success in the future. A focus on the recent political policy decisions by the federal government, the need for intrastate institutional reform, and effects of a possible Quebec separation will all be analyzed.

The current institutional landscape of Canada has not acted favorably for Saskatchewan wheat farmers. The development of the institutions, ie. the House of Commons and the Senate, and the policies that have developed from these institutions have continually ignored the needs of prairie farmers, emphasizing the cynicism Saskatchewan wheat farmers have towards the political process. The antipathy towards the political institutions has developed because of recent cost-cutting initiatives and deregulatory procedures by the government and by mis-representation of farmers’ needs in government today.

The failure of Saskatchewan wheat farmers to express their needs in the Canadian political arena successfully, when compared to other constituencies, is based on the fact that Saskatchewan’s representation in Canada’s political institutions is weak. The result is the development of policies contrary to what would be accepted by farmers. Saskatchewan wheat farmers, in accordance with most constituencies in the west, have desired a institutional change to the Upper House in Canada. In 1867, when the institutions were developed, the goal was to develop two different political “bodies”.

One, the House of Commons, would represent the Canadian people by means of elected representatives in a representation by population scenario. The second, the Senate, would be a source of “sober second thought. ” In its creation the senate was intended to protect the ideals of individual regions. However, to the chagrin of Saskatchewan wheat farmers, the intended regional focus of the senate never developed and, hence, the senate has been an institution that has been the focus of a lot of antipathy from the West.

The drive for modifications to the Senate has been pressed by Saskatchewan wheat armers in an attempt to uphold their livelihood in a nation in which they’re ignored. The development of intrastate federalism in the senate is typically the most desired institutional change. Intrastate federalism aids in bringing regional representation to the national political arena. The desire for regional representation in the Senate is held in high demand by Saskatchewan wheat farmers.

The most prominent suggestion is for a Triple E senate (equal, effective, and elected) instead of the current form of the Upper House. Support for a Triple E senate is virtually guaranteed by Saskatchewan wheat farmer, ecause their views would have better representation in a central political institution which historically has ignored their needs. The reasoning behind the lack of regionalism in the Canadian senate is based on two important factors. “First, Canadian senators were not selected by provincial legislatures or governments, but rather were appointed by the federal government…

Secondly, Canadians opted for equal representation by region rather than equal representation by province. ” Thus, the senate’s actions are extremely similar to the actions of the House of Commons. To answer the question of what Saskatchewan wheat farmers need to do to uphold their livelihood concentrates on the necessity for a senate reform based on intrastate federalism. The hope is that by doing so Saskatchewan farmers would have a strong voice in the national political arena. However, modifying the senate is an extremely arduous task.

Senate reform would most likely have to follow the current amending formula of the seven-fifty rule. The seven-fifty rule declares that any amendments made to the constitution have the support of two-thirds of the provincial legislatures (seven, in the current Confederation) ontaining fifty percent of the population agreeing to the modification. The modifications would be difficult to achieve because the politicians in the east, who currently hold a lot of the clout in the current landscape, would be opposed to any changes that would see them lose power.

Upon Quebec separation senate reform would be even more difficult to achieve. Without Quebec, Ontario currently has 49. 8% of the remaining population. According to Statistics Canada demographics from July 1st, 1996. So, using the current amending formula without Quebec in confederation , the likelihood of Saskatchewan farmers having voice in central political institutions becomes even less likely as modifications to the institutions would only be possible if all the provinces, besides Ontario, were in favor of the change.

Without provincial representation in a central institution the needs of Saskatchewan wheat farmers will be continually ignored as the provinces with the largest population continue to develop policies to achieve their own goals. One suggestion has been modification to the House of Commons, however, this seems even more unlikely then reform to the Upper House. The goal of the senate in ts creation, as was noted earlier, was to provide “sober second thought. ” Regional leaders can argue that the senate does not fulfill the goals it was created to attain, and hopefully modify the senate to attain the regional needs they desire.

The House of Commons intent was always to be an elected body that was selected through representation by population and, thus, modifications to the House of Commons are less likely then changes to the Senate because the intentions of the House of Commons have been achieved. The fact that the institutional landscape in Canada currently favors the ast can be seen in three recent policy initiatives by the federal government. The policy changes have not been beneficial to farmers in Saskatchewan, and continue to be focused on what will help the east develop.

The policy changes have involved 1) the elimination of the monopoly the Canadian Wheat Board had; 2) deregulatory initiatives involving the creation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); and, 3) a cost-cutting policy initiative that saw the elimination of the Crow’s Nest Pass Agreement. Each policy change has caused deep cuts at the roots of Saskatchewan wheat farmers. A focus on the policy hanges shows that the policies have gained some support in other provinces, namely Alberta, but the policies have considerably hurt Saskatchewan farmers.

Making modifications to price-support systems, such as the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB), is not a pragmatic solution in the minds of Saskatchewan wheat farmers. Price-support systems have always been supported by Saskatchewan wheat farmers but recently Alberta wheat farmers have complained that the CWB is not effective and elected for a free-market system. Currently, the CWB operates under a pooled-payment system in which, “Farmer’s are currently paid an average rice based on the board’s sales profits. The strength of the CWB in Saskatchewan was firmly developed in the CWB’s ability to rescue farming life during the Depression of the 1930’s. It is for that reason that many Saskatchewan wheat farmers are skeptical of losing the CWB and the possibility of returning to a financially insecure market, as was prominent in the 1930’s. For any change to be made by the federal government there has to be support for the change in some part of the country. In the case of developing a free-market system most of the support came from Alberta wheat farmers.

Alberta heat farmers support a free market system because of the recent high prices which are not reflected in the CWB, as it sets a moderate price so that it can support farmers in times of trouble. Desiring to take advantage of the high prices Alberta wheat farmers seemingly ignore the problems that a free-market system brings with it, especially in the fluctuating market that would likely develop following Quebec separation. Both the price-support and free-market systems have there pro’s and con’s and perhaps only time will tell which system is more effective.

Alberta farmers, however, were not affected by the Depression as much as Saskatchewan farmers which is much of the reasoning behind the support for the CWB. The development of Free Trade has been another deregulatory concept that has been detrimental to Saskatchewan wheat farmers. The passing of the Canada- United States Trade Agreement (CUSTA), which has since developed into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), has caused the agricultural economy to drop considerably. The National Farmers Union 1991 statement assists in highlighting the effects that free trade has had on farmers.

For example, milling wheat for consumption was $7. 00 per bushel before the introduction of CUSTA and almost instantly the price dropped to $3. 75 per bushel. The current price is now $3. 10 per bushel. The net loss forced unwillingly on the prairie wheat farmers was $300 million dollars. The loss of which is certain to have a detrimental effect on the lifestyle and progress of Saskatchewan wheat farmers. With the continuing focus of the east towards free trade and the loss of power held by the CWB, the international market becomes very important.

A focus on the international market is extremely important as it highlights the effects of Saskatchewan farmers as the market proceeds in its current direction. The competition that is waged between the United States, European Community, and Canada causes the price of wheat to drop due to the elasticity of wheat on the world market. Wheat is an elastic commodity, especially with the inception of free-trade, because of the vast number of available substitutes. What the elasticity of wheat means to Saskatchewan farmers is that any price changes will have a serious effect on the quantity of goods bought by consumers.

With even a modest price increase consumers will simply look elsewhere for wheat, an option available to them because of Free Trade. The result is a drop in prices as the ompetition looks for means to attract the masses towards their product. Unfortunately for farmers the low prices mean low profits, and a deprivation of their livelihood. Quebec separation would develop yet another arena of competition from Quebec farmers, despite their small numbers. The argument that Canadian farmers would be successful in a free-market system where they can compete with international competitors is false.

The elasticity of wheat means that, even if Canadian farmers were to become the largest wheat suppliers in the world, they would do so only with low prices and insignificant advantages to Saskatchewan wheat farmers. One recent federal cost-recovery initiative involved the abolition of the Crow’s Nest Pass Agreement. The agreement was arranged in 1898 when the Canadian Pacific Railway was granted “a $3. 3 million subsidy to build a railway over the Crowsnest pass… In return, the CPR agreed to reduce in perpetuity its eastbound freight rates on grain. In practice, the Crow, as it was commonly referred too, protected wheat farmers from outlandish high transportation costs that the CPR previously used in the prairies to cover its expensive maintenance osts in the Rocky Mountains and Lake Superior areas of Canada. With the elimination of the Crow on August 1st, 1996 a modest increase in the cost of transportation costs placed on farmers to $15 a tonne was seen. “To soften this blow, the federal government [shelled] out $1. 6 billion in land payments to farmers and [spent] $300 million improving the transportation system. Unfortunately for farmers, the one-time support of the federal government after the crow will not prevent continuing transportation prices in the future. With the death of the Crow, small railways and grain elevators will shut down in avor of larger and more centralized means of collecting and preparing grain for transport meaning that small-scale farmers will have to travel farther with their wheat to get it off to market. Additionally, as the quasi free-market develops, an expectation for lower wheat prices gives the small-scale farmers another slap-in-the-face.

One author predicts, “… hundreds of miles of railway track will be abandoned, scores of elevators close, large swathes of farmland will be returned to native grasses and dozens of small communities will die as development shifts to larger regional centers. ” The abolition of the Crow has gained a small amount of support from farmers in Alberta. The reason being that the transportation costs will not affect the farmers as bad as they will in Saskatchewan and the development of large regional centers, already present in Alberta, will bring new initiatives and diversity.

In the meantime, the Saskatchewan wheat farmers have been forced to sacrifice their lifestyle to survive in a new economic agenda pushed by the bureaucrats in the east and by an open market competition to the south. Survival for the common farmer in Saskatchewan has become increasingly more ifficult as the federal government continues on its policy changes based on the idea that bigger is better, to the demise of the common farmer.

One of the alleviating factors during the abolition of the crow was the possibility of Saskatchewan wheat farmers to use the St. Lawrence Seaway as a means of finding lower costs to farmers. However, with the possible separation of Quebec, the use of the St. Lawrence Seaway is unknown. Depending on the agreements made by the Quebec and Canadian governments following separation the price of transportation may go up even further as Saskatchewan wheat farmers ould lose a possible location to ship their grain.

This would assuredly cause an influx of prices in transportation costs to farmers as the Canadian Pacific Railways would undoubtedly continue its trend of charging high prices to prairie farmers transporting their goods to the west, to combat the expenses of getting through the treacherous Rocky Mountains. Exports are a concern to Saskatchewan farmers on a whole, but more so to those involved in the egg, poultry, and dairy aspects of agriculture. Egg, poultry, and dairy are produced under a Supply/Management organization.

In ther words, there is a strict management of goods to ensure that farmers produce only what will satisfy domestic needs. When the system works efficiently no surpluses or shortages of egg, poultry, and dairy are created in Canada. If Quebec were to separate, especially with Quebec being a primary dairy producer in Canada, a number of initiatives would need to be developed to ensure that there is neither a shortage or surplus of goods. The repercussions of this would involve the need for farmers in Saskatchewan to focus more on dairy production, so that the needs of the nation are matched.

Also, egg and oultry producers in Saskatchewan may be down-scaled or forced to close as the goods they produce would no longer be needed by the rest of the country. To prevent any developing problems it is imperative that the Saskatchewan farmers have some voice in the political discussion following a Quebec separation. Theoretically, we could simply import from Quebec after separation is made to ensure that the demand of Canadians are met by Quebec supply. However, the solution is not an easy one because the cost of dealing with Quebec would likely be a high one due to an increase in transaction costs.

Transaction costs are, the costs arising from finding a trading partner, negotiating an agreement about the price and other aspects of the exchange, and of ensuring that the terms of the agreement are fulfilled. ” Simply put there would be an influx in the transaction costs between Quebec and Canada as the trading agreement is modified. Again Saskatchewan farmers, upon Quebec separation, are faced with yet another hurdle to clear in their attempts to uphold their lifestyle.

In sum, the political policy development that has been developed in the East has seriously effected Saskatchewan wheat farmers. They have lost a means or protection from a fluctuating market because of modifications to the price- support structure of the CWB, which could be extremely detrimental with the development of a new country and unstable economy. The international competition, witnessed through the eastern politicians focus for free trade, has caused the price of grain to drop considerably because of the elasticity of wheat caused by an increase in competition and substitutes.

Finally, the rising transportation costs, due to the elimination of the Crow’s Nest Pass Agreement, has meant that Saskatchewan wheat farmers spend more money to get their product o a market which has gotten progressively worse. Saskatchewan farmers are forced to spend more money to get their product to a weak market, which could get weaker in a new developing country due to an unstable economy and the increase in transaction costs.

The importance of the institutions ability to steer Canada’s policy needs to be analyzed here to ensure its power and importance is understood. “Institutions are like channels or grooves along which economic, ideological, cultural and political forces flow. ” Simply, the power of political institutions is not an abstract quality . With the branches of government built nder the principle of representation by population the political clout is going to be held where the largest population is held, the east.

The result is that of small constituencies are weakly represented in national governments which fail to realize the practical implications their policy developments have to constituencies not prominent in the east, such as Saskatchewan wheat farmers. The policies the national government have developed in recent events have spoiled the agricultural community in Saskatchewan. However, a change to the political institutions would cause a change in the policies that the governments reated simply because the “grooves” would cause policies to follow a different political, cultural, and economic flow.

Canadian political institutions have a serious effect on policy development in the nation. With the power being held almost solely in the east small constituencies, such as Saskatchewan wheat farmers are forced to concentrate on methods to modify the institutions so that they serve their needs. Recent policy developments have had a detrimental effect on Saskatchewan wheat farmers growth and the only means for farmers to prevent this in the future is o modify the institutions.

However, Quebec separation poses a difficult problem for Saskatchewan wheat farmers. Not only does separation mean that the economy farmers rely heavily on will drop but it separation also means that institutional reform is even less likely. The situation is not futile, and although the road is a difficult one Saskatchewan wheat farmers have faced adversity before. It appears that their unity and strength will be called upon again as they attempt to gain representation in Canada’s national institutions before their lifestyle becomes a concept of the past.

Kim Campbell Canada’s Prime Minister

Kim Campbell, Canada’s first female Prime Minister, rose quickly in her political standings reaching, what she would find to be the height of her career only seven years after entering politics. It appeared like the loss of the 1993 election and the all around destruction of the Progressive Conservative party was completely Kim Campbells fault however actually was a joint effort by Brian Mulroney and Kim Campbell. Kim Campbell rose so quickly in her political status that she did not have the experience that most of the others MPs had at her level.

The Tories were finishing their second term in power and the people of Canada were displeased with Brain Mulroney by the time of his resignation. Kim Campbell was voted in as Prime Minister by her party and was not elected by the people of Canada. During the 1993 election Kim Campbell had an American company make a commercial that mocked Liberal party leader Jean Chretiens physical disability. Kim Campbells first entered politics in 1986. She first won a provincial seat in Vancouver and in 1988 she won her bid for the House of Commons. She had many good ideas, one of them being the USA-Canada Free Trade Agreement.

This part of her campaign was recognized by Brian Mulroney who was the current Prime Minister. In 1989 Mulroney appointed Kim Campbell to the position of Minister of State for Indian and Northern Affairs. Later, in 1990 she was appointed Minister of Justice and a year later became the Minister of Defence. Just two years after becoming Minister of Defence and 7 years after entering politics, she ran for leader of the Progressive Conservative party and became Brian Mulroney’s successor. Kim Campbell inexperience in the world of politics gave her a huge disadvantage when things started to go wrong.

Brain Mulroney and the Tories had been in power for two terms, a total of 9 years. The Canadians had become tired of Brian Mulroney and his Progressive Conservative government, so when it was announced that he would resign most Canadians were happy to see him go. However his resignation did mean the end of the Progressive Conservatives power in Canada. Canadians unhappy with what the Progressive Conservatives had done chose to elect an other party. When Brain Mulroney resigned there was, in place of a federal election, a leadership convention. The Tories just had to elect a new leader who would then become the Prime Minister.

This meant that Kim Campbell was not the choice of Canada but instead the choice of the Progressive Conservative party. So when it came time, 3 months later, for an election Canada not only went with a different leader but an entirely different party. The Liberal party was elected to power and leaving the Progressive Conservative party was left with only two seats. Canadians were not pleased with the Tories no matter who their leader was, this dissatisfaction caused the worst loss in Canadian history. It was in the 1993 federal election that Kim Campbell found she was behind in the poles and made a decision that destroyed her party.

She chose to have an American Company make a commercial that made fun of Liberal party leader Jean Chretiens physical disability, Bells palsy. This disease paralyzes on side of the face, where the muscles on the right side of his mouth were paralized The Canadian people responded to this commercial by giving him sympathy and Kim Campbell and the Tories suffered because of it. Campbells problematic performance in the campaign,… and her inability to distance herself from the extremely unpopular Brian Mulroney propelled the party from defeat to disaster.

The Western Canada Concept

The Western Canada Concept is a separatist party led by Alberta lawyer Doug Christie. The party is devoted to a peaceful secession of the four Western provinces and the two territories from Canada. By means of four referenda held in each respective western province, the Western Canada Concept would establish an independent nation. A wide spectrum of reasons, encompassing political, economic, and cultural issues, fuels the groups drive for a sovereign, united, West.

The Western Canada Concept, through referenda and economic stability, insists that a sovereign West would better serve the needs of Western Canadians, which have been ignored by governments of the recent past. Reasons for Western Independence According to David Christie, leader of the Western Canada Concept, reasons for western separation abound, touching each area of Western Canadians lives. Many of these stem from a deep-rooted feeling of western alienation. During the Trudeau era, the majority of Liberal seats in the House of Commons was heavily concentrated east of the Manitoba border.

Through unpopular government decisions, such as the management of Albertas petroleum industry, some westerners began to feel that the government did not serve their needs. Manipulating a famous Abraham Lincoln quote illustrates this belief perfectly – since the government was elected by Central Canada, it must be a government of Central Canada, for Central Canada. This distribution of power in the House of Commons, a primary reason for Western Independence, has become a platform for many western politicians.

One concern is that there is little or no checks on the Prime Ministers agenda where regional equality is concerned. The Prime Minister is from one province, can be elected into power with only the support of a single region, and can run the entire country accordingly. Christie believes that the only way to keep Central Canada, the primary source of power for most recent governments, in check is to amend the Senate. The system by which Canada should model their Senate is the American system, in which the President is kept in check by equally distributed Senators.

Such wishes for Senate reform have long been embraced by western parties of the past such as the Progressives, Social Credit, the CCF, the United Farmers of Alberta, and most recently, the Reform Party of Canada. Since the Reform Party merged with splinter Conservatives to form the Canadian Alliance Party, its agenda, according to Christie, has become more national. If the Alliance, once a defender of western ideals, wishes to come to power, support from Central Canada is necessary. Thus, they seemingly have abandoned their fight for Senate reforms to appear more palatable to Ontario voters.

If Western Canadians want these reforms, they cannot expect a national party desperate for Central Canadian support to act on their behalf. Rather, secession is seen as the only way to draw attention to our concerns. As Christie put it, The major reason the political power of Ontario and Quebec has never been challenged is simply because the West has never considered the option of independence. In addition to the aforementioned political reasons, the Western Canada Concept has put forward economic reasons for Western Independence.

In light of the fact that the West produces 52% of the Gross National Product in primary sector industries such as fishery, forestry, mining, and agriculture, and 90% of the petroleum production with only 27% of the population, the West should be able to sustain itself economically. Furthermore, the West fares well on the international market. Of the provinces, only British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan export more than they import. Although the West seems to make a profit internationally, it is, according to Christie, being robbed from home.

A colonial economy, where Central Canada produces 80% of the countrys manufactured goods, and where tariffs prevent the other provinces from buying elsewhere, is preventing the West from flourishing economically. Again, since national parties with an interest in staying in power cannot effect any change in policy that might anger Central Canadians, the only answer is independence. The most difficult to defend, but most important reasons for independence, according to Christie, are cultural reasons. It is tricky for Western Canadian Concept members to air their views on culture as they contrast starkly with present Canadian values.

The Western Canada Concept feels that recent changes in legislation, such as bilingualism and immigration laws, have changed the Canadian identity for the worse. Bilingualism laws, as the Western Canada Concept sees it, have made it impossible for Anglophones to get government jobs. This alleged monopoly on government jobs given to Francophones is said to amount to domination of the civil service by one interest group. Furthermore, these laws are seen as useless in the West where English is seen as heavily predominant over French (somehow Manitoba has been overlooked).

Multiculturalism, or what Christie calls The euphemism.. or] a cyanide pill of cultural suicide of historical proportions, is another policy which is weakening the Western Canada Concepts definition of Canadian identity: a European Christian cultural heritage. Present immigration laws are seen as the reason for the influx of immigrants that are neither European nor Christian. This change in demographics is seen by Christie and his followers as a threat to European Christian culture and values, placing them in competition with others in their own land. These non-European and non-Christian immigrants are seen to corrupt the country by bringing in values that conflict with the cultural norm.

While Canada embraces this as diversity, members of the Western Canada Concept feel assimilation, where a common language, value system, and standard of self-discipline will maintain Canadas cultural heritage. How Life in an Independent Western State as Defined by the Principles and Goals of the Western Canada Concept Would Differ from Life in Present-Day Canada Once the Western Canada Concept has achieved independence through four successful referenda in each of the western provinces, it will go to work establishing an Independent West built on these principles.

Built on European Christian values, this policy will bring the Independent West back to its roots as defined by the Western Canada Concept. This state, through embracing policies such as assimilation, isolationism, and compulsory military service, would contrast greatly with Canada today. Language Rights: In accordance to a belief that the predominant language in the West is English, it will become the official language. Thus, all government services would be provided in English only. All other languages will be seen equally as second languages. This will prove to be a problem in Manitoba, where a large Francophone population exists.

Culture: The right of each Western Canadian to celebrate their ancestral culture would be jeopardized by these principles. The Western Canada Concept is committed to protection of a genuine national culture true to our existing European heritage and values. This inherent belief that one cultures values have the lone right to dictate in a country inhabited by immigrants from across the globe contrasts greatly with Canadas present policy. In order to avoid racial conflict, all immigrants must voluntarily assimilate to foster tolerance and understanding.

This policy will change the way citizens of the Independent West view the world, ultimately narrowing its citizens world view. Immigration and Refugee Laws: Immigration is one of the threats to the European Christian Heritage the Western Canada Concept feels this country was built upon. Consequently, immigration will likely be reduced. Since Christie and his fellow party members feel we cannot solve the problems of the third world by importing them, and that Poverty in the third world is not our responsibility, numbers for refugees will undoubtedly also be cut.

This will lead to difficulties for the Independent West in the International community. Foreign Affairs: A policy of isolationism would be put into effect for the new Independent West. Since the Western Canada Concept feels the United Nations is not effective in achieving peace, but rather at fuelling international socialism, they will not seek to become a member. The Independent West will not be a player in foreign aid campaigns, especially those involving Marxist dictatorships. The only trade in which the Independent West would engage itself would be mutually beneficial.

This policy will lead to a loss of security as a result of not participating in the United Nations. Furthermore, reluctance to help less fortunate countries will cause difficulties in the international community. Should a time of trouble arise, few countries will offer to help – the same cannot be said for Canada. Defense: All citizens of the Independent West will be obligated to fulfill two years worth of compulsory military service. Furthermore, the armed forces would be responsible for public service tasks such as reforestation, search-and-rescue, forest firefighting, and development of irrigation systems.

This program will cost a great deal, and although the Western Canada Concept asserts the program can sustain itself through defense industries, the pinch will most likely be felt in other areas of the public service. First Nations Land Claims: The Western Canada Concept views the idea of settling aboriginal title by means of land claims as tribalist, and thus, unjust. Such settlement would, according to Christie, amount to a special right based on status. Reserves, special privileges extended to First Nations, and tribal lands would all be taken away, as they all lead to ghettoization, conflict, and destruction of initiative.

First Nations citizens of the Independent West would be offered reasonable compensation by the new government that would extinguish aboriginal title. Undoubtedly, this will provoke hard feelings in the First Nations community, who will feel like they have been bought out. Freedom: The Western Canada Concept asserts that they would maintain the traditional fundamental freedom of speech, thought, belief, and opinion. In order to bring full freedom through complete disaffection of the government with our rights, the Charter will not be applied as law as frequently as it is now.

In fact, it will only be used when it could prevent violence. This could lead to an inability of the government to fully protect its citizens from emotional harm. Moreover, the government will not become involved in human rights tribunals, language commissions, or other activities seen as forms of state moralizing. This will create a country where the government could not be held accountable for any human rights violation it has committed. Although freedom from government might seem liberating to an extent, this policy also frees the government from a certain degree of responsibility to its citizens.

Parliament: The Senate of a newly-created Independent West would be elected. This would be in accordance with the government modelled after that of the Americans. With this comes the concerns associated with an elected Senate. Doubts as to whether Senators will be able to work as independent thinkers when their job is on the line will undoubtedly arise. Furthermore, the Prime Minister will be able to sit in either or both houses. Having the Prime Minister sit in the Senate will impede it from acting impartially, as Senators elected with a Prime Minister would not wish to damage party solidarity.

Also, a Senate where the Prime Minister holds a seat is unlikely to reject cabinet legislation. Based on the information available, there is no suggestion whether the lower house and Senate would switch lawmaker and reviewer roles depending on where the Prime Minister sits. In conclusion, the Western Canada Concept is a complicated movement which hopes to bring about an Independent West built on ideals of the past that will be expected to exist in and compete with the present-day world.

Rallying behind their leader, Doug Christie, the Western Canada Concept wish to break free of a Canada on which two provinces, Ontario and Quebec, are seen to have a political, economic, and cultural stranglehold. As the coming to power in every federal election rests in winning the majority in this region, the Western Canada Concept feels that Canadian politicians, even the somewhat western-oriented Canadian Alliance, cater their needs to Central Canada.

According to Christie, it is because of this disparity in the House of Commons that the concerns of Western Canadians will never be truly taken into account by Canadas lawmakers. The only productive solution, therefore, is secession. Through establishment of a sovereign nation, Western Canada Concept policies not currently in place in Canada, such as assimilation, isolationism, compulsory military service, dishonouring of land claims, and unwillingness to participate in human rights tribunals, could become part of the laws that govern Western Canadians.

Although their numbers appear to be relatively small, western separatist movements can only pick up steam as long as the West is not adequately represented in the House of Commons. Thus, the pressure is on Canadians who wish to see a united Canada to rally for political changes that will make the western provinces represented as equals within Canada.

Canada’s Young Offenders Act

Officially passed in Parliament in 1984, the Young Offenders Act was the final say in the rights of all criminal offenders of the ages 12-17. Most children under the age of twelve are not held responsible for crimes they may commitany one over 18 is considered an adult and tried according to the Criminal Code of Canada. The Canadian government managed to agree that young children and teens have special needs that the Criminal Code couldnt provide for. The YOA provides more opportunities for rehabilitation, with less of the repercussions that usually come hand-in-hand with criminal activity.

All About Law 237-253) Before the YOA was passed, youth were often thrown into the same class as hardened criminals (unless they could be placed under the Juvenile Delinquency Act), with very few extra rights afforded to them. The Young Offenders Act includes provisions for all children, with special regard for their age, maturity, and the severity of their crime. Extra rights provided for young offenders include : The young person under 56(2)(c) must be given a reasonable opportunity to consult with a parent and/or a lawyer prior to the taking of any statement.

Consult” means far more than a telephone call, or a “talk to”. A young person is entitled to privacy, face to face conversation, quality advice, and reasonable time. A young person may consult both a parent and a lawyer, on the telephone or in person, as the adolescent wishes. Under s. 56(2)(d) any person so consulted, must be present during the taking of the oral, handwritten, typed, or videotaped confession. A young person who clearly understands what he or she is giving up may waive the requirements of s. 56(2)(c) and (d).

Any such waiver must however be in writing or videotaped (Internet). This is so that a young offender is aware of their rights, and are given full access to adults that would help them understand more fully how to deal with the situation. Other rights also include : When you are arrested, the police must immediately tell you the following: 1. You do not have to say anything or answer any questions; 2. Anything you do say can be used as evidence in court, whether or not you say it in writing; 3. You may speak to a lawyer and a parent or other adult before you say anything; and, .

The lawyer or an adult must be with you when you make a statement to police, unless you choose not to have an adult with you, or you decide not to answer any police questions. (Internet Besides these extra rights, all young offenders are also given the full rights that come with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Some critics of the Young Offenders Act believe that the act is too lenient. They feel that with the new restrictions placed on the legal system, the offender gets away with far too much.

They think that the youth involved in the criminal activity are capable of manipulating the system to eradicate their past. Also, that the violence is escalating beyond the YOAs control. The Alberta Report, Vol 23, gives a good example of this: In January 1994, a 13-year-old boy shot his neighbors, businessman John Jarvis and his wife, Reta, as they came to the front door of their Whitehead, N. S. , home. The shotgun blast killed Jarvis and left his wife with shrapnel lodged in her head and her face partially paralyzed.

The boy later explained in court he was angry because his father had refused to buy him some chewing tobacco. He said he had decided only two minutes before the crime that he would shoot the first person in the neighborhood who answered the doorbellMr. And Mrs. Jarvis were just unlucky that day. Violence of this magnitude is not given the proper punishment it deserves, simply because the offenders were teens. These critics also believe that the lowest age should be lowered to 10 or even back to the original age of 7, and that the age of being tried as an adult should be lowered to 16.

Some of their fears may not be entirely baseless. Sixteen and 17 year-olds who commit adult crimes are not automatically tried as adults, even for murder, aggravated sexual assault, manslaughter and attempted murder there is no guarantee that youths will be sentenced as an adult. Even on the third rape charge, there is no guarantee of an adult sentence; mandatory jail time is not required for youths convicted of an offence involving a weapon. The Canadian government believes that by handing these rights out, they are protecting their children.

But they do not seem to realize that they are also endangering our society. However, the Young Offenders Act is a good, important piece of legislation. It protects juveniles from those that would take advantage of them, and it provides plenty of chances for rehabilitationchances to start fresh. Without this, many adolescents would find problems with work, school, and personal relationships simply because of one wrong choice, one bad move. YOA is in place to protect the innocent and to help reclaim lost children.

It simply cannot accomplish that, and still dispense full justice to those that deserve it the most. Some of the punishments included in the Young Offenders Act involve open and secure custody. Open custody is being on parole, in a foster home, and/or camps designed to deal with offenders in groups. Secure custody is being placed in a penitentiary with other troubled youth, but this is often used as a last resort only. If a young offender can at all be recovered, then the Canadian justice system will do everything in its power to do so (All About Law 237-254).

Hockey in Canada

Ice hockey has in the last hundred years evolved to become international. Canada is in jeopardy of losing its six teams. Tradition run deep in all of the cities and also professional hockey teams create thousands of jobs and help out in the communities. Teams in the Canadian market are having trouble keeping their programs in the black because of higher taxes and a weaker Canadian dollar. In order for professional hockey teams in Canada not to relocate to United States, it is necessary for Ottawa to provide tax cuts for them. Professional hockey has been around in Canada for over one hundred years.

Tradition runs deep in programs like the Toronto Maple Leaf’s and Montreal Canadians, which have been located in those towns since the creation of the NHL. In 1917 the NHL had its first full season and all of the five teams were from Canada. By 1934 there were only two teams left in Canada but those two teams (the Montreal Canadians and the Toronto Maple Leaf’s) are still in the NHL after 93 years. Privet research firms have done studies for professional sports franchises to see if moving their franchise is more profitable than their current location.

Currently three of the six Canadian markets are more profitable than the open locations in the United States (Dryden 2). A study done by J. C. H. Jones and D. G. Ferguson has come to the conclusion that the quality of a location directly affects a teams profitability. Also take into the consideration that the quality of a location also impact the quality of the athletic talent. “Finally, the one pervasive element in the empirical analysis is the significance of a Canadian location. The “hoser” variable is simultaneously a proxy for Canadian sporting culture and a talisman for franchise survival.

It is probably no accident that, at the entrance to the Canadian Pavilion at the World Fair of 1986, there is a single ikon which presumably described Canada to the world-the largest hockey stick and puck in the world. Seemingly, everyone recognizes that in Canada, “Hockey is King” (c1). These teams have made a home for themselves in their towns and if these two franchises are up rooted from their communities they may not be gained much of an advantage even with the lower taxes (Dryden 2).

One of the fundamental problems with Canadian hockey teams competing with their American counterparts is that Canadian teams pay all of the player’s salaries and travel are in American currency. However, all the revenue from ticket sales, concessions and advertising is in Canadian currency. American teams have an advantage over their Canadian counterparts because all the money that was created from ticket sales, concessions and selling advertising is one-third more than what Canadian teams will make.

This is because of a weaker Canadian dollar, 69 cents to one American dollar, means that Canadian franchises will always make one-third less from basic franchise profits as long as the Canadian dollar stays the same. “The teams are among Canada’s fewest businesses that pay most of their salaries and expenses in U. S. dollars out of revenue earned in depressed Canadian dollars” (May p 2). This is a problem because the weaker Canadian dollar makes it harder for these franchises to run day-to-day operations (Duhatschek 7). The result is uneven playing field between 22 U. S. based franchises and six in Canada”(Duhatschek 7).

The weaker Canadian dollar and higher taxes is forcing Canadian franchises to look south for better opportunities. The National Hockey League needs to make it so teams in profitable areas could help out teams in lower profit markets by sharing some of their profit. By sharing profits this could help Canadian teams with high taxes. Unlike the NBA or NFL the NHL does not have a lucrative TV contract with a network to help some teams with the inflated taxes. The NHL also does not share its gate receipts with its other members (c1).

That means that teams like the Detroit Red Wings, which is one of the most profitable teams, does not share any of its gate receipts with teams that aren’t profitable like the Calgary flames. This system is used in the NBA and teams in markets that are not as profitable are still able to compete against teams in cities such as New York and Los Angeles(c1). Many Canadian corporations get government funding to be competitive with the American market because of the higher taxes (Duhatschek 7). Much like the hockey issue these corporations need government funding so that they can be aggressive against their American counterpart.

The Canadian government has given money to multibillion-dollar corporations so that these companies can be competitive in the American market. The Canadian government has given money so that Canadian production companies can make films. “The government provides financial support to a number of projects that would not be produced if making a profit were the only incentive. The film industry is like professional sports in many ways, they’re both providing entertainment for viewing audience and both Corporations have to pay their employees a large sum of money.

For the past nine years, the Canadian federal government has provided massive subsidies to rich owners and high profile industries such as the movie industry and high-tech” (Duhatschek 7). With government subsidies such as the movie industry movie and aerospace industry get the NHL could remain in all six Canadian locations (Duhatschek 7). Another major problem plaguing professional hockey in Canada is the taxes that the six Canadian teams have to pay. The Ottawa Senators, a new franchise as of 1992, paid more taxes then their entire payroll in 1999.

They paid $14 million to the federal government, $16 million to the provincial government and $3 million to the city of Kanata which comes to a total of $34,132,950 (Bryden 3). The result was a cash loss of $10 million. This enormous some of money makes it incredibly hard for a team to be competitive and financially stable. Many of the other Canadian clubs such as the Montreal Canadians are locked into legal battle over the municipal tax bill for the Molson center, the home of the Montreal Canadian.

The Canadians are asking that their taxes be cut from $9. 5 million to $3. 6 million a year (Hickey et al. 2). The municipal taxes in Canada are three times what all-22 to American teams pay municipal taxes a year. In the United States cities and states compete aggressively with each other for major league sports. Cities and states are offering these professional teams subsidized buildings, exemption or more reduction in real estate and sales tax making it easier for these teams to be profitable.

Most Canadian cities are not reducing the operating costs like their American counterparts making it impossible for these teams to operate for an extended period of time. “Providing location incentive to businesses is a long standing practice of states and local governments. Tax abatements, low-interest loans, job training, and facility and infrastructure development have been some f the incentives offered to influence the location decisions of firms”(Swindell 12). Even the biggest city in the NHL market, New York, gets special treatment.

The Rangers are exempt from real estate tax on Madison Square Garden. Much like New York, Nashville is provided a building for rent of one million a year with no real estate tax. In Ottawa their attendance is in the top 10 in the league and their rank is in the top five both in the number of suites leased and the value all of signage and advertising in the building. But their taxes are higher than all 22 American teams combined (Manley 2). These teams create jobs in the area where the teams’ arena is built.

Not only will the people who work for the teams be out of jobs but surrounding businesses will be hurt as well with the lost revenue from the constant business from September till June. “Investments in sports facilities have the potential for generating spillover effects. As already noted, some advocates for public-sector investments in facilities have argued that there are tangible economic spillover benefits such as new jobs generation, revitalized downtown areas, and improved land-use patterns, as well as intangible spillover enefits such as an enhanced civic image and identity.

These benefits are in addition to the basic entertainment made available to the payers of admission fees” (Swindell 13). Cities such as Cleveland have shown that a new sporting complex creates new jobs. “Two years after both facilities opened, approximately 1300 jobs have been added in the gateway area and more than 700 million has gone into major development in downtown Cleveland since 1991” (B16). Professional sports teams are a staple of the economy in their area and with the withdrawal of teams could be economic trouble (b11-20).

John Manley, the Canadian minister of industry made a proposal to help bail out the six Canadian hockey teams. He gave it in front of the house on January 18th, the proposal give hockey teams tax relief’s from the government. In this proposal Manley would have given 25 percent of what the other parties (the other stakeholders, namely the National Hockey League and the provinces and municipalities) didn’t kick into the deal (Manley pg 1). The proposal was sent to the house of comments after a year of careful consideration by the Prime Minister Jean Chretien’s cabinet.

Franchises such as the Calgary flames, Edmonton Oilers, Ottawa senators and the Vancouver Canucks are having trouble running daily operations without subsidies from the government. The local and national governments need to make provisions so that these teams can continue contributing to Canadian history. The portion of federal money used in the first proposal would come from the industry spending plan for the year 2000. The plan would give them money until 2004 when the collective bargaining agreement between the NHL and players association would be renegotiated.

This Plan is essential for the survival of the NHL in Canada. The national hockey league and the Canadian government worked on a plan to give government subsidies to Canadian hockey teams so that they could continue conducting business in Canada. Federal industrial minister John Manley pledged cash to the six Canadian NHL teams providing that municipal and provincial and government’s and the NHL share in what is described as a temporary bailout. The amount of assistance will be examined on a team-by-team basis.

The subsidies will run through the end of the current collective bargaining agreement between the NHL and its players in 2004 and Ottawa will provide 25% percent of the any aid package” (Hickely 1). Ottawa will only give a maximum of $2. 5 million a team and that would mean $10 million a year. The money that would have been given to the NHL teams would have made it possible for all of the six Canadian teams to remain there till 2004 (Hinkely et al. 1-4). Without help from the government the remaining six Canadian professional hockey teams will not survive until 2004.

The bail out plan was key ingredient in keeping these teams in Canada and without a solidify short-term agreement with the Canadian government franchises such as Vancouver, Edmonton, and Calgary could find homes across the board. The Canadian government withdrew its funding because of public outcry now Canadian teams have to be creative in how they’re going to raise money to deal with the inflated taxes. Or the NHL could find itself in three new markets such as Cleveland Las Vegas and Portland. Out of the six Canadian franchises two are essential for the communities where they are located.

Canada – the world’s second largest country

Canada, is the world’s second largest country and it is the largest country in the Western Hemisphere. It comprises all of the North American continent north of the United States, with the exclusion of Alaska, Greenland, and the tiny French islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon. Its most easterly point is Cape Spear, Newfoundland and its western limit is Mount St. Elias in the Yukon Territory, near the Alaskan border. The southernmost point is Middle Island, in Lake Erie and the northern tip is Cape Columbia, on Ellesmere Island.

Canada is bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the west by the pacific Ocean, and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean and its associated bodies of water, including Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea. Canada has an abundance of mineral, forest, and water-power resources. The mining industry has been a major force in Canada’s economic development in the past and is still the main force in the advance and economic activity and permanent settlement into the northlands.

The principal minerals are petroleum, nickel, copper, zinc, iron ore, natural gas, asbestos, molybdenum, sulfur, gold, and platinum; in addition extensive beds of coal, potash, uranium, gypsum, ilver, and magnesium are found. Fresh water covers an estimated 756 276 sq km or 7. 6% of Canada. The many rivers and lakes supply ample fresh water to meet the nation’s needs for its communities and for irrigation, agriculture, industries, transportation, and hydroelectric power generation. Canada has four principal drainage basins: the Atlantic Basin which drains to the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Great Lakes and the St.

Lawrence River, the Hudson Bay Basin which drains northward into Hudson Bay via the Churchill, Nelson and Saskatchewan rivers, the Arctic Basin which is rained by the Mackenzie River and the Pacific Basin which drains into the Pacific Ocean via the Fraser, Yukon and Columbia rivers. Canada has six major physical, or physiographic, regions: the Canadian Shield, the Arctic Islands, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Appalachian Region, the Interior Plains, and the Cordilleran Region.

In simple terms, Canada can be considered a vast, saucer-shaped basin, bordered by mountainous lands on the west, east, and northeast. Hudson Bay and the lowlands along its southern shore form the central depression of this saucer. Surrounding this depression on all sides, including Baffin Island, is the Canadian Shield (also known as the Laurentian Plateau or Laurentian Upland). The Canadian Shield is a region of ancient, mostly Precambrian rocks that covers nearly half of Canada. The Canadian Shield includes all of Labrador and large areas of Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, and the Northwest Territories.

As a result of glacial action during the Pleistocene Ice Age, much of the region is covered with numerous lakes and marshy areas as well as rolling hills from worn down mountains. The Canadian Shield was formed in the early Paleozoic era and is omposed of igneous rock. Podzolic soils, which are soils of low natural fertility cover much of this area, they are also quite wet from the climate. The climate in this area varies quite a bit due to the different levels of elevation. Arctic climate conditions are found in the northern areas, these areas generally have dry and cold conditions.

Boreal conditions are found in the midsection, the conditions are generally cold and wet. South-Eastern climate conditions are found in the south, these climate conditions are generally cool and wet. Precipitation is fairly heavy in northern Quebec and Labrador. The climate and acidic soils in this area do not create proper conditions for agriculture. Some coniferous and deciduous forests are found in this area as well as, shrubs, litchen and heath. The Arctic Islands lie to the northwest of the central depression and constitute about 8. 3% of Canada’s land area.

They are mostly covered by permanent snow and ice fields. The northern sections of the region include the United States Range, which reaches 2926 m in northern Ellesmere Island. The southern sections are lower in altitude and are sometimes referred to collectively as the Arctic Lowlands and Plateaus. The Arctic Mountains are primarily composed of igneous and metamorphic rock. The mountains are very young mountains with jagged peaks. The Arctic Lowlands are made solely of sedimentary rock. Glaciation has worn down the land in this area leaving it flat with some rounded hills.

Tundra and subarctic soils cover all of this area and ice and stone deserts are found over large areas as well. The subsoil in much of this area is permanently frozen, and the soils are unsuitable for agriculture. The sparsely settled northern areas have an arctic, or tundra, type of climate on the islands and northern oastal areas and a subarctic type of climate in the vast transitional area between the frozen north and the settled south. The arctic type of climate is characterized by long, very cold winters, with average temperatures far below freezing and no summer month with an average temperature higher than 10 degrees C.

In the subarctic areas, winters are similarly long and bitterly cold, but summers are warm enough to support some vegetation growth. Precipitation is generally light in the western areas of the arctic and subarctic regions. Despite the low precipitation, snow covers the ground permanently for more than months of every year. Tundra vegetation covers most of this area. The low temperatures and permanently frozen subsoil inhibits the growth of most plants except the hardy mosses and lichens. Various grasses and flowers are also found.

Trees are absent, except for dwarf trees and some berry-bearing shrubs. The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands region constitutes only 1. 3% of Canada but is the area where most people live. It is composed of sedimentary rock. It is a flat to gently rolling region that extends southwest from Quebec City to Lake Huron and includes all of the St. Lawrence River valley and the Ontario Peninsula, a triangular, densely populated area of southern Ontario that is bordered by the shores of Lakes Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Brown and gray brown podzilic soils cover most of this area.

These soils are naturally fertile and, when properly farmed, support a wide range of crops and other agricultural activities. The climate here is a more humid version of a continental type of climate. The winters are long and cold with an average temperature of -10 degrees C in the eastern sections and -4 degrees C in the Ontario Peninsula, and short warm summers with average temperatures of near 20 degrees C. Eastern orests are native to this area, both deciduous trees such as sugar maple and beech and coniferous trees such as yellow pine, white and red pine,and hemlock are found here.

The Appalachian Region occupies approximately 3. 4% of Canada and is the northward continuation into Canada of the Appalachian Mountain system of the eastern United States. It includes all of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and the island of Newfoundland and forms most of Quebec’s Gaspe Peninsula. It is composed of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock. It is a region of geologically old, worn-down uplands, with summits ranging from 150 m o more than 1270 m. The highest and most rugged mountains are the Shickshock Mountains of the Gaspe Peninsula, where Mount Jacques Cartier rises to 1270 m.

Podzolic soils, which are soils of low natural fertility are most extensive in this area. They are found to be quite acidic, gray in colour and leached of soil nutrients, but they are suitable for farming if fertilizers are used. Frontal weather conditions are found here as a result of the meeting of the tropical maritime air mass and the maritime air mass. The mean annual precipitation is quite high here as well. Boreal, or northern, coniferous orest as well as deciduous forests are found here, but they are considered to be non-productive due to expensive costs.

The Interior Plains lie between the Canadian Shield and the Rocky Mountains and are a continuation of the Great Plains of the United States. The region occupies 18. 3% of Canada. It extends to the Arctic coast and includes the northeastern section of British Columbia and parts of the prairie provinces of Alberta. Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. The area is composed of sedimentary rock. It is an area of flat land with some rolling hills. The three chernozemic, or lack earth, soils are the most important in this region. They account for nearly all of Canada’s wheat production.

The true chernozem, or black earth, is extremely productive and is found in an arc passing through Winnipeg, Edmonton, and Calgary. To the south forming a more southerly arc passing through Regina, Saskatoon, and Lethbridge, and reflecting a somewhat drier climate of this region, are the dark brown soils. Brown soils predominate in the southern, semiarid parts of the interior plains. The Interior Plains have a middle- latitude steppe-type climate in the drier southern sections and a more humid and xtreme continental type of climate elsewhere.

Temperatures average about -20 degrees to -15 degrees C in long winters and 18 degrees to 20 degrees C in short summers. Precipitation is not very high here. Many areas receive less than 500 mm a year. Natural grasslands, or prairies, once extended across the southern part of the interior plains. These natural grasslands have been largely plowed under and replaced by field crops, such as; grain, and other mixed farming. The combination of the good soil conditions and climate conditions allows for the production of good crops. The Cordilleran Region occupies 15. of all Canada and includes most of British Columbia and the Yukon Territory and the southwestern corner of Alberta. It is a complex mountain system composed of sedimentary rock and young fold mountains with jagged peaks. The mountains are approximately 800 km wide and they extend along the pacific coast. The three main subsections of the region are the eastern ranges, the western ranges and an intermontane area between the two. The eastern ranges include the Rocky Mountains in the south and the Mackenzie and Richardson Mountains in the north. The western ranges of the region include the St.

Elias Mountains, the scenic Coast Mountains, and a partially submerged range that appears offshore; Vancouver Island and the Queen Charlotte Islands. The intermontane section of the Cordilleran Region, located between the eastern and western ranges, is a series of wide, rolling tablelands, such as the Fraser and Kamloops plateaus, and short mountain ranges, such as the Cascade, Cariboo, Selkirk, Monashee, Purcell, Stikine, Skeena, and Hazelton mountains. The soils of the Cordilleran Region, as in all mountain areas, follow attitudinal and climatic zones and, where topography and climate are suitable support a variety f agricultural activity.

Precipitation is quite heavy here where moisture- laden winds from the Pacific Ocean are forced to rise over the mountainous coastal regions and bring more than 5000 mm of rain a year in some areas. The third great forest zone is found here due to the humidity. It is a dense, tall- timber forest where Douglas fir, western hemlock, and western red cedar are the dominant trees. Most of Canada’s people live in the southern part of the country, in an elongated, discontinuous belt of settlement parallel to the U. S. -Canadian border. The most populated provinces are Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia.

During the last 75 years, the Canadian economy has been transformed from on based primarily on agricultural production and the export of agricultural products and raw materials to one based primarily on its manufacturing and service sectors, as well as a mining sector of continuing importance. Canada’s economy reflects an affluent high-tech industrial society and resembles the United States, with whom it has close economic ties. This is one reason why a large percentage of the population live by the U. S. -Canadian border. Another reason is because a large number of the manufacturing plants are located in the outhern section of Canada.

Canada is rich in natural resources. It is a world leader in value of mineral exports and produces and exports many of the mineral needed for modern industrial economies. It’s soils which are especially rich in the three prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, are intensively utilized and make Canada one of the world’s largest exporters of agricultural products. Forests cover much of the land, and Canada is the world’s largest exporter of newsprint and a leading supplier of lumber, pulp, paper, and wood products.

Imigration To Canada

Many people immigrated to Canada with hopes of a better life and refuge from places and times of uncertainty. People in foreign countries were made aware of Canada and all it supposedly had to offer through channels such as relatives who were already living in Canada and governmental advertising. Information given was not always as accurate as it should have been. Views on the early settlement of Canada varied depending on the person and his or her experiences, for interpretations of particular situations often varied.

Descriptions of Canada and all it had to offer tended to enhance the positive aspects while trying to hide or lessen the negative ones as advertisement often does; nonetheless immigration to and settlement in Canada did not go without struggle or barriers to overcome. This paper will paper will specifically look at a single Dutch-Canadian family, observing their trials and tribulations of the development of a new life in a new world through the eyes of a second generation Dutch-Canadian by way of comparing the proceedings of an interview to that of material found in various history collections.

The reconstruction of one’s life after such tragedies as war can be compared to that of childbirth. Many women pronounce its excruciating pain and suffering but after seeing the end result of a new life, that same pain is often forgotten or seen as considerably less significant. IMMIGRATION TO CANADA War wreaked such havoc over all of Europe that people in the Netherlands were living with constant feelings of instability for a considerable length of time even after it was over.

With “ruined cities, shattered transportation networks, devastated industrial centers, and a barely functioning economy…[amongst]…overpopulation, unemployment, and [a] limited amount of arable land,” many people could no longer live in a place of ceaseless uncertainty (Ganzevoort, 1988: 62, 63). To some, emigration seemed to be the most prospective solution to their social and economic problems. Through emigration, people could reestablish relationships with relatives already in Canada. Promises of jobs and housing were enhanced by grand descriptions of the possibilities that existed,” some being more accurate than others (Ganzevoort, 1988: 65). All these factors: the after effects of war, instability, encouragement of emigration, and advertised opportunity, contributed to the move of many people from the Netherlands to Canada. The accuracies of descriptions of this supposed wonderful journey wouldn’t be found out until their move was underway.

Surely there was much land and many opportunities, but all of this was easier said than done. Moving from one country to another involved immense risk, and this risk was greater to some than others. After the war many men had wives and children to support. At this time, my grandparents had seven children and one on the way. My grandfather felt that is was a greater risk to stay in a country with no promise of immediate reconstruction and a very bleak future of instability than to go on to a new world, still uncertain, but of endless possibilities.

Once everyone boarded the ship to set sail for Canada there was no turning back, but this is where some people started to second guess their decisions as the conditions on the ship were horrendous. Families were separated, women in different sections than the men. Because ships were few in number, they were loaded with as many people as possible, making for cramped quarters. This transition was a time of fear and uncertainty; however, upon arrival to Canada much anxiety was alleviated at the sight of the beautiful expanse of new land (Larosa, 1997).

The landscape was much different from that of the Netherlands with “the green, tree-lined shores” and rolling, mountainous terrain (Ganzevoort, 1988: 78). Stepping off the ship onto the land of a new world awakened new excitement at the thought of freedom in such a beautiful place, a place of rebirth. SETTLEMENT Canada is where the reconstruction of many immigrants’ lives began. Once off the ship, people started going in all different directions, many depending on the location of their connections or sponsors.

From the ports, people boarded trains to “journey into the heart of Canada …to meet church officials or family…or employer[s] who had sponsored them”(Ganzevoort, 1988: 79). Settlement was in various locations and in varying numbers. Many people settled together in similar ethnic groups in order to maintain their culture and affiliation. Through this they could achieve a sense of place with little alienation in their new home. Some drew comfort from large numbers of similar people, however, my family did not settle amongst a Dutch colony.

My grandfather’s main goal was in establishing his own family where they were provided with the best opportunities and making their lives as prosperous as he knew how. He did this through hard work and determination. They traveled to Alberta where they met his brother who was already a resident. Here they settled on a farm. The Dutch were classified as preferred immigrants in contrast with non-preferred (Bone, 2000: Ch. 4). Preferred immigrants may have experienced fewer barriers, but faced barriers nonetheless. Language, which is a key component of ethnicity, is one of those barriers.

My grandmother’s solution to this was to never allow her children to speak Dutch (Bouwmeester, 2000). This way they learned English faster, were less different and fit in faster at school. Today not one of eleven, second-generation Dutch-Canadian, children speak fluent Dutch; and not one of my 33 cousins, third-generation Dutch-Canadians can even understand the language when spoken. This was a very fast loss of culture. Diversity of people due to ethnic and cultural differences was a very prevalent issue in the development and growth of Canada and often led to friction between certain groups of people.

Moreover, assimilation decreased difference and therefore reduced conflicts. Assimilation resulted in the gradual loss of one’s culture as they adopted another. Despite loss of certain cultures, some still remain and are what make up Canada as a multicultural nation. Losing certain aspects of one’s culture doesn’t come as a complete loss because several things were also gained and beneficial to immigrants. A mere sense of family pride through accomplishments and significant feats created a sense of place. Even if Canada were not their original home, they would always have their family to turn to.

My grandparent instilled this in their children by providing them with a stable home. Although it was for some, finding work for my grandfather was no a barrier as it had been arranged prior to their descent. From farming in Alberta he moved to British Columbia and into the construction industry with various jobs along the way. Each job was always better than the preceding one. Change and growth were his reasons for immigration and in doing so he continually bettered his and his family’s future. Religion also played an important role in the settling lives of immigrants.

After losing their language, religion seemed to be their only link to some of their culture. Family members and their relationship with each other was also important as their closeness and dependability gave them comfort during hard times. CONCLUSION Through immigration opportunities were offered and goals were sought after and achieved through hard work and determination. Evidence of these past traits still linger in the following generations of these immigrants because they have their own obstacle to overcome.

Today, we don’t always encounter the same barriers; we just encounter new and different ones. My family has come a long way over three generations, first immigrating to Canada as part of an unfamiliar segregated group to then becoming prominent well-known members of society. Past hardships and the reconstruction of immigrants lives built a home and created a sense of place for subsequent generations who would know nothing of past struggles except through past recollections and story telling. Immigrants have made Canada what it is today.