College Athletes Support

With millions of dollars in merchandising and television contracts at stake, colleges have a lot of money riding on the recruitment, education, and performanceboth on and off the field– of college athletes. Colleges lure the athletes to their school, and make sure they meet the eligibility requirements when there. In order for athletes to be eligible to play in college they must attain a minimum of a 2. 0 GPA in 11 designated courses, and earn a combined 700 on the SATs.

Athletes must also meet the schools requirements, normally a 2. 0 GPA. With so much at stake, some colleges often go too far, by providing players ith personal tutors, who often do work for the players, and pressuring teachers and administrators to look the other way when athletes fail. The NCAA also bars players from receiving any compensation, except scholarships for their play. However, there are many incidences of players receiving other sorts of compensation.

There are many violations of athletic department officials and trustees giving players money, or gifts, ranging from clothing to cars. Colleges have also been known to give gifts to players just to get them to attend their institution, a practice that is much harder to trace because the student is not nrolled at the school. This has an effect on the psyche of the athletes; more incidences of sexual abuse and other crimes by athletes are arising every year.

Even though the NCAA strictly prohibits all of these things from going on, it seems every year another school is violating them. These rules are not stringent enough both academically and socially for the players. The last major change to these rules came in 1989 with the passage of Proposition 42. This rule change closed a loophole in a proposition passed in 1983. The 1983 proposition, known as Proposition 42, required that, beginning in 1986, all athletes must earn a inimum of a 2. in eleven designated high school courses, and earn a minimum score of 700 on their SATs. However, there was a loophole in this regulation. If they did not earn these minimums players could still enroll in the university, under full scholarship, not play or practice with the team, but earn their minimum GPA and then play the next year without ever having met the initial requirements. In an article written for The New Republic in May 1986, Malcolm Gladwell criticizes Proposition 48 and the effects it will have on college sports.

Citing many examples of foul play at colleges, ranging from eachers being fired at the University of Georgia in 1982 for not giving preferential treatment to athletes, to players being arrested for rape at the University of Minnesota and their coach stating he ” could not set realistic disciplinary standardsmuch less academic standardsfor fear of losing recruits”, Gladwell states, “Big time athletic competition is far more important than education at many major public universities, and nothing is likely to change that” (13).

He identifies the main problem with proposition 48, citing Berkeley sociologist Harry Edwards, “The big universities will imply keep a separate roster of first year ineligible athletes along with their regular players”(16). The amount of money a school has will determine how many non-qualifying players they can lure to their schools with scholarships. This is the reason for the passing of proposition 42, which bars colleges from giving scholarships to incoming freshmen that do not meet the requirements. Consequently, many people feel that these tougher regulations will lead to more cheating.

If that is the case, than more severe punishments should be installed to deter this behavior. A side effect of proposition 48 is that, many of the thletes that attend these schools on basketball and football scholarships are from low-income families that cannot afford to pay tuition to large universities. It is these people that will lose out if the colleges cannot find another way of paying for them. This in effect will lead to more cheating, like colleges helping prospective students secure government grants and loans, but this is not always enough.

They may have to have trustees pay for some of their education, or may be outright given money by the schools. And this is for athletes who do not meet the requirements. What about the athletes that do meet hem, what are they given? The top athletes in the country know they can get scholarships from many schools, so what else are these top schools willing to give them? At the least, these athletes receive preferential treatment. With so many of the countries top basketball and football players, some with criminal records, coming from lower class communities, where does this preferential treatment stop?

There are many cases of college athletes violating the law and someone looking the other way. There has never been a better example of widespread athletics corruption than the University of Minnesota. The scandals t the University of Minnesota are so important because they were not isolated incidents, but rather operations that had gone on for years before being uncovered. After the 1986 scandal when three basketball players were accused of rape, the team was accused of over forty violations and put on probation; merely put on probation for forty rules violations?

Then, in 1989, Luther Darville, acting coordinator of the schools office of minority affairs was uncovered as having given money to players. According to Steve Wulf, a staff writer for Sports Illustrated, “Darville is alleged to have siphoned money from the inority affairs office from 1983 to 88 and to have doled some of it out to 17 students, including nine athletes, in need of cash”(13). This is a person who is not even in the athletics department. This shows the dedication some large schools have to keeping their athletes satisfied.

The article goes on to state that, “According to Valdez Baylor, a former tailback on the Gopher football team, “Go see Luther” was the catchphrase among minority athletes in need… he received as much as $5,000 over six years from Darville”(13). Baylors account leads me to believe that Darvilles activities were much ore widespread than 17 students. The University of Minnesotas actions do not end there. In March of 1999 more issues concerning cover-ups were exposed. In the Chronicle of Higher Education, Welch Suggs provides an account of the next chapter in the declination of the University of Minnesota.

According to the President of the University, Mark G. Yudof, “Jan Ganglehoff… a secretary in the departments academic-services office, completed more than 100 class assignments for as many as 20 basketball players during a five-year period” (A41). The article goes on to state the school may have stepped in on the eports of two dozen sexual misconduct cases, against tutors and other women on campus, in order to protect the athletes involved. Many colleges cater to these students, giving them money, clothing, and other material possessions.

After time, the athletes come to expect these things. Athletic departments are primarily self funded, so if they dont have winning teams, they dont make any money. Consequently, the more the teams win the more money the schools and athletic departments make. Therefore, schools and coaches are willing to take a risk on athletes that have a background of bad behavior, if that person will ake a difference on the field. Athletes that attend these big universities expect the universities to do everything for them, and they are more than often correct.

These institutions are willing to do anything for them. It is the case know, that many institutions are being caught for covering up crimes that athletes have committed in order for the athletes to remain eligible. Jeffrey R. Benedict in an article entitled, Colleges Must Act Decisively When Scholarship Athletes Run Afoul of the Law, points out that, “male athleteswho make up only three percent of all male studentswere accused of nineteen percent of exual assaults and 35 thirty-five percent of the cases of domestic violence that were reported to campus officials by female students”(B6).

Benedict goes on to note that, “an extremely small percentage of student athletes are accused of criminal acts, but it also appears that many of those who are accused have had previous trouble with the law”(B7). The NCAA lets colleges determine the disciplinary actions that should take place if an athlete commits a crime. This allows the institutions to take as little action as they want in dealing with the students. It is common that students remain eligible while their trials re going on. The coaches and athletic departments are so eager to win that they will let criminals play for their teams.

The athletes at these large universities receive so much, and are so looked up to in the community they feel untouchable. Furthermore, it is the coaches and boosters, so intent on winning, who commit the illegal activities and encouraging the athletes, not directly, but by their own example, into wanting more and getting away with more. These athletes are not being punished for the acts that they commit. The athletes therefore, believe that they can get away with anything. So what can be done to end the insanity that college athletics has become?

There are many proposals, from a number of institutions and organizations, for further rule changes by the NCAA. One, originated by Joe B. Wyatt, chancellor of Vanderbilt University, and explained in his article Our Moral Duty to Clean Up College Athletics has been forwarded to the NCAA and is now under review. These regulations are simple, if an athlete does not leave a college in good academic standing, the college would lose a scholarship spot until the date the departed athlete would have graduated (A56). Also, the athletes who transfer would not be able to play until they earn academic eligibility.

Now, athletes who are in trouble academically can transfer and play immediately. If athletes who do not meet academic requirements cannot play when they transfer, colleges would be more reluctant to accept them. This would ensure they kept their grades up. These are not the only rule changes that need to take place. In an April 22nd article for Newsweek, Pete Axhelm believes rules must come down harder on coaches and boosters for cheating. He maintains that boosters, who are the main people presenting athletes with gifts, should nly be allowed to meet with players at supervised functions.

Also, in the article, Notre Dame basketball coach Digger Phelps comments, “Make it uniform [the meetings], watch them closely, and let them know that if they [the players] cheat on it, they will lose eligibility”(74). This would intimidate boosters from giving gifts and players from taking them. If the state of athletics is improved morally, the academic gains will come. Axthelm also insists that coaches who get caught cheating and leave schools should have their penalties follow them, stating that, “Fear of not getting hired again can be a good eterrent”(74).

All of these rules make sense, for the athletes come and go, and it is the coaches and institutions that are always there. They are the ones that are cheating. As I sit, watching a basketball game between Cincinnati and UNC, the number 1 and number 7 ranked teams in the country, I wonder why those players are at the schools they are. Recalling a quote from Pete Axhelms article, “One bitter irony at Tulane is that while many deplored point shaving by a star, few noticed that when the star was shown a printed rundown of his rights, he had difficulty reading it”, I realize why they are.

It is the nstitutions that exploit these athletes, luring them to college with gifts and then not providing. They are not providing an education for the athletes; the fundamental thing they are there for. Colleges use these athletes, young and nave, to earn more money and win. Thirty-seven percent of scholarship athletes graduate college. The one-thing colleges can promise to athletes, a full scholarship, a free education, they only provide to thirty-seven percent of them. In closing, I feel that it is the institutions, not the athletes who need to be held more responsible for cheating and cover-ups in order to clean up college athletics.

The sports in Korea

The sudden explosion of interest in sports in Korea has been closely linked to the economic boom in industry, beginning about the middle of the century. The impressive staging of the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, stands witness to this fact. In the past few years there has been a tremendous emphasis on the advancement of sports policies and rules, along with the construction of many new sport facilities. As a result, sports are now an almost daily event for many residents, and spectator sports are becoming increasingly more popular. Koreas athletic history shows an impressive record of achievement in many international events n recent years.

The most dramatic achievements can be seen in the sports of soccer(football), wrestling, boxing, and Judo. A Korean runner, Shon Kee-chung, won the gold medal for a marathon in the 1936 Olympics, but won the medal under the Japanese flag, due to the fact that Korea belonged to Japan at the time. Korea flew its own flag for the first time in the Olympics at the 1948 London games. Since then, Korean athletes have demonstrated their performances in many events, both at home an abroad. They won one gold, one silver and four bronze medals at the 1976 Olympics in

Montreal to rank 19th out of over 100. In the 1982 Asian Games, Korea ranked third to The peoples Republic of China and Japan. In the 1986 Asia Games, Korea came in second, trailing China by only one gold medal. At the 1984 Los Angeles Olympiad, Korean athletes made their best record so far, ranking tenth in the final medal tally with 6 gold, 6 silver, and 7 bronze. This record was broken in the 1988 Seoul Games. Korean athletes also made a remarkable display in the 25th Olympic Games at Barcelona in 1992. Korea placed 7th out of 172 countries, with 12 gold, five silver, and 12 bronze medals.

These Olympic games were special for another reason also; Korean athletes won the first and last gold medals of the Games. Yo Kap-sun won the first gold medal in the womens 10 meter air rifle competition. Hwang Young-cho won the last gold medal in a marathon, his victory hoisted the Korean flag atop the flagpole of the main stadium just before the closing ceremony at the Barcelona Olympiad. Korea has played host to many other international sporting events over recent years. 1978, the 42nd World Shooting Championships brought over 1300 entries from 71 countries.

The Championships, he first ever in Asia, were held at one of the worlds five finest shooting ranges, the Taeunung International Shooting Range, only 45 minutes from downtown Seoul. The Eighth World Basketball Championships for Women was held in 1979 at the as the first event in the new Seoul Sports Complex in Chamshil; it too, was the first of that kind of event held in Asia. Also, the second Asian Swimming Championships and the Eighth Asian Junior Basketball Championships were held in Korea in 1984. The Asian Games Federation, at a meeting in New Delhi in 1981, selected Seoul to host the 986 Asian Games.

In both official and non-official circles, it was known that hosting the Asian Games in Korea would demonstrate the countrys steady development in all areas along with its potential for becoming an active player on the world stage. The Asian Games served as an important dress-rehearsal for the Seoul Olympics that were to follow in two years. While the Asian Games were a significant event themselves, broader aspects resulted in more than just the efforts of the organizing committee and the sports officials. The government and the people oined in with great effort to make the Asian Games a great success.

Construction was forced to breakneck speeds for new sports facilities that were to provide both athletes and spectators with comfort along with the most sophisticated electronic and technical equipment, which would be used in both the regional meet and again later in the Olympics. As another part of all the developments in the sports movement in Korea, collage students have also been active at their own levels of competition. They have taken part in the Universiad since 1967, making impressive showings of their discipline and determination.

Vince Lombardi – Winning is the Only Thing That Matters

Vince Lombardis statement that winning is the only thing that matters in sport, is one of the truths that are inherent in the world of sports. Athletes are willing to cheat to guarantee success, either through the use of performance-enhancing drugs, or through the act of injuring others. Lombardis statement not only applies to athletes, but it also applies to countries that athletes are representing.

Events such as the Olympics and the World Cup of Hockey are a source of national pride and some countries are willing to try anything to bring a little prestige back, while other athletes, who are representing their country will resort to unethical tactics. Judges and officials are bribed in order to win events. Lombardis statement also affects coaches, owners, and managers. They too place winning as their number one concern. Fair play generally takes a back seat to the desire for winning that some will bend rules, while others will outright cheat.

The corruptness of sports today has lead to many methods of unethical behaviour. Winning is a very important thing not only to athletes, but winning is very important to countries as well. In the early 1960s drugs were used more frequently among the communist nations who wanted to enhance their national prestige through sports. Countries such as China and East Germany have been guilty of using such practices as doping their athletes. The glory of winning a gold medal and what will follow after that is more important than anything else.

It one of the major influences behind drug use in sports. The main concern now for athletes who are representing their countries is not just about the satisfaction of winning but the rewards for success. The rewards are staggering, as the dollar volume being showered on winners is second to none. The figures have become so mind-boggling that the interests of people involved in this lucrative business is no longer centred around ethical and health-related concerns. Athletes are willing to give up all that they have worked for their entire lives in order to win a gold medal.

Athletes use performance-enhancing drugs to help break records or win gold medals. Blood doping is another example in which athletes attempt to improve performance. Drug related scandals are some of the major concerns with the Olympics. Drug testing was introduced at the Olympics in 1967, when at the 1960 Olympics in Rome, Swedish cyclist Knut Jensen took compound drugs to compete in the road race during which he collapsed and died. This incident shocked the international sports world and the International Olympic Committee established a mandatory dope test for all Olympic athletes in 1967.

In 1988 Ben Johnson was caught using steroids and had his gold medal stripped from him. Over the years many people have been caught for drug use. These athletes involved range from long-distance runners, weight lifters, and swimmers. In the 1983 Summer Pan American games several gold medal winners were also disqualified for the use of performance-enhancing drugs. The prevalence in the use of performance-enhancing drugs shows the athletes need to succeed. The need to win makes athletes do almost anything to find the extra bit that could make the difference.

Many techniques are introduced and employed by athletes in order to gain that advantage in their respective fields. Some athletes try to increase the effectiveness of the drugs by combining them into several combinations. One problem with drug tests is that athletes are now trying to mask their drug use with other drugs that will let them pass their drug tests. Also, some athletes who use steroids months before the games, discontinue their usage a few months before they will be drug tested and then resume after the testing is over.

This allows them the possibility of not being caught. Drugs are illicitly taken by athletes in an attempt to improve their performance. Athletes who seek to gain an edge on the competition may resort to drug taking to achieve fame and glory. Other ways athletes seek an unfair advantage without running the risk of failing the drug tests is through a process known as blood doping. Blood is removed from the athletes system and then frozen and stored. Over the next several weeks, the athletes body makes more red blood cells and returns the athletes blood volume to normal.

Just before competition, the stored blood is given back to the athlete. The athlete’s blood now contains an above normal number of blood cells. This increased number of blood cells allows the athlete to perform with greater endurance. Although blood boosting can improve athletic performance, it is an extremely dangerous practice. Athletes who do this have an unfair and unnatural advantage over athletes who do not. It is not in the spirit of fair sports competition, but these athletes are more concerned with winning than sportsmanship or their health.

The Olympics have had a history of corrupt judges. In the Seoul Olympics, all Olympic judges and referees were given everything they wanted in exchange for gold medals. The Russian and Korean boxing judges conspired to keep the Americans from winning gold medals. Wehr said, there were always judges prepared to declare a South Korean boxer victor, even if this was completely ludicrous. The American IBF super middleweight champion of the world, Roy Jones, was robbed in a fight with Koreas Park Si-Hun. Jones outboxed Park, landing more punches than park by a count of eighty-six to thirty-two.

The Koreans watching the fight were outraged by this decision and Park himself felt that Jones had beaten him. In another fight between Lennox Lewis and American Riddick Bowe, the referee interefered with the match when Lewis started getting tired and disrupting Bowes concentration, robbing the Americans of another medal. Coaches, players, and owners and managers place a high value on winning. Coaches are seen as being good coaches or bad coaches based on their records. Those with a winning record are the good coaches and those are the ones who are usually hired by organizations.

Those who have losing records for the teams that they work for are usually the scapegoats if the team has a poor season. These coaches who are brought on to a team and produce losing records are fired and replaced. To win a coach will bend rules. They place gamesmanship above sportsmanship and try to stretch the rules as far as they can. Some see the rules as being the only definition of what is right or wrong and if the situation is not in included in the rule book, that it means that its fair to exploit.

For example, in 1932, the rules didnt dictate what a uniform could look like, except that the number had to be on the back of the jersey. Paul Brown came up with a strategy to help his team. He cut footballs in half and sewed one half in front of the jersey. While this may seem like good strategy, Browns desire to win made him resort to tactics that would seem to be less then honorable as there were other ways to improve his teams play. Players are now placing a great deal of value on winning. These days, playing for the love of the game is non-existent.

Athletes are now competing to make million dollar contracts. Star players on a team are usually paid the most as they are seen to be the reason for a teams success or a pillar to build the team around. The top players in the major leagues of sports, NHL, NBA, MLB, etc. have multi-million dollar contracts. Players such as Alexi Yashin and Michael Peca have held out on their contracts as they feel that they are underpaid. Last season, John Leclair went to arbitration and received a one-year, $7 million contract.

As athletes grow in popularity, besides contract deals they make more money through various things such as endorsements. Player agents are hired on their behalf to negotiate these contracts and endorsements and to seek as much money as can be made as possible and increasing public exposure, so that the items or sport that they are promoting gets them more recognition and this increases their various incomes. Out of the three groups mentioned, owners and managers place the most emphasis on winning. They are responsible for the overall success of their teams.

They are responsible for making decisions such as the hiring and firing of coaches and the trading of players. Teams that are not seen to be competitive try to build their team for the future by acquiring young talent, draft picks, or players that they try to build their teams around. Owners with a competitive team try to make their team more competitive by making key acquisitions through free agency or during the trade deadline. They do all this in hopes of winning the championships, and attracting more fans so that they will make more money.

Through all their dealings, winning and making money is the major goal of owners and managers. To win at a competition, people have participated in injuring others in order to boost their chances of success. An event that occurred prior to the 1994 Winter Olympics is one such example in where this occurs. On January 6th, U. S. national figure skating champion Nancy Kerrigan was attacked by a man who hit her on the outside of the right knee with a blunt object. Kerrigan was expected to be a favourite to win the gold medal at the Olympic Games.

Two of the people who planned and executed the attack would eventually turn out to Tonya Hardings ex-husband and her bodyguard. They both testified that Harding had knowledge of the attack, which she at first denied and then later on admitted to. Kerrigans right knee was targeted for the attack because it was her landing leg for jumps. Harding would go on to win the Olympic trials, in which that Kerrigan did not participate. To plan an attack on a fellow competitor shows the lack of sportsmanship and the importance that people place on winning. Another example can be shown in the 1972 Canada and Soviet Union Summit Series.

Canadas victory in game 8 of the series over the Russians would be marred by an incident with Bobby Clarke. In game 7, Bobby Clarke viciously slashed Russias star player, Valeri Kharlamov, in the ankle breaking it. Canada would go on to win game 7 and game 8. It was later revealed that Team Canada assistant coach John Ferguson told Clarke to do it. Whether Canada would have been able to accomplish defeating the Russians in game 7 and game 8 had Kharlamov been at a 100%, is very questionable, but what it goes to show is the importance that Ferguson and Clarke had placed on winning.

Ferguson giving the order and by Clarkes actions in carrying out of the order shows the how much they valued and how important winning was to them. To win a series that many had expected to be a blow-out, Clarke willingly compromised the integrity of Canadas victory and thus tainted the victory. In conclusion, through the actions of athletes, coaches, owners and managers, and the actions of countries or by the people on behalf of their country, winning is shown to be the top priority when competing. Athletes will bend rules and sometimes cheat if they need to to secure a win.

There are different motivations for wanting to win. Athletes who play on teams do it for money. Coaches want to win because it shows that they are a good and successful coach. Owners and managers also want to win as it also brings them more money. Countries want to win for prestige and bragging rights. Athletes who perform at the international level want to win as it gets them fame and fortune. While there may be many different reasons for wanting to win, there is without a doubt that the need to win is very important to all who participate in the world of sports today.

Creatine in sports

Athletes today will do almost anything to get an edge. One of the primary things an athlete will do is put supplements into their body. These supplements range from protein shakes to illegal anabolic steroids. Some sports supplements are incredibly safe and effective, yet others work for a while and then fizzle out, while others still work well but do more damage than good in the long run. In the past athletes had to turn to such things as anabolic steroids or blood doping (the process of taking out blood and adding oxygen to it and putting it back into your body in order to increase a persons endurance).

However, these procedures have many drawbacks. Mainly, they are illegal. An athlete may be suspended from playing their perspective sport for using them. They have many long terms and short term side effects. Many supplements are as simple as packaged energy and others require a strict exercise and eating regimen. I will explore sports supplements focusing on creatine and it’s effect on the sport world. The first and most basic sports supplements are protein weight gainers. This normally comes in the form of powder and works best when mixed with milk.

The main reason for taking extra protein is to gain weight and muscle mass. In today’s athletics, whether it is high school, college, or professional, the athletes are getting bigger and stronger. Protein works the best when the athlete is on a strict work out regimen. Many sports supplements are a combination of herbs and proteins. A popular supplement of this sort is called “Heat. ” Heat has many different ingredients in it that allow the athlete to experience more energy by creating more heat. This allows the athletes’ body to work more efficiently and therefore work faster, stronger, and longer.

This is very important in the sports world because it is becoming harder and harder to compete at an unsupplemented level. Athletes want every advantage that he or she can receive. Now there is a substance that can give an athlete the edge that they desire. One of the most popular and effective sports supplements on the market today is Pure creatine Monohydrate. Creatine was first introduced to the US in 1993 by a supplement company called Experimental and Applied Sciences. Since that time it has become one of the most demanded items on the market.

The creatine that is bought in stores duplicates the natural creatine that is produced by the kidney, liver, and pancreas. Creatine Monohydrate has been proven to significantly enhance athletic performance in the areas of power, strength, and muscle mass. Most importantly though, it doesn’t seem to have any serious side effects. Also, since Creatine is found naturally in the body and in foods, it is likely that it will not be removed from sports. What is Creatine? Creatine is a nutrient that is found in many foods. It is most highly concentrated in lean red meat. A half-pound of red meat contains about two grams of Creatine.

Every human body also produces Creatine in very small amounts, though some people produce more than others. Creatine is necessary for proper cell functions and cell reproduction, it is also a primary storage for energy in muscles. How does Creatine work? When somebody is exercising, his or her muscles demand energy. The energy that the muscle gets is called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). As the muscles keep contracting, the ATP is turned into adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ADP causes your muscles to fatigue. Creatine Phosphate helps to convert ADP into ATP when the ATP is gone.

In doing this, the athlete has better endurance during his of her workout or event. Creatine producers and users claim it to have many advantages, such as increased endurance, increased overall work potential, increased speed of muscular action, and the potential to further increase muscle mass. Creatine also accelerates protein synthesis. If all this were true, it would be easy to see why athletes are turning to Creatine for an edge on their competition. But are these claims real? Is their scientific proof of what Creatine does? Yes, since Creatine came onto the supplement market it has been tested extensively.

Research in human sports science indicates that if you supplement a normal diet with Creatine it will increase the Creatine content in the muscles. The Texas A&M football program, experimented by putting only a few of their players on Creatine in 1994, and as a result by 1995 they put their whole team on Creatine. The facts don’t lie Creatine has definite advantages. Since studies on Creatine loading have only been going on for less than a decade, it is still unknown what long-term effects will have. Several small short- term side effects include dehydration, diarrhea, and muscle cramping.

Also, Creatine might not be able to help a person in their sport. For example, Creatine does not always benefit an athlete who participates in an aerobic sport such as swimming, and long distance running. From a long distance runner’s point of view, Creatine would be bad to take. Creatine causes an athlete to retain water, causing them to gain weight. The Athletes that will receive the most benefit from creatine are athletes in power and performance sports such as football and wrestling. Though even with wrestling creatine can be dangerous because of the weight gaining factor, so more effective use my be during the off-season.

For such sports as football, Creatine can be very useful in gaining strength and size, while maintaining or increasing speed and endurance. Bodybuilders can also use Creatine as a legal and effective way to enhance muscle growth. Creatine use can best summed up pretty easy, a person can take all the Creatine they want, but if the proper biological, physiological, and nutritional factors aren’t in place, it won’t be of even the slightest benefit. Creatine is a true athletes supplement. It allows an athlete to work out harder and more frequently. Plus, it helps an athlete to become bigger, faster and stronger.

In addition, Creatine delivers these benefits without causing any serious harm, if any. “The only proven side effect has been weight gain”(AFQ, pg. 44). What is the positive side of sports supplements such as Creatine? With the rise of popularity in sports supplements, sports are becoming more competitive. This creates new interest in sports and helps athletes get in better shape. Creatine almost works like magic and gives the athlete an extra boost when it is really needed, and the athlete is struggling. With sports becoming more and more global, natural athletes are dominating the playing field.

Sports supplements are out there to help those with less natural talent reach their full potential by helping them to become faster, stronger and to have more endurance. “As long as athletes are encouraged to accept the norms of the sport ethic without question or qualification, they will continue to voluntarily try anything or take anything to remain in sports”(Coakley, pg. 175). Sports Supplements have taken sports to a new level of competition helping more athletes succeed. Creatine though is not without its down sides. Many people criticize and worry that extensive use of this somewhat new supplement may be premature.

The side effects are very minimal so far and are restricted to cramping, nausea, and diarrhea. The cause of this, many scientists believe, is because the user doesn’t drink enough water while working out, and with creatine the athlete can dehydrate much quicker because water gets absorbed into the muscles faster. As of right now, it is perceived that creatine does more good than evil and is, therefore, worth the occasional stomach ache. Though many reports say that Creatine may cause a person to dehydrate, some disagree with this view.

Steven Plisk, director of sports conditioning at Yale U. Creatine doesn’t have a dehydrating effect on individual muscle cells. If anything, creatine adds water to the muscle-explaining some of the weight gain”(AfQ, pg. 44). Many still argue the credibility of negative comments toward creatine, but none argue its positive effects. Just shoving creatine into your body without proper exercise will result only in creation of fat and waste. Creatine is not going to make someone a better athlete, he or she has to go out and do it themselves. If anything creatine requires one to increase their workouts and effort, because the body’s tolerance to exhaustion is higher.

Another problem that people may see with creatine is the cost factor. A Creatine supply for a month will average close to forty-five dollars. With the cost of this and other supplements being so high, it seems that the higher class athletes would have an advantage, which causes many critics of creatine(or supplements in general) to deem it unfair. Their case is, athletes of one group should not be permitted to have an advantage over another due to something such as money. In conclusion, Creatine is and can be a very effective supplement for athletes, it doesn’t help everyone.

Depending on the person and the sport they are participating in creatine’s effects can be either positive or negative. Though long term research on the effects of creatine have not been confirmed, as of now the only side effects are diarrhea, nausea, and weight gain. These are outweighed by the increased success that one may have in their strength and performance in sports. Creatine has a positive effect on sports as well as its negative effect, therefore each person should weigh the positive and negative, then make the decision for themselves.

The Psychosocial Characteristics of Olympic Track and Field Athletes

Fortunately, it was quite a simple task to find a research topic related to the material that we have covered so far in sport psychology. After some quick searching, we ran across a rather interesting article written in the International Journal of Sport Psychology that could obviously be useful. Conveniently, it was in the most recent issue of this particular journal available in the Evansdale Library. Entitled, Psychosocial Characteristics of Olympic Track and Field Athletes, this article happened to be one that we could easily relate too.

Because both of us are runners, we share a definite commonality with the subjects of the study. This is true, even though neither of us will actually make it to the Olympics to perform at the subjects’ standards. At least, though, it is possible to relate highly to these interesting people. Basically, the purpose of this particular study was to identify the specific personality characteristics of 15 Olympic caliber track and field athletes. Certainly, several people, especially sport psychologists, would like to know if there are specific attitudes and personalities that belong to the topnotch athletes of the world.

Pretty simple request, right? Or at least it sounds that way. To perform this experiment, each of the athletes was asked six standardized questions. For instance, one of the questions focused directly on the subject of How do you prepare for a competition. The athletes responses to these questions were recorded word for word and analyzed for content. Interestingly enough, typical themes could be found throughout their responses. For example, some of the athletes would mention that a higher power was some how related to everything that they have done.

The people performing this study would relate this to the category of spiritual/ religious factors. Also, a couple of the runners claimed that their lives were completely based on the theme of mental skills and attitudes such as hard work and perseverance. It was very easy to notice that these themes appeared time after time, for each question answered by the same person. The researchers concluded that these emerging themes play an important role in the psychological development of each athlete.

While it isnt a direct correlation, the work these researchers have done could be somewhat related to developments in psychological skills training. Ideally, sports psychologists should know exactly what effects the attitudes of an athlete. If some areas of psychological development are more improved in an Olympic athlete, we could discover why, and possibly use exercises to better another persons mental state if they are lacking in a similar area. By investigating the way each of these athletes responds to the standardized questions, we may be able to find methods to strengthen the mental attitudes of the average athlete.

Pay Them (salaries Of Pro Ball Players)

There was a time when men played for the love of the game; when competition alone satisfied the male ego. This age of basketball featured greats such as Wilt Chamberlain, Bill Russell, and Oscar Robinson. These gladiators, and those like them, battled repeatedly winning league championships, MVPs, scoring titles, and other accolades. Then, the product of James Naismith moved into an era where the love continued, but money was added. Clyde Drexler, Charles Barkely, Reggie Miller and Tim Hardaway have become league posterboys for commercials and shoe contracts.

Each of them has continued the competitive fires burning while adding a flare of green. Today, the league seems to be completely entrenched in money. Multimillion dollar contracts, million dollar endorsements, and billion dollar television deals are the focus of the league now. Some criticize on the players for being so concerned about money while others argue the players should be compensated for their God given talents. These some are mostly owners of NBA franchises and the others are the players.

There are some that petition that the players bring in the money, so they should receive it while others say that they are already compensated enough for a game. In this instance, the some are pro player fans and the others are allies of the owners. With the large amounts of money that pass through the hands of the owners of NBA franchises and the precedent that has been set by other professional athletic leagues, NBA players should receive substantial compensation for their services.

EmployeeEmployer relations have been rigid since the beginning of time. For this reason, laborers started labor unions to rectify the problem. Labor unions, are associations of workers for the purpose of improving economic status through collective bargaining, formed out of the Industrial Revolution of the 19th Century (Labor). Collective bargaining is defined as the negotiation between the representatives of organized workers and their employer(s) to determine wages, hours, rules, and working conditions.

The conditions under which these former farmers had to work were unbearable. The farmer got tired of the treatment and banded to together. Labor unions sprouted in the US around the 1830s; however, the first major group was the Knights of Labor that organized in 1869 (Labor). Within the last six years there has been much discussion about the National Basketball Association and its labor agreement. The NBA labor agreement, the cause of the current lockout, does not meet the approval of the owners.

The details are tedious, but the overall discrepancy looms over how much the players are worth and how much the owners should pay them. In the summer of 1995 the owners opened the collective bargaining agreement. Their fear, the same fear that caused this years lockout, is that the players are receiving too much of the BRI, or basketball related income. In 1988 the collective bargaining agreement allotted the players fortyeight percent of BRI, they earned fiftytwo percent. The owners, not happy with these figures, locked the players out until a better contract was agreed upon.

Marxist Theory and Sport

This essay will be an attempt to bring together the ideas from our class readings about the Marxist sociological perspective as well as insight from other readings to further my understanding of Marxism and its applications to sport. I will lay the groundwork for the theory then proceed with how his theory is applied to accessibility issues in sport, distribution of power in sport and commercialization of sport. Basics of Marxist Theory The most widely used political and ideological system of thought is that of Karl Marx.

Marxism is a set of ideas trying to provide an explanation for human society. Although a little over a hundred years old his theories and thoughts have led to coups, revolutions and new waves theories and academics. As well, it is this systemic theory that has led many academics to look at the way they teach, discuss, write and even look at the way the world acts and thinks, even within their own small worlds. Within the world of sport the ideological views have no real place however it is possible to equate the views of Marx to the idea of sport.

Marxism is known as the interpretation of the thoughts of Karl Marx (1813 – 1883), a German social theorist and political revolutionary. Karl Marx wanted to understand the politics, culture and economics of the newly emerging nations within Europe. He emphasized the leading role of the economy in society as a whole as well as in societal parts, known as superstructures. These superstructures are non-economic aspects of society, i. e. culture, religion, social life, education, religion, politics and social institutions.

Marx identified society as consisting of two classes: The so-called Bourgeoisie and the so-called Proletariat. The Bourgeoisie is a capitalistic, wealthy and powerful minority consisting of aristocracy and upper class members meanwhile the Proletariat, also known as working-class, holds the majority of societal members who are poor, semi- or unskilled workers. The Bourgeoisie owns the entire means of production and wealth, therefore they are powerful and hegemonic. Their hegemony is maintained because only they have access to the financial and productive means.

Their ideologies, i. e. their thoughts and beliefs, are hegemonic and influencing as they have the power to establish them in society (Rigauer, 2000). In contrast, the Proletariat is alienated from and by the Bourgeoisie. The working- class has virtually no power and influence, financially and politically. The original sense of work has transformed from earning money to feed, socializing and pleasing one’s own interests into an exploiting tool of the Bourgeoisie to maintain the capitalist’s wealth and therefore power too.

Improving one’s own position within their social hierarchy in society is impossible for the Proletariat: there is no social mobility, meritocracy (a system of social stratification based on personal merit) and/or ladder-system, as the class being born into will already determine the position in the social hierarchy (Lecture Notes, 2005). The polarization between these two classes is obvious and conflict will occur as a result of inequalities.

The Marxist’s perspective is dominantly based on economic factors and over emphasizes them; money is assumed to be everything within society and social life. In my view, something is clearly missing here such as values and other social factors. Assuming that money is everything within society leads to assumptions that those owning the productive and therefore economic resources are given the power and use it to control those without to maintain their hegemony. Further factors that can form and shape society like gender, ethnicity, age, culture etc. are not taken into consideration and neglected.

Hence the Marxist perspective focuses on having versus not having, earning versus not earning and powerful versus powerless. Marxism and Sport Marxism tries to identify which sports are accessible to whom. A recent example: in contemporary British society class differences regarding participation rates in different sports can be found. The higher the social class, the more likely the individual is to be more active and to attend a sports event. The explanation therefore: a lack of resources in finances and availability of those in the working class.

Affected sports are walking, jogging, swimming, weight-lifting, snooker, and soccer. (Abercrombie et al, 2000). Even though not listed in that research, those sports traditionally considered to be upper class like polo, golf and equitation should be regarded too, as the equipment and availability for the working class is again limited due to lack of resources, especially financial resources. Furthermore a Marxist focuses on the distribution of power in sport: Who has got the power and why? Inequality can again be identified.

Sport is determined and shaped by the economic system in the hands of the powerful Bourgeoisie and does yet again promote the interest of those: increasing capital, maintaining power and privileges. Besides labor, sport is another tool of exploiting the working class as sport is just another form of controlling the society through a form of popular entertainment respectively giving access to certain sports only to certain, economically favored members. Concentration on ongoing commercialization in and of sport is another key issue within Marxism and sport.

Turning leisure into a marketing product is just another form of financial exploitation. Merchandising, ticket sales, turning clubs into a public limited companies and sponsorship are a further source of making profit. A Marxist would argue that the sport or event itself will not dominate. In fact, media coverage, print and TV media, will have influence, for example the organization of an event and the broadcasting times will have to coincide to make the most profit. The prices for broadcasting rights and player transfers have explosively increased and show again the influence of money in the sports world.

A very recent example of money and its impact on sport is The England and Wales Cricket Board’s decision to send its players to a World Cup match in Zimbabwe in 2003, regardless of political concerns due to the dictatorship of President Mugabe and the possible propaganda impact the match might have. (Guardian Online, 2003). Fearing a severe financial penalty in the forms of lost sponsorship and broadcasting money, the monetary aspect proved too powerful for them to decline a match of such importance; thus, politics do influence sport nowadays too.

A further example of commercialization of sport and changing the nature of a sport could be the critical look at horse-racing. Instead of enjoying the ride itself in the nature, horse-racing has become a competitive and very profitable industry for bookmakers as well as for established horse-racing television channels which have increasingly arisen. Making money out of horse-racing, the wealthy have established an upper class sport within the working class, as they are the majority to spend their money on, just to increase their capital yet again, a Marxist would argue.

Although the Marxists perspective is aware of inequalities resulting from money in sport, it fails to recognize that sport can have for individuals other possibilities such as creativeness and provision of challenging experiences. It can be said: Marxism “stresses the lack of fit between the different societal parts”, e. g. sport, and therefore focuses on conflict caused primarily by money (Haralambos and Holborn, 2000). There is contrasting theory, that of Functionalism, which focuses on a consensus view rather than a conflict view.

Sociologists who use functionalist theory assume that society is an organized system of corresponding parts held together by shared values and processes that create understanding among people. Functionalism in contrast to Marxism, “stresses the extent to which the different parts of society fit together harmoniously” (Haralambos and Holborn, 2000). I chose not to further my research into the Functionalist theory, however, an understanding and application of both theories may provide some solutions for the negative aspects of each perspective, this could then form the basis for a theory to best describe today’s society.

That is of course an ideal thought, but I am Canadian and I often think that the balance of sitting on the fence is the best alternative. In conclusion, after reading in depth articles and individual opinions on the topic, I realized that the Marxist approach is one dimensional and incomplete. Therefore, leaving me to be critical of an unfulfilling and one sided view of Marxist theory and sport. However, the commonalities that arise between capitalism and the development of sport in our society still cannot be ignored.

Thus, giving his theory partial credibility in my opinion. While I struggled to understand how this information could be used directly in the field of sport administration, in the end, I have learned that simply being aware of different sociological theories can help to understand why society behaves the way it does in the sport context. This application is very indirect; however, it will allow me to approach future situations with a deeper understanding of sports in society.

The Fight Against Boxing

The entertaining sport of boxing, an athletic event consisting of numerous health conflictions, has been receiving some heat from legal and medical advocates, yet Some of the qualities that have open boxing to attack have, at the same time, been its salvation(Sammons 235). Boxing, which has been in existence and evolved from other forms of fighting longer than this country has been established, is a skill, talent, an ambition, and for most professional fighters, a love.

Professional boxing, like virtually any physical recreation, is performed so that there are health risks, yet it is the thletes right to decide their personal levels of danger. Indeed, boxing discloses Americas disposition towards tradition. During the United States brief history, Americans have consistently managed to acquire cultural, social, political, and intellectual institutions from England, leaving no surprise to why the modern controversial sport of boxing, or prizefighting, traveled over sea to America.

This high-demanding sporting event definitely must be one of the ultimate exceptions of our time. The 1820s and 1830s were marked by increased urbanization and ndustrialization, which stimulated a need for new and accessible diversions. The mood of society at large was captured in Beyond the Ring with this classic line, Men, women, and children who cannot live on gravity alone, need something to satisfy their lighter moods and hours(4).

Leisures and, more importantly, boxings opponents lost further ground as the giant cities attracted more and more immigrants who were unfamiliar to limitations upon As Jeffrey Sammons so concisely explains, It is because of, rather than despite, its contradictions that boxing has survived(236). While a umber of health and medical advocates have attempted to reform and/or abolish the sport since the early nineteen eighties because of brutality and death, these adversaries have also served as proof of manhood. The problem has slowly evolved from a national to an international conflict.

An increased death and brain damage rate triggered this worthless action towards the removal of professional boxing. This was just temporary. Slight changes within league rules, such as weight class regulations and softening of boxing gloves, soon decreased the already low health-damaging ates back to legal standards. Anybody who believes that there should be a complete elimination of the sport really needs to put things in perspective. In terms of numbers, I am almost one-hundred percent certain that the number of deaths caused in other sports is much higher.

Consider the high-intensity and extremely tragic catastrophes seen in motor sports alone. Not to mention air sports, mountain and rock climbing, and the handful of ball games. The intervention of our own personal risk and danger is our own liberty. On the other hand, I certainly agree we have to prevent people rom taking risks that they are ignorant about. There are numerous other areas where consenting adults take risks and harm each other, such as smoking or drinking alcohol. Where are the people arguing for their criminalization?

In much similarity to other illegal industries such as hardcore pornography and the never ending war on drug dealing and drug use, a ban on boxing would force it to go underground, making it more dangerous, much like the new hit blockbuster movie, Fight Club, a classic display of our true human instincts. Boxing is not so much a sport, not erely a game as it is, like drama itself, a way of life(Oates & Halpern, Besides, the demand for professional boxing in the Unites States is up there with the other sport elites.

The boxing industry is one of the highest revenue making sports that exists today. What would a ban do to the tourist industry for urban cities like Las Vegas or Atlantic City? Some of the greatest athletes this planet has seen in the twentieth century have come from the sport of boxing. Lets just think of Muhammad Ali, George Foreman, Joe Frazier and Sugar Ray Robinson. There can be ittle doubt that the desire for monetary gain, fame, and enhanced social status have motivated many a young man to enter the prizefightnig ring.

It has been a sterotype that all prizefighters have low socioeconomic backround and little education, or unuseful work skills. I believe that if I had the stereotypical low social status and the talent, skill, and ambition of a prizefighter, of course I would walk through the door that is shedding a dim yet only light of possible success. Despite the feasibility of fame and wealth, middle and upper class men dont mind professional baseball and ootball, but to be labeled a prizefighter is something they cant quite In opposition to my current beliefs, Elliot J. Gorn, the author of The Manly Art, believes that boxers are victims of racial and class discrimination, that the ring encourages voilence, and that pugilism appeals to all that is barbarous in man(11).

In Conclusion, a ban on boxing is not only illogical but impossible! In my mind, if you want to minimize the number of actual life-long injuries related to sports, you would be better off coming up with elaborated rules for motor sports or rock climbing.

Applying Psychological Thinking To Sports

“Sports is by far one of the fastest growing pass times in the United States” (Rainer 1987). Even if people don’t take it to the professional level, sporting events are happening in our backyards, and at all of our local schools around the country. With the growing popularity and the increasing competitiveness of the sports, it will take more than just a physical advantage to compete at the highest level. This is where the psychology of sports comes into play. In my research I will cover different areas in which you can psychologically strengthen you mental and physical skills to become a more skilled and competitive athlete.

Goal setting is a hugely powerful technique that can yield strong returns in all areas of you life. At its simplest level the process of setting goals and targets allows you to choose where you want to go in life. By knowing what you want to achieve, you know what you have to concentrate on and improve, and what is merely a distraction. Goal setting gives you long-term vision, and short-term motivation. By setting goals you can achieve more, improve performance, improve the quality of you training, increase your motivation to achieve, increase your pride and satisfaction in your performance, and improve your self-confidence (Bull, 1983).

Research (Bull, 1983) has shown that people who use goal-setting effectively suffer less from stress and anxiety, concentrate better, show more self-confidence, perform better, and are happier with their performance. The way in which you set your goals strongly affects their effectiveness. Before you start to set goals, you should have set the background of goal setting by understanding your commitment to sports, understanding the level you want to reach within the sport, knowing the skills that will have to be acquired and the levels of performance that will be needed, and know where this will fit into your overall life goals.

The following broad guidelines apply to setting effective goals. Positive statements, be precise, set priorities, write goals down to avoid confusion and give them more force, and keep operational goals small (Rainer, 1987). “Your body is a beautifully evolved sporting machine, comprising, among other things, muscles that can be trained to a peak of fitness and nerves that control the muscles” (Morris 1992). The nerves are massively linked in your brain: vast numbers of nerve cells are linked with a hugely greater number of interconnections. Many of the pathways, however, lie within the rain.

These pathways can be effectively trained by the use of mental techniques such as imagery and simulation. Imagery is the process by which you can create, modify or strengthen pathways important to the co-ordination of your muscles, by training purely within your mind. Imagery rests on the important principle that you can exercise these parts of you brain with imputes from our imagination rather than from your sences: the parts of the brain that you train with imagery experience imagined and real inputs similarly, with the real inputs being merely more vividly experienced (Rainer 1987).

Simulation is similar to imagery in that it seeks to improve the quality of training by teaching your brain to cope with circumstances that would not be otherwise met until an important competition was reached. Simulation, however, is carried out by making your physical training circumstances as similar as possible to the “real thing”-for example by bringing in crowds of spectators, by having performances judged, or by inviting press to a training session (Rainer 1987). Deciding your Commitment to your sport is possibly the most important “Sports Psychology” decision you will make.

It is important to realize that xcellence demands complete dedication: if you want to be the top athlete, then training to be the top athlete must be the most important thing in you life (Orlick 1994). Self-Confidence is arguably one of the most important things you can have. Self-confidence reflects your assessment of you own self-worth. It will play a large part in determining your happiness through life. Sports can be both enormously effective in improving self-worth, and highly destructive in damaging it (Orlick 1994). Imigery, positive thinking, and goal setting can dramatically help in ones own self-confidence.

You can help yourself to routinely apply sports psychology techniques by getting into the habit of using a Training and Performance Diary before and after every training session and performance. Take a diary that has a full page for every day. Block each page into sections for Entries before the Session: goals, and Entries after the Session: achievements, errors, quality of session, and mindset. Keeping this diary has the following advantages: it focuses your attention before a session on what you need to achieve. It helps you to track the achievement of goals.

It helps you to isolate areas needing improvement. It give you the raw data you need to track improvement over. It helps you to see and analyze how mood, distraction, and stress relate to performance (Orlick 1994). Part of Mental Preparation for competition is ensuring that you start your performance in a state of flow. Many high level athletes do this by developing routines that help them to focus their minds and block out distractions. These may involve complex and detailed rituals that involve preparation, detailed dressing rules, or precisely executed warm-ups.

You can perform best in competition if you remember the following pointers. Enjoy the performance. Execute, analyze, and improve skills in practice, and if you make a mistake during performance, forget about it and focus on executing (Morris 1992). One thing to watch out for as you get better at a sport is loss of Focus. This can happen for two main reasons. As your reaction becomes automatic, they hold your attention less. And the other reason is because as you get better, you may find that you are not as challenged by other competitors.

You may find that these focus problems have their root in goal setting: if you are setting outcome goals such as “coming first”, then this will not be challenging if you win easily (Orlick 1994). Bad Moods damage your motivation to succeed in training or competition. They make you more prone to negative thinking, and cause distraction, often as you trigger bad moods in other people. Bad moods emerge as bad temper, unhappiness, lethargy and sluggishness. If you are in a good mood, then even dull training can be enjoyable.

Your mood is completely under your control. You can improve you mood in the following ways: through positive thinking and suggestion, by treating each element of a performance individually, by using imagery, by reviewing your goals to remotivate yourself, and by smiling (Orlick 1994). Distraction is damaging to you performance because it interferes with your ability to focus and disrupts flow. It interferes with the attention that you need to apply to maintain good technique.

This causes stress and consumes mental energy that is better applied somewhere else. Distraction can come from a number of sources, both internal and external” (Rainer 1987), such as: the presence of loved ones you want to impress, family or relationship problems, media, teammates and other competitors, coaches who do not know when to keep quiet, frustration at mistakes, unjust criticism, poor refereeing decisions, or changes in familiar patterns. What is worth remembering is that when you are distracted, lose concentration, and make a mistake, you have not lost your skills. You have just lost your focus. The following points help to deal with distractions.

Your reaction to distractions is controllable, think positive, prepare for distractions, expect distractions, learn how to change bad moods to good moods, sleep and rest more before big events (Bull 1983). Too much Stress and Anxiety can seriously affect your ability to focus on your skills and low in a performance. It is important that you recognize you are responsible for your own stress levels. Very often they are a product of he way you think. Always be aware that others may be out to manipulate your stress levels. A certain level of Stress is needed for optimal performance.

If you are under too little stress then you will find it difficult to motivate yourself to give a good performance. Too little stress expresses itself in feelings of boredom and not being stretched. At an optimum level of stress you will get the benefits of alertness and activation that a good level of stress brings. Excessive levels of stress damage performance and damage your enjoyment of the sport. When you are in a competitive environment or are in an environment in which ou are being evaluated, Adrenaline may enter your bloodstream.

This has the following positive and negative effects on you body. Those positive include: adrenaline causes psychological arousal, it causes alertness, it prepares the body for explosive activity. Those negative effects include: it inhibits judgement, and it interferes with fine motor control (Morris 1992). Anxiety is different from stress. Anxiety comes from a concern over lack of control over circumstances. In some cases being anxious and worrying over a problem may generate a solution, normally, however, it will just result in egative thinking (Bull 1983).

You need mental energy to be able to concentrate your attention and maintain good mental attitudes. If you are concentrating effectively then you can conserve physical energy by maintaining good technique when your muscles are tired. You can waste mental energy on worry, stress, fretting over distractions, and negative thinking. Over a long competition, these not only damage enjoyment, but also drain energy so that performance suffers. It is therefor important to avoid these by good use of sports psychology, and by resting effectively between events and by ensuring that you sleep properly.

All about Basketball

A brief out line of basketball is it is a game played with a pumped round ball between two teams of five players each on a rectangular court. In professional or minor competition basketball is usually played indoors, but it does not need to be. Each team tries to score by shooting the ball through the other teams goal at each end of the court, above their heads. The goal is a round hoop and net called a basket. The team scoring the most such throws, through field goals or You do not need a lot of equipment to play basketball all you need is a basketball, a court and one or two basketball rings.

The basketball court is in a shape of a rectangle ranging in size from about 29 m by 15 m to about 22 m by 13 m. At each end of the court is a backboard placed behind the ring, measuring usually about 2 m by 1 m, this is also in a rectangular shape although in some collages in America it is more in a shape of this. Each normal rectangular backboard is about 2. 7 m (about 9 ft) above the court. The baskets are attached firmly to the backboards about 3 m (about 10 ft) above the playing surface. Each basket is about 46 cm (about 18 in) in diameter and consists of a round hoop, or metal ring, from which a wide-meshed white net is hung.

The regulation basketball is an inflated, leather- or nylon-covered sphere that weighs from 567 to 624 g (20 to 22 oz. ) and has a circumference of about A conventional basketball team, which is directed by a coach, is made up of two forwards, two guards, and a center. The two forwards are usually the better of the shooters and are really quick. In the jump they both stand between the circle and the opponents basket. The two guards stand in the backcourt. The center, usually the tallest player on the team who stands inside a circle that has a radius of about 61 cm (about 24 in) and is located midway along a line painted across

The game commences with the tip-off, when the referee tosses the ball into the air over the center circle, in which the opposing centers stand face to face. The centers then leap into the air and attempt, with their hands, to tap the ball to their teammates. The team that gets the ball attempts to advance it toward the basket defended by the opposing side, in order to try for a field goal, or basket, scoring two or three points, depending on the player’s distance from the basket. A player may advance the ball by passing it to a teammate or by bouncing (dribbling) it continually along the floor while running toward the basket.

After a basket is scored, the opposing team puts the ball into play from behind its end line and in turn tries to move the ball upcourt to score. How is the game structured in the Olympics In the Olympics basketball the Officials consist of a referee, one or two umpires, one or two scorekeepers, and one or two timekeepers. The referee is in charge of the game. The referee and umpires operate on the court to ensure that the game is played by the rules. They both can call any foul or violation they see anywhere on the court. Usually, one official operates near the offensive team’s basket and the other near the division line.

The officials reverse positions when the teams move to the other end of the court. If a second umpire is used, he or she stands near a sideline. To call a violation or foul, the official blows a whistle to stop play and the clock. The official explains the violation or foul, usually with a hand or arm signal, and enforces the penalty. The game then resumes. Because around the world basketball has little changes from one country to the other when the Olympics are played some one has to make the decisions on how it is going to be played.

No matter how the rules are decided it would not be much f a change from where ever the basketball players have come from to make it difficult to play. In the Olympics the games is set out as one big knock out game to decide who plays in the finals to become number one in the world. All the teams have to try not to get kicked out by loosing games while trying to knock the other teams out of the competition. Which leaves the basketball players with an enormous amount of pressure on them. The basic rules to basketball are fouls, travelling, double dribbling, the three second violation, foot violation and finally out of bounds.

To get a foul in basketball you are usually hit or pushed in some way by the opposing side. To travell in basketball you will either take to many steps before bouncing the ball, or after bouncing and stopping you start to bounce the ball again. To double dribble you must jump in the air with the ball in your hands and land again with out passing or shooting the ball. Someone playing offence and staying in the key for longer than three seconds or more causes the three-second violation. Foot violation in exactly what it sounds like, it is a violation made by someone kicking the ball.

Last but not least is going over the boundary line with the ball. All of these things are not allowed in basketball and I should know as I play in real competition. For almost all off the rules the referees have made some kind of body signal to tell everyone what just happened with out yelling it so everyone can hear. Below you can see some of the following signs the referees make. The success of international basketball was greatly advanced by Forrest C. Allen, a Naismith disciple and a former coach at the University of Kansas, who led the movement for inclusion of basketball in the Olympic Games in 1936 and from then

Details of any Australians who has competed at the Olympics in this event One Australian basketball player who has not only participated in one Olympics is Andrew Gaze. Andrew Gaze has played with the Melbourne Tigers for his whole carrier in the National Basketball League the NBL. At one stage of his long and successful carrier he decided to up grade him self by competing in the National Basketball Association the NBA. This did not really work out for him so he came back to Australia and continued playing with the Melbourne Tigers. To say the most I think a lot of his fans and also his team preferred it this way.

Andrew Gaze is more of a offensive player as he is known for his pure shooting skills as his was voted best pure shooter in 1994 yet did not get a single vote for his Changes that have occurred over time Changes in the Game. Soon after Naismith invented basketball, changes were adopted to improve the sport. In 1893, metal hoops with net bags attached replaced the wooden baskets. Officials pulled a cord attached to the net to let the ball drop out. Baskets with bottomless nets came into general use about 1913. The backboard was introduced in 1894. That year, larger balls replaced soccer balls. In 1932, the 10-second rule was adopted.

This rule stated that the offensive team must advance the ball across the division line within 10 seconds or lose possession. Once the ball crossed the line, the offensive team lost possession if a player took the ball back over the line. This rule eliminated wasting time with the ball in the backcourt. Until 1937, a center jump was held after every field goal. Beginning in 1937, the defensive team received the ball out-of-bounds In 1935, a rule was adopted that stopped any offensive player from standing in the free throw lane for more than three seconds. In 1955, the foul lane was widened to 12 feet (3. eters) from the previous 6 feet (1. 83 meters).

These changes resulted in more offensive movement and less rough physical contact near the basket. Early basketball had little scoring. Players basically used two shots; the lay-up and a two-handed set shot. Hank Luisetti revolutionized the game by popularizing a one-handed shot. Luisetti was a star for Stanford University from 1935 to 1938. His one-handed shot could be released quicker than the two-handed shot and was more difficult to defend. The one-handed shot was the most popular shot in basketball until Joe Fulks popularized the jump shot.

The jump shot became the most popular shot in basketball and greatly increased scoring. James Naismith, a Canadian, invented basketball in 1891. Naismith was a physical-education instructor at the School for Christian Workers (now Springfield College) in Springfield, Massachusetts. Luther H. Gulick, head of the school’s physical-education department, asked Naismith to create a team sport that could be played indoors during the winter. For his new game, Naismith decided to use a soccer ball because it was large enough to catch easily. He then asked the building superintendent for two boxes to use as goals.

The superintendent had no boxes but provided two peach baskets. The baskets were attached to a gymnasium balcony railing 10 feet (3 meters) above the floor. The first game took place between members of Naismith’s physical-education class in December 1891. Details of successful international competitors The most successful international competitors these days and for the last so many years is the American basketball team and for the last three Olympics known as the Dream Team. The American team is not only the best in the world it also the most popular as it is known right round the world.

The reason for winning basketball in the Olympic game is because of the great players like Michael Jordan, Karl Malone, Magic Johnson, Larry Bird, John Stockton, Scottie Pippen, Hakeem Olajuwon, Charles Barkley, David Robinson and so many more what do you expect. Another country that always does well in the Olympics is Yugoslavia. Just the last Olympics they came second in the world loosing against America. Yugoslavia might have a little bit more experience then some other countries lets say us, because players like Toni Kukoc have played for the NBA with the Chicago Bulls for some of his carrier and been able to o no and have great success.

If it weren’t for Americas team, Yugoslavia would be the best team in the world now until Details of any Olympic record holders or current Gold medallists Unlike swimming or running basketball is not a sport that tries to break records, as its only objective is to win the finals. The only true record holders could be America as they have won in the Olympics in a row for the longest time ever. Longer then any other country has yet proven. To tell you the truth I don’t think any one will ever either.

A Brief Out Line Of Basketball

A brief out line of basketball is it is a game played with a pumped round ball between two teams of five players each on a rectangular court. In professional or minor competition basketball is usually played indoors, but it does not need to be. Each team tries to score by shooting the ball through the other teams goal at each end of the court, above their heads. The goal is a round hoop and net called a basket. The team scoring the most such throws, through field goals or foul shots, wins the game.

Equipment used You do not need a lot of equipment to play basketball all you need is a basketball, a court and one or two asketball rings. The basketball court is in a shape of a rectangle ranging in size from about 29 m by 15 m to about 22 m by 13 m. At each end of the court is a backboard placed behind the ring, measuring usually about 2 m by 1 m, this is also in a rectangular shape although in some collages in America it is more in a shape of this. Each normal rectangular backboard is about 2. 7 m (about 9 ft) above the court.

The baskets are attached firmly to the backboards about 3 m (about 10 ft) above the playing surface. Each basket is about 46 cm (about 18 in) in diameter and consists of a round hoop, or metal ring, from which a ide-meshed white net is hung. The regulation basketball is an inflated, leather- or nylon-covered sphere that weighs from 567 to 624 g (20 to 22 oz. ) and has a circumference of about 76-cm (about 30 in). What is involved A conventional basketball team, which is directed by a coach, is made up of two forwards, two guards, and a center.

The two forwards are usually the better of the shooters and are really quick. In the jump they both stand between the circle and the opponents basket. The two guards stand in the backcourt. The center, usually the tallest player on the team who stands inside a circle that as a radius of about 61 cm (about 24 in) and is located midway along a line painted across the center of the court. The game commences with the tip-off, when the referee tosses the ball into the air over the center circle, in which the opposing centers stand face to face.

The centers then leap into the air and attempt, with their hands, to tap the ball to their teammates. The team that gets the ball attempts to advance it toward the basket defended by the opposing side, in order to try for a field goal, or basket, scoring two or three points, depending on the player’s distance from the basket. A player may advance the all by passing it to a teammate or by bouncing (dribbling) it continually along the floor while running toward the basket. After a basket is scored, the opposing team puts the ball into play from behind its end line and in turn tries to move the ball upcourt to score.

How is the game structured in the Olympics In the Olympics basketball the Officials consist of a referee, one or two umpires, one or two scorekeepers, and one or two timekeepers. The referee is in charge of the game. The referee and umpires operate on the court to ensure that the game is played by the rules. They both can call any foul or violation they see nywhere on the court. Usually, one official operates near the offensive team’s basket and the other near the division line. The officials reverse positions when the teams move to the other end of the court.

If a second umpire is used, he or she stands near a sideline. To call a violation or foul, the official blows a whistle to stop play and the clock. The official explains the violation or foul, usually with a hand or arm signal, and enforces the penalty. The game then resumes. Because around the world basketball has little changes from one country to the other when the Olympics are played some one has to make the ecisions on how it is going to be played. No matter how the rules are decided it would not be much of a change from where ever the basketball players have come from to make it difficult to play.

In the Olympics the games is set out as one big knock out game to decide who plays in the finals to become number one in the world. All the teams have to try not to get kicked out by loosing games while trying to knock the other teams out of the competition. Which leaves the basketball players with an enormous amount of pressure on them. Basic Rules The basic rules to basketball are fouls, travelling, double dribbling, the three econd violation, foot violation and finally out of bounds. To get a foul in basketball you are usually hit or pushed in some way by the opposing side.

To travell in basketball you will either take to many steps before bouncing the ball, or after bouncing and stopping you start to bounce the ball again. To double dribble you must jump in the air with the ball in your hands and land again with out passing or shooting the ball. Someone playing offence and staying in the key for longer than three seconds or more causes the three-second violation. Foot violation in exactly what it sounds like, it is a violation made y someone kicking the ball. Last but not least is going over the boundary line with the ball.

All of these things are not allowed in basketball and I should know as I play in real competition. For almost all off the rules the referees have made some kind of body signal to tell everyone what just happened with out yelling it so everyone can hear. Below you can see some of the following signs the referees make. When it began in the Olympics The success of international basketball was greatly advanced by Forrest C. Allen, a Naismith disciple and a former coach at the University of Kansas, who led the movement for inclusion of asketball in the Olympic Games in 1936 and from then onwards.

Details of any Australians who has competed at the Olympics in this event One Australian basketball player who has not only participated in one Olympics is Andrew Gaze. Andrew Gaze has played with the Melbourne Tigers for his whole carrier in the National Basketball League the NBL. At one stage of his long and successful carrier he decided to up grade him self by competing in the National Basketball Association the NBA. This did not really work out for him so he came back to Australia and continued playing with the Melbourne Tigers. To say the most I hink a lot of his fans and also his team preferred it this way.

Andrew Gaze is more of a offensive player as he is known for his pure shooting skills as his was voted best pure shooter in 1994 yet did not get a single vote for his defense. Changes that have occurred over time Changes in the Game. Soon after Naismith invented basketball, changes were adopted to improve the sport. In 1893, metal hoops with net bags attached replaced the wooden baskets. Officials pulled a cord attached to the net to let the ball drop out. Baskets with bottomless nets came into general use about 1913. The backboard was introduced in 1894. That year, larger balls replaced soccer balls. In 1932, the 10-second rule was adopted.

This rule stated that the offensive team must advance the ball across the division line within 10 seconds or lose possession. Once the ball crossed the line, the offensive team lost possession if a player took the ball back over the line. This rule eliminated wasting time with the ball in the backcourt. Until 1937, a center jump was held after every field goal. Beginning in 1937, the defensive team received the ball out-of-bounds after a field goal. In 1935, a rule was adopted that stopped any offensive player from standing in he free throw lane for more than three seconds. In 1955, the foul lane was widened to 12 feet (3. meters) from the previous 6 feet (1. 83 meters).

These changes resulted in more offensive movement and less rough physical contact near the basket. Early basketball had little scoring. Players basically used two shots; the lay-up and a two-handed set shot. Hank Luisetti revolutionized the game by popularizing a one-handed shot. Luisetti was a star for Stanford University from 1935 to 1938. His one-handed shot could be released quicker than the two-handed shot and was more difficult to defend. The one-handed shot was he most popular shot in basketball until Joe Fulks popularized the jump shot.

The jump shot became the most popular shot in basketball and greatly increased scoring. Any other interesting facts James Naismith, a Canadian, invented basketball in 1891. Naismith was a physical-education instructor at the School for Christian Workers (now Springfield College) in Springfield, Massachusetts. Luther H. Gulick, head of the school’s physical-education department, asked Naismith to create a team sport that could be played indoors during the winter. For his new game, Naismith decided to use a soccer ball because it was large nough to catch easily. He then asked the building superintendent for two boxes to use as goals.

The superintendent had no boxes but provided two peach baskets. The baskets were attached to a gymnasium balcony railing 10 feet (3 meters) above the floor. The first game took place between members of Naismith’s physical-education class in December 1891. Details of successful international competitors The most successful international competitors these days and for the last so many years is the American basketball team and for the last three Olympics known as the Dream Team. The American team is not only the best in the orld it also the most popular as it is known right round the world.

The reason for winning basketball in the Olympic game is because of the great players like Michael Jordan, Karl Malone, Magic Johnson, Larry Bird, John Stockton, Scottie Pippen, Hakeem Olajuwon, Charles Barkley, David Robinson and so many more what do you expect. Another country that always does well in the Olympics is Yugoslavia. Just the last Olympics they came second in the world loosing against America. Yugoslavia might have a little bit more experience then some other countries lets say us, because players like Toni Kukoc have played for the NBA ith the Chicago Bulls for some of his carrier and been able to go no and have great success.

If it weren’t for Americas team, Yugoslavia would be the best team in the world now until proven different. Details of any Olympic record holders or current Gold medallists Unlike swimming or running basketball is not a sport that tries to break records, as its only objective is to win the finals. The only true record holders could be America as they have won in the Olympics in a row for the longest time ever. Longer then any other country has yet proven. To tell you the truth I don’t think any one will ever either.

Surfing the Snow

People have always wanted to fly; snowboarding can give that feeling. Imagine getting launched fifteen feet into the air and sixty feet down a ski slope. This is just one of the thrills of snowboarding that has been suppressed for a number of years. Snowboarding had a hard struggle to get where it is today and has helped spark a new era for skiing. If skiers and snowboarders respect the rights of others then there would be no problems and all of the thrill seekers at the resort could have an enjoyable experience. Since the late 1980s, snowboarding has been the overwhelming choice of young people entering the market.

According to a NSAA, National Ski Areas Association, commissioned study, nearly two-thirds of young people ages 12 to 24 chose snowboarding over skiing. (Hood) When snowboarding began to go mainstream it forced skiing to go extreme. Major players (the major ski manufactures) in the ski industry are promoting the generations of hot-dog skiers to put a fresh face on skiing and give the sport a much needed makeover. (Hood) Snowboarding has opened a whole new era for skiing and there is no turning back now. All the skiers and boarders are going extreme.

There is an increased danger but with some common courtesy accidents can be avoided and all of the skiers and boarders can get the chance to fly for a while. Snowboarding is a relatively new sport. It has only become popular in the last ten years. A small group including Jake Burton, Chuck Barfoot, and Tom Sims pioneered snowboarding in the late 1970’s. All of whom now head or have lead snowboard companies with Burton being the largest snowboard manufacturer in the world. (Wallace, pg. 8. 02) Most snowboarders got chased off the slopes when they tried to ride.

No self-respecting ski resort would have them. Surfing the slopes, shredding the air and snow in equal measures – kicking it – they always had to be on the lookout for the glowering ski patrol. (Gordon) “I was kicked off countless ski areas back in the 1960s, ’70s and even in the ’80s,” Sims says of the difficulties he once encountered from the established Alpine ski community. (Atkin) In the early 1980’s snowboarding began to be accepted by a few resorts. The first snowboarder hit the slopes of Whistler, British Columbia, around 1981. The call came up to ski patrol director Ken Newington.

The call was from a lift operator who said there was a guy with a board that wanted to go up the mountain. Ken told the operator to send him up and he asked Hugh O’Reilly, who is now Whistler’s Mayor, to take him out on the slopes and check him out. O’Reilly took him to the top of one of the slopes and after 300 or 400 yards decided he looked fine. Ken then issued him a sticker for the guy’s board with Ken’s signature on it so he could ride the lifts without any problems. (Andrew, pg. 12) Seventeen years later it is expected that 4. 5 million snowboarders will hit the slopes this season.

That is three times the number in 1990. Resorts like snowboarders now; the one-time outlaws have become the resorts’ salvation. Snowboarders account for seventy percent of business for the resorts in early winter. (Gordon) Resorts also realize that snowboarders love their sport and have money to spend. The average boarder is on the slopes three times as often per year as the average skier. (Wallace, pg. 8. 13) With all of the attention going to snowboarding with all of its high-flying aerial maneuvers, skiing had to turn to its bad boys as the future of the sport to get young people interested in the sport.

Ski resorts are loosening up some of the restrictions on the mountain giving skiers a chance to go for the big air, much like snowboarders have been doing, against regulations, for years. Major ski resorts are opening up their snowboard parks to skiers so they can push the extreme image in their marketing campaigns. (Hood) Snowboarding has opened a whole new era for skiing. Major ski manufactures are creating “teams” of free ride, extreme, skiers. The manufactures pay the members up to $100,000 a year to ski and sharpen the company’s image.

Television is also playing a big role in the attempt to get today’s youth interested in skiing. Sponsors are lining up behind big-air and extreme-skiing competitions. ESPN’s Winter-X Games featured extreme skiing for the first time in 1998. K2’s Jeff Manchara stated, “Why is it happening now? Because there is an opportunity with the plateauing of snowboarding. There’s an opportunity for skiing to shine, to kind of come of age again. Skiing never really lost its cool. It was just overshadowed by snowboarding.

Skiing has even taken snowboarding tricks and used the tricks for every competition including the Olympics. Olympic gold medalist Johnny Mosely’s 360 degree-mute-air grab in the mogul competition is straight out of snowboarding’s bag of tricks. (Hood) Shane McConkey, 1995 national extreme skiing champion said in reference to extreme skiing, “It’s just the next level for a lot of people. It use to be considered extreme, and crazy and ridiculous, a bunch of young guys out there chucking their carcass off a cliff. People have now realized that that’s top-level skiing at it’s finest.

It’s not extreme or crazy or anything. It’s the sport of free-riding and it’s growing huge because people finally understand it. “(Hood) There is still the debate of which is more fun. Tom Sims said, “In my opinion, Snowboarding is inherently more fun. It’s hard to explain, but when you do a snowboard turn and can drag your hand in the snow and pretend you’re on a twenty-foot wave, it just seems more fun than planting a ski pole and making a turn. ” (Atkin) It does not matter which is more fun as long as the skier or snowboarder is having fun doing it.

The major thing is that skiers and snowboarders need to respect the rights of others. When a skier or snowboarder goes to the resorts they need to follow the “Your Responsibility Code” which states:

1. Always stay in control and be able to stop to avoid other people or objects. 2. People ahead of you have the right of way. It is your responsibility to avoid them. 3. You must not stop where you obstruct a trail or are not visible from above. 4. Whenever starting downhill or merging onto a trail look uphill and yield to others. 5. Always use devices to help prevent runaway equipment. 6. Observe all posted signs and warnings. Keep off closed trails and out of closed areas. 7. Prior to using any lift, you must have knowledge and ability to load, ride and unload safely. (Wallace, pg. 8. 00. 03)

This code has been written and endorsed by the National Ski Patrol and numerous other organizations to help make the skiing or snowboarding experience enjoyable. Studies show that the injury rate for skiers and snowboarders are about equal. The injuries however are different, skiers are more likely to get knee injuries and snowboarders are more likely to hurt the wrist or arm.

Skiers and snowboarders can lessen the chance of injury by taking lessons and using the proper equipment. (Wallace, pg. 8. 11) Skiers and snowboarders are on the slopes to have fun, not to fight. There is however, a lot of friction between skiers and snowboarders at the resorts. Skiers complain that snowboarders hurt the slopes by scraping off the snow and scare people with the large groups and loud sounds of a snowboard carving on ice. The complaint about scraping off the snow can be said about skiers too. It does not matter if a person is on one board or two it is the fact that the person is a beginner.

Snowboarding gets blamed for it because the majority of snowboarders are beginners. Skiers complaining about the packs of snowboarders and the noise will have to learn to live with it. With ninety-seven percent of U. S. resorts allowing it, more than half of American resorts cater to boarders with half-pipes, its growth rate is over ten percent snowboarding is here to stay. Snowboard discrimination is like blaming a car for driving out of control instead of the driver. There are weird people out there on every vertical descent device.

It is the person, not the sport in which they are engaged in. Snowboarding is growing at a very high rate of speed. It is in the spotlight. For every outlaw snowboarder, who cuts you off, and is in the limelight, there are bunches who are civil and law abiding. (Wallace, pg. 8. 13) Many snowboarders complain that when snowboarding mainstreamed it hurt the sport. According to a Ski Patrol member at Seven Springs, “The style and image almost seems to be more important then the riding these days. I feel snowboarding has mainstreamed in a more positive way in the last couple years.

Greg has skied for nine years and has been snowboarding for four years. He also stated that, “I started skiing and when I learned to snowboard they helped each other out. I believe that snowboarding has helped my skiing significantly. ” Snowboarders have fought for the right to board. The image has changed from outlaw(the sport that no one would let on the slopes), to extreme(the sport everyone wants to try and use to show off or get attention. Snowboarding has taken all of the safety precautions when making equipment to help keep the riders injury free.

While snowboarders have been fighting for equal rights the boarders have also given skiing a much-needed face-lift and renewed interest in skiing. All of the people on the slopes whether skiers or snowboarders are there to have fun. Snowboarding had a hard struggle to get where it is today and has helped spark a new era for skiing. Snowboarders love the sport so much that boarders have conformed to fit in and be allowed on the slopes. Snowboarders have worked hard to be allowed on the sloped so end the friction and have fun going extreme.

Race In Sports

The odds that any high school athlete will play a sport on the professional level are about 10,000 to 1. Yet according to a recent survey conducted by Northeastern University’s Center for the Study of Sport in Society, 66 percent of all African-American males between the ages of 13 and 18 believe they can earn a living playing professional sports. That is more than double the proportion of young white males who hold such beliefs. Black parents also are four times more likely than white parents to believe that their children are destined for careers in professional athletics.

As an industry, sports have also created a relatively small, elite class of black multimillionaires. But these black players and their outrageous salaries, together with the media and advertising endorsements, have created the impression among many lower-income blacks that there are unlimited opportunities on the playing field. The result, say experts, is an obsession with sports among many young African-American males often at the expense of the more traditional, if less glamorous, route to upward mobility: education.

There is an overemphasis on sports in the black community, and too many black students are putting all their eggs in one basket,” says Harvard Medical School psychiatrist Alvin Poussaint. (www. usnews. com/usnews/Febissue/sports. htm) In his controversial book, Darwin’s Athletes: How Sport Has Damaged Black America and Preserved the Myth of Race, “The whole problem here,” writes author John Hoberman, “is that the black middle class is rendered essentially invisible by the parade of black athletes and criminals on television.

That in turn fuels the perception that African-Americans excel in physical pursuits and Caucasians in intellectual endeavors. As in most high schools, the real social champions at a nearly all-black public academy on Chicago’s South Side are not the boys and girls who can think and problem solve but, rather, the kids who can dunk a basketball or run a quick 40-meter dash. “A lot of kids will tell you they want to be like Mike,” says one student, referring to the most recognized black athlete, basketball star Michael Jordan. In this context, being like Mike does not mean becoming an entrepreneur, a corporate spokesman, or a college graduate.

It means being a highflying, windmill slammer of a ballplayer. (http://racerelations. about. com/gi/dynamic/offsite. htm) Faced with the historic indignities of racism and segregation, blacks came to view sports as a source of inspiration. During the early part of the century, for instance, the boxing victories of Jack Johnson and Joe Louis served as tangible proof that black men could compete against whites and win. The same held true for Jackie Robinson’s entry into Major League Baseball in 1947. Black baseball fans, no matter where they lived, became instant Brooklyn Dodger loyalists.

The sports arena became a battleground against white supremacy. Ironically, the victory also concerned the black middle class, which did not want sports to replace churches and schools as the major focuses of the black community. To some degree, this is what has happened since Jackie Robinson broke baseball’s color line. Some of the numbers are striking. More than 40 percent of pro-baseball players are now black or Latino, a figure that has come to look low compared with the National Football League, which is 65 percent black, and the National Basketball Association, which is 80 percent black.

This is such that Jason Williams, a rare white star, is nicknamed “White Chocolate. ” (http://racerelations. about. com/gi/dynamic/offsite. htm) Whites have in some respects become sports’ second-class citizens. In a surreal inversion of Robinson’s era, white athletes are frequently the ones now tagged by the stereotypes of skin color. White athletes, even when they play sports dominated by blacks, are still entering an industry not only controlled by whites in every phase of authority and operation but also largely sustained by white audiences.

Although blacks dominate the most popular team sports, they still make up only 9 percent of all people in the United States who make a living or try to make a living as athletes, less than their percentage in the general population. With five African Americans among their players, the Edmonton Oilers are leading infamously white-dominated professional hockey into a new era. The Oilers have the most African-American players on any professional hockey roster since the 1940s. “Any time you can have series of five players on one team it creates a focus for the audience,” said Ken Martin, spokesperson for the NHL.

First off, they’re great players. But it’s a bonus that they happen to be minorities and have the great personalities necessary to be role models. ” The African-Americans of the team, which accounts for five of the 15 black players in the league, is expected to arouse interest in the sport among African Americans. “It’s a transition period right now, similar to what baseball went through,” Martin said. Currently, there are only 27 minorities in the whole league. The costly nature of the sport has been the biggest barrier for African Americans to date.

Expensive equipment and a lack of access to ice rinks can discourage those in low-income neighborhoods from participating. (http://www. diversityinc. com/insidearticle. cfm) It is easy enough to explain black dominance in some sports like boxing. It is the Western sport that has the longest history of black participation, so there is tradition. Moreover, it is a sport that has always attracted poor and marginalized men. Black men have persistently made up a disproportionate share of the poor and the marginalized.

Also, instruction is within easy reach; most boxing gyms are located in poor neighborhoods, where a premium is placed on being able to fight well. Jose Torres, light heavyweight boxing champ in the sixties talked of how boxers are generally perceived to be the most feeble-minded athletes, and not just because of the nature of their contest but because many are black and Latino. “Boxing is a contest of intelligence and character,” he said. “It is never perceived that way. It’s not the person who punches the hardest that wins. It’s the guy who punches when he has to punch and where he has to punch. ” (www. bergen. com/moresports/races. m)

Despite the enormous success of Kenyan marathon runners in the past 15 years, running remains a relative problem for the national sport of soccer. Unfortunately, Kenyans are among the world’s worst soccer players. Despite the expenditure of hundreds of thousands of dollars of the country’s sparse sports resources, Kenya, is regularly trounced by far smaller countries in West Africa. In fact, there is no such thing as an East African soccer powerhouse. The same thing is true of sprinting. Kenya has tried desperately over the past decade to replicate its wondrous success in distance running at the sprints, to no avail.

The best Kenyan time ever of 10. 28 seconds in the 100 meters, ranks somewhere near 5,000th on the all-time list. This leaves many spectators questioning the training capabilities of these athletes. Some say that they are not living up to their potential as excellent running machines. This stereotype holds true within others sports. (http://www. salon. com/news/sports/olympics/2000/race/index. html) Sadly, black athletes have had to contend with these stereotypes that would limit their opportunities to fill on-field leadership slots, the so-called thinking positions, such as quarterback or head coaches.

But the current crop of black quarterbacks leading their teams to the playoffs has helped to dispel these thoughts. In 1999, two of the top three players in the NFL draft were black quarterbacks. The story line for last year’s NFL playoff games revolves around five “minority” superstar quarterbacks: four blacks and a Jew. An outraged letter to the Los Angeles Times in response to its entry in the black quarterback phenomenon sweepstakes correctly addressed the problem.

I find it sad and disappointing that you find it necessary to label these athletes as ‘black quarterbacks. ‘ Why can’t they just be quarterbacks? ” On one playoff team, the Philadelphia Eagles, 20 of the 22 starters, including all 11 on defense, are black. (www. usnews. com/usnews/Febissue/sports. htm) Given that blacks are over represented in the most popular sports and that young black men are more likely than young white men to consider athletics as a career, there has been much commentary about whether sports are bad for blacks.

One could make the analogy that sports are a form of slavery or blatant political and economic oppression. Superficially, this argument is made by discussing a player is the “property” of his team or of his manager; he can be traded or “sold” to another team. On a more sophisticated level, the slavery analogy is used to describe sports structurally: the way audiences are lured to sports as a false spectacle, and the way players are controlled mentally and physically by white male authority, their lack of access to the free-market worth of their labor.

Contrary to the white perception that it was an absolute triumph for African-Americans when Jackie Robinson broke baseball’s color barrier, former Negro Leaguer Bob Scott of Elizabeth told of the flip side: the destruction of the Negro Leagues after their stars defected to the white-owned major leagues. “It was the only empire, the only big business that Negroes had in those days,” he said. “It was a source of pride. People came dressed to the ballpark the way they came to church. Today, we make millions of dollars and still we don’t own anything. “

History of Baseball

Baseball seems always to have lived more in myth that in history. Children in England and the United States had been playing variants of the game for years such as rounders, one o’ cat, and base. In 1845, some young men in Manhattan organized themselves into the Knickerbockers BaseBall Club and wrote down the rules of the game they were playing. Twenty years later dozens of baseball clubs in New York and Brooklyn, and their journalist brethren, had made what they called the “national pastime” more popular than cricket, and the metropolis had become the country’s first baseball powerhouse.

As baseball clubs were transformed into entertainment businesses and instruments of civic boosterism, so grew their need for first-rate players who could attract paying crowds. The remarkable undefeatable season of the national touring Cincinnati Red Stockings in 1869 paved the way for baseball’s full-blown professionalization in the 1876 formation of the National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs. Although distinctions between players and their clubs (now really small businesses) had been hardening for years, the National League formalized the division, which has continued until today. (Leal, 7-27)

Baseball soon outdistanced other spectator sports in popularity and contributed to the sports boom of the 1880s and 1890s. Late nineteenth-century baseball resembled the Gilded Age business world. Owners moved the clubs frequently, while rival leagues sprung up and competed for players and spectators. The National League either defeated its opponents outright or incorporated them into a subordinate national structure of minor leagues. Not until 1901 was the National League force to accept the American League, the only other surviving major league. Leagues controlled access to spectators by granting franchises.

Owners and leagues controlled the players through labor practices that combined elements of chattel slavery (the infamous reserve rule) and freewheeling industrial capitalism: blacklisting, fines, salary limits, and reductions, even the use of Pinkerton spies. The reserve clause, initiated in 1879 and inserted into every player’s contract, gave his employer the right to reserve his services for the following year, unless the player was traded, sold, or released from his contract. Players fought the reserve rule, most notably when the Brotherhood of Professional BaseBall Players launched its own Players’ League in 1890.

When the players’ financial backers sold them out to the National League, baseball owners triumphed and ruled organized baseball virtually unchallenged for eighty-five years. They were aided by a series of bizarre Supreme Court rulings that baseball was not interstate commerce and therefore not bound by federal antitrust law. In 1975 and arbitrator ruled that the reserved clause applied for only one year and players, as “free agents,” regained their negotiating power; salaries quickly reached unheard-of levels.

Owners retaliated in 1981 but were soundly defeated by a players’ strike. (Smith, 124) Then in the late 1980s they conspired (illegally, an arbitrator held) to limit salary offers to free agents. After a twenty-year period of franchise movement, league expansions, and the creation of divisions within leagues, baseball became organizationally stable again in the late 1970s. Attendance grew dramatically throughout the 1980s, more people attended major league baseball games (over 50 million per year at the end of the decade) than at any other time in the games history.

Baseball has been America’s most popular sport for so long mainly because it has successfully straddled some of the nation’s most important cultural divisions. Though it was born among the respectable working class and sporting middle class, the games cultural antecedents lay in the boisterous street culture of saloon-based volunteer fire companies, militias, theater partisans, street gangs, and political factions. The National League explicitly appealed to more middle-class audiences by requiring its teams to charge fifty cents, ban the sale of alcohol, and refuse to play Sundays. ( Leal ,44)

The rival American Association appealed to immigrant and working class audiences by charging a quarter, selling liquor, and playing Sunday ball. Despite the outrage with which baseball officials and writers treat baseball’s occasional betting scandals (in 1865 and 1877 as well as more famously in the 1919 “Black Sox” scandal and the 1989 banishment of Pete Rose), the game has never been completely free of the sporting underworld of gambling and low life. Even though they are all men with extraordinarily disciplined athletic skills, ballplayers, like most professional entertainers, frequently behave badly off the field.

Alongside the game’s reputation as an upright, all-American pastime, its culture continues to have a whiff of the unrespectable. Baseball has also had an archaic aura throughout most of its history, the heyday of modern industrializing America. It enshrined craft excellence at precisely the time industrialists were destroying craft production. As the traditional foundations of manhood were subjected to enormous strains, mostly young men who played baseball worried about devoting so much time to at child’s game and tried to distinguish their “manly sport” from “ boyish play.

Although baseball’s origins are urban, its myth is powerfully, stubbornly rural. While city populations swelled in the late nineteenth century, and mass entertainment was born at places like Coney Island, baseball fans flocked to watch a game featuring individuals, isolated and surrounded by the green grass of ballparks. The major league color barrier was breached in 1947 by the careful planning and daring of Brooklyn Dodgers general manager Branch Rickey and the courage, self-control, and baseball skill of Jackie Robinson, who Rickey invited to pioneer with his team.

Robinson’s talents and legendary aggressiveness made him into one of the best second basemen who ever played the game. Currently, baseball is integrated in that there are large numbers of African-American and Latin players; it is not unusual for a starting lineup to have a minority of whites. Still, the higher echelons managers, general managers, and owners are almost completely white, and there are many fewer African-American catchers and pitchers than there are outfielders and first basemen.

Circuit Training Essay

From reducing risk of heart attack to simply providing more energy, weight training plays an important role in ones life. One very popular method of weight training is to increase mobility and build strength and stamina. This method is known as circuit training. Circuit training has been around for decades and offers a wide variety of applications and benefits. This workout is performed both mentally and physically. The weight training participant performs one set of an exercise then immediately performs a set of another exercise in succession without rest; ne right after another.

Exercise can be sequenced in a variety of combinations, which isolate single muscles, a group of muscles, or total body training. Since muscles can only contract for long periods of time when sufficient amounts of oxygen are available, mental focus during circuit training is directed towards the heart and lungs, as opposed just the muscles during conventional training. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems feed our working muscles with oxygen filled blood that is eventually fueled by body fat.

During conventional training the focus isnt on the eart and lungs because the cardio/respiratory system rests between exercises, allowing the ATP to LA cycle to be the energy supplier. (This cycle must be depleted in order for the body to burn fat). By performing circuit training, you dont give your heart or lungs a chance to relax, which keeps the ATP to LA cycle depleted. In addition to increasing heart and lung conditioning, enhancing your ability to use oxygen, ad burning fat, impressive muscular shape and strength gains will result from doing any circuit-training workout.

Research studies consistently show that leans body mass increases with a course of circuit training. A 1-3. 2 kg gain in lean body mass can be expected with a consequent decrease in relative fat mass of 1-3%, total weight remaining unchanged. This is a major benefit of circuit training, especially for those who want to get in shape and tone up their muscles. With traditional aerobic training, a decrease in relative fat mass has led to a decrease in total weight with little change in lean body mass.

The resistance work involved in the circuits encourages muscle-mass evelopment, and thus any fat loss is replaced equally by muscle gain. This makes it easier to maintain the lower body fat or reduce body fat even further because the increase in lean body mass pushes up basal metabolic rate and overall calorie expenditure. These body-composition changes would support the use of circuit weight training in a health and fitness setting where toning up, but not losing weight, were the major goals. Circuit training is a great form of exercise, will help almost anyone improve their health and offers lots of benefits.

Muhammed Ali – the greatest boxer ever

In some peoples eyes Muhammed Ali is the greatest boxer ever. He has always been classified as great! He was even classified as the greatest athlete in the 20th century by Sports Illustrated. He was the first to win the heavyweight title three times! He was a worldwide entertainer, and millions of people enjoyed watching his style. He was also very controversial because of his religious beliefs, his name change from Cassius Clay to Muhammed Ali and his refusal to fight in the Vietnam War. Muhammed Ali grew up in Louisville, Kentucky but he was known as Cassius Clay.

He lived a normal life until the age of twelve when his bicycle was stolen during a local convention of the Louisville Service Club. Clay wanted to report the crime and went to find a police officer. He found Joe Martin, an officer and a boxing coach at the Columbia Gym . Clay told Martin “Im going to whip the person who stole my bike. ” Martin then proceeded to tell Clay that if he wanted to do that he should come to the gym and learn how to fight properly. Clay was a small man when he started boxing as an amateur; he weighed only eighty-nine pounds.

Clay would soon become the man to see at the Columbia Gym. Joe Martins wife said that Clay was an overall nice guy. He was polite and always did what he was asked to do. He carried his Bible with him all the time, read when he could, and loved it. Throughout his amateur career and high school, Clay worked at the Nazareth College Library. Clay also was viewed as a kid obsessed with boxing. Clay got bigger and stronger as his talents grew. Sometimes, to keep in shape, Clay would race the city buses to school.

Bettie Johnson, a school counselor said “Clay wasnt a good student, and if he had not been a boxer, he would not have stood out in any way but he went to school like he was supposed to. ” Clay never had any problems with his attitude in school, but as a senior he wrote a paper about Black Muslims. Clays paper was controversial because his teacher was a conforming Christian and his ideas about separatism and blacks being super-assertive scared her. The teacher wasnt going to pass Clay, but the principal said “the boy will not fail, because hes going to be an outstanding boxer.

Clay was becoming a boxing phenomenon; the first newspaper article about him was published on October 27, 1957. By then Clay had been boxing for 3 years and was clearly the number one contender for the light-heavyweight championship in the Golden Gloves amateur ranks. He was arguably ready for the challenge after he knocked out Donnie Hall in the fourth round. Cassius Clay was a small opponent for Hall, and even outweighed Clay by eleven and a half pounds. Clay would continue to practice at the Columbia Gym until late at night.

He could never stop moving his arms. He was always anxious and ready to fight. Clay became the Golden Gloves light-heavyweight champion and moved on to the heavyweight division. Clay had fought and won thirty-six consecutive fights by May 1, 1959 and said “Im a baaaaad man! ” But his winning steak was broken when Amos Johnson beat him at the Pan-American Games trials. After that loss Clay never lost an amateur fight again! Clay proceeded to the Rome Olympics and won the light-heavyweight gold medal.

Immediately after winning the gold medal, Clay was subjected to horrible comments about his race and his religion, which forced him to throw his gold medal away because he felt that people did not accept him. Cassius Clay was a great amateur boxer, and won 100 out of 108 fights. He won consecutive titles in the AAU and the Golden Gloves amateur divisions. Clay started his professional career at age eighteen, and was paid $10,000 up front and then signed a two year contract for $4,000 a year.

He went through nineteen opponents, the likes of Archie Moore, Billy Daniels, Doug Jones, Henry Cooper, Dennis Fleeman, and Jim Robinson. He then went on to challenge Sonny Liston for the heavyweight title. Clay was considered the underdog and shocked the world by forcing Liston to stop the fight after the sixth round. After the fight Clay told the world that he had accepted the teaching of Islam and was changing his name to Muhammed Ali. Ali wrote poetry about his opponents, which would describe how he would beat them. He also created one of his famous quotes in his poetry and said “float like a butterfly, sting like a bee.

Another part of Alis arrogance was that he boxed with his left hand down and just backed away from the punches of his opponent, both of these are considered cardinal sins of boxing. Even through all of his arrogance, he still had lightning fast reflexes, great mobility, and probably the best jab in boxing. His first title defense was a rematch against Sonny Liston, and again shocked the world with a first round knockout. Ali right after his victory over Zora Folley followed his religious beliefs and refused induction into the United States Army.

Because of this he was arrested and stripped of the heavyweight title, and his boxing license was revoked. He did not fight from March 22,1967 to October 26, 1970. Many fight fans believe that those years could have been his best. During the period Ali was not boxing, Smokin Joe Frazier stormed through the heavyweight division and won the heavyweight title. In 1970 Ali made his triumphant return to the boxing world after his conviction was reversed by the U. S. Supreme Court and his license reinstated. He impressively defeated Jerry Quarry and Oscar Bonavena.

After those fights and his return Ali stated that “Its just a job. Grass grows, birds fly, waves pound the sand. I just beat up people. ” With those two wins under his belt he then felt it necessary to challenge Joe Frazier to one of the most highly acclaimed fights ever. This was considered by many fans to have been the greatest fight, considering the fact that both fighters were undefeated. Ali proclaimed himself the peoples champion and said, “to be the king, you must defeat me. ” In the fifteenth round of the fight, Frazier knocked Ali down and won the fight by unanimous decision.

Before Ali could get a rematch at Frazier, George Foreman defeated Frazier. Finally in 1974, Ali fought Frazier again and beat him by knocking him out in the twelfth round. The Ali vs. Frazier II fight set up “the Rumble in the Jungle,” against George Foreman. Foreman was thirty-two and thought by many to be invincible, and once again Ali was given little chance. In their fight in Kinsasha, Zaire, Ali used the now famous rope-a-dope technique, which tired Foreman out. Ali then took advantage and knocked out Foreman in the eighth round to become the two time heavyweight champion.

After his fight with Foreman, Ali stated that, “the man who has no imagination has no wings. ” From October 30, 1974 to February 15, 1977 Ali defeated ten opponents. The fights included the third chapter in the Joe Frazier and Ken Norton trilogies. On February 15, 1977 in Las Vegas, Olympic gold medallist, Leon Spinks who was fighting in only his eighth professional fight, upset Ali in fifteen rounds to become the new heavyweight champ. However, only after six months, Ali defeated Spinks in fifteen rounds to become the heavyweight champion for a record third time.

Even though Ali was the champion, he was past his prime. Ali in 1978 stated that “service to others is the rent you pay for your room here on earth. ” Ali had only two professional fights left in him. He lost both fights and the title to Larry Holmes. He was knocked out for the first time ever. His last fight was against Trevor Berbrick and lost a ten round decision. Muhammed Alis final professional fight record was fifty-six wins and five loses. He knocked out thirty-seven of his opponents and his last fight was on December 11, 1981. He was inducted into the boxing hall of fame in 1990.

At the age of fifty Ali said “the man who views the world at fifty the same as he did at twenty has wasted thirty years of his life. ” Since throwing his gold medal away in Rome, Ali had been gaining fame ever since. After retiring from boxing Ali has been doing charity work for his community in Louisville. In 1986, he was presented with the Ellis Island Medal of Honor for his lifetime achievements in promoting peace, unity, for his charitable donations and for sports. Ali is now the most recognized athlete throughout the world, and he was given the opportunity to light the Olympic flame at the 1996 summer Olympics in Atlanta.

Also during those Olympics, Ali was given an exact replica of the gold medal he threw away many years ago. Muhammed Ali now has Parkinsons disease, and is battling the disease every step of the way. He was appointed the spokesman for the National Parkinsons Foundation where he brings pride, hope, and faith to others who also battle the disease. Boxing fans now regard Muhammed Ali as a genuine artist of the sport and a legendary hero. Ali revitalized the sport and is known for more than just his boxing accomplishments. Muhammed Ali has changed forever what we expect a champion to be.

Swimming History Essay

Swimming was invented before recorded history. Humans discovered how to swim by accident. A person probably fell into the water and struggled to shore using a dog-paddle stroke. There was an Egyptian hieroglyph for swimming dating from 2500 BC. The ancient Greeks and Romans made swimming an important part of their military training programs. There have been known swimming contests that were organized in Japan as early as the 1st century BC. During the Middle Ages in Europe, swimming declined in popularity.

People felt that the water was contaminated and a source of disease. Not everyone feared the water, however, Louis XI reportedly swam daily in the Seine. During the early 19th century, swimming enjoyed a revival, especially in England, Lord Byron swam the Dardanelles river, to prove that the mythological hero Leander could have done it. Organized competitive swimming began in England in the 1840s. In 1844 the British were surprised when two American Indians demonstrated the efficiency of a method of swimming similar to the modern crawl.

The British still swam with the head above the water, a holdover from the days when people believed that the ater was contaminated. An overhand stroke was introduced into England in 1873 by J. Arthur Trudgen, who had seen South American Indians using this method to swim really fast. When the flutter kick was introduced, the modern “Australian crawl” was born, and this stroke has since become the most common and most important swimming stroke. To swim well u need to know how to coordinate your arms and legs to get you through the water.

At first you will probably need to have lessons. Also to swim u need agility and just gravity. Swimming also requires balance and quickness in some cases. Not much is needed to know if you want to swim. Swimming improves heart and lung efficiency, enhances muscle strength and endurance, improves flexibility, and reduces stress. Its easy on the joints, and uses more muscles than most other forms of exercise. Although swimming burns a great deal of calories, recreational swimmers tend to lose less weight than would be expected from other types of aerobic activity.

Scientists say that cold water removes heat from the body, stimulating appetite to keep the body warm. Exposure to cold water may encourage the body to maintain fat stores for insulation. To lose weight by swimming, its necessary to cut down on the calories you eat, and to swim fast enough and long enough. Swimming can burn more than 660 calories an hour when performed correctly and causes less injuries to joints and muscles than aerobics or jogging. It takes only three hours a week of strenuous swimming to improve flexibility, increase strength and build cardiovascular endurance.

Swimming provides a good aerobic workout if 25% of the total laps are performed at aximum intensity. However, only 5% of those who swim do so at an aerobic pace. Although few doubt the aerobic benefits of swimming, studies comparing swimming with jogging, results found that swimmers lost less body fat than joggers. Apparently swimming causes an adjustment in how energy is burned, resulting in the burning of more carbohydrates than body fat. One reason might be that swimmers retain more body fat to insulate and maintain body heat. However, swimming works both the upper and lower body which jogging does not.

When Sports were just Games

I grew up in front of the T. V. watching bone-crunching hits and massive home runs in old Cleveland Municipal Stadium. I saw the last game the Browns played there and I started bawling like a blubbering idiot when they left the field. Back then sports were much more simple. The games were played for fun. There were no high-school kids bringing down the quality of NBA games, There werent any greedy me-first 19 year olds trying to sue their way into the NFL. Nor were there any teams spending 190 million dollars to buy a World Series like the Yankees.

But when the 1995 NFL season ended I was finally introduced to the most horrid part of sports… economics. Economics ruined my favorite game and economics had taken away my favorite team. The Browns werent just my team, they were Clevelands team. They were taken from us because Art Modell couldnt force the taxpayers to build him a stadium. He had enough money to help Cleveland build a football stadium we could be proud of, but hed rather make money. Never mind the rich tradition of football we have in Cleveland. Never mind the fact that we were a playoff team the year before. The new stadium was going to cost him money.

Thats when I realized that allegiances and loyalty dont matter to owners or players. The only thing that matters to guys like Modell is the almighty dollar. Football is not the only sports that has been ruined by recent economic changes. Baseball has had its own struggles with economics. It starts with the large gaps between large and small market teams. While some small market teams like the Florida Marlins, Oakland As and the Kansas City Royals have been able to perform well, most like the Devil Rays and Pirates stink. The most telling statistic that shows this gap is that the Yankees have a 190 million dollar payroll.

That is a full 40 million above the team in second. The team with the lowest payroll is the Tampa Bay Devil Rays at 20 million dollars. That is a full 5. 2 million dollars less than Alex Rodriguez! One player makes more than 25 players! It is also $170 million dollars lower than the Yankees. So what does baseballs Commissioner, Bud Selig, do about this problem? He doesnt propose some sort of salary cap like the NFL, he says that the MLB needs contraction. Contraction?! He wants low market teams like the Tampa Bay Devil Rays out of baseball so he can keep the Yankees winning World Series why would he do this? MONEY!

The Yankees draw more viewers and therefore more money. When forced to create a cap he proposed a luxury tax threshold of 120 million dollars. Which means that if you pass this threshold you have to however much you are over back. So because the Yankees are 70 million over at 190 million, they have to pay an extra 70 million. This would work well if the luxury tax effected more than four teams! The Devil Rays are a full 100 million dollars below the threshold. This is why I pine for the days of old. The days when I could blindly worship my teams. The problem is that the current state of sport has soiled this loyal fans mind.

History of Golf

In 1788, one of the greatest days in sports, the first golf course was built in Scotland. Scotland is considered to be the birthplace of golf. The game of golf began its destiny in time towards becoming popular around the world. This weird and complex game did not reach the United States until 1844, in New York, where the first golf course was built. Some where in time the game of golf lost its prestige in the United States. The professionals are mostly the only ones that treat this game how it should be treated. Some Americans have no respect nd have no idea what they are doing to the game.

The Scottish are very different because they understand and treat the game how it should be treated, with prestige and etiquette. Golfers that have taken up the game in the states just don’t have the same attitude towards the game. I wish people would realize how the game is supposed to be played and treated. I think one of the main reasons golf is taken more serious in Scotland is because it originated there and everyone was taught to play it the correct way. In Scotland, you will never see anyone throwing a club or damaging the turf.

They always take great care of the course because they respect it. They know how rude it is to act like that and they are all about etiquette. Everyone knows this is a “gentleman’s game”, as many people have called it. They literally take it to heart, it is so impressive. When the Scottish play the game they follow the rules very strictly. They never touch the ball no matter how difficult or unlucky spot it ends up in. If it gets buried in the high grass or caught behind a tree, they won’t move it. They “play it where it lies”, as it is said.

They never bend the rules or shave strokes. They are completely honest with themselves and others. This type of behavior makes the game so much more fair and enjoyable because they don’t cheat other people or themselves. They take what they get and realize that it is a part of golf. The Americans, on the other hand, are a different story. For the most part they are totally opposite from the Scottish. I say most people because the professionals and some others understand and respect the game because they have been taught or brought up correctly.

Too many people want to throw clubs and damage the turf. It shows no respect and it makes them look like a fool. Etiquette is a major part of golf and not enough people display it. The Americans also don’t like to follow the rules. They take the easy way out, to try to get an advantage. When you do that you are beating no one but your self. They are always moving the ball, trying to get the best possible spot. Don’t touch it, play it where it lies, that’s what this games is all about. They are always bending the rules some way or shaving strokes.

The worst part is they don’t think it is cheating, they think it is okay. The Americans need to be more honest because in the long run it will help them and their golf game so much more. I am a perfect example of why this is true. I used to be a typical American and play like everyone else does. I didn’t realize this until one day when my dad caught me cheating when I was a freshman in high school. I would’ve rather got caught cheating by anyone else than my own father. It made me realize how golf is supposed to be played, with etiquette and honesty.

In conclusion I want everyone to realize how different these two cultures act ecause sometimes Americans think we know it all and do everything the right way. I am very thankful for the experience that I was in with my father. It made me realize how everyone around me was just as foolish as I was. Us Americans could learn a lot from the Scottish people. One of my dreams has always been to play golf in Scotland. When I arrived here at Butler I learned that once every four years the golf team takes a summer trip to Scotland to play golf for two weeks. I will definitely make sure that I qualify to go on that trip.

Actions and Effects of Creatine

Throughout time, humans have had a fascination with being excellent at what they do, and athletics have been no exception. Many substances exist, and many have been criticized and analyzed for their safety, legality, and morality for athletes. With the banning of steroids from competitive sports, and the implementation of random drug testing in most sports, most athletes, professional, recreational, and would-be professionals are hoping to gain an edge.

More recently, one such edge has been discovered, and it has found itself in locker rooms across the country, in the hands of these athletes, and all the while, and probably more importantly, in the media’s direct line of fire. Although legal, creatine has it’s proponents and it’s opponents, through this paper, I’ll discuss some of the factors that make creatine such a hot topic in sports and the health industry. To understand why people use creatine, we must first understand what it is. Creatine is a naturally occurring nutrient that is found in the body (Sahelian, 2000).

It is also found in meat and fish, usually at a concentration of about 4 grams of creatine per kilogram (Sahelian, 2000). As a general fact, we consume around 1 gram per day from out daily diet. Vegetarians have a much lower intake of creatine than most meat eaters, and will usually have a noted reaction to creatine supplementation due to this fact (Sahelian, 2000). To apply creatine to the muscle building process, we must understand what it does. When we use our muscle everyday for any activity, we use oxygen to make energy.

This energy is created by breaking down a chemical that exists in our body known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), into another chemical, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), but using oxygen to make energy is a very slow process (Sahelian, 2000). This is the part of the process where creatine makes itself known. Current studies show that creatine supplementation can increase the amount of creatine in muscles, which in turn, speeds up the ATP refueling process (Murphy, 2000). This enhances performance by producing more energy for brief, high-intensity exercise such as sprinting, and allowing for more strenuous workouts (Gutfeld, 1997).

All of these factors are crucial to athletes who are searching for their legal “magic bullet”. Creatine was first discovered by a French scientist in 1832 (Bamberger, 1998). This scientist discovered a naturally occurring organic compound that could be produced by the kidneys, liver, and pancreas. The compound was named “creatine”, the Greek word for flesh (Bamberger, 1998). It has been found that most people consume 1 gram per day, along with naturally producing 1 gram (Bamberger, 1998).

In 1981, the potential medical benefits of creatine were published in the New England Journal of Medicine in, seven years later, two Swedish doctors, Paul Greenhaff, and Eric Hultman, recorded performance-enhancing effects of creatine in athletic subjects, and their results were published in the journal Clinical Science in 1992 (Bamberger, 1998). Most of the current creatine “buzz” surfaced and intensified after the 1992 Olympics when several athletes such as runner/sprinter Michael Johnson, reported using creatine to prepare themselves for the games.

In more current trends, exact numbers regarding athletes who use creatine do not exist, but when Brady Anderson, a professional baseball player and creatine user/endorser began supplementation, he was one of very few who knew about the product, but numbers suggest now that approximately 50% of all NFL players use creatine (Bamberger, 1998). Creatine is most commonly used by athletes of all kinds, namely recreational, high school, college, and the more scrutinized professional athletes. These athletes use creatine because of what creatine supplementation does.

The reliable and valid research studies support the benefits of creatine supplementation. Mainly, that it can have a positive impact on the following aspects, 1) Expediting recovery between workouts, 2) increase the amount of exercise that can be performed during workouts, 3) increase muscle size and strength, 4) improve anaerobic power and endurance, and 5) increase body weight (Arapoff and Riley, 1998). These are all very attractive and positive factors that an athlete would love to be able to attain legally, not compromising their safety with illegal substances such as steroids, but through essentially, natural and relatively safe means.

Luring to some users are reports that results are quick and consistent, along with increased muscle mass, and a prolonged pump during strength training (Sahelian, 2000). Although touted and highly regarded among some professional strength trainers, there are some that are skeptical. For instance, the San Francisco 49er’s, have an estimated three quarters of the team using creatine, while the Tampa Bay Buccaneers strength coach will not allow creatine in the Bucs’ locker room (Bamberger, 1998).

The creatine economy is booming, Experimental and Applied Sciences, have a stranglehold on the creatine market, since they were instrumental in it’s introduction to the sports supplement arena, they have such athletes as Shannon Sharpe as a paid user/endorser in EAS apparel at public appearances, and this is a great way for them to increase exposure and their marketability, along with having a phenomenal skyrocket in sales (Suggs, 1998). There is a simple explanation for the explosion of creatine, it’s effective, legal, in most cases affordable, and it works.

It helps muscles get bigger and stronger faster, which is the basis of the strength-training regimen of some athletes. The IOC or International Olympic Committee has not banned creatine, and actually considers it a food, since it cannot realistically be placed in the same categories of substances such as anabolic steroids, this provided the ruling that it should not be banned (Nutrition Forum, 1999). The form that is most likely and most commonly consumed is that of creatine monohydrate in a white powder form, it comes in a canister or tub, and can be purchased at stores such as General Nutrition Centers (GNC).

A canister of the EAS creatine has a price of roughly $60 (Bamberger, 1998). Creatine is usually ingested in dosages of around 3 to 5 grams per day, and is recommended to be preceded by a loading phase that consists of ingesting up to 20 grams a day of the powder daily for 5 days (Gutfeld, 1997). This ensures that the muscles are efficiently saturated with creatine. After this loading phase, a reduction to the 3-5 gram a day dose, is recommended. Any more than what is recommended will be excreted through the urine. Also, recommendations include ingesting the creatine with a liquid that is high in carbohydrates.

It is believed that the high glycemic index will shuttle creatine into the muscle very quickly, and have a higher absorption rate (Gutfeld, 1997). Also, users and researches alike recommend checking the supplement is of high purity. Most manufacturers will provide a laboratory analysis upon request (Gutfeld, 1997). Some users question, what the best time of day to take creatine is, but reports show that any time of day is acceptable, but most users chose to take it in the time preceding their workout (Sahelian, 2000).

There have been cases of non-responders to creatine, but the reason is not known at this time (Sahelian, 2000). Some reported side effects of creatine include, loose stools, which can occur with relatively small doses such as approximately 4 grams (Sahelian, 2000). Higher doses have side effects such as nausea, upset stomach, dizziness, weakness, and doses in the 20 gram and above category have seen side effects such as kidney damage (Sahelian, 2000).

The reported feelings of dehydration can be diffused by consuming large quantities of water, more than a gallon a day (Bamberger, 1998). The result that is noted as most siginificant is that of weight gain. This can be definitely a negative or positive aspect, considering which sport the athlete is training for. For any sport where bulking up is required creatine would provide an advantage, but any athlete trying to lose or maintain weight will be offset by creatines reported effects.

The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), has issued a statement that although creatine is an effective aid in performance enhancement, there have not been nearly as many field studies as there have been laboratory studies conducted, also, the ACSM notes that the jury is still out on the safety and effectiveness of long term creatine use (Rose, 1998). Since there have been no studies conducted about the long term safety of creatine, it is not currently recommended to supplement for long periods of time, rather cycle creatine use, by stopping or significantly reducing usage for a month’s time (Sahelian, 2000).

Although the long term consequences of creatine are not known at this time, it has, to this point, proven to be safer than any illegal performance-enhancing aid, such as anabolic steroids. Creatine supplemenation through a powder is also a viable way to obtain the amount necessary to provide results. To obtain the recommended dosage through our diet alone, one would have to consume anywhere from 5 to 25 pounds of meat daily (Gutfeld, 1997). Someday, maybe creatine research will conclude that it really is nature’s very own steroid.

The type of skating

Imagine that you’ve just turned 16 and your parents bought you a brand new Mustang. You’re cruising on the street at approximately 25 miles per hour. So maybe you’re not breaking the speed limit, but everyone’s staring. You feel the light breeze through your hair. Then you’re in the air, 12 feet high. Finally, you land on your back and come this (gesture 6 in. ) close to cracking your skull. What happened? You were skating.

As Aaron Spohn, a well respected ramp builder for the National Inline Skate Series, Extreme Games, and many pro inline skaters, said, When you tell someone you are an in-line skater, you automatically assume they envision you sporting a tangerine body suit, waist pack and a pair of wraparound neon sunglasses. S1 Or maybe you see me as one of those with $35. 00 generic skates, moving my arms more than my legs and rolling down the street at a rate of 1 mile per day. This is not the type of skating I am talking about. I’m talking about aggressive inline skating.

Maybe this aforementioned misconception is due to the many aspects of inline skating, and the amount of people involved. About 12. 3 million kids are currently inline skaters. 2 There is a 57. 2% rise in participation in inline skating from last year, compared to basketball, which dropped 4. 9%, and football, which rose only 5. 8%. 3 This is obviously a growing sport, and it’s one that you’re probably already doing. Whether or not you want to do inline aggressive skating, it is one of the best all around sports because it provides benefits to three core areas: physical, social, and mental.

I believe I started inline skating in about seventh grade, and I would have to say I had no life before then. But I guess now, I still don’t have a life because all I do has to do with inline skating and its representation as a sport, which is why I am giving this speech. In the summer I skate every day for 4 or more hours. I have been acquainted with the manager of Team Paradise, a nationally recognized mail order store. I have also helped in the production of CDS Detroit products, made locally in Grosse Pointe.

Today I would like to talk to you, using my personal experience along with knowledge gained from magazines and other sources, about the physical, social and mental benefits of inline skating. One of the more popular ideas is that inline skating doesn’t provide physical training. On that note Physical benefits are found in inline skating. In fact, it has some of the most surprisingly positive benefits any sport can produce, proven by the Henry Ford Heart and Vascular Institute here in Michigan. Inline skating provides cardiovascular fitness, and it is an ideal low-impact strength builder.

How is this? Well, in terms of cardiovascular fitness, skating produces a higher heart rate response than does any other normal activity. 4 So if you were running instead of skating, your heart wouldn’t beat as much while running as if you were skating. Also, there are great fitness benefits that skating provides. If you are 140 lbs. and skate at 18 miles per hour, which is not uncommon, you could burn 600 calories in an hour. Impressive? Not to say the least. The study done at the Ford center also shows that skating in a upright position causes the calorie burning to increase by 10 percent.

In addition, the study shows that the burning of calories increases by a whole 50% when traveling three miles per hour faster than an average pace. 6 So by simply skating fast for an hour, you could burn off one fourth of your daily intake. The idea of low impact training in inline skating is surely a fact. Frank Fedel, who helped in the study at the Ford center, says that sports like running induce impacts of up to six times the body weight on the joints, while inline skating doesn’t have that Pounding.

S7 The skating helps build the knee joint because the low impact nature of the sport allows for the building of the muscles around the knee. Also, acceleration of the joints is brought up to seven times faster than during sports like cycling. Even Frank Andreu, a professional cyclist for the Motorola team, uses inline skating for training and maintaining his fitness level. 8 Skating provides social benefits you wouldn’t imagine. One of them would be acts of kindness of the people you meet. In Box magazine, Andy Kruse describes one of the common things to happen to skaters.

He met a skater, Angie Walton. After having lived in a tent for three months alone, Andy had his bike stolen, so he asked to stay at AngieUs house, and she let him in her backyard. She would have let him in the house, but there were already too many people in the house who she let in without pay. 9 Her kindness is not solitary. Aaron Spohn also allows people to stay in his house for free, and he has three halfpipes in his backyard. Skating is great in that it provides a feeling of social acceptance for those who are not normally accepted, and even those who are.

With 1,200 members in City Rollers, a Detroit based skate group, how hard could it be to meet someone skating? For example, after the death of his grandfather, skater Michael Buechner changed completely. Formerly a great student, he ended up considering suicide. Eventually, he ended up getting Pumped, or tortured, by his gang, and had his house robbed. Finally, he started skating, and now he has changed once again for the good. He recently appeared in a nationwide skating magazine and Roces, the Nike of skate companies, sent him a pair of three-hundred dollar skates for free.

Matt Mantz, who is now fourteen, once was just a normal kid. After skating, he became sponsored and ended up on the Disney channel, in a movie on ABC and on ESPN in the Extreme Games. 11 That type of exposure would have to improve your social and mental state. He now gets respect from hundreds of people years older than him, and he meets more girls than most 14 year olds would ever see in a year. Towards the end of the summer, our local skate group was featured in the newspaper and then featured on the six To clock news. Finally, skaters from other towns would start to skate with us.

We didn’t even know half the people for more than a day, and we seemed like friends for years. Certainly, being featured in a nationally read magazine, on ESPN, or working with hundreds or even several people you don’t know, like becoming a superstar, would have to improve your social status, and your mental state. Perhaps one of the most underestimated benefits of inline skating, particularly aggressive skating, is the mental benefits. As I mentioned before, any of the social benefits would also qualify as mental benefits in that they make for better self esteem.

Aggressive inline skating also gives confidence, and gives experiences to kids that would otherwise never be lived through. In the situation of Mike Buechner, Aaron Spohn says, [he] has something else he didn’t have in abundance before motivation. He is back in school nowIS12 In an interview with Andy Kruse, a K2 and former Team Rollerblade sponsored skater, he speaks of one of the great benefits of inline skating: [There are] no coaches to tell me to do this and that, or to run around the field when I mess up.

My punishment is hitting the pavement, and my reward is self-accomplishment. S13 I also believe in what he says-it is more fun to hit the ground and bruise myself than to go through being yelled at not only by my coach, but also half of my team. In this aspect, skating also helped me. Matty Mantz also has gained confidence through skating, his father says, it’s giving him confidence, focus and helping him to develop as a person. S This despite the fact that he moved, on his own, to California to skate. At last, he’s confident enough to be the 7th top ranked street skater in the world.

Another mental benefit is the rush of inline skating. The adrenaline produced from skating could probably beat that of fighting, traveling across a flat surface to place an object in a goal, sliding on dirt before someone slugs you with a ball, or even putting a ball inside a hoop. Also, nailing the trick that you’ve tried for, possibly, days, gives a feeling and builds confidence unlike doing a routine act such as running across a field. In the following skating video you will see, among other skating effects, the most widely publicized rail slide.

David Kollasch earned the respect of many through this video clip, which was shown on MTV, ESPN, PASS, and featured in several magazines. Later, you can hear the rush; when a skater lands off a handrail, you’ll hear a scream of excitement. You will also see a crash by Brian Smith towards the end. Although I couldn’t put it in the tape, he tries over 5 times afterwards, in trying to get the railslide right, which eventually builds his confidence. It is best put when he says, essentially, That ticked me off. Now I’m gonna do this rail. S Cetus take a look.

AJ Jackson, who grew up in South Central Los Angeles and became a sponsored Bauer skater, puts it well: it’s the most incredible, beautiful sport of all time. You know, football, baseball, hockey, they’re great, but this is an individual relief. 15 Odd to you as it may seem, I had an exhilarating experience this past summer which gave me a great rush. It was when I had been skating from the local park. I was skating among cars, in the driving lane, at about 20 in a 25 speed zone. Then the green light went red. I don’t use a brake, so I ended up going straight through, screaming something I shouldn’t say in school.

After I had passed it, I noticed a police car parked at the gas station at the intersection. But I was never caught. If you ask people in my skate group, you’ll hear stories of them hanging on to backs of semis, and most fun for at least them, being chased by police only to get away through roads cars can’t reach. All these activities produce an adrenaline rush that you can’t get anywhere else. As I mentioned earlier, you can feel a mental rush from skating that can’t be achieved in any other sport, and live through experiences you would otherwise be without.

Along with these mental benefits you can also gain confidence in all you do. Socially, you will meet thousands among thousands of people who have similar interests while skating, as we saw skaters are all courteous to others. Of course, you have also seen the proven physical benefits of skating: the cross-training possibilities, the fact that it burns more calories than running, and its benefits to lower and upper body muscles. For these benefits (mental, physical, and social), inline skating is one of the best all around sports. Skating has changed my life, and I believe it is the best sport ever.

I believe it will become the number one sport in participation if not only in America, but also in the world. There are skaters from Kuwait to Africa, Australia to Alaska and in Singapore and England. It is predicted to be the fastest- growing sport between now and 2001. It is on the National Sporting Goods Association list as one of the 20 top participation sports in America, while it overtakes football and softball. 16 Baseball, skiing, snowboarding, tennis and soccer aren’t even on the list, nor do they provide as many positive overall effects. Hopefully you have seen what skating can do for you in all three ways.

Violence in Sports

Steeler running back Rocky Bleier, whose war time experiences, not so oddly, offer some insights. To Bleier, there are interesting parallels between survival in war and survival in the NFL. The experiences with war injuries and football injuries are quite the same, he said. (Casay) The injuries that are accumulated during sports are rapidly increasing to the point that there are injured players on every team in each game that is played. This is especially true in the most physical professional sports, i. e. NFL and the NHL. Most of these injuries are directly related to the increasing violent nature of pro athletes.

The cost of the aggression — the punishment — has to be greater than the benefits, said Dr. Brenda Bredemeier, sports psychology consultant at the University of California-Berkley. The latest outbreak of violence occurred in Bredemeier’s back yard, Oakland, where (Latrell) Sprewell attacked Coach P. J. Carlesimo during practice and, according to published reports, threatened to kill him if he wasn’t traded. Detroit Press) Pro athletes are committing criminal acts and the law for the most part is letting them get away with crimes. Another case of violence by a pro athlete happened recently.

Ray Lewis was initially charged with murder along with two of his friends for an altercation that happened in Atlanta after the Superbowl on January 31, 2000. The three men got into a fight with two other men and killed them. Lewis pleaded guilty to obstruction of justice and Superior Court Judge Alice D. Bonner sentenced Lewis to 12 months’ probation, the maximum sentence for a first-time offender. (CNNSI) This case made me think to myself, Would a man facing murder charges with two of his friends be able to walk a free man with no jail time at all and still be accepted by society?

Pro athletes receive star status by the public and the media, encouraging law enforcement officials to look the other way whenever they break the law. Our judicial system in turn hands out less severe penalties for criminal offences committed by pro athletes than the average criminal offender. Violence in professional sports is seen in the actions of one player against another, but is now rapidly increasing outside of the games to where the players are now being deemed as criminals as well as athletes and tarnishes their image as role models to kids.

Athletes in pro sports are paid outrageous amounts to play, which gives them more incentive to be violent. Some argue that the athletes deserve these wages. These enormous amounts of money that pro athletes are making are ridiculous. The average earned income in major league baseball is over $800,000 a season(Fizel, 83), and some of these players just sit the bench all year. These high salaries are beneficial in making the athletes more violent. How is it fair that a man that can hit a ball four hundred feet to send a baseball out of the park make $30 million a season?

Barry Bonds is truly a great athlete, but to be paid that much he should be able to hit home runs with his eyes closed. Michael Jordan is the greatest man to ever walk across the hard wood floors of professional basketball, but to be paid $63 million in one season is almost sickening. Football players arent any better but are a little different when it comes to why they are paid so much. They have a lot more at stake when they go out on to the field to do battle.

They have to consider the possibility of getting injured at any time because of the violent nature of the sport. They are paid to be big, mean, fast, and ruthless out on the field against men just as big and ruthless as themselves. Kevin Green, a defensive linebacker said It is true that we are getting paid outrageous amount for what we do out on the turf, but we are the most likely to get hurt in all professional sports. We want to make sure we get what we need before we get out of the league. OHara, 12) That is the typical mindset of pro football players.

The signification of the relation between violence in pro sports and the money the athletes make is summed up in this quote: The economic incentive to win forces players to develop a win at all cost attitude. Players no longer play simply for the love of the game, but rather play for the tremendous amount of wealth that can be attained by winning. (Rowe) The fans of professional sports are expecting more from the players, and when they feel that the performance from their team is inadequate, they get violent. Most people know of the incidents that occur from European and South American soccer games.

The fans of these soccer games have fights regularly over arguments that are provoked from one team winning and one team losing. There have also been cases as extreme as death for another fan or even a player. on May 29, 1985 when two fans turned an argument into a full scale riot, as the Italian fans tried to storm the English stands in the process they knocked down a cement wall killing 39 people. In result of this some teams had to ban their own fans from attending the home games. (Hazleton) Violent fans happen in any sport, not just soccer.

The National Hockey League (NHL) had an unfortunate event in the early 1990s. Take for example, the Montreal Canadians, who had just won the National Hockey League championship after their June 7 Stanley Cup final victory over the Los Angles Kings. Almost immediately after the game, a rampage started in the streets of Montreal. For over two hours, people were turning over cars, setting fires, and smashing store windows with big stones. The damage was estimated at about $10 million. (McGurgan) Drinking is an activity that provokes the fans to act in a violent nature.

There is a new crackdown on drinking at Wrigley Field, the home of the Chicago Cubs. They have beefed up security to keep people in the cheap seats from moving into the lower box seats. Season-ticket holders will be responsible for the actions of anyone using their seats. But the biggest changes are in beer sales. The Cubs will reduce the number of beer vendors by 10 percent; make them stop selling in the middle of the sixth inning, a half-inning earlier than before; and allow vendors to stock up only halfway for their final trip through the stands.

It is all, as the letter says, because the poor decision of one fan resulted in an event that was embarrassing for all of us. “(Chicago Times) The incident that the reporter was talking about was that of a Chicago Cub fan that took the hat from Chad Kreuter, when his Los Angeles Dodgers were playing against the Cubs. Ron Camacho, one of three men arrested for disorderly conduct during last week’s fight at the Cubs-Dodgers game, has filed a lawsuit against both teams seeking more than $400,000.

Chad Kreuter and other Dodgers jumped into the seats and “strangled, punched, slapped, pushed and kicked Mr. Camacho,” the suit says, injuring his neck, arms, torso and face and causing him severe pain and suffering and emotional distress. (Chicago Times) This event may or may not have been prevented by the selling of alcoholic beverages, but it does portray the violent nature of the pro athletes and the fans of pro sports. These crazed fans need to stop their violent nature before more people are injured and killed.

Society has a lasting effect on how professional sports should be played, and the general attitude is the acceptance of violence because the pro sports generate too much money to do without it. Violence and pro sports have coexisted for a long time. Violence occurs by the athletes while they are playing their sport and off the field as well. One such incident on the field occurred in the NFL in 1977. The Cincinnati Bengals were playing the Denver Broncos, and a player from Denver struck a player from Cincinnati in the back of the neck.

Mr. Hackbart later felt great pain and, after seeing a doctor, learned that he had a serious neck fracture. In Hackbart vs. Cincinnati, the trial court ruled that intentional injuries incurred during a game should be outside the framework of the law. (Rowe) With the increase in society taking a stand against violence, pro sports have become an area where some feel that the violent acts such as the hitting and fighting that occurs should be eliminated.

Most people in our society, however, believe that you cannot change something that has been around for so long because it would change the aspect of the game to something completely different. The reasons that the violence is occurring in sports are due to six theories according to John Schneider. “The violence in sport mirrors the violence found in society, violence as the result of economic incentives, the influence of crowd behavior on player violence, genetic causation for player aggression, learning theory and player aggression, and psychological stress and player violence” (Lapchick 230).

The theories of sport mirroring society, violence as a result of economic incentive, and the influence of the crowd behavior are the theories that I feel are responsible for the increasing violence in sports. In events such as hockey games, where people are expected to hit and make body contact, sooner or later a fight will break out and the fans will yell and scream for their favorite player involved. If people around us are applauding us for a certain act we have done, we will try to do it over so that we will continue to be praised.

In sports, there are some players whose only role on the team is to protect and enforce the unwritten rules of the game such as in hockey where it is not right to fight or hit a Wayne Gretzky type of star player. His economic incentive is to protect the team and if he does not, a new line of work might be in the future. All three of those theories relate closely to the role of the fighter in sport and why it is that he does commit the acts of violence. When the NFL or the NHL are asked to try and remove the violence from their sport, they are hesitant because it is not what the fans want.

Bryant and Zillman report that television viewers enjoy NFL plays more when they are rough and violent” (McPherson 294). We tolerate it and we bring it under disciplinary control, which we believe satisfies the public (Snyder 201). A part of society that should hold a lot of the blame for this acceptance of violence in pro sports is the media. Whenever Sportscenter comes on ESPN it always glorifies an act of violence such as the “hit of the night” or repeats of some type of fight whether it be in hockey, boxing or a bench-clearing brawl in baseball.

When you can only fit approximately “17,000 people” into a Las Vegas boxing arena, the money is not made at the gate (Lunney 39). The general consensus is that sports violence is reflective to the violence that happens in our society. Professional athletes have a tremendous amount of determination and competitiveness about them that is rarely seen anywhere else, but they are becoming less and less of role models because of their violent nature while they are playing their sport and the crimes that are being committed away from the sport.

The high salaries, involvement of fans, and society are three theories as to why athletes are prone to act in such a violent way. The high salaries that athletes make is what drives them to violently play their sport, because they are rewarded most of the time for this style of play. The fans of professional sports cheer on their teams, especially when they see a player or players get injured from the opponents team. Society has come to accept the fact that violence in pro sports will never decease because of the revenue that is involved in the games.

These facts are all sad but true, and the people in our society that are going to suffer the most from the violence are the kids. Since most pro athletes are deemed as role models, kids who see them on TV are going to think that there actions are okay to follow by, regardless if it is a basketball player throwing a punch or a baseball player charging the pitcher. Pro athletes, fans, and society need to all evaluate themselves and try to make a change for the better that decreases the violence.

Influenced Michael Jordan to Become the Player and Person He is Today

Well everyone has theyre own opinion about Michael Jordan, but one thing is certain, he is a phenomenal athlete with a unique combination of grace, power, artistry and the improvisational ability. He is not only the top player of his Era, but is quite possibly the best player to wear the uniform of a NBA team. He is the most recognizable athlete in the world and is believed to be the best there ever was, is, or ever will be. (NBA. com) A person to this magnitude has obviously a success, being able to have a family of his own and, knowing that there are thousands of people looking up to him, and being many peoples idol.

To be able to stand the pressure of being a national symbol of greatness, you have to have a driving force. This driving force has been known to be the edge a lot of people have needed to make it over. Michael Jordans family helped him to fight and become one of the most influential, successful, and professional sports figures ever. Body Michael Jeffrey Jordan was born on February 17, 1963, in Brooklyn, NY, to a proud Deloris and James Jordan. (Nba. com; BioLife. com) Now this very first point may seem like no big deal but its something in itself. Jordan almost wasnt born.

In 1963, when Deloris was carrying Mike her mother died unexpectedly causing her to fall into a deep depression and stress period. Fearing a miscarriage the family doctor ordered her to bed rest. (Greene 12; NBA. com) “I Davis 3 always said that Michaels birth was like a sign. I lost my mother while I was carrying Michael, and he was my godsend. Michael was the happiness he sent me after a very sad time in my life. ” Deloris (qtd. In Halberstam 48) “The near miscarriage was very bad. ” James (qtd. in Halberstam 49) Michael the Jordans 4th child lived in a pretty much average ouse, which was on the lower end of the economic pool.

When Mike was 2 he had a really close brush with death. James (Mikes father) was outside tuning up his car at his parents house. The ground was still soaked from the earlier downpour. Two extension cords let him stretch a lamp from the kitchen outlet to under the hood of his car. During his labor he saw something out of the corner of his eye. Mike had escaped his playpen and, was on his way to make it a father- son- project. James ran towards him bit it was too late. Mike walked right into the junction of the wires and began playing with them.

A sudden surge of current sent him flying back about 3 feet, where he landed in too much shock to cry. (Greats of the Game. com; BioLife. com) James put a net up in the backyard and the boys played all the time. Michaels older brother Larry always beat him. Growing up Mikes favorite sport was baseball, and he was quite good too! He was the MVP of Dixie League and received a scholarship to Mickey Owen Baseball Camp. Michael got better at basketball and, decided to try out for the Varsity Laney High Basketball Team but, wasnt good enough as a sophomore.

Jordan, as sophomore, played on JV and, averaged 27. 8 PPG. Jordan after junior year was Davis 4 invited to play at the 5-star Camp where colleges recruited. MJ won 10 trophies including 2 MVPs. The University of North Carolina recruited Jordan. Dean Smith the winningest coach in NCAA basketball history coached Mike. (Greene 52; Halberstam 27, BioLife. com) Most people thought that Mike would come and sit the bench. They were startled when they found out he was a season opener starter. (NBA. com) Mike had a great time playing for UNC, and his nest move was to become eligible for the NBA draft.

Mike was 3rd pick behind Hakeem Olajuwon (Houston) and Sam Bowie (Portland) (GreatsoftheGame. com) MJ of course, was drafted by the Chicago Bulls. He was playing there and doing well. Bringing home all types of titles, championships, and MVPs. Then suddenly everything changed. On July 23, 1993, James Jordan was taking a rest in his car, when he woke up and saw a gun pointed to his head. He was shot in what was called a random robbery. JORDAN LOST HIS BEST FRIEND! Later on October 6, of that same year, Jordan shocked friends and fans by announcing his retirement from the NBA.

During this he claimed that his reasons were not because of his fathers death but, more because he had nothing to prove anymore. He felt he needed to be with his family. This move right here should show more than anything that Jordans concerned with his family before anything else. With all the fame and fortune that basketball had and was givng Mike he decided to give it all up at the expense of his family. His next move was even more stunning, Major League Baseball. Mike signed a contract with the Davis 5 Chicago White Sox in 1994.

When MJ was still in the Majors he played in the Scottie Pippen Charity Game where he scored 52 points. Soon rumors began that Mike would be returning to the game of basketball. On March 19, 1995 those rumors proved true and Mike come out of retirement. In his 5th game back he scored 55 points. Jordan definately still had it. He also led his team to a second 3-peat. (three championships in a row) Jordan retired for good with 6 NBA finals MVPs. (BioLife. com) Conclusion Michael, the “perfect” player still needs his family. Mikes story goes to show that family is important.

Whether you family is your biological parents or parent, step parents or parent, grandparents, sisters or brothers, aunts or uncles, or you adopted or foster parents or parent, they are still your family. Family is a vital part of life, and love even more vital. One thing if you dont see anything else, see not to take advantage or take your family for granted because one day they may not be here. Dont forget about the people who made you who you are. Never get so full of yourself that you only care about what you do. Basketball is what Mike does, Michael Jordan is who he is.

Body Image Essay

It is found that women are not the only one’s dissatisfied with their appearance. A growing number of men among society are increasingly concerned with body image. Studies have found that dissatisfaction with body image among men is on the rise. Many male students are facing eating disorders in order to keep up with societies perfect body image. We see disorders, such as “dysmorphia” reaching a high point within the male population. Dysmorphia focuses on a “obsessional preoccupation” (p. ) of ones body image.

A patient suffering from this type of disorder would see a part of the body as “ugly”. In males a certain type called muscle dysmorphia, is seen, that has come of great concern. Muscle dysmorphia is induced by an obsessive-compulsive image of ones muscle tone. With this type of disorder, one might go to great lengths to fit the image they are looking for. Going to these lengths often causes harms to the body creating damage physically and mentally (e. g. one will take steroids).

When looking for answers to why this occurs research points at “magazines, motion pictures, toys and other media. The article gave insight to how action toys have played a part in creating negative body image. In the study, toys such as G. I. Joe figures, Star War and Star Trek characters, Superman, Spiderman, and Batman were studied, examining the evolution of the action figures throughout the years (from around the 60’s to the 90’s). Measurements were taken of the figures waist, chest, and biceps, showing the change in muscle tone over time.

The concern is that action toys present ideal body image setting an example that you must look like a superhuman body builder. The images portrayed exceed the level of muscle tone that can safely be achieved. These extreme measures are dangerous causing many to not eat right and take drugs. Males find that looking this way is the only way to fit within society. Although getting to this level is unsafe, the consequences are often overlooked. The GI Joe toy, when first introduced measured eleven and a half inches and although changed in 1973 to 1976, kept a reasonably life like body.

A new figure was put out discontinuing the eleven and a half-inch figure, by a series of three and three fourths inched figure in 1982. Ten years later a four and a half-inch action figure came out followed by a five inch during 1995. As the year passed the difference in the actions toys varied, since now they were more muscular. The toys were supposed to demonstrate more powerful behavior now that they were larger. This gives young boys the notion that in order to feel any sense of control you must be larger then others. The GI Joe figure has not only grown bigger but also more muscularly defined.

GI Joe, “for example, the earliest figure has no visible abdominal muscle: his 1975 counterpart shows some abdominal definition; and the 1994 figure displays the sharply rippled abdominals of an advanced bodybuilder”(p. 67). The bodybuilder image has replaced the life like body causing many to feel inferior if they do not fit this image. “The G. I. Joe Extreme would sport larger biceps than any bodybuilder in history. While early G. I. Joe figures may have resembled a little boy’s father, or older brother, present figures depict a physique, which is virtually unattainable by the human body.

The same discovery was made with Luke Skywalker and Hans Solo (Star Wars). These plastic figures are supposed to seem strong and powerful. The image being projected is that muscle makes you tougher; ordinary human bodies are not good enough, and apparently, Arnold Schwartzenegger is a little bit too puny as well. . “Luke and Hans have both acquired the physiques of bodybuilders over the last 20 years, with impressive gains in the shoulder and chest area”(p. 69). Although one can not be sure that young boys will be affected by playing with these toys, it can be observed that a change in society has occurred.

Sports Ethics Essay

Vince Lombardi, most likely the best coach to ever lead a team to victory or multiple ones on a football field. His ethics sometimes questionable, but never misunderstood, were always meant to lead and encourage his team to be nothing but the best, and the best was achieved in 1967. After nine incredible winning seasons with the Green Bay Packers, Lombardi decided to retire as head coach. The Packers had dominated professional football under his direction, collecting six division titles, five NFL championships, two Super Bowls and acquiring a record of 98-30-4.

After less than a year, however, he realized that he still wanted to coach. He accepted the head coaching position for the Washington Redskins in 1969. During that season, he kept what had become the Lombardi tradition and led the Redskins to their first winning record in 14 years. In January of 1970, his professional coaching record stood at a remarkable 105-35-6, and the NFL named him their acclaimed “1960s Man of the Decade. ”

His statement that “winning is the only thing that matters in sport”, is one of the truths that is still inherent in today’s world of sports. Athletes are willing to cheat to guarantee success, either through the use of performance-enhancing drugs, or through the act of injuring others. These days, drugs, blood doping, corruption, injuring others and the consequences of winning and more importantly losing is all evident. Lombardi’s statement is not only applicable to athletes, but it also applies to the countries that the athletes are representing.

Events such as the Olympics and the World Cup of Hockey, are a source of national pride and some countries are willing, and fully wanting to try and do anything to bring prestige back, many of them resorting to unethical tactics. Lombardi’s statement does not only affect players, or athletes, it also affects coaches, owners, and managers. They too place winning as their number one concern. In many cases, fair play generally takes a back seat to the desire for winning. The truth of the matter is that, some will bend rules, while others will outright cheat.

The corruptness of sports today has lead to the endless methods and desires of unethical behaviour. In the history of ethics there are three principal standards of conduct, each of which has been proposed as the highest good: happiness or pleasure; duty, virtue, or obligation; and perfection, the fullest harmonious development of human potential. When applied to sports, and especially with Vince Lombardi, the third principle standard of conduct, is the most evident, and it will be evident throughout the essay. Other ethical issues that come into the picture is Kant’s.

No matter how intelligently one acts, the results of human actions are subject to accident and circumstance; therefore, the morality of an act must not be judged by its consequence, but only by its motivation. If sports were motivated by Kant’s theory, then winning would not be as important, but the success of participating, and being part of a team, would be the successful outcome. Another ethical theory that comes to play is Bentham’s. He explained the principle of utility as a means of augmenting the happiness of the community.

He believed that all human actions are motivated by a desire to obtain pleasure and avoid pain. Utilitarianism is the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people. When analysing this, there are two aspects you can use to analyse this when looking at it from a sports point of view. If we use the greatest amount of people, we can use it as society, where Lombardi’s speech does not benefit the whole, but if we look at it in the context of the greatest good for the team, then his speech definitely is appropriate.

Getting back to the methods used by people to win, and get an advantage, we will see what people and organizations, and even countries are willing to do to accomplish a victory. Winning is a very important thing not only to the athletes, but it is very important to their countries as well. In the early 1960s drugs were used more frequently among the communist nations who wanted to enhance their national prestige through sports. Certain Countries, such as China and East Germany have been guilty of abusing such practices.

The glory of winning a gold medal and what follows is more important to them than anything else. It is one of the major influences behind drug use in sports. A major concern for new athletes representing their countries is not simply about the satisfaction of winning but the rewards of success. The rewards are staggering, as the dollar volume being showered on winners is second to none. The figures have become so mind-boggling that the interests of people involved in this lucrative business is no longer centred around ethical and health-related concerns.

Some athletes are willing to give up most of what they have worked for their entire lives in order to win a gold medal. Not only do some use performance-enhancing drugs to help break records or win gold medals, but blood doping is another example in which athletes attempt to improve performance. Drug related scandals are some of the major concerns with the Olympics. Drug testing was introduced at the Olympics in 1967, when at the 1960 Olympics in Rome, Swedish cyclist Knut Jensen took compound drugs to compete in the road race during which he collapsed and died.

This incident shocked the international sports world and the International Olympic Committee established a mandatory dope test for all Olympic athletes in 1967. In 1988 a Canadian shameful Ben Johnson was caught using steroids and had his gold medal stripped from him. Over the years many people have been caught for drug use. These athletes involved range from long-distance runners, weight lifters, and swimmers. In the 1983 Summer Pan American games several gold medal winners were also disqualified for the use of performance-enhancing drugs. The need to win makes athletes do almost anything to find the extra bit that could make the difference.

Many techniques are introduced and employed by athletes in order to gain that advantage in their respective fields. Some athletes try to increase the effectiveness of the drugs by combining them into several combinations. One problem with drug tests is that athletes continue to find new ways in beating the tests. Some of them are now trying to mask their drug use with other drugs that will help them pass. Also, some athletes who use steroids months before the games, discontinue their usage a few months before they will be tested and then resume once again after the testing is over.

This allows them the possibility of not being caught, with the overall goal of gaining an edge on the competition to achieve fame and glory. Other ways athletes seek an unfair advantage without running the risk of failing the drug tests is through a process known as blood doping. Blood is removed from the athlete’s system and then frozen and stored. Over the next several weeks, the athlete’s body makes more red blood cells and returns the athlete’s blood volume to normal. Just before competition, the stored blood is given back to the athlete.

The athlete’s blood now contains an above normal number of blood cells. This increased number of blood cells allows the athlete to perform with greater endurance. Although blood boosting can improve athletic performance, it is an extremely dangerous practice. Athletes who do this have an unfair and unnatural advantage over athletes who do not. It is not in the spirit of fair sports competition, but these athletes are more concerned with winning than sportsmanship or their health. The Olympics have had a history of corrupt judges, from the recent figure skating scandal to the countless years back.

In the Seoul Olympics, all Olympic judges and referees were given everything they wanted in exchange for gold medals. The Russian and Korean boxing judges conspired to keep the Americans from winning gold medals. The American IBF super middleweight champion of the world, Roy Jones, was “robbed” in a fight with Korea’s Park Si-Hun. Jones out-boxed Park, landing more punches than park by a count of eighty-six to thirty-two. The Koreans watching the fight were outraged by this decision and Park himself felt that Jones had beaten him.

In another fight between Lennox Lewis and American Riddick Bowe, the referee interfered with the match when Lewis started getting tired and disrupting Bowe’s concentration, robbing the Americans of another medal. This makes it apparent that it is not only important for athletes to win, but Countries need the status of being a winner as well, no matter how obvious their cheats are. Coaches, players, owners and managers also place a high value on winning. Coaches are seen as being good or bad based on their records.

Those with a winning record are seen as being the good coaches which in turn are the ones who are usually hired by organizations. Those who have losing records for the teams, are usually looked upon as scapegoats, and are fired and replaced. To win a coach might bend the rules. They place gamesmanship above sportsmanship and try to stretch the rules as far as they can. Some see the rules as being the only definition of what is right or wrong and if the situation is not included in the rule book, then that means that its fair to exploit.

For example, in 1932, the rules didn’t dictate what a uniform could look like, except that the number had to be on the back of the jersey, and that is when Paul Brown came up with a strategy to help his team. He cut footballs in half and sewed one half in front of the jersey. While this may seem like good strategy, Brown’s desire to win made him resort to unethical tactics that would seem to be less then honourable as we all know, there are other ways to improve a team’s play. Coaches aren’t the only ones placing a value on winning. Players are placing a great deal of value on winning as well.

These days, playing for the love of the game appears non-existent. Athletes are now competing to make million dollar contracts. Star players on a team are usually paid the most as they are seen to be the reason for a team’s success or a pillar to build the team around. The top players in the major leagues of sports, NHL, NBA, MLB, etc. have multi-million dollar contracts. Players such as Alexi Yashin and Michael Peca have held out on their contracts as they feel that they are underpaid. Last season, John Leclair went to arbitration and received a one-year, $7 million contract.

As athletes grow in popularity, they may also make more money through various things such as endorsements. Player agents are hired on their behalf to negotiate these contracts and endorsements as they try to seek out as much money as possible and increasing their client’s public exposure. Out of the three groups mentioned, owners and managers place the most emphasis on winning. They are responsible for the overall success of their teams. They are responsible for making decisions such as the hiring and firing of coaches and the trading of players.

Teams that are not seen to be competitive try to build their team for the future by acquiring young talent, draft picks, or players that they try to build their teams around. Owners with a competitive team try to make their team more competitive by making key acquisitions through free agency or during the trade deadline. They do all this in hopes of winning the championships, and attracting more fans so that they will make more money. Through all their dealings, winning and making money is the major goal of owners and managers.

To win at a competition, people have participated in injuring others in order to boost their chances of success. An event that occurred prior to the 1994 Winter Olympics is one such example in where this occurs. On January 6th, U. S. national figure skating champion Nancy Kerrigan was attacked by a man who hit her on the outside of the right knee with a blunt object. Kerrigan was expected to be a favourite to win the gold medal at the Olympic Games. Two of the people who planned and executed the attack would eventually turn out to be Tonya Harding’s ex-husband and her bodyguard.

They both testified that Harding had knowledge of the attack, which she at first denied and then later admitted to. Kerrigan’s right knee was targeted for the attack because it was her landing leg for jumps. Harding would go on to win the Olympic trials, in which Kerrigan did not participate. To plan an attack on a fellow competitor, further demonstrates the lack of sportsmanship and the importance that people place on winning. Another example can be shown in the 1972 Canada and Soviet Union Summit Series.

Canada’s victory in game 8 of the series over the Russians would be marred by an incident with Bobby Clarke. In game 7, Bobby Clarke viciously slashed Russia’s star player, Valeri Kharlamov, which resulted in a broken ankle. Canada would go on to win game 7 and game 8. It was later revealed that Team Canada assistant coach John Ferguson told Clarke to do it. Whether Canada would have been able to accomplish defeating the Russians in game 7 and game 8 had Kharlamov been at a 100%, is very questionable, but what it goes to show is the importance that Ferguson and Clarke had placed on winning.

Ferguson giving the order and by Clarke’s actions in carrying out of the order shows how much they valued and how important winning was to them. To win a series that many had expected to be a blow-out, Clarke willingly compromised the integrity of Canada’s victory and forever tainted it. In conclusion, through the actions of athletes, coaches, owners and managers, and the actions of countries or by the people on behalf of their country, winning is shown to be the top priority when competing. Athletes will bend rules and sometimes cheat if they need to, to secure a win.

There are different motivations for wanting to win. Athletes who play on teams do it for money. Coaches want to win because it shows that they are competent and successful. Owners and managers also want to win as it also brings them more money. Countries want to win for prestige and bragging rights. Athletes who perform at the international level want to win as it gets them fame and fortune. While there may be many different reasons for wanting to win, it is known that without a doubt the need to win is very important to all that participate in the world of sports today.

Babe Ruth – American hero

Babe Ruth is an American hero. He transformed baseball from a sport, to a national pastime when it needed it the most. Coming off of the wake of the Black Socks scandal, baseball was headed downhill. It had a bad reputation, and interest was waning. The dead-ball era was dragging on, and there were to few baseball “purists” left to support it. Baseball was in search of a new audience, and Babe Ruth handed it to them on a silver platter. Babe Ruth started the Home run era of baseball. In the dead-ball scores of 2-1 1-0 was the norm.

With the advent of the Home run era, games that averaged 1-2 runs an inning were common. What once took a couple hits, walks, and a stolen base to accomplish were being done with the single swing of a bat. Baseball was now much more enjoyable to watch. Then with the invention of the radio, millions of people enjoyed listening to it. George Herman Ruth was born in the early 1890’s to a couple of German immigrants who ran a local bar. His parents had there hand’s full with the bar, and had very little time to tend to young George.

His trouble making, and lack of time on his parents part eventually landed him in St. Mary’s Boys school. It was here that he met the man who Babe claimed to be the greatest man who ever ived, Brother Mathias. Brother Mathias was the one who handed Babe his punishments, and it was Babe who always touted his strong, yet caring hand that led him to baseball. It was also at St. Mary’s that Babe started his life of giving. He would save up his money from his job in the Tailor shop and often spend it on large amounts of candy to give away to the little boys at St.

Mary who were poor, or orphans. Brother Mathias was the one who introduced Babe to baseball, as a recreational game to play during the spring. It wasn’t long until Babe was the only 13 year old playing on the 16 years and older team. First as a catcher, then later as a Pitcher. It was here that he first established a prowess for hitting. His long home runs would leave local audiences speechless. It was his pitching, however that landed him his first professional job. Jack Dunn of the then minor league Baltimore Orioles signed him at the young age of 17.

He played a few years for the Orioles, until Dunn sold him to the Boston Red Sox. Babe pitched well, finally breaking into the Red Sox starting rotation in 1918. Then the Red Sox ran into some hard luck, and in search of money sold him for the then huge amount of money, 125,000. It is often said that New York and Babe Ruth were made for one another, and by the way Babe took New York by storm, it is hard to dispute the saying. He took an instant liking to the big city, enjoying bars, dance clubs and people in general.

It was in New York that Babe started the long ball game. In the early twenty’s Babe’s home run totals usually eclipsed that of any other TEAM in baseball. After a few years however, people began to pattern there swing after babe, and pretty soon each team had their own home run experts. The boom in run scoring also equated to a boom in attendance and revenue. It wasn’t long until Babe started to cash in on this, with his salary soon surpassing that of then President Grover Cleveland. In a Characteristic Ruth remark, Babe Responded “Why not I had a better year than him! When asked by a reporter if he should be making more money than the president.

Babe’s way of life was Characteristic of the time period, The Free willing 20’s. Babe frequented speakeasies (a place to get illegal alcohol during the prohibition. He was often at odds with his teams manager, owner, and even police. This was Characteristic of the Rebellious 20’s. He would often weasel is way out of speeding tickets by offering a signed baseball if the officer let him go. The Yankee’s owner was often reluctant to suspend Ruth, knowing the negative effect it would have on his team’s performance.

In this particular Biography, the author’s intent is to provide the most detailed, in depth Biography on Ruth ever. That he does, in masterful accounts of Babe’s most heroic Games, and World series. Even his personal life is told in great detail and accuracy. Controversies such as Babe’s actual date of birth are presented, debated, then concluded with the authors opinion. I choose this book because I am fascinated by Babe Ruth. I have read many biographies on him, and this is by far the most in depth and detailed. I really admire Babe’s love for life, and people.

He gave to those less fortunate, and did everything in his power to make sure he enjoyed his life to the fullest. Sometimes that meant bending a few rules, and even laws, but Babe realized you only get one crack at life, and he made it worth it. In all the biographies I have read before, I did not know Babe made an unsuccessful bid to be a manager. It was details like this, and many more that made this book very interesting. This book didn’t really change my view on Babe, t just broadened my horizon as to the many aspects of his life and career in the major leagues.

I would not however recommend this book to someone just looking to learn a little about this American icon. There are many books that would do this in far fewer pages, and most would probably consider this book boring with it’s many little story’s it delves into with great detail. However for the baseball enthusiast who has time on his hands, or for someone who just can’t get enough of Babe Ruth; I strongly recommend this book as the most informative piece of work on the Greatest Baseball Player to have walked the earth, George Herman (Babe) Ruth.

Sport Psychology Essay

To fully understand sport psychology, we must ask ourselves two very important questions, first, what is sport psychology and second, who is it for? Put in the most sim-ple way, sport psychology can be an example of psychological knowledge, principles, or methods applied to the world of sport. “Two psychologists, Bunker and Maguire, say sport psychology is not for psychologists, but is for sport and its participants. (Murphy & White, 1978:2)

However, it can be argued that sport psychology, can be for psycho-logy, just as it can be for sports scientists, managers, teachers, administrators, coaches nd last but by no means least, the athletes themselves. It is sport psychology that has stood apart from the discipline of psychology as a whole. “Its history is different, its concerns are often different, its centres of learning and teaching are often different, and its professional training is different. (Garfield, 1984:34)

Yet despite this, sport psychology remains permanently bonded to psychology through its common interest in the fundamental principles of psychology, human behavior, and experience. No one can deny the significant role which sport and recreation plays in very cul-ture and society across the globe. In the western and eastern worlds alike, sport and lei-sure continue to support huge industries and take up massive amounts of individual time, effort, money, energy, and emotion.

Within the media, competitive sport has gotten enor-mous attention and despite this, the public’s appetite for more sport never is stated. “It has been estimated that around two thirds of all newspaper readers in Great Britain first turn to the sports pages when they pick up their daily paper. ” (Butt, 1987:65) When one con-siders the number of people who actually engage in sport or even take egular exercise, then the significance of sport to all our lives cannot be denied. A common problem with sport psychology research lies in its somewhat myopic or short-sighted appreciation of present day accumulated psychological knowledge.

As we look into sport psychology, we are confronted by a landscape of knowledge which rises and falls often suddenly and dramatically. “At certain times, massive peaks of understand-ing rise up before out eyes yet at other times, huge tracts of psychology remain untouched to the horizon. ” (Garfield, 1984:6) Around the 1960’s, scientific traditions, institutions, and publications hich pros-per to this day first came into being, and it was this era which truly marked the structural genesis of modern day sport psychology. However, there are many untouched aspects of sport psychology today.

In order for us to determine whether psychology plays a signi-ficant role in the mind of a young athlete, we must look at the uses and techniques of sport psychology. Sport psychologists over the years have maintained a keen interest in psychological profiling and have been naturally drawn to the quantification of personality variables. As sport itself revolves aroung the measurement and eward of individual differences in per-formances, it is no surprise that scientists quantify psychological differences rather than sporting differences.

The research is often looked at in terms of three primary areas, the search for the winning profile, a comparison between athletes and non-athletes, and diffe -ences in the personalities of athletes either competing in different sports or playing in different positions. ” (Butt, 1987:97) Any discussion of personality traits in sports could not ignore one particular trait which has occupied more time than any other, competitive anxiety. Helping athletes deal with pressure has become the bread and butter of many sport psychologists.

The prob-lem of anxiety is dealt with with two areas of research: test anxiety and achievement moti-vation. ” (Hackfort & Spielberger, 1989:247) Presently, the test scale which enjoys the greatest popularity is the second version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory or CSAI-2. It is this test that psychologists measure the level of anxiety of an athlete. It consists of questions in which each have four levels of severity with four being the highest level. The CSAI-2 has been the basis for many other odern day anxiety questionaires.

There remain so many fundamental questions which have yet to be resolved that attempts to quantify concepts such as anxiety, when we are still not sure just what this term actually means, can seem rather premature at times, but the development of research instruments has nevertheless proceeded rapidly. ” (Wolff, 1993:22) Achievement motivation, competitiveness, and self-confidence together with competition anxiety seem to form the cluster of core psychological constructs which would seem to be most relevent to our understanding of sport erformance.

With regard to achievement motivation and competitiveness, recent advances have been predicated upon the interest originally stimulated by the Atkinson model of achievement motivation. “Atkinson’s nAch or the need to achieve was taken to be a composite of two independent factors, the motive to achieve success (M ) and the motive to avoid failure (M ), mediated by the probability of success (P ) and the incentive value of success (1-P ). ” (Hackfort & Spielberger, 1989:251) This relationship is represented by the following formula. nAch = (M – M ) x (P x [ 1- P ] )

Without exploring the subtleties of this model in any depth, the single most impor-tant message to come through is that high achievers will be drawn towards competition and difficult yet realizable challenges. Low achievers will try to avoid personal challenges or set unattainable goals where failure is a high probability. “In terms of applied sport psy-chology, this motivational model can often be very revealing of problems, particularly those afflicting young athletes. ” (Hackfort & Spielberger, 1989:252) There are some methods of sport psychology that deal with cognitive psychology.

Traditional behavior modification techniques seek to change behavior by amending the en-vironment in systematic ways. However, there have been claims that it is not the environ-mental events themselves which are of primary importance in behavior change but the individual’s perception of those events. “Cognitive coping strategies may be amended by conventional behaviour modification but involvement of the individual in expressing his or her own thoughts and feelings has been held to increase the efficacy of treatment. (Mar-tens, 1981:57) Meichenbaum’s Stress-Inoculation Training (SIT) is one of range of stress management packages advocated as useful to coaches and athletes for reducing stress and enhancing performance.

Other popular programs include Smith’s Cognitive-Affective Stress Management or SMT and Suinn’s program of Anxiety Management Training or AMT. “SIT and SMT have been adapted or developed specifically for use in sport and both outline essentially the same four stage process. (Smith, 1983:139) The first stage of the SIT or SMT is the educational phase during which athletes explore the stress reaction itself, including antecedents of stress, nature of stressors, and own reactions and consequences of action. The next stage is an introduction to coping skills for handling stress which include relaxation training and the use of cognitive skills to prepare for stress.

The next phase is the practice phase. “SIT encourages supervised practice in coping in increasingly stressful situations, e. . , practice, game-like practice, and games and SMT introduces an induced affect as a major factor: the athlete imagines dis-tressing situations which generate high levels of emotional arousal and use coping skills. ” (Smith, 1983:141) The final stage is an evaluation component which is included to assess the effectiveness of the rogram in meeting individual needs. Another method of cognitive sport psychology is imagery and visualization.

Many self-help manuals for coaches and athletes currently advocate the use of imagery for a wide variety of purposes including skill acquisition, skill maintenance, competition prepar-ation, and arousal control. “Empirical investigations of imagery have tended to focus on the role of mental practice in skill acquisition, the role of imagery as a pre-competition cognitive psyching-up strategy and comparisons in the use of imagery by successful and unsuccessful athletes. ” (Murphy & White, 1978:14) A number of hese studies also ex-plore the various variables thought to mediate imagery effects.

Studies have shown that more successful athletes have used imagery than unsuccessful athletes. However, despite these apparently supportive findings, the recent research has not been without criticism. In particular much of the work conducted within sport psychology as been accused of be-ing methodologically flawed and lacking a coherent theoretical framework to explain imagery effects. Although suggestions for improvement in both these areas have been made, research efforts ironically have tended to lag behind actual ractice of interventions and practical guidelines for imagery use in sport.

Another popular approach to improving sporting performance which appears to be above all else psychological is that of the Inner Game. “Inner Game was an expression coined by Gallwey in the 1970’s, and has been the basis for a considerable number of pop-ular sport psychology books by Gallwey focusing on games including golf, skiing, and ten-nis. ” (Butt, 1987:78) Gallwey claimed that the most formidable opponent a performer in sports must face is inside his or her own head. Inner Game is essentially a conflict be-tween two selves, elf 1 and self 2.

They are said to have quite different characteristics. Self 1 is conscious, self-conscious, and linguistic. It is the thinking self which evaluates, analyzes and criticizes performance and it may be responsible for inappropriate responses or it may motivate the athlete towards counterproductive actions. Self 2, on the other hand, is described as unconscious and computer like, and deals most effectively with visual and spatial information. “The self analysis and self-criticism of an athlete during perfor-mance is a function of self 1 and is symptomatic of the conflict between the two selves. Butt, 1987:79) Self 1 can express itself linguistically and, therefore, usually gains this control inappropriately.

According to Gallwey, it is not necessary to analyze why doubts and fears are away from the more relevant visual and spatial elements of the task. The Inner Game is directed toward allocating the resources of the two selves to the functions in which each is more competent so that they can operate in harmony and therefore pro-duce optimal performance. Some methods of sport psychology deal with clinical psychology. Relaxation tech-niques are a good example. Self directed relaxation aims to elease tension in each of the body’s major muscle groups while emphasizing slow, easy breathing, and encouraging vi-sualization of stress flowing away from the body. ” (Murphy & White, 1978:13)

While initially it may take ten minutes to work through instructions, with some practice, greater and greater relaxation should be achieved in less and less time. Progressive Relaxation Training (PRT) was originally pioneered by Edmund Jacobson, an American physician working in the 1920’s and 1930’s, but has been modi-fied over the years. PRT is learning to feel tension in the muscles and hen learning to let go of this tension. ” (Murphy & White, 1978:14)

The PRT procedure involves three steps. The athlete must be on a mat with subdued lighting. The athlete is then asked to tense the first 16 muscle groups between 5 and 7 seconds. The tension is then released and the athlete relaxes for 30 to 45 seconds. The same routine is followed for each muscle set for 15 to 20 minutes, twice daily, gradually learning to combine muscle groups until only four are used.

Eventually the athlete will be able to relax just by recalling the sensa-tion and experience, even during competition itself. Another method that is similar to PRT is autogenic training. “While PRT concen-trates on relaxation alone, autogenic training brings in other sensations associated with the state of relaxation, and calls for some type of self-hypnosis on the part of the athlete” (Butt, 1987:189) This type of training was developed in the early 1900’s by the German psychiatrist, J. H. Schultz. Athletes are tutored in self-relaxation, based on self-suggestions and imagery.

This is designed to create feelings of warmth, heaviness and control in different body parts and finally reach a state of mental equilibrium. Imagery relaxation, like imagery itself, works well for some people but is difficult for others. “Imagery relaxation involves imagining yourself in some environment or place where you have experienced feelings of relaxation and comfort. ” (Hackfort & Spielberger, 1989:146) This could be a place at home or somewhere special that you remember from holidays or childhood such as a warm beach with a cool sea breeze, a grassy mountainside, or just wherever you feel good.

The better able the individual is to put him/herself in the place through imagery, the more relaxed she/he is to be. With regular practice in imagi-ning his place without guidance will allow the athlete to feel relaxed much more quickly. Other methods of sport psychology deal with motor behavior. Practice is an essential element in acquiring any motor skill. However, many individuals may not be aware of the fact that the distribution of practice conditions may have varying effects on how much is learned or how well a skill is learned. Distribution of practice refers to the spacing between different practice sessions. ” (Martens, 1981:103)

A coach could advise a young gymnast to spend one hour of a two hour practice session trying to improve a handspring vault, hereas another coach might favor having gymnasts practice the vault during three 15-minute blocks combined with other practice activities. Studies showed that the hour of the practice session was a better method. Another issue which is of considerable importance to teachers and coaches alike concerns the best method of practicing the skills being learned. Should skills be present-ed and practiced in their entirety (the whole method) or should they be broken down into smaller component parts ( the part method). ” (Butt, 1987:165)

The general conclusion that was reached was that whole methods f training were better and even today most coaches use whole methods of training. A common problem facing teachers and coaches of motor skills is how to teach several essential skills within a given practice session. The teacher is faced with two choices. She/he can require the learner to spend a specified number of practice trials on one task, correcting it before the next task (blocked practice).

Alternatively, the learner could be required to rotate around the various tasks, never practicing the same skill on two consecutive trials (random practice). “This issue of blocked vs random practice has enerated a good deal of research interest since the late 1970’s. ” (Garfield, 1984:199) Subjects practicing under random conditions tended to perform worse than subjects prac-ticing under blocked conditions during acquisition trials. However, when all subjects were given a retention test to evaluate learning 10 days after the experiment, it was the random practice group that proved itself more effective.

These findings suggest that more learning takes place when random practice is used. The belief that mental rehearsal will enhance performance has become popular among most coaches today. However, the effectiveness of mental practice in relation to motor learning is also given consideration here. “Mental practice refers to a situation in which the learner thinks about or imagines performing the task rather than physically prac-ticing it. ” (Wolff, 1993:193) After reviewing over 60 studies of mental training, Feltz and Landers concluded that performance can be improved by mental practice.

However, men-tal practice was better than no practice, but physical practice was found to be better. “Tasks with a large cognitive component seem to benefit more from mental ractice than tasks requiring large amounts of strength. ” (Butt, 1987:191) This would affect gymnas-tics, ice skating, or any team sport where the performer is attempting to learn a new game play or strategy. Given these findings, it is unwise to replace physical practice with mental practice. Other parts of sport psychology deal with social psychology. It is generally true that the presence of others leads to enhanced performance on certain tasks, and specifi-cally tasks which call for well learnt, dominant responses. ” (Smith, 1983:4)

If you can do something well, the presence of thers will improve performance. On the other hand, if you are incompetent, learning a skill or attempting something for the first time, then you may perform worse in company than alone. This deals with social facilitation. We feel we are being evaluated by spectators and this has led psychologists to believe evaluation apprehension is the key to social facilitation.

Another factor of social psychology is aggression in sport. “Aggression can be ex-pressed in socially acceptable or unacceptable ways. ” (Murphy & White, 1978:125) Ag-gression can be instrumental or rule governed or angry/hostile aggression. Rule governed aggression is socially acceptable in which an athlete is just displaying intensity in a sport. Angry/hostile aggression is socially unacceptable in which an athlete causes physical harm to the opposition. Psychologists still have much work to do in reducing an athlete’s ag-gression.

Aggression is something that cannot be fixed overnight. “Whenever there is sports, there is going to be aggression, but with some positive reinforcement, psycholo-gists can maintain positive aggression. ” (Murphy & White, 1978:126) Occupational Psychology is a branch of psychology that relates to sport psycho-logy. One aspect of this is sports coaches. Many applied psychologists have come to acknowledge that the most effective way to get their message across is not by working directly with athletes but by working with the coaches.

A psychologist can come and go, but it is the coach that maintains the most contact with an athlete. “If the coach can learn how to convey messages which have a sound foundation in psychological knowledge, and thus can act as the agent or mouthpiece for sport psychology, then the messages are likely to have that much more impact. ” (Smith, 1983:166) More and more coaches are begin-ning o take sport psychology courses and sport psychology guides have become more available for coaches to buy. This will help athletes tremendously.

Alongside work on coaching, goal setting represents one of two primary areas where occupational psychologists have made a direct and considerable impact on the world of sports, in both a theoretical and a practical sense. “While the use of goal setting within sport is widespread, the adoption of formal goal setting principles has not been without controversy and it is interesting that a recent review article actually refers to goal setting not as he blue-eyed boy of sport psychology but as its Jekyll and Hyde. (Garfield, 1984:63)

Within psychology as a whole, the idea of goal setting to guide or direct our behavior has a well established history. However, the recent use of goal setting as a per-formance enhancement technique can be traced directly back to Edwin Locke’s goal set-ting theory. His theory is the notion that behavior is regulated by values and goals, with a goal defined as a conscious intention or what the person is setting out to accomplish.

According to Locke, goals affect performance by way of four mechanisms; first, goal setting focuses ttention, second, it mobilizes effort in proportion to the demands of the tasks, third, it enhances persistence, and finally, they encourage the individual to develop strategies for achieving their goals. ” (Wolff, 1993:146) Another goal setting procedure is the widespread use of the acronym SCAMP as a way of teaching athletes simple goal setting procedures. Specify exactly how much you want to improve and how you can measure it. Set goals that are challenging but have pos-sibility.

Set goals that are attainable. Set multiple goals to increase probability of attain-ment. Set goals that relate to you, ones that are personal. Over recent years, considerable attention has been paid to the development of theories and models dealing with participation motivation in sports. “The work deliberate-ly focuses on young athletes and highlights the significance of intrinsic motivators in maxi-mizing an individual’s long term commitment to sport. ” (Butt, 1987:215) At the same time, the dangers associated with either parents or coaches emphasizing extrinsic rewards are openly acknowledged.

In brief, the history of research on work motivation has shown a radual shift from traditional content models of work motivation which strived to list or classify motivators, and towards an appreciation of the complexities of the process of mo-tivation. “The complexities of the process of motivation are exemplified by the various expectancy-value models which describe personal and environmental variables play their part in determining the relationship between effort, performance, rewards, and satisfac-tion. (Garfield, 1984:34)

The argument advanced by Porter and Lawler is that motivation is related to per-formance, to reward and to satisfaction in a definable way. “Three rinciple components are taken to determine motivation, namely expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. ” (Butt, 1987:86) Our motivation will depend first, upon our belief that we are capable of influencing our performance through increasing effort. Second, our knowledge that an increase in performance will result in more awards.

Finally, it will depend on the value which we place on the reward that we expect to receive. This is represented in the model below. One important feature of this model is the emphasis it places on feedback. “Ac-cordingly in the context of coaching the model has considerable ractical utility for identi-fying and dealing with management problems effectively. ” (Butt, 1987: 87) The model also has great learning value for considering the interaction between a number of cognitive and environmental factors in determining satisfaction and future effort.

However, the complexity of the model also means that it is difficult to develop a research project which is able to look at each component systematically or to take into account all other possible intervening factors, for example, attributional style. “Once more, occupational psychology may present genuine opportunities for nderstanding and there is a need to ensure that an awareness of the many faces of sport, both amateur and professional, voluntary and com-pulsory, are kept very much to the fore in any further discussion of sport motivation. (Garfield, 1984:38) Using a very basic expectancy-value model to frame discussion, a preliminary study by Kremer and Robinson (1992) considered the attitudes and motivations of professional apprentice soccer players that were from Northern Ireland who had travelled to join English and Scottish teams, often to return to Ireland after being rejected there.

Contrary to predictions based on intrinsic otivation models, these platers did not return disenchanted and lost to the game, but almost invariably they slotted comfortably into life in the Irish League, often older and wiser as to their potential but still continuing to take a very active part in the game which they continued to enjoy. ” (Butt, 1987:88) Clearly the reward structure which motivated these young professional athletes was very different from that which is described in relation to participation rates and drop-outs amongst young, amateur athletes.

Once more, occupational psychology may present genuine opportunities for understanding and there is a eed to ensure that a knowledge and aware-ness of the many faces of sport, both amateur and professional, voluntary and compulsory, are kept very much to the front in any future discussion of sport motivation. From this research that has been done over some four years, one can understand that psychology does play a significant part in sport and in the minds of athletes, especially at a young age.

Sport psychology ranges from judging an athlete’s personality all the way to his/her coach. We see the many methods and techniques used by psychologists to keep an athlete in the right frame of mind to participate in sports. We have seen methods dealing with the cognitive side of sport psychology such as imagery and visualization to handle stress in sports. We have seen methods of clinical psy-chology such as relaxation techniques to release pre- game tensions and anxiety.

We have seen methods of social psychology dealing with harmful aggression of athletes. We also have seen methods of occupational psychology in which the coaches of athletes get in-volved in psychology and motivation models come into play for coaches to use in order to motivate their athletes. We can see that psychologists have not ignored psychology in the world f sport, something that cannot be ignored with the growing number in athletic participation by young people. With each new year comes an increase in new developments dealing with sport psychology. ” (Murphy & White, 1978:9)

However, there is still much work to be done in sport psychology. There are still many unresolved questions and even some new questions and even some new questions that have arisen over the years dealing with sport psychology. Take anxiety for instance. Psychologists have found ways to reduce anxiety but not eliminate it. Maybe there is no way to eliminate it since everyone has it. Another example is aggression.

Wherever there are sports, there is aggression. Psychologists have stated that sports are a way for people to release their aggression. However, they still have not been able to fully eliminate the violence in sports. Psychologists are also working on new methods for motivating athletes because some athletes are harder to motivate that others. Even though there are these unresolved issues in sport psychology, the future of psychology in sports, especially youth sports, looks to be on a very progressive track with many new discoveries.

European’s Opportunity in the NBA

European settlers first came to America in 1742 to start over and improve their life styles. It was mostly European settlers that originated America. They did not have a good enough chance to make good money or support there family in Europe so they moved to a new nation to start over or to get away from the war. This is what European basketball players are doing now coming to the NBA in America to improve on there basketball skills as well as make more money. The NBA is the best way for any basketball player to make the most money and to promote themselves.

Lately in the NBA you might have noticed a lot more players from Europe playing for different teams in the league. Previously in the European players did not have the opportunity to play professional basketball for the NBA. Players that did get a chance rarely succeeded in the league of the worlds best basketball players, they were most likely traded until teams realized the little amount of talent compared to NBA superstars in the European players and then cut them. Currently that is a different story.

European players are not only good enough to play basketball for the NBA but they are making headlines and becoming superstars as Americans as well as people from Europe. Dirk Nowitzki is a great example of an European who was able to make it as a superstar in the NBA, he still travels home during the off season to visit family and work out in his old gym, which he now calls his summer gym because he only gets a chance to exercise there in the summer. By coming to the NBA to play basketball he has adapted our language as well as slang from MTV, BET and the NBA.

Since Dirk has come to the NBA he has improved his rebounds by three a game every three years making him a better player offensively off the boards and defensively off the boards. His European background helped shape him into the best basketball player he could be there but he needed better competition in order to further improve his game. He still trains with his same trainer and improves in the off season, but he would not be as good as he is today without playing against the best basketball players in the world.

Now in Europe many players are being scouted. To make the chances of European players better to make the big bucks and claim stardom in the NBA, the NBA and the European league agreed to make their rules the same as each others. They now both have the same eight second back court rule and a twenty four second shot clock rule, as well as making the three point line the same distance from the basket as each other. By doing this NBA scouts can compare European game play to NBA game play without making any distinctions.

There are many other players from Europe who have come to play in the NBA. Some known European players would be Peja Stojakovic, Vlade Divac and Hidayet “Hedo” Turkoglu, who all play for the Kings. With this noticeable to other European athletes they are starting early to set goals to reach the NBA for better opportunities. Whether its for more money or just to improve their game against better players who are in the NBA. One young 15 year old seven foot kid named Predrag Samardziski Practices six hours a day with 20 something pros to improve his game.

Since he is living in Yugoslavia he has more chance to practice because he does not have to go to school like and American teenager would. He just dedicates his life to becoming the best basketball player in the world. He is not held back by any NCAA rules or feel the pressure of any recruiters. “Samardiziski is in an ideal incubator and he knows it” (Bucher, 98). Doing this is taking not only European players to a new level, also the NBA will be at a new level.

When European looked to settle in America they seen it as a great opportunity to improve and make more money, America is still looked at as a way to improve and make more money in Europeans eyes when it comes to the NBA. But now it is a little different because the NBA is looking a European player to make them more money by giving more intense game play and making the game open and more accepted by a larger audience. Also the European basketball players are not necessarily looking to settle in America but to settle in the NBA.

Black vs White in the NBA

The NBA features such star players as, Michael Jordan, Allen Iverson, Keith Vanhorn, and John Stockton. You could ramble on all day about Pro basketball. And two big questions always come up when talking about pro basketball. Why are 2/3 of the NBA players black? And do black and white players have two different techniques for playing the game of basketball? Jeff Greenfield cites in his essay The Black and White Truth about Basketball theories from the book Foul by David Wolf. In todays modern game of NBA basketball, over 2/3 of the players are black.

Greenfield also cites that over the last two decades, no more than three white players have been among the ten starting players on the NBA All-Star team (Greenfield 209). David Wolf claims this dominance of blacks in the NBA is due to a natural inheritance. Wolf says basketball is a pastime of the urban poor since the fact most of them dont have finances to access equipment for hockey, baseball, football, or other fairly expensive sports. And basketball is something they can feel pride about (Greenfield 210-211). Most of the urban poor are the black. And black star Penny Hardaway is a prime example of this.

Penny Hardaway is one of the NBAs most recognizable stars in todays game. He came from very poor black slums. Because he didnt have the money for football, baseball, or hockey, he turned to the cheap playground sport called basketball. Like many other black players in the NBA, Penny took pride in honing his skills on those playground courts in the slum. Basketball was an activity that kept Penny out of trouble (Fox Sports Net: Beyond the Glory). Based on this story of Penny Hardaway, I agree with Greenfield and Wolf when they say that black dominance in the NBA is due to natural inheritance, and basketball is a sport for the urban poor.

Greenfield stands by Wolfs idea; basketball isnt the same as it once was. I too can agree with Wolfs idea that basketball is the same as it used to be 50-60 years ago. Basketball was once a game for the Irish and Italian Catholics in Rockaway and the Jewish on Fordham Road in the Bronx. (Greenfield 210). Back in the beginnings of basketball ethnic names like Red Holzmans, Red Auerbach, and the McGuire Brothers were etched as stars of the NBA (Greenfield 210). But in the present names such Michael Jordan, Shaquille ONeal and Allen Iverson are a fixture of pro basketball with national television exposure and million dollar salaries.

This is a far cry from the old school basketball of white men with status playing it for leisure. Greenfield and Wolf believe there is a question of style with todays modern player. Black and white, are there two distinct styles of players in the NBA? Jeff Greenfield believes so. Greenfield believes the two most important traits that characterize black basketball is leaping ability and razzle-dazzle moves. When coaches see a white boy who can jump or who moves with extraordinary quickness, they say, He should have been born black, hes that good. (Greenfield 212).

This statement was used in the title to the hit film White Men Cant Jump. Most of the legendary jumpers in the NBA were black. Such players include Willis Reed, Julius Erving, and Wilt Chamberlain. In todays modern game razzle-dazzle moves are what its all about. Speed, mobility, quickness, and acceleration are traits that surround the black playground athlete and their razzle-dazzle moves. NBA supers stars of today such as Allen Iverson, Tracy MacGrady, and Vince Carter posses all of the before mentioned traits. Allen Iverson has great speed on the court.

Tracy MacGrady has quickness that nobody can match. And if youre looking to find someone that can run fast, move nimble and quick, and jumps like Air Jordan, watch the Vince Carter. Hes hailed as the next Michael Jordan. Iverson, MacGrady, and Carter are players that can be double teamed by the best defends in the NBA and they still can find ways to twist and contort their bodies around the defenders and throw or dunk the ball into the basket. Thus, I can agree with Greenfield when he claims a black player uses speed, quickness, acceleration, and leaping to his advantage.

Black players seem to use speed, quickness, mobility, and leaping to their advantage. But do white players use these same abilities to their advantage? Imaging a heated gymnasium in a small Midwest town during the middle of winter. Eight white boys suited up for a pick-up game of basketball. They play a game without frills, with out flow and rhythm (Greenfield 212-213). This type of picture is associated with the white mans game of basketball. It seems a far-fetched from the pickup games played by the blacks in the inner city. The so-called white player plays the game precise mechanics.

They dont have the great razzle-dazzle moves to the basket. They dont have height and mobility for rebound effectiveness. The white man runs. He runs from the opening jump to the final buzzer (Greenfield 213). This is the way Jeff Greenfield sees the white style of pro basketball. I agree with what Greenfield has to say. This is much different than that of a black player. White players Bill Laimbeer and Dan Majerle had very successful careers in the NBA. But neither of them did it with flash or style. They didnt run with enormous speed, they didnt have the moves stymie defenses.

Bill Laimbeer was one of the slowest centers in the league when he played, no one bragged about Majerles speed either. But they did one thing, they ran up and down the court, from baseline to baseline, back and forth under the basket, looking for the opening, the pass, the chance to take the high-percentage shot (Greenfield 213). Youd wonder what they are doing in the NBA until you saw them swing free and throw up the shot. They actually drained the ball more times than many of their black counterparts who had much more skills. Bill Laimbeer and Dan Majerle played hard.

They played hard from the tip-off to the final buzzer. In fact, Dan Majerle was the first and has been the only player to ever be a reserve on his team, but been selected to the All-Star Game. Stories like these prove the point that a white player uses a very plain approach to the game of pro basketball. Not everybody who read Greenfields essay will agree with his views on the styles of play in blacks and whites. But Greenfield does try to make it a little more clear blacks and whites do seem to have two distinct styles when playing basketball. As for me, basketball is an exciting sport that Ill always be a fan of.

Influences of Mass Media in Sport

When communication is spread not just between two individuals but rather between tens of millions of people it is known as mass media. Mass media is known as the central nervous system of society and it functions as a medium of exchange of information across the globe. “Mass media has many different purposes, such as providing information, entertaining, persuading and also by carrying a vague general function of culture to millions of people. “(Frederick 18). In order for mass media to exist, there must be an audience.

Today’s society is very selective; each receiver reacts differently through his or her own experience and orientation. Therefore, mass media exists in many different forms such as magazines, television, newspapers, internet, motion pictures, and even plays. Some examples of these forms of mass media are cosmopolitan magazine for young modern women and TSN television network for sports fans. With such extreme varieties of mass media existing in today’s societies there are three major constraints that seem to have an impressionable impact.

These constraints can keep mass media very restricted. The major constraint of mass media is competition. Each form of mass media wants to be the one to target the audience, so therefore competition between mass media is very strong. The audience is the one who decides what information is important and this decides what groups of mass media get the most airtime. If your story isn’t important to the audience then your media is taking up space, so therefor you either have to produce what the audience wants or you will not be able to survive in the competitive world of mass media.

Money also puts constraints on what an individual gets to know. If a person can’t afford to buy a television that that is restricting them on the knowledge that they are able to consume. Also, companies run on budget plans, and if there is know money in the budget, they are unable to provide information to a society. For every story that is produced, or every television commercial aired that could have been may more, to follow. But with limited money in the budget plans, an audience’s view also becomes very limited.

Time is also another constraint because is doesn’t make a difference on the amount of media there is, there will only be twenty four hours in each day and not all a person’s time can be devoted to the effects of mass media. “All media within each other create noise, but with all the conflicting views, within lies a pattern, that shows some element of truth. ” (Frederick 10). The purpose of this paper is to state how mass media influences sport.

The point that is being made in this paper is to show how mass media influences society, and how it influences sports within a society. To show how sport influences society, the game of basketball will be used. Mass media is a reflection of society. “Mass media are essential agents of social change, and the specific kind of social change they are expected to help accomplish in the transition to new customs and practices, and in some cases, to different social relationships. ” (D’seuza ).

As a result of all these alterations a significant change in an individuals attitudes, beliefs, skills and social norms may result. Before the existence of radio, mass media was barely breathing but with all the developments in technology mass media is continually progressing, in many different directions. Different individuals are selective in the way that they let mass media influence their lives. For example, if a person decides to read a book they are getting to determine what aspects of the mass media they consume.

Books are the most individual of mass media. ” (Frederick 156). But when a person watches television it is not as personal as reading a book, television is built into society. ” Television’s commercial and entertainment emphasis both reflect and affect the hedonistic and acquisitive nature of contemporary America. ” (Frederick 264). Mass media has many positive effects on many people. In countries such as India, mass media had made a tremendous change. People in rural communities are now able to communicate back and forth.

Children of this country are now able to obtain and expand on their education, there are continuous improvements in their health care system and even modern agricultural techniques are being developed. Not everybody agrees that mass media has had a positive effect, some believe that it has damaged societies beyond repair. Since mass media has such an overwhelming influence on society, it may end up shaping the way and individual thinks. A good example of this is through advertising.

It is advertising, by and large, that supports the United States’ pervasive and extraordinary diverse mass media system. Advertising major focus is the better you display a commodity the more of the commodity you sell. The private sector gives the advertising industry the money to sell their products, and the company that offers the most capital is the one who gets their product aired. This is where one of our major constraints, known as, competition comes into play.

Whatever company holds the most capital decides what we as a society get to consume. Advertisers will say that they produce what the consumer demands but on the other hand they are putting many limits on what we get to consume. With the constant growth of mass media many opportunities for individuals have been arising. To show how mass media has opened many doors for many individuals, this paper will use the influences of mass media in the world of sports. Both the positive and negative effects of the mass media will be outlined.

The Flint Hills Rodeo

As the days grow longer, the Kansas wind gets warmer, and the school year draws to a close, the thoughts of ranchers and would-be cowboys in Chase County and the surrounding communities turn to rodeo, specifically the Flint Hills Rodeo. The oldest consecutive rodeo of June, the Flint Hills Rodeo draws thousands of spectators from near and far. This two-day event is an experience that is not easily forgotten. The Flint Hills Rodeo is an important yearly event with roots deeply embedded in Chase County history.

It is said that in the 1930s, the children of E. C. Roberts, including Cowgirl Hall of Fame inductee Marjorie Roberts and her brothers, rodeo stars Ken and Gerald, used to “play rodeo” on their ranch using their family’s livestock. Gradually, local interest in these impromptu performances grew, and in 1937, Roberts, his son Ken, and his son-in-law Eddie Boysen staged what is widely considered to be the first professional rodeo in Chase County. At that time, no rodeo facilities existed, so Roberts offered the use of the big corral on his ranch located two miles west of Strong City.

The event was such a rousing success, the Flint Hills Rodeo Association was formed the following year and plans were made to continue the Flint Hills Rodeo annually (“FlintRodeo,” 348). The early years were quite exciting, and the citizens of Chase County embraced the Flint Hills Rodeo. According to longtime resident Edith Edwards Kutz, it was community spirit and hard work that got the rodeo off the ground: “At the start, we all took cars and went around to towns throughout the state, putting up posters, honking horns and just letting people know we were having a rodeo” (“Collection” 24).

During the weekend event, many residents of Strong City and the neighboring towns invited the cowboys, rodeo clowns, and wild west show performers into their homes. Mrs. Kutz remembers hosting Spike Bronson, a rodeo clown, and his wife, Connie: “After every ride, Connie and I spent our time washing those large Levis and trying to dry them in front of the oven” (24). Despite the vast amount of work and volunteer effort required to maintain such a large endeavor, the Flint Hills Rodeo nevertheless quickly attracted local and national attention, and the crowds grew larger every year.

The arena at Strong City on Highway 50 is a familiar landmark to the people of Chase County, yet the Flint Hills Rodeo started in much more humble surroundings. In 1938, a more permanent home was constructed at the Roberts’ ranch; the work was donated by men of the Chase County community, and the result was an arena that was used from 1938-1940. By 1941, new rodeo grounds were developed one mile west of Strong City. Improvements included a public address system and factory-made portable bleachers capable of accommodating the swelling crowds.

However, in 1947, Highway 50 was relocated through part of Strong City, leading to yet another move for the Flint Hills Rodeo. Twenty acres adjacent to Highway 50 were purchased, and necessary structures such as a permanent arena, buckout chutes, catch pens, and concession stands were added and maintained, resulting in a well-built facility that is still used today (“Flint,” 348). From its inception, the Flint Hills Rodeo has been sanctioned by yprofessional rodeo organizations, and today it is recognized as an important competitive rodeo by the PRCA, the Professional Rodeo Cowboys’ Association.

It has consistently attracted well-known rodeo stars since its beginning. In 1939, when asked what big-name stars were expected at the rodeo, held that year on May 20th and 21st, Ken Roberts replied, “They’ll all be here because they’ll be on their way from the rodeo May 12-14 at Dodge City to the rodeo at Fort Smith, Ark, on May 27-29. The Strong City dates are in between and will provide another rodeo for the professional riders. Yes, they’ll all be here” (“Big”).

More recently, well-known rodeo names such as “Tuff” Hedemann, Monty “Hawkeye” Henson, and local standout Jason Lahr have thrilled rodeo crowds as they participated in events such as roping, dogging, and riding broncs and bulls. The charm of the Flint Hills rodeo also lies in the many extra features that rodeo weekend offers. One of the most popular events is the Saturday morning rodeo parade, a practice which dates back to the early years. On of the first recorded parades, if not the first, can be traced to the year 1939; however, it was strongly promoted in 1944 by The Chase County Leader with the following call to the community.

Get out that ten gallon hat, brush off those old chaps and shine your spurs and saddle up and be at the southwest corner of the C. C. C. H. S. grounds at 9:45 Saturday and get into the big parade opening the two days performance of the Flint Hills Rodeo. Or, if you are that old, get out the “Surrey With the Fringe on Top” because each rider or driver of a decorated vehicle will be given a ticket to the Saturday afternoon performance. To be eligible for the ticket you must be at the assembly point and stay with the parade until it completes its course. FlintParade”)

With such an enticing offer, it is a wonder that there were spectators at all that day. However, the parade in honor of the 50th anniversary drew huge crowds; it is estimated that 15,000 were on hand for that historic parade, including 103 year old Mabel Harris, a former resident of Cottonwood Falls who faithfully attended the Flint Hills Rodeo parade for many years (Birk and Harak). Another popular event of rodeo weekend is the annual dance, which had its beginning in the year 1941.

During that year, two dances were held; the first took place on Friday evening at the Civic Auditorium in nearby Emporia, and the second at the municipal building in Cottonwood Falls on Saturday night (“FlintEnlarged”). A more recent addition to the weekend event is the Flint Hills Rodeo Church Service, a Sunday morning tradition since 1972. Vicar Don A. Miller, a former rodeo contestant, delivered the first sermon; since that time, each minister has preached either while on horseback or from horse-drawn wagon.

This is definitely a community event, with the churches of the county traditionally uniting for this service (“50th Anniversary”). Additional features such as these have served throughout the years to heighten the rodeo experience for all involved. Behind the continued success of the Flint Hills Rodeo, there have been two important driving forces: the reputation of the Roberts family and the incredible amount of support of the larger Chase County family. The Roberts were instrumental in getting the rodeo off the ground and sustaining the interests of rodeo-goers from outside Chase County. In fact, three of E.

C. Roberts’ six children were themselves rodeo stars. Marjorie Roberts, the oldest, joined the Clyde Miller Circus as a trick rider in the early 1930s; she also competed in various rodeo events such as calf-roping, steer-wrestling, and saddle and bareback bronc events. She regularly competed in bull-riding as well. In 1941, Marjorie won the women’s bronc riding contest at the 1941 Cheyenne Frontier Days, equivalent to a world championship today. More often than not, she would compete against her brothers, Ken and Gerald, for prize money, prompting Gerald to remark that she was his toughest competition.

As rodeo became more regulated and women were forced out of competition, Marjorie was still a popular presence in the rodeo arena as a trick rider and performer in wild west shows (Birk, “Marjorie”). Marjorie’s brothers, Ken and Gerald, followed her into the rodeo business and quickly established themselves as excellent contenders on the rodeo circuit. Ken held the title of World Champion Bull Rider for three consecutive years, beginning in 1943. He was also the runner-up for the World Title in Saddle Bronc Riding in 1945.

Gerald captured the title of World All-Around Cowboy in both 1942 and 1948. All three Roberts children learned the business from their father while growing up working the family ranch. Although E. C. Roberts never competed professionally in rodeo, he nevertheless made a name for himself on the rodeo circuit. Named “Mr. Rodeo” in 1977 in honor of his contribution to the sport as a pickup man, livestock supplier, and rodeo producer, he never missed a single Flint Hills Rodeo held during his lifetime.

As he climbed into his nineties, he was a fixture in the rodeo parade and could often be seen standing in the announcers’ stand on rodeo days surveying his legacy” (“Mr. Rodeo,” 1). At the Flint Hills Rodeo the year following his death, his presence was reflected in numerous ways, including a tribute in Saturday’s parade and by a riderless horse led around the rodeo arena prior to each day’s events (Chase). The popularity of the Roberts family on the rodeo circuit may have jump-started the Flint Hills Rodeo in its early years, but it has been sustained largely by the dedicated efforts of the Chase County community.

This support and dedication was evident from the beginning; businessmen joined ranchers in promoting an event that was sure to reflect well on the county as a whole. In fact, the first president of the Flint Hills Rodeo Association, Carroll Holmberg, and its first secretary, Ray Gordon, were not ranchers or cowboys; they were area businessmen. A quick uninformed look at the photograph [of Holmberg and Gordon in suits and cowboy hats] may indicate two ranchers gussied up for a special occasion. But this is not the case.

Holmberg’s job in the community was at the depot in Strong City, serving as the railway express agent. Gordon worked as the local mail carrier. . . . Many of the rodeo association board members were local business folk and community members who wanted to stand behind the rodeo and see it be a success. (Hanson) Connie Roberts, Holmberg’s daughter, remembers her father’s passion for the Flint Hills Rodeo: “He never was a farmer or a cowboy. He never did anything like that but he just loved this rodeo.

He and Ray just thoroughly enjoyed it! ” (qtd. in Hanson). Evidence of this passion by people who are not daily involved in ranching or rodeo activities is still found today in and around Chase County. Much has changed throughout the history of the Flint Hills Rodeo. Inflation has greatly raised the original ticket price, which was only fifty cents for adults and twenty cents for children under fifteen. Increased regulation by the PRCA also slowly choke out regular appearances by trick riders and wild west shows.

E. C. Roberts even pointed out that the cowboys had changed; today, there are more city boys who pay to learn how to rope a steer and ride a bull than there are real cowboys on a ranch (Birk, “Rodeo,”). However, despite the number of changes, the Flint Hill Rodeo endures, a surprise even to Roberts before his death. “‘Why I didn’t figure it’d last at all,’ he said with a grin. ‘It just all started out playing'” (“Mr. Rodeo”). Let’s hope the Flint Hills Rodeo will be around for many years so future generations will have the chance to “play rodeo. “

Description of A Bedroom

Opening the door and walking in, you strike a gray plastic garbage can with your foot. You then look up to see a waterbed, covered in blankets, across the room. The carpet is grayish, with some sort of swirl design in it. Next to the garbage can is a white plastic clothes basket. This is jammed tight between the garbage can and the desk, which sits near the corner. The tops of the desk are white, but the supports are black. School books cover the bottom shelf, while the next two have miscellaneous items on them.

On the top shelf, an encased basketball sits. It’s an Olympic ball dipped in gold. Next to the ball, hanging on the gray, black, and white marble-like painted walls, is a tournament bracket for last year’s College Basketball Championship. Under the bracket is the light switch, and next to it is a black light. The next wall is bare, but in the corner, where the third wall meets it, there are six shelves. Those shelves have many different types of elephants. One of the shelves have a second black light on it.

The shelves meet a window, which is covered by some white blinds. At the end of the waterbed, on the final wall, there is some electronic equipment on more shelving. There is a variety of equipment, everything from games to a television. Everything on the shelves is in good condition. Following this wall is a second light switch for the closet. The closet has no doors on it, but is full of clothes. After the closet comes the door, in which you enter, and you exit.

Clay Beats Liston: February 25, 1964

From the accounts of various Kentucky newspapers, I was able to learn a few facts about Cassius Clay, later known as Muhammad Ali, as well as the attitudes of his fellow Kentuckians. The first thing I noticed in all the newspapers that I viewed was that almost all the articles written about the fight were written by writers from either the Associated Press (AP) or United Press International (UPI).

This displayed three things about the Kentucky press, first the belief that Clay’s fight was not important enough to cover themselves, secondly that the newspapers probably did not make enough money to send their own reporters own to Miami Beach, and finally the localization of the newspapers’ audiences. Another aspect of the fight is the effect it had on Kentucky society, especially the sports scene.

I primarily noticed that almost all the papers used reports from the Associated Press and the United Press International, even the (Louisville) Courier-Journal, one of Clay’s hometown newspapers, used reports from the Associated Press. The only articles that were not written by a member of the Associated Press were the very rare editorials written about the fight. The use of reports from the AP and the UPI shows that most newspapers did not think the ight was very newsworthy.

Only one newspaper published an article that was not written by a member of the Associated Press or the United Press International, however that one article was an editorial about Cassius Clay’s new found wealth and not the actual fight. The lack of coverage also proves that even though blacks were supposed to be equal to whites, that in reality achievements by blacks and whites were treated differently.

None of the newspapers that I read displayed a large picture or headline proclaiming that Cassius Clay was the new heavyweight champion of the world. Most newspapers had an average sized eadline stating that Clay was the new champion, but none had an article about him on the front page. This further illustrates that achievements by blacks were believed to be less important than the achievements of whites. I saw almost the same amount of articles on high school basketball, as I did on the fight.

Although I am not surprised by the fact that high school basketball received almost a page of coverage, I am alarmed by the fact that this one page of coverage on basketball was the same amount of coverage for the boxing match. The stories by Associated Press and United Press International illustrate wo more facts about Kentucky during the 1960’s, primarily that most of Kentucky’s newspapers were too poor to send their own reporters to Miami Beach, and furthermore that the audience was very localized to events either in their own city or the state of Kentucky.

Although I am not surprised that newspapers such as the Paducah Sun-Democrat or Bowling Green’s Park City Daily News did not send reporters to Miami, I was surprised that newspapers like Louisville’s Courier-Journal and the Lexington Herald, which have a much larger circulation, did not send even one reporter from their staff to cover the fight. The absence f reporters from the (Louisville) Courier-Journal and the Lexington Herald proves that even the newspapers from the major cities in Kentucky had a very localized audience.

The localization of news often prevented readers from learning about the world that surrounds them, especially from affairs of other towns. For example, if the Lexington Herald only wrote reports about the events effecting the city and a few major events that would effect the entire state, it would be possible that something occurred in Paducah that might not be reported in Lexington for several days, even months.

The localization in rural areas uch as Paducah and Bowling Green is not surprising, but when urban places like Louisville and Lexington localize their news many important events in other areas of the state could not be reported for an extended period of time. The most important effect of Cassius Clay defeating Sonny Liston is the placement of Kentucky, and specifically Louisville on the map of boxing. For many years there were numerous boxing gyms in and around Louisville that produced great amateur fighters. Unfortunately, they were ignored by the national media until Cassius Clay, who was a product of such gyms, defeated

Sonny Liston for the heavyweight championship. When Clay won the gold medal in the 178-pounds division in the 1960 Rome Olympics Louisville’s gyms gained some recognition for producing Clay, however they were not fully recognized until 1964 when Clay beat Liston. Clay’s victory made the gyms in Louisville more popular as more and more youths flocked to the gyms in the hopes of one day becoming heavyweight champion of the world. Although none of these kids would ever win the heavyweight championship, their efforts in the ring made Louisville one of the centers of amateur boxing.

Overall from my research I learned about the different attitudes of people in the 1960’s versus the 1990’s. I also realized that Kentucky newspapers almost always localize their news and hardly publish national or international news articles that do not come from the Associated Press or some other news agency. I now understand why Kentucky is so far behind the other states, it is because Kentuckians are only exposed to news that affects them and nobody else. Most Kentuckians could not care about what is occurring in Bosnia, nor do the newspapers report what is occurring there, which isolates Kentucky from the rest of the world.

History Of Football

Sometime around 1050, Englishmen dug up a skull of a dane and started to kick it around in frustration toward the daneIt became known as “Kicking the dane’s head” . The skull began to hurt the boy’s feet, so a boy came up with the idea of using an inflated cow bladder to help their feet(Tuttle, 13). In 1189, King Henry banned the game, because people were too involved in the game to practice archery and fighting for war(Tuttle, 13). During the 1500’s the game shifted to Ireland where people invented the Irish rules that made the game tougher.

As the game progressed it turned into soccer and rugby(Tuttle, 14). On November 6, 1869, Princeton and Rutgers played the first college soccer game(Tuttle, 14). During the spring of 1871 a group of people at Harvard University made a game called the “Boston Game”, which was similar to rugby rules(Tuttle, 14). On May 15, 1874, Harvard played McGill University, which was from Montreal. They played with an egg-shaped ball instead of a round ball(Tuttle, 14). They played with 11 men instead of 15, because 4 could not make the game.

In 1880, Walter Camp, Yale’s rugby captain, created the line of scrimmage and other modern football attributes to improve the game because it was too low scoring (Tuttle, 13). He also changed the scoring system to: safety-1 point, touchdown-2, Point after touchdown-4, and a field goal-3. He then changed the yards kneeded to gain a first down to 5 and used 3 downs(Tuttle, 16). Later coaches changed Camps’ rules to rules we use now. In 1919 the American Professional Football Association was made in Canton, Ohio(Treat, 23). It started out with 5 teams (Akron, Canton, Columbus, Dayton, and Rochester) (Treat, 23).

It cost twenty-five dollars to open a franchise(Treat, 23). The Chicago Bears and Green Bay Packers joined the League in 1921 to make one of football’s greatest rivalries. The American Professional Football Association changed its name to the National Football League (NFL) in 1922(Tuttle, 61). By 1923, there were 20 teams in the NFL(Treat, 34). During the 1920’s, mostly due to the depression, the NFL began to drop to only 12 teams(Treat, 35). In order to make the scoring increase, the NFL made it legal to throw a forward pass in 1933(Encarta).

The defense rushing the quarterback made it difficult to complete passes, so the NFL invented a rule which would not allow the defense to rough the passer when he does not have possession of the ball (roughing the passer) (Encarta). After passing became effective the game became more enjoyable and attendance greatly increased Since teams were not getting a fair amount of talent out of college, The NFL Draft was built in 1936(Encarta). This allowed teams to take turns selecting players out of college. The NFL later allowed juniors to enter into the Draft in 1989(Encarta).

As soon as Professional football became more popular, College football began to also. During the 1930’s college football created bowl games for the good teams to compete with one another(Lorrimor and Devaney, 35). Among the most popular bowl games are the Rose Bowl, Cotton Bowl, Sugar Bowl, and the Orange Bowl(Lorrimor and Devaney, 141). Seeing how much success the National Football League was having, The American Football League (AFL) was made in 1960(Lorrimor and Devaney, 11). The AFL started with just 8 teams, and their play was very sloppy and not professional(Lorrimor and Devaney, 11).

After a few seasons the AFL became just as good as the NFL. It got to a point where the American Football League was considered the better league of the two. The competition between the two leagues was driving both of them into bankruptcy, so in 1966 the leagues finally made peace(Lorrimor and Devaney, 12). They decided not to fight over getting players, and at the end of each season they would have a playoff where the winner of both leagues would face one another in the Super Bowl, which in the championship game(Lorrimor and Devaney, 12).

In 1970 the American Football League and the National Football League decided it would be best if the two leagues merged(Lorrimor and Devaney, 12). It would become the National Football League, and it would be divided into two conferences. The former National Football League would become the National Football Conference (NFC), and the former American Football League would become the American Football Conference (AFC) as it is today(Lorrimor and Devaney, 12). In 1963 the Professional Football Hall of Fame opened in Canton, Ohio(Tuttle, 61).

In 1974 the World Football League (WFL) started(Treat, 644). It had high hopes of what the National and American Football Leagues did, but it suffered major losses in contract agreements, and did not survive another season. By the 1970’s, football became America’s favorite sport. The attendance dramatically increased and football leagues started to come from all over the place. Instant Replay was created in 1986-1992(Encarta), where it stopped, but started back up again in 1999.

In 1992 the National Football League started making major changes toward the future. It created Free Agency, because of a lawsuit(Encarta). Free Agency allows players freedom to move around from teams after their contract. The NFL also invented the Salary Cap, which allowed NFL teams only a certain amount of money to spend on players’ contracts(Encarta). Both Free Agency and the Salary Cap have made it easier for teams to have the same amount of talent, and have made tremendous strides into football’s future.

The demand for football has become so popular, that during televised games companies will pay millions of dollars for thirty seconds of commercial advertisement space. Stadiums now hold tens of thousands of people. At the University of Michigan, their stadium seats more than 100,000 people. Stadiums are now built with retractable roofs and instant replay at each seat. Several indoor football leagues have started all over the country, where they play with walls and 50 yards. The owner of the World Wrestling Federation (WWF) is expected to open a tough football league in 2001 called the XFL.

Supplements in Sports

When you are involved in athletics, you have to be competitive. You have to want to win more than anybody else. Athletes these days, however, are really taking winning to the extreme. Athletes today are using various supplements to increase their size, muscle mass, and their potential to perform well. Athletes have been taking all kinds of supplements to gain an edge on their opponents. Little do they know, these supplements are not FDA approved. No one knows the long-term effects of these supplements on the human body. The use of non-FDA approved supplements should be banned from sports.

Supplements are supposed to be taken to make up for a deficiency in some aspect of a persons diet. For example, if someone does not like milk and does not eat any foods that contain calcium, they could take a calcium supplement. But, athletes use supplements to lose body fat and gain muscle and strength. There are many different types of supplements. The two most popular these days are Creatine Monohydrate and Androstenedione. Creatine monohydrate, generally known as creatine is a popularly used supplement. Creatine occurs naturally in muscles, but many athletes or body builders take it to increase their strength and size.

When using muscles, a chemical called ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate) is broken down into ADP (adenosine DI-phosphate) and an inorganic phosphate. The release of the phosphate is what gives the muscles energy. Creatine, whether, the naturally occurring, or from a bottle or jar, combines with phosphate and can restore ADP back to ATP. Theoretically, this means more energy. But it does not come without a price. The manufacturers and advertisers for Creatine tell 2 athletes they should use the product because muscles contain an average of 3. 5 to 4 grams of naturally occurring creatine per kilogram of muscle.

However, this can be increased because up to 5 grams of creatine may be stored. (Passwater 3) So, by using their product, the full potential of muscle energy can be used. Basically what the company is telling you is to pay an outrageous amount of money to add 1 gram of creatine to your muscles. Also, taking creatine has many side effects, just as other supplements do. This is because the type of creatine you buy of the shelf is pure. The body gets its natural creatine from red meat. But, red meat is not one hundred percent creatine. The body cannot handle the potency of this supplement.

Another supplement commonly used by athletes is androstenedione, which is a hormonally based supplement that is supposed to help weight lifters add muscle. Andro is taken orally and goes to the liver. The liver destroys most of what is ingested, but the small amount that does survive combines with various enzymes and temporarily boosts testosterone levels. (Hawken 8) This boost in testosterone allows an athlete to perform at a level above what he usually does. If an athlete takes andro before he goes to the gym, he will be able to lift more, and thus increase strength and size.

Although it is not legally considered an anabolic steroid at this time, andro acts exactly as they do. If anabolic steroids and andro have the same effects, and steroids are illegal, then andro should also be illegal. The American College of Sports Medicine says anabolic steroids such as androstenedione as well as other dietary supplements should be reevaluated and considered drugs. Although they do make people better athletes, they are illegal and athletes should not use them. DHEA is a supplement in the same family as 3 andro, called prohormones. DHEA also raises the testosterone levels in the body.

There is very little scientific support of these prohomones. In fact, some preliminary evidence suggests that they may be counterproductive. In a well-controlled study recently published by the American Journal of the American Medical Association, androstenedione failed to boost muscle mass, strength and testosterone levels; instead, it boosted estrogen levels, which could potentially boost body fat instead of muscle. (Smeets) In that same study, the prohormone DHEA increased the risk of cardiovascular disease and also raised the estrogen levels in the body. This could potentially cause an enlargement of the breasts in men.

Why would an athlete want to risk major health problems and developing breasts? Good old-fashioned hard work is the way to get ahead in sports. Drug companies try to tell consumers about all the values of these drugs, without telling of the side effects. Basically, creatine and andro sounded like wonder drugs through advertising. These supplements have many negative side effects. Many doctors and experts in the field of sports medicine are very concerned with the use of sports supplements. If these products are coming out onto the market without previous testing completed, the users are put at great risk for harm.

It has also been reported that once the athlete stops taking the supplement, all of the muscle that they gained while taking the supplement will be turned into fat. These athletes should realize that they would not be able to take the drugs forever without serious side effects. If that is not incentive to not take these things, then nothing is. The manufacturers do not even have to prove that their products are safe before marketing them. There needs to be more regulations on sports supplements in 4 order to protect consumers. People who go out and purchase sports supplements often later regret doing so.

People are realizing that creatine is dangerous and that the initial claims made by the companies are false. It is not only individuals who are realizing that these supplements are dangerous, states and governments are also realizing this. New Jersey is trying to put a ban on creatine and eventually so will every state, which is positive because the ban will save people from their own ignorance. The drugs are not FDA approved because they are dangerous and as long as it does not state that it is a steroid on the bottle, it can be sold anyway.

It should be illegal to sell products that are not FDA approved because the companies are putting their own customers at risk by selling dangerous products. One of the most famous cases of sport supplements use was by Mark McGwire. Baseballs Sultan of Swing, Mark McGwire, was living on creatine as he chased Roger Maris home run record a couple seasons ago. (Matheson) McGwire was also taking andro, and the combination of these two supplements probably helped him to achieve his goal of the home run record. Even the people using it know that it is wrong to take it.

It gives them an unfair advantage over the people who care about their health and body and do not want to harm themselves on purpose. Sources say that McGwire was furious when word leaked out last season he was using it. (Matheson) Famous athletes who serve as role models to children should not be doing things that they are going to be ashamed of, or want to cover up. McGwire obviously questioned the morality of using a performance-enhancing supplement, 5 especially, since he is a role model. Once the season was over, and he broke the home run record and got his name in the record books, McGwire stopped taking andro.

A few days later he told reporters in St. Louis he stopped using andro four months before. (Matheson) The main reason for McGwires behavior reversal was that he had seen that people take creatine and andro modeling his behavior, and he stated in a press conference on CNN that he stopped because he doesnt want kids to take it for that reason. McGwire was right, kids do take it because of him, and reports say that the sale of andro increased by over 500% after word came out that he was using the supplement.

Matheson) One can only hope that the kids will again follow his lead and stop taking this harmful drug. Mark McGwire is not the only professional athlete who is taking dangerous supplements. Michelle Smith de Bruin of Ireland won three gold medals in the Atlanta Olympics. It was later revealed that she had been using andro. She was banned from swimming for four years because of it. She ended up appealing the drug charges, but was not taken seriously because she spiked her urine sample with alcohol. In the end, she retired from swimming.

Schnirring) The use of androstenedione is banned in almost every professional sport, the NCAA, and the Olympics, but not in professional baseball. There needs to be a uniform drug policy throughout all sports, not just certain ones. The use of sport supplements such as androstenedione or creatine is dangerous, and these drugs should be obtained on a prescription basis alone. The people who are using them are misinformed about the side effects that they might have. Athletes are willing to sacrifice their health and well being by taking androstenedione or creatine, in order to 6 erform outstandingly for one season.

The really bad part is that it is not just professional athletes taking supplements now. These days, teenage high school students are buying and using supplements such as creatine and andro. These young athletes have seen the success that supplements have produced, and want the same effect. They are usually willing to pay any price, and use any supplement, to gain success. The United States and the professional sports organizations need to tighten up legislation regarding these drugs. If nothing is done about this, many people will develop serious long-term medical problems.

World Wrestling Federation

A generic product is when a company places a broad definition on their product/services offered. The generic product offered by the World Wrestling Federation is violent entertainment. This entertainment can be seen as tame when compared to earlier forms. An example is in 15th century England people used to convene in the local town square to watch executions for a form of entertainment. Although this is probably not the type of entertainment that the WWF wants to be associated with but they both servers the same entertainment value.

The WWF offers the consumer entertainment that is staged. Everyone knows it, and people enjoy watching this because of its humorous content. It is truly amazing that these giant men have the ability to do these stunts. I think many people look up to these amazing athletes. That’s probably the biggest offering the WWF can give, is a group of role models for children in a country which compared to the rest of the world is morbidly obese.

I feel that the WWF’s roots are buried too deep for this negative publicity to affect them. New sponsors already have taken the place of old ones. Also, RC Cola, who has a strong hold on teenagers (which is the primary watchers), already took the place of Coca Cola who backed out of the advertising during Smackdown. Advertisers will always want to be associated with the WWF; their numbers are just that high.

An Objection to Mandatory Drug Testing in High Schools for the Participation of Extra-Curricular Activities

With the recent steroid a scandal in Major League Baseball, debates over mandatory drug testing polices have sparked interest across the country. One issue that is highly controversial, but has taken a back seat in the in the debate, is the issue of mandatory drug testing policies in high schools.

With teenage drug use on the rise in the 90s’ the federal government and the United States Supreme Court gave the green light to mandatory drug testing policies for student athletes and participants of extra-curricular activities. In this paper I hope to prove that mandatory drug testing of student athletes and participants of extra-curricular at he high school level is a well-meaning but wrong-headed approach to teen drug prevention.

They promote growth of skeletal muscle (anabolic effect) and the development of male sexual characteristics (androgenic effects). ” Users of anabolic steroids run the risk of stunted bone growth, permanent damage to the heart, liver, kidneys, and a known seventy other major physical and psychological side effects. Currently, anabolic steroids are only legal in the United States by doctor prescription. Doctors use these steroids to treat patients who have developed certain conditions that force the body to produce low amounts of testosterone, such as delay puberty and some types of impotence, and also to treat body wasting in atients with AIDS and other diseases.

Finally, anabolic steroids are different from steroidal supplements sold over the counter in the United States, such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione (known as Andro). Users buy theses supplements through commercial sources including health food stores, because they believe the supplements have anabolic effects. This supplement was made popular during Mark McGwire’s record setting home run season and the controversy surround his admittance of using the supplement. Currently, there are three common drug-testing methods employed by he public school system, they include urinalysis test, hair follicle test, and the use of a sweat patch test.

The urinalysis test is the most common test used in high schools, primarily because of its low cost per a test, usually ranging from $10 to $30 per test, however with the relative low cost comes several problems. The first is a urinalysis test cannot detect alcohol or tobacco uses, both are illegal at the high school age. Secondly, by using a urinalysis test a specimen has a possibility of being adulterated. Finally, the urinalysis test is the most invasive of all drug ests because someone must be present when the specimen is collected. The second method of drug testing used by high schools is the hair follicle test. The hair follicle test is the mot expensive test used by high schools at a cost of $60 to $75 per test.

The test is limited to the five basic drug panel, which include marijuana, cocaine, opiate, amphetamines, and PCP. The test cannot detect alcohol use or recent drug use. Even though the hair follicle test is look at to be one of the more reliable drug tests, it does have its share problems. The test tends to be discriminatory: “dark haired people are more likely to test positive than londes, and African-Americans are more likely to test positive than Caucasians. ” In addition, exposure to drugs in the environment may lead to false positives, especially if those drugs are smoked. Finally, the third method of drug testing used by high schools is the sweat patch test. The sweat patch test is also relatively cheap at $20 to $30 per test.

The sweat patch test is able to detect the most drugs of out of the three tests, but the test is plagued with several problems. First, very few labs in this country are able to process the results, which causes an inconvenience to school districts. Secondly, passive exposure to drugs could result in false positives, due to contamination of the patch. Finally, any individual with excessive body hair, scrapes or cuts, and skin eruptions cannot wear the patch. New drug testing techniques are being developed to be more accurate and less invasive. One of theses new techniques is the saliva test. This test is said to be almost unbeatable because it uses a persons DNA.

However, this test opens up new doors of controversy, because it looks deep into ones past creating privacy issues and could open the door for employers to genetically test for certain types of employees. Monitoring the Future is an ongoing study conducted by the institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, which surveys the behaviors, attitudes, and values of American secondary school students, college students, and young adults. The study first began in 1975, when about 50,000 12th graders were surveyed. In 1991, 8th and 1oth graders were added to the survey. In addition to the survey, follow up questionnaires are mailed to a sample of each graduating class for a number of years after the initial survey.

History of the Issue In order to understand the mandatory drug testing issue completely, t is essential that we examine the background and history of events contributing to the establishment of mandatory drug testing of student athletes and participates of extra-curricular activities in high schools. The testing of student athletes and extra-curricular participates did not begin just recently. However: until recently, the debate of drug testing effectiveness was minimal.

Impact of the ’60s In the mid 1960’s with the coming of age of the Baby Boom generation and counter-culture revolution brought narcotics into the mainstream of America’s culture. By the late 1960’s middle-class youths and soldiers erving in Vietnam spurred on by popular music, had embraced certain drugs like marijuana, hallucinogens, and several others. In 1968, President Nixon was elected president on a law-and-order platform that emphasized a crack down on drug use.

That same year mandatory drug testing was instituted by the military, because of a growing number of drug addicted Vietnam vets returning home. War on Drugs In 1970, Congress passed the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. This act significantly lessened penalties for possession of many drugs. A year later, President Nixon declared the first “war on rugs. ” In 1975, the University of Michigan’s Institute of Social Research conducted the first of its series of “Monitoring the Future” studies on student drug use. In 1977, President Carter called for the decriminalization of marijuana, but later he drops the idea. In 1979, drug use peaks and an anti-drug movement began, led mostly by parents.

Just Say No The 1980’s brought about many changes in the drug policy of the United States. The drug cocaine was gaining popularity, especially among young, white, urban, professionals. In 1982, President Reagan declared a second “war on drugs. In July of 1985, an Arkansas court ruled that “the excessive intrusive nature” of drug testing student athletes without reasonable suspicion is not justified by its need. On June 19, 1986, University of Maryland basketball star Len Bias died of a cocaine overdose, his death prompted almost immediate change, when it came to drug testing. A few months after Bias’s death, President Reagan and the first lady launched the national “Just say no” anti-drug campaign.

President Reagan also issued Executive Order 12564, calling for a “drug free workplace” in all federal agencies. In addition, in a symbolic gesture he and his senior dvisors provide urine samples to be tested for illegal drugs. Congressed followed suit and passed into law the Drug Free Schools and Communities Act, which provide schools with funds to start anti-drug programs. The President signed the law on Oct. 27, 1986. States across the country also began to pass their own “Drug Free School Zone” laws. That same year, Bias’s death prompted the NCAA to approve mandatory drug testing for all its athletes. The late 80’s brought on a continued focus on illegal drug use.

In 1988, President Bush established the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. November 1988, Congress passed the Drug Free Work Place Act, which required all federal contractors or grant recipients to maintain drug free work places. This prompted many employers’ begin to set voluntary testing programs. This also leads to lawsuits brought by employees, claiming drug testing is a violation of individual privacy rights. The courts responded and allowed suspicion less drug testing. In 1989, President Bush unveils his National Drug Control Strategy, which encouraged drug for workplace policies in the private sector and in state and local government.

That same year the Supreme Court upholds random drug testing hen a “special need” outweighs individual privacy rights, in the National Treasury Employees Union v. Von Raab decision. Roller Coaster ’90s The 1990’s began with teen drug at an all time low and the expansion of drug testing policies. President Bush expanded the federal drug-testing program to include all White House personnel. In 1991, Congress passes the Omnibus Transportation and Employment Testing Act, which mandated drug and alcohol testing to 8 million private-sector pilots, drivers, and equipment operators. In 1992, President Clinton is elected and drug use begins increasing.

Some say the increase was due to the Persian Gulf War and the media, especially the recording industry, with messages of sex, drug, and rock-and-roll. One of President Clinton’s first acts in the White House was to expand on the drug testing policies of Presidents Reagan and Bush; he starts by authorizing mandatory drug testing in prisons. In 1995, the United States Supreme Court gave the green light to mandatory drug testing of high school athletes. In the case of Veronia School District v. Acton, the supreme court ruled that mandatory drug testing in high school athletics programs was not an unreasonable search or eizure, nor was the testing an invasion of the student athlete’s privacy.

The Supreme Court ruled that suspicion less; random urinalysis drug testing of high school athletes was justified because the drug crisis in the school district had reached “epidemic proportions. ” In the four and half years prior to the case, the Veronica school district had found only 12 positive drug tests. Ten years earlier the Supreme Court had struck down as unreasonable a New Jersey school’s athlete drug testing program, in which 28 student athletes tested positive for drugs in a single year. In the Veronia case Justice Antonin Scalia wrote the majority opinion; he was the same justice that wrote scornful dissent in the Von Raab decision.

Justice Scalia argued that student athletes have less privacy rights than the general student body because they dress and shower in close proximity. “Legitimate privacy expectations are even less with regard to student athletes. School sports are not for the bashful. They require “suiting up” before each practice or event, and showering and changing afterward. Public school locker rooms, the usual sites of these activities, are not notable for the privacy they afford. The locker rooms in Vernonia are typical: no individual dressing rooms are provided; shower heads are lined up along the wall, unseparated by any sort of partition or curtain; not even all the toilet stalls have doors.

Justice Scalia wrote. Justice Scalia went on to add that the increase of drug use by the student body was “largely fueled by the ‘role model’ effect of athletes’ drug use. ” Current Situation In 2001, Congress allocated $185 million to the Office of National Drug Control Policy for advertisements and campaign projects, in 2002 the administration only asked for $180 million. On February 12 of 2002, President George W. Bush unveiled a $19 billion anti-drug package that aimed to cut drug use in the United States by 10 percent in two years and by 25 percent in five years. Also, the DARE program would receive $644 million, $103 million less than it received in 2001.

The decrease was due to the program in recent years being ineffective and wasteful. President Bush’s plan also called for more emphasis on treatment and prevention, and federal grants for drug treatment would be increased by more than 6 percent, to $3. 8 billion for the fiscal year of 2003. Later that year the Supreme Court ruled on the landmark case of Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County v. Earls. In the case of the BOE v. Earls, the Supreme Court ruled that an Oklahoma school policy of randomly drug testing students who participate in competitive, non-athletic extra-curricular activities was in fact constitutional.

In a 5-4 decision the court reversed a federal court ruling. Justice Clarence Thomas, writing for the majority said that the court found such a policy “a reasonably effective means of addressing the school district’s legitimate concerns in preventing, deterring, and etecting drug use. ” In the dissent, Justice Ruth Ginsburg said the testing program was “capricious, even perverse,” infringing on the rights of a “student population least likely to be at risk from illicit drugs and their damaging effects. ” Clarification of the Problem Mandatory drug testing plays a vital role in protecting individuals and sports at both the collegiate and professional levels.

Unfortunately, when mandatory drug testing is carried over to the high school level, several consequences arise. When teenage drug use began to rise in the mid 90s’ public school districts began to adopt mandatory drug testing olicies, these policies have since been upheld as constitutional by the United States Supreme Court. However, research has shown that these policies are unsuccessful at deterring drug use among teenagers and may even hamper the process. The reason is simple mandatory drug testing policies at the high school level are aimed at the students who are at the least risk of abusing drugs the athletes and extra-curricular participants.

Arguments For Removal of Mandatory Drug Testing at the High School Level It is extremely important for the government to remove mandatory drug testing in high schools for student athletes and extra-curricular articipates. Research has shown that mandatory drug testing at the high school level is not effective for several reasons. Negative Impact on the Classroom or Team The first argument for the removal of mandatory drug testing at the high school level is that mandatory drug testing can have a negative effect on the classroom and on the team. Mandatory drug testing can undermine student-teacher relationships by “pitting students against teachers, administrators, school nurses, and coaches who have to test them, because it erodes trust between the student and the tester and leaves the student eeling ashamed and resentful.

Whether a school district buys drug test directly from a manufacturer and administers the test themselves or has an independent source brought in to administer the tests, someone must be present as the student urinates to be sure the sample is their own. This collection process can be a humiliating violation of the student’s privacy, and can be especially embarrassing for adolescent. Lack of student-teacher or student-coach trust created by drug testing also creates an unnecessarily tense school environment for students. In this type of environment students feel they cannot address heir fears or concerns, both about the use of drugs and factors in their lives that could lead to drug use, including depression, peer pressure, and an unstable family life.

“Essentially, you’re creating a prison-like atmosphere where students filled with fear and mistrust of authority,” says Dr. Gottfredson of the University of Maryland. Trust is also jeopardized when teachers, administrators, and coaches act as confidants in some circumstances and are forced to be police in others. Schools need to strive to create an environment where students feel welcomed, safe, and trusted. Waste of Valuable School Financial Resources The second argument for the removal of mandatory drug testing at the high school level is mandatory drug testing is a waste of valuable school financial resources. Currently, it costs the NCAA $2. 9 million on testing its athletes annually, while Oklahoma State University spends between $25,000 and $30,000 to tests their athletes each year.

These figures include the extra costs it takes for drug tests that are able to detect steroid use and are comparable to the figures it costs an average school district to test their student athletes and extra-curricular participates with tests that cannot detect steroid use. Today, drug testing costs school districts an average of $42 per student tested, which amounts to $21,000 for a school district testing 500 students. This figure is for the initial drug test alone. Beyond the initial costs of drug testing, there are other long-term operational and administrative costs. The process of dealing with a positive test is often times fairly long and involved. A second test must be administered to rule out a false positive result. After the second test a treatment and follow up testing plan has to be in place.

Other costs associated with student drug testing include: monitoring students’ rination for accurate samples, documenting, bookkeeping, compliance with confidentiality requirements, and tort or other insurance to protect a school district from potential lawsuits associated with their drug testing policy. Sometimes costs for student drug testing far exceeds the benefits the tests produce. Over the past year the Oak Mountain school district in suburban Birmingham, Alabama conducted roughly between 2,500-3,000 tests on its 11,000 middle and high school students, at a cost of $65,000. These tests in return netted fewer than 25 positive test results. That’s an average cost of $2,600 per a student caught. The same can be said for the school district of Dublin, Ohio. That school district netted only 11 students who tested positive, those results ended up costing the district $35,000 (Appendix A).

The cost of drug testing can exceed the total a district spends on existing drug education, prevention, counseling programs, and could possible take scarce financial resources away from other departments. The growing costs of mandatory drug testing of student athletes and extra-curricular participants can seriously undermine the original intent of the drug test. Potential Barrier to Joining Extra-Curricular Activities The third argument for the removal of mandatory drug testing at the high school level is that mandatory drug testing may be a potential barrier to joining extra-curricular activities.

Research has shown an increase in juvenile crime and adolescent drug use occurs during unsupervised hours between the end of classes and the parents returning form work, usually between 3 P. M. and 6 P. M. Research and studies have also proven that students who participate in extra-curricular activities, including athletics are less likely to develop substance abuse problems, less likely to engage in dangerous behaviors, and more likely to stay in school, earn igher grades, and achieve higher education goals.

The reasons for these results are that extra-curricular activities usually fill the time between when school releases and when the parents return home in the evening and students are in contact with teachers, coaches, or peers that help identify and address problematic drug use. Since the Supreme Court ruled in the cases of Veronia v. Acton and BOE v. Earls, many school districts who perform drug testing has seen a decrease in participation of students involved in extra-curricular activities.

The reason is simple; student drug testing is usually aimed at tudent athletes and participates in extra-curricular activities, because drug testing an entire student body is considered unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. The other reason school districts are seeing a reduction in participation of extra-curricular activities are concerns of the invasiveness of the tests and the violation of ones privacy. The Tulia Independent School District in Texas is an example of a school district that has seen a reduction in participation of extra- curricular activities and a rise in lawsuits regarding privacy issues, since it began a drug-testing program.

One female student explained: “I now lots of kids who don’t want to get into sports and stuff because they don’t want to get drug tested. That’s one of the reasons I’m not into any [activity]. Cause… I’m on medication, so I would always test positive, and then they would have to ask me about my medication, and I would be embarrassed. And what if I’m on my period? I would be too embarrassed. ” In the Gardner v. Tulia Independent School District case, a Texas District Court ruled that the school drug testing policy violated students Fourth Amendment rights, but the policy was upheld because of the precedence set forth by the United States Supreme Court.

Creatine in NCAA Baseball

Mark McGwire uses it. Sammy Sosa uses it. The Atlanta Braves have tubs of it in their locker room. Then why does Scott Carnahan, Linfield Colleges varsity baseball coach and coach of the 1994 U. S. A. Olympic baseball team emphasize, I will not participate in distributing it to any of my players? It is Creatine and it has become a health concern among most NCAA baseball coaches in Oregon. Creatine is a substance that is naturally produced in every human being. Every adult has around 130 grams of Creatine in their body. It allows us to run fast, lift hard, and react quickly. These are all the essentials of NCAA baseball.

In recent years, Creatine had been developed as a food supplement to enhance muscle performance. So why wouldnt NCAA baseball coaches in Oregon distribute the food supplement known as Creatine to their athletes? Yes, it is expensive at $49. 99 for 100 grams of powder. But, many coaches in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (an association that regulates many intercollegiate sports) are more concerned about the safety of the player. There are six NCAA baseball teams in Oregon. These teams work hard every year to accomplish a winning season, a conference title, or a national championship.

Players at Linfield, George Fox, Willamette, Oregon State, Pacific, and University of Portland face the pressure to win every season. Linfield College pitcher, Geoff Phillips describes the pressure as, relentless. There is always pressure to work hard in the weight room and train at 100%. Most of the pressure comes from the competition we face and our personal desire to win, said Phillips. 1 To compete at their highest level, ball players have to find time to bulk up. Weight lifting has always been a part of college baseball. After all, modern athletes develop their strength and endurance in the weight room.

But, where once players spent 3-5 hours a week in the weight room, most players now lift 8-10 hours a week. Oregon States head baseball coach, Pat Casey reached his 100th victory last year, the first OSU coach to do so in fewer than 5 years. Winning isnt something that comes natural. It takes a lot of hard work outside of practice, Casey stated in an OSU publication. Linfield head baseball coach, Carnahan, agrees. He assigns a workout schedule that works all major muscle groups and many minor muscle groups. Its a similar story in the Willamette weight room where players work each body part twice a week.

This could take up to 6 days a week depending on how many body parts they work on a day, said Coach Wong. The fact is everybody wants to win. Tough competition and personal desire to win causes a lot of college players in Oregon to take Creatine as a means of boosting their athletic performance. It became a part of NCAA baseball in the middle 1990s when studies showed that Creatine might enhance player capabilities. According to the NCAA Guide Line, Creatine has been found in some laboratory studies to enhance short term, high-intensity exercise capability, delay fatigue and increase strength.

Creatine can also increase muscle strength as much as one and one half times quicker than non-users, according to the Natural Medicines comprehensive database. Although several studies have contradicted the efficiency of Creatine, it has been 2 very popular among ball players. One survey conducted by the American College of Sports Medicine indicated that 30% of all male collegiate athletes had used Creatine at one time. On average, there are 45 players that compete on NCAA baseball teams in Oregon. Of the six NCAA programs in Oregon, four teams reported that nearly half of their players had used Creatine during the season.

Creatine has produced the kind of results that some players are looking for. A Linfield pitcher states that many players on his team are experiencing positive results. Probably about half of our team had taken Creatine. It has allowed our players to workout harder and longer, said Phillips. Second baseman, Kevin Hill, has also had good results using Creatine. For the past month and a half Creatine has helped me to gain weight and lift at the level I want to, said Hill. Doctor Kerry Kuehl, Director of Human Performance Lab for OHSU, hosted a seminar at Mcminnville high school called, Creatine Talk.

He explained that many athletes experience fewer problems with Creatine when it is taken in moderation. Many athletes feel that since Creatine is meant for short-term, high-intensity workouts that it is okay to take more than the recommended two to five grams a day. That is not the case, he said. Doctor Kuehl added that sometimes athletes take two, three or sometimes four times the recommended dose even though it doesnt pay to do so. Pitcher Damon Lorenz from George Fox had been using Creatine during the 98 season. For the one month I was using Creatine, it worked well.

There has been a lot of controversy about it, but as long as I have a lot of success in the weight room, I will continue to use it, he said. Some baseball players have not been as fortunate using. In 1998, one 3 OSU player using Creatine had experienced severe stomach problems. Oregon State trainers learned that Creatine was eating at the players stomach creating an ulcer. An article in the Stateman Journal stated that an athlete from Beaverton played in his last athletic event last month when he dropped dead during one college game. The reason is unknown, but officials do know that the athlete was taking Creatine at the time of his death.

Rite Aid pharmacy manager, Sheri Siddal, says that even though there have not been any long-term effects linked to Creatine, it could disrupt certain conditions. A study conducted by Natural Medicines stated that Creatine could exacerbate kidney and liver disfunctions. Many athletes arent aware that they have a kidney or liver problem and that it (Creatine) could exacerbate their condition without them knowing about it, said Siddal. Some researchers fear that, with the amount of extra Creatine contrived through the diet, the body might stop producing it all together.

Because there has not been any long term studies, nobody knows for sure. The only way we will find out the negative effects of long term use is time. However, the short-term effects have been determined. Studies show that Creatine has been known to cause weight gain. There had also been a number of anecdotal reports claiming that Creatine supplementation may cause an upset stomach, diarrhea, promote muscle strains/pulls, or contribute to muscle cramps. Lorenz, from George Fox, battled some effects daily. Although Lorenz did claim that Creatine helped enhance his workout, he also claims that he experienced weight gain and dehydration.

Sometimes when I was working out it seemed likr I could lift for hours without drinking much water. The body is 80% water. Most of the weight that players on Creatine gain is 4 water weight. So how can the body dehydrate if players gain water weight? Well, water that is naturally absorbed circulates throughout the whole body. When a player takes Creatine, most of the water in the body runs straight to the skeletal muscles causing other areas of the body to lack water. That is why it is crucial that all players using Creatine drink a lot of water. Of course, each body reacts in a different way.

A survey by the Physician and Sports Medicine reported that 25% of 52 male collegiate athletes reported muscle cramping when they took Creatine. Interestingly, all but two of the athletes that reported muscle cramping also experienced either diarrhea or dehydration. Some researchers argue that the reason why some male collegiate athletes experience side effects and other dont are because they are not taking all the necessary precautions. Many Oregon collegiate baseball players know what they are getting into when they choose to bulk up with Creatine.

Many of the NCAA players who take it do understand that the long-term effects have not been determined. They know that some players have had bad experiences. They are certainly aware that Creatine decreases fatique and can build muscle mass. However, they do not know what they are getting in each bottle. The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) found many bottles of Creatine with different ingredient levels. Doctor Kuehl, Director Human Performance at OHSU Department of Medicine, says that calcium and calorie levels were sometimes different then what the bottle read. What does this do to the athlete? Dr.

Kuehl says they have not yet found what kind of impact this could have on athletes. We dont know if or how this will 5 impact athletic performance. It is not a good thing when you think you are taking more then what you really are, or vice versa, said Dr. Kuehl. Initially, the FDA did not test Creatine because it qualified as a food supplement. The reason why the FDA tested Creatine was because they were concerned. They had received enough case reports to do so, Dr. Kuehl added. So, what is the NCAA doing during all this? The NCAA has certain set regulations to protect the safety of the players and the institution.

When Creatine became popular in the NCAA many teams were distributing it to their players. The NCAA makes a point of backing their position of maintaining high standards of personal honor, eligibility, and fair play. As expected, Creatine was not on the banned drug list. Recently, the NCAA held a committee meeting about the distribution of Creatine. The committee recommends that the provision of weight-gain and muscle/strength building supplement products to student-athletes by member institutions and their personnel be nonpermissible at all times.

This means that no team may use NCAA funds, school funds (including team funds) or personal funds to distribute Creatine or any other supplements that enhance performance. According to a letter distributed by the Committee Chair of the NCAA, William Arnet, schools should be encouraging access to competent nutritional advice. The NCAA expects trainers, coaches, and athletic director to educate players about Creatine. One doctor from the Doctors Clinic in Salem takes it upon himself to educate patients about Creatine. Dr. David Edmonds, an expert in family practice, believes all 6 atients should know the risks of Creatine.

It is important that baseball players and all athletes know the truths, said Dr. Edmonds. I think many coaches tell players what they want to hear, he added. In the thirteen years that Dr. Edmonds has been practicing at the Doctors Clinic he hardly heard any complaints about Creatine. Still, every time a patient inquires about Creatine Edmonds states the facts. Yes, Creatine can enhance athletic capability. Yes, Creatine can be dangerous. New York Yankee star, Scott Brosius, chooses not to take Creatine because he does not want to take a risk.

Brosius, a third baseman for the World Series champions, recently received big honors for his talent in the big leagues. In 1998, Brosius lead the Yankees to a four-game sweep against the Padres to win his first championship. Brosius was named M. V. P. of the World Series in 1998, and was honored with the Golden Glove Award for his excellent fielding in the 1999 World Series championship. Brosius attended Linfield Collge located in Mcminnville, Oregon. While at Linfield, he excelled on the field and kept the same attitude as he does for the Yankees. The problem is that many players say if a little is good, than a lot of must be better.

That is where the problem occurs, said Brosius. Brosius does feel Creatine can be used safely, but according to the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database that could be an overstatement. They define Creatine as, possibly safe, and somewhat effective. Brosius feels that Creatine runs a serious risk to the players body since it makes their bodys grow faster than nature intends it. Sometimes, the muscles can develop so strong that they cause injuries to the body. I have heard cases where players experienced a higher increase of muscle pulls and strains while on Creatine, said Brosius.

History of Baseball

Baseball seems always to have lived more in myth that in history. Children in England and the United States had been playing variants of the game for years such as rounders, one o’ cat, and base. In 1845, some young men in Manhattan organized themselves into the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club and wrote down the rules of the game they were playing. Twenty years later dozens of baseball clubs in New York and Brooklyn, and their journalist brethren, had made what they called the “national pastime” more popular than cricket, and the metropolis had become the country’s first baseball powerhouse.

As baseball clubs were transformed into entertainment businesses and instruments of civic boosterism, so grew their need for first-rate players who could attract paying crowds. The remarkable undefeatable season of the national touring Cincinnati Red Stockings in 1869 paved the way for baseball’s full-blown professionalization in the 1876 formation of the National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs. Although distinctions between players and their clubs (now really small businesses) had been hardening for years, the National League formalized the division, which has continued until today.

Baseball soon outdistanced other spectator sports in popularity and contributed to the sports boom of the 1880s and 1890s. Late nineteenth-century baseball resembled the Gilded Age business world. Owners moved the clubs frequently, while rival leagues sprung up and competed for players and spectators. The National League either defeated its opponents outright or incorporated them into a subordinate national structure of minor leagues. Not until 1901 was the National League force to accept the American League, the only other surviving major league. Leagues controlled access to spectators by granting franchises.

Owners and leagues controlled the players through labor practices that combined elements of chattel slavery (the infamous reserve rule) and freewheeling industrial capitalism: blacklisting, fines, salary limits, and reductions, even the use of Pinkerton spies. The reserve clause, initiated in 1879 and inserted into every player’s contract, gave his employer the right to reserve his services for the following year, unless the player was traded, sold, or released from his contract. Players fought the reserve rule, most notably when the Brotherhood of Professional Base Ball Players launched its own Players’ League in 1890.

When the players’ financial backers sold them out to the National League, baseball owners triumphed and ruled organized baseball virtually unchallenged for eighty-five years. They were aided by a series of bizarre Supreme Court rulings that baseball was not interstate commerce and therefore not bound by federal antitrust law. In 1975 and arbitrator ruled that the reserved clause applied for only one year and players, as “free agents,” regained their negotiating power; salaries quickly reached unheard-of levels.

Owners retaliated in 1981 but were soundly defeated by a players’ strike. Then in the late 1980s they conspired (illegally, an arbitrator held) to limit salary offers to free agents. After a twenty-year period of franchise movement, league expansions, and the creation of divisions within leagues, baseball became organizationally stable again in the late 1970s. Attendance grew dramatically throughout the 1980s, more people attended major league baseball games (over 50 million per year at the end of the decade) than at any other time in the games history.

Baseball has been America’s most popular sport for so long mainly because it has successfully straddled some of the nation’s most important cultural divisions. Though it was born among the respectable working class and sporting middle class, the game’s cultural antecedents lay in the boisterous street culture of saloon-based volunteer fire companies, militias, theater partisans, street gangs, and political factions. The National League explicitly appealed to more middle-class audiences by requiring its teams to charge fifty cents, ban the sale of alcohol, and refuse to play Sundays.

The rival American Association appealed to immigrant and working-class audiences by charging a quarter, selling liquor, and playing Sunday ball. Despite the outrage with which baseball officials and writers treat baseball’s occasional betting scandals (in 1865 and 1877 as well as more famously in the 1919 “Black Sox” scandal and the 1989 banishment of Pete Rose), the game has never been completely free of the sporting underworld of gambling and low life. Even though they are all men with extraordinarily disciplined athletic skills, ballplayers, like most professional entertainers, frequently behave badly off the field.

Alongside the game’s reputation as an upright, all-American pastime, its culture continues to have a whiff of the unrespectable. Baseball has also had an archaic aura throughout most of its history, the heyday of modern industrializing America. It enshrined craft excellence at precisely the time industrialists were destroying craft production. As the traditional foundations of manhood were subjected to enormous strains, mostly young men who played baseball worried about devoting so much time to at child’s game and tried to distinguish their “manly sport” from “ boyish play.

Although baseball’s origins are urban, its myth is powerfully, stubbornly rural. While city populations swelled in the late nineteenth century, and mass entertainment was born at places like Coney Island, baseball fans flocked to watch a game featuring individuals, isolated and surrounded by the green grass of ballparks. The major league color barrier was breached in 1947 by the careful planning and daring of Brooklyn Dodgers general manager Branch Rickey and the courage, self-control, and baseball skill of Jackie Robinson, who Rickey invited to pioneer with his team.

Robinson’s talents and legendary aggressiveness made him into one of the best second basemen who ever played the game. Currently, baseball is integrated in that there are large numbers of African-American and Latin players; it is not unusual for a starting lineup to have a minority of whites. Still, the higher echelons managers, general managers, and owners are almost completely white, and there are many fewer African-American catchers and pitchers than there are outfielders and first basemen.

The Bicycle past, present

The Bicycle began as a wooden push horse to a mode of transportation, as well as a sport. The future is bright for the bicycle, with its increasing popularity as well as the advancements in technology. The bicycles history dates back to the 1490’s. During this time Leonardo da Vinci, a famous artist, as an well as inventor created a primitive drawing of the bicycle. These pictures were more advanced then many ancestors of the modern day bicycle. Da Vinci’s sketches showed a bicycle with gears and a chain rotating the rear wheel, but these bikes were not manufactured until the mid to late 1800’s.

The first bicycle built was constructed by Baron Von Drai in 1817. His bicycle was called the hobby horse, its main body was made of wood and the front and rear were solid wooden forks allowing the rider very limited movement. It received the name hobby horse because of its size and shape. The hobby horse was ridden by the movement of your feet. (Like the Flintstones cartoon when Fred is driving his car. ) These bicycles were very popular among the rich of the time, since no one else could afford them.

Around 1863 many different inventors experimented with different ways to modify the out of date hobby horse, so with the new technology the new bicycle was known as the “Bone Shaker. “(Lehrer 43) It was named this because of the hard materials used to make this bicycle, most were made of a wood frame with steel wheels. The movement of peoples feet were still used. With the wheels being made of steel, riders had a bone shaking experience while people rode them on the cobblestone streets. In 1871 the more popular High Wheelers were being manufactured.

A High Wheeler was a bicycle constructed of solid steel with a huge wheel in the front averaging in size of 5-6 feet and a smaller wheel in the back averaging in height 2 1/2 feet. The advancement from the Bone Shaker was that there were handle bars to steer the bike with as well as pedals to put the immense thing in motion. To mount the bicycle took acrobatic skills which made it hard for the average person to learn to ride. The High Wheeler was the first affordable bike of the time, it only took the average worker 6 months worth of his salary to buy one. (McGurn 157)

A few years later in 1880 the tricycle was invented. Like tricycles of today they were made of steel and the pedals were located on the front wheel. These tricycles were used by the women, at the same time men were still using the High Wheelers risking the chance at breaking their necks. In 1890 the Safety Bike was invented. The safety bike was a giant step in the technology of bicycles, the wheels were now the same size, the bike now had pedals that connected to a crank with gears, and the bike featured a spring front and rear suspension for added comfort.

Only the extremely wealthy had the opportunity to purchase this bike because of its titanic price tag. This bike had technologies not used until the 1980’s. The 1890’s not only fashioned a bicycle for the wealthy but also for the common working people of the day. Common working class people were able to enjoy the bicycle as a mode of transportation as well as a recreational vehicle. (Ballantine 187) “Let me tell you what I think of bicycling. I think It has done more to emancipate woman all around the world. I stand and rejoice every time I see a woman ride by on a wheel.

It gives women freedom and self reliance. “(Susan B. Anthony, qtd. In Mozer) By the beginning of World War I American people became more interested in automobiles than in bicycles. Companies such as Sears, Mead, and Schwinn began to market bicycles for children. (Baranet 76) Present From the beginning of World War I to the early sixties bicycles lost its popularity that it had for one hundred and ten years. Then in 1962 the bicycle began to make its comeback. In 1962 the bicycle was modified from its single speed, kiddy bike format, to a more advanced speed machine.

The bicycle was reshaped so it was more pleasurable as well as comfortable for people of all sizes. Some advances to the standard bicycle were a new frame made of aluminum and light weight steel,10 speed derailer that allowed the rider different ratios of gearing that made the bike more convenient, hand brakes that were controlled from the handle bars, wheels that were made of rubber tubing with a more rugged rubber outer layer that protected the wheel from easily being punctured, and suspension was brought back again. (Sloan 249) All of these improvements made the bike of today much more comfortable as well as affordable.

During the sixties there was a shortage of oil in the United States that further helped the growth of bicycles among the public. The oil shortage caused the quantity of oil the decrease intensely, with this oil prices sky rocketed. Many Americans thought the prices were unreal and began to use bicycles as there mode of transportation to and from work since it did not need any oil or gas. In the early 80’s there was a craze about person physical fitness and the growth of bicycling further increased. The main focus point of the bicycling was by the upper middle class. The 1984 Olympics brought even more attention to future bicyclist.

It brought more attention by the United States doing so well in bicycling events, and from their success gear ratios got a lot larger to increase the speed of the bike they started as 10 speed to 24 speeds by the late 1980’s. (Lehrer 31) By the late 80’s bicycling became the 3rd most popular sport. The two other activities that finished behind bicycling were swimming and general exercises. With the increased grow came expansions on the sport. Some of the new modifications were BMX and flatland bicycling. BMX was an off road dirt jumping sport and flatland was a challenge of balance while the rider turned and rotated the bike.

In the 90’s mountain biking blew up in the United States. From the beginning of the bicycles life it remained a road based vehicle. Mountain biking grew so fast that by 1996 Mountain Bikers competed at the Olympics for the first time in Atlanta. Future In the future the sport of bicycling will continue to grow and the technology as well as the sport will be changing. The biggest changes in the world of bicycling will be in the type of material used, the expansion of the sport, the change in the bicycles components, improvements in design, and the change in style of the bike.

In the future bicycles won’t be made of heavy steel that was used in the 50’s and 60’s, bicycles of the future will be made of heat treated aluminum, titanium, and heat treated carbon fiber. These materials will be put into use to reduce the weight of the bicycle from being (in the 60’s) 60 pounds a bicycle, to meagerly weighing 10-12 pounds. (Kolin 134) The sport of bicycling will become more broad with various coed sports. A few of the new futuristic sports that are beginning to be developed today are downhill mountain biking, Salem mountain biking, and downhill speed biking.

Downhill mountain biking will be done in ski resorts in the off season, Salem mt. Biking will be raced on the ski resorts but in season on the snow, downhill speed racing won’t be done on fully suspended bikes but on sleek aerodynamic bikes down hills nearly 90 degrees steep. (Sloane 231) Parts of bicycles like the frame will be reduced in weight in many different types of ways. One way they will reduce the bikes weight is by changing the materials to carbon fiber, aluminum, and titanium. A lot of bike companies now sell parts made of these materials but at unbelievable prices ($8,000 for a carbon fiber frame.

Another way components will change is by getting rid of unneeded parts on a bike. An example of doing this is by changing styles of shifters from rapid fire index shifters to grip shifters that don’t have as many moving parts making it lighter by a few grams. Improvements on design will make bicycles more aerodynamic for the road and more durable for off road riding. A way they will improve a bicycles aerodynamics is by making the tubing thin and blade like allowing the bike to cut through the air, and durability of off road bicycles will be improved by thickening the joints of the bicycles and making the frame tubing larger.

The most important change will be the overall change in style. Back in the 60’s and 70’s the big handle bar banana bike seats were in, but in the future bicycles with carbon fiber rims, front and rear suspension, titanium allow brake boosters, and florescent colored frames that stand out will be a big trend in a few years. (Kolin 163) In conclusion the bicycle starting as a wooden push horse to a machine capable of going over 50 mph. has under gone a metamorphosis in its 200 year life. The future is bright with the advancement of its popularity and technology. Who knows where the bicycle will be 100 years from today?

Sports and Aggressive Behavior

Sport and aggressive behavior, Do sports create aggressive behavior, or simply attract people who are already aggressive? Aggression and sport have gone together as long as sports have been around, be it the players themselves, to the parents, coaches, or spectators, they just seem to be an inseparable part of each other. The term violence is defined as physical assault based on total disregard for the well being of self and others, or the intent to injure another person ( 2. Coakley).

Intimidation usually does not cause physical harm, but often is designed to produce psychological consequences, enabling one person to physically over power or dominate another. These statements as defined by the author, Jay J. Coakley, is what people today have made a must part on sport. Pleasure and participation sports absolutely cannot be grouped with power and performance sports when in relation to aggression. Pleasure sports are simply played for pleasure. Score is usually not kept. The athletes participating are usually on occasion doing it for fun and exercise.

A majority of athletes who have been playing sports since they were little, have probably been pounded into their heads that to be successful in sport, you need to be aggressive, and at some times, unnecessary. Also that to get what you want, you have to go at it with all force. Not that this is wrong but, this attitude in todays society has been a major problem factor to the athletes when they get older, to get into trouble with the law. Those long-term effects of so called discipline, patterns develops these destructive behaviors. (9.

Although some people are still in belief that aggressive behaviors in all forms, are grounded into instincts, but they also relate these actions to sports. Their parents played, who were known for their aggressive behavior, so the child feels that they have to live up to that expectation. ( 6. Storr) Athletes do have to be aggressive to a point, so that the team can form a strategy to win. There is also a limit to aggression when it turns into violence. People might say that its not aggression or violence, its just adrenaline pumping. Adrenaline isnt even similar to violence.

Aggression, maybe, but nothing that would be harmful to anyone else. This might be a factor to why contact sports are so popular. For example, football, hockey, rugby, wrestling, and boxing. Contrary to predictions of instinct theory, several studies show that contact sports exist and thrive in the same societies that have high rates of aggression and violence. Unfortunately, another belief is that contact sports teach discipline, self-respect, and self-defense. (8. May ) Contact sports arent a positive way to teach these things. Being physically tough helps, but it also needs to be left on the field when the game is over.

This can also lead to the abuse of family, girlfriends, boyfriends, friends, and any other person who gets in their way, because athletes use these sports as a way to get their aggression and angers out. ( 10. Hauser, Powers, Noam ) Others might argue that its skill, and not in the least way violent. Although we really cant give a straight and to the point answer to the question Is aggression an Instinct? We can say that in man, as in other animals, there exists a physiological mechanism, when stimulated, it rises both subjective feelings of anger and to physical changes, which relate to fighting.

This is easily set off, and like other emotional responses, it is very stereotyped, and instinctive. Just like one person is like a very angry person; they resemble one another at the psychological level. The way in which humans adapt to and control their feelings of rage. ( 5. Toch) The mechanisms in which these body changes, the functions that come about is still completely misunderstood. ( 5. Toch) Experiments from animals show that it appears that there is a small area from the base of the brain in which the feeling of anger starts. This, from which is sent to the nervous impulses that cause the blood pressure to rise.

This area is called the hypothalamus. Its function is to coordinate responses like anger. ( 3 Diamond) The relationship between anger, rage, and violence, and psychopathology that is abnormal or unnatural in human behavior and experience. People demonstrate their anger reactions in different ways. Similar to most human behavior, violence has a meaning that it only seems senseless or meaningless to the extent that we are unable to understand it. Most violence starts the fiery human emotions of anger and rage. Not all violent behavior has its origins in anger and rage; some of it is learned, as mentioned before.

Some violence is driven primarily something that Friedrich Nietzsche referred to as the will to power. In other words, rage. ( 3. Diamond) Rage is an instinctual and defensive reaction to severe stress, or physical threat. This is an automatic reflex that people share with animals. This response to serious threat is referred to by Walter Cannon as the fight or flight response. Its the first defense for the survival of the species. Any other threat to the continued physical existence, a person would have the instinct to try to leave, or if they cant, then physically defend them by attacking the source of the threat.

Hawkins, Fredman ) Relating to the fact that men are more aggressive than women are, studies shown in several cases those testosterone levels in young men especially are. The high levels of endogenous testosterone seem to encourage behavior apparently intended to dominate, to enhance ones status over other people. ( 9. Montague) Sometimes aggressive behavior is aggressive, its apparent intent being to inflict harm on another person, but often dominance is expressed nonaggressively. Measurement of testosterone at a single point in time presumably indicator of a mans basal testosterone level, predicts many of these dominant behaviors.

Numerous animal experiments, this one particular to rodents, show that raising testosterone increases aggressiveness. This is in relation to the dominance and antisocial behavior related to the individuals. An individual can be said to act dominantly if its apparent intent is to achieve or maintain high status, to obtain power influence, or valued prerogatives. Rodents do typically dominate aggressively, but it isnt true of humans. Much of interpersonal behavior is overtly or subtly concerned with managing dominance and subordination without causing physical harm.

It is harder to identify instances of aggression of a dominating motives, things related to religious sacrifices. It is understood that motivations are different from different situations for dominance and aggression. ( 1. Felson, Tedeschi) Clinical science assumes that all men are capable of bloody destructiveness. It maintains that image with most people who do away with their hatreds and, and although There are some instances where this effort fails. Some people are so shy about their aggressiveness that when they are provoked in the least little way, they become so violent that they are unbearable.

Even a slight review of violent conduct suggests that violence isnt blind, and random. Members of fighting gangs are frequently nonviolent when separated from their members. Many extremely dangerous people seem to specialize in certain areas of victims. This is in relation to taking the aggressiveness off the field. There is sometimes a relationship between being violent and being socially improper. Violence usually takes place in certain circles, certain settings, and on certain occasions. If violence is really blind and random, its hard to understand why we should find so much in specific situations.

Does a man assault his wife rather than the athlete who messed up simply because shes available? Violence cant be associated with angry explosions. There is shape and form to violence. Patterns of destructiveness show consistently, and they relay from person to person. As for each of us, violence seems to be tied to a restricted range of life situations. It seems to reflect purpose, and implies the presence of hidden meanings. So, how do we satisfy it? How is it provoked? How do violent people function?

The level of testosterone circulating in the bloodstream may affect dominating or aggressive behavior by activating receptors in organs or the nervous system. Focusing on young males who have passed through puberty. There are associated reports that show a relatively high level of testosterone with dominant, aggressive, or antisocial actors including several studies of men in jail. The scientists found that no significant testosterone difference between those who fought in prison, and those who did not, between the ages of 18 to 35.

However, prisoners with a prior record of violence and aggression related crimes, they had a significantly higher testosterone level than those without a history. In the age group of 18to 45, sorted into the same groups, those with chronic aggressive behavior, those socially dominant without physical aggressiveness, and those who were neither aggressive or dominant, their testosterone levels were not significantly different between the aggressive and dominant groups, but they also had significantly higher testosterone than the group that was either aggressive or dominant.

A similar study was tested on college hockey players. ( 1. Felson , Tedeschi) They studied 14 male college players ages 18 to 23, and found a significant correlation between testosterone and coach ratings of players aggressiveness in respond to threat. Another study was done on four male physicians. Ranging from ages to 23 to 38, they were confined on a boat for a two week holidaycruise. The testosterone level to be correlated with the physicians assertiveness and dominant behavior, as ranked by three women on the boat.

Overall, there is considerable evidence from a variety of settings that in men, circulating testosterone is correlated with dominant or aggressive behavior, and antisocial norm breaking. Correlation doesnt imply any reason, and the question is still being pondered, Is high testosterone a cause of dominant and antisocial behavior? ( 9. Montague) There has also been argument whether or not that women can be as aggressive and dominant as men. Despite considerable speculation that testosterone is associated with aggression or status in women, the literature is few and far between.

Scientists report that testosterone levels in 55 women increased the status of their occupations. Another study was done with women who were patients in a neurological clinic, found significantly higher testosterone levels among relatively aggressive patients compared to less aggressive ones, but they also differed in diagnois, and making the comparison suspect. ( 5. Toch) The issue of sex differences has been addressed by asking how men and women respond to an identical competitive situation.

Testosterone was given by saliva to young men and women before, during, and after competing with a same sex partner in a video game. The hormonal response to the competition was different in each sex. Males showed the usual pre contest rise in testosterone, but females did not. Males did not show the usual result that testosterone levels of winners is higher than that of losers, apparently because the video game produced no mood difference between male winners and losers.

A mood difference was produced between female winners and losers, but the female showed no specific response to the competition. These results show that the outcome of the competition on testosterone specific to men. (7. Hawkins, Fredman) From laboratory results and athletic studies, the testosterone level rises in men awaiting a contest, regardless of the eventual outcome contest. Generalizing to the street, hormone levels should be elevated in young men who are constantly against assaults on their reputations.

Of course, testosterone level is also affected by the outcome of the contest, so persistent losers might be hormonally depressed, but most men, those with mixed outcome or better, should have elevated testosterone level. ( 3. Diamond) Leaving behind the historic roots of the South, there may be a general hypersensitivity to insult in any subculture that is, or once was organized around young men who are constantly constrained by traditional community agents of social control, as after occurs in frontier countries, gangs, among bohemians, and after social breakdown or natural diseases.

When young men place special emphasis on protecting their images and reputations, and they are not restrained from doing so, dominance contests become necessary, the hallmark of male to male interaction. ( 5. Toch) To interpret racial differences in testosterone, a comparison of black and white boys ages 6 to 18 years, mostly preteens, showed no significant race different in testosterone. By adulthood, black males do have significantly higher testosterone levels than white males, possibly reflecting the higher defensive demands on black men during adulthood.

The reciprocal linkage between hormones and behavior suggests that if testosterone levels among young men in the inner city are highlighted by their constant defensive posture against challenge and these high hormone levels in turn encourage further dominance contests. Feedback between challenge and testosterone may create a various circle, sometimes with lethal effects. (7. Hawkins, Fredman) During puberty, the effects of testosterone on behavior appear to work primarily through long term reorganizations of the body and neurohormanal system, and only secondary through short term activation.

By the end of puberty, usually around 16 years, the body is nearly at its adult form so behavior is affected primarily by the level of testosterone circulating in the blood stream, which can activate steroid receptors. (10. Hauser, Powers, Noam) There is a string correlation and experimental evidence that testosterone levels respond in predictable ways both before and after competitions for status. First, testosterone rises shortly before a competitive event, as if anticipating the challenge.

Second, after the conclusion of competition, testosterone levels in winners rises relative to that of losers. Testosterone also rises after status evaluations, and it falls after status demotions, These effects require the presence of appropriate mood changes. Limited evidence suggests that this pattern of testosterone responses is specific to men. ( 4. Stepansky) As these studies have suggested, aggression in sport is there, but the men mainly showcase it.

Aggressive people are attracted to contact violent sport competitions, to where they can fit in while being violent. On the other hand, sports can create aggressive behaviors that could lead to worse things. Women can and will showcase this, but as said before, men show a stronger case of it. Things of this nature have been going on for centuries, every since the beginning of sport, unfortunately, if these behaviors arent controlled, the young children might be the ones to suffer by an outcome that nobody wants to see, doing away with sports in general.

Cassius Clay better known as Muhammad Ali

Cassius Clay better known as Muhammad Ali is by far the greatest boxer of all time. “King of the World” by David Reminick is a very detailed biography of Muhammad and good documentation how boxing used to be. The book takes you on a journey behind the scenes of Alli’s rise to the top and boxing run in with La Costra Nostra. On an October afternoon in 1954 when Cassius was 12 he left his 60 dollar red Schwinn outside the Columbia Auditorium to visit a bazaar. When he and his friends left he realizes that his new bike was stolen.

Cassius was in a tearing rage and someone said that there was a police officer in the basement of a boxing gym. He went in demanding a statewide bike hunt and threatening to beat the hell out of whoever had stolen it. The officer Joe Martin asked Cassius if he could fight, and Cassius said no, so Martin invited him to come to the gym and learn how to box, so he could get pay back on the bicycle thief. This is the story of how Cassius first got interested and determined to become a great boxer.

He also showed determinations when he brought home and Olympic gold medal. He trained very hard for our country and did a really good job. Even back then he ran his trashed talked his opponents, like in his first match he fought e one by a spit decision, after he found out he had one he shouted he would soon be “the greatest of all time”. Know one knew at the time that his boasts would soon be the truth. Cassius mouth has gotten him a lot of key matches in his career. He gained his first title shot form Sonny Liston this way.

One of his famous quotes was “I’m so mean I make medicine sick. ” He ran his mouth so often that people thought he ran his mouth just to psyche him self-out for the matches. That is said to be how he one all of his matches. Before the Liston fight he charted a bus around with signs that read “We all love Cassius Clay”, Without Cassius the game is dead! “March on Liston’s camp. ” “BEAR HUNTIN’. ” Cassius first heavy weight title shot was against Sonny Liston a very big man who would give Mike Tyson a good run for his money.

There was a lot of hype surrounding their first fight. Cassius ran his mouth so much that everyone thought that Liston was going to kill Clay. Liston actually threatened to kill Clay. The day of the fight the tension in the air was so thick you could cut it with a knife. In the ring before they touched gloves and Cassius told Liston “I’ve got you now, sucker! ” Cassius knew that he could not match Liston’s power, so he danced. Liston could land a punch on Clay all night. By the sixth round Liston knew he was going down that night with the quickness.

It has been said but not proven that Sonny instructed his assistant to juice his gloves. This is were you rub ferric chloride on a pair of boxing gloves, which is a stinging solution that tends to blind. During the fourth round Cassius’s eyes began to sting. He lost his vision and the sixth round. By the seventh he gained it back and came back with the knock out. He screamed “Eat your words! ” Cassius was now world heavy weight champion. A rematch happened between Clay and Liston on May 25, 1965. Very early in the match Cassius knocked out Liston with the infamous “phantom punch”.

This punch was thrown so quickly that it almost escaped even the eye of the camera. Before the referee counted to ten Cassius was over Liston shouting “Get up and fight, you bum! You’re supposed to be so bad! Nobody will believe this! ” Liston was out cold. The crowd shouted “FAKE! ” It has never been proven that Liston actually threw the fight. Muhammad was baptized Catholic, but got very interested with The Nation of Islam. In the beginning of his career he had to hide his interests in “The Nation”, because he felt hat the public was not ready for his conversion.

In an interview he was once asked if he was a Muslim, and he replied “I am not Muslim, but they are the cleanest people I have ever met. ” When Cassius Clay converted to Muslim he changed his name to Muhammad Alli. He became very close with Elijah Muhammad and Malcom X. Malcom went to all of Alli’s matches, disused The Nation of Islam, and ate breakfast together frequently. When Malcom X was assassinated it hit Alli very hard. He was depressed and got more scared about it getting killed him self. Muhammad Alli was an amazing athlete who did what he told everyone back when his icycle was stolen.

He is the greatest of all time. He is a very nice man who does many nice things for charities and The Nation of Islam worldwide. He had gotten a lot of brain damage from boxing so much that now in his old age he cannot speak and function quite right. But this does not affect “the butterfly” in his daily life. Muhammad Alli made a great contribution to boxing and the dancing style, and he will never be forgotten for his amazing technique. This book is a very entertaining and true to life book Muhammad Alli. I recommend this book to anyone who is interested in boxing and Muhammad Alli.

The Dream Team Era

During the summer of 1992, the NBA took center stage as the world watched the greatest team in sports ever assembled joke, pose, and finally play its way to the gold medal at the summer Olympic games. The team was named the “Dream Team” and it featured eleven of the NBA’s best players. Names like Michael Jordan, Earvin “Magic” Johnson, and Larry Bird headlined the games and the play of Scottie Pippen and “Sir” Charles Barkley stole the show. After only eight games, the world of USA basketball would never be the same.

Since 1992 two more teams called themselves the “Dream Team” and two were simply labeled as “Team USA” but one thing is for certain, International basketball has taken a step in the right direction thanks in part to the NBA and its Dream Team era. Over time the faces of those players may have changed, but the goal has always stayed the same and that’s the goal of bringing home the gold medal. After dominating men’s Olympic basketball for years, the men’s USA basketball team lost to the USSR in the 1988 Seoul games which cost them a shot at winning the gold medal, but they did come home with the bronze.

The United States Olympic committee decided that since the rest of the world were sending their best players into the Olympic games that when it came to basketball it was time for them to do the same. The decision was made in 1989 to allow players from the NBA to represent their country in the 1992 Barcelona games. That one decision was the most important decision in the history of international basketball with one goal in mind; to put together the best possible team that they could.

The goal of putting a great basketball team of NBA players together seemed impossible especially when it came to dealing with the egos of today’s athletes, but what seemed impossible became a reality. Established veterans like Magic Johnson and Larry Bird and future Hall of Famers/MVP’s like Michael Jordan and best friend Charles Barkley were added to the team. Big men David Robinson and Patrick Ewing were added to control the paint and guards Clyde “The Glide” Drexler and John Stockton were added to run the show.

The man picked to coach the team was Chuck Daly who had won two of the last three NBA Championships with the Detroit Pistons. Knowing that no other team would ever be as potentially great as this one, sportswriters around the world dubbed the 1992 men’s Olympic team as the “Dream Team”. After only three weeks of practicing together, the Dream Team was ready for the world. “We were in a definite no win situation,” said Chuck Daly; “we had to come back with the gold medal” (The Dream Team).

Despite being lead in overall scoring by Charles Barkley, different players would step up on different nights to take control and led the Dream Team to victory with not just scoring, but great passing and leadership ability as well. Michael Jordan who at the time was the most popular basketball player in the world showed that he is a great defensive player as well as an offensive player by averaging five steals per game during the tournament. Other players like David Robinson and Patrick Ewing provided tough interior defense and the flow of the games offensively were controlled by Magic Johnson and Scottie Pippen.

The Dream Team’s first game was on July 26th against the African nation of Angola and the United States defeated them 116-48 with Charles Barkley leading the way with 24 points. Against Brazil, Barkley set a USA Olympic record by scoring 30 points on 12-14 shooting. The rest of the tournament the Dream Team faced Croatia, Germany, Brazil, Spain, Puerto Rico, Lithuania. During the game against Lithuania, one of the Lithuanian players actually sat on the side line and took pictures of the Dream Team with his camera.

Many celebrities like Jack Nicholson, Spike Lee, and Arnold Schwarzenegger made the trip to Barcelona to witness the gold medal game between the United States and Croatia. The Dream Team defeated Croatia 117-85 and they were led by Michael Jordan who scored 22 points with Charles Barkley and Patrick Ewing scoring 17 and 15 points (The Dream Team). During the eight games, the Dream Team went undefeated and averaged 117. 3 points per game the most by a team in Olympic history while defeating teams by an average of 43. 8 ppg.

You will see a team of professionals in the Olympics again,” said Coach Chuck Daly, “But I don’t think you’ll see another team quite like this. This was a majestic team. ” Chuck Daly also went on to say that he had an exceptional group of players who really understood the goal and wanted to share (The Dream Team). With the rest of the world having four years to prepare themselves, the third group of NBA players to call themselves the Dream Team knew that their road to the gold medal in the 1996 Summer Games were going to be more difficult.

The same excitement that overcame the fans at the Barcelona games overcame the fans in Atlanta because the Dream Team had the home court advantage. Dream Team III was composed of many young up and coming stars in the NBA at the time like Shaquille O’Neal and Anfernee “Penny” Hardaway but the team also included some battle tested veterans. Players from the first Dream Team like Scottie Pippen, David Robinson, Charles Barkley, Karl Malone, and John Stockton were added to the team. The rest of the roster included 1988 Olympian Mitch Richmond, Grant Hill, Gary Payton, Reggie Miller, and Hakeem “The Dream” Olajuwon.

Before the Olympics began, Dream Team III had three weeks of practices that were so competitive that some say that they were actually more competitive than the actual Olympic games. During the three weeks of practice, the Dream Team faced Brazil, China, and Greece in three different exhibition games in various NBA arenas. David Robinson was so impressed by the progress of the team he stated that this team was the most talented team that had ever been put together and Charles Barkley stated that no matter what team the NBA puts out there, it will be the best.

After three weeks of practice, the preliminary round of the tournament began with the Dream Team taking on Argentina. After a very slow start, the Dream Team defeated Argentina 96-68. After a couple more slow starts, the Dream Team faced China and it was the outcome of this game that showed the entire world that this team could be compared to the team that took the court in the 1992 Summer Games. The Dream Team defeated China 133-70 with the help of some great defense and five three point shots by Reggie Miller who finished the game with 17 points.

The Dream Team faced Brazil in front of a crowd of 31,740 and three of the team’s stars decided that his game would be their breakout game. Scottie Pippen wowed the crowd with terrific defense on Brazil’s leading scorer and then Orlando Magic teammates Shaquille O’Neal and Penny Hardaway scored combined with Shaq also grabbing 11 rebounds. While playing against Australia, Charles Barkley showed his MVP form in front of a crowd of 34,069 by scoring 24 points and pulling down 11 rebounds in the Dream Team’s 101-73 victory (96 Olympic Gold)

The gold medal game featured a showdown between two undefeated countries, the United States and Yugoslavia who were led by NBA star Vlade Divac. The game was witnessed by an Olympic men’s basketball record crowd of 34,600. For one few times in Dream Team history, the team was down by seven points midway through the first half caused by terrible shooting, but by the time half time arrived the team had taken 43-38 lead. When it was all said and done, the Dream Team became the first team to defeat Yugoslavia by a final score of 95-69.

Once again the stars came out and this time they were led by David Robinson who was playing his last International basketball game. He ended the game with 28 points and only missing two of eleven shots the entire game. Reggie Miller finished the game with 20 points and Penny Hardaway scored 17. Once again the goal of capturing a gold medal was met, but the next four years would see major changes in the idea of the Dream Team (96 Olympic Gold). By the time the 2000 Summer games arrived, the world finally felt that they had caught on to the “Dream Team” concept.

The NBA tried to convince its new generation of stars to play for their country and win the Gold Medal but many declined the offer. After the Atlanta games, Karl Malone spoke of the hardships of the Olympics. When this team came here we thought we were doing something for our country, but it turned into something we didn’t expect. We’re taking heat for either being too good or for not winning by enough, and then we have to look over our shoulders and have bodyguards with is wherever we go. I think players in the future may look at what we went through, and it might be hard to convince them to play in the Olympics.

I would tell them that representing your country is worth all the hassles, but don’t be surprised if some guys start to turn down the invitation (Slam Dunk). Tim Duncan of the San Antonio Spurs and Jason Kidd were the first players to join the team, but Duncan broke his ankle before the Olympics began so he had to sit out of the games. With only Jason Kidd on the team, the NBA decided to send a group of players to the Olympics who were very talented even though they didn’t have the championships to show for it in an attempt to give them something to fight for.

Many basketball insiders called the 2000 team the “B” team of the NBA. Knowing that these players were not the best that the NBA had to offer, the title of the Dream Team was removed from the team and they were simply called Team USA. Other than Jason Kidd, the team included all-stars Kevin Garnett, Vince Carter, Antonio McDyess, Ray Allen, Shareef Abdur-Rahim, and Vin Baker. Team USA also included veteran players Tim Hardaway, Allan Houston, Gary Payton, Steve Smith, and two time defensive player of the year Alonzo Mourning.

The team was coached by former NBA all-star Rudy Tomjanovich who coached the Houston Rockets to back to back NBA championships in 1994 and 1995. Team USA defeated China and Italy without any trouble but against Lithuania, the USA only won by nine points which was a bit of a disappointment considering what teams in the past had done. The next game against New Zealand, Team USA got back on track by defeating them 102-56 and then they defeated France 106-94. Russia was the next victim of Team USA loosing to them by fifteen points.

During the semi-finals, the USA faced Lithuania once more and they were forced to make a comeback in the game’s final minute and half before they could secure an 85-83 win, but only after Lithuania’s game winning shot fell short at the buzzer (Games). Even though Team USA wasn’t as star-studded as the previous two Olympic teams, they still achieved the goal of winning a gold medal, but the path that they took to get there was much tougher than the path of teams in the past.

With that being said, Team USA helped the United States Men’s basketball program to reach 109 wins with only two losses spread across 14 different Olympic games. Despite the fact that the era and aura of the Dream Team was destroyed, the memories of the games will live on forever. Names like Michael Jordan, Charles Barkley, Shaquille O’Neal and Vince Carter will always be remembered for having great NBA careers, but also for bring home the gold medal for their country and doing it with a class and a grace that will never be seen again.

Athletes and Domestic Violence

A lady calls 911 and cries that her husband is beating her. She wants to file a report, but then asks the dispatcher if it is going to be in the paper the next day. When the dispatcher doesn’t reply, she changes her mind about the report and hangs up (Cart). The lady was Sun Bonds, wife of all-star San Francisco Giant, Barry Bonds. Like the wives of other famous players, she was a victim of spousal abuse. Athletes are praised as heroes for what they do on the playing field, but what they do off the field is never mentioned. As a disappointed sports fan, I want to draw attention to the domestic violence cases hat involve athletes.

Athletes have been abusing their spouses since sports were created, but not until the OJ Simpson trial has domestic violence become “the issue du jour. ” When Simpson was arrested on New Years Day for beating his wife, none of the newspapers reported it. When he pleaded no contest five months later, there was a small brief in the second page of The Los Angeles Times’ Metro Section (Cart). In the last three years alone the list of the accused included Dante Bichette, Barry Bonds, John Daly, Scottie Pippen, Jose Conseco, Bobby Cox, Mike Tyson, Warren Moon, Michael Cooper, Darryl Strawberry, Duane Causwell, Olden Polynice, Robert Parish, and OJ Simpson( Callahan, Sports Ilustrated).

And these are only the pro athletes whose wives had the courage to report the violence. Madeline Popa, president of Nebraska National Organization for Women stated, “Athletes are role models to small children. [Viewers] worry about the violence on television, but generally that is make- believe. When [there are] real-life heroes [engaging in violence], the message to young boys and girls is, ‘If you are a star athlete you can get away with things (qtd in L. A. Times). ”

There is an act of domestic violence every eighteen seconds in the United States. One in every three women will experience it, according to a study done by The L. A. Times. Abuse is the number one cause of injury for women. About six million women are abused each year; four thousand are killed (Cart). Although the sports world is not involved with all of these statistics, they are an important factor as to why the numbers are so high. The survey found that in 1995 there were 252 incidents involving 345 active sports players. Another survey done by Sports Illustrated reveals that eight to twelve omen a year are assaulted by their partners.

More women die from abuse than from car accidents and muggings combined. A study done by the University of Massachusetts and Northeastern University revealed that out of 107 cases of sexual assault reported in various universities, most of them involved male student-athletes although they only make up 3. 3% of the total male body (Callahan). This means that male student-athletes were six times more involved than males who were not student-athletes. Despite these studies some people believe that sports does not have a problem with the issue of domestic violence.

Richard Lapchick, director of the Center on the Study of Sport in Society at Northeastern University believes, “These exaggerations [in studies] do not discount that there is solid evidence of a problem in sport” and “Athletes are not necessarily more prone to domestic violence than others (quoted from The L. A. Times and Sports Illustrated). ” Marriah Burton Nelson, author of The Stronger Women Get, The More Men Like Football: Sexism and the American Culture of Sports, is one of the many people who disagree with Lapchick. She believes that sports create an aggression ound in men who beat their wives.

She says, It is not the sport themselves, but the culture of the sports in which male athlete and coaches talk about women with contempt. The culture of sports is a breeding ground. It begins with the little league coach saying, ‘you throw like a girl. ‘ This teaches boys to feel superior. Masculinity is defined as aggression and dominance. In order to be a man you have to be on top, to control, to dominate (qtd in L. A. Times). Dr. Myriam Miedzian author of Boys Will Be Boys: Breaking the Link Between Masculinity and Violence, agrees with Nelson. He thinks, “Athletes are taught to hurt people.

Empathy has been knocked out of them” (qtd in American Health). Most coaches do not allow their players to have a real relationship because they are afraid that a female influence will “soften” a player. The athletes are taught not to “see the guy across the line as a human being, how can they see women as human beings? As long as you rear boys to be tough, dominant, in charge, they simply won’t be prepared for contemporary women (Miedzian). ” Most researchers agree that one of the main reasons athletes abuse their pouses is because they have grown accustomed to the mistreatment of women which surrounds sports.

Sports culture creates a negative attitude towards women, attitudes of superiority that could lead to violence,” says Michael Messner, associate professor of sociology at USC (qtd in L. A. Times). Vance Johnson, a Denver Bronco wide receiver, admits that he did beat his first two wives. He blames his misconduct on himself and on the sports environment he lived in for teaching him that domestic violence is okay. He writes, “Everywhere I looked men abused women… All of the women were really battered and abused emotionally and physically.

It was just the way of life no one ever did anything about it (qtd in Vance pg 83). ” Jackson Katz of the Center for the Study of Sports in Society states, “[Athletes] believe they are entitled to have women serve their needs. It’s part of being a man. It’s the cultural construction of masculinity. ” “Elite athletes learn entitlement (L. A. Times). ” It is this entitlement given by coaches and fans, who worship star sports figures, that allows an athlete to abuse his spouse without having to uffer the consequences. This sends a message to girls that “If [they] get hurt, nothing will happen to [the perpetrator].

Girls have to stand alone. (Popa)” This leaves women with a feeling of worthlessness. Athletes live with a different set of rules. Dr. Tom House, a Major League Baseball coach as well as a psychologist, believes,Athletes aren’t bad people; they just don’t have life skills. Many of these players simply have no thermostats on their behavior mechanisms. When they act out, they are seeking to find some balancing their environment, to see how far they can go. And as long as they can put up good numbers on the field, no one will create boundaries for them (qtd in American Health).

So what is being done to prevent domestic violence among athletes? Very little. The pro league still do not punish perpetrators for their actions. But they have created shelters and organized funds for victims of this problem. Men are now encouraged to see specialists to solve their problem. Newspapers are printing more articles of cases involving athletes. Now there are daily reports of spousal abuse next to the box scores (I don’t know weather to consider this good or bad). Many men particularly famous athletes, are being held accountable for behavior that was previously brushed aside (Cart).

Lawrence Phillips, a Heisman Trophy candidate last season, was suspended from his football team because he was charged with spousal abuse. This was done a day after Phillips rushed for 206 yards and scored four touchdowns to give his team the victory. His coach, Rick Osborne, was applauded for taking a stand. Things are definitely moving forward, but not at a quick enough pace. Rita Smith, coordinator of National Coalition Against Domestic Violence thinks, Professional sports needs to take a very definitive stand against violence like [it] has with drugs(qtd in L. A. Times). ”

Alisa DelTufo, the founder of Sanctuaries for Families, a shelter for abused women, admits, “Domestic Violence is a very difficult cycle for a woman to break (qtd in Sports Illustrated). ” And the cycle of abuse is even harder to break in court for a wife of an athlete. “The police often work harder collecting autographs than evidence. The media and the fans, including those on the jury, tend to side with the icon over the iconoclast (Callahan).

When Sun Bonds finally decided to file a divorce, the judge, who was a baseball fan, awarded her a sum of $7,500 per month, which is half of what she was supposed to receive. The biased judge then asked Bonds’ for an autograph. We live in a world where men express their manliness by demeaning women. Where men are encouraged to act aggressive and dominant. Where men when asked, ‘what are they going to do? ‘ after they lost a game reply, ‘I’m going home to beat my wife (all-star, Charles Barkley). ‘ Unfortunately this is the reality we live in.

Sport associations need to set rules and punishments for a player who abuses his spouse. They can punish an athlete for using drugs, why can’t they do the same for perpetrators of domestic violence? I think coaches should discourage the bad-mouthing of women that takes place in the locker room, and encourage them to see counselors. The fact is as soon as an athlete puts on his uniform for the first time; he is viewed as a role model, whether he likes it or not. I agree that the recent attention means we are now taking domestic violence more seriously, but the victims of abuse want solutions, not publicity.

Professional basketball and American football

Unlike professional basketball and American football, interest in baseball has not been sweeping the globe. Declining participation at the amateur level and protracted labor problems at the professional level have thrust “America’s Pastime” into an era of uncertainty. Despite this current adversity, baseball will always occupy an important place in American culture. This column starts a three part look at the history of baseball. Most cultures have some sort of stick and ball game, cricket being the most well-known. While the exact origins of baseball are unknown, most historians agree that it is based on the English game of rounders.

It began to become quote popular in this country in the early 19th century, and many sources report the growing popularity of a game called “townball”, “base”, or “baseball”. Throughout the early part of that century, small towns formed teams, and baseball clubs were formed in larger cities. In 1845, Alexander Cartwright wanted to formalize a list of rules by which all team could play. Much of that original code is still in place today. Although popular legend says that the game was invented by Abner Doubleday, baseball’s true father was Cartwright. The first recorded baseball contest took place a year later, in 1846.

Cartwright’s Knickerbockers lost to the New York Baseball Club in a game at the Elysian Fields, in Hoboken, New Jersey. These amateur games became more frequent and more popular. In 1857, a convention of amateur teams was called to discuss rules and other issues. Twenty five teams from the northeast sent delegates. The following year, they formed the National Association of Base Ball Players, the first organized baseball league. In its first year of operation, the league supported itself by occasionally charging fans for admission. The future looked very bright.

The early 1860s, however were a time of great turmoil in the United States. In those years of the Civil War, the number of baseball clubs dropped dramatically. But interest in baseball was carried to other parts of the country by Union soldiers, and when the war ended there were more people playing baseball than ever before. The leagues annual convention in 1868 drew delegates from over 100 clubs. As the league grew, so did the expenses of playing. Charging admission to games started to become more common, and teams often had to seek out donations or sponsors to make trips.

In order for teams to get the financial support they needed, winning became very important. Although the league was supposed to be comprised of amateurs, many players were secretly paid. Some were given jobs by sponsors, and some were secretly paid a salary just for playing. In 1869, the Cincinnati Red Stockings decided to become a completely professional team. Brothers Harry and George Wright recruited the best players from around the country, and beat all comers. The Cincinnati team won sixty-five games and lost none. The idea of paid players quickly caught on.

Some wanted baseball to remain an amateur endeavor, but there was no way they could compete with the professional teams. The amateur teams began to fade away as the best players became professionals. In 1871, the National Association became the first professional baseball league. Professional baseball was built on the foundation of the amateur leagues that preceded it. Interest in baseball as a spectator sport had been nourished for more than 25 years when the first professional league began operation. The National Association fielded nine teams in 1871, and grew to 13 teams by 1875.

The National Association was short-lived. The presence of gamblers undermined the public confidence in the games, and their presence at the games combined with the sale of liquor quickly drove most of their crowds away. Following the 1875 season, the National Association was replaced with the National League. Previously, players had owned the teams and run the games, but the National League was to be run by businessmen. They established standards and policies for ticket prices, schedules, and player contracts. The businessmen demonstrated that professional baseball could be successful, and a rival league soon emerged.

In 1882, the American Association started to compete with reduced ticket prices and teams in large cities. Rather than fight each other, the two leagues reached an accord, ratifying a National Agreement. It called for teams in both major leagues and all of the minor leagues to honor each others player contracts. In addition, the agreement allowed each team to bind a certain number of players with the Reserve Clause. This clause granted teams the rights to unilaterally renew a players contract, preventing him from entertaining other offers. Needless to say, this infuriated the players.

In 1884, they tried to form their own league, the Union Association. Many players left their teams for the freedom of the Union Association, but the league lasted only one season. The teams lost too much money to attempt a second season. Another attempt was made in 1890, when the Players League was formed. Most of the best players from the American Association and National League joined, but like its predecessor, the Players League went bankrupt after one season. The competition and loss of players forced the American Association to fold, too, with four of its best teams joining the National League.

The turn of the century brought another challenger, the American League, which started play in 1901. They raided most of the National Leagues best players. In their attempt to meet the challenge, the National League owners turned on each other. A court injunction impaneled a three-man commission to run the league, and they found a way for the two-leagues to co-exist peacefully. Through the first decade of the twentieth century, baseball remained a game of strategy. The so-called “dead ball” provided few homeruns. The game relied on contact-hitters, bunting, and base-stealing for its offense.

The adoption of a ball with a cork center in 1911 change the game dramatically. Forty years of batting records began to fall, and the popularity of the game began to explode. In 1914, yet another rival league tried to gain a foothold. The Federal League sought to establish its presence both on the field and in the courtroom. They sued, contending that the American and National Leagues constituted a monopoly. While the case languished in the legal system, the Federal League folded after just two seasons. In 1922, the Supreme Court settled the matter by ruling that baseball was exempt from anti-trust legislation.

The Court unanimously acknowledged and confirmed baseballs monopoly. The Roaring Twenties were a great time for the United States and for baseball. A huge gambling scandal in 1919 brought sweeping reforms, and in the nations largest city, a legend was born. George “Babe” Ruth had been a successful pitcher with the Boston Red Sox, but the New York Yankees bought his contract and made him an outfielder. He was the most tremendous hitter the league had ever seen. Ruth revolutionized the game with his prowess as a homerun hitter.

He ushered in an era of economic prosperity for baseball, and became one of the most popular individuals in American history. Like other American men, a large percentage of ballplayers entered the armed forces during World War two. The forties were a difficult time for baseball, but a new era beckoned. Although it was not a written rule, baseball had always been racially segregated. In 1947, Jackie Robinson broke the color barrier, joining the Brooklyn Dodgers. But integration was a very slow process. Other teams were slow to adopt African-American and other minority players.

It was another ten years before all of the teams had integrated , and it wasnt until the early sixties that professional baseball could truly call itself integrated. In 1960, yet another rival league appeared. Although a handful of teams had moved, most of them were concentrated in the northeast. Large cities in the south and west wanted teams of their own. The Continental League sought to win in court before they had a chance to go bankrupt on the field. Faced with the possibility of losing their monopoly, major league owners reached a compromise.

They would agree to expand, growing from 16 teams to 24 by the end of the decade. The players loved this, because expansion meant more jobs. Baseball prospered economically, as attendance continued to grow and national television and radio contracts brought in huge amounts of money. Soon, the players began to see that the owners were not sharing the wealth. Salaries had remained stagnant for many years, and the players were still bound by the reserve clause. Although they had a union, its only real function was to administer the meager pension former players received.

Seeing the success of organized labor in the auto industry and the steel industry, the players decided to put some teeth into their union. After nearly a hundred years, the players wanted to regain some control of the game. Professional baseball players had organized several times in baseball history, but they were never able to make the advances that unions in other industries had won for their members. The Major League Baseball Players Association had been around for more than thirty years, but its sole purpose had been to collect and administer a meager pension.

Concerned about getting a piece of growing television revenues, the players sought to strengthen their union in 1965. They hired Marvin Miller, a veteran labor organizer who had fought for the United Steelworkers union for years. He knew there was more at stake than adding broadcasting money to the pension fund. When Miller came on board and saw what the conditions were, he knew much more was at stake. For one thing, the minimum salary was $6,000, just a thousand dollars more than it had been in 1947. As he began to collect data, the players were surprised at how poorly they were being paid.

This education paved the way for the first collective bargaining agreement in 1968. It provided some modest improvements, but most importantly it gave the players some leverage. For nearly a hundred years, team owners had a “take it or leave it” relationship with players. The union could (and did) file complaints with the National Labor Relations Board when they were treated unfairly. Players also won the right to have their grievances heard before an independent arbitrator. The owners did not like this. They did not like the union interfering in their business, and they did not like the players standing up to them.

Curt Flood, one of the leagues premier centerfielders refused to report to training camp in 1969, demanding that the St. Louis Cardinals offer more than a $5000 raise. They relented, but after an unexceptional season, they traded him to Philadelphia. Flood did not want to go. He had strong ties to the community, and filed a suit against Commissioner Bowie Kuhn. Flood argued that the Reserve Clause was illegal, and that he should be allowed to negotiate freely with other teams. The Supreme Court ultimately ruled against him, but it made a lot of players think.

By 1975, two pitchers decided to challenge the reserve clause again. It said that the teams had the right to renew a players contract for one year. They interpreted that to be recurring, that they could renew it every year. Dave McNally and Andy Messersmith refused to sign their contracts. If the reserve clause bound them for the 1975 season, there was no contract that could be renewed for 1976. An arbitrator upheld their case, and free agency was born. Players were still bound to a team for the first few years of their career, but after that they could sign with any team.

The owners couldnt contain their excitement at this, and spent the next five years outbidding and outspending each other. The players were happy, because everyones salary was going up. But many owners were getting upset. When a player left, they got nothing in return. They argued that a team who lost a player should get something in return for compensation. Otherwise, the money they had invested in that players development would be lost. The players argued that this would severely limit their freedom. The two sides couldnt agree, so in the middle of the 1981 season the players walked out.

There had been a brief players strike at the start of the 1972 season, which delayed the start of the season by 13 days. This was much more serious, and little negotiation took place. After fifty days, the owners relented and agreed to a modified compensation plan. In return, players not yet eligible for free-agency could have their salaries decided by an arbitrator. The economic issues was growing more complicated, and the adversarial relationship between owners and players grew more intense. In 1985, the players struck again.

The owners had hoped that salary arbitration would help keep salaries down, but it propelled them through the roof. The owners wanted to change it, the players said no way. After two days, the owners relented and the players came back. Then the free-agent market suddenly and mysteriously dried up. Following the 1986 season, players in search of contracts found no bidders, and many re-signed with their teams for lower salaries. This continued for the next few years, until an arbitrator ruled that the owners had colluded. The collective bargaining prohibited that action, and the players were awarded damages.

This all set the stage for the worst battle of all. In 1992, the owners forced Commissioner to resign. The labor contract was about to expire, and they didnt want him to interfere in negotiations. Turns out they didnt want any negotiations either. Their had been a strike or a lockout every time the collective bargaining agreement expired, and the players didnt want to go through that again. They started the 1994 season without a contract. The owners were insisting that a salary cap was necessary for teams to survive. They claimed free agency and salary arbitration were wrecking them.

No progress was being made, so the players went on strike in August. The World Series was canceled for the first time in 92 years. Fans across the country were disgusted and heartbroken. President Clinton appointed a mediator, but nothing happened. Finally, the owners decided to unilaterally implement their own plan. They assembled teams of replacement players and set out to start the 1995 season without the “real” players. The players asked for and got a restraining order, prohibiting the teams from implementing their plan and forcing them to work under the terms of the old agreement until a new one was reached.

It took almost two more years for a labor deal to be reached, and it finally happened in November of 1996. While its too soon to tell if the deal will address the financial problems that face Major League Baseball, it does offer the hope that fans can start thinking about the game on the field once again. Baseball has fallen behind other American sports in popularity, and it will take a lot of work to regain the prominence it once held in American culture. There is a long, proud history to build on, and baseball will enter its third century with reasons for optimism.

Steroids in Sport

In the world of sports it is not rare to see athletes give their heart and soul for the love of the game. From sunrise to sundown they practice everyday to perfect their game. Then there are those who take an alternative route. Now athletes are taking performance enhancers such as creatine, androstenedione and worst of all, anabolic steroids. Steroids are chemicals that act like hormones (substances in your body that regulate bodily functions). Anabolic steroids are the ones that are abused to build muscle mass or to make your workout longer.

They are chemicals of artificial testosterone, which is a male ormone. With higher testosterone you can have more physique and body hair and a deeper voice. It mainly started in the 1950s when some athletes were juicing up for training purposes but now you will find all sorts of athletes using this drug. From high school to professional sports a lot of athletes are using steroids. Even though it is illegal there are over one million steroid users. Five percent of male and two percent of female high school students are using steroids. So that would be equal to 375 thousand males and 175 thousand females.

Why take steroids if you already know that t is not good for you? Most of the steroid users are injecting for better performance and strength for their sports, but, other users are simply juicing to build more muscle mass or to look better, physically. Inside their bodies they are actually ruining themselves. Taking steroids is a big threat to your health. You could have severe acne, genital changes, water retention, and yellowing eyes and skin. Its not only your appearance that could be at risk but you can also get other health problems.

There are coronary artery diseases, ligament injuries, igh blood pressure, changes in your cholesterol level, sterility, and liver disease. For males you can get breast development, kidney disease, headaches, muscle cramps, abdominal pains, and bone pains. For females you could get male patterned baldness, smaller breasts, deeper voices, hairy bodies and menstrual irregularities. What I dont understand is why some take steroids to look better. Would you be attracted to a woman who is just like one of the guys, literally? And girls, would you want someone who has yellow skin with acne all over his face?

I know I wouldnt. Physical problems are just the first step, steroids also give you psychological problems. This would be known as roid rage. When the user gets very angry and they could possibly swing punches aggressively at anyone within striking distance. The other mental problem is addiction. Even though the user has an already built body he or she thinks that steroids are still necessary to use so they can perform better. Some users also experience depression during parts of the cycles when taking the drug. Anabolic steroids are illegal and are sold over the black market and there are different kinds.

To name some there re Erythropoietin, stimulants, clenbuterol and other drugs that are marketed as steroid alternatives. Without a prescription steroids are illegally sold. Besides steroids there are other performance enhancers that can be bought over the counter. They are androstenedione and creatine. These also increase your hormones just like the anabolic steroids. They way they think andro works is your body converts it into testosterone. If the theory is true then andro would be just like regular anabolic steroids. There have been a few studies of its safety and effectiveness but most studies have been about creatine.

An amino acid supplement which will make you train longer and harder. We are for sure that anabolic steroids are bad for you because it has been proven. I believe that if creatine and andro are made and used for the same purpose I dont see how it could be any different from steroids accept that it might not be as harmful, but if taken in a large amount wouldnt it have the same effects? Even though some of these effects are good, is it worth it to go through the bad effects that are more permanent? So for love of the game, would you please keep it clean?

Athletic Trainer Essay

An athletic trainer seeking employment in today’s job market is likely to encounter many problems and obstacles along the way. The need for higher education greatly affects the prospect for the athletic trainer with only the baccaulereate degree. Those with this degree are better suited to seek employment in the rehabilitative therapy clinic setting. Many of these clinics have contracts with the local high schools or university thus allowing for more employees and allowing these entry level positions.

Clinics also tebd to employ the student trainers who also have a tendency to move on after their education. With third party payees coming more into this field there should be an increase in the job availability for the athletic trainer in the clinical setting. There are also many openings for trainers in the high school level. The down side to this area of work is that this position is not generally based on the care and concern for the health and well being of the student athlete but is contingent on the budget aspect.

The most dismal field for an athletic trainer seeking employment is in the college level. Athletic trainers most certainly need advanced degrees as well as certification of the National Athletic Trainers Association. Most Athletic trainers in this level have accepted employment while in college or attending that particular university. The college level for the athletic trainer position has not increased over the past few years- due impart to the hiring of the student trainers leaving no openings for the athletic trainer who is seeking full time employment.

Obviously there is a definite need for advanced degrees in todays society, if one is seeking employment as an athletic trainer due to the fact that there is a very limited job field and openings are few and far between. In order to be fully prepared for the position of athletic trainer in todays sports related society, the potential trainer needs to obtain the minimum of a baccalaureate degree with a designated course of study. They need to have studied thoroughly anatomy and physiology, physiology of exercise, rehabilitation, kineseiology, psychology, injury evaluation and also emergency care procedures and techniques.

Before meeting the requirements to become eligible to test for the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) a potential trainer needs a minumum of 800 clinical hours of xperience or 1500 hours if not enrolled in an accredited athletic training education program. The NATA also requires continuing education units for a certified trainer to remain certified through them. The steps to obtaining a career in the field of athletic training are fairly simple. A desire to work in the sports related field is obviously the driving force for most.

A BA is the minimum degree along with clinical hours of experience as noted earlier. Also the National Athletic Trainers Association Board of Certification requires continuing education classed to maintain and update your knowledge of new rocedures. A Masters Degree is often sought by the athletic trainer to further advance their career. A select few often go on and pursue a doctoral degree and progress on to become instructors. Depending on the location of the high school/ clinic/ university the Athletic trainer may encounter many different obstacles to overcome in the day to day running of the training office.

A few of these problems are, but not limited to, the following: Budgeting problems : many athletic trainers have learned how to juggle funds and become extremely frugal o maintain within the budget limitations. Travel: there is often the need for the trainer to accompany the team or athletes on the road to games and sports events which poses a hardship both on the trainers life and the life of their families. There will always be the legal aspects of the job field to content with for the athletic trainers. There is a definate need for the explicit following of all rules and procedures in order to try to prevent any egal ramifications.

While employeed at any particular school or clinic a trainer hould be covered at all times by the schools liability policy. All athletes are required to sign a waiver when they decide to participate in the sport of their choice and this too is a protective measure for both the trainer and the school or the clinic. Although it may seem like the problems along with the dismal job openings are a great deal to contend with when one is contemplating choosing the field of Athletic Training there are a great many pluses to this field too. Many a trainer has a feeling of camaradarie with his athletes feeling of being one of the team… ing one with the boys.

They also feel a sense of pride and accomplishment when their team or athlete does well also. An athletic trainer tends to become an integral part of an athletes life as they see each other on a daily basis in the training room or at the clinic. Athletes often come to the trainer for advice on how to maintain the health of their bodies as well as with the rehabilitation of their injuries. The trainer is there to offer advice and also for the support when an athlete is feeling down and about recovery. This is a very important part of the job.

Influences of Mass Media in Sport

When communication is spread not just between two individuals but rather between tens of millions of people it is known as mass media. Mass media is known as the central nervous system of society. Mass media has many different purposes, such as providing information, entertaining, persuading and also by carrying a vague general function of culture to millions of people. (Frederick 18). In order for mass media to exist, there must be an audience. Today’s society is very selective; each receiver reacts differently through his or her own experience and orientation according to mass media.

Therefore, mass media exists in many different forms such as magazines, television, newspapers, internet, motion pictures, and even plays. Some examples of these forms of mass media are cosmopolitan magazine for young modern women and TSN television network for sports fans. With such extreme varieties of mass media existing in today’s societies there are three major constraints that seem to have an impressionable impact. These constraints can keep mass media very restricted. The major constraint of mass media is competition.

Each form of mass media wants to be the one to target the audience, so therefore competition between mass media is very strong, because capturing the inside of the sports world is critical. Apart from the competition among the various forms of media there is also competition among each form of the media example Fox network competes with all television networks for a market share of the audience. Network companies such as Fox buy the contracts to show American football games for millions of dollars, which they in turn make their money back through companies wanting to advertize on their network during these football games.

The audience Fox attracts by showing these games also provides an audience for companies wanting to advertise their products and provides potential customers for their products. This life cycle exists in all forms of media apart from just television, newspapers try to cover the best stories in all areas of life from tradegy to sports and entertainment. From a sociological stand point in today’s society sex and violence attracts audiences. By examining the internet, which is the newest form of mass media internet companies that provide the most outrageous websites with sex and violence are the most watched websites.

Media Companies compete with each other on those levels by looking at what attracts the most attention and trying to provide it. Although the audience are the ones who decide what information is important and this decides what groups of mass media get the most attention the influence of the media in today’s world really guides them in helping them make that decision without their actual knowledge. If your story isn’t important to the audience then your media is taking up space, so therefore you either have to produce what the audience wants or you will not be able to survive in the competitive world of mass media.

In order to survive in society you must offer the general public information they are interested in. Money also puts constraints on what an individual gets to know. If a person can’t afford to buy a television that is restricting them on the knowledge that they are able to consume. Also, companies run on budget plans, and if there is no money in the budget, they are unable to provide information to a society. For every story that is produced, or every television commercial aired that could have been many more, to follow.

But with limited money in the budget plans, an audience’s view also becomes very limited, because if the media doesn’t have the money to produce the information that is information that a society loses out on. Time is also another constraint because is doesn’t make a difference on the amount of media there is, there will only be twenty four hours in each day and not all a person’s time can be devoted to the effects of mass media. With the consideration of all these constraints this may create many difficulties for mass media, these difficulties will have a reflection on society as well.

In media these constraints are known as noise. All media within each other create noise, but with all the conflicting views, within lies a pattern, that shows some element of truth. (Frederick 10). The purpose of this paper is to state how mass media influences sport. The point that is being made in this paper is to show how mass media influences society, and how it influences sports within a society. To show how sport influences society, the game of basketball will be used. Mass media is a reflection of society.

Mass media are essential agents of social change, and the specific kind of social change they are expected to help accomplish in the transition to new customs and practices, and in some cases, to different social relationships. (D’seuza 27). Also agents of social control exist. As a result of all these alterations a significant change in an individuals attitudes, beliefs, skills and social norms may result. Before the existence of radio, mass media were barely existent except in print. But with all the developments in technology mass media continually progresses, in many different directions.

Different individuals are selective in the way that they let mass media influence their lives. For example, if a person decides to read a book they are getting to determine what aspects of the mass media they consume. Books are the most individual of mass media. (Frederick 156). But when a person watches television it is not as personal as reading a book, television is built into society. Television’s commercial and entertainment emphasis both reflect and affect the hedonistic and acquisitive nature of contemporary America.

Frederick 264). With the constant production of commercials and varying types of entertainment there seems to rising controversy throughout society. Mass media has many positive effects on many people, in countries such as India, mass media had made a tremendous change. People in rural communities are now able to communicate back and forth, children of this country are now able to obtain and expand on their education, there are continuous improvements in their health care system and even modern agricultural techniques are being developed.

These results of the mass media in India have had many positive effects on their society. But not everybody agrees that mass media has had a positive effect, some believe that it has damaged societies beyond repair. Since mass media has such an overwhelming influence on society, it may end up shaping the way and individual thinks. A good example of this is through advertising. It is advertising, by large, that supports the United States’ pervasive and extraordinary diverse mass media system. Advertising major focus is the better you display a commodity the more of the commodity you sell.

The private sector gives the advertising industry the money to sell their products, and the company that offers the most capital is the one who gets their product aired. This is where one of our major constraints, known as, competition comes into play. Whatever company holds the most capital decides what we as a society get to consume. Advertisers will say that they produce what the consumer demands but on the other hand they are putting many limits on what we get to consume. With the constant growth of mass media many individuals have been offered tremendous opportunities.

This paper will use the influences of mass media in the world of sports, too show examples of these opportunities. Both the positive and negative effects of the mass media will be outlined. The first reported Sports Coverage appeared on May 5 1733. Reporters used to report on the philosophy. Electronic media: (i. e. type written stories), started to be used in 1850. In the 1920’s radio stations started to broadcast sporting events live. Experimental Television broadcast where started in the 1950’s. Sports Illustrated prints an average of three million copies per week.

Sport has become an influential part of the entertainment industry, the mass media (particularly television) have become intimately involved in the growth, production, and control of modern sports. ( McPherson 146). The term mass media provides information describes the process that allows people to communicate rapidly and simultaneously with a large percentage of the population. ( McPherson 146). In our society sports are a major part of a new mass culture, as well as popular music, movies and television shows. Most people watch sports through the television.

People also follow sport thought magazines and radio. From watching the television programs and reading the reports our society learns to love and/or hate the sports icons in our world. The media does not seem to hold anything back. Media coverage is not just limited to professional sports. They cover amateur sports as well. These sports are covered at a local, provincial and national level. Coverage is from anywhere from little league to college sports. We as a society like to know all the information about our sports heroes. The mass media is more then willing to provide us with this information.

Sometimes they provide more information then most of us want to know. The boundaries of people’s personal privacy are denied. They find out the history, family background, current lifestyle etc. of these players. There are not to many other people in our society that this happens to. These players most feel that there privacy is being invaded almost all of the time. This is not just isolated to sports figures, politicians and key public figures are in the spotlight as well. Most major sports clubs pay reporters to report on their teams.

By doing this it protects them so that the reports will report on the positive aspects of their teams. The negative aspects are toned down to some extent. They need to provide some negative aspects because if they didn’t they then a lot of people may lose interest. An example of this is that you don’t see as many highlight reels of home runs anymore. They want to promote the game as more of technecical product The media chooses what they report or do not report they enhance certain act and downplay others. People perceive the media as just report in the facts.

In actuality they are report a narrated story that someone has composed. As Alan and John Clarke said: It selects between sports for those which make good television, and it selects within a particular event, it highlights aspects for the viewers. This selective highlighting is not natural or inevitable – it is based on certain criteria, certain media assumptions about what is ‘good television. But the media not only select they also provide us with definitions of what has been selected. They interpret events for us, provide us with frameworks of meaning in which to make sense of the event.

To put it simply, television does not merely consist of pictures, but also involves a commentary on the pictures-a commentary which explains to us what we are seeing … these selections are socially constructed-they involve decisions about what to reveal to the viewers. The presentation of sport thought the media involves an active process of re-presentation: what we see is not the event, but the event transformed into something else-a media event. ( Eitzen 98-99). Sports media has it’s own language. This language is both ethnically and gender focused.

When people are reporting sports events they report differently male then female players, black then white players, just for some examples. Most white players receive performance; related comments directed towards them. On the other hand black players receive negative comments and also you also hear negative comments about their level of play. White players received more attention in replays and more excuses for mistakes (e. g. , he is playing with an injury) (McPherson 155). While a black player they might say doesn’t possess the skills and that is way they couldn’t compete.

The media portray women in the sports society as not being the equal to men. More attention is focused on male sporting events. If an advertiser is going to fund a female basketball game and or a male basketball game then the money would be mainly directed the towards the men’s game. The advertiser has to go to the event that is going get the most viewers. If women are portrayed less frequently than their participation merits and if stereotypical or negative themes are stressed when women are included, this may have an impact on the socialization of young girls’ and boy’ view of women’s sport. (McPherson 155).

If we do not promote young girls to follow their dreams, not only in sport but: in every part of life then they may be missing out on something. When we do this it may discourage young girls to play sports. Because for so many years our society has told women and girls that they could not play sports or at least could not play them as well as men. This theory has been disproved over the years. The media is starting to release this and they are now focusing more time then they did to women’s sport. They are televising women’s basketball, tennis, golf, etc. more often. The part that still needs to be focused on again is the commentary.

People would suggest that all commentary is equal i. e. , black and white athletes as discussed earlier. Commentators tend to portray female athletes as the lesser/weaker of the two genders. In women’s basketball gender is marked both verbally and graphically. The NCAA final four is a prime example; the men’s final is known as and presented to us by the media as NCAA FINAL FOUR. Where as the women’s final four is presented to us by the media as NCAA Women’s Championship. In actuality they are both the final four but the media has created NCAA FINAL FOUR. This (the men’s final four) is the most viewed college tournament of the year.

If they differentiate them then they can focus on the markets they want to. The men’s championship they are going to focus mainly on males 18 to 22 years of age. This way they can gear their advertising accordingly. The media control sport in the fact that the teams and organizations depend on the media in order for them to survive financially. During major sporting events changes are made to appeal to the television audiences, some of these changes are; sudden death games, scheduling evening games, broadcasters to entertain instead of just report facts, TV time outs, more media representative at Olympics then competitors.

Sponsorship in the sports world is huge, Companies pay unbelievable amounts of money to teams as well as to players to promote their products. These companies may choose a player as a child and follow their career to help boost their sales in their products. The media helps create a link between the players or athletes and their audience by showcasing these athletes in programs even outside their playing arenas. The players are presented as gods or icons to the audience which makes these sporting events even more popular. Promoters use marketing ploys like to be best you need to wear what the best wears.

Children then go to their parents and express the desire for these items. The mass media are the main sources of capital for sports teams, college as well as professional. They dictate when and where games are going to be played and also decide which teams are going to receive the most attention by the audience who are the viewers. It is not by chance that Monday Night Football is on at that particular time because . This gives the promoter the choice to focus on their niche market. I’m sure the players don’t want to play on Monday night at 9:00pm.

If you are a promoter it doesn’t matter to you, you go where the money is. In a sense this make the players puppets for the promoters. Careers of players can also be affected by the mass media. Dennis Rodman would not be the person he is today if the mass media didn’t dive into every facet of his life. He loves the show and the media promotes his performance on and off the court to the public. Basketball was invented as a recreational sport, but now considered a universal sport. The introduction of this sport to the rest of the world started in the late nineteenth century as a form of recreation.

Universities began incorporating this new recreational game into their sporting activities and were considered a male oriented sport. Women were not recognized at the time as basketball players even if they had an interest in the sport. Throughout the years basketball was transformed from a recreational sport into competitive sport and the players competed for a prize which in its early existence was a trophy or medal. The media in all forms such as television, radio, Internet and newspapers never took an interest in the sport until the end of world war two.

At the time people’s interest in the sport was growing rapidly mainly because of the transformation of the sport from a recreational sport to a competitive sport. Universities and private businessmen who spotted the potential success of the sport invested their capital in building stadiums for athletes of the sport to compete. In the early 1950’s professional leagues were starting to develop across the United States as more private business men realized profits in relative terms meaning essentially the profits made were considered great in that time period.

At the time the main form of media in households across the United States was the radio and newspaper few households had televisions and live coverage of games were seen by a few. The rules and the format of the game had to be changed to make the game more interesting to fans of the sport and many sports historians contribute basketball transformation over the years to the media involvement. Media coverage of sporting events such as basketball grew dramatically as more and more households had both radios and televisions. In fact the television a medium contributed the most to the transformation of basketball.

The media has shaped the public’s opinion on basketball and through the media people seem to have a more profound interest in the sport of basketball. In the early years of basketball’s introduction to the western world the average age for men to participate in the sport was 17 years old now boys and girls start from the early age of 7 years old. The participation level in the sport was heavily influenced by the media, the sport which was label a male sport has now seen a drastic increase in women participation over the years due mainly to media attention and coverage.

In the 1950’s and 1960’s athletes competing in the professional leagues of basketball did not even make enough money sometimes to support themselves and had to find other jobs part time to generate a better source of income. The main mental frame of mind of athletes in that sport in the 1950’s was winning. Today with media coverage and the average life span of a players career increasing most players in their early years try to make money through endosments and large contract deals and do not concentrate on the main goal of a competitive sport which is winning until the later stages of the career when money no longer becomes an issue.

In the NBA, media coverage has increased the capacity of fans for teams mainly due to the fact that the invention of television and other technological advancements which attempts to bring the games and players into the households. People no longer have to attend games to be considered a fan of the sport or cheer their favorite team or player. Fans of the sport can enjoy the entertainment of a basketball game in the pleasure of their home which in sense could be considered better than actually going to the game live because it is much cheaper than going to the game.

Media coverage of basketball extends further than just the NBA to high school, NCAA (collegiate basketball) and both sexes male and female are showcased nowadays, although basketball was considered a male sport. The media attention on women’s basketball has actually increased women participation in basketball and could be considered the main contributor to the expansion of women’s basketball although women actually fought against sexism in basketball the media really helped their expansion efforts.

The media has really expanded the game of basketball to international arenas and countries have now established their own leagues, which are actually competitive with American leagues such as the NBA and CBA. Media in all forms has created such an audience for the sport of basketball countries with established leagues compete for players with the NBA although they probably don’t get the best players as yet but the growth of these leagues show the potential to reach the status of the NBA some day.

The media could take full responsibility of creating the growth of basketball in the world, most schools and government programs that provide recreation for children and adults build basketball courts, which shows the growth of the sport, which is as a direct result of media, attention. To really evaluate the effects of the media in sport focusing on basketball the positive and negative aspects should be analyzed. Some of the positive and negative aspects of the media on the sport of basketball are mentioned below.

Baseball Salaries Essay

When people think of high salaries they turn to the world of professional sports, because that is where athletes are paid outrageous amounts to do the things they love. Although some would argue that the athletes deserve these wages, I fell that not all professional sports are paid adequately. For an example of this statement take into consideration the time and effort that most pro athletes spend at perfecting there acquired talent. They are fine tuned instruments, who work hard to do their jobs on the field, on the court, or on the course.

They do this because they love the game. Golfers dont get paid as much as other Pro-sports, but do their job just as well. Athletes are paid way to much, but golfers are not. Now take into consideration how much professional baseball players make a season. “The average earned income in major league baseball is over $800,000 a season”(Fizel, 83), and some of these players just ride the pine all year. How is it fair that a man that can hit a ball four hundred feet to send a baseball out of the park make $30 million a season.

Barry Bonds is truly a great athlete, but to be paid that much he should be able to hit home runs with his eyes closed. I know that these baseball stars bring in a lot of very good paying customers, and they like to watch the games. Then though, I could eat for a week on what they are charging to get into Wrigley Field with good seats for one game. If you will step back with me in time for a moment you will understand why I am so concerned about this issue about over paid athletes. In the forties each player was paid fairly but not extravagantly.

When I joined the Cardinals ball club in 1943 we were paid fifteen dollars for each game”. (Harig) Back then the players had other jobs to help them make ends meat. They just played the game on the side and on the weekends for extra cash. Other sports have the same problems, take professional basketball. Michael Jordan is the greatest man to ever walk across the hard wood floors of professional basketball, but to be paid $63 million in one season is almost sickening. Jordan has so much power when it comes to the NBA, that he is able to drop out of the National Basketball League and start playing baseball.

Then when he was tired of baseball, the Bulls begged and pleaded for him to come back to their team. That just doesnt seem right and fair to me, especially to other layers in the NBA. He may be the greatest basketball player ever, but in my books he doesnt have a lot of character and integrity. “Jordan made sixty three million last year and the closest man to him was Patrick Ewig; who made twenty million,”(Partinie) which is a little better character wise. It is true that these men bring on big crowds and lots of money to the owners, just like baseball players, but again have to much control.

They probably arent paid near as much as the owners could afford to either, the owner can go home with a fat pocket too. Pros are just taking advantage of there talent, at least in ome cases. God gave them their talent and some of them are being very greedy and not using it for what it was meant to be used for; the pure love of the game. Football players arent any better but are a little different when it comes to why they are paid so much. They have a lot more at steak when they go out on to the field to crunch heads. They have to consider the possibility of getting injured.

They are paid to be big, mean, fast, and ruthless out on the grass against men just as big and ruthless as themselves. Football players are rewarded money if their talent is exceptional, for touchdowns, yardage, sacks, tops, interceptions, and many more. If they dont perform they dont get as much cash. If they do live up to what they are expected to, they get over loaded with money. Emmit Smith, and other runningbacks are paid more than any lineman, because they are the ones that put on the show, and are what the spectators came to the game to watch.

They also make all the points and make all the good plays that keep viewers interested. Now I do know that the linemen are a huge part of how a good half-back performs, with blocks and stuff, but when there is raw talent in a man you notice it like in Emmit or Barry Sanders. It is also true or the quarterbacks; they are paid more because they are the conductors out on the field. They conduct the orchestra out on the field. John Elway is a great example. He has the strongest, fastest, and most accurate arm in pro-football, which he has proven.

That is the main reason he is one the highest paid professional football players in the NFL. Some athletes out on the football field are more aware to the situation of the high prices they are paid. Kevin Green, a defensive linebacker said ” It is true that we are getting paid outrageous amount for what we do out on the turf, but we are the most likely to et hurt in all professional sports. We want to make sure we get what we need before we get out of the league. “(OHara, 12) Kevin Green gives a lot of his money to charitable events and is a very honorable player also, he is not just out there for the money.

Now then amongst the most popular television events there is a sport that is respected and loved by millions, but being the men they are, tour golfers arent paid extreme amounts. Golf is a gentlemens game and is respected by all. You dont see any of the professional players complaining about their pay, because in the golf world you have to earn your alary. Players arent paid a salary like most sports, they have to win a tournament to earn it. From tournament to tournament they are struggling to make a living by doing what they love. The truth is that there is not a whole lot of money to be won on tour either.

For an example Greg Norman is the top money winner of all time. Greg has raked in $11,936,443 in his entire career (Howard,12). Compare that to any other sport and you will see that the average baseball and basketball players make that within two or three years. Golfers are also working all year-round. They dont get to practice during the off-season, because there isnt one for them. Golfers work very hard in a very competitive sport. Other sports are competitive, but not in the same way that golf is. Golf is an individual sport, so they dont work with others.

They dont have anyone to fall back on if they need it, it is all up to them. Other thing that makes golf so different than other sports is that it doesnt require that you are either huge, muscular, fast, or tall. Golf comes down to whether or not you can hit a little golf ball down a narrow fairway, onto a tightly guarded green, hen to try and put that little ball into a four inch diameter hole. Golfers arent treated the same way that other athletes are. Jack Nickalas, a well know golfer with out sanding talent, explained “Professional golfers are respected for their talents, character, corizma, and integrity. (McCormick,32)

I myself dont think that they are paid accordingly, at least not compared to other sports. Im not saying that they should pay professional golfers more, or that they shouldnt pay other athletes as much as they do(even though what they make is unbelievable). Now with what pro-golfers are paid they can still ake a decent living, this is because they make plenty of money from endorsements. From golf balls and gloves, to hats and clubs, members of the PGA dont have a hard time with making money on the side.

To me it just seems that the salaries that are made by most professional athletes is outrageous, but then when you take a look at the money that is made on the PGA tour, you dont see outrageousness, just simplicity. Now then for a man to make over a million dollars on tour he has to win at least four big tournaments. This is also a contributing factor in how much a man makes on tour; which tournaments he is nvited to. Only the big tournaments pay off big cash, but in order to get to the big tournaments you have to make a name for yourself in the littler tournaments.

Craig Stadler said that when he started the tour in the eighties, he was shocked at the difference in the level of play and that “Getting on tour is hard enough, but then you have to try to get invited to the big stuff, that is what really take talent. “(Simpson) Scott Hoch is referring to the Masters, the US Open, the British Open, and other majors that not everyone is invited to. Depending on how you have done that year and how you have placed in ll the tournaments that you play in is the deciding factor on whether or not you can go play in the big dog events.

The truth is that golfers dont have it rough, but that they have different. Again, they dont have to be tough, strong, or large, just competitive and hard working. They dont have to train the same way; with weights and running; but have to train and work at their game on the practice tee or putting green to make it perfect. John Cook has said in an interview with Sports Illustrated “We dont get paid as much as other sports, and dont get as much publicity, but God, I would rather be doing nything else on this beautiful planet. (Jefferies,65)

It is not right how they dont make as much but it is just how society has set it up. Professional golfers still make a good living but their salaries arent outrageous like other sports. They make enough to get them by, and a little extra to help them live stylish. All in all professional athletes are paid way too much, but they keep us entertained and give us role models. Golfers arent as bad when it comes to salaries as the others but they deserve what they are paid. I guess if you want to keep a game respectable you have to keep the salaries respectable also.

Should Drugs Be Allowed In Sports

Drugs have been around for thousands of years but their reasons for being used has changed. Drugs were originally intended for medical uses. In ancient Egypt, physicians prescribed tannic acid to treat burns. The early Chinese and Greek pharmacies included opium used as a pain- killer, while Hindus used cannabis and henbane plants as an esthetic. With the advances in technology drugs have become more helpful yet more deadly. Since drugs have become easier to get they have also become more popular with young people and competitors in sports.

During the mid-nineteenth new drugs emerged from the laboratories athletes started to be experimented on. The French tried using caffeine to enhance their performances. While other Europeans were mixing cocaine and heroin to give them extra energy they called this drug speedball. In 1886 this deadly mix contributed to the first drug related death in sports by taking the life of a cross-country cyclist. Today the drugs have changed dramatically many athletes have done or are on anabolic steroids, amphetamines, depressants or what are known as brake drugs.

Anabolic steroids are chemicals that are similar to testosterone, the male sex hormone. Steroids are used by a number or young people to enhance their muscle mass and increase their performances. While anabolic steroids are successful at building muscle, they can damage many human body organs, such as the heart, kidneys and liver. Steroids are taken by injection or in pill form, after steroids enter the bloodstream; they are distributed to organs and muscle throughout the body. Forty-eight percent of high school students use steroids to improve athletic performance.

Steroids can increase performances for athletes but steroids also affect the mind and character of the person. Some effects of steroids are impaired learning and hearing, violent behavior, and overly aggressive behavior. When women take steroids they start to show signs of masculinity such as deepening of the voice, increase in body and facial hair also the skin starts to roughen. Anabolic steroids give the one who takes them an unfair advantage in athletic competition. The advantage that they receive is not the same as natural born characteristics of ability.

Another drug that some professional athletes seem to have an obsession with is cocaine. Cocaine was considered to be the drug of the eighties and it proved to be especially in the sport of baseball. During the 1980s cocaine seemed to be the drug of baseball. Many players in baseball were effected by coke including former all-star outfielder Daryl Strawberry and pitching ace Steve Howe were suspended from baseball for cocaine use and cocaine possession. Cocaine is on all the four major professional banned substance list and so are all illegal substances that can enhance an athletes performance.

Many professional athletes have turned to natural sources of performance enhancers, which are found in the human body. In conclusion, I believe that all synthetic drugs should be banned from sports and that all athletes that have any illegal drug in their system should be banned from that sport for life. I also believe that there should be no rehabilitation paid for by the league, which would allow the athlete to apply for reinstatement. The use of drugs should not be allowed for any professional or amateur sport that one could compete against others in.