The Beginning

To understandhow the Earth started; we need to start off with origins of mankind and the earth’s existence. The Earth came into existence about 6 billion years ago and the emergence of homo-sapiens-sapiens 200,000 years ago. Technology has always been closely linked to the way in which people have lived. Before the development of civilizations, … Read more

The Ghost Dance

In January 1889, Wavoka, a Paiute Indian, had a revelation during a total eclipse of the sun. It was the genesis of a religious movement that would become known as the Ghost Dance. It was this dance that the Indians believed would reunite them with friends and relatives in the ghost world. The legend states … Read more

Akhenaten – the greatest mystical revolutionaries of all time

Akhenaten is know as one of the greatest mystical revolutionaries of all time, but was his new religion a product of his creative genius, or merely a reaction to threats within his own empire. As Pharaoh, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, changed the traditional polytheistic religion to a monotheistic one centered on the Aten (the … Read more

Martin Luther – Protestant Reformation in Germany

Martin Luther lived from 1483-1546. Luther was born on November 10, 1483 in Eisleben in the province of Saxony. His protestant view of Christianity started what was called the Protestant Reformation in Germany. Luther’s intentions were to reform the medieval Roman Catholic Church. But firm resistance from the church towards Luther’s challenge made way to … Read more

German pharmacologist, Louis Lewin

It was in 1886 that the German pharmacologist, Louis Lewin, published the first systematic study of the cactus, to which his own name was subsequently given. Anhalonium lewinii was new to science. To primitive religion and the Indians of Mexico and the American Southwest it was a friend of immemorially long standing. Indeed, it was … Read more

The Boer War

The Boer War was a conflict that lasted from 1899 to 1902 in southern Africa between Great Britain and their allies, Transvaal (South African Republic) and Orange Free State, in what is now South Africa. Throughout the 19th century, after Great Britain conquered the Cape of Good Hope in 1814 and expanded its territory in … Read more

Edward VII

Peaceful yet popular and very well respected, Edward VII plays an influential part in bringing Great Britain, France, and Russia together in 1907 into the Triple Entente. One of the most wittiest and inventive satirist’s writers in England is a journalist most noted for his fiction pieces, known as Hector Hugh Munro. Saki is his … Read more

Jeanne La Pucelle (Joan The Maid)

1412, it is in the last half-century of the Hundred Years’ War in which the French attempted to attain freedom from English rule by fighting to eradicate English strongholds. An unusually strong, healthy, and possibly clairvoyant girl is born to Isabelle Romee and Jacques d’Arc in the small village of Domremy, France. Her mother is … Read more

America And The Normandy Invasion

The year was 1944, and the United States had now been an active participant in the war against Nazi Germany for almost three and a half years. During this time, numerous battles had occurred which were fought with determination and intensity on both sides. Amongst the many invasions of World War II, there is one … Read more

The suicide of Meriwether Lewis

In the early hours of October 11, 1806, while en-rout to Wasington to defend himself against accusations made on him in accordance to the fiancial decisions made by him as govoner of the Louisian teritory,Meriwether Lewis shot himself in the head with his own pistol at Natchez Trace. 1 However, the ball only grazed his … Read more

The United States And The Normandy Invasion

The year was 1944, and the United States had now been an active participant in the war against Nazi Germany for almost three and a half years. During this time, numerous battles had occurred which were fought with determination and intensity on both sides. Amongst the many invasions of World War II, there is one … Read more

Cleopatra Life

In the springtime of 51 BC, Ptolemy Auletes died and left his kingdom in his will to his eighteen year old daughter, Cleopatra, and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII who was twelve at the time. Cleopatra was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She had two older sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV as … Read more

The Philly Election Of 1794

The Swanwick-Fitzsimmons election in Philadelphia of the most infamous elections in American history due to the fact that, it brought with it the first distinction ever between two political parties, the Federalists and the Democrats. Subsequently the election of 1794 brought America it’s first democratic congressional leader, John Swanwick. The factors surrounding Swanwick’s congressional debut … Read more

Designers/Artists of the Past

Art and design do coveys various types of communication, for informative purposes and for entertainment value. In order for a creator to produce something creative they must draw from their inner impulses, and the environmental and historical influences around them in order to communicate a language. Throughout the centuries art and design has seen numerous … Read more

The harrowing stories of the Jews persecution

The following asocial elements are to be transferred from the prison to the Reichsfuehrer S. S. to be worked to death: persons under protective arrest, Jews, Gypsies, Russians, Ukrainians, Poles . . . Czechs, and Germans with sentences of more than eight years . . . quoted by Reichsfuehrer S. S. Himmler, on September 18, … Read more

The Nazi government

In December 1929, the German government faced a total financial crisis, facing a short fall of 1. 5 billion marks in anticipated revenues. It occurred then that the world would lie in darkness, where deaths would override births dramatically, and where the lives of those of a different race, those opposed to the Nazi rule … Read more

Another Salem Witch Trials

The Salem witchcraft trials of 1692, which resulted in 19 executions, and 150 accusations of witchcraft, are one of the historical events almost everyone has heard of. They began when three young girls, Betty Parris, Abigail Williams and Ann Putnam began to have hysterical fits, after being discovered engaging in forbidden fortune-telling (not dancing naked … Read more

Aaron Burr Treason Trial

The early 1800’s were an unusual time in the history of the United States. A country in its infancy, growing, turbulent, and filled with intrigue where political and economic fortunes were made and lost overnight. While the country was founded on noble ideas—and no doubt these powerful ideas were taken seriously—how such ideas were to … Read more

Five Important Events of the 1960s

During the 1960s the world was hit with four different assassinations of some of the leaders in the world who were out to change the way things were. Although some disagreed to the changes that they were trying to do and even threatened them, they still continued to pursue their idea of change. Ngo Dinh … Read more

Alexander The Great

Alexander III, more commonly known as Alexander the Great, was one of the greatest military leaders in world history. He was born in Pella, Macedonia, then a Greek nation. The exact date of his birth is uncertain, but was probably either July 20 or 26, 356 B. C. Alexander was considered a child from his … Read more

Viking Raids On England

From 793 to 1066, England was terrorised by Viking warriors. These were people from Scandinavia, especially Danmark and Norway. Scandinavia at the time had a growing population and with inland areas inhospitable, the vikngs looked overseas for new territories and wealth. “In the year 793, the pagans from the north came to Britain like stinging … Read more

Race Relations in the New World

The British colonies in North America were not societies that valued or expected equality. They conquered Native American land without any payment for it and they used African Americans as slaves. By the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century, the standard norm for the British included vicious warfare with … Read more

Five Important Events of the 1960s

During the 1960s the world was hit with four different assassinations of some of the leaders in the world who were out to change the way things were. Although some disagreed to the changes that they were trying to do and even threatened them, they still continued to pursue their idea of change. Ngo Dinh … Read more

Russian Revolutions of 1917

The abdication of Emperor Nicholas II in March 1917, in conjunction with the establishment of a provisional government based on Western principles of constitutional liberalism, and the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks in November, are the political focal points of the Russian Revolutions of 1917. The events of that momentous year must also be … Read more

Living life through the 1900’s

Since the 1900’s technology has been increasing rapidly, from washing machines to automobiles, affecting the citizens of the U. S. dramatically; now receiving increased pay checks and something they never have had before. Leisure time, not only could people start affording more, but they could also do more instead of work. The problem was finding … Read more

Cleopatra VII Ptolemaic Dynasty

In the springtime of 51 BC, Ptolemy Auletes died and left his kingdom in his will to his eighteen year old daughter, Cleopatra, and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII who was twelve at the time. Cleopatra was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She had two older sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV as … Read more

Battle of Bunker Hill

Boom, Bang, Crack! The sounds of muskets being fired, its ammunition ricocheting off rocks and splintering trees are heard all around. The pungent smell of gun powder stings the nose, and its taste makes the mouth dry and sticky. The battle is still young, but blood soaked uniforms and dead or dying men can already … Read more

Art History Essay

World War I virtually severed artistic relations between America and Europe. Cultural interchange and patronage was interrupted by problems of social and political urgency, though most artists tended to be antiwar. Visual propaganda was left to the commercial designers and illustrators, while American painters continued in their efforts to consolidate the issues detonated by the … Read more

Anthropology Report Essay

The Neanderthals lived in areas ranging from Western Europe through central Asia from about 200,000 to between 36,000 and 24,000 years ago. The Neanderthals lived in groups of 30 to 50 individuals, they invented many of the tool types that were to be perfected by fully sapient peoples, they had weapons adequate to deal with … Read more

Fascism in Germany and Italy

Fascism in Germany and Italy Germany and Italy rose up under new leaders with a new type of governing policy. However, the same policies that caused growth lead to eventual collapse of these nations. Fascism grew because of extreme nationalism, fear, and governmental control. It failed due to absolute power by one man, its own … Read more

European Enlightenment Essay

The Enlightenment was an 18th century European intellectual movement in which ideas concerning God, reason, nature, and man were combined into a world view that instigated revolutionary developments in art, philosophy, and politics. Although there are many separate stages to this period, it has been termed “the Enlightenment” for simplicity. The Enlightenment was characterized by … Read more

Racial Profiling Essay

The great era of civil rights started in the 1960s, with Martin Luther King, Jr. s stirring I have a Dream speech at the historic march on Washington in August of 1963. At the same time Birmingham Police Commissioner Bull Connor used powerful fire hoses and vicious police attack dogs against nonviolent black civil rights … Read more

The Effects Of Post-industrialism On The Political Economy Of Western

The sustained, high economic growth in Western Europe during the post-war period until 1973 led to dramatic changes in the region’s political economy. As advances in transportation and communication extended the reach of international trade into new areas of the world, as technological advances allowed establishment of manufacturing facilities overseas, and as European real wages … Read more

A visionary project of Thomas Jefferson

In 1803 President Thomas Jefferson won approval from Congress for a visionary project that was to become one of American history’s greatest adventure stories. Jefferson wanted to know if Americans could journey overland to the Pacific Ocean following two rivers, the Missouri and the Columbia, which flow east and west from the Rocky Mountains. If … Read more

The elder Marshall Field

The elder Marshall Field considered himself the “Chief Apostle of the American Way,” he epitomized the American Dream by becoming one of America’s first rags to riches stories in the industrial boom of both the pre-Antebellum and post-Antebellum periods. Marshall Field was born and raised as a humble farm boy and became perhaps the greatest … Read more

The Life of a Legionary

A legionary had to be recommended by someone connected with the army in order to be recruited. He would receive a small amount of money if accepted by the army and this sum would cover his travelling expenses to the camp. Training All new recruitments had to be trained properly before they could fight; he … Read more

Life in the 90’s

Throughout the 1990s there was a lot of good and bad times. Starting with the good things, I will begin my paper with 5 of the up-most important events in this period of time and then conclude with 4 of the down sides. Early in the 90s was Desert Storm, which was a huge success. … Read more

Contemporary Literature and the Events That Influenced It

In the last forty years there have been some key people and events that have shaped history and in turn have influenced the works of some of literatures most prolific writers. During this time period some of the most powerful speeches, poems, and literary protests were written. These works of literature were sometimes written out … Read more

Prohibition and the Roaring Twenties

The Roaring Twenties can be described as a period of American history during which people crossed the line, smashed tradition, and broke boundaries. A brand new culture was created during this period, with jazz, money, the flapper, gangster wars, loose morals, speakeasies, and last but not least, an abundance of liquor. The decade was also … Read more

Orientalism Report Essay

Said describes Orientalism as, “… the generic term that I have been employing to describe the Western approach to the Orient; Orientalism is the discipline by which the Orient was (and is) approached systematically, as a topic of learning, discovery and practice”. By this, Said is saying because we treated the East like a school … Read more

The Maya civilization

When the Spanish began to arrive in Mexico and in Central America in the early 15th century, one of the many civilizations they found was the Maya. The Maya, building upon the Olmec culture, were located in present-day Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, southern Mexico, and the Yucatan Peninsula. Even though they had many similarities, the Maya … Read more

The Pantheon – ancient Roman architecture

The Pantheon is one of the finest and best preserved examples of ancient Roman architecture. It stands in the center of Rome. The Pantheon was constructed by Marcus Agrippa in 27 B. C. This building did not include the rotunda in back. In A. D. 123 Hadrian built the rotunda, which was later changed in … Read more

Machiavelli perspective on globalization

Practically nothing is known of Nicolo Machiavelli before he became a minor official in the Florentine Government. His youth, however, was passed during some of the most tumultuous years in the history of Florence. He was born the year that Lorenzo the Magnificent came to power, subverting the traditional civil liberties of Florence while inaugurating … Read more

An Unlikely Murderer

One would think that crimes with such a gruesome nature would be committed by a hatchet-wielding maniac as put by Russell Aiuto (1). But rather, the suspect was that of a church-going, Sunday-school-teaching, respectable, spinster-daughter(Aiuto 1). The young woman, Lizzie Borden, was charged with the killing of her father and stepmother, a crime worthy of … Read more

Great Issues in Western Civilization

A great issue can be defined in many ways; one way is how it effects people and how many people it effects. Of course it is based on the fact that it is great; and it wouldnt be great unless people were affected by it. Then the question is what is an issue, and what … Read more

Early History of the Pipe Organ

The king of instruments has a long history, one which can arguably be traced to the concept of a collection of fixed-pitched pipes blown by a single player (such as the panpipes) (Randel 583). The first examples of pipe organs with the basic features of today can be traced to the third century B. C. … Read more

The “Cattle Boom”

When the railroads moved west to the Great Plains, the “Cattle Boom” began. Southern Texas became a major ranching area with the raising of longhorn cattle from Mexico. Cattle was branded by the rawhides who guarded them on horseback on the ranges. Before the Civil War, small herds of Texas cattle were driven by the … Read more

Christopher Clumbus Book Report

The book begins with a young Christopher Clumbus staring out in to the ocean. Where he begins to think about sailing across the ocean to the Indies. Then Clumbus goes to the king and asks for a charter to find a new trade route. He eventually grants Clumbus the charter, and Clumbus gathers his ships. … Read more

The Gothic Age

As the third year that followed the year on thousand grew near, there was to be seen over almost all the earth, but especially in Italy and in Gaul, a great renewal of church buildings; each Christian community was driven by a spirit of rivalry to have a more glorious church than the others. It … Read more