Comparsion between Hearst and Citizen Kane

Citizen Kane is said to be one of the greatest movies of all-time, but it did not come without controversy. The controversy around this movie is based on the idea that Charles Foster Kane is the fictionalization of William Randolph Hearst, a narcissistic newspaper publisher, politician, and wealthy millionaire. The remarkable parallels between Kane and Hearst include their houses, their newspapers and their use of money. Both Kane and Hearst build spectacular and remarkable houses. In Citizen Kane, Charles Foster Kane builds a palace know as Xanadu.

Xanadu is referred to in myths and poems as place of heaven on earth like, Avalon, Shangri-La, and Atlantis. Samuel Purchas wrote this in “Purchas his Pilgrimage or Relations of the World and the Religions observed in all Ages and Places discovered, from Creation unto this Present:” In Xamdu did Cublai Can build a stately Palace, encompassing sixteene miles of plaine ground with a wall wherein are fertile Meddowes, pleasant springs, delightfull Streams, and all sorts of beasts of chase and game, and in the middest thereof a sumptuous house of pleasure, which may be removed from place to place

Kane’s house in Citizen Kane fits this description well it had meadows, springs, streams, and statues of all sorts of animals, whether chase or game. Hearst house in California’s Santa Lucia Mountains also fits Samuel Purhas description of Xanadu. Hearst house is known as La Cuesta Encantada or The Enchanted Hill. The Enchanted Hill has 165 room’s 127 acres of gardens, terraces, pools and walkways. The rooms are furnished with impressive collection of Spanish and Italian antiques. The way both men got into the newspaper business is rather similar.

In the movie, Kane’s father figure, Thatcher is worried that Kane will not understand his place in the world. Thatcher worries are confirmed when Kane sends a telegram saying that he has no interest in gold mines or banks, but would rather like to take over a small newspaper which is in his possession. Kane states that he would to take over The Morning Inquirer, because, “I think it would be fun to write a newspaper. ”(Citizen Kane) Hearst entered the newspaper world were very similar. In 1880 Hearst’s father, gains ownership of a small newspaper in San Francisco called The Examiner.

Hearst father was losing massive amounts of money on the paper when Hearst asked for control of the paper. Hearst’s father hoping his son would take his place in the family mining and ranching business, finally conceded and allowed William to run the paper. Both Hearst and Kane immediately began to revolutionize everything about their respective papers. Both men threw themselves into their papers, Kane moved into his office so that he could constantly change his paper, so he could constantly be able to do and redo the paper at any hour, night or day.

Kane stated from now on, The Inquirer is going to report all news, large or small, especially if it could be made into a sensation and subsequently sell more newspapers. They were going to report more than the news that the last editor considered newsworthy. If there were nothing exciting to sell newspapers Kane would create it. Kane told people that if they would provide the prose and poems, he would supply the war. Hearst did the same thing with his paper, reporting about topics that were not considered newsworthy by anyone but him.

Hearst told his reporters that if they provide the pictures, he would provide the war. Both Hearst and Kane spent elaborate amounts of money on getting the best staff and higher circulation. Both men eventually develop immense newspaper networks covering the country. Kane used his massive newspaper network to help slander Jim Getty in his political race for Governor. Kane also used his newspapers to help promote and encourage his second wife, Susan Alexander. Kane tried to use his papers to change Susan from a horrible to a great opera singer.

He did this by manipulating the news and, therefore, trying to control what people read thought. Kane used his papers to attack companies in which he was the major stockholder. Charles Foster Kane had success in attacking large companies on the behalf of the people; he would be the people’s investigator. He would print false headlines such as the Spanish armada docked off the Jersey coast. Headlines that he had almost no proof to back up the story with. Like Kane, Hearst used his paper to try to get what he wanted.

Hearst used his papers to engage in mud-slinging campaign against Theodore Roosevelt for the governor of New York. Both men use their publication to portray each other as jailbirds. Although the movie differs from real life here, because Roosevelt defeated Hearst fairly, there was no scandal like that, which stopped Kane. Like Kane, Hearst used his paper to advance the career if his mistress, Marion Davies. Unlike Susan Alexander, Marion Davies was a talented singer and could have a successful career without Hearst.

Hearst discovered that his newspaper were a source of great power and so use them to manipulate the news, people and countries. Hearst would also print false headlines about the Spanish brutality in the Cuban revolution, even though they’re nothing of sort going on. Hearst like attacking big companies as the people’s champion and like Kane contradicted himself when he supported the eight-hour day and the labor unions (Swanberg 235). Both these men used their money for one and only one purpose, to get what they want. Both Kane and Hearst had vast fortunes from gold mines and other investments.

They both did not care about spending their fortunes either. Kane went and the bought the staff from the Chronicle and Hearst was reported to pay almost any salary without a care in the world. When Thatcher told Kane that in one year on the Inquirer, Kane had lost one million dollars, Kane responded with “That means I can still run the paper for sixty years”(Citizen Kane). Hearst was seen to throw away money as if it literally grew on trees. Both men most of the time tried to buy love, they thought that maybe if the gave someone enough money they would love them.

When Leland says that Kane is not collecting diamonds, but collecting someone who is collecting diamonds (Citizen Kane). Also, when Kane uses his money to built opera houses for Susan Alexander. These are example of using his money to try to get love. Hearst used his money to create Cosmopolitan magazine and publication company for the purpose of making Marion Davies a star. Hearst would throw lavish parties and demonstration in hope to get more people to love him. Seeing the striking similarities between Kane and Hearst, one finds it is hard to believe that Citizen Kane was not based on William Randolph Hearst’s life.

Stereotyping the Followers of Islam

The movie, Not Without My Daughter, begins when the family of Mahmoody, Mahtob, and Betty were visiting with the grandparents of Mahtob. Mahmoody, who is Muslim, decides to take his young family to Iran. He swears on the sacred Coran that nothing bad will happen to them. As it turns out, Iran had just finished their revolution and had gone back to the old ways, when women have minimal rights. Mahmoody decides to stay in Iran with his family and Betty can’t do anything about it, but Betty and her daughter Mahtob manage to get back to America.

Stereotyping: A minor fault of all people today. What is it? It is the common mistake all people make when they think that a certain minority is all the same just because they may have seen one of the members. One example of this is the movie, Not Without My Daughter. This movie has a repetitive tendency to portray all male Iranians as wife beaters. This may seem pretty blunt, but in a way, it pretty much summarizes the antagonist of the plot. The video I compared to this is called Islam in America. It showed almost all aspects of the Muslim religion in America today.

The differences between the two may be because of the seperate countries, and after viewing Islam in America, I think that some of the instances in Not Without My Daughter were a bit exaggerated. One part of the movie that set me off, was when Betty was doing something that Moody didn’t like. He slapped her because she had disobeyed him. Is this realistic in the Muslim religion? Probably not. It might be in Iran, but probably not in the religion itself. One of the ideals of the Muslim religion is that all people, male or female, are created equal.

The documentary on Islam in America supports this. Yet, a Hollywood production that most people in America as well as other countries watch, portrays the religion as the rationale to the wife beating. This, subconsciously or consciously, gives a message to the viewers that all Muslim men beat their wives, and that turns them away. Another part of the movie that I didn’t take kindly to, was when Betty went to the American Interests department in the Swiss Embassy for help to get out of the country.

Because of this Muslim country’s laws, they could not help Betty and her daughter though they wished they could. They also informed her that misfortunes like this happen all the time in Iran. This may also seem as though the Muslim religion itself is responsible, when once again it is the country and its government that is accountable. From watching the documentary, I have learned that Islam in America is different only by the fact that America is a free country, where women have the right to leave their husbands. People have the right to practice whatever religion they want to.

Islam in America is also full of diverse people with different races, origins, and ideas; and not just one race that has descended from Abraham like the Jews and Hebrews believe. One problem with this comparison is that the two videos are of different countries, so it is hard to say if one was stereotyping the followers of Islam. From this comparison it is easy to see that the laws greatly effect what people perceive the laws of a religion to be. In conclusion, I believe that in order to end stereotyping, we must first accept other people for who they are and not by what their culture portrays.

The movie The Matrix

In the movie The Matrix we may see many similarities between the society that is the Matrix and that of our own society. Though this movie is an extreme exaggeration of our situation it nonetheless lets us see how we endure these same problems of being “plugged in” every day and how we are fighting those who seem to have control over our lives. However, the question still remains, are we getting anywhere? And if so, is it safe for all of us to unplug at once? Could we handle it? In The Matrix, computer technology finally developed to the point of producing artificial intelligence; a thinking, willing, self- etermined computer.

It continued to learn and grow, gaining control over human society incrementally to the point of almost total control. Human revolt took the form of a mass cataclysm, nuclear in nature, intended to block sunlight from the surface of the earth and shut down the solar-powered computer. The computer then started to breed humans for use as a power source. They were born, grew, and died within gel- filled pods, fed nutrients intravenously while their body heat and electro-chemical impulses were tapped to power the computer.

To keep people alive as long as possible, the computer created a program alled “The Matrix,” a virtual reality world serving as an exact duplicate of late 20th century earth. Humans in the pods were plugged directly into the computer network through implants at the base of their skulls. Individuals within the matrix perceived themselves as living out a normal life somewhere on 20th century earth, while in reality their lives were spent within a pod. This situation can be directly applied to our lives today.

All you would need to do is simply replace the robots with all those who are in our government and exercise power amongst our society. Then we ould change the nuclear war to racism and terrorism towards each other. And the program is not the Matrix, but “values” which are instilled in us by society to tell us what we should want, do and be. This is how we become “plugged in. ” Instead of rejecting the program and attempting to discover where these ideals came from, we simply accept them and move on with our lives.

This is what keeps the system working, the fact that the system feeds off of our ignorance to the obvious, being that we are the worker bees who continue to work at the expense of our independence and ourselves and at the benefit of the ueen bee. This is the exact nature of the matrix. In the film, twentieth century earth is gone. The real world is a nuclear wasteland; cities are charred and empty and life on earth is only possible beneath the surface. But an exact copy exists in the form of a computer program. People are living life in simulacra, a copy that is its own reality.

Exploring this type of pseudo-reality is the next step for modern science fiction. Early science fiction projected the pioneer impulse onto outer space; just a quick survey of science fiction from Buck Rogers to Star Trek reveals that older forms of science fiction were othing more than pioneers fighting Indians to conquer new territory — nothing is changed but the clothing and the weaponry. While our planet still carried with it some element of mystery, so long as there was a frontier, the human imagination could project this frontier to outer space. The frontier is gone, and with it the older forms of science fiction.

The very world of the matrix was a “model of simulation” given the feeling of the real, done so for the sake of maintaining control and reducing human beings to “coppertops,” energy sources feeding the ystem upon which they are dependent for their survival. This is the world in which we live. We work to earn money, spending the money in grocery and clothing stores, paying our mortgages, living as model citizens (just as Neo was pressured to do) for the sake of our survival. We take money from the system and feed it back into the system, like cattle fertilizing the ground upon which they graze.

The film assumed that reducing a human being to a “coppertop” was an intolerable, dehumanizing condition. “Neo,” the new man, the Christ-like figure (who died and returned to life, had iraculous powers within the matrix and was betrayed by the Judas figure Cipher) was “the One” destined to take control of the matrix and end it, freeing humanity from its servile condition. Morpheus (the god of the dream world in Greek mythology) played a John the Baptist figure, serving as a herald declaring the arrival of Neo, most importantly to Neo himself.

Within the film the central opposition was between truth and comfort; Cipher chose to betray his friends in order to be reinserted into the matrix and live an enjoyable life with no memory of his past betrayals. However false his reality, he preferred it to the harsh “real world” outside the matrix. Morpheus, Neo, and those who believed in them chose reality at any cost and fought the matrix at any point possible. These are the decisions we must face in our real world environment. Recognizing that we’re enslaved by a system is the first step.

The next step involves a willingness to sacrifice safety for freedom. This encouragement of terrorism explains the violence permeating the film. Just as those who are violent in the film are fighting for what they believe in (though it may be violent) those in the real world oday are often fighting for what they believe in and fighting against this “matrix” society. But, does the film point to a solution? At the end, Neo has realized his identity and power within the matrix and has, we are led to believe, ended the program.

Within the world of the film literally millions of people are in pods, unaware of their true condition and not ready for the real world as it is. What would happen to these millions should the system suddenly shut down? The world is not capable of feeding this many people all at once, much less are the people themselves ready to be awakened. Should Morpheus and Neo shut down the program and condemn millions to death? Is such an insurrection justified in the service of humanity? Especially when the only alternative is to allow the system to run as it is, and this too is unacceptable.

What needs to happen in the world of the film is that the mind of the system needs to be controlled by human beings again? It needs to be stopped from breeding more human beings, and those in pods need to be awakened as they are able. Those unable to adapt could be allowed to live out their lives to their virtual reality end. When hey die, they won’t be replaced. Within a generation the computer could be shut down. The difference between the movie and real life is that human beings already control the matrix within which we are caught.

However, the same problems exist with the difficult task of unplugging each person. What options do we have? Is it even possible to make everyone see that the ideal and stereotypes that have been instilled in them have been through society as a whole and are based on no truth? When Neo finally realized his power to control the matrix, he plunged himself into an Agent and exploded him from within. Terrorism fails because it attacks the system from the outside and endangers those caught within it. To effectively fight the matrix that we are caught in now we must fight it from the inside.

This means to stop stereotypes and racism where they start. This can mean a lot of things such as educating as many people as possible and also educating our children that we are all equals. Not only is insurrection in service of humanity morally unacceptable, it is doomed to failure. When people feel threatened, by and large they are willing to sacrifice freedom for safety. We tolerate martial law in wartime. Our only hope is that the realization of the individual within the system means the lobotomization of the system.

We may remain within a matrix, but knowingly, aware of our power to control it and refusing to be controlled. This shows that we can control the matrix by simply not allowing ourselves to be vulnerable to the media and other social factors. By striking back and refusing to watch news programs which are geared towards violence and stereotypical views we can show our position. If each of us would take a couple seconds to think over the stereotypes we have against ther then we would see how ridiculous they are.

Lastly, we must attack the system from the inside. We must do this by not passing bills in Congress that are meant to separate us. And of course each of us must realize and face the fact that we are caught in a never ending sociological cycle. Though we may change the direction of the cycle it is never ending and while each one of us works there is someone who is benefiting. Once we realize all of these things and do a small part to help we can overtake the “ideals” and “values” that society has forced us to consider “norms”.

Reservoir Dogs

Gangsters, violence, murder and corruption !!!!! If these are some of the things that you’re into, then this is your kind of movie. Be ready to watch it more than once to be sure to get all the movie has to offer because it jumps from subject to subject and can be a little confusing. The movie on the whole was really great. It was filled with some pretty gory scenes and extreme violent content, Tarantinos’ trademark. The way he portrays the real life aspects of crime and violence are unbelievable.

I wonder if he experienced some of these things himself and that’s why he has a realistic view of them. Then again, I can’t really gauge how realistic any of these themes are because after watching this kind of movie it makes me feel like I lead a really sheltered lifestyle. Why does all the violence in Tarantinos’ movies become so attractive to us normal people? I think it’s because most of his material is underworld stuff. He deals with things we can barely relate to. Topics that are so far fetched to a “normal” person that they kind of hypnotize us into watching.

Things happen in his movies that are so bizarre, we can’t begin to imagine them happening to us in real life. The weird part is, many of these things DO happen every day. We all know there really are gangsters, mobsters and really low-life people that involve themselves in what we think of as underworld crime. Drug deals…. on a level so great… amounts we can’t begin to comprehend. Murders, for whatever reason. Even the thought of hiring someone to kill someone else gives us a goose bump or three.

In his movies it’s almost like borrowing a cup of sugar from your next door neighbor. Chopping off someone’s ear would repulse me and probably make me want to spew my lunch. Tarantinos’ characters chop off ears then talk into them as if they were using ma bell. His characters attitudes are totally ruthless. They could give a shit if you were the cousin of the president or a nanny. They have a job to do and they do it. No holes barred, no questions asked, no thought given to actions or consequences.

They are almost like robots, zombies of the underworld that have no emotions or respect for the value of life. You would think these characters are drugged or brainwashed, but they’re not. It amazes me that people do this kind of shit as if it were just another day. It’s as second nature to them as brushing our teeth every morning is to us. Belonging. Everyone likes to feel like they fit in. There is a certain comfort level in belonging to something, anything. Even if it is to a gang of criminal types.

I think that’s another reason we all relate or get captured by viewing these kinds of movies. I can only compare it to a fraternity; fraternity brothers all belong to an organized group. They have similar interests, goals and acquaintances. All Tarantinos’ characters have these things in common. Although they aren’t exactly what we would consider acceptable, they all still feel this common bond. It’s a sick kind of thing though. When you think of all the things life has to offer, why would you want to involve yourself in all this complicated criminal shit?

They jeopardize their own existence because even though they are considered members of the organization, they would snuff each other out in the blink of an eye if the right person told them to do it !!!! I have to admit I was totally awed by his movie. I couldn’t wait for the next scene to start. As a movie maker, his ideas and the way he presents them are phenomenal. He definitely captures his viewers. You don’t even want to blink for fear of missing something. I would like to see him do a movie about topics that aren’t so bizarre just to see if the movies would be as good.

To the True Meaning

The theme of this paper is to dissect the first fight scene; in the movie Bull Durham, between Crash Davis; who is played by Kevin Costner; and “Nuke” LaLoosh; who is played by Tim Robbins. The fight takes place in a bar scene between these two men who have never met before. The reason for the fight is that Crash Davis is talking to a women by the name of Annie Savoy who is sitting at one of the tables. Nuke already believes that Annie is going to be with him all season long, but Crash believes otherwise.

In the beginning of the scene Nuke is dancing with all of the women in the bar while Crash is sitting alone in the corner of the bar. Crash then orders a drink for Annie, and is then asked by Annie to come over and sit by her. Crash introduces himself to Annie and tells her that he is the new catcher on the Durham Bulls baseball team. At the same time Nuke comes over and ask Annie to dance, but Crash stands up and says that she is dancing with him. When Crash stands up in front of him, Nuke takes this as a challenge and he asks Crash if he wants to take it outside.

At this point Nuke still does not know that Crash is his new catcher. While Nuke is waiting for Crash outside, Crash begins to wonder how he is going give Nuke his first lesson to make it to the majors. When Crash finally comes outside he sees that Nuke is standing in the middle of the street. Nuke is not alone he has the entire baseball team standing behind him. First, Crash says that he does not want to fight him. When Crash says this everyone else begins to tease Crash. Next, Crash tells Nuke to throw the first punch, but Nuke refuses to.

So instead, Crash tells Nuke to throw a baseball as hard as he can right at Crash’s chest. When Nuke hears this everyone around him including himself begin to laugh, because they know how hard Nuke can throw and that it could kill Crash if it hit him in the chest or the head. During this entire time Crash is keeping a cool head. He knows that the chance of Nuke hitting him is very small. Also, he tells Nuke that he won’t be able to do it because he is beginning to think about it. Crash goes so far as to say that Nuke’s aim is so bad that he could not hit water if he fell out of a boat.

Crash also says that his million dollar body could do it, but its his five cent head that is holding him back. Finally, Nuke becomes so upset that he throws the ball at Crash, but misses and ends up breaking a window. Crash looks at the hole that Nuke just made and say ball four. When Crash says this, Nuke comes at him and tries to punch him. Before he can, Crash punches him right in the nose and causes him to fall to the ground. After Crash knocks him to the ground, he introduces himself to Nuke as his new catcher and helps him up. In the end, Crash invites Nuke back inside for a beer and to talk.

The number of communicational concepts that appear in this short interaction is very high. The mental distractions that are present in this argument are factual distractions and semantic distractions. A factual distraction occurs when someone focuses so intently on details that they miss the main point. This is exactly what Crash’s intentions were when he was trying to make fun on Nuke in front the rest of the baseball team. Nuke was so angry at Crash for calling him names and insulting him that he could not hit Crash with the baseball. The other mental distraction that occurs is semantic.

A semantic distraction occurs when someone over responds to an emotion-laden word or concept. Crash also brings this upon Nuke when Crash says to Nuke “Your just pissing away that million dollar body of yours with that five cent head. ” Another very common event in today’s society is stereotyping. The stereotyping that occurred in this engagement was categorizing or when someone looks at another person and they think they know what kind of person they are. When Crash stands up to Nuke in the beginning of the scene, Nuke thinks that Crash is just a washed up old man who could not hold his own in a fight.

Nuke also thinks that because of his size and weight advantage that he will automatically win any fight. Another stereotyping of Nuke is that he believes that Crash is saying these things because the has been drinking and when people drink they cannot control themselves in a fight. Nuke’s beliefs made him asks Crash if he wants to take it outside. More categorizing occurs when Crash first sees Nuke, Crash is thinking that he is just a immature man who thinks that one day he will be in the Majors. Crash also thinks that he should be respected by Nuke just for thinking that he is older.

Crash also believes that the is a better man and that Annie would rather be with him than Crash. Just because he thinks that he is older and more mature. Both of these men’s first impressions of each other are very close. Another problem with listening is ourselves. One of Nuke’s big problems was experiential superiority. Which is when someone looks down on another because their experiences with life is not as good or as extensive as his own. When Crash stands up to Nuke, Nuke automatically thinks that he is better, since he is younger and is going to be in the majors.

At the same time Crash thinks he is better since he is older and more mature. Besides experiential superiority another problem with ourselves is defensiveness. This is a characteristic of people who act threatened, as if they must defend what they have said or done. Both characters display this feature while talking with Annie. First, Crash displays this when he tries to defends his claim, when Nuke comes up to Annie and asked her to dance right in front of Crash. Nuke then displays this characteristic when Crash stands up saying that Annie is going to dance with him.

Nuke then retaliates by asking Crash if he wants to go outside and fight about it. Nuke also experiences this feeling when he is being pressured by Crash to throw the ball. Because of Crash, Nuke is feeling pressure in front of all of his teammates and friends. Because of Nuke’s attitude he could not refuse to go after Crash with vengeance. Besides the men’s verbal actions there nonverbal communications are just as important. During the entire conversation Nuke tried to show a higher status. He was constantly either crossing his arms or standing with his head and shoulders back.

The was especially evident when they were outside of the bar. Crash took on an entirely different approach to the situation. When Crash came outside his kinesics were in a likely manner. Crash came out and wanted to talk the situation over instead of fighting. Crash had his arms open, tried to look Nuke in the eyes, and had a smile on his face; yet they all went unnoticed. When Crash realized that he was not going to get out of the confrontation, he decided that he would have Nuke throw a baseball at him since he new Nuke could not do it.

Another nonverbal action that is only seen by the audience occurs when Nuke has left after asking Crash to step outside. At this point Crash has a look on his face of wonder and fright. How is he going to get out of this without getting killed. The nonverbal communication between the two men start the entire conflict, not only in this one sequence, but throughout the entire movie. Another nonverbal communication that could be seen in both characters was nervousness. When Nuke told Crash that to come outside, nervousness could instantly be seen in his face. Crash was both nervous and scared.

He was wondering how is he going to survive this situation without having to fight Nuke. Nuke started to become nervous when Crash started to make fun of him and call him names. Since Nuke was standing outside by all of his friends he had to hold up his reputation as a bad guy. One small hand shake that took place after Crash punched Nuke had a lot of meaning. First, Crash introduced himself and changed the entire meaning of the confrontation. Nuke just believed that he was some guy that wanted Annie, but in the end, he realized who Crash was and what he stood for.

After Crash introduced himself he tells Nuke that this is his first lesson “Don’t think, you’ll only hurt the tea. ” Nuke respects the way that he went about getting his point across. He could of either been beat up very badly or he could of been killed by the baseball. When Crash stands up and grabs Nuke’s arm he is trying to defend his asking of Annie to dance and instantly invades Nukes space. Nuke’s attitude towards this is not to back down, but to stay where he is and to fight about it. When Crash grabs Nuke’s arm he is also using touch to get his message across. By grabbing the arm Crash instantly places more emphases on his words.

Not only were there misunderstandings in this conversation, but if they had not happened the argument never would have taken place. The first misunderstanding was that Nuke did not know that Crash was his new teammate and catcher. Another misunderstanding was that they both did not know that Annie had already choose which man she was going to take under her arm for the season. The misunderstandings that occurred in this confrontation, tells us that one main problem is men and the way that they act towards each other. Also, if humans would try to communicate instead of fighting changes could be make.

The Patriot Movie Review

“The Patriot” takes place during the Revolutionary War. It’s 1776 and intense fighting is going on in the north, while in the south the people are scrambling to recruit anyone who was willing to fight against the British. The main character, Benjamin Martin, is a veteran of the French and Indian war who wants independence from Britain, but is not willing to risk the safety of his already motherless children by going to war. His son Gabriel however, has a different view of the war, and enlists in the Continental Army without the consent of his father.

Soon Benjamin is forced into action whether he wanted to be or not. When helping out hurt and wounded soldiers from both sides at his home he is viewed as a traitor, and Gabriel is ordered to be hanged. Benjamin’s son Thomas tries to help Gabriel, but is shot and killed by the brutal and nasty Colonel William Tavington, who also orders the Martin’s house to be burned to the ground. This understandably pushes Benjamin over the edge. He and his two younger sons then by themselves gun down over 20 redcoats and rescue Gabriel.

Benjamin’s quick shooting and stealthful movements earn him the nickname of “The Ghost. ” He then leaves his children with their aunt Charlotte, and forms a small militia group full of locals to help in the fight against the British and for personal revenge. Martin’s militia accounts for many redcoat deaths and cause a lot of trouble for the British. Col. Tavington however, results to his brutal tactics against the families and loved ones of the soldiers in Martin’s militia.

Tavington is responsible for the deaths of Gabriel’s, wife, most of the citizens of their SC town, and later Gabriel himself as well. Martin’s army however overcomes much adversity, and plays a large part in the Continental effort. They later join up with the main Continental Army, and along with the long awaited arrival of the French, force Cornwallis and the British to surrender at Yorktown. Benjamin also gets his revenge by killing Tavington in the battle. This spells victory for the Americans and personal victory for Benjamin Martin.

After the white flag is raised Martin returns to his family to rebuild his house and his life. As a result of the harsh treatment and strict regulations put on the colonists by the British such as the Boston Massacre, the Tea Act, Stamp Act, and other taxes, the colonists were ready for a change. They are tired of being controlled by a government on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, and are ready to start fighting for their freedom. The colonists form many rebellious groups such as the Sons of Liberty, to protest and rebel against the British involvement in their country.

They hold meetings and help carry out acts against the British such as the Boston Tea Party. When the British don’t change their ways it is time for war. The fighting starts at Lexington and Concord in the spring of 1775 with the first shots being fired. People all over wanted to help in the war effort by joining the army and forming small militia groups to fight the British. Benjamin Martin’s army was one of these groups. The British won many battles but the colonists stayed strong.

The colonists were fighting for something they truly believed in, and this gave them an advantage and a reason to stay motivated. “The Patriot” shows the adversity that they had to fight through to gain freedom, but victories for the colonists like Saratoga kept them confident. All of the struggle paid off when the Continental Army, the militia, and the French all join forces to corner the British at Yorktown and force them to surrender. America had won the war and their freedom which became official with the signing of the Treaty of Paris and the Declaration of Independence.

At the end of “The Patriot” when they are rebuilding the house it symbolizes what the Americans had to do, and that was rebuild and form the nation that would become the United States of America. Hollywood presented “The Patriot,” and the event of the Revolutionary War in a bit of an exaggerated way. In the movie the British were looked at as brutal, heartless killers, which is an exaggeration of the way that the British really were. Also, Mel Gibson’s character, Benjamin Martin, was based on Gen.

Francis Marion(AKA: “The Swamp Fox”), who was very different in real life than the way he was portrayed in the movie. Marion was in actuality a serial rapist, a racist, and he also hunted Native Americans for fun. Benjamin Martin treated everyone respectfully, and was looked at by his peers as being a noble and honorable person. The events that took place, such as the marriages, killings of civilians, and the actual involvement of the certain militia showcased in this movie are not backed up by historical facts.

The movie also ignored that many Americans fought on the side of the British crown. The movie made it seem like it was all of the Americans against all of the British, and it was uncommon to see an American fighting for the British. Hollywood definitely didn’t just go by what it says in history books, they told their own story. I don’t think Hollywood did a great job of providing historical information and facts through “The Patriot,” but they made it interesting. They stretched and exaggerated things like the British brutality, and didn’t base many of the events on factual information.

I liked the coverage of the event because it focused on one family, and how it directly affected the people, and not just the country as a whole. By seeing this it gave us a look at what it might have been like if we lived during the war. I also disliked some things in the movie. I didn’t like how they put the British in a bad light regarding their involvement in the killing of innocent civilians. The brutal acts that were carried out in the movie by the redcoats could not be proven true.

The movie also could have included information about other militia groups and the Continental Army as a whole. I also think that this movie was very one-sided. It was definitely pro-American, and against the British. This makes sense because it is an American movie, but I think it serves an injustice to some of the innocent British soldiers. Mainly Hollywood didn’t really care much about the historical accuracy, but they wanted to make an exciting movie that would sell tickets, and they did that in “The Patriot. “

Short Circuit movie

In 1985 the movie going community was enthralled with its newest hit movie titled Short Circuit. The movie portrayed a robot that due to accidental electrocution believed that it was alive. In the final scenes the robot know as Johnny five was seen removing one of its damaged robotic arms and replacing it with a new and identical arm. This idea of replacing one limb with another of equal function was unfortunately only movie fiction. This fiction however is quickly becoming a reality for countless thousands of people living with prosthetic limbs.

In the October 1998 issue of Scientific American the story of Melissa Del Pozzo a thirteen year old girl living with a prosthetic limb gives an example of the hope many are living with. Her only dream is that she could one day tickle the ivories of her piano again. Her hope could soon be rewarded. With continued research, prosthesis’s are making advancements that were once only dreams. These advancements are seeing the most change in the areas of dexterous movement, feeling, and comfort. The first area that we see monumental change is in the ability for dexterous movement.

The greatest development in this area is found in the Free-hand system developed by the Neuro-Control Corp. The January 1998 issue of FDA consumer outlines the workings of this system. First, the external Shoulder Position Sensor translates shoulder movements into electronic signals. The signals then travel to the External Controller for processing, and then to the external Transmitting Coil for relay to the Implanted Stimulator, which sends electrical stimulation along implanted Electrode Leads to implanted Electrodes in prosthetic hand, making them contract.

With the use of this system amputees are again able to perform tasks were once impossible. The only problem with this system as pointed out in the September 13th issue of people magazine is that each unit costs about $50,000 an amount which most insurance companies are unwilling to fork out. The hand is also becoming more advanced with a system discussed in the January 1998 issue of Tech Directions. This system, know as Sabolich’s Sense of Feel System, uses a cuff attached to the remaining portion of the limb. Over time a user is able to recognize exactly how much pressure they are using.

This system differs form earlier ones in which judgement was based simply on sight, which is not very accurate. By using this system, amputees are able to hold their child’s hand or pick up an egg without the fear of crushing them. Both the Free-Hand system and Sabloich’s sense of feel system are helping amputees feel their way towards a better quality of life. Using these systems, they are moving away from the dreaded metal hook and into the technological world they live in. Although some feeling is addressed in the first point, we must next examine the advancement in sensory receptors which aide to the feelings experienced by amputees.

The prosthetic limb has seen great advancement in feel and function but one of the greatest advancements is a system developed by John Sabolich, NovaCare’s national prosthetic director. The myo-electric prosthesis with hot and cold sensory receptors described in the April 3, 1998 issue of Philadelphia Business Journal provides one of the unique advancements of the last decade. The system involves temperature sensors, placed in a prosthetic foot or hand that send signals to a computerized advanced circuitry system. Those signals are sent to electrodes on the skin in a person’s residual limb.

The natural skin receptors send information to the brain, where the sensation is registered. One patient said that he could again feel the warmth of his grandson’s hand and could feel the warmth of his wife’s face. In a recent article titled, “How computers help artificial limbs get smarter” found in the August 14th edition of the Wall Street Journal eastern edition, Sabolich’s use of pressure sensors in artificial feet is explored. To create an awareness of pressure, Sabolich places pressure transducers in the toes and heels of artificial feet.

The greater the surface pressure against them, the larger the signal sent on to electrodes that touch the existing portion of a person’s leg. Signals from the front and back of the foot go to the front and back of the person’s leg, respectively. Researchers report that the user can learn to interpret the varying intensity of signals on the leg as messages that convey the full range of pressure along the foot. One user named John Halavack used the leg to break the record in the 100-meter dash in the Special Olympics. His only comment was “I never knew that feeling the ground could help me run faster.

The performance of the new prostheses is so effective that users report that they experience sensation in entire limbs again–even in their missing portions. Doctors call this phenomenon cerebral projection. Its existence plays an essential role in the natural performance of an artificial leg. Because of cerebral projection, a person using a prosthesis can apply the gas or brake pedal of a car with the same accuracy as a person who has a real leg. The final area in which advancement is being made is seen in the comfort of an artificial limb.

The Tracer CAD system, outlined in the May 25th issue of The Des Moines Business Record, is allowing for a better fit of prosthetic limbs. The Tracer CAD is a computerized method of measuring and creating a socket. This program is able to measure with accuracy never seen before. With an error of only one-millimeter, it is helping amputees find a better fitting prosthetic limb. Instead of making a plaster cast, the Tracer Cad is able to measure and relay the information to the production computer, which in turn makes the limb. This new found comfort is making the limbs less of a burden and more a part of the person’s body.

We have seen that through the development of sensors in he prosthetic hand the amputee enjoys increased dexterity. Also we have seen that special sensors and computers allow for some feeling to be regained, and finally we have seen that through the use of the Tracer Cad amputees are experiencing a better fit and comfort with their artificial limb. Through each of the advancements we find that the hope felt by countless thousands of amputees is not unjustified. With continued advancements the hope of one day functioning like the pre-amputate state might be realized. The movie magic seen in short circuit is quickly becoming a reality for all.

Joseph Conrads book, The Heart of Darkness and Francis Coppolas movie, Apocalypse Now

Inherent inside every human soul is a savage evil side that remains repressed by society. Often this evil side breaks out during times of isolation from our culture, and whenever one culture confronts another. History is loaded with examples of atrocities that have occurred when one culture comes into contact with another. Whenever fundamentally different cultures meet, there is often a fear of contamination and loss of self that leads us to discover more about our true selves, often causing perceived madness by those who have yet to discover.

The Puritans left Europe in hopes of finding a new world to welcome them and their beliefs. What they found was a vast new world, loaded with Indian cultures new to them. This overwhelming cultural interaction caused some Puritans to go mad and try to purge themselves of a perceived evil. This came to be known as the Salem witch trials. During World War II, Germany made an attempt to overrun Europe. What happened when the Nazis came into power and persecuted the Jews in Germany, Austria and Poland is well known as the Holocaust. Here, humans evil side rovides one of the scariest occurrences of this century.

Adolf Hitler and his Nazi counterparts conducted raids of the ghettos to locate and often exterminate any Jews they found. Although Jews are the most widely known victims of the Holocaust, they were not the only targets. When the war ended, 6 million Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Communists, and others targeted by the Nazis, had died in the Holocaust. Most of these deaths occurred in gas chambers and mass shootings.

This gruesome attack was motivated mainly by the fear of cultural intermixing hich would impurify the “Master Race. Joseph Conrads book, The Heart of Darkness and Francis Coppolas movie, Apocalypse Now are both stories about Mans journey into his self, and the discoveries to be made there. They are also about Man confronting his fears of failure, insanity, death, and cultural contamination. During Marlows mission to find Kurtz, he is also trying to find himself. He, like Kurtz had good intentions upon entering the Congo. Conrad tries to show us that Marlow is what Kurtz had been, and Kurtz is what Marlow could become. Every human has a little of Marlow and Kurtz in them.

Marlow says about himself, “I was getting savage (Conrad),” meaning that he was becoming more like Kurtz. Along the trip into the wilderness, they discover their true selves through contact with savage natives. As Marlow ventures further up the Congo, he feels like he is traveling back through time. He sees the unsettled wilderness and can feel the darkness of its solitude. Marlow comes across simpler cannibalistic cultures along the banks. The deeper into the jungle he goes, the more regressive the inhabitants seem.

Kurtz had lived in the Congo, and was separated from his own culture for uite some time. He had once been considered an honorable man, but the jungle changed him greatly. Here, secluded from the rest of his own society, he discovered his evil side and became corrupted by his power and solitude. Marlow tells us about the Ivory that Kurtz kept as his own, and that he had no restraint, and was ” a tree swayed by the wind (Conrad, 209). ” Marlow mentions the human heads displayed on posts that “showed that Mr. Kurtz lacked restraint in the gratification of his various lusts (Conrad, 220).

Conrad also tells us “his nerves went wrong, and caused him to preside at ertain midnight dances ending with unspeakable rights, which were offered up to him (Conrad, 208),” meaning that Kurtz went insane and allowed himself to be worshipped as a god. It appears that while Kurtz had been isolated from his culture, he had become corrupted by this violent native culture, and allowed his evil side to control him. Marlow realizes that only very near the time of death, does a person grasp the big picture. He describes Kurtzs last moments “as though a veil had been rent (Conrad, 239).

Kurtzs last “supreme moment of complete knowledge Conrad, 239),” showed him how horrible the human soul really can be. Marlow can only speculate as to what Kurtz saw that caused him to exclaim “The horror! The horror,” but later adds that “Since I peeped over the edge myself, I understand better the meaning of his stare it was wide enough to embrace the whole universe, piercing enough to penetrate all the hearts that beat in the darkness he had summed up, he had judged (Conrad, 241). ” Marlow guesses that Kurtz suddenly knew everything and discovered how horrible the duplicity of man can be.

Marlow learned through Kurtzs death, and he now nows that inside every human is this horrible, evil side. Francis Coppolas movie, Apocalypse Now, is based loosely upon Conrads book. Captain Willard is a Marlow who is on a mission into Cambodia during the Vietnam war to find and kill an insane Colonel Kurtz. Coppola’s Kurtz, as he experienced his epiphany of horror, was an officer and a sane, successful, brilliant leader. Like Conrads Kurtz, Coppola shows us a man who was once very well respected, but was corrupted by the horror of war and the cultures he met.

Coppola tells us in Hearts of Darkness that Kurtzs major fear is “being hite in a non white jungle (Bahr). ” The story Kurtz tells Willard about the Special Forces going into a village, inoculating the children for polio and going away, and the communists coming into the village and cutting off all the children’s inoculated arms, is the main evidence for this implication in that film. This is when Kurtz begins to go mad, he “wept like some grandmother” when, called back by a villager, he saw the pile of little arms, a sophisticated version of the “escalating horrors.

What Kurtz meant by “escalating horrors” is the Vietnamese armys senseless decapitation, orture, and the like. Kurtz is facing a new culture and has a terrible time dealing with it. This was the beginning of his insanity. “All America contributed to the making of Colonel Kurtz, just as all Europe produced Mr. Kurtz. Both Kurtzes are idealized in their function as eyewitnesses to the atrocities. What is reflected is the threat of loss of self, loss of centrality, and the displacement of Western culture from the perceived center of history by those whom it has enslaved and oppressed (Worthy 24).

This tells us that the evil side and the madness in both Kurtzes was brought out by the fear of new cultures different from their own, and their inability to deal with this fear. The disconnection between the opening words of Kurtz’s report “By the simple exercise of our will, we can exert a power for good practically unbounded” and the note on the last page, “Exterminate all the brutes! ” illustrates the progressive externalization of Kurtz’s fear of “contamination,” the personal fear of loss of self which colonialist whites saw in the “uncivilized,” seemingly regressive lifestyle of the natives.

Gradually, the duplicity of man and eality merged for the two Kurtzes, one in the Congo, and one in Vietnam. As this happened, the well defined cultural values masculine/feminine and self/other that had specific segregated roles, could not be sustained in the Congo or in Vietnam. “For the Americans in Vietnam, as for the colonialists in Africa, madness is the result of the disintegration of abstract boundaries held to be absolute (Worthy 24). ”

“As it attempts to confront the ‘insanity’ of the war through Kurtz’ s madness, that of the filmmakers, and the madness of U. S. culture, Hearts of Darkness exposes the contradictions between the inherent hierarchy and nequality within the cultural forces of the United States and official democratic principles, which led to the perception that it could waste what it viewed as insignificant little people and preserve its own image in the world. Along with that is the growing realization, since the Tet Offensive of 1968, that the U. S. was somehow way off the mark (Worthy 24). ” American Culture views it self as “correct”, and we see ourselves as powerful police of the world.

Our culture looked down upon the Vietnamese because they were more simple than us, just as Europe and Marlow looked down on the Africans. Believing ourselves to be superior, we had a lot of trouble dealing with the discovery that we are not. Coppola makes a point to show us that the Chief of a boat armed to the teeth was killed by a native in a tree who threw a spear. Not even an “advanced” Navy boat can defend itself against some “simple” natives armed only with spears.

This opens Captain Willards eyes to the horror of the situation he now finds himself in. Even more intriguing, however, is the similarity between the transformation of the characters in Apocalypse Now, and the cast and crew that created it. In Hearts of Darkness, (a documentary about the making of Apocalypse Now. ) Eugene Coppola becomes the narrator ( a Marlow or Captain Willard) and Francis becomes Kurtz. “Francis believed that only if he could duplicate Willards experience, could he understand his moral struggle.

In other words, he had to lose control of his own life before he could find the answers to the questions that his narrative asked (Worthy 24). ” Coppolas main horror was his fear of producing a pretentious movie. “Eleanor repeatedly calls the making of Apocalypse Now a journey into Coppola’s inner self. Coppola, like Kurtz, is egarded as a deity. Moreover, while Willard stalks Kurtz in Apocalypse Now, Coppola stalks himself, raising questions which he feels compelled to answer but cannot, finally announcing his desire to “shoot himself.

He means suicide, but the cinematic connotation of the term, “to shoot,” jointly criticizes both the U. S. and Coppola’s film for exercising a demented self-absorption (Worthy 24). ” Coppola had to deal with perhaps the most agonizing of his troubles: his shriveling self-confidence. As the budget soared, as the producers worried, as the crew and actors grew restless and ispassionate, Coppola worried that he did not have what it takes to finish the film. He struggled with the ending, with his own creative ability, and with his sense of purpose.

Martin Sheen, who plays Captain Willard, is the one who really faces the horror. During the filming he has a nervous breakdown and later a heart attack. Some of his co-actors believed that Martin was becoming Captain Willard, and was experiencing the same journey of self discovery. We live our lives sheltered in our own society, and our exposure to cultures outside of our own is limited at best. Often, the more echnologically advanced cultures look down upon those that they deem to be simpler.

On the occasion that some member of one culture does come into contact with another, simpler culture, a self discovery happens. Both cultures realize that deep down inside, all humans are essentially the same. We all posses a good and an evil side, and no culture, not matter how “advanced,” is exempt from that fact.. This discovery often causes madness as this evil side is allowed out. Only those who have completed the “journey into self” can understand the actions of people such as Kurtz. They are alone in this world of horror. The Horror!

The Birdcage film

What attracts us to the movie theatre on Friday nights? Is it the commercials we see? Or is it all the gossip we hear from friends and TV talk shows? Well for many, it is the critiques we read and hear almost every day. One who specializes in the professional evaluation and appreciation of literary or artistic works is a critic. The profession of movie criticism is one of much diversity. Reviews range anywhere from phenomenal to average. Not only are movies created for the entertainment and sheer pleasure of the audience, they create a market of jobs and open doors to the world of financial growth.

The success of these films, whether they are tremendous or atrocious, is not only dependent of the actual film, but also upon the critic’s reviews. It is a form of assistant advertising, in addition to commercials and billboards. A movie review is composed of summaries, plots, controversial issues, perks, and detriments. They discuss the features of the movie and certain points that appeals to the critic. Not to forget that the sole purpose of writing these reviews is to persuade the reader to take on a pre-opinionated view of the film prior to viewing it.

In addition, they hope the reader enjoys their style to further persuade them, as well as others, to persist in reading their reviews. Based on a corroboration of the three critics, Hinson, Howe, and Berardinelli, there is one basic overview of the movie The Birdcage. For some twenty years, Armand (Robin Williams) and Albert (Nathan Lane) have lived together as husband and wife (so to speak). Both are openly gay, and seemingly comfortable with their sexuality. They are partners in business where Armand operates a drag nightclub and Albert is the star performer.

They have a son, Val (Dan Futterman), the product of Armand’s one-night rendezvous twenty-one years ago with big-time executive Katherine Archer (Christine Baranski). As far as his upbringing is concerned, Val is as much Albert’s son as Armand’s, and he is not ashamed of his unusual family situation, at least not in the normal course of things. Things go awry when Val becomes engaged to the 18-year old daughter of Senator Keeley (Gene Hackman), the co-founder of the Coalition for Moral Order who believes that Billy Graham is too liberal.

Since there is no chance that Keeley would sanction a marriage between his daughter and the son of a gay couple, Val pleads with his father to pretend to be straight, if only for one night. The result of this, as might be expected, is a hilarious disaster full of outstanding performances. Robin Williams, despite his reputation for unfettered mania, is surprisingly restrained throughout most of The Birdcage, doing a little serious acting along the way. Nathan Lane, playing the effeminate Albert, is the real star, whether he’s trying to swagger like John Wayne to act “manly” or costumed like a housewife.

Gene Hackman has the straight man’s role, into which he fits wonderfully. The only role that is over-the-top is Hank Azania as Aggedor, the houseboy for Armand and Albert. The film is so entertaining that it is easy for the unsuspecting viewer not to realize its hidden message. The structure of The Birdcage is designed to show us that there isn’t much difference between conservatives and liberals, and on that note, straight and gay people. Hal Hinson, a movie critic of The Washington Post, best describes The Birdcage as “a movie of many laughs.

In the review titled “The Birdcage: A Wingding of a Show,” Hinson describes in great detail the setting and plot of this movie, and makes it clear that is what the reader is looking for. However, it is quite clear that he has made the assumption the reader has not yet seen the film. He also assumes that the audience has even the slightest sense of humor. The movie is presented as one for almost any age and for people whom are quite liberal in their views. He goes further to explain the situation the actors are in and what troubles, even as actors, they have to overcome.

He praises their superb work in portraying their characters. A major part of this film is the two distinguishably different families trying to deal with each other’s differences, in this case sexuality. One side illustrates a very conservative family and, on the other hand, lies an essentially homosexual family. Homosexuality is generally a dangerous subject to depict due to its many touchy sides. The critic, however, held no bias on this topic, and leaned more towards the point of the movie’s exceptional humor and quality.

Hinson is a wonderful critic in the way that he presented this film. Had the movie not been so fantastic, most of his readers would still make it a must to see it. Using his descriptive and concise manner, evidently he held the reader in mind when composing this review. Hinson also informs the reader that the film makers’ point in creating this movie had been to make a stunning and shocking remake of the old French film La Cage aux Folles. This movie was a mega blockbuster, and unquestionably loved by all.

In Howe’s review of The Birdcage, unlike Hinson, he apparently assumes that his audience has a general knowledge of movies and a sense for first-rate comedies. Since most people presumably have not seen the movie, Howe gives a short description of the plot and characters which helps draw in the reader. By doing this, he is exposing the audience to the outrageous plot, which guarantees an excellent flick. Most of his readers are generally looking for an overview of the movie and actors to suit their curiosity and to acquire a general sense of the movie.

This plays a huge part in the reader’s choice to see the movie. The reader also is looking for the opinion of the writer to help aid in their interest towards the movie. Howe goes on to say how he loves all the gags in the movie and his astonishment by the performances of the cast, especially those of Nathan Lane and Hank Azaria. Howe definitely enjoyed the film and foretells so as to most people will as well. Howe does not feel a need to persuade his readers to see this movie, however.

He feels the outrageous plot is enough to entice an audience. Howe generally comes off as a witty writer, who after enjoying a movie is able to aid in its success by presenting good praise. Unlike the other two reviews, the evaluation of The Birdcage by James Berardinelli does not take on a particular side of the film. This critic just states the facts, without going into great detail. He makes the assumption that the reader knows something about the movie. His type of review stands mediocre among the other two.

He does not make it evident that this movie is a must-see, however he does state that it would be a delightful movie to watch on a cold winter’s weekend by the fire. A major difference about Berardinelli’s critique in respect to the other two accounts is that this one did not find some of the homosexual extremities funny, and made a point to say so. In his description he mentioned the issue of the two very different families and their situation, simultaneously keeping a neutral outlook.

Yet he made sure, just as the other two critics, to inform the reader of the gay and transsexual issue in the movie, and the frequency of this joke. Berardinelli also mentions how outstanding the setup of the costumes and choreography is. Surprisingly, he is not the kind of critic a reader looking for a rating on a movie would like. However, Berardinelli does do a wonderful job for those readers who want a brief summary and overview of the film. The Birdcage, a movie for all to enjoy, was portrayed as such by all three critics.

As awkward the “gay” situation may seem, The Birdcage takes on a light-hearted approach to make an audience laugh, not speculate. My personal feelings on the movie were similar if not the same to the ones of the three critics. They did not alter my opinion towards the movie in any way; they only informed me of those specifics I had not yet known. One point stands out in my mind the most, and that is the very informative quality of these critiques. One fact that I did learn from these reviews that I was not aware of beforehand is the movie’s basis, which is the older French film, La cage aux Folles.

Although the reviews were good in nature, I feel the film deserved more appreciation and acknowledgement than what the critics gave them. If I had to choose to read any of the critics’ reviews for a second time, I would most definitely choose Hal Hinson. He without doubt gave the finest description of the movie that truly grasped the reader’s attention, not to mention he would have sold me a ticket opening night. In general, all three critiques possessed their own authenticity and style, which in turn is the source of the critic’s reputation.

The Last Of The Mohicans: Movie Review

A. Plot

Whilst making their way to a British Fort, Major Heywood and his party are attacked by Indians. Three men come to their rescue, two of them Indians, and another is a white man whom was raised by the eldest Indian. This man, Hawkeye, his brother and father rescue the Major and the two women that are in his party.

Then the three men stay with the party and aide them in their journey to the British Fort. Once there, the two women’s father whom is the man in charge of the huge battle going on at that time. The French and English are at war. Colonists are urged to fight for Britain, and once they become part of the battle, they were not allowed to leave to defend their own homes.

Hawkeye works out a secret plan in order to help some men escape the battle zone and return to their homes and families. He gets caught, and is sentenced for treachery, and held as a prisoner. From the first night that he was with the Major and his party, Hawkeye had a romance starting with Cora Munro, the main general’s eldest daughter. When Hawkeye is captured and put in the fort’s prison, she swears not to leave his side, and although they have only known each other for a few days, she’s really devoted to him.

The two sides come to an agreement, Britain surrenders to France, and they are lead towards the Atlantic Ocean so that the British can be returned to England, “with pride”. On the route there they are ambushed by a very large band of Indians. The British forces are nearly wiped out, Cora’s father is killed, and the leader of the Indian tribe captures her and her sister not long after this attack. Hawkeye swears he will rescue her.

When the Indian leader, Magua, brings the two girls and Major Heywood to the tribe’s chief, Cora is sentenced to die, but her life gets traded for Major Heywoods after Hawkeye argues with the Chief. Once she is free, Hawkeye, his brother and father, and Cora flee. They have to ambush Magua, because he still has Cora’s sister in his possession. In attempt to rescue her Hawkeye’s brother gets killed. After seeing this Cora’s sister plunges to her death.

Since his true son has died, Hawkeye’s father becomes the last of his people, the last Mohican. He kills Magua, and the story ends with Hawkeye, Cora, and Chingachgook (Hawkeye’s father) saying goodbye to their brother’s soul by the sunset.

B. Setting

The movie takes place deep within the forests of colonial New York in the 18th century. The setting is important because it helps the movie set the mood of the 18th century frontier , and the war going on at that time.

C. Major Characters

Hawkeye- A strong man in his early 30s perhaps, raised by an Indian father since he was about 4 years old. He is very skilled in the arts of fighting, tracking, and hunting. Hawkeye falls in love with Cora very fast, and becomes extremely devoted to her. He also believes in a man’s right to freedom, which is why he helps the men escape from the battle field. When Major Heywood asks him which militia he is with, he states that he works for no man and serves no one in the battle.

Cora Munro- Cora is the oldest daughter of a British general. She is a Christian, and has strong beliefs about war and freedom. She stands up to her father when Hawkeye is captured, although he doesn’t seem to care much at all about a word she says. Cora is surprisingly strongwitted, she picked up a gun and carried it with her, and even used it, where her sister just panicked. Cora falls in love with Hawkeye remarkably fast, and in the end of the movie she is by his side.

D. Character Changes / Growth

Hawkeye changed from the beginning to the ending of the movie, not very much, but his character had the most change over the others. In the beginning he wanted nothing to do with the war, wasn’t settled down with a woman, always on the move, he had nothing to fight for except himself and his family. In the end however, and thought the movie, he shows true devotion for Cora, he even offered to give up his own life for her.

The 1998 movie Elizabeth

Elizabeth The 1998 movie Elizabeth, directed by Shekhar Kapur, from a script by Michael Hirst, is a historical epic that takes place during and after the mid-16th-century period when Englands Princess Elizabeth was nearly eliminated by her half-sister, Queen Mary. It portrays the events of Marys death, Elizabeths ascension to the throne, and the struggles and events that she must overcome in order to preserve the strength of the English Monarchy, and establish Protestantism as the chief English religion.

She must also maintain her stability and safety as a female ruler in a male-dominated society. The movie is beautifully made, with eloquent and realistic costumes, and prominent actors, and it successfully turns an important historical period into a riveting drama filled with action and romance. However, looking at Elizabeth from a historical standpoint, it is lacking in terms of accuracy. The chronological events in the movie do not follow with the historical events, and instances that happened over many years are crammed into a short period of time.

Also, many events are exaggerated, or even completely made up in order to add to the dramatic appeal of the movie. Despite these flaws, Elizabeth does correctly relate the main aspects of Queen Elizabeth Is rule. Elizabeth was born in 1533, the daughter of the infamous Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. When Elizabeth was three, her mother was beheaded for treason and adultery, and Parliament declared her marriage to Henry invalid, which made Elizabeth illegitimate. Her chances of ever ascending the throne were again thwarted by the birth of Edward, the son of Henry and his third wife.

When Edward, a Protestant, died in 1553, his older half-sister, Mary, a Catholic, took the throne. Mary always held bitter feelings toward Elizabeth because Anne Boleyn treated Catherine of Aragon, Marys mother, badly. To avoid angering Mary, Elizabeth conformed outwardly to Catholicism, but she secretly hoped and plotted to restore Protestantism. She was briefly locked up in the Tower of London, and was almost executed. The movie begins with the execution of three Protestant activists, ordered by Mary, illustrating her hatred and intolerance for Protestants.

In order to avoid angering Mary, Elizabeth continually had to proclaim her pious distaste for heresy. (Jagger) In the movie, Mary meets with her advisors, including the Duke of Norfolk, who advises her to arrest Elizabeth for treason, and possibly execute her. They believe that she is part of a conspiracy to kill Mary, ascend the throne, and reinstate Protestantism. The movie shows Elizabeth being captured and taken to the Tower of London, where she is kept for short period of time.

During the time when she is imprisoned, Marys advisors, namely Norfolk, attempt to persuade her to put Elizabeth to death, but Mary is reluctant to do so. Elizabeth is taken to see Mary, who at this point knows that she is dying of ovarian cancer. Mary begs Elizabeth to promise that when she becomes Queen, she will preserve Catholicism in England. Elizabeth promises only to do as her heart tells her to do, which angers Mary, and she is then put under house arrest at the royal manor of Woodstock in Oxfordshire, where she stays until Marys death. In reality, these events followed somewhat of a different course.

Elizabeth was suspected of plotting the reinstatement of Protestantism with a French ambassador and other Protestant activists, and Marys advisors suggested that Elizabeth be put under surveillance, as it might be then possible to find reasons for sending her to the tower. Investigations proceeded, and Elizabeth was finally sent to the tower, where she was held for two months in a suite of four rooms, where only her servants could visit her. When she was released from the tower, she was taken to the estate at Woodstock, and kept there for nine months under house arrest. During this time, she was allowed no visitors.

In the movie, Robert Dudley frequently visited her. In reality, this would never have been allowed. The confrontation with Mary is inaccurate as well. Instead of a face-to-face confrontation about preserving Catholicism, Mary wrote her dying wish in a letter, and had it sent to Woodstock, where Elizabeth in turn replied back with the same message that the movie shows. These inaccuracies in the movie can be attributed to the filmmakers lack of film time, as well as the drama factor. A face-to-face confrontation is much more dramatic and entertaining than a mail correspondence.

Another inaccuracy in the movie is the role of Norfolk. The movie shows him as a loyal servant to Mary, and a strong supporter of the execution of Elizabeth. Actually, Norfolk was not a key character in English political history until Elizabeth had been on the throne for some years. (Thomas) His role in the movie is almost entirely false, although he was eventually put to death due to his role in a conspiracy against Elizabeth. Again, this can be attributed to the drama factor in the movie. Norfolk assumes the role of the main bad guy, and heightens the suspense of the movie.

When Mary finally dies due to ovarian cancer, Elizabeth is notified at Woodstock, and travels to England, where she takes the crown amid great public rejoicing. At this time, the movie shows Sir Francis Walsingham, a Protestant activist who had been hiding out in France awaiting the death of Mary, returning to England to council Elizabeth, and the ascension of Elizabeth to the throne. In reality, Walsingham did not become a key figure in English politics until the second decade of Elizabeths reign, although Elizabeth did maintain correspondence with him throughout the early years of her reign.

During the first few weeks of her reign, Elizabeth reduced the size of her council in order to get rid of several Catholic members, and appointed several new ones. The most skillful of her new advisors was William Cecil, who was later made Lord Burghley. In the movie, Richard Attenborough, an elderly man, plays Sir William. The real Sir William was only thirty years of age when Elizabeth was crowned, and he served under her for forty years. She never forced him to retire, as the movie later shows. At the very start of her reign, Elizabeth faced pressures from both her advisors and Parliament to marry and produce an heir.

Her suitors included Philip II of Spain, Archduke Charles of Austria, Eric XIV of Sweden, the Duke d Anjou, the Duke of Alencon, and many others. However, she was reluctant to marry from the beginning, and told Parliament that in the end this shall be sufficient, that a marble stone shall declare that a Queen, having reigned such a time, lived and died a virgin(Ridley). She was, in fact, probably in love with Robert Dudley, known also as the Earl of Leicester. The movie manipulates several facts about Elizabeth and Dudleys relationship.

It shows Elizabeth and Dudley engaging in sexual activity, which historians are very skeptical about. Jagger states, It is unlikely that Robert Dudley and the Queen had a sexual relationship, for various reasons, and their love affair had not begun at the time of her coronation. In all probability, the Queen was the virgin she claimed to be. Dudley and Elizabeth are constantly shown together, which holds some historical accuracy. The two had a very close and affectionate relationship, and Elizabeth frequently turned to Dudley for political advice.

Rumors of a romantic involvement between the two spread around Europe, and damaged her reputation to some extent. However, unlike the movie shows, Elizabeth knew very well that Dudley was married, while she had attended his wedding in 1550, so he could not very well hide the marriage from her. One very large falsification on the filmmakers part is Dudleys involvement in the conspiracy to have Elizabeth killed. However, he did conspire with several outside forces in an effort to gain support for a marriage between him and Elizabeth.

Dudley met with the Spanish ambassador, and told him to tell Philip II that he was prepared to restore religion by way of Council in return for Philip IIs support of the marriage(Doran). However, he had no intention of keeping these promises once the wedding had taken place. Although she may have wanted to, Elizabeth refused to marry Dudley because her main advisors objected to it, but she let him continue his intrigues with the Spaniards, and her encouragement probably gave him hope that she would eventually marry him.

Dudley continued to pursue Elizabeth, although it never worked out for him. On one occasion, Elizabeth stated that [she] would have here but one mistress and no master(Jagger). Eventually, as it became apparent that Elizabeth was not going to marry, the House of Commons and House of Lords preferred a Dudley match to her continuing a life of celibacy and to the threat of civil war on her death. This evidence of Parliamentary approval for a marriage to her favorite came too late, for by 1563 she had apparently little desire and certainly no intention of taking Dudley as a husband(Doran).

As for the conspiracy, Robert had been involved with a plan for Norfolk to marry Mary Stuart, but this had nothing to do with a plot to kill Elizabeth. He had only supported it in order to get Norfolk out of England, which may have worked on Elizabeths behalf, while Norfolk conspired against her in later years. When the plan started to turn in a negative way towards Elizabeth, Robert immediately confessed to her, and she did not lose any favor to him. In fact, the two remained very close throughout her entire reign, and his death devastated her.

However, there is no evidence that she spoke his name on her deathbed, as the movie suggests. Dudleys role is an essential one in the movie. Almost every good movie has a love story, and this one is between Elizabeth and Dudley. Although somewhat inaccurate and embellished, their relationship does not deviate too far from the truth, while the two were very close and acted affectionately towards one another. The added love scenes and quarrels again add to the movies drama, and romance appeal. Another main event in the movie is the proposal to Elizabeth by the French Duke of Anjou.

This proposal starts with Mary of Guise, Anjous aunt. She tells the English that she will take her French troops out of Scotland, and cease her planned attack on England if Elizabeth will consider marrying her nephew. Anjou comes to England to see Elizabeth, and he is portrayed as a loud and obnoxious little man, not to mention a cross-dresser. In reality, the Duke of Anjou did not come to England at all. His brother, the Duke of Alcenon, came twenty years later, and Elizabeth seriously considered marrying him (he was not a cross-dresser).

The Duke of Anjou was one of Elizabeths suitors, however, although she never had any intention to marry him. The films portrayal of these events is inaccurate, but it serves the purpose of showing the viewers the many attempts of suitors to marry Elizabeth and her reluctance to succumb to these proposals. Another inaccurate event in the movie is the assassination of Mary of Guise. The movie shows Mary of Guise plotting to kill Elizabeth, and Walsingham goes to Scotland and poisons her. As aforementioned, Walsingham was not even a key figure in English politics yet.

He never murdered her, while he was a greatly religious man. The movie portrays him as a homosexual who murders a young boy, which is entirely inaccurate, but again incorporates heightened drama into the film. Historians believe that Mary of Guise died of natural causes. The movie is mostly inaccurate in its portrayal of the assassination attempts on Elizabeth, the conspiracies against her, and her handling of these conspiracies. In the film, during the Duke of Anjous (fictional) visit, an assassination attempt is made on Elizabeth.

This event did not take place until 1578, and then in very different circumstances. It was not an assassination attempt at all, but a salute to the Queen that went wrong. No one was killed (Thomas). Also in the film, a great conspiracy to kill Elizabeth and restore Catholicism is started with the Pope. He issues a proclamation stating that Elizabeths subjects need not be loyal to her, while she is a heretic because she does not support Catholicism, nonetheless a bastard. A priest named Lord Aaron carries letters from Rome to Elizabeths enemies, including Norfolk and Dudley.

These letters are intercepted, and Elizabeth has the recipients of the letters eliminated in a power play that might have been lifted from the Godfather (Hartl). This sequence of events is actually a combination of several plots against Elizabeth during her reign, one of them being the Ridolfi Plot, in which Norfolk was involved. Essentially, Ridolfi was a freelance contact-man, working for money, whose object was to coordinate the activities of those anxious to overthrow Elizabeth and replace her with Mary Queen of Scots.

He thus had dealings with Mary herself, Norfolk, the Pope, Alva, and Philip II (Johnson). Lord Burghley revealed the plot and Norfolks involvement when he found letters from Mary to Norfolk. He was tried in 1572, and sentenced to death. Ironically, Elizabeth was alone in favor of his mercy, and was very reluctant to order him executed. When she finally did, it was to strengthen her determination to keep the fate of Mary entirely in her own hands (Johnson). Elizabeth eventually had Mary executed after the Babington Plot of 1586 to murder her.

A papal bull of 1570 did release Elizabeths subjects from their allegiance, which caused Elizabeth to pass harsh laws against Roman Catholics when plots against her life were discovered. The Godfatheresque sequence in Elizabeth is a well-done action sequence that is very entertaining, although inaccurate. Perhaps the filmmakers wanted to culminate all of the conspiracies against Elizabeth into one single conspiracy, in order to create a more powerful climax. The movie accomplishes in showing that Elizabeth had to be careful whom she trusted, because many people were secretly plotting against her.

The involvement of Dudley is exaggerated, and also the film suggests the involvement and execution of the Earl of Sussex, who was actually never involved in any conspiracy against Elizabeth. He was a devoted subject of the Queen and remained so until his (natural) death. The end of the film shows Elizabeth cutting off her long hair, painting herself white, and reluctantly becoming a Virgin Queen, and marrying England. This decision is portrayed as a spur-of-the-moment one resulting from her discovery of the large and elaborate conspiracy against her that includes Dudley.

Her decision seems to come mainly from her realization that a man for whom she loves has plotted to kill her, and she decides that she can trust no man. She keeps Dudley alive and close to her, only to remind herself how close she came to danger. As previously mentioned, Dudley was not involved in a killing conspiracy, and Elizabeth kept a close relationship with him. One major flaw of the movie is that it shows her decision to become a virgin as a spontaneous one, when actually the cult of Elizabeth as the Virgin Queen wedded to her kingdom was a gradual creation that unfolded over many years(Britannica).

She was always careful in cultivating her public image, but it is not until about twenty years into her reign, when it is certain she would not marry, that the legend of the Virgin Queen really begins to emerge(Thomas). While the film Elizabeth fails to follow a completely accurate historical timeline, it accurately portrays Queen Elizabeth II as a strong female ruler who bypassed the stereotypes of women and successfully ruled over England from 1558 to her death. In her lifetime, she made herself a powerful image of female authority, regal magnificence and national pride(Jagger).

It also shows how Elizabeth assumed the role of a Virgin Queen to legitimate her status as an independent ruler. She took control of the representations of herself, especially in art, and had herself cast as a supernatural being that he subjects would worship, almost like the Virgin Mary. The film also shows that although Elizabeth was overall a successful ruler, she did have some drawbacks. After her first meetings with Parliament, Elizabeth questions her ability to rule. The Bishops were against her because they were strongly Catholic, and the strong Catholic minority concerned her.

She had to rule over a country with no powerful central state, no army, no police, and not a good financial base. She was also unable to make quick decisions. Her advisors had to pressure her into war, because she was against it, stating that wars have uncertain outcomes. Her lack of state power made her nervous and politically paralyzed, reluctant to offend the divided kingdom that she ruled. Her servants by no means always trusted her judgment and often despaired at her political behavior(Ridley).

However, she was a great short-term politician who knew how to manipulate her image in order to gain more support and power. The shortcomings of the film can be attributed to several reasons. First of all, successful movies can not run for a long period of time. Essentially, the filmmakers had to condense about two decades into material into about two hours, and make these two hours interesting. To do so, facts had to be manipulated in order to make the movie more interesting and easy to follow. Important characters were omitted, conspiracies grouped together, and people were misrepresented.

Elizabeth was portrayed as a happy and fun-loving young woman, when historians describe her as a somewhat cold-hearted woman who shared her fathers nasty temper. The filmmakers turned the history into a drama that has the essential characteristics of any entertaining movie: suspense, good guys and bad guys, and a riveting love story. They were not attempting to make an accurate documentary of Elizabethan England, but a dramatized interpretation of it that would be enjoyable to viewers, and provoke interest in the Elizabethan era.

The movie Blade Runner

In this essay I plan to prove, using three main concepts from John Locke’s An Essay Concerning Human Understanding that replicates are not persons and can be retired without violating and moral, ethical, or legal laws. Replicates are merely man made intelligence and became a threat to real humans. Since the beginning of time man has killed animals and other humans that were a threat to others well-being. Why should these manufactured replicates be any exception? Problem:The problem proposed in the paper is weather or not it is ethical to retire replicates from the movie Blade Runner.

In order to answer this question I must answer a couple of other questions. The hardest question will be, Are replicates people or are they just created machines by man. If they do qualify as living beings do we have the right to kill them based on our principles? One can look at these questions from many points of view. I chose to look at these questions from John Locke’s perspective. I will use his philosophy to justify my answers to this question. Background: The movie Blade Runner takes place in the 21st Century.

In this time period humans have the technological knowledge to genetically produce human like androids that have the capacity to think, feel, learn, and move about freely. They are in no way controlled by an outside party. However some of these replicates have learned too much and discovered that they are indeed man-made and can only live for four years. In an effort to find a way to extend their lives they rebel and kill several people in a “off world” and hijack a ship and return to earth.

These replicates have been made illegal on earth and a special police unit called Blade Runners has been given the authority to kill any replicate on earth upon detection. This is where the moral and ethical dilemma comes in. Do these Blade Runners have the right to kill all replicates in punishment for the actions of a few? I say yes. The Blade Runners have every right to retire these replicates for several reasons. In the movie these replicates are a danger to society. When Tyrell told the replicate that he could not extend its life span he killed him.

One cannot ask for the impossible and then punish he who cannot produce the impossible. I can understand why the replicates are upset. Their life is limited to such a short time. Still this is not a reason to commit murder. From a philosophical stand point I will support my beliefs concerning the retirement of replicates. Criteria:The justification for the retirement of replicates comes from three of John Locke’s philosophical positions relating to the concepts of a person. To begin with, Locke critiques the rationalistic idea that any human mind is equipped with innate or in born ideas that do not arise from experience.

What this means is that no human can have an idea that was not perceived through the senses from the outside world. Locke firmly believes in the Tabula Rasa. This is the blank slate theory. This means that when a person comes into the world it has absolutely no ideas imprinted on its mind. All the ideas a person will acquire will come from the time they were born until the time they die. There are no preexisting ideas. This concept of Locke’s will be used to dispute replicates memories. The second concept of Locke’s is that all ideas and knowledge come from the outside world.

Locke states that all things in the physical world must be perceived through the senses and then stamped on the mind. Locke believes that a person’s experiences produce ideas, which are the immediate objects of thought. People are not directly aware of physical objects. They are directly aware of the ideas the objects in the physical world cause in them and they represent the objects in their consciousness. People then arrive at ideas by reflecting on the impressions on their own minds. An idea is anything that the mind perceives in it, or is the immediate object of perception.

You cannot perceive any idea from the mind without perceiving parts of it from the outside world. This concept will be used to argue against some of the replicates understandings. Locke also believes that all objects in the physical world were created and caused by a divine being or God. This divine being is the perfect perceiver because he caused everything in existence. If this divine being is the cause of all objects in the physical world he is also the cause of all persons who perceive the world. He gave these persons the ability to perceive.

This point will be used to argue the replicates very existence. Analysis:The retirement of replicates is justified by these three philosophical concepts. If a person is a being who is born with a blank slate, with no innate ideas, then because the replicates have implanted memories of childhood, we can say that these replicates are not persons. Tyrell gave each of the Nexus 6 replicate false memories of their childhood. Many of these memories were actually those of Tyrell’s niece. Real people have no memories of their childhood until they have actually lived that portion of their life.

This fact alone makes it hard to accept the replicate as persons. The next concept that discredits replicates as persons is perception of the physical world to form and cause ideas. If all ideas must come form perception of the outside world, then because one of the replicates, Leon, stated that he had never seen a turtle but knew what the examiner was talking about tells us the he is not a person. If Leon had never seen a turtle how could he possible know what one was or why it could not right itself when turned up side down?

It is absolutely impossible to understand something that a person has had absolutely no contact with. Leon was definitely not a person. In addition to this last point, Locke says that all persons must learn to reflect and reason in order to understand many of life’s complex ideas and knowledge. The replicates were actually created with the same intelligence as their creators, which were humans at the Tyrell Corporation. It is impossible for a person to posses this kind of intelligence at birth. For this reason the replicates cannot be persons.

The last point to be made against the replicates is the fact that a divine being is responsible for all that is perceived. This could be possible except for the fact that these replicates were designed and produced by humans at the Tyrell Corp. Conclusions:Some of Locke’s concepts would have considered the replicates as persons. I think it impossible for anyone to deny that fact. Unfortunately I always came back to these major concepts. A being that has innate ideas cannot be a person. No one can be born with preexisting memories.

No person can understand ideas that they have never had any experience with. No one can visualize and understand a turtle that they have never seen. No one can be born with the same intelligence as a fully-grown adult. Most importantly no person can be considered a person who was created by man. Due to these problems with the replicates existence I feel that the Blade Runners were completely justified in retiring replicates. These replicates were merely machines created by man that had become a menace to society. They are androids.

Hollywood and Computer Animation

Hollywood has gone digital, and the old ways of doing things are dying. Animation and special effects created with computers have been embraced by television networks, advertisers, and movie studios alike. Film editors, who for decades worked by painstakingly cutting and gluing film segments together, are now sitting in front of computer screens. There, they edit entire features while adding sound that is not only stored digitally, but also has been created and manipulated with computers. Viewers are witnessing the results of all this in the form of stories and experiences that they never dreamed of before.

Perhaps the most surprising aspect of all this, however, is that the entire digital effects and animation industry is still in its infancy. The future looks bright. How It Was In the beginning, computer graphics were as cumbersome and as hard to control as dinosaurs must have been in their own time. Like dinosaurs, the hardware systems, or muscles, of early computer graphics were huge and ungainly. The machines often filled entire buildings. Also like dinosaurs, the software programs or brains of computer graphics were hopelessly underdeveloped.

Fortunately for the visual arts, the evolution of oth brains and brawn of computer graphics did not take eons to develop. It has, instead, taken only three decades to move from science fiction to current technological trends. With computers out of the stone age, we have moved into the leading edge of the silicon era. Imagine sitting at a computer without any visual feedback on a monitor. There would be no spreadsheets, no word processors, not even simple games like solitaire. This is what it was like in the early days of computers.

The only way to interact with a computer at that time was through toggle switches, flashing lights, punchcards, and Teletype rintouts. How It All Began In 1962, all this began to change. In that year, Ivan Sutherland, a Ph. D. student at (MIT), created the science of computer graphics. For his dissertation, he wrote a program called Sketchpad that allowed him to draw lines of light directly on a cathode ray tube (CRT). The results were simple and primitive. They were a cube, a series of lines, and groups of geometric shapes. This offered an entirely new vision on how computers could be used.

In 1964, Sutherland teamed up with Dr. David Evans at the University of Utah to develop the world’s first academic computer graphics department. Their goal was to attract only the most gifted students from across the country by creating a unique department that combined hard science with the creative arts. They new they were starting a brand new industry and wanted people who would be able to lead that industry out of its infancy. Out of this unique mix of science and art, a basic understanding of computer graphics began to grow. Algorithms for the creation of solid objects, their modeling, lighting, and shading were developed.

This is the roots virtually every aspect of today’s computer graphics industry is based on. Everything from desktop publishing to virtual reality find their beginnings in the basic research that came out of the University of Utah in the 60’s and 70’s. During this time, Evans and Sutherland also founded the first computer graphics company. Aptly named Evans & Sutherland (E&S), the company was established in 1968 and rolled out its first computer graphics systems in 1969. Up until this time, the only computers available that could create pictures were custom-designed for the military and prohibitively expensive.

E&S’s computer system could draw wireframe images extremely rapidly, and was the first ommercial “workstation” created for computer-aided design (CAD). It found its earliest customers in both the automotive and aerospace industries. Times Were Changing Throughout its early years, the University of Utah’s Computer Science Department was generously supported by a series of research grants from the Department of Defense. The 1970’s, with its anti-war and anti-military protests, brought increasing restriction to the flows of academic grants, which had a direct impact on the Utah department’s ability to carry out research.

Fortunately, as the program wound down, Dr. Alexander Schure, founder and president of New York Institute of Technology (NYIT), stepped forward with his dream of creating computer-animated feature films. To accomplish this task, Schure hired Edwin Catmull, a University of Utah Ph. D. , to head the NYIT computer graphics lab and then equipped the lab with the best computer graphics hardware available at that time. When completed, the lab boasted over $2 million worth of equipment. Many of the staff came from the University of Utah and were given free reign to develop both two- and three-dimensional computer graphics tools.

Their goal was o soon produce a full -length computer animated feature film. The effort, which began in 1973, produced dozens of research papers and hundreds of new discoveries, but in the end, it was far too early for such a complex undertaking. The computers of that time were simply too expensive and too under powered, and the software not nearly developed enough. In fact, the first full length computer generated feature film was not to be completed until recently in 1995. By 1978, Schure could no longer justify funding such an expensive effort, and the lab’s funding was cut back.

The ironic thing is that had the Institute ecided to patent many more of its researcher’s discoveries than it did, it would control much of the technology in use today. Fortunately for the computer industry as a whole, however, this did not happen. Instead, research was made available to whomever could make good use of it, thus accelerating the technologies development. Industry’s First Attempts As NYIT’s influence started to wane, the first wave of commercial computer graphics studios began to appear.

Film visionary George Lucas (creator of Star Wars and Indiana Jones trilogies) hired Catmull from NYIT in 1978 to start the Lucasfilm Computer Development Division, and a group of over half-dozen computer graphics studios around the country opened for business. While Lucas’s computer division began researching how to apply digital technology to filmmaking, the other studios began creating flying logos and broadcast graphics for various corporations including TRW, Gillette, the National Football League, and television programs, such as “The NBC Nightly News” and “ABC World News Tonight.

Although it was a dream of these initial computer graphics companies to make movies with their computers, virtually all the early commercial computer raphics were created for television. It was and still is easier and far more profitable to create graphics for television commercials than for film. A typical frame of film requires many more computer calculations than a similar image created for television, while the per-second film budget is perhaps about one-third as much income.

The actual wake-up call to the entertainment industry was not to come until much later in 1982 with the release of Star-Trek II: The Wrath of Kahn. That movie contained a monumental sixty seconds of the most exciting full-color computer graphics yet seen. Called the “Genesis Effect,” the sequence starts out with a view of a dead planet hanging lifeless in space. The camera follows a missiles trail into the planet that is hit with the Genesis Torpedo. Flames arc outwards and race across the surface of the planet.

The camera zooms in and follows the planets transformation from molten lava to cool blues of oceans and mountains shooting out of the ground. The final scene spirals the camera back out into space, revealing the cloud-covered newly born planet. These sixty seconds may sound uneventful in light of current digital effects, but this remarkable scene epresents many firsts. It required the development of several radically new computer graphics algorithms, including one for creating convincing computer fire and another to produce realistic mountains and shorelines from fractal equations.

This was all created by the team at Lucasfilm’s Computer Division. In addition, this sequence was the first time computer graphics were used as the center of attention, instead of being used merely as a prop to support other action. No one in the entertainment industry had seen anything like it, and it unleashed a flood of queries from Hollywood directors seeking to find out both ow it was done and whether an entire film could be created in this fashion. Unfortunately, with the release of TRON later that same year and The Last Starfighter in 1984, the answer was still a decided no.

Both of these films were touted as a technological tour-de-force, which, in fact, they were. The films’ graphics were extremely well executed, the best seen up to that point, but they could not save the film from a weak script. Unfortunately, the technology was greatly oversold during the film’s promotion and so in the end it was technology that was blamed for the film’s failure. With the 1980s ame the age of personal computers and dedicated workstations. Workstations are minicomputers that were cheap enough to buy for one person.

Smaller was better, aster, an much, much cheaper. Advances in silicon chip technologies brought massive and very rapid increases in power to smaller computers along with drastic price reductions. The costs of commercial graphics plunged to match, to the point where the major studios suddenly could no longer cover the mountains of debt coming due on their overpriced centralized mainframe hardware. With their expenses mounting, and without the extra capital to upgrade to the ewer cheaper computers, virtually every independent computer graphics studio went out of business by 1987.

All of them, that is, except PDI, which went on to become the largest commercial computer graphics house in the business and to serve as a model for the next wave of studios. The Second Wave Burned twice by TRON and The Last Starfighter, and frightened by the financial failure of virtually the entire industry, Hollywood steered clear of computer graphics for several years. Behind the scenes, however, it was building back and waiting for the next big break. The break materialized in the form of a watery reation for the James Cameron 1989 film, The Abyss.

For this film, the group at George Lucas’ Industrial Light and Magic (ILM) created the first completely computer-generated entirely organic looking and thoroughly believable creature to be realistically integrated with live action footage and characters. This was the watery pseudopod that snaked its way into the underwater research lab to get a closer look at its human inhabitants. In this stunning effect, ILM overcame two very difficult problems: producing a soft-edged, bulgy, and irregular shaped object, and convincingly anchoring that object in a live-action sequence.

Just s the 1982 Genesis sequence served as a wake-up call for early film computer graphics, this sequence for The Abyss was the announcement that computer graphics had finally come of age. A massive outpouring of computer-generated film graphics has since ensued with studios from across the entire spectrum participating in the action. From that point on, digital technology spread so rapidly that the movies using digital effects have become too numerous to list in entirety. However they include the likes of Total Recall, Toys, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, The Babe, In the Line of Fire, Death Becomes Her, and of course, Jurassic Park.

Nondiegetic music of the Doors in the scene waiting in Saigon

Sound plays a significant part in all movies and one of the most interesting of all the sound techniques would be the use of nondiegetic music. In the movie Apocalypse Now, there is a double disc soundtrack with thirty tracks on it. The one song on there that has the most meaning would The Doors song “The End”. This song not only set the mood for the scene waiting in Saigon and the move as a whole but is also used to foreshadow the death of Coronal Kurtis. Mr. Coppola, the director of the film, was a genius for picking this song to represent the movie.

It not only fits the movie with the sounds of helicopter but the words alone have significant meaning to the movie. Along with it serving as a premise for the movie, Mr. Coppola plays with the viewer’s perception of diegetic sounds and nondiegetic music. The scene as a whole is a montage of overlapping dissolve sequence. It is set in Saigon but is more of a delusional state of mind of Willard, the main character. We get a sense of the upcoming climatic part of the movie through the visions and music of the scene.

The opening scene starts out with a diegetic sound of a helicopter passing in front of a jungle. We get the sense that the helicopter sounds that we will be hearing are going to be diegetic until Mr. Coppola brings in The Doors song “The End”. Which brings the sounds of the helicopter into the music. He uses the helicopter as a set up for the music ensemble that is forth coming. As the electric guitar starts to play a psychedelic tune with the sounds of the synthesized helicopter, you feel like you’re in a somewhat delusional state of mind.

As if your mind is being carried away by the music to a dreamlike place. The dirt in the scene is doing some mysterious dance to the beat making the jungle in the background seem somewhat fuzzy and dreamlike. The first minute of the song is used to set the viewers for the montages sequence that is coming up next in the scene. Its purpose is to make us feel delusional and somewhat drugged. The guitar solo and synthesized helicopter sounds then leads us into the world and mind of the main character, captain Willard.

As the sequence moves along you hear the voice of Jim Morrison sing, ” This is the end Beautiful friend This is the end My only friend, the end,” to the flaming sights of war are seen at the edge of a jungle as napalm blows the jungle up to pieces. As the camera pans across the destruction left of the bomb, the song emphasizes the word the end. This music is used to bring a hallucinatory intensity to the movie. Without the song in the background all we would see is the destruction that the war had on the jungle.

With the music we get more of feeling of the destruction that it had mentally, not only physically on Willard mind. We get the sense that Willard knows something that we as viewers don’t and is trying to forewarn us that something is going to end. The first spoken words of the song add the needed intensity to the sequence and the whole movie. To let the viewers know that something is going to end. Whither it is the end of the war, or the end of a life. As we move into the montage sequence of shots, the music words are used to express what we are seeing on screen.

Mr. Coppola uses the rest of the sequence to foreshadow what is going to happen at the end of the movie. This is the main function of the song in the movie, which is to get the viewers mind thinking about the end of the movie. It starts out with an overlapping dissolve from the burning jungle into Willard’s burnt wet face. As the dissolve leads to Willard’s face we hear the song say, “I’ll never look into your eyesagain. ” This symbolizes death. We get the sense through the music that someone, either Willard or someone else in the move, is going to die.

The music is still playing as we get a delusional view of what Willard is thinking about. Then we get to another shot where we see a tribal statue next to Willard’s face with the jungle on fire in the background. The music then goes on into saying, “Desperately in needof somestranger’s handin adesperate land. ” This right here foreshadows Coronal Kurtz, the antagonist in the film, compound. Kurtz was thought to be insane and he needed a way out. The “the strangers handin a desperate land” is connecting Kurtz and Willard. That is why they show Willard’s face with the tribal statue and this part of the song.

To warn the viewers what is to come at the end of the movie, which is the end of Kurtz and his compound of people. In the next sequence the tone of the music turns into a fast paced drum solo, bringing the beat and intensity of the sequence up. The beat leads from a slow delusional pace, to a fast, somewhat overexerted pace. As if Willard’s thought are starting to become overwhelming. The camera then dissolves into Willard’s room and we come to see a mise-en-scence shot of cigarettes with lighter, glass with alcohol, and a bottle of Cordon Bleu.

As this shot is shown the song plays, ” lost in a romanwilderness of pain. ” We get the sense that Willard is on the path of self-destruction. The words of the song express this by using the Romans as an example. The Romans were said to be strong and one of the greatest empires. But due to their way of living they ended up becoming self destructed and later obsolete. The song gives us the sense that this is the path that Willard is on. With the music and the shot we see that he is in pain and is using the alcohol and cigarettes to ease the pain but at the same time he is just destroying himself.

As you listen to the rest of the song you are reinforced of this with the shot of Willard lying next to a gun and the song saying, “And all the children are insane. Along with the nondiegetic music playing there are two motifs within the song by The Doors. The first being that of Mr. Coppola playing with diegetic and nondiegetc music. As stated earlier, the first opening scenes start off with the digetic sound of a helicopter, which is then used to lead into the nondiegetic sound of a synthesized helicopter within the song.

As the scene moves along about two minutes into the scene we come to see the blades of a ceiling fan whirling around. This is where the helicopter sounds in the music change back into the diegetic sound of the whirling ceiling fan blades. The second motif is that the song reoccurs again about two hours into the movie. This is the scene where Willard is killing Kurtz and the caribou is being sacrificed. Which goes back to the function of the song in the beginning, which was to foreshadow the death or “The End” of Kurtz death.

Thus the nondiegetic use of music is indeed a very useful technique in the scene waiting in Saigon. The Doors song, “The End,” not only is used to foreshow what is going to happen at the end of the movie but is also used to set the mood of the movie. Along with setting the mood, Mr. Coppola plays with the use of diegetic music turning it into nondiegetic music. These are all key functions for using a song in a movie and Mr. Coppola is a genius for choosing “The End” to play a significant part in Apocalypse Now.

Jurassic Park: Comparison Between Book and Movie

The story Jurassic Park, by Michael Crichton takes place on a small island near Costa Rica, it’s about a park full of dinosaurs created by Dr. Hammond. The dinosaurs are locked in large cages with electric fences. But as the mathematician Ian Malcolm predicted, nature cannot be controlled. They find this out when the security system goes out. They soon lost the electric fence and the dinosaurs started to escape. They try to restore the power and are successful but it did not matter since the dinosaurs were already loose. The dinosaurs start to cause a lot of trouble, even with the power restored.

They determine that there is nothing they can do. They decide to leave the island by helicopter. The book is much different then the movie. The book goes in more detail about the genetic engineering of the dinosaurs. The book also makes Ian Malcolm’s theory that nature can’t be controlled nor predicted more valid. In the end of the book version the island actually survives for a while after the power goes out. I liked the movie more because I saw that first and it made the book seem strange. I would recommend reading Jurassic Park. It starts right in the beginning with suspense and action.

Walk In The Clouds – A Wonderland Called Sentiment

In an era when harsh actuality of everyday life propels one to the realm of insanity, to a pharmaceutically induced sleep, or to a dreadful state of existence, it is a pleasure for a fairytale world to engulf an individual. Although for only a brief time of ninety minutes, that ninety minutes is as refreshing as a relaxing soak in a warm tub of water. “A Walk in the Clouds” provides the means of escape by way of a delightful romantic fantasy.

At a time when movies seem compelled to be asocial, when it is more effortless to smirk than to sigh, this film refreshingly takes us to a dream world, if only for a time. Director Alfonso Arau brings sentiment to a story set in post-World War II California. Paul Sutton (Keanu Reeves) has returned home to a wife he married only one day before shipping out. Having nothing in common, Paul sets out from San Francisco first by train then on a bus. On the train he meets Victoria Aragon (Aitana Sanchez-Gijon).

After mistaking train tickets, he and she end up on the same bus. He defends her honor by kicking the rear ends of two ruffians. Moreover, in doing so, is kicked off the bus. He finds his damsel in distress, Victoria, her sitting on one of her suitcases and crying in the middle of the road. This is her home, the Napa Valley of California. The road is picturesque, a rural path with overhanging trees, and the perfect beginning for a storybook romance. She confesses to a pregnancy by her college professor and the shame she will bring upon her family.

The solution could not be simpler. Paul will pose as her husband for one night then leave. She will have to be the object of rejection, but rejection by a husband not a professor. I am aware of the fantasy mind needed to accept this idea, but again, in a day of unpleasant and negative “feed-out” from Hollywood, why not? No sooner do they utter the final planning words than does the sound of shotgun fire sound. Her father, Alberto Aragon (Giancarlo Giannini) meets and greets the new son-in-law with gun in hand.

He does not approve of a Gringo, and believe me, he makes it known throughout the film. That is, until the end. Every other member of Victorias family accepts Paul especially the patriarch of the family played by Anthony Quinn. This is, without a doubt, one of the most magnificent roles I have ever seen Quinn grace the screen. Throughout “A Walk in the Clouds” he inserts his elderly wisdom and wit masterfully. One of the most outstanding lines is when he tells Paul, who grew up in an orphanage, “You are an orphan no longer. ”

Reeves does an excellent job with non-verbal communication. The loving gazes between he and Sanchez-Gijon continually reaches an apex just before the kiss. Even after the harvesting of the familys grape crop, and the ceremonial stomping of the grapes (this is a beautifully done scene of detail and soft light), and at last, a loving kiss, Paul stops before the point of no return. He tells her he is “not free, and I wont hurt you. ” I am a die-hard sentimentalist, and I love the surprising and refreshing details used in an essential point of this wonderland of a story.

Paul stands below Victorias window and does what seems a bit odd to anyone under thirty years of age: he serenades her with a love song in Spanish. I realize a scene such as this resembles what would belong in a low budget opera. “A Walk in the Clouds,” however, is a film that requires a person to give himself or herself over to, and open himself or herself up to. Logic and disbelief do not belong in the thought pattern of the viewer of this charming love story. As a little boy said in a Disney film, “It could happen. ” It does happen in my wonderland of sentiment.

Upon seeing the cast list, one must dismiss any preconceived ideas or opinions of Keanu Reeves. He is a grown up boy, now. He is not one in “Bill and Teds Excellent Adventure. ” He is not the “save the world from destruction” sort, or a “keep the bus from blowing up” type. He is an artist whose transparent portrayal of a meek and caring war torn veteran blends into the story as cream blends into a good cup of coffee. He makes the film palatable even to the most diverse tastes. His infectious smile and the chemistry between the couple are invigorating.

Sentimentality and sensitivity find an avenue to those tired of all the “blow em up” and “kill em” films of today. “A Walk in the Clouds” brings anyone to a special place in their memories of the good times, whenever those good times may have been, if only for a mere ninety minutes. My own wonderland is alive in the character of Don Pedro (Anthony Quinn). I long for the days when elder guidance in difficult situations is revered. I long for the times of the virtuous and close-knit family. I long, again and again, for a ninety minute wonderland called “A Walk in the Clouds. “

The movie The grapes of Wrath

In the movie The grapes of Wrath, the Joads undergo the hit of the depression, they have to leave their farm. They go to California for jobs, but find there are few jobs, and it pays little, or at least less then what they were told. The government tried to start programs to house and employ people like the Joads. Since the people who already lived in the cities in which these developments were put didn’t want them there anyway, they tried to start a riot and have the police Arrest them.

Although in the movie the plan was foiled, it could have worked in many other places, or the towns folk could have just created a lynch mob, and eventually the people living in the development would leave. I believe that the economic situation of the country has a great effect on the fall, or succession of people like the Joads, but I don’t believe government programs will effect them at all. For example, the great depression was a major economical event, and it greatly effected more then just people like the Joads, but programs like the public works administration which employed people for government construction projects.

Another program, the Works Progress Administration, later called the Works Projects Administration was created to develop relief programs, and to keep a person’s skills. From 1935-1943, it employed 8 million people, and spent 11 billion dollars. But in 1939, there were still 9. 5 million still unemployed. Another program was the Civilian Conservation Corps. Unemployed, unmarried young men were enlisted to work on conservation and resource-development projects such as soil conservation, flood control, and protection of forests and wildlife.

These men were provided with food, lodging, and other necessities, and were given a small monthly salary. Another program was the CWA, the civil works administration. It employed more then 4 million workers to build and repair roads, and teach in schools, were just a couple of the jobs. Some of these programs would work temporarily, but eventually there would be no more work to do, or the government would run out of funds. All these programs were hated by some, and loved by others, and some just didn’t care.

The business men that were lucky enough not to lose everything, and the other employees working in the cities who still had jobs during the depression didn’t like these new programs. In the movie, The Grapes Of Wrath, The towns people didn’t like the government funded version of a “Hooverville”. The townspeople, along with the police tired to start a fight during a dance, so the police could come in, arrest some of the people living there, and say that this new development wasn’t safe for the town, and it would have to be rid of.

Fortunately for them they were able to discover there little plan, and spoiled the plan. But this showed how much the people in the towns hated these new developments like the Hoovervilles. Also, I can’t recall what town it was in, but when the Joades approached one town border, the men there said there was no work, and that they would have to turn around, I believe they even had the police there. This showed how much the people already living in these towns and cities fear the coming farmers and others that had lost their jobs, for the townspeople wanted to keep their jobs.

I think it would have been smarter for the government to buy the farms that people like the Joads were being kicked off, that way they could still work there, and because they only got paid in food and shelter, the extra food that they made that used to go to their employer would go to the government which could either be sold for less, or given out in rations to the poor, and homeless. I believe that Roosevelt had too much power, he was making too many programs that didn’t work.

He was throwing money here, and money there to programs designed to employ people, yet there were still millions of people still employed. I believe if he had less power, his plans would have been looked over more carefully, and the programs could have been substantially better. I believe that the programs created by the government had little affect, and that the money could have been spent more wisely, and better programs could have been created, but I do think that the economy has a major impact on the fall, or survival of a family, like the Joads.

The Direct and Indirect Impact of Rhetoric

In the world that we live in, rhetoric always affects and is a part of everything that happens. Rhetoric, in its broadest sense, is communication, and how people relate to each other. The movie The Color Purple is about relationships. Therefore rhetoric plays a very important role in this movie. Throughout The Color Purple the impact of rhetoric can be seen in two groups of people, the communicator, or rhetor, and the audience. Celie, the main character of the movie, shows the impact of rhetoric in almost every aspect of her life. The effects of rhetoric in Celie’s life are apparent through her elationships with Mr.

Johnson, Shug Avery, and Sofia. The relationship that Celie has with Mr. Johnson is unbalanced from the first time they meet. Celie’s complacent and gentle nature leave her at the mercy of Albert Johnson’s more dominant attitude. The rhetoric that she expresses to him, of innocence and always complying to his orders, forces her to live a large portion of her life sheltered and overshadowed by Albert, who continuously beats her into submission. Celie also passes on what she learned from “Mister” to his son Harpo, the rhetoric of “the importance of a man giving is wife a good beating.

Albert Johnson does not even realize how important Celie is to him until she is gone. At that point he returns some of the love that is shown to him by helping Nettie and her family to return to the United States in order to see Celie. This action shows the impact of Mr. Johnson’s rhetoric on Celie by returning to her the first person that she ever loved. Both the rhetoric that Mr. Johnson exposes Celie to and the rhetoric that Celie reveals to Albert Johnson have a very important role in Celie’s life in the movie The Color Purple. Celie also shares a strong relationship with Shug Avery.

Celie first meets Shug when she is drunk and has a very bad temper. Celie just tries to comfort the sick stranger in her house. In this unselfish act of kindness, Celie’s rhetoric ends up giving her the best friend that she has for a long time. Shug then returns the rhetoric of kindness and love that Celie first shows her by writing a song to cheer her up. Celie’s newfound friend also teaches her how to smile, and perhaps how to enjoy life and respect herself. Shug Avery also elps Celie discover that Nettie is writing her and where to find the letters.

Celie’s rhetoric in her relationship with Shug let her gain a new friend, contact with her beloved sister, and rediscover a joy and purpose to her life. Rhetoric also has a strong impact in the relationship between Celie and Sofia. After Sofia’s jail sentence she is very depressed, and Celie helps her do the grocery shopping. Showing her rhetoric of friendship and kindness once again, Celie shows Sofia a friend when she needs one the most. At the family dinner one night, Celie expresses her true feelings in an outburst of hetoric.

This reawakens the spirit inside Sofia and allows her to admit to Celie how she helped her and that people do understand and love her. Without first affecting Sofia with her rhetoric, Celie would not have experienced the assurance of Sofia’s rhetoric in her life. Rhetoric is present in the relationships between Celie and Mr. Johnson, Shug Avery, and Sofia. This rhetoric affects Celie in many ways and from different directions. Celie is affected by how she relates to others through rhetoric and how others relate to her through rhetoric. In some cases

Celie’s rhetoric has an impact on someone else and then later works its way back to her. Mr. Johnson is exposed to Celie’s kindness and friendship a long time before he shows her some of the same respect. Shug Avery is also affected by the rhetoric of Celie before she is in turn impacted by Shug’s friendship. Celie gives Sofia the assurance that she needs and then receives the same from Sofia when she is in need of support. In all of these relationships Celie is affected directly by the rhetoric of the other people and indirectly by the influence of her own rhetoric.

Like Water for Chocolate – Movie vs Book

Laura Esquirels, Like Water for Chocolate, is a modern day Romeo and Juliet filled with mouthwatering recipes. It has become a valued part of American literature. The novel became so popular that it was developed into a film, becoming a success in both America and Mexico. Alfonso Arau directs the film. After reading the novel and seeing the movie, I discovered several distinct differences between the two as well as some riveting similarities.

The novel begins with the main character, Tita, being born on the kitchen table. “Tita had no need for the usual slap on the bottom, because she was already crying as she emerged; maybe that was because she knew that it would be her lot in life to be denied marriage Tita was literally washed into this world on a great tide of tears that spilled over the edge of the table and flooded across the kitchen floor” (Esquirel 6). Although this is included in the film with tremendous accuracy, the movie begins with a different scene.

The movie opens with Titas father going to a bar to celebrate the birth of his daughter. On the way a friend informs him of his wifes, Mama Elena, affair with a man having Negro blood in his veins. The terrible news brings on a heart attack killing him instantly. In the book, this information is not given until the middle chapters. As the novel continues, another character is introduced, Gertrudis. Gertrudis, the older sister of Tita, is the first to rebel against her mothers wishes.

Wanting to escape the securities of home, Gertrudis is overwhelmed by her lustful passions. A soldier, not too far away, Juan, inhales the aroma of her desire and heads her way. “The aroma from Gertrudis body guided himThe woman desperately needed a man to quench the red-hot fire that was raging inside herGertrudis stopped running when she saw him riding toward her.

Naked as she was, with her loosened hair falling to her waist, luminous, glowing with energy, she might have been an angel and devil in one womanWithout slowing his gallop, so as not to waste a moment, he leaned over, put his arm around her waist, and lifted her onto the horse in front of him, face to face, and carried her awayThe movement of the horse combined with the movement of their bodies as they made love for the first time, at a gallop and with a great deal of difficulty ” (Esquirel 55).

This imagery is tremendous. Every sense that Esquirel touches in this passage is illuminated in the movie with perfection. Its as though Arau took a picture from Esquirels mind as she wrote and cultivated it to film. Later in Esquirels novel, Rosalio announces to Mama Elena that a group of soldiers are approaching the ranch. Mama Elena picks up her shotgun and hides it under her petticoat. She meets the revolutionaries, along with two other women, at the entrance of the home.

Mama Elena warns the soldiers not to enter the house. The Captain of the bandits sees the grit and determination in Mama Elenas eyes and agrees not to enter. However, the regiment does manage to round up some feed before leaving. In contrast, the movie at this point agrees with the revolutionaries entering the ranch, but disagrees with the rest of the events, possibly to add some action. First, Mama Elena confronts the bandits but with only one other lady by her side. Secondly, after a verbal confrontation, the rebels proceed to rape the lady friend, beat Mama Elena unconscious, and throw her in the lake, killing her.

According to the novel, Mama Elena doesnt die until later in the book, from a drug overdose. “At first, Tita and John had no explanation for this strange death, since clinically Mama Elena had no other malady than her paralysis. But going through her bureau, they found the bottle of syrup of ipecac and they deduced that Mama Elena must have taken it secretly. John informed Tita that it was a very strong emetic that could cause death” (Esquirel 135).

Soon after Mama Elenas death Gertrudis returns to the ranch. In Esquirels tale Gertrudis rides up on a horse at the head of the revolutionary soldiers. Tita finds out that Gertrudis is in charge of the troops. Unaware of her mothers death, Gertrudis has come back to show Mama Elena that she has triumphed in life. However, despite some parallels, the movie shows Gertrudis returning to the ranch in a car. Undoubtedly, giving the audience a greater sense of the prodigal sisters success. Believing her mothers death would release her from the shackles of tradition, Tita began reaching out to Pedro, her Romeo, whom Mama Elena had forbid her to see.

Nevertheless, Esquirel allows Mama Elena to continue nagging Tita from beyond the grave. “See what youve done now? You and Pedro are shameless. If you dont want blood to flow in this house, go where you cant do any harm to anybody, before its to late”(Esquirel 199). Tita responds by telling Mama Elena she hates her and to leave her alone. With these words Mama Elena disappears forever. Esquirels description of the ghost is vague, “The imposing figure of her mother began to shrink until it became no more than a tiny light”(Esquirel 199).

Unlike the novel, the movie does a great job of adding a certain mystique around the ghost. The ghostly clone of Mama Elena, created by the Arau, adds a thrilling touch by using the human element of fear. Toward the end of the novel, Tita and Pedro are finally united in the throws of passion. The descriptive nature that Esquirel uses leaves a perfect picture of the surroundings, and inhales the reader into believing himself to be a peeping tom.

“The silk sheets and bedspread were white, like the floral rug that covered the floor and the 250 candles that lit up the now inappropriately named dark room. Pedro placed Tita on the bed and slowly removed her clothing, piece by piece. The striking of the brass headboard against the wall and the guttural sounds that escaped from both of them mixed with the sound of the thousand doves flying free above them” (Esquirel 243).

Araus interpretation incorporates all of Esquirels eloquent artistry in perfect harmony. Araus vision brings Like Water for Chocolate to the climax which Esquirel had intended, leaving the audience in awe. Other differences, not discussed above, include Tita being shown in the movie as an average looking woman. The impression that the novel leaves is a woman that is breathtaking to the senses, a goddess. Of course, this opinion is subject to personal taste. As someone once said, “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.” Another striking difference between the movie and the book is that both are developed by different sexes.

This obviously could effect the compare and contrast views of this paper. For example, being male, I found that the two images that left the greatest impression were of sexual nature, Gertrudis making love with the soldier, and Tita being intimate with Pedro. The different views of the sexes may also be the answer to some of the contrasts between the movie and novel. For instance, the death of Mama Elena. Esquirels version fits the emotional death, suicide, geared toward the female audience, while Araus shows a more sexual and violent death, extinguishing the male desire for action.

In conclusion, I found the novel more entertaining than the movie. The reason the movie fell short in expectations is because Esquirel does a great job in allowing the reader to draw on their imaginations. However, Arau is able to capture this imagery occasionally throughout the movie. Furthermore, most of the changes added to the movie were grand, which added to the thrill and plot of the story. Overall, both are memorable and deserve their legacy.

Henry V – Film Analysis

The film uses various techniques to present a particular view of the war against France. What is that interpretation and how does the film convey it?

Although the Branagh version of Shakespeare’s Henry V remains very close to the text, with only a few lines left out of the film, the movie portrays a very clear and distinct message about war and Branagh’s opinion on the matter. Henry V is fundamentally a play about war, and it would have been very easy for Branagh to make his version of the play into a film that glorified war. Instead, Branagh took the opportunity to make a statement about what he felt was the true essence of wars – both medieval and modern.

It is clear through Henry V that Branagh thinks that wars are a waste of precious human life, and in the end are fruitless, causing more loss than gain. From the very first battle at Harfleur Branagh’s low opinion of war is shown. When we first see the fighting, it is dusk and the sky is further darkened by smoke, instantly creating a morbid feeling. Combined with the muddy and wet terrain, the cheerless soldiers and the overbearing size of the castle which they hope to achieve, it is clear not only that the English army must fight against all the odds to win, but that even the conditions are detrimental to the English cause.

The scene where Bardolph, Nym and Pistol are backing away from the battle to save themselves is an important inclusion to the film. Had Branagh intended the film to be a glorification of war, this small scene could have easily been removed. However, he chose to keep it in his film because it actually assists the message which he attempts to convey. This scene, although still clearly comical, as Shakespeare intended it to be, it implies that not all soldiers are valiant and brave and that war is so terrible that soldiers are willing to desert their friends and fellow countrymen because of the hideous nature of war.

After the battle of Harfluer is won by the English and they begin to make their way towards Agincourt, Branagh seizes the opportunity to show the viewer the ‘victorious’ army. Although he could have shown them to be joyful with their win, Branagh instead shows the war-weary, bloody, wet and muddy soldiers. It is raining and so the already miserable soldiers, wearing torn and ragged clothing are forced to bow their heads as they slowly make their way down the road in a way reminiscent of a death march, the sombre mood of the scene assisted by the music. The irony of this scene is obvious – the victorious English are miserably marching wet and weary down the road while the French are warm and dry inside their castles. The utter pointlessness of war that Branagh obviously feels is also shown through this, because although English men have been killed and they have won, they are still no better off than had they lost the battle.

The battle at Agincourt is the climax of the play, and gives us an excellent indication as to Branagh’s views on war. The wet and muddy field of Agincourt in which the battle was held assists the feeling of preeminent loss and the pointlessness that the viewer images the soldiers feel. The actual battle takes place rather quickly, but Branagh uses the opportunity to show medieval battle for what it really was.

All over the field are small groups of men, beating each other to death with swords too blunt to cut, often resorting to almost wrestling in unbearably uncomfortable and heavy suits of armour. The violence of the scene, although not gory, is shocking, as I’m sure Branagh intended it to be, accentuated by the slow-motion shots of the fighting, and in particular the death of the horses, who are obviously scared already by the situation, but are maimed and fall helpless to the ground where they lay unattended as the fighting continues around them. This naturally evokes emotion in the viewer, who understands that the horses are innocent, but are brought into the battle for no reason whatsoever. This also leads the viewer to question the very soldiers involvement – they are just normal men from all over England who follow their King’s command.

When the battle ends, the true devastation is realised. The field of Agincourt is littered with the dead, from both sides, and the viewer cannot help but feel the sadness and loss as the camera moves around the field, revealing slain men, lying in bloodied puddles, lying with sharpened wooden stakes stabbed through their bodies, with blood dribbling form their lifeless mouths. When the sheer number of dead men is shown to the viewer, it makes the war seem even more worthless. Although Henry won France, at what cost? And was it worth it? Are questions that flow through the viewers’ minds as these images of devastation fill the screen, particularly those of the dead youngsters who stayed with the wagons – those that played no part in the war at all, but where slaughtered nonetheless.

When Henry picks up the Boy and carries him over his shoulders towards the wagon, and the music begins, the viewer has a chance to consider what he has seen and is influenced by the backdrop of the bloodied, wet field, filled with dead men. The conclusion he will come to is fairly obvious and this was Branagh’s intention in the way he directed the film – to show what he felt was the ‘true’ nature of war, the futility, the pointlessness and the sheer loss that in the end amounted to nothing.

Cyrano de Bergerac: Movie Review

The story of Cyrano de Bergerac is about a tragic love triangle it has effectively been told using a number of techniques including the Themes that arise, the Atmosphere of the film, and the Characters in the film.

Love, passion, friendship, hate, jealously loyalty and death are all universal themes that arise in the film. The Themes are twisted around the characters almost like obstacles in the sense that the characters must overcome their own inner fears and accomplish the issues and challenges that they face. In Cyrano de Bergerac a lot of the themes revolve around himself and Roxanne.

Cyrano’s deep love for Roxanne and her love for Christian is the major theme in the film, then there is Cyrano writing poetic letters to Roxanne about Christians love for her, but deep down Cyrano is actually expressing his own feelings. He feels more comfortable writing his emotions than he does expressing them in person because he is ashamed of his oversized nose. The themes help to tell the story by presenting some conflict creating entertainment making the viewer keen to see what happens next.

The Atmosphere adds to the feeling of the film, being set in a village in France with cobblestone streets and beautiful old buildings that reflect the period dress and protocol. This then creates a wonderful backdrop for love, romance, intrigue and tragedy. The setting gives the characters an area to move around in which allows them the freedom to interact with each other and successfully portrey their emotions. The setting is very realistic because it is recognized to fit the era of the film, Beautifully dressed people everyone well manicured and very proper, correct vocabulary and language.

Lighting is a big portion of the atmosphere of the film. It is mostly a more natural light provided by the sunshine coming through a high windows or the time of day in the village. This then creates different effects on the moods and emotions on the people involved. The light is separated into darkness, gloomy, light and cheery this represents change, comparison between the differences between good and evil. Lighting has a big contribution because it is like the back up of the setting helping to bring out all the life and mysteries of the characters surrounding their mood and the dialog.

Music contributes to the story of Cyrano de Bergerac because of the style of music used. It is 16th century classical, which really brings out that contemporary feel and the date of the settings. The music is usually suitable towards the themes and issues presented. All these components create the Atmosphere of Cyrano De Bergerac helping to tell the story by putting emphasis on the surroundings and mood.

The Characters of Cyrano De Bergerac help to tell the story by appearing to the audience as real. Making them feel that the film is right in front of them happening at that exact moment making it seem as if they are there and part of the story as it unravels and reveals itself. The Characters play the part of telling the story through their actions and lines. They in a way are the story because they are acting it out and performing it.

The Characters personality, characteristics and situation help the audience associate with the story and become amazed and entrapped with the occurring events. The Characters develop relationships that are new and exciting these relationships build up the story making it a complex web of conflict. The story becomes exciting to watch and helps to keep a tight grip on the audience.

All these elements are keys in telling he story. This reflects on the life, times and feelings of the era, which the film is situated, in this case the story of Cyrano de Bergerac. The audience not only sees the emotions of the characters on screen, they actually interpret and feel these emotions in their own way. Cyrano de Bergerac is a film with certain goals to achieve and complete. It has specific moments for different emotions including jealousy, when Cyrano finds out Roxanne loves Christian, despair, when Christian dies in battle leaving Roxanne depressed and deeply hurt, true love, when Cyrano rehearses his last letter to he before he dies. These sections contribute to addressing the themes, the atmosphere and the characters. Each of these points are very important because they help the viewer to understand and recognize the techniques used in the film. All of the elements put together to create the film bring the storyline together and complete the film.

Cyrano de Bergerac, the Play vs. Roxanne, the Movie

In an effort to attract the audience of today, the producers of the movie Roxane retold the play Cyrano de Bergerac by Edmond Rustond in a way that is appropriate and at the same time appealing. In order to give the audience of today a story that they can understand and relate to, the producers have adjusted and manipulated the play itself. As a result, several similarities and differences exist between the play Cyrano de Bergerac and its movie reproduction.

The characteristics of a romantic hero in Rustonds time is not equivalent to the characteristics of a romantic hero today. In the play for example, Cyrano, a very ugly, old, yet intellectual man who loved Roxane, his cousin, with all his heart and soul was unable to profess his love for fear that she will have rejected him because of his looks. Enter Christian in the story, a young, average, yet handsome individual who also loved Roxane. The two made a pact with each other to create Roxanes image of a perfect romantic heroone that was breath-takingly handsome and at the same token, smart in a fun and interesting way.

Together they charmed Roxane and she ultimately fell in love with Cyranos enchanting personality and Christians captivating appearance. Cyrano is portrayed as a great romantic hero because he died in silence to honor his friendship with Christian. When all the while he could have accumulated enough courage to pronounce his love for Roxane. During his life of silence, Cyrano looked after Roxane when Christian died in the war. Everyday for fifteen years he would go to the convent, where she stayed because of her vow to Christian, and recite to her the local news.

In this manner, he has proven himself worthy to the title of a romantic hero during Rustonds time. On the other hand, someone in Cyranos position in the present would not have neccessarily kept his secret for that long. Eventually, that someone would probably approach the person that they were in love with and declared their love. Just as Charlie in the movie, the equivalent of Cyrano in the play, was about to tell Roxane that it was him who wrote the letters illustrating his love for her with his alluring and sincere words, before she had found out for herself.

For this reason, the majority of people today would appeal to the movie more than the play. Aside from the obvious fact that the play was set in a sophisticated, more actively virtuous, and far less technologically-advanced period of time than the movies present time, is the distinct contrast of the two versions endings. During Rustonds time, his audience prefered stories with a much more dramatic part for the romantic hero, Cyrano. At the time, Cyrano dying for honor and dignity was much more admired than if he were to reveal the truth about himself and Christian to Roxane, and then living “happily ever after” with her.

On the contrary is the story of Roxane, the movie. Today, people would much prefer a happy ending with the hero/ heroine finishing first and uniting with their “damsel” in distress. Similarities exist in both the play and movie through peoples fascination of each other. Cyrano in the play and Charlie in the movie both value talent and personality in a person, and yet they cant help to also add appearance on to the list. Cyrano was in love with Roxane from the very beginning when they were young and playing pretend with each other. He adored her friendly and mother-like personality.

However, the adult Roxane also attracted him to her because he thought she was the loveliest girl he had ever seen. In the same fashion, Charlie fell in love with Roxane the minute he laid his eyes on her. When he found out later on how incredibly smart and great to be around she was, he fell in love with her even more than before. The minor difference between Charlie and Cyrano is that although they both loved Roxane, they fell in love with her personality and looks at different times. Furthermore, the admiration for both Cyrano and Charlie is credited to their grand gestures.

They sacrificed themselves for a good cause. Cyrano is respected by his by Rustonds audience because, (1) he had given up all of his money to refund the crowd watching a play at the beginning, and (2) lied to Christian about how Roxane chose Christian over him so that Christian could die happy. Charlies job as a firemen makes him also respected in our time because he risked his life to save others, animals or humans. As a result of Christian in both the play and the book, Roxane and Cyrano (a.k.a. Charlie) are unable to be together immmediately or at all.

His looks persuaded Roxane that he was right for herboth his looks and false personality. Christians fears to approach Roxane as himself pushes Cyrano and Charlie to help him in order to transfer the words of love from their hearts to Roxane. In the play, Christian served as a permanent barrier for Cyranos and Roxanes happiness because Cyrano refused to say that he loved Roxane up until his death to honor his friendship with Christian. Although Christian served as an obstacle in the movie, the block for Cyranos and Roxanes happiness was only temporary.

At the end of the movie, Christian decided to go to Reno with one of Roxanes friend. Therefore, Cyrano and Roxane were finally able to come together when Cyrano had finally told Roxane the truth. All in all, Christian was a barrier to the coming together of Roxane and Cyrano immediately or at all. Overall, Cyrano de Bergerac interested the people of Rustonds time because Cyrano reflected their views of a true romantic herosomeone who was willing to sacrifice the profession of his love to honor his friendship with Christian. The ending of the story was very dramatic and much respected as well as expected. On the other hand, Roxane got people of todays attention because its plot was more light-hearted as a whole and ended with the hero living “happily ever after”.

American History X

In many ways, the media must be involved in ethnic and racial issues. The media is to provide the public with information useful to them. The media is on the public’s side. Racial stereotyping is a problem that is out in the public. Drugs, teen pregnancy, child abuse and rape are also problems that affect the people of the world everyday. The media has a job to make these issues aware to the people and possibly put together a form of solutions. Some ways of addressing issues are blunt and harsh but so are the problems.

I don’t think the media can address the issue of racism without stepping into a stereotype somewhere but I also believe the media is obligated to address the obvious false stereotypes and offer ways to terminate them as well. American History X is a movie that directly addresses the issue of race and deals with some very serious issues in a small town. There are a group of white kids that have been influenced by Adolf Hitler’s beliefs and they are very hateful toward blacks, Jews, and any other race that is different than theirs.

They all have Nazi signs tattooed on their bodies and their heads are completely shaved. There are very negative viewpoints in the first half of the movie toward blacks and Jews. The “N” word is used very freely and many of the actions of each group is quite accurate. Although this movie is very harsh and straight forward, their is a great amount of truth in all of the actions of each cultural group.

One of the young white men witness a black man breaking into his truck and the black man ends up murdered in a very cruel manner. The movie is a lesson. A lesson about reality but also about how wrong reality can be. After spending years in prison, the attitude of this man is different toward black people and he has a hard time relaying this new attitude to his little brother back home and to the friends he had before going to prison.

This is a movie that definitely should be watched by adults that can understand the frightening reality that is in our world and be open minded enough to take it as a lesson. This is not a show for children. There are to many questions that do not need to be answered until a later age. The movie is very violent but it is a movie that must be in order to drive the point home that racism is not only wrong, but ignorant and foolish.

A Birth Of A Nation – The Bicycle Thieves

In that paper, I will try to compare two films which are A Birth of a Nation directed by D. W. Griffith and The Bicycle Thieves directed by De Sica. After giving the story of the films, I will try to explain their technical features and their similarities. A Birth of a Nation by D. W. Griffith Griffith can be seen as the first ‘modern’ director, his greatest achievements being the historical epics The Birth Of A Nation. When it was released, it was one of the longest films ever made, over three hours in length.

The prologue depicts the introduction of slavery to America in the seventeenth century and the beginnings of the abolitionist movement. The major part of the film depicts the events before, during and after the Civil War. It focuses on the exploitation of the newly-freed Negroes and the rise of the Ku Klux Klan in the south. Griffith shows it as a drama, a romance, and a documentary, with the vivid period reconstruction outweighing the personal stories.

The title of the film is an interesting one. It is unknown whether the title refers to the birth of the reunited states, or the birth of the Ku Klux Klan. I tend to think that the film has a double meaning. In showing the Ku Klux Klan as good guys, it is obvious that Griffith was trying to show their birth as a positive event for the United States. Also, he was showing that the U. S. was once again reunited after the war, leading to the strengthening of the nation.

It forebodes the future, when the South and the blacks living there are kept in check by the Ku Klux Klan , making the U. S. that much greater. Though it would be better to ignore this notion of the birth of the Ku Klux Klan, it cannot be due to the films content, although the film does show a truly united states. The film is an incredible piece of propaganda for both the Ku Klux Klan and the Jim Crow system.

The Jim Crow system was undergirded by the following beliefs or rationalizations: Whites were superior to Blacks in all important ways, including but not limited to intelligence, morality, and civilized behavior; sexual relations between Blacks and Whites would produce a mongrel race which would destroy America; treating Blacks as equals would encourage interracial sexual unions; any activity which suggested social equality encouraged interracial sexual relations; if necessary, violence must be used to keep Blacks at the bottom of the racial hierarchy People who knew nothing about the KU KLUX KLAN or thought of them as white villains before Birth of a Nation probably changed their minds and donned hoods of their own upon seeing the film.

The mainstream picture was probably the best advertisement that the KU KLUX KLAN could have had. The vilifying of blacks also led to the Jim Crow system. When it was portrayed in this movie as acceptable, people in the South felt much better about doing horrible deeds to black citizens, denying blacks their civil rights Though the portrayal of both blacks and the KU KLUX KLAN were extremely off track, the movie itself was an amazing work of cinema for its time. This was probably the first movie to use hundreds of extra in a battle scene.

These scenes were well crafted by the filmmaker, and while not to the perfection of more modern films such as Braveheart, the technology and genius that the filmmaker used rival such films. To think that the movie was released only fifty years after the end of the Civil War makes the feat seem even more incredible. In seeing the huge battles, I did not need sound to hear the sounds of battle in my imagination. It would have been incredible if the movie had been made in the era where sound came into movies. Griffith deployed all the technical experiments of his previous movies for maximum visceral effect, along with a prepared score mixing classical music and folk tunes.

With expressive close-ups, including cross-cutting, multiple camera positions, inter-titles long shots, irises and superimposition, Griffith communicated not only the monumental scale of Civil War battles but also the intimate psychology of his central characters. The climactic ride of the Klan to save white girlhood from black defilement marked Griffith’s most extraordinary and influential use of parallel editing to galvanize emotional excitement.

The Bicycle Thieves by De Sica This is a one of the most important Neorealist films. Neorealism is a movement especially in Italian filmmaking characterized by the simple direct depiction of lower-class life. De Sica’s finest achievement is bringing the previously ignored working classes to the screen. His primary aim in the Bicycle Thieves was to use the camera to show how people lived.

The non-professional actors give fine performances and lend the film a documentary-like air, even though the narrative itself is fictional. A crowd forms in front of a government employment agency, as it does every day, waiting – often in vain – for job announcements. one of the unemployed laborers who participates in this daily ritual, is selected to hang posters in the city, a job requiring a bicycle, which he has long sold in order to sustain his family’s meager existence for a few more days. He and his wife, return to the pawn shop with a few remaining possessions, their matrimonial linen, in order to redeem the bicycle. During his first day at his new work, his bicycle is stolen. He combs the city with his young son, in search of the elusive bicycle.

The movie focuses on both the relationship between the father and the son and the larger framework of poverty and unemployment in postwar Italy. The Bicycle Thief is a searing allegory of the human condition, a caustic narrative of despair and hope, loss and redemption, poignantly told in subtle actions and spare words. A singular camera shot follows an employee climbing several stories of pawned linen in order to store another acquisition. A panning film sequence in a restaurant juxtaposes the father and son feasting on bread and mozzarella with an affluent family dining nearby. A long, travelling shot of a street bazaar shows Antonio and Bruno searching through an endless sea of nondescript bicycles, all presumably stolen.

The Bicycle Thief is an honest examination of a soul torn by responsibility and moral consequence, a simple man incapable of articulating his pain, a film devoid of the proselytizing tirades endemic to the rose-colored lenses of contemporary Hollywood. The Bicycle Thief is the story of humanity, in all its imperfect beauty and heartbreaking cruelty, the quintessential definition of an artistic masterpiece… truly a cinematic landmark. Deep-focus photography, constantly moving camera, long takes, and tragi-comic narratives were all used to greatest effect in the film. When we look at these films we can say they are dramatic films. A Birth of a Nation is a personal story, about the clash of two families on opposite sides of the Civil War.

Griffith goes through the critical events of the period, and give a persuasive picture of the era in. Furthermore, the story gives the viewer hope in humanity as the Ku Klux Klan rides away to the sunset with justice, power, and the women. The Bicycle Thief is the story of humanity dealt compassionately with the problems of people in post-World War II Italy. Griffith also goes through the critical events of the period. He tried to show the portrait of the post-war Italian disadvantaged class (the majority) in their search for self-respect. It is a time of struggle for the Italian people, amplified by a shortage of employment and lack of social services.

Comparsion between Hearst and Citizen Kane

Citizen Kane is said to be one of the greatest movies of all-time, but it did not come without controversy. The controversy around this movie is based on the idea that Charles Foster Kane is the fictionalization of William Randolph Hearst, a narcissistic newspaper publisher, politician, and wealthy millionaire. The remarkable parallels between Kane and Hearst include their houses, their newspapers and their use of money. Both Kane and Hearst build spectacular and remarkable houses. In Citizen Kane, Charles Foster Kane builds a palace know as Xanadu.

Xanadu is referred to in myths and poems as place of heaven on earth like, Avalon, Shangri-La, and Atlantis. Samuel Purchas wrote this in “Purchas his Pilgrimage or Relations of the World and the Religions observed in all Ages and Places discovered, from Creation unto this Present:” In Xamdu did Cublai Can build a stately Palace, encompassing sixteene miles of plaine ground with a wall wherein are fertile Meddowes, pleasant springs, delightfull Streams, and all sorts of beasts of chase and game, and in the middest thereof a sumptuous house of pleasure, which may be removed from place to place

Kane’s house in Citizen Kane fits this description well it had meadows, springs, streams, and statues of all sorts of animals, whether chase or game. Hearst house in California’s Santa Lucia Mountains also fits Samuel Purhas description of Xanadu. Hearst house is known as La Cuesta Encantada or The Enchanted Hill. The Enchanted Hill has 165 room’s 127 acres of gardens, terraces, pools and walkways. The rooms are furnished with impressive collection of Spanish and Italian antiques. The way both men got into the newspaper business is rather similar.

In the movie, Kane’s father figure, Thatcher is worried that Kane will not understand his place in the world. Thatcher worries are confirmed when Kane sends a telegram saying that he has no interest in gold mines or banks, but would rather like to take over a small newspaper which is in his possession. Kane states that he would to take over The Morning Inquirer, because, “I think it would be fun to write a newspaper. ”(Citizen Kane) Hearst entered the newspaper world were very similar. In 1880 Hearst’s father, gains ownership of a small newspaper in San Francisco called The Examiner.

Hearst father was losing massive amounts of money on the paper when Hearst asked for control of the paper. Hearst’s father hoping his son would take his place in the family mining and ranching business, finally conceded and allowed William to run the paper. Both Hearst and Kane immediately began to revolutionize everything about their respective papers. Both men threw themselves into their papers, Kane moved into his office so that he could constantly change his paper, so he could constantly be able to do and redo the paper at any hour, night or day.

Kane stated from now on, The Inquirer is going to report all news, large or small, especially if it could be made into a sensation and subsequently sell more newspapers. They were going to report more than the news that the last editor considered newsworthy. If there were nothing exciting to sell newspapers Kane would create it. Kane told people that if they would provide the prose and poems, he would supply the war. Hearst did the same thing with his paper, reporting about topics that were not considered newsworthy by anyone but him.

Hearst told his reporters that if they provide the pictures, he would provide the war. Both Hearst and Kane spent elaborate amounts of money on getting the best staff and higher circulation. Both men eventually develop immense newspaper networks covering the country. Kane used his massive newspaper network to help slander Jim Getty in his political race for Governor. Kane also used his newspapers to help promote and encourage his second wife, Susan Alexander. Kane tried to use his papers to change Susan from a horrible to a great opera singer.

He did this by manipulating the news and, therefore, trying to control what people read thought. Kane used his papers to attack companies in which he was the major stockholder. Charles Foster Kane had success in attacking large companies on the behalf of the people; he would be the people’s investigator. He would print false headlines such as the Spanish armada docked off the Jersey coast. Headlines that he had almost no proof to back up the story with. Like Kane, Hearst used his paper to try to get what he wanted.

Hearst used his papers to engage in mud-slinging campaign against Theodore Roosevelt for the governor of New York. Both men use their publication to portray each other as jailbirds. Although the movie differs from real life here, because Roosevelt defeated Hearst fairly, there was no scandal like that, which stopped Kane. Like Kane, Hearst used his paper to advance the career if his mistress, Marion Davies. Unlike Susan Alexander, Marion Davies was a talented singer and could have a successful career without Hearst.

Hearst discovered that his newspaper were a source of great power and so use them to manipulate the news, people and countries. Hearst would also print false headlines about the Spanish brutality in the Cuban revolution, even though they’re nothing of sort going on. Hearst like attacking big companies as the people’s champion and like Kane contradicted himself when he supported the eight-hour day and the labor unions (Swanberg 235). Both these men used their money for one and only one purpose, to get what they want. Both Kane and Hearst had vast fortunes from gold mines and other investments.

They both did not care about spending their fortunes either. Kane went and the bought the staff from the Chronicle and Hearst was reported to pay almost any salary without a care in the world. When Thatcher told Kane that in one year on the Inquirer, Kane had lost one million dollars, Kane responded with “That means I can still run the paper for sixty years”(Citizen Kane). Hearst was seen to throw away money as if it literally grew on trees. Both men most of the time tried to buy love, they thought that maybe if the gave someone enough money they would love them.

When Leland says that Kane is not collecting diamonds, but collecting someone who is collecting diamonds (Citizen Kane). Also, when Kane uses his money to built opera houses for Susan Alexander. These are example of using his money to try to get love. Hearst used his money to create Cosmopolitan magazine and publication company for the purpose of making Marion Davies a star. Hearst would throw lavish parties and demonstration in hope to get more people to love him. Seeing the striking similarities between Kane and Hearst, one finds it is hard to believe that Citizen Kane was not based on William Randolph Hearst’s life.

The Great Depression in The Grapes of Wrath

In the movie, The Grapes of Wrath, one of the biggest problems in the movie is the fact that the great depression is in its prime. The great depression is the main cause and the sound basis for the movie. When you think about it after watching the movie, all of the events in the movie happened because of the great depression. The only reason that all of these people were moving out west was because they had no work. They were not making enough money to feed their families.

I could not really tell you whether or not the Joad family had it the worst back then (saying that this really happened). It was probably one of the hardest things that people had to do. They had to leave everything behind them to try and find a better life. It was not like the gold rush. People during the gold rush did not have to leave their homes. They left voluntarily. It was a totally different story during The Grapes of Wrath. The men who drove the “cats” (caterpillar tractors) came to the houses of the people and told them that they had to leave by a certain time.

If they did not leave, they would be put in jail and then the men on the cats would plow over their houses anyway with no remorse. When asked why they did this, they simply said that they had a family to feed just like the rest of the people who were suffering during this difficult time. Most of the families that the movie showed were very reluctant to leave and when the cats came, they would attempt to stand their ground and threaten the workers. They would say that if they came any further, that they would shoot at the workers.

I remember that one worker said that it would not do any good because if he got shot, the sheriff would come and put him in jail and then more men with more cats would come to finish the job. I don’t think that I could live with having to lose my home and everything that I have lived with for my whole life. When the scene came for the Joads to leave their home, they did not seem to resistant. I guess that they did not see the point. The great depression was the cause for all of this. I don’t think that it is safe to say that the great depression had killed the grandparents.

When grandpa died, it could have been of old age, or lunacy. Maybe it could have been the fact that he was broken over the fact that he had to leave his home against his own will. His own family had to get him drunk just so he would get on the truck to go with the rest of them. He did not want to leave even if it meant that he could not see his own family any more. I think that is a good example of the effects of the great depression on the lives and actions of people in the movie. The way that grandma died was also rather depressing. She died in the back of the truck.

She was already dead before the police stopped them in that town. That seemed rather disrespectful but the mother said that she told grandma right before she died that they had to keep going so that they would get across. She said that if they were stopped that they might not get across. This was kind of cold but they did what they had to do. The effects of the depression on the mother were not so obvious but you could tell. Her character was very quiet and depressed. She never said much. I remember the scene in the truck when they were just beginning their journey.

Someone asked her why she was so quiet. She said that she had just lost her home and could never go back to the place where she grew up. That was deep. I think that this shows that the depression effects different people in different ways The different way that it effected people like Casey was that it caused him and his friends to become separated from everyone else. They were the rebels. They did not think that it was fair that the pay for the labor that they were doing was fair. This got Casey killed. As for Tom, he was kind of the hero in this story.

He was the one who looked out for his family. He was the one who stood up for Casey. When I say this, I mean to say that he killed the police man after the man killed Casey. I am not saying that this was the right thing to do but it was noble and it did show his friendship for Casey. Tom was the one who left his family when he was a threat to their well-being. Many people would say the Tom Joad is not a hero. I certainly disagree with them. I feel that Tom Joad is one of the greatest fictional hero’s of all time.

I think the effect that the depression had on the abundance of jobs was staggering. There was no work to be found anywhere. The only reason that all of these people went out west to California was to find work. In the movie, the Joads had sheets of paper that had information concerning the need for pickers in California. When they asked a gas station attendant about work, he said that all of the work had moved south. The attendant also gave his philosophy on the handouts, he told the Joads that the man needed eight-hundred pickers.

Now to make sure that he got all eight-hundred pickers, he would print five thousand. And for every five thousand, he would see fifty thousand people who would come out looking for work. I think that that is amazing how many people were looking for work. When I think of the unemployment rate that there is today and compare it to the un-measurable rate of unemployment during the thirties, there is no comparison. If you walk around town you will see help wanted signs in many of the windows of the stores and shops. I feel that we have recovered from this economic disaster acceptionally well.

We are now the most successful nation in the world I think that The Grapes of Wrath was a very good movie and a very good story about how, when in tough times, families and friends stick together and help each other out. When Tom killed the cop who killed his friend Casey. And this may seem like a bad example but when Tom left his family at the end of the movie. This helped out the family because if he would have stayed, he would be putting their freedom and well being in jeopardy. I think the great depression was the cause for all of this and that is quite obvious.

The movie, The Breakfast Club

The high school experience is something that will forever dominate the psyche of most American adults. It was an unforgettable time of fun, rebel-rousing, summer loves and parties. It was a time of warm summer days at the pool and chilly autumn nights, watching the football team and wondering were the party was going to be that night. School dances and hotel parties. Seems like all I can remember are the good times. High School is a very emotional time for many teens and everything matters. The insidious problems that I had to face are but a smudge on my memory, things like too much homework, zits, mean people, gossip, and algebra.

The social atmosphere that permeated every aspect of high school could make or break your popularity. In the movie, The Breakfast Club, five young adults are portrayed to a tee, representing a cross cultural view of the teens attending high school in suburban Chicago in 1985. The year in which the movie is set is immaterial, because the game is the same, whether it is 1955 or 1995. The opening scene of this classic movie shows the five students arriving to school at approximately seven thirty in the morning, Saturday, to serve their punishment, the dreaded Saturday detention that many of us had to submit to.

This grievous application of student torture was utilized by school administrators to punish, reform and deter schoolboys and schoolgirls from breaking any rules and regulations. The scene is narrated by the brain of the group, the know it all, dorky, goofy, nerd whose idea of fun was to grow fungus and compete in the academic decathlon. In a dry and sardonic voice he leads you into the movie and their day in Saturday d-hall. Stereo-types abound in life, but in high school the social caste system is magnified, into a hierarchy of cool to zero, with subtle varying degrees in the spectrum.

The Breakfast Club characterizes this phenomena by depicting the jock, the brain, the basketcase, the princess, and the juvenile delinquent. In the movie each character is representative of the social class to which they belong. The jock signifies the sports star that can do no wrong, but the movie character bullies another boy and when caught all he received was detention. Although on the other hand the delinquent who is a dope smoking, foul mouthed punk, received the same punishment for talking back to a teacher.

Administrators and teachers are very quick to meet out severe punishment to those students that they have deemed worthless, while good kids get a slap on the wrist. The movies jock is placed in Saturday detention, instead of being suspended, so that he may wrestle in an upcoming tournament; a case in which Hollywood makes an accurate depiction. This is the holding of power that Wehlage and Rutter spoke about in their study, High School and Beyond. Students who receive better treatment seem to do better in school when subjected to an orderly environment, a committed and caring faculty, and an emphasis on academic pursuits(Nieto,100).

The movie goes on to compare and contrast the princess and the basketcase, both seventeen year old girls who endeavor male attention, yet one is the cool crowd prom queen and the other is the loser, burnout crowd weirdo. Brian, the narrating brain, is a fifteen-year-old sophomore who is having trouble coping with high school. He looks up to the older, cool kids, yet his parents unbearably demanding academic expectations have driven him to thoughts of suicide. Students who drop out are usually uninvolved and passive participants in the school experience(Nieto,101).

The movie focuses on how each teen copes with their individual stresses and how they interact among two thousand hormone driven teenagers. Some of the funniest and most memorable movie scenes in cinematic history take place in the high schools library. This movie came out before I attended high school, yet I envisioned my experience to be similar. Now, I watch the movie and I get that nostalgic feeling and realize that high school was exactly that way. In todays world the names and faces may have changed, but all in all kids stay the same.

The rules and parameters of this game called, high school, may have changed in order to stay current with the nineties, teenagers coming of age in society have stayed practically the same. You hear a lot of teachers say that the kids are different and that things just arent the same, it is the teacher who has failed to adapt and modify themselves. High School is a paradox. A beautiful and painful experience that will stay with someone for the rest of their life, whether enjoyed it or hated it.

A Ridley Scott film – Blade Runner

This film, I believe, deserves a higher status than that of cult, and is much more than just an acceptable homage to Philip K Dick, author of many original science-fiction novels, often laced with philosophical perspectives on the human condition. The film is multi-layered; thrilling and unsettling, part dark science fiction and detective film noir, realistic and dream-like, intelligent, mature, artistic and powerful.

Purely on the surface, it has a visual richness which is wonderfully atmospheric (enhanced by the soundtrack of Vangelis), drawing one into a vision of the future which is not only a sprawling, technological metropolis, but an mpty, soulless place. It is a film, which not only incorporates the strong themes presented by Dick but also adds its own mood, more aloof and tragic, which includes through its characters a sense of life’s quiet desperation.

They are withdrawn almost, living in a mellow dream which when disrupted, is painful and struggling. The characters seem random, everyday people of the city, but through the story are united by a will to survive because there is nothing else, nothing but fear. Death to the replicants is represented by their own mortality and the outside embodiment of the Blade Runners; stalkers such as Deckard.

Throughout the film, life and death are displayed in ways that illuminate their surrealness; life in the case of a radically imposing world – large, expansive, beautifully decadent, grown strange even to the hero Deckard – and death, especially in the example of Zorra’s death sequence, as a sprawling, slow-motion operatic and disjointed event. Survival is a weary task amongst such decadence, but it is a prominent theme; the replicants are not human yet they want life, Deckard scrambles extensively on the rooftops and at one classic point, is moments from certain death.

The film itself is called ‘Blade Runner’ suggestive of the confrontation with danger that hunting replicants for a living invites. ‘Quite a thing to live in fear isn’t it? ‘ Towards the climax the film attempts to bring the viewers as close to the ledge of death as possible. ‘4,5 – how to stay alive’ shouts Batty chasing Deckard with a nail plunged through his hand, an attempt to retain his failing sense of sensation by an infliction of harsh pain. This is all artistic nerve touching, and with the roles reversed to Deckard as the prey, the viewer senses the hopelessness of

Deckard’s situation. This highlights another interesting factor which distinguishes Blade Runner from being a conventional sci-fi thriller to a surprisingly relevant and resonant work; the mix of the traditional with the untraditional. We have the typical cop hero in the character Deckard, found in a downtown bar at the beginning, wanted for an assignment by the chief. There is the usual love interest in Rachel, the main villain Batty and his boys heading for a showdown, a few minor characters of interest and behind it, the clever scientist whose plans backfire.

Before long however, all is out of joint; the baddies are not evil, but confused creatures of Frankenstein seeking like us all, extended life and answers for the pain and suffering caused by grief and heightened doses of emotion. Rachel, one of them also, complicates Deckard’s task and in general there is a sense of confusion, horror in Zorra’s realistic death scene and complexity in man’s modern creations and lack of control. Technology, it seems has surpassed our ability to control and relate to it. This futuristic city is forlorn, lonely and lost.

The characters are world-weary; they have een and done it all, and are none the wiser. Instead of a great showdown with the enemy where the viewer witnesses good triumph over evil, we have a prolonged, desperate fight. Our hero is disarmed, forced to flee and is saved by the enemy who is dying anyway. It is a scene where we wait to see if Deckard will survive and return to salvage all that he now cares about – his strange love for Rachel. After this case, we may discern that Deckard ‘won’t work in this town again’.

It has been suggested that the film suffers from an identity crisis through not knowing whether it is a science fiction thriller or a lever detective film noir. This was never the case. Like in the book, Deckard in the director’s cut is a conventional cop confronted by an unconventional case (Nexus Six replicants with memories and primitive emotions) which will bring him close to confronting a hazard that is inherent within us all; the darker more horrific desire for holding onto life.

For this is the struggle of Batty and the replicants – how to live with dangerously acute powers and sensibilities bestowed by people such as the arrogant scientist Dr. Tyrell. They are not happy with their gift; playing second-rate to humans, living in fear of death, and by the end, suffering a painful, protracted and useless end. Their inability to comprehend their own mortality and loss of experiences (‘like tears in rain’) mirrors our own.

This is the result of arrogant science, of playing Prometheus, and as a powerful theme resonates to the consideration that human life is not dissimilar. It is true perhaps that this fundamental idea of ‘what it means to be human’ may come over better in the book than in the film; a stronger depth inherent in the film is that of hunter and hunted. But what we do witness is Deckard’s natural but ironic predicament of falling for the enemy, i. e. Rachel. This is perhaps the only goodness in a film illustrating the fallibility of humanity; love and the need to be loved.

It is here where we get the dream image of the charging unicorn, a symbol perhaps of an attainable goodness and simplicity amid such dark modernity and angst. Deckard doesn’t find an enemy as such in the replicants, but beings every bit as fallible as himself; confused, fearful and understandably dangerous when threatened. A more apparent interpretation of the unicorn is that it is a memory implant given to Deckard – himself a replicant, confirmed at the end when he notices the silver origami creation of the cane-man (a real Blade Runner? Have they used Deckard as a thief to catch the thieves? Personally, although this is a strong connection, I prefer to think of this as a suggestion only, and that the dream unicorn may also be a real dream, but perhaps attaches to a deeper meaning shared between the blade runners.

This, however is the cleverness of the subtle ambiguity in the film; that its uggestions work on numerous levels. There are other groundings for understanding Deckard as a replicant, with his unemotional dedication to completing the task set for him by the chief.

The reaches of Tyrell’s influence on the positions of the city are uncertain. Possibly it is all one engineered experiment by the god-like mental Tyrell; introducing Rachel to Deckard, their relationship, Holden’s incapacitation at the beginning by Leon, and the need for a being able to match and destroy Batty. But this is relatively inconsequential and merely dds strength to the theme of presenting the experience of humanity – its strange needs and compulsions – through the concept of replicants.

The fact that the reference to their murder is classified ‘retirement’ draws attention to an unjust but deliberate discrimination. What these cops are tracking down in the Nexus Six replicants are mirrors of themselves, suffering from a lack of empathy. The film is laced with a subtle, ironic perspective. By the time Deckard enters Sebastian’s building it becomes apparent that Deckard from this point will hardly be likely to just kill Batty and walk home to Rachel. The climax distils the running of the blade for both characters and for all people.

Ultimately, as Rachel and Deckard rush to escape the vicinity of other Blade Runners, but of still inevitable death, their weakness and futility matches Batty’s. But they have a sort of love, one that possibly only Deckard feels, and we guess that they will cling to this as they enter the lift and the difficult future. The door slams, life goes on; the players have left the stage. They are left threatened, for possibly the cane-man will ensure that Rachel is hunted down. ‘It’s too bad she won’t live, but then again who oes.

The definitive version of the film is the director’s cut, which retains the proper level of ambiguity by subtracting the ill-fitting, unnecessary happy ending. Instead we may wonder whether the unicorn of hope, love and purity (my interpretation) can live, or deserve to live, outside the dream and inside such an exhausted, dead-end of a world. This film is both far-fetched and realistic, bleak in setting but finally hopeful, striking a powerful chord with its searching, struggling characters. Crucial aspects of the human condition are here on display in surely what is a fine creation.

Critique of Romeo and Juliet the Movie

There have been many romantic films made in the past as well as now in the present, from Wuthering Heights to Pretty Woman. But, one of the most romantic of all films is the story of Romeo and Juliet. It is safe to say that most people are familiar with this story. A couple so determined to be together, ended up tragically in the arms of one another because of their feuding families. Today, a new director attempts to recreate this Shakespearean story by adding a little of his on twists to it.

Using the same dialogue as Shakespeare, this irector sets the story in modern times. Romeo and Juliet, the movie, gives audience in the twentieth century a taste of a new and mystical flavor to this well-known love story. The setting of Romeo and Juliet, as expected, was totally different from other settings in the past. This setting, however, was not necessarily set in way of how people today would live. The story was set more fantasy-like. Because of the setting, the deaths of the people in this movie did not seem as moving as to the old movies.

For some reason, the setting of Mercutio’s death nterfered with this supposedly poetic scene. A broken down stage on a sandy beach does not seem to fit well together. The setting seemed pretty artificial. Also, the scene when one of the Montagues died at the gas station did not seem as depressing as would be if any other person was to die. This scene was the opening one so, the audience could have been distracted by the dialogue and therefore, not paying attention to the death to much.

In the beginning of the movie, it was hard to adjust to the dialogue ith the atmosphere. The dialogue was way on the other side of the timeline compared to the setting. Some of the audience was even laughing. Perhaps that was why it was so difficult to follow the movie with all those distractions. What was quite remarkable about this movie was how the director incorporated today’s problems and events with the old Shakespearean dialogue. For instance, swords were used in the olden days. Now, the proper weapon would be guns.

The director also included what a teenager, today, would do like aking drugs, playing pool, and going to parties. Overall, the director must have wanted the audience to view this movie as an entirely new and different one compared to the old ones. It is hard not to make comparisons, but if one treats this contemporary Romeo and Juliet as an entirely separate movie, then perhaps one would appreciate it more for its creativity. If people were to watch this movie like any regular movie and not think of it as the original Shakespeare story, then perhaps the watchers would enjoy it more.

The Comedy Breakfast Club

Breakfast Club is a comedy that was released in 1985. It was written, produced and directed by John Hughes. Its about five teenage students from different social groups when forced to spend a Saturday together in detention they find themselves interacting with and understanding each other for the first time. A jock, Emilio Estevez, a stoner, Judd Nelson, a princess, Molly Ringwald, a basket case, Ally Sheedy, and a brain, Anthony Michael Hall, talk about everything from parental tension to sex to peer pressure to hurtful stereotypes while serving the eight hours in a library.

Ultimately, the five find that they may have more in common than they ever imagined and learn more about themselves as well as each other. It begins with loud rock music playing as a quote from a David Bowie song is on a black background. It shatters like glass to show the high school that they are spending their detention in while the brain, Brian, is talking in the background, the movie ends like this also. While he says different things there are parts of the school that are cut to.

An example would be when he is talking about a criminal they show a locker that says, Open this locker and you will die fag!!! itten in black marker on it. The rest of the story takes place in the school library and what the five students do while their principle isnt looking. At one point they smoke marijuana and the boy that is a jock breaks a glass door. They also put music on and dance around all over the library. One of the main characters John Bender, who they call Bender, is the criminal. He lights his shoe on fire to light a cigarette, he pulls apart books, and he steals the screw from the door that is suppose to be open so it closes and the principal cant watch them.

He ends up getting two months more of detention for telling of the principal by talking back to the principal. While that section of the movie is going on the camera angle makes the principal look really big because Bender is sitting down and the camera angle is angled up at the principal. Later in the movie he has all of them running in the hallway to go get marijuana. They are about to get caught but he tells the rest of the group to go back to the library and he takes the blame for not being in the library.

The principal finds him and takes him to a closet by himself to sit for the rest of the day. He ends up going back to the library through the ceiling. The camera shot makes him look like he is crawling though this small space. Then he falls and the other four students cover up for him with the principal by telling him that there was no ruches, while Bender is hiding under Claires, the princess, desk. At the time it shows him looking in her skirt. The shot is Bender under the desk looking at her skirt then it cuts to in her skirt.

Another character Andrew had to face a problem of missing his wrestling met the next week. When he is in the car with his father his father is lecturing him on screwing around. He tells him that he will lose his ride so he better not get caught again. He was made fun of by the other boys for wearing the required uniform tights. He brings a huge lunch that consists of two sandwiches, fruit, a quart of milk and everything else imaginable. At the beginning Andrew and Bender are about to fight over Clair because Bender wouldnt leave her alone.

But, in the end Andrew ends up liking the other girl, Allison, after she is made over by Clair. Towards the end of the movie there is a confessional of who did what to get the detention. Andrew tapped Larry Lusters buns together. He also talks about all the pressure he has from his coach that he has to be a winner. He also has all the peer pressure because he did this to look good in the eyes of all the other guys in the locker room, but in the end he feels bad about what he did. This movie is unrealistic and realistic at the same time.

The part where Bender smokes a cigarette and doesnt get caught for it, that would never happen in real life because the principal would have smelled it and the smoke detectors would go off. Also, at one point in the movie there is music blasting in the library that would have been heard next door and the breaking of the door by Emilio Estevezs character would have gotten them in a lot of trouble. At the same time it is possible for two people that are complete opposites to attract, like Bender and Claires situation.

Claire ends up going to the closet that he is locked in and kissing him. Also, Andrew and Allison attract even though they are very different. The movie is a fantasy world because people are always trying to find a person that is right for them, in love, and it usually isnt that easy. But on the other hand people dont want to sit in Saturday detention but I know I would if it was that fun. Breakfast Club was one of the first teenage movies, along with Sixteen Candles. It showed teenage life. Now we have many teenage movies and there are various stars that are always in them.

This movie was the bases of all other teenage movies. The story was on teenage love and how one got to the point of the first kiss, which all movies have in it now. It didnt really change people but it made people laugh. It is one of those movies that is out there to make people laugh and want that to happen to them. In the technical sense it wasnt very difficult to make, but the camera angles showed every side of every character. An example would be when Bender and Andrew are arguing the camera keeps changing from Bender to Andrew but different parts of their faces.

Another example is when the principal is giving Bender the other two months on detention. The principal is standing and Bender is sitting. The shoots keep changing from Bender to the principal. The camera angle makes the principal look bigger then he really is and it shows Benders different reactions to what is going on. In conclusion, this movie is not a difficult movie to make but the acting had to be perfect and the camera angles had an effect in the movie. Its a somewhat realistic movie. Voice over is used and its like a story being told to describe the essay that Brian writes for all of them.

The Cave and the Matrix

Movie critics and philosophers alike agree that the movie The Matrix is indeed based upon certain Platonic themes from Book VII of The Republic. In this story entitled “The Allegory of the Cave,” he describes a dark underground cave where a group of people are sitting in one long row with their backs to the cave’s entrance. Chained to their chairs from an early age, all the humans can see is the distant cave wall in from of them. The shadows of statues held by unseen puppet handlers reflect on the walls from the light of a fire that is also out of sight of those in the cave.

The theme of the allegory is that their reality is a poor copy of the real world. According to Plato, our world is nothing but shadows, imperfect manifestations of the forms. Similar to the prisoners of the cave, the humans trapped in the matrix (the cave) only see what the machines (the modern day puppet-handlers) want them to see. They are tricked into believing that what they hear in the cave and see before them is the true reality that exists. Furthermore, they accept what their senses are telling them and they believe that what they are experiencing is all that really exists–nothing more.

The movie not only incorporates these same ideas, the story line of the movie parallels that of the allegory. The most important character is who Plato calls the Philosopher or the Intellectual. In the allegory, Plato hypothesizes that one of the prisoners eventually be released or escape from his chains and flee the cave. The philosopher/intellectual would then be able to see the real objects as well as the puppet-handlers who are holding these objects. In the movie, The Matrix this scene directly parallels with Neo’s scene in the matrix pod. Looking around in shock, Neo sees, for the first time, his true surroundings.

He is actually living in a human factory. At first, Plato says that the Freed Prisoner would be confused at what he saw. As for Neo, when he is finally confronted with the truth surrounding the matrix, he is in a state of confusion and denial. In fact, he is so overwhelmed that he throws up and passes out. Plato wrote that the Freed Man might even feel that what he was seeing now was the illusion and the shadows on the wall were actually more real. There is a line in the movie where Cypher tells Trinity, “I think the matrix can be more real than this world. ”

Plato also goes on to suggest that the freed prisoner would not only be shock over the realization of his true existence, but that he would suffer physical pain. Like Neo, who says “I can’t go back, can I? ” the freed prisoner’s first reaction would be to return to false reality because it is less painful and more familiar to him. Plato wrote that the Philosopher must have started to question what he saw in front of him and wondered about the origin of the shadows and if there was anything else beyond the cave wall that he saw before him. The only way that a prisoner is able to escape is because he made a choice, wanting to learn the truth.

This appears in the movie when Morpheus tells Neo, “You’re here because you know something. What you know you can’t explain. But you feel it. You’ve felt it your entire life. That there’s something wrong with the world. You don’t know what it is but its there, like a splinter in your mind driving you mad. It is this feeling that has brought you to me. ” According to Plato, enlightenment would come to one from being taken out of the cave, and thrust into the light of the real world. He writes that this would not be an easy transition and that the bright and good light of the Sun would seem blinding at first.

When Neo first awakes and escapes from the slime pod, he asks why his eyes are sore and is told that he has never really used them before, meaning he has never seen reality. Once he was made aware of the real world, he would be uninterested in the shadows of the cave. He would return to the cave to try to free others. However, he would have no desire to go back to his life in the cave. Eventually though, his desire to help his fellow prisoners would win out. Neo discovers that what he has been presented with his entire life is only reflections, or merely shadows of the truth.

Perhaps this theme is emphasized through the repeated use of mirrors and reflections. In the allegory, there are other characters who also appear in the movie. Plato calls the ones holding those in the cave captive the puppet handlers. They represent the influential, powerful members of society. In The Matrix, the puppet-handlers are the machines spawned from AI (Artificial Intelligence. ) Basically, the puppet-handlers in both cases use artificial surroundings as a way to control and manipulate the information that the prisoners receive. The prisoners that we speak of are all the citizens of this society whose minds have not yet been freed.

Thomas Anderson was a prisoner in the cave before he became Neo. The movie The Matrix is not the first to have toyed with the idea of a person not being able to distinguish between a dream and reality. Many modern films have relied on this theme; however, this movie most accurately reproduces the storyline of Platos allegory. The Matrix brings Plato’s tale up-to-date by using a “virtual world” within cyberspace. The Matrix has probably had as much exposure to todays audiences as The Republic did in its day, inviting people to question what they consider to be a familiar reality and to strive to be a freed intellectual.

Different Genres By Michael J. Mizov Fear

Fear in Different Genres By Michael J. Mizov Fear is defined as a condition between anxiety and terror either natural and well-grounded or unreasoned and blind. Fear is one emotion that everyone dislikes, and it is as unavoidable as night or day. Through the use of novels, plays, films, short stories, and poems it becomes clear that fear is an emotion that the writer like to heighten not only in the protagonist, but also in the reader.

After reading great works by people such as George Orwell and Stephen King, it becomes clear that fear in the most uncontrollable emotion, quick to come, and long to last. The horror movies f today may bring about a cheap scare, but to truly fear something is the same as dying a thousand times over. All people have a worst fear, be it heights or ducks, that an author or film maker can use to their advantage. Their goal is to make the hairs on the back of one’s neck raise, as well as have them looking over their shoulder as the story progresses with more twists and turns than a roller coaster.

Aforementioned, the main purpose of this research is to prove that fear is an emotion that is prevalent throughout all genres, regardless of topic or plot, and through meticulous research of all genres, the fear presented n all shall be revealed. The first genre to be discussed will be film. After viewing such classics as Last of the Mohicans, The Red Badge of Courage, and Bartleby, it becomes clear that the film making industry is not at a loss for instilling fear.

There are films that make one’s pulse quicken as the story becomes more involved, or some that have one lying awake in bed at night thinking of the frightening stuff they had just seen. The whole concept of fear in a film is not a prolonged fright, but a short lasting one, that may conclude after the end, or in some cases, a few days afterwards. The first film that was iewed was The Last of the Mohicans. It was a story that encompassed all the emotions, from love to fear.

The first instance of fear was short-lived but still present, it began as the opening credits finished, and three men are running through the forest at high speeds. The viewer begins to speculate as to what they are running after, or more importantly, from. That instance of fear was a letdown and also quickly forgotten, but the emotion was still present nonetheless. A short ways into the film the viewer is introduced to an Indian named Magua, and through his speech and body movements it becomes noticeable hat he is concealing an ulterior motive, but the viewer can only wonder at what.

Magua then acts as scout leading two women and a regiment of troops through the woods it becomes clear that something is about to occur. As the signs of impending action come one’s pulse quickens and one may even lean forward in the seat in anticipation. The rising fear is rewarded as a group of Indian braves attack them from the woods and then as the battle is happening one begins to fear for the lives of the main characters that were only recently introduced. In all predictability, they survive, but for a moment the viewer was earing the worst.

As the group proceeds to the fort which is under attack fear is of course stirred to life. Not very strongly, but like a splinter in one’s mind, it is always there. Through the film the fear for the lives of the main characters comes into play quite often as they are involved in many life-threatening situations and whatnot but the real heart stopped comes at the end of the film. Magua has captured the two female characters and the Mohicans are racing up the mountain after him to save them. As they approach the peak, the Mohicans catch up, and a brutal fight ensues.

Magua then fights one of the Mohicans one to one, and the viewer begins to think, good always beats evil. Although not in this case, as the Mohican plunges to his death off the side of the mountain, the viewer is in shock, than the viewer remembers that his new love witnessed the whole thing. The horror is too much as she is taken over by fear of having to live without him, and she too hurdles to the jagged rocks below, to live with her love in eternity. Such scenes rarely occur in films that invoke such fear, because it is a rare occurrence that the not one, but two of the main character die.

The title then has meaning, as the father of the full Mohican and half-Mohican men truly becomes the last of his race, the last of the Mohicans. The next film viewed was Bartleby, a short film based on the novel by Herman Melville. Throughout the film, there is not much hair raising fear, but a more subtle level. The kind of fear caused by this film comes into play late nights when one has trouble falling asleep. Bartleby was a normal man at first, but as the film progresses, he becomes stranger and stranger.

In the world, the fear of the strange and or unknown tends the come about a lot as a result of the isunderstood. Bartleby is one such misunderstood fellow, and this in turn causes all other characters in the film to fear him, even though he has done nothing menacing. Bartleby is a different kind of fear, and it is shown through the given examples or by simply picturing someone that looks normal, but you cannot quite grasp what they are thinking. Another film viewed was The Lottery, the main aspect of fear in that film was simply the fear of death.

There are a few underlying fears that come forth such as the fear of change. The people of town have been doing the lottery more than likely since it was founded in order o reap a good harvest in the fall. The premise of the lottery is to randomly pick someone from within the populace, and stone them to death so that the harvest will be bountiful. An old man brings up that a nearby town has abandoned the lottery, and everyone in town agrees that this was a foolhardy gesture, and they are only in for ruin; those statements brought to light the fact that they could not give up the lottery, even if they had wanted to.

As time passes eventually all families are called and the family with the black dot has to take a second lottery to see which one of them would be killed. The woman who eceives the black dot shows her fear of death by making such allegations as it was a mistake, or the lottery is worthless, but to no avail, she is promptly killed because the fear of the townspeople of dealing with a bad harvest overtakes the fear of one doomed woman. The Red Badge of Courage was than reviewed and the emotion of fear is what drives the story along.

Henry Fleming had recently joined the army and now his battalion was going into battle for the first time. Henry is scared out of his wits by the course of action presented to him, and looks to his friends for comfort, but the all claim that they are nafraid. The viewer begins to worry about Henry, because for all they know he may not survive the battle, or he could be badly wounded. Henry eventually gathers his courage and proceeds into the raging battle of the Civil War.

Upon seeing his comrades killed or wounded next to him he makes a mad dash for the woods, in order to save his own skin; this action goes unnoticed by his superiors and they congratulate him on being so brave when he finally does return. While walking back to camp after the battle Henry spies one of his close friends wounded and lying in the road, he goes over to help him, and his friend sks him to make sure he does not get run over when he passes. Henry carries him over to a field where he soon dies, and Henry is devastated by this.

Henry no longer is afraid, he is full of rage that he was too afraid to stand by his friends who remained steadfast and died in the line of duty. The viewer then begins to fear for Henry’s life even more so for the fact that now he would be on a rampage into the next battle, because everyone knows that foolhardy soldiers have even less of a chance than those trying to be heros. Henry’s friends then confide in him that they had the most fear in battle than in their ntire lives, and this fact holds true for the real world as well.

They congratulate Henry on being so brave while most of then were cowards, and this prompts Henry to be guilty instead of afraid, and he feels that it is up to him to win the upcoming battle. In the next battle Henry performed bravely but then once the battle is over more Union soldiers come over the hill to tell them that the real battle was over there, not here. This of course sets all the troops on edge with fear for their lives, because if what they had just lived through was not the battle, then what could real war be like?

That fact would remain a ystery for Henry, and the rest of his battalion, because they would all be too afraid to go over the next hill. The fear for one’s life is present almost every day, be it in a war, or walking down the street to buy a newspaper. The last film reviewed was based on a short story entitled Dr. Heidegger’s Experiment and it was about the fear of aging and losing one’s looks. The people that are in the opening scene are all old, withered people that were once young and robust, and the viewer is able to assume that they do not like it one bit.

The actual experiment presented in this film is with an elixir to reverse the aging rocess, the Dr. first shows how it works on an old rose, long dead, saved form his wedding day. It comes back to life almost instantly and the four old people are amazed, and all want to try the amazing elixir. These people do not take time to think of the consequences of such a miracle; they are all too afraid of their age and impending death to think of such things. The viewer has a little twinge of fear for these people because it is quite predictable how it will turn out in the end for these unfortunate souls.

They grow young again, and end up fighting over the old woman that had turned beautiful again. They squander the short time they have to be young as the elixir only last for a few minutes and in their fighting they had knocked over what remained of the elixir. The old-turned young-old again character’s worst fear became quite noticeable in the closing scene as they all knelt on the ground around where the last of the miracle elixir spilled. The genre of film has many, many examples of fear throughout the many movies made over time.

There are many different types of fear presented, as shown through the examples given; the fear of losing a love, a life, change, or one’s looks. Fear is a terrible emotion to experience, and film has only been around for almost a hundred years. Poetry on the other hand has been playing with our fears since the beginning of recorded time. The genre of poetry has had quite a jump on film, and contains just as much fear through verse as shown in a horror movie. The first poem read was Lenore’ by Edgar Allen Poe, a story about a lost love and trying to struggle on in the speaker’s own life.

The speaker mentions that all of her friends were simply getting close the her for the money she owned, while the speaker held her as his reason for existence. The fear of losing a loved one that special is shown through the verse of Poe’s speaker in this poem. One of the worst fears is having to live out the rest of one’s life without the only person that brought meaning into it, and it is a deep fear that lies in the hearts of everyone. When the speaker saw the death upon her eyes, his world is crashing down around him; life becomes meaningless.

The speaker then tries to find some sort of memorial for Lenore, but alas, nothing on this earth is worthy enough for her memory. Edgar Allen Poe was a master of fear and the macabre, this poem was one type of fear he was apable of expressing very strongly, and a different type is present in the next poem by him. The poem The Haunted Palace’ also by Poe presents the fear of the unknown to the reader. As the poem starts there was once a glorious palace sitting in the middle of a very prosperous and great land.

Travelers through the valley saw the spirits of happiness dancing in the windows at night, and this always comforted them as they passed. Then, one fateful day, evil began to assail the castle and the valley, all but destroying it as the wickedness passed through. The king was killed and the entire kingdom was collapsing without him nd the happy times became but a dim memory in the elderly’s minds. Now travelers fear going through the valley because of the evil spirits now dancing around inside the once great palace, while lies decimated and useless.

The people that still live in the kingdom fear going near the palace because of the evil the vibrates from the very foundation of it. The people in the kingdom may laugh, but they smile no more. That type of fear is the fear of evil, and the unknown, the people have no idea what horrors await them inside the palace, and they are in no hurry to find out. Poe was definitely a master of fear, and nother person the brings about fear through novel writing wrote a poem for a change, and will be discussed next. The poem For Owen’ by Stephen King is a very vague poem, but the fear inside of it begins to surface after numerous readings of it.

The fear presented in this poem is the fear of those that are different, as two young men are walking down the street to school, they begin to discuss the other schools around. There is one dressed in army fatigues and the other’s dress is not known, but as they make fun of the other kids, the one in the fatigues makes fun of fat kids; which reveals the fact that the other child s fat. The poem takes a drastic turn from there, as it delves into the mind of the fat child, and he thinks of the horrible things he could tell the child wearing the army fatigues.

How badly he is treated, how the fat kids can’t reach down to tie their own shoes, and how he has died a thousand deaths already. This poem presents the fear of those that are different, little children are especially fearful of the unknown. Those children’s only defense to such overwhelming fear is to put down or make fun of those that are different from them. There are thousands upon thousands of poems that convey the emotion of ear quite well. Poems may seem vague or hard to understand at first, but viewing them between the lines brings out the true emotions that the poet or speaker is trying to bring about.

Sometimes reading about scary things is enough to get one going, poetry is a good example of such, but the short story genre is certainly the harbinger of fear. Some short stories’ sole purpose is the make the reader fear for their very lives from just a short plot and some details in which everything is wrapped up in twenty or thirty pages. The short story is by far the easiest of the genres to examine because of such abundant resources. The irst short story that was reviewed was Here There Be Tygers by Stephen King it was a story about a little boy who was afraid to go to the bathroom.

Charles, the protagonist, was in Miss Bird’s class, and she was the meanest teacher in the whole school in his opinion. In the middle of class one day Charles had to use the bathroom, but because he feared Miss Bird, and the word bathroom instead of basement, he tried to play it all off. Charles having a fear of his teacher would be a common thing in most small children, but a fear of going to the bathroom is a very strange fear indeed. Charles soon gets noticed by Miss Bird nd she forces him to leave class and go to the bathroom.

When he arrived at the bathroom and went in, he turned the corner and saw a large tiger, lying in wait for someone to come in. He had no idea how it got there but he knows that it is there to eat him. Charles runs for his life and the reader begins to wonder if the tiger is a figment of his imagination created by his fear of the bathroom, or is there a real tiger escaped from the local zoo hiding in there? After standing around a few minutes Kenny, another boy from class comes to see what happened to Charles, and he finds Charles standing outside the bathroom in fear.

Kenny laughs at Charles and tries to drag him in, but Charles breaks free and Kenny goes in. There is a scream as the tiger devours Kenny and Charles cringes outside the bathroom. Soon after that incident Miss Bird comes by to see what happened to the two boys, and she goes right into the bathroom and is devoured as well. Charles then noticed that the tiger was satiated and he proceeds to use the bathroom, and heads back to class. The fear in this story may also be a fear of growing up. Charles sounds to be in about first grade and is getting used to acting more mature and being a responsible young man.

The fact that Miss Bird made him say bathroom instead of basement is something that may have played tricks on Charles’ mind, and maybe the tiger was his fear come out into the open, and devouring Miss Bird to show Charles could be any way he wanted. The next story, also by Stephen King, is the short story Gramma’ about another young boy that is alone for the first time with his extremely old, dying gramma’. The boy named George had moved in with his grandmother with his mother and older brother when he was six to take care of her in her declining years, and George has been afraid of her since day one.

Normally, grandparents are warm loving people, but this grandmother is old, mean, and decrepit, and this frightens George immensely. As George sits alone while his mother goes to the hospital to see his big brother Buddy who broke his leg, he begins to recall past instances where his grandmother particularly frightened him. George begins to work himself up as the evening progresses and becomes frightened for his life as dusk approaches. George had never been alone for that long, or at all in fact, with his grandmother.

George begins recalling strange things that his grandmother was nvolved in a long time ago, things he overheard in his mother’s conversations with relatives and friends. Then, as a strong storm began approaching the little house, George’s grandmother up and died. George then thought he would remain calm and call for help, but the phone’s were out, then he began to get extremely frightened. As it turns out, George’s grandmother had made a deal with the devil a long time ago, and he in turn gave her books of spells which made her a witch of sorts. George, who thought his grandmother was dead, saw her rise up and start going after him.

Much later, when George’s mother came home, George was almly sitting at the kitchen table and he told her that his grandmother had died. The story ends with a twist, as the narrator mentioned that George’s mother would be curious when he develops a taste for herbal tea. That was a frightening story with a twist, as most people who have read this were looking over their shoulders as they got towards the end. A good story is one that is able to cause the reader to experience the same emotions as the protagonist, and that story certainly did a good job at it.

The next story reviewed had a sort of primal fear expressed through it. The last story reviewed was Survivor Type’ y Stephen King, about a doctor that became shipwrecked on a desert island. More deserted than desert would be applicable for its description, as it was barely twenty yards across with only rocks on it for shade. As the story progresses the doctor is left with no water or food, and the story is told from the perspective of his journal, as he sees the events happen. The primal fear of death is told through this man’s journal, and the instinct to survive is his only outlet.

As time goes on the island he attempted to catch a seagull for dinner and broke his ankle on the rocks. Now that he is immobilized there is nothing to do to try and urvive, and he becomes greatly depressed and thinks of how he ended up in that situation. While his ankle festers he comes up with the idea to amputate it, since he is a doctor. Well, amputate he does, and instead of disposing of the foot, he eats it in order to survive. As one can see, the fear of death is so overwhelming in this man that he has resorted to eating his own foot in order to survive.

Since he ate his foot, he really has nothing, so as time goes on he begins to amputate various other body parts all the way up until his journal becomes so garbled and unintelligible that the reader can only fear the worst or the good doctor. The fear of death, and a bad stroke of luck, was what caused the doctor’s death. If he were able to control his fear, he may have survived. Short stories are a major player when it comes to scaring readers, some stories would have the reader looking over their shoulder to make sure the feared thing in the story is not walking up behind them to do something.

Fear is easily taken out of short stories since the premise of them is to scare the reader, but the genre of Plays is a lot harder to become frightened in. Plays are live action movies, and have been going for a very long time; almost the ame amount as poetry. It takes a lot to scare an audience when there are only a few actors dressed up performing something directly in front of them, but when there is a scare it tends to stick.

The first play reviewed was The Tempest’ by William Shakespeare and is a play about a group of people coming back from a wedding that become stranded on a vast island in small groups, without the knowledge if the others had survived. Prospero the wizard is actually in control of the entire island and he is the one who staged the shipwreck so that he may rightfully reclaim his place as Duke. As the play goes on, the characters begin o fear for the lives for the other people that were on the ship and then fear for their own safety on this uncharted island.

As the story progresses, more characters are introduced such as Ariel and Caliban, Prospero’s slave. Caliban is a slave because he is afraid of Prospero’s power as a wizard since Prospero killed his mother and claimed Ariel as his own. Sebastian and Antonia turn out to fear the king’s wrath so they plot to kill him, but Ariel intervenes and saves King Alonso. Sebastian and Antonia of course come up with an elaborate cover as to why their swords were drawn, and Alonso believes them. Later in the lay, Trinculo and Stephano get Caliban drunk, and he forgets Prospero’s powers and decided to try and kill him.

Being drunk often keeps the brain from thinking accordingly and forgetting a fear is a bad situation indeed. Eventually, everyone finds there way to Prospero’s encampment and all of the problems are resolved. Prospero forgives Sebastian and Antonio, and is restored to his rightful place. This story played on the fear of being alone in an unfamiliar place, such as being separated from your group while in a faraway place.

The other fear exploited is the fear of someone’s power, as in between Caliban and Prospero, if one is frightened of someone more powerful, there is not much to change one’s mind about not bothering them. The next play reviewed was Arthur Miller’s The Crucible’ and play about the Salem witch trials and the paranoia caused by the Puritan lifestyle. The play opens with a little girl Betty struck by some malady which causes her to remain unconscious and the person looking over her fears that dark forces had caused it. After a few of the other girls in town come to see her, she sits bolt upright and begins accusing, along with the other girls, almost all the people in town of witchcraft.

The fear of witches weeps Salem as almost the entire town is arrested for fear of them being a witch or warlock. The Puritan religion has people living by strict rules, and to alleviate boredom some girls went dancing in the forest and were caught. To shift the blame away from themselves they say that witches caused them to do it. The fear of getting in trouble started the witch purging, with the fear of witchcraft fueling the flame so to speak. One of the girls that caused the witch hunt to escalate even further was Abigail, who was in love with John Proctor, whom was already married.

She then accuses his wife of being a witch out of fear f losing him because she wants nothing but to be with him. Proctor then tries to save his wife from being put into prison, but the plan backfires and he ends up in prison for a very long time. Then as Act III starts it is a number of months later, and the view is focused on Proctor who is finding out what has happened in the past months. It turns out that the populace of Salem was so afraid of witches that almost every person in town was arrested except for a select few.

The who are arrested are soon forced to confess, which in turn brings about their execution. Proctor is forced to confess, but refuses to sign t, and as a result is eventually executed. Fear is somewhat over exaggerated through the course of the play, but since it is based on a real event, it certainly could not be too far from the truth, which is a frightening thought in itself. The genre of plays has some fear to it, but it can never match the fear instilled from reading a good novel.

There are many scary novels around, Stephen King specializes his work on scaring the living daylights out of his readers. Novels are able to articulate the feelings of the procrastinator as well as those around them more than a short story would ever be capable of. The novels iscussed here have to deal with a fear of dying, and a fear of truly living. The first novel is 1968 by Joe Haldeman, a novel about a young man who goes to Vietnam, and returns a far different man. The novel begins as a new man to Vietnam nicknamed Spider tells about the situation there.

He has currently never seen combat, and works way out in the middle of nowhere. As his company receives word of the combat becoming more intense Spider begins to fear for his safety, as well as his life. The army has a small group, including Spider, going out on frequent search-and-destroy’ missions, which means to kill anything that is ot identified. At first no one was truly frightened of the true danger, but as they were out on one of their missions a man was shot in the groin, and everyone realized the danger that they were truly in.

After Tet 1968, which was the famous Tet Offensive by the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) strategies changed and they were out in the jungle more than they were in the base. On one such outing Spider’s group was assaulted in one of the most gruesome scenes ever depicted in a novel. Spider turns to run, smacks his head on a tree, and is knocked unconscious. When he comes to, he is more afraid for his life than ever, as he ees the lone man that assaulted them that will haunt his dreams forever.

He sees the NVA troop going to each body and putting a bullet in the head to be sure, and when he gets to Spider he sees that Spider is still alive. Just as he was about to kill Spider his gun jammed, and he walked off, leaving Spider to a life of misery and constant fear. After Spider was rescued he was diagnosed as a paranoid schizophrenic, which is having to control of your fear, a bad thing to happen indeed. Life for Spider became simply unbearable but eventually he learned to come to grips with his problem, and eventually tried to live a normal ife.

When Spider finally arrives home to see his parents, his father believes he is a homosexual because of his doctor’s report, and his mother is all but frightened of him. As Spider realizes that he is no longer wanted he moves out and tries to get a job in a doughnut shop. When he was there the first day training he gets splattered with boiling grease, and is forced into the hospital, unable to even move. Spider has feared for his life through the course of the novel, but now he fears for his very existence, he wonders if it is possible that his life could become any more unbearable.

Eventually Spider heals nd is released, and his parents have moved with no forwarding address, the stuff he had in his apartment was given away, and Spider is fearful that he is truly alone in the world now. Spider then takes a bus to Florida, where he gets beat up and his stuff stolen, Spider lives the rest of his days as a bum, never knowing what to do. The twist to the novel was that in the last chapter it gave the perspective of the NVA troop during that fateful day in 1968. When his gun jammed, he said to Spider May you live in interesting times. , and live in interesting times Spider did, filled with constant fear, misery, and opelessness. The novel 1984 by George Orwell has to do with a world where truly living one’s life as one sees fit is against the law. The procrastinator, Winston Smith is living in a life that he considers pointless, and by all standards, that is exactly what it was. Life is controlled by The Party, the ruling factor in Oceania, and they maintain control with two way viewscreens’ in every person’s house, keeping an eye on them.

As the novel starts out, Winston has begun writing a journal, a highly illegal thing in itself; not only that but he was writing bad things about the party inside of it. Just as things ould not get worse, Winston meets a girl named Julia. Of course the entire relationship has to remain in secrecy because if they were found out they would be put to death. As their relationship blossoms, they can never shake the fear of being found out, the fear of death, as well as the fear of being alone in the world.

Even though they took all the precautions they could, Winston and Julia were eventually caught by the Though Police and brought to the Ministry of Love, a truly frightening place. At first nothing is done to Winston, but eventually the torture inflicted on him was unimaginable. The Thought Police use sychological means for torturing their victims, and the things that these people fear. Winston is incarcerated for a number of months, and the pure horror of the place is that they cannot kill one until one truly loves The Party and Big Brother (the leader of The Party).

Since Winston could not grasp the truth of things, he was tortured until near death, let recover, and tortured again. The final torture was entitled Room 101′, which was pure fear to anyone who even heard another person being sentenced to it. The torture was to take the person’s worst fear in the world, and use that to finally break them. Winston’s ear was rats, and this caused him to collapse like a tower of cards in a gust of wind; Winston was changed, and certainly not for the better.

At the end of the novel, Winston’s fear is gone because there is nothing they can further do to him, he is to just live out his life’ till the day they feel it necessary to shoot him in the head and end it all. A place where the fear of living is stronger than the fear of dying is a place that is not worth existing in, it would be better to simply end it all by one’s own means. Through the material presented and the discussion done as the material was being presented the thesis forementioned proves entirely true. That statement was that fear is an emotion that is prevalent throughout all genres, regardless of topic or plot.

This statement proves true as one looks over all of the genres. Every author, playwright, poet, and film maker proves it by what they write and show the audience. The results of this research show that fear is an emotion easily manipulated and instilled through mere words on paper of pictures on a screen. Since it is known that fear is impossible to control, it is a favorite of those writers to use to their advantage. As one looks through the different genres it ecomes clear how widely used the emotion of fear is used, that all genres work in the same manner to bring about fear.

A famous quote said that The only thing we have to fear, is fear itself. ‘ and that may be true to some extent, but many people are just as afraid of an object or person as they are of the atmosphere they create. Sometimes people become more afraid simply by thinking of fear, not from fearing something, but simply being afraid in general; the fear of fear itself. Those who produce these novels, plays, short stories, poems, and films know what it takes, and things are not going to change anytime soon.

The Masque of The Red Death: The Red Death Vs. AIDs

If I were to compare “The Masque of the Red Death” to a movie, I would compare it to the HBO special on aids, “And The Band Played On”. Both the story and the movie dealt with a disease which in their appropriate times were (and is ) considered to be an “evil” disease. During the eighteen-hundreds the red plague was a major concern to society. To many people of the time it was considered “evil” .

In Edgar Allen Poe’s Masque of the Red Death” Poe uses a representation of the “evil red death” to strike horror in the hearts of his readers. Prince Prospero and his company very much underestimated the power of the Red Death, by thinking that because they were of a higher class, the Red Death could not harm them. This has been many people’s way of thinking throughout the ages.

In the movie “And the Band Played On” the disease of AIDS was just being dealt with, and like the people of he eighteenth century people’s mentality was that “it just can’t happen to them”, and it turns out that it comes back to “haunt them”. In conclusion I feel that in both cases that I have mentioned above, the type of fear was psychological because fatal diseases like the Red Death and AIDS have always been a horror to many people throughout the ages. Also, both stories show that a fatal disease can happen to anyone, even we may fall a victim to an “evil disease”.

Field of Dreams, Ray Kinsella

Was Ray Kinsella a triumphant hero who dared to live his dreams, or merely an insane lunatic who blindly followed voices that could only be heard within the confines of his mind? Although either of these theories could be argued successfully, the idea that this intrepid man was indeed a hero is supported by a list of characteristics that generally indicate a classical hero. In the movie, Field of Dreams, Ray Kinsella was introduced to the viewers as an ordinary man, living an ordinary life, in an ordinary town.

Conversely, he was given the extraordinary supernatural ability to revive a number of celebrities from both the world of baseball and literature who had been dead for many years. Kinsella related to common people, but possessed powers that are not only uncommon, but ultimately inhuman. Although not a fool, Ray Kinsella was also not invincible. For example, he was forced to deal with defeat and hopelessness throughout his travels. Once, he misunderstood a message given to him and journeyed to a place that he was not called to go to.

But, being the bright and resourceful person he was, he was not discouraged and continued to persevere. Ray Kinsella was called upon by forces left unknown to the viewers and himself to go on both a physical journey as well as a journey of the heart. After hearing voices proclaiming, “If you build it, they will come,” Ray risked the economic and emotional stability of the family he loved dearly to build a baseball field. At first, Ray Kinsella was highly skeptical, but eventually he realized the significance of his obscure calling.

Upon the completion of the baseball field, “Shoeless Joe Jackson”, the baseball player who had been his father’s hero before he passed away, suddenly appeared in the field to talk with Ray and to play baseball. As the plot progressed, Ray continued to receive messages. After each new message, Ray was called upon to further his journey. This journey involved traveling to various cities around the United States, as well as facing issues within himself that he has successfully hidden from for years. The reason for his journey, and the path to follow were never clearly manifested to Ray Kinsella.

Blind faith and perhaps a bit mythically guided of insanity were all that drove him to continue on his journey. Throughout his journey, Ray never once knew where the next piece to the puzzle was located. Only at the end of his journey was it at last made clear to him the purpose for his quest. Years ago, when Ray was an adolescent, he had a falling out with his father that he never resolved. After the death of his father, John Kinsella, Ray was overcome with a sense of guilt and emptiness due to the fact that the horrible conflict with his father would never be resolved.

Completing his journey allowed him to make amends with his deceased father and alleviate himself of the eternal burden of never forgiving his father or being forgiven himself for the painful words they had exchanged. During his journey, Ray faced danger and loneliness as well as temptation. Ray plowed down his corn field, his only source of income, to build the baseball field and placed himself and his family in danger of losing his house and land. This also placed his relationship with his beloved wife and daughter in jeopardy. Loneliness seemed to follow Ray wherever he traveled.

He continuously felt that no one, including himself, knew what he was doing or where he was headed. At one point in the story Ray Kinsella was tempted to give up his quest and go back home to Iowa to re-establish economic as well as emotional security. Tenacity prevailed, though, and he was able to conquer these obstacles. Terrence Mann, a famous author from the 1970’s, was provided to Ray as a friend to assist him on his journey. Although, at first, Terrence and Ray did not seem to agree or even get along, as time passed and they came to know each other more thoroughly, they became extremely supportive companions.

If not for Mr. Mann, Ray might have given up this unique and rare opportunity to resolve a conflict he would have otherwise been burdened by for the rest of his life. Ray Kinsella received guidance for his journey through a series of messages sent to him. Although the origin of the messages was never fully revealed, the messages played an extremely important role in the events of the journey. If not for the voice, Ray might never have been aware of this opportunity to settle the distressing differences between his father and himself.

The darkness that Ray descended into was one of confusion as well as hopelessness. During the journey, Ray watched his marriage begin to fall to pieces and his economic stability diminish. He became increasingly uneasy about the purpose for the journey and considered abandoning the quest to return home and resume the life he had left behind. As he witnessed the reaction of others to his calling, he was challenged, as many people throughout history have been, with following his deepest intuition, or conforming to the standards of others.

After the purpose of his quest was revealed to him, Ray’s hope was restored and he was instilled with a new sense of faith and wisdom about life. His dissension into and ascension from darkness were key events in his journey that changed the way he looked at both himself and life in general. What Ray Kinsella was looking for was the reason for the messages being sent to him, but while he continued to seek for the meaning of the messages he found peace within himself. In the beginning, Ray was not consciously aware that the reason for his quest was to find a means by which he could make amends with his father.

In the end though, simply by searching for what the mysterious messages meant, he was able to reconcile with his father and come to peace with himself. Though Ray Kinsella fit the general characteristics that describe a classical hero, he also demonstrated heroism in many other ways. He was honest, noble, caring, compassionate, and humble. It is important not only to judge heroism by a generic list of characteristics, but also to examine the character and intentions of an individual as well.

Movie Review: Sense and Sensibility

Ang Lee, who directed, and Emma Thompson, who adapted the screenplay, have done an excellent job of bringing Jane Austen’s Victorian novel, Sense and Sensibility, to the movie screen. The movie’s collection of actors are a joy to watch as they bring out the emotions of an otherwise polite and reserved era in time. The production work is top notch with bright, cascading photography that sets a romantic “I wish I was there” setting. The purpose of the Sense and Sensibility is to bring out the romance in all of us and show us that Austen’s hilosophy of love exists today as much as it did two centuries ago.

Sense and Sensibility could rightly be classified as a love story, but that would just scratch the surface of what this movie has to offer. It is also a period piece, giving us a chance to visit English society in the nineteenth century. Director Ang Lee brought us to this historic time with beautifully constructed sets and sites that drop us right into the country cottage of our heroines. This natural scenery, with its wide sweeping camerawork warps us back o a time without the loud annoyances of TV and machinery.

By this example Lee sets the stage for the story to begin.. If there is one thing that keeps this movie constantly going is the work of the superb actors. The talent of the actors suited the roles they played, and their mastering of the characters bring personality and feeling to the screen. The story of the movie bases around two of these such characters who happen to be undergoing the same feelings of love but in strikingly different ways. Kate Winslet plays the wild, fatally romantic Marianne who cannot control er feelings.

Opposite her is the experienced Emma Thompson who plays the reserved, intelligent Eleanor who is far more sensitive than she ever lets on. These two sisters embark on a romantic adventure that finds them searching for the right man. The two actors compliment each other with their opposite nature which balances the story perfectly. Yet, as wonderful as these two characters are, Alan Rickman’s Brandon is the core of Sense and Sensibility. His performance is eloquent and beautifully controlled but you can tell the torment he fights inside.

His voice may be onfident and steady, but his eyes alert you to his true emotions. Brandon’s heartache touches you at the core but this heartache makes him more regal because of his perseverance. Hugh Grant compliments this array of actors by giving the film some classical slapstick comedy. He fits perfectly against the reserved Emma Thompson who will occasionally bring out that wide smile after one of Grant’s humorous anecdotes. Grant brings just enough charisma to his character of Edward to bring a little excitement to the movie.

Although the film did not need use the blockbuster special effects of ore recent movies, they satisfy the needs of the movie and there are no errors to distract the moviegoer. By doing this Ang Lee forced the watcher to envelop themselves into the emotions of the actors and not glitzy special effects. The story sweeps you away, and the added quality production work was just bonus to an already outstanding film. All the pieces of the film all seemed to fit in place and this is thanks to the work of the director. Ang Lee made sure that everything was perfect, from the historic costumes to the accents of the actors.

This is also a compliment to Emma Thompson who had the trouble of constructing a screenplay that would honor the book, but would also move at a fast enough pace to entertain the reader. Sense and Sensibility shows us exactly what a movie should be. The movie’s witty romanticism helps illustrate the Victorian era whose love is not so different from our own. This success is due to the actors who brought the story to a personal level. Without them we would not have felt the emotions of the characters, which made us long to love as they did.

The City Hunter

The City Hunter is an action comedy movie starring international superstar Jackie Chan. This movie was made in Hong Kong in the early 90s. In this movie Jackie Chan played Hunter, a private detective with a good sense of humor and deadly kung fu skills. The story started out with a badly acted sketch of Hunter’s partner being gunned down by four men with automatic weapons. With his last moment on earth, Hunter’s partner made Hunter promise to take care of his little sister Carrie, and also not to seduce her.

Seeing how the young girl was only about fourteen, Hunter gave his partner his word of honor to take care of the girl and also never seduce her. The story took a quick turn with the young girl growing up to a beautiful woman. Hunter tried very hard to avoid a romantic relationship with Carrie, but the problem was that Carrie had romantic feelings for Hunter. This love story was interrupted with a group of women trying to kill Hunter for putting their men in prison. This was just a comic relief, so Hunter got out of the situation easily by fighting with all the women at once.

In the next scene, Hunter excepted a case to find a runaway name Yoko. This runaway was the daughter of a rich Japanese businessman. The reason Yoko ran away was because her mother died a few years back, and her father was going to remarry a woman that she didn’t like. So Hunter and Carrie set out to find Yoko. Hunter got lucky and he found Yoko at a skate park. Yoko did not want to go home to her father, so she told her friends that Hunter was trying to molest her, and tried to get away. She managed to get away after going into a department store to hide from Hunter.

In this department store she managed to trick a man to follow her into the dressing room where she knocked him out and took his clothes, wallet, and ticket for a cruise. By some coincidence, Carrie got on the same cruise to get away from Hunter because he had not given her enough attention. Of course Hunter tried to come along with Carrie on the cruise, but he did not have a ticket for the cruise. The Captain of the cruise did not let Hunter on board, so Hunter stole away as a luggage. On the same cruise were two beautiful female undercover cops who had received intelligence of a gang that will attempt hijack the ship.

Another interesting character on the cruise was a mysterious handsome gambler. The stage was set for all the actions to begin. A gang with automatic weapons will have to fight against a mysterious gambler, four beautiful women, and Jackie Chan. Of course the gang didn’t have a chance against the heroes. This was a typical Jackie Chan movie. By this I mean the movie was very entertaining, but plot was very simplistic. I have seen almost every Jackie Chan movie, so it is valid for me to make that judgement.

In almost all his movie, the audience will be entertained. Specifically, in City Hunter, the action is very fast pace, so the audience will not have a chance to get bore. It is full dangerous stunts, and awesome kung fu fighting skills. Further more, the cast was full of gorgeous Asian women who could “hold their own” when it comes to stunts. What made Jackie Chan great in this movie was not just because he did all his own stunts, but because he did not take himself seriously. He allowed the character to be comical, mixing great kung fu actions with comedy.

For example, during one of the fighting scenes, Hunter his arms to block various blows from a man who used two fighting sticks, and after repeated blows the man got tired and stop. Hunter step back, held up his arms and showed the man that he was not hurt. But two seconds later Hunter step back shaking his arms violently, and shedding tears of pain. It is difficult to describe, but it was a very comical moment. From a critic point of view, I have to say that the City Hunter was very entertaining, but some of the technical aspects of the movie need improvements.

For example the dubbing was very bad as in any other Chinese movie. The voice and the lips of the characters were not in sync. The sound effect of movements and of hits was very “cheesy. ” It didn’t sound realistic, although it might have been done so on purpose for effects. Another aspect of the movie that could improve is the acting. There were very little dialogs, and not much emotion to be expressed in the movie, so it would be very difficult for an actor in this movie to win an Academy Award for acting. Also from a critic point of view, I could blast the movie for lacking a story line and a more sophisticated plot.

In defending it, I would have to say that Jackie Chan’s fans and audience has come to expect certain things from his movies, and one of those things is not a complicated plot. They expect to be entertained with laughter and amazement. They also expect Jackie Chan to put his life on the line and do stunts that only he can do. They expect to see outtakes where Jackie Chan get badly hurt trying to do outrageously dangerous stunts to please his fans around the world. A few items worth complimenting in City Hunter are the stunts, the music, and the choreography for the fighting.

As mentioned earlier, Jackie Chan is King when it comes to doing his own stunts. There is no actor in Hollywood that is crazy enough to dare to attempt half of the stunts that Jackie Chan has done in this movie alone. The music was surprisingly good. The theme song, “City Hunter,” was very catchy. I caught myself humming the tunes of the song after the movie. The choreography for the fighting scenes was by far the best part in the movie. Jackie Chan did a magnificent job of choreographing this movie. Also, it probably easy for him seeing how he is a kung fu expert with awesome fighting skills and agility of a gymnast.

Overall, I give this movie an eight on a one to ten scale because of the simplistic plot and the bad dubbing. Other than that, I highly recommend this movie to everyone. To the Jackie Chan fans I recommend this movie because it is one his better movies. And to everyone who has never seen a Jackie Chan movie, this movie is a great one to begin an obsessive addiction. Some people might say that once you seen one of Jackie Chan’s movie, you’d seen them all, but its more like, once you see one, you can’t help but wanting to see more.

Bruce Almighty is Irresistible

There is a guilty pleasure one gets from watching characters we identify with struggle on screen, and we begin to think to ourselves that maybe our lives arent so bad after all. Such is the case in Bruce Almighty, a new release from Universal Pictures directed by Tom Shadyac. The movie is by no means sensational or groundbreaking, but it has an irresistible charm that draws in viewers in desperate need of a break from reality.

The unfortunate protagonist (Jim Carrey) becomes convinced that God has abandoned him after he loses a coveted news anchor position to a slimy coworker. God (Morgan Freeman) grants Bruce his heavenly powers and challenges him to do a better job, pointing out that Gandhi only lasted a week! Predictably, events spin out of control as Bruce is overwhelmed by prayers (received in the form of e-mails), and he manages to lose the only woman who had ever truly cared for him.

Its easy to wonder what caring and compassionate Jane sees in the somewhat narcissistic and negative Bruce, but Jennifer Aniston pulls off the role beautifully, with an ease that assures her movie career will continue to thrive. Of course, Carrey provides the life force of the movie, and it is his inimitable physical humor and impeccable comedic timing which save a script bordering on cheesy and overdone. Most satisfying of all is watching Bruces conversion from a self-absorbed man suffering from a middle age crisis to a considerate human being aware of other peoples emotions.

As God he initially grants all wishes, and pandemonium breaks out, as the real God explains that humans usually dont know what will truly make them happy. New cars and winning lottery tickets do little for those in search of self validation. More often than not this is provided by something as simple as a relationship with a loved one. God hit the nail right on the head when he told Bruce, People need to stop always looking up for answers and instead learn to look within themselves.

Movie: The Grapes Of Wrath – The people and the Depression

In the movie The grapes of Wrath, the Joads undergo the hit of the depression, they have to leave their farm. They go to California for jobs, but find there are few jobs, and it pays little, or at least less then what they were told. The government tried to start programs to house and employ people like the Joads. Since the people who already lived in the cities in which these developments were put didn’t want them there anyway, they tried to start a riot and have the police Arrest them.

Although in the movie the plan was foiled, it could have worked in many other places, or the towns folk could have just reated a lynch mob, and eventually the people living in the development would leave. I believe that the economic situation of the country has a great effect on the fall, or succession of people like the Joads, but I don’t believe government programs will effect them at all. For example, the great depression was a major economical event, and it greatly effected more then just people like the Joads, but programs like the public works administration which employed people for government construction projects.

Another program, the Works Progress Administration, later called the Works Projects Administration was reated to develop relief programs, and to keep a person’s skills. From 1935- 1943, it employed 8 million people, and spent 11 billion dollars. But in 1939, there were still 9. 5 million still unemployed. Another program was the Civilian Conservation Corps. Unemployed, unmarried young men were enlisted to work on conservation and resource-development projects such as soil conservation, flood control, and protection of forests and wildlife.

These men were provided with food, lodging, and other necessities, and were given a small monthly salary. Another program was the CWA, the civil works administration. It employed more hen 4 million workers to build and repair roads, and teach in schools, were just a couple of the jobs. Some of these programs would work temporarily, but eventually there would be no more work to do, or the government would run out of funds. All these programs were hated by some, and loved by others, and some just didn’t care.

The business men that were lucky enough not to lose everything, and the other employees working in the cities who still had jobs during the depression didn’t like these new programs. In the movie, The Grapes Of Wrath, The towns people didn’t like the government funded version of a “Hooverville”. The ownspeople, along with the police tired to start a fight during a dance, so the police could come in, arrest some of the people living there, and say that this new development wasn’t safe for the town, and it would have to be rid of.

Fortunately for them they were able to discover there little plan, and spoiled the plan. But this showed how much the people in the towns hated these new developments like the Hoovervilles. Also, I can’t recall what town it was in, but when the Joades approached one town border, the men there said there was no work, and that they would have to turn around, I believe they even had the police there. This showed how much the people already living in these towns and cities fear the coming farmers and others that had lost their jobs, for the townspeople wanted to keep their jobs.

I think it would have been smarter for the government to buy the farms that people like the Joads were being kicked off, that way they could still work there, and because they only got paid in food and shelter, the extra food that they made that used to go to their employer would go to the government which could either be sold for less, or given out in rations to the poor, and homeless. I believe that Roosevelt had too much power, he was making too many rograms that didn’t work.

He was throwing money here, and money there to programs designed to employ people, yet there were still millions of people still employed. I believe if he had less power, his plans would have been looked over more carefully, and the programs could have been substantially better. I believe that the programs created by the government had little affect, and that the money could have been spent more wisely, and better programs could have been created, but I do think that the economy has a major impact on the fall, or survival of a family, like the Joads.

Blade Runner: Mans Search For Meaning

The movie Blade Runner has many themes. Many of these themes have been explored and written on. The one theme that stood out most to me was that of a creatures search for meaning and answers to the puzzle of its existence. The replicants that were central to the plot of Blade Runner were created by man, much in the image of man. The most important similarity between replicant and man is the ability to reason. This ability to reason, brings on the inevitable pondering of ones existence. The story line of Blade Runner creates a unique forum for man (or a Manlike creature) to meet his maker.

With the freedom of fiction, the restraints that true men have can be lifted. When the group of Replicants breaks free of their human transport partners, they head for Earth. A replicants presence on Earth is quite dangerous, if found they will be retired. Even though this grim consequence looms in the minds of the replicants, their questions seem to overshadow their fear. The replicants wanted to meet their maker. This goal was foremost in their desires and had to be carried out at all costs. This is a powerful concept, when Roy stands in front of Tyrel, it can be likened to a mortal standing efore God (or his creator).

As Roy stands in the presence of Tyrel, one can only sense a felling of awe. Roy has the attention of his creator. What a dream, and even more appealing, he strikes fear into the heart of Tyrel. This is a transparent view of mans rage concerning the powerlessness over his condition. Imagine if the tables could be turned, creator fearing creation. The first goal of the replicants is to create a path to Tyrel. This goal is relatively simple in comparison with mans obstacle. The replicants try several paths to Tyrel, their final uccess is accomplished through a series of events. Once Roy has finally reached his goal; an audience with Tyrel (God), he voices his primary concern.

Roy requests to know the key to his death. This is mans central preoccupation, why must I die. Roy comes up with several scenarios for avoiding his demise; Tyrel, in turn, discounts each one as impossible. Why must this be! This question, which has resonated in the collective psyche of mankind, since the beginning of time. The inevitable answer that Roy receives, is a statement of supreme significance. Roy sentence Tyrel to the same powerlessness over eath that he was sentenced to by Tyrel. The movie Blade Runner has many themes.

The theme of ones existence seemed to be a large part of this movie. Not only in the replicants minds, but in the society as a whole. Tyrel was not prepared for the replicants to last as long as they did, nor gain the reasoning powers finally obtained. Roy was searching for answers that Tyrel thought he would never have to deal with. Questions that are common among people today, in all areas of existence. Many are unsure of the reason for being brought into this world, and why it must end at a certain point.

Muhammad Ali – Movie

Fierce with his fists, fast on his feet and quick with a quip, boxer, Muhammad Ali became one of the sporting icons of the 20th century and he sure let us know it. In Ali, Will Smith gives us a 10-year slice of the legend’s life between 1964 and 1974 under the direction of Michael Mann (The Insider). Pumped up and perfecting many of the man’s mannerisms as well as his showy performances both in and out of the ring, Smith’s portrayal is one with punch.

The story begins as Ali (then known as Cassius Clay) trains for his first title fight against Sonny Liston. He is considered the underdog, but he wins the fight and is crowned heavyweight champion. “I am the greatest”, boasts the boxer, and the world begins to believe it.

Accepting the teachings of Islam, he discards his “slave name” and becomes Muhammad Ali. In the decade that follows, the film tracks the effects that his faith, political convictions and relationships have on his life. One of those relationships is with black activist, Malcolm X (Mario Van Peebles), and on a lighter level, is his friendship with well-known sports commentator of the period, Howard Cosell played by a virtually unidentifiable Jon Voight. Ali’s weakness for women is not glossed over and Jada Pinkett Smith, Nona Gaye and Michael Michele drift in and out of the picture as his first three wives.

This is also the decade of the Vietnam War and Ali’s refusal to be drafted into the army because of his religious beliefs and his subsequent banning from boxing test the extent of his convictions. Rather than fight a war he does not believe in, he risks his career and for three years he is inactive. The movie however, moves on to a final triumphant note for Ali when he regains his heavyweight title from the new world champion,George Foreman in Zaire, the event that became known as “Rumble in the Jungle”.

The movie A Raisin in the Sun

I really enjoyed the movie A Raisin in the Sun. It follows a black family’s struggle to reach their long anticipated dreams. These dreams, and the struggles necessary to attain them, is one of the main focuses of the movie. The movie began with a husband, Walter, and wife, Ruth, fighting over Walter’s dream to make it in the business world by using an insurance check as a down payment on opening a liquor store. He believes that if someone in the family would just listen to him and put forth their trust, his dreams would become a success.

This episode illustrates a major conflict throughout the story. As Walter dreams bigger and bigger he seems to leave the smaller’ things, such as his family behind. This movement away from the family is against the advancement of the values and morals of the family. The story’s ending presents a view of how standing by long term family goals and values provides a sense of unity that can overcome any obstacle and keep the pride of the family alive.

Once Mama receives the insurance money, she believes that the best thing to do with it is buy a new house for her family. At first she is very adamant against giving any of the insurance money to Walter because she believes that his uses for the money will not benefit the family. But, as time progress Mama sees how upset her son his because none of the family members will back his dream, so she gives him the money left over after buying the house to spend on his dream. However, Walter’s deal falls through and he is faced with an even more challenging task.

He is faced with the job of talking with the head of the Welcoming Committee of their new white neighborhood and pretending to be the stereotypical inferior black so that the Welcoming Committee will buy the family’s new house for a large amount of money. But as the time draws near for Walter to put his pride away, he realizes with the help of the family that no amount of money can make up for the loss of pride and that it is sometimes better to sacrifice the goals of one for the good of many.

So Walter tells the gentleman from the Welcoming Committee that they are not interested in selling their house to any white folks. This bold and unselfish move helps to father the family’s long standing ethics, values, and pride. A Raisin in the Sun powerfully illustrates the idea that holding on to ethics, values, and pride is sometimes the most difficult option, but is the most fulfilling and helps to make other challenges easier.

Blaming Violence and Sexuality on the media

The Matrix is by far one of my favourite movies, but what has driven me to write on such a topic is the negative feedback fellow breakthrough movies and other forms of entertainment are getting from society in general. Yes it is true that two seemingly normal students shot and killed tweleve of their fellow classmates and one teacher at Columbine Highshcool, but what has this got to do with the media? These boys were obviously sick individuals. Certainly we were all exposed to the same movies, comics, and TV shows, but you don’t see me or any of my friends going around killing anyone.

Yes, Neo said “Guns, lots of guns”, but once again how does any of this relate to the situation at hand? What is more violent than traditional and modern Chinese and Japanese movies? Have you seen any anime lately? Look at their socities, wholesome as ever. Does this not say something? Quite frankly if your child has grown up thinking that just because he/she sees something bad on TV it’s ok to mimic it, that says something about his/her upbringing. It’s innate behaviour for children to mimic.

It’s how they learn to talk, walk and help themselves, but just like how their physical development needs to be supplemented by parents, their mental development needs to be nurtured too. THIS! is the difference between law-abiding people and criminals. THIS! is the root cause for violence and other such behaviour. THIS! is where the blame should be placed, NOT on The Matrix! Parents need to realize that they have the right to be involved in their kids lives. They have the right to say no.

All the arguements and silent treatments won’t go in vain if you just stick with them until they’re mature enough to handle their own lives. Another thing that absolutely disgusts me is the “women as sex objects” crap. For those of you who aren’t familiar with this, it refers to the portrayal of women (in laymans terms), as being nothing but pretty and sexual beings. Yes, Xena is scantily clad. Yes, Supergirl shows a lot of leg, but that doesn’t mean diddly squat. Women are always complaining about the world being male dominated, but the men don’t look at Xena solely in a sexual way.

The whole idea behind the show was to promote girl power and be a spin off of the hit series Hercules. She’s a heroine and a damn good one. Why can’t these women grasp the concept? It’s almost as if they want to have their cake and eat it too. They use sex to control men whether want to admit it or not and yet they don’t want to be portrayed that way. The fact is, the basis for the media is the way of life in our societies, so if they see an overwhelming demand for things such as Wonder Bras, breast enhancers, thong underwear etc… Then there’s no reason to be surprised about the way we’re portrayed.

The Patriot Film

Martin, a veteran of the French and Indian War, thinks of himself as a battle-weary peacenik (his eldest son joins the army against his wishes), but if he believes in liberating the colonies from the tyranny of King George III, he believes even more fervently in smiting the holy bejesus out of the soldiers who have torn his family apart. That these aristocratic oppressors happen to be the same redcoats who are fighting to quash the American Revolution is, shall we say, a matter of the highest moral convenience.

Written by Robert Rodat (”Saving Private Ryan”) and directed by the heavy-tromping blockbuster maestro Roland Emmerich (”Independence Day,” ”Godzilla”), ”The Patriot” is set in fields, forests, homes, and backwaters, and there’s something at once canny and reductive about the way that it personalizes the bloody birth of a nation. The filmmakers know that the last thing contemporary audiences need is another square-shouldered Classics Illustrated lecture that regurgitates the righteous and idealistic mythology of Why We Fought the British.

At the same time, I’m not sure that I want my history dragged into the colonial trenches by a filmmaker like Roland Emmerich. ”The Patriot” has some fierce and exciting moments, and it’s held together by Gibson’s haggard slow-burn charisma (he talks in his ”low” voice), but the movie is also demagogic and crude. It’s a fife-and-drum ”Gladiator” without elegance — the Revolutionary War turned into a big, hammerheaded spectacle of getting even. The film’s most irresistible aspect is its clever populist notion of how, exactly, the colonists defeated the British.

At first, the opposing armies, in their red and blue uniforms, line up in stately rows, absurdly organized, like marching bands with muskets. As the guns crack and the soldiers fall, the battles become a stately ritual of mass suicide. The revolutionary forces are the underdogs, ragged and barely equipped. It’s Martin who has the idea of uniting a militia to stage pinpoint ambushes in the woods. Attacking by stealth, he becomes a fearsome legend, a ghost of a fighter.

In one juicy scene, he sneaks out of hiding for an impromptu negotiation with Lord General Cornwallis (Tom Wilkinson), who leads the British troops in the South. Cornwallis is actually an honorable fellow, and that’s his problem. He approaches armed conflict like a gentleman; he believes in war as a civilized assertion of Empire. What he can’t wrap his mind around, because it has barely existed before, is the notion of a soldier who fights as an individual, without rules. As long as it stays on the battlefield, ”The Patriot” is a brutishly compelling broad-canvas entertainment.

But the movie is also inflated with clichs from the screenwriter’s manual. There’s the motley crew of loutish ”colorful” proles who join Martin’s militia, the squeaky-clean romance between Martin’s soldier son (Heath Ledger) and a local lass (Lisa Brenner), the vacuously noble slave-turned-soldier (Jay Arlen Jones) who counts down the months before he’s freed from servitude, and, of course, the eminently hissable villain — though Jason Isaacs, it must be said, plays this overripe role to contemptuous perfection.

Inevitably, he receives the gaudiest of send- offs, administered by Mel at his maddest. In ”The Patriot,” freedom is a cause, but it’s also an excuse: slaughter enshrined by nobility. Charleston – the battle is not shown, but the results serve as a time transition in the movie.

The Direct and Indirect Impact of Rhetoric

In the world that we live in, rhetoric always affects and is a part of everything that happens. Rhetoric, in its broadest sense, is communication, and how people relate to each other. The movie The Color Purple is about relationships. Therefore rhetoric plays a very important role in this movie. Throughout The Color Purple the impact of rhetoric can be seen in two groups of people, the communicator, or rhetor, and the audience. Celie, the main character of the movie, shows the impact of rhetoric in almost every aspect of her life.

The effects of rhetoric in Celie’s life are apparent through her elationships with Mr. Johnson, Shug Avery, and Sofia. The relationship that Celie has with Mr. Johnson is unbalanced from the first time they meet. Celie’s complacent and gentle nature leave her at the mercy of Albert Johnson’s more dominant attitude. The rhetoric that she expresses to him, of innocence and always complying to his orders, forces her to live a large portion of her life sheltered and overshadowed by Albert, who continuously beats her into submission. Celie also passes on what she learned from Mister to his son Harpo, the rhetoric of the importance of a man giving is wife a good beating.

Albert Johnson does not even realize how important Celie is to him until she is gone. At that point he returns some of the love that is shown to him by helping Nettie and her family to return to the United States in order to see Celie. This action shows the impact of Mr. Johnson’s rhetoric on Celie by returning to her the first person that she ever loved. Both the rhetoric that Mr. Johnson exposes Celie to and the rhetoric that Celie reveals to Albert Johnson have a very important role in Celie’s life in the ovie The Color Purple. Celie also shares a strong relationship with Shug Avery.

Celie first meets Shug when she is drunk and has a very bad temper. Celie just tries to comfort the sick stranger in her house. In this unselfish act of kindness, Celie’s rhetoric ends up giving her the best friend that she has for a long time. Shug then returns the rhetoric of kindness and love that Celie first shows her by writing a song to cheer her up. Celie’s newfound friend also teaches her how to smile, and perhaps how to enjoy life and respect herself. Shug Avery also elps Celie discover that Nettie is writing her and where to find the letters.

Celie’s rhetoric in her relationship with Shug let her gain a new friend, contact with her beloved sister, and rediscover a joy and purpose to her life. Rhetoric also has a strong impact in the relationship between Celie and Sofia. After Sofia’s jail sentence she is very depressed, and Celie helps her do the grocery shopping. Showing her rhetoric of friendship and kindness once again, Celie shows Sofia a friend when she needs one the most. At the family dinner one night, Celie expresses her true feelings in an outburst of hetoric.

This reawakens the spirit inside Sofia and allows her to admit to Celie how she helped her and that people do understand and love her. Without first affecting Sofia with her rhetoric, Celie would not have experienced the assurance of Sofia’s rhetoric in her life. Rhetoric is present in the relationships between Celie and Mr. Johnson, Shug Avery, and Sofia. This rhetoric affects Celie in many ways and from different directions. Celie is affected by how she relates to others through rhetoric and how others relate to her through rhetoric. In some cases

Celie’s rhetoric has an impact on someone else and then later works its way back to her. Mr. Johnson is exposed to Celie’s kindness and friendship a long time before he shows her some of the same respect. Shug Avery is also affected by the rhetoric of Celie before she is in turn impacted by Shug’s friendship. Celie gives Sofia the assurance that she needs and then receives the same from Sofia when she is in need of support. In all of these relationships Celie is affected directly by the rhetoric of the other people and indirectly by the influence of her own rhetoric.

The movie, Pierre Delacroix

The days of blackface minstrel troupes may seem like ancient history to most Americans, but Spike Lee wants to refresh our memory. Spike Lee is onto something when he looks to the days of blackface minstrel troupes to help us understand race in today’s America. With Bamboozled, Hollywood’s most reliable provocateur is saying we haven’t come as far as we think. In Bamboozled, Damon Wayans plays well-mannered Harvard alum Pierre Delacroix, a black TV writer whose ratings-hungry boss (Michael Rapaport) delivers an ultimatum: give me a hit show or clean out your desk.

His response: “Mantan,” a revival one of the most popular and most degrading forms of entertainment in nineteenth-century America: blackface minstrelsy. Delacroix developed the program as a rage-driven stunt but it turns into an unexpected hit, apparently able to indulge a racist format largely because the actors using burnt cork to blacken their faces happen to be African Americans. In the movie, Pierre Delacroix is late for a meeting he wasn’t told about. He reprimands his assistant Sloan Hopkins (Jada Pinkett-Smith), who hadn’t received any info about the meeting to begin with.

This scene makes clear that if one wants to succeed in that company, one can’t count on simple procedures like memos, but has to run after the info — that is if one happens to be black. Delacroix is the only person of color in the creative team of that TV station – unless one would count the Caucasian boss Dunwitty, who says, “brother man, I’m blacker than you”. Dunwitty thinks that his African-American wife and two biracial kids earn him the ability to be viewed as either white or black, depending on what is the most advantageous for him at any given moment.

He talks the talk, he knows the names of African American celebrities, and he’s decorated his office with pictures of black athletes. Shouldn’t that grant him “honorary blackness”? He wants to be black when he’s alone with “Dela” in his office, where he calls him “my most creative person”. In the presence of his white staff at the conference, he scolds him for his tardiness and Pierre takes it, knowing the rules of office politics that are firmly in place at this station.

Lee uses scenes like this to humorously address certain stereotypes and misconceptions, such as CPT (Colored People’s Time). Delacroix is tired of the pressure and the repeated rejection of both his numerous ideas for new shows centering on ethnic minorities and his request to hire at least one more writer of color. He won’t simply quit; he wants to get fired instead. In order to achieve this, he pitches his idea for “The New Millennium Minstrel Show” to the station. Dunwitty is enthused and Delacroix puts together the most outrageous variety show.

It’s setting is a watermelon patch, the black performers wear blackface and fire engine red lipstick, and there’s merriment and tap dancing. Aunt Jemima isn’t missing, either. In essence, this isn’t only a film within a film, but a satire within satire. Pierre hires the homeless tap dancers Manray and Womack, renames them Mantan and Sleep ‘N Eat, and makes their act the center of the show. He does a lot of research and Lee shows snippets of historical black and white footage. Though Sloan is initially opposed to the new concept, she adapts quickly.

The show becomes a hit and the problems start piling up. Lee shows us just what impact the portrayal of minorities in the media has on different individuals. Those who take part in the creation of those shows are sell-outs, no matter how guilty they may feel about their roles. Guilt doesn’t change a thing. In a recent interview on The View, Jada Pinkett-Smith pointed out that even at a time when she couldn’t really “afford” to turn down roles, she rejected many objectionable roles offered to her.

She furthermore stated that one isn’t forced to pay dues to an oppressive system, and her success is proof. Some viewers commented that they couldn’t suspend their disbelief regarding the success of the Minstrel show, they didn’t believe that blackface would have a chance to succeed nowadays. Blessed are the naive. Sure, one won’t see the literal burnt-cork-and-alcohol paste on African-American faces (though the Time Magazine cover with a blackened O. J. Simpson picture came rather close), but that isn’t necessary.

The blackface we see actors wear in the media is that they don’t play African-American characters, but rather characters that act according to white people’s perceptions and stereotypes of black people. Those blackface characters are re-enforcing stereotypes and give white audiences the entertainment they approve of while they still can feel that they are “politically correct” when they like those characters (simply because they like a black character). That is exactly what happens in Bamboozled with the Minstrel show.

Underlying are the questions: how many “black” shows do African-American writers write? How are African-Americans portrayed on TV? I’d say that stereotyping is the rule, not the exception. Moreover, the occasional alibi-minority (and minor) character in a white show can’t make up for the lack of shows with a truly diverse cast. The segregation and stereotyping in the media is a fate that minorities share. Another good example is the representation of the queer community. Queer characters still seem to be subject to a “production code” — they aren’t allowed a sex-life on screen, for example.

Just think about the controversy that came to surround the groundbreaking Ellen show as it became “too gay”, or the chronically single Will character in the super-mainstream (and therefore successful) Will & Grace. The second and most often criticized half of Bamboozled digs deep into the complexities of race and the media and personal choices. Certainly, there are minority gatekeepers (successful people of color in the media, who are far from being considered controversial), who function as poster children and alibis for the industry. They may have sold out in the beginning, and some may still do so.

The ones who didn’t sell out but instead pushed forward are still less successful commercially and most often labeled “controversial”. Spike Lee himself is the best example. In the film, he shows different characters with integrity, such as Delacroix Sr. a. k. a. Junebug, a stand-up comedian, who lives a rather unglamorous life, or hip-hop artist Big Black Africa (Mos Def), who gets tempted and auditions for Minstrel, but doesn’t make the cut. This fact doesn’t prevent him from sitting on the high horse, though, looking down on his sister Sloan.

It becomes clear that integrity most often doesn’t provide for a luxurious lifestyle. Dela, Sloan, and Mantan are conflicted and come to realize that at different times in the film. They also experience conflict with others. Lee closes with a quote by the writer James Baldwin: “People pay for what they do and for what they have allowed themselves to become. They pay simply by the lives they lead. ” As a spectator from the Spelman community, Bamboozled really gave me something to think about. I found it intriguing the various obstacles African Americans have to overcome in order to be successful in corporate America.

They are faced with ridicule and they are never given an opportunity to fully express themselves. There was one theme in particular, which reminded me of ADW. In the beginning of the film, Big Black Africa asks the question “Why I gotta be pseudo-revolutionary” after his sister Sloan referred to him in this way, and then question was answered in the end when Big Black Africa and his coterie killed Man Ray. BB Africa has no more integrity than the other characters because in the end he is the one who killed his own brother after he realized that what he was doing was wrong.

So not only was Man Tan thrown out by the white execs, but also killed by his own people. That’s what makes Big Black Africa pseudo. When his bother realizes his mistake he doesn’t lend a helping hand but adds to the statistics of black on black crime. I think that is a message that is being missed by many. We as African-Americans need to look out for each other, instead of being so quick to shoot each other down. If we did that we would be a much stronger and powerful race, but until people realize this we’ll just continue to choke ourselves to death.

Nondiegetic music of the Doors in the scene waiting in Saigon

Sound plays a significant part in all movies and one of the most interesting of all the sound techniques would be the use of nondiegetic music. In the movie Apocalypse Now, there is a double disc soundtrack with thirty tracks on it. The one song on there that has the most meaning would The Doors song The End. This song not only set the mood for the scene waiting in Saigon and the move as a whole but is also used to foreshadow the death of Coronal Kurtis. Mr. Coppola, the director of the film, was a genius for picking this song to represent the movie.

It not only fits the movie with the sounds of helicopter but the words alone have significant meaning to the movie. Along with it serving as a premise for the movie, Mr. Coppola plays with the viewers perception of diegetic sounds and nondiegetic music. The scene as a whole is a montage of overlapping dissolve sequence. It is set in Saigon but is more of a delusional state of mind of Willard, the main character. We get a sense of the upcoming climatic part of the movie through the visions and music of the scene.

The opening scene starts out with a diegetic sound of a helicopter passing in front of a jungle. We get the sense that the helicopter sounds that we will be hearing are going to be diegetic until Mr. Coppola brings in The Doors song The End. Which brings the sounds of the helicopter into the music. He uses the helicopter as a set up for the music ensemble that is forth coming. As the electric guitar starts to play a psychedelic tune with the sounds of the synthesized helicopter, you feel like youre in a somewhat delusional state of mind.

As if your mind is being carried away by the music to a dreamlike place. The dirt in the scene is doing some mysterious dance to the beat making the jungle in the background seem somewhat fuzzy and dreamlike. The first minute of the song is used to set the viewers for the montages sequence that is coming up next in the scene. Its purpose is to make us feel delusional and somewhat drugged. The guitar solo and synthesized helicopter sounds then leads us into the world and mind of the main character, captain Willard.

As the sequence moves along you hear the voice of Jim Morrison sing, This is the end Beautiful friend This is the end My only friend, the end, to the flaming sights of war are seen at the edge of a jungle as napalm blows the jungle up to pieces. As the camera pans across the destruction left of the bomb, the song emphasizes the word the end. This music is used to bring a hallucinatory intensity to the movie. Without the song in the background all we would see is the destruction that the war had on the jungle.

With the music we get more of feeling of the destruction that it had mentally, not only physically on Willard mind. We get the sense that Willard knows something that we as viewers dont and is trying to forewarn us that something is going to end. The first spoken words of the song add the needed intensity to the sequence and the whole movie. To let the viewers know that something is going to end. Whither it is the end of the war, or the end of a life. As we move into the montage sequence of shots, the music words are used to express what we are seeing on screen.

Mr. Coppola uses the rest of the sequence to foreshadow what is going to happen at the end of the movie. This is the main function of the song in the movie, which is to get the viewers mind thinking about the end of the movie. It starts out with an overlapping dissolve from the burning jungle into Willards burnt wet face. As the dissolve leads to Willards face we hear the song say, Ill never look into your eyesagain. This symbolizes death. We get the sense through the music that someone, either Willard or someone else in the move, is going to die.

The music is still playing as we get a delusional view of what Willard is thinking about. Then we get to another shot where we see a tribal statue next to Willards face with the jungle on fire in the background. The music then goes on into saying, Desperately in needof somestrangers handin adesperate land. This right here foreshadows Coronal Kurtz, the antagonist in the film, compound. Kurtz was thought to be insane and he needed a way out. The the strangers handin a desperate land is connecting Kurtz and Willard. That is why they show Willards face with the tribal statue and this part of the song.

To warn the viewers what is to come at the end of the movie, which is the end of Kurtz and his compound of people. In the next sequence the tone of the music turns into a fast paced drum solo, bringing the beat and intensity of the sequence up. The beat leads from a slow delusional pace, to a fast, somewhat overexerted pace. As if Willards thought are starting to become overwhelming. The camera then dissolves into Willards room and we come to see a mise-en-scence shot of cigarettes with lighter, glass with alcohol, and a bottle of Cordon Bleu.

As this shot is shown the song plays, lost in a romanwilderness of pain. We get the sense that Willard is on the path of self-destruction. The words of the song express this by using the Romans as an example. The Romans were said to be strong and one of the greatest empires. But due to their way of living they ended up becoming self destructed and later obsolete. The song gives us the sense that this is the path that Willard is on. With the music and the shot we see that he is in pain and is using the alcohol and cigarettes to ease the pain but at the same time he is just destroying himself.

As you listen to the rest of the song you are reinforced of this with the shot of Willard lying next to a gun and the song saying, And all the children are insane. Along with the nondiegetic music playing there are two motifs within the song by The Doors. The first being that of Mr. Coppola playing with diegetic and nondiegetc music. As stated earlier, the first opening scenes start off with the digetic sound of a helicopter, which is then used to lead into the nondiegetic sound of a synthesized helicopter within the song.

As the scene moves along about two minutes into the scene we come to see the blades of a ceiling fan whirling around. This is where the helicopter sounds in the music change back into the diegetic sound of the whirling ceiling fan blades. The second motif is that the song reoccurs again about two hours into the movie. This is the scene where Willard is killing Kurtz and the caribou is being sacrificed. Which goes back to the function of the song in the beginning, which was to foreshadow the death or The End of Kurtz death.

Thus the nondiegetic use of music is indeed a very useful technique in the scene waiting in Saigon. The Doors song, The End, not only is used to foreshow what is going to happen at the end of the movie but is also used to set the mood of the movie. Along with setting the mood, Mr. Coppola plays with the use of diegetic music turning it into nondiegetic music. These are all key functions for using a song in a movie and Mr. Coppola is a genius for choosing The End to play a significant part in Apocalypse Now.

Cliches Of Teen Movies

Its seems as if American culture is obsessed with sex. From music videos to commercials to teen movies: one cannot turn on his television without seeing a scantily clad woman or two people engaging in some type of foreplay. Even on game shows there is commonly a female co-host who wears next to nothing. Moreover, besides a pornographic movie or a special on HBO, one can find more than enough sex in a teen movie. These films contain teenage sex symbols who cannot act more than the common man. Yet, it seems as if these movies are quite popular.

They more often than not reach the rank of top selling movie at the box-office. Their success illustrates much about our society- we want to see sex and cannot get enough. There are several formulaic characteristics of every teen movie. All of these films involve two teenagers of the opposite sex who fall in love with each other and describe their constant struggles in high school. Usually, the two lovers are extremely different from each other. Many times, one is popular and the other is a pariah or there are racial differences.

The dating between these two individuals usually begins when one of their friends makes a malicious bet (in order to mock the unpopular teenager). The relationship is considered a joke until the two teenagers actually fall in love. The movie climaxes when the unpopular youth realizes that a bet has been placed and feels betrayed. But do not fear! These movies ALWAYS end happily with the couple together. A perfect example of this is in Shes All That where the most popular student in the school, Zack, makes a bet with his friends that he can transform any girl in the school and into a prom queen.

His classmates pick the nerdiest girl, in the school, Laney, for Zacks experiment. Predictably, he eventually falls in love with the girl. However, one of his friends tells Laney that a bet was involved, and she attempts to disown Zack. Again, all ends well as they forgive one another and magically fall in love once more. It seems that America craves these movies; from Ten Things I Hate About You to Shes All That to Drive Me Crazy, teens have flocked to the theaters to see the same movie plot merely with different characters.

Although these films do not contain much acting talent, their scripts are strikingly similar to those of Shakespeare. For instance, O is a modern Othello and Crazy/Beautiful is merely Romeo and Juliet in a high school setting. It is pathetic how many teenagers excitedly watch and enjoy movies such as Save the Last Dance and Never Been Kissed , yet they shun classics like Othello and Romeo and Juliet. Almost all teen movies have the same plot; once you have seen one, you have seen them all. Guy sees girl.

Guy gets girl. Guy and girl fall in love. An altercation occurs to break that love. Guy and girl fall in love again. Hollywood is attempting to make it seem as if events like these frequently occur in high schools. However, every teen can testify that situations like these are not very probable. Teenagers should not waste their money on movies which portray a stereotypic, false existence of their lives. Perhaps the reason why so many teens watch these idiosyncratic movies is because teenagers wish to escape reality.

Cinema and Film

Many young people today are learning about their world through electronic means radio, television, video movies, computer games, virtual reality games and the Internet. In particular the visual environment of the electronic media is greatly attracting the print media in all its forms. How many children read comic books these days? Most would rather watch cartoons, or play arcade games or hand-held video games. We will be focusing on cinema and how it has culturally played a role in society. The 1990s have been a significant time for film and video.

Nineteen ninety-five was the one-hundredth birthday of the movies (Film theory and criticism, 1985). In 1996 the movie Independence Day became the fastest and largest grossing movie of all time, replacing Jurassic Park (1994) at the top of the list (Film theory and criticism, 1985). Video stores have proved that they are here to stay, so much so that now all feature films are made in such a way that they can be easily adapted to both video and television. Films and videos are rarely a simple record of what the camera sees.

The reaction of audiences may vary according to what part of the world they are from, together with their customs and beliefs, when and where the film was made and set, and the ability of the film makers to lead the audience to a willing suspension of disbelief (Films in our lives, 1953) so that when the audience watch the film they are to think that what they are watching is actually happening rather than being played out by actors. Films tell stories about people the way they live, behave, think, feel and interact.

They show us in pictures, actions, words and sound what the world is like, was like, or might be like or what the directors particular view of the world might be. The film and video cameras provide us with a lens to look more closely at ourselves and our world (Films in our lives, 1953). Some clear examples of this is, shortly before the film Fatal Attraction appeared in 1987, the AIDS epidemic had led to mass media warnings about the dangers of unprotected sex (Readings, Cinema). In the 1980s, growing numbers of American men were feeling threatened by successful, financially independent, career-minded, sexually active single women.

That is why when you see the film Fatal Attraction, the film shows horrible consequences after a married man has unprotected sex with a single career woman and the movies career woman is also shown unsympathetically (Readings, Cinema). It is now understood how societal attitudes at the time of a films making influenced its content. The World of Apu, a 1958 film from India shows two young married couples that are clearly in love but they never kiss. Censorship regulations in India at the time prohibited kissing, so they had to show affection by other means (Readings, Cinema)

Audiences sometimes take the view that they are watching simply to be entertained. Many children in particular take this approach with film, video and TV. Their approach is largely a passive one where the viewer does not think about, and is not critical of, what is being viewed. Once viewers understand that filmmakers work under forces that influence the shape and content of the finished films, viewers are less likely to misjudge a film for not exploring a political, religious, or sexual subject in greater depth when that may not have been an option (Understanding Movies, 1976).

Viewers who know when and where a film was made and under what conditions are also more likely to notice when filmmakers follow conventions and when they depart from them. They are more likely to understand how the films budget may leave out certain options and how the available filmmaking technology and the audio and visual presentations of competing media and electronic entertainment may influence the film (Understanding Movies, 1976).

Novels and other print forms of narrative are usually the work of a single author, and are then read by an individual, however films are the result of the work of many people with different ideas and philosophies, and the films are viewed by many people at the same time. This ability to impact quickly on a large number of people is a feature of the media in general. In film the filmmakers strive to create the right mood and setting to allow the audience to identify with the characters and their situations. If this is achieved then the filmmakers can influence out thoughts and ideas through the construction of the film.

Some filmmakers target films at particular audiences but they can never be certain about the reaction to their film because different audiences expect and enjoy different things. Crocodile Dundee, an Australian movie made in 1986 and starring Paul Hogan, deliberately targeted both the American and Australian markets (Reading and viewing film, 1998). The movie opens with a beautiful American reporter, Sue Charlton (played by Linda Koslowski), talking on the phone in the foreground, with the magnificent Sydney Harbour and Sydney Harbour Bridge in the background.

The first half of the movie follows Sue Charlton in the Australian bush where she meets Michael J. Crocodile Dundee (Paul Hogan), and the second part of the movie follows the uncultured Australian as he survives in the biggest city of modern America, New York (Reading and viewing film, 1998) The movie was deliberately made to target the Australian market, with Paul Hogans character and wit making fun of a wide range of obviously identifiable Australian characters and trends, while at the same time the film targets the American market with an appeal to Americans expansiveness, respect for wealth and sense of self-importance.

Dundee also makes fun of American stereotypes, enhancing the films appeal for Australian audiences. Other targeted audiences fall into definite categories. In recent years we have seen the re-emergence of the teen pic. Films about teenagers and young adolescents placed in dangerous or unusual circumstances who fight against huge odds and succeed in becoming mature people as a result of the unplanned journey of self discovery (Reading the screen, 1984).

In films like Encino Man, Romeo and Juliet, Sister Act 2, The Big Steal, The Delinquents, Muriels Wedding and Black Rock, the central characters are easily identifiable teenagers facing issues with which modern-day teenagers can sympathise establishing a personal identity, authority, love, under-age drinking, teenage sex and pregnancy, abortion, violence, the role and breakdown of the family, and so on (Reading the screen, 1984) Every film reflects a particular way of looking at the world and either supports, questions or criticises a particular way of behaving.

These values are best revealed by a careful examination of the themes of the movie and how they are expressed through the words and deeds of the characters or the symbols associated with them (Films in our lives, 1953). For example, the movies of Clint Eastwood, such as Dirty Harry or Unforgiven, often question the role of violence in protecting or threatening society. In the Dirty Harry series the main character Harry Callaghan uses a . 44 Magnum revolver (the most powerful handgun in the world) to symbolise violence and its effects on society (Film theory and criticism, 1985).

War movies often use the same setting to make different points about right and wrong, or the individuals place in, and responsibility to, society. For example, Schindlers List examines the difference two men make to a whole cultural group in a particular time (Film theory and criticism, 1985). During the American involvement in Vietnam and shortly afterward, there were few American movies about the war. Those that were made, such as the Green Berets (1968) with John Wayne, supported American involvement (Readings, Cinema).

After American military involvement finally ended in 1972, some of the wars pain began to recede into the dimness of time and American public opinion increasingly questioned the wisdom of U. S involvement (Readings, Cinema). Then filmmakers with doubts about the war began to make movies critical of it. Born on the Fourth of July (1989) is a film that criticizes the American war effort and questions the gap between patriotism and justice, where Tom Cruises character provides a stunning contrast to John Waynes lead in the Green Berets.

These films could not have been made during or immediately after the war. They would have been considered unpatriotic during the war and too painful to watch and therefore too uncommercial shortly after it (Reading and viewing film, 1998). In every era, political climate influences the choice and depiction of subjects. Another example is seen during the cold war period, from the late 1940s to the early 1980s. Such American movies as Red Dawn (1984), shows Soviets and Cubans invading a small Colorado town, and Rambo: First Blood Part II (1985) portray Soviets as untrustworthy and treacherous.

Rocky IV (1985) also reflects the political mood through two boxing matches between representatives of the Soviet Union and the United States, and its not surprising which political system the movie champions (Readers, Cinema). All these movies exalt Americans and encourage nationalism while demeaning the Soviet system. In contrast, since the increased cooperation between Russia and the United States in the 1990s, few such anti-Russian American movies have been made (Readers, Cinema).

In conclusion, it is the values that exist within the movies, and the values held by the characters in the movies, whom we see as heroes and villains that help us to question our own motives and actions. All films try to influence our thinking and behaviour in some way by presenting us with views or alternatives to certain ways of behaving. It is up to us to recognise, reflect and act upon those views rather than be influenced mindlessly. At the same time we need to be aware that film may reflect or shape values and that values change over time.

Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho

  1. Nothing is random in the world created by the author.’
    How does Alfred Hitchcock use cinematic features to explore ideas in his
    film Psycho?
  2. How does Alfred Hitchcock present the idea in his film Psycho that being at odds with society’s values involves risk but complying with those values can also be harmful?
  3. In what ways does Alfred Hitchcock explore the oppressive weight of a dead past in Psycho?
  4. Show how Alfred Hitchcock uses one or more of the following as a device to reinforce ideas in his film Psycho:
    • Irony
    • Foreshadowing
    • Changes in time
    • Changes in place
    • Recurring symbol(s)
    • The way the text ends
  5. What techniques does Alfred Hitchcock use to influence the viewer to take a particular position concerning the issues explored in his film Psycho?
  6. How does Alfred Hitchcock use repetition as a technique to emphasize ideas in his film Psycho?
  7. How does Alfred Hitchcock’s use of one or more of Psycho’sminor characters enable the audience to reflect on the main ideas of the film?

Do The Right Thing

Director and actor Spike Lee presents his “truth” about race relations in his movie Do the Right Thing. The film exhibits the spectacle of black discrimination and racial altercations. Through serious, angry, and loud sounds, Lee stays true to the ethnicity of his characters, all of which reflect their own individualism. Lee uses insulting diction and intense scenes to show how severe racism can lead to violence. The disturbing scene where different nationalities badger their opinions on each other shows poor communication and horrible stereotyping.

This is an example of antilocution. Pino’s Italian slang, Mookies black talk, and Korean obscenities are all mixed together to show how communication grows impossible among different ethnic groups. Spike Lee is trying to show how nonsense language results in a snowball effect which worsens any situation. The theme of trust appears in scenes involving the same race or color. In the same way, distrust shows among people of different backgrounds. Radio Raheem and Mookie engage in a significant conversation of love and hate.

Raheem tells, “Right hand is for love, left for hate. One is always fighting the other. ” Through Raheem’s character, Lee expresses black brotherhood and trust between people of the same ethnicity. In the present, people still carry that close bond within their own nationality. If Radio Raheem as well as the people of today open a hand with trust in someone of different origin from themselves, then perhaps a common interest could spark. The last scene of the film by far surmounts as the most powerful scene.

The burning of Sal’s Famous Pizzeria will leave an imprint in the minds of anyone who watches. When Sal smashes Raheem’s radio, the tension turns to uproar. Total bedlam occurs within minutes after the death of Raheem by the city police. This could be a physical attack on both sides. Both of the actions taken by Radio Raheem and Sal were uncalled for. Mookie performed a heroic contribution as he shifted the fighting away from Sal and towards Sal’s Pizzeria. In fact Mookie saved Sal’s life in the midst of everything.

In the middle of the chaos the Korean man says, “I’m black, you, me, the same. ” This reflects how people in society try to fit into certain groups that seem to be the right thing to do at the moment. Spike Lee’s Do the Right Thing focuses on scenes representing failed communication, dire stereotyping, absence of trust, and wrongful violence that reflects the existing concerns about racism in America. The intense language and strong gestures enhance the film creating a realistic view for the audience.

I would give this movie a five star rating. Do the Right Thing, is to the point and entertaining with a serious view of the world. There are no absolute heroes or villains. There are no easy answers to the questions that this film poses. Do the Right Thing is one of the best-directed, best made films of our time, a film in which the acting and visual style work together to make a statement about race in America. It is also bound to enrage many of its viewers, but that is Lees point: It takes emotion to do the right thing.