Chlorofluorocarbons Essay

Chloroflourocarbons were discovered in the 1920’s by Thomas Midgley, an organic chemist at General Motors Corporation. He was looking for inert, non- toxic, non-flammable compounds with low boiling points that could be used as refrigerants. He found what he was looking for in the form of two compounds: dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) and trichloromonoflouromethane (CFC-11). In both compounds, different amounts of chlorine and fluorine are combined with methane, which is a combination of carbon and hydrogen.

These two CFCs were eventually manufactured by E. I. Pont de Nemours and company, and, under the trade name freon, constituted 15% of the market for refrigerator gases. CFCs were the perfect answer for cooling refrigerators and air conditioners. They were easily turned into liquid at room temperature with application of just a small amount of pressure, and they could easily then be turned back into gas. CFCs were completely inert and not poisonous to humans. They became ideal solvents for industrial solutions and hospital sterilants. Another use found for them was to blow liquid plastic into various kinds of foams.

In the 1930’s, household insecticides were bulky and hard to use, so CFCs were created because they could be kept in liquid form and in an only slightly pressurized can. Thus, in 1947, the spray can was born, selling millions of cans each year. Insecticides were only the first application for CFC spray cans. They soon employed a number of products from deodorant to hair spray. In 1954, 188 million cans were sold in the U. S. alone, and four years later, the number jumped to 500 million. CFC filled cans were so popular that, by 1968, 2. 3 billion spray cans were sold in America.

The hopes of a seemingly perfect refrigerant were diminished in the late 1960’s when scientists studied the decomposition of CFCs in the atmosphere. What they found was startling. Chlorine atoms are released as the CFCs decompose, thus destroying the Ozone (O3) atoms in the high stratosphere. It became clear that human usage of CF2Cl2 and CFCl3, and similar chemicals were causing a negative impact on the chemistry of the high altitude air. When CFCs and other ozone-degrading chemicals are emitted, they mix with the atmosphere and eventually rise to the stratosphere.

CFCs themselves do not ctually effect the ozone, but their decay products do. After they photolyzed, the chlorine eventually ends up as reservoir species – they do not themselves react with ozone- such as Hydrogen Chloride, HCL, or Chlorine Nitrate, ClONO2. These than further decompose into ozone hurting substances. The simplest is as follows: (How do CFCs Destroy the Ozone) Cl + O3 —–> ClO + O2 ClO + O ——> Cl + O2 O3 + O ——-> 2 O2 The depletion of the ozone layer leads to higher levels of ultraviolet radiation reaching Earth’s surface.

Therefore, this can lead to a greater umber of cases of skin cancer, cataracts, and impaired immune systems, and is expected to reduce crop yields, diminish the productivity of the oceans, and possibly contribute to the decline of amphibious populations that is occurring in the world. Besides CFCs, carbon tetrachloride methyl bromide, methyl chloroform, and halons also destroy the ozone. In 1985, the degradation of the ozone layer was confirmed when a large hole in the layer over Antarctica was reported. The hole’s existence is due to industrial chemicals which were manufactured there.

During September/October of 985, up to 60 percent of the ozone had been destroyed. Since then, smaller yet significant stratospheric decreases have been seen over more populated regions of the Earth. Worldwide monitoring has shown that stratospheric ozone has been decreasing for more than 20 years. The average loss across the globe totaled about five percent since the mid-1960’s with cumulative losses of about ten percent in the winter and spring. A five percent loss occurs in the summer and autumn over North America, Europe, and Australia.

The world has been forced to address this issue. Thus, the major powers of the world created a global treaty, the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. The agreement was put into affect in 1988 and the subsequent Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone layer went into effect in 1989. To date, 140 countries are acknowledging the Montreal Treaty. The countries decided on a timetable for countries to reduce and to end their production and consumption of eight major halocarbons. The timetable was accelerated in 1990 and 1992.

Various amendments were adopted in response to cientific evidence that stratospheric ozone is depleting at a much faster rate than was predicted. On the home front, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), under authority of the U. S. Clean Air Act, have issued regulations for the phase out of production and importation of ozone depleting chemicals. The EPA established various policies such as refrigerant recycling in both cars and stationary units, a ban on nonessential products, labeling requirements, and a requirement to revise federal procurement specifications.

One of the largest single uses of CFCs is as a refrigerant (CFC-12) used n automobile air conditioners. Since a big source of this CFC-12 is leaking automobile air conditioners, many new environmental rules have an impact on the auto service and repair industry. (1)Anyone repairing or servicing motor vehicle air conditioners must recover and/or recycle CFCs on-site or recover CFCs and send them off-site for recycling. (2)Everyone dealing with A/C must be certified to use CFC recovery and recycling equipment. The shop must own EPA- approved recovery and recycling equipment. 3)Retailers can only sell cans of utomotive refrigerant (less than 20 pounds) to certified technicians.

This discourages do-it-yourselfers from topping off their own A/C. The fines for violating any of these rules can run as much as $25,000 per violation. If someone wants to keep working on A/C, they will have to make an investment in equipment. Is it worth it? Recovery-only units cost about $500 and recovery/recycling units run from $1,800 to $5,000. People working on air conditioning units must pass an EPA-approved CFC recycling course. CFC-12 used in motor vehicles was phased out of production at the end of 1995.

No more will be made. CFCs, when first developed, were thought to be a miracle compound. They made excellent refrigerants, pesticides, deodorants, packaging foam, and had many other uses. Unfortunately, a hole in the stratosphere was found over Antarctica in 1985, and CFCs were to blame. Since 1989, numerous laws and restrictions have been made to stop production of CFCs and allow the ozone in the stratosphere to replenish itself. Fortunately, the laws and restrictions have been effective and the ozone layer is slowly but surely filling in. The future of the ozone layer looks good indeed.

Cold Fusion

Cold fusion was first discovered in 1988 two weeks before easter. Fusion is the combination of two atoms. The sun fuses hydrogen and helium. For many years mankind has been experimenting in the field of fusion in order to harness its energy efficie ntly. Cold fusion is made in a test tube at room temperature according to Dr. B. Stanley Pons and Dr. Martin Fleischman, the inventors. As of today, there is no hard evidence of cold fusion at room temperature.

When this was first discovered, Pons and Fleischman pointed out that a power source the size of a cigarette lighter could power the entire city and the top 10 feet of Lake Michigan could ower the entire world for the next 15,000 years. There still is hope thought that they could create cold fusion and room temperature and Pons and Fleischman are researching it today. Detailed Description of Chemical Process The theory to how this fusion works is the Muon Theory. The muon theory is as follows: Speeding muons knock electrons out of their orbits around deuterium and tritium atoms.

Muons replace the electrons and form a smaller atom. This “muo-atom” the n captures another nucleus. The muon orbits more tightly around the two captive nuclei leading them to overcome heir natural repulsion of each other and fuse. This reaction produces a larger nucleus that almost immediately shatters, releasing energy. It also frees the muon, which can then repeat the cycle, causing several hundred more such fusions. The fact that the muon is 207 times heavier than an electron gives support for this theory.

A nuclei is orbited by an electron making a mini-solar system. If a muon is shot at the nuclei, it will bump the electrons into a smaller orbit and replace their orbit with muons. This then closes tightly around the atom, crushing the atom and nuclei together close enough to fuse. This creates energy and frees the muon thus starting this sequence all over again until the muon decays, which is about 2 millionths of a second, or sticks to another particle that is ejected by fusion. Pons and Fleischman have been the only one to record this phenomenon.

They have also been rejected by many because of this rare phenomenon that only they have experienced. Whether or not they did or did not, future experimentation may provide answe rs to the energy crisis of today. Detailed description of application of process The impact of such an efficient source of energy would be enormous to ay the least. Large, unsafe nuclear powerplants such as the one Smud is operating could be replaced by cold fusion at a small fraction of the cost it is today.

A “Puff”(Pons/Uta h/Fleischman/ Fusion) engine was supposed to be operating today if they were successful although they have run across many problems. Had a Puff engine been created, it would have to release a minimal amount of radiation for widespread use of it. Wh en they first reported their results, they predicted that Puff automobiles would already be made public, Puff aircrafts would already be flying overhead, and Puff eating plants would already be installed in homes.

They also predicted a Puff powerpl ant with more than 100M Watts capacity by 1994 and a space rocket by 1995. Impact of application of process on Society The greatest impact of this Puff era would be the money which would be saved. People were predicted to flock towards this new invention, had it been working. It may still work in the future yet there is little hope in the eyes other scientists. Th e greatest solution something like this could provide would be its help to the environment. Every day the earth is losing more and more of it’s natural, irrevocable recourses.

German pharmacologist, Louis Lewin

It was in 1886 that the German pharmacologist, Louis Lewin, published the first systematic study of the cactus, to which his own name was subsequently given. Anhalonium lewinii was new to science. To primitive religion and the Indians of Mexico and the American Southwest it was a friend of immemorially long standing. Indeed, it was much more than a friend. In the words of one of the early Spanish visitors to the New World, “they eat a root which they call peyote, and which they venerate as though it were a deity. ”

Why they should have venerated it as a deity became apparent when such eminent psychologists as Jaensch, Havelock Ellis and Weir Mitchell began their experiments with mescalin, the active principle of peyote. True, they stopped short at a point well this side of idolatry; but all concurred in assigning to mescalin a position among drugs of unique distinction. Administered in suitable doses, it changes the quality of consciousness more profoundly and yet is less toxic than any other substance in the pharmacologist’s repertory. Mescalin research has been going on sporadically ever since the days of Lewin and Havelock Ellis.

Chemists have not merely isolated the alkaloid; they have learned how to synthesize it, so that the supply no longer depends on the sparse and intermittent crop of a desert cactus. Alienists have dosed themselves with mescalin in the hope thereby of coming to a better, a first-hand, understanding of their patients’ mental processes. Working unfortunately upon too few subjects within too narrow a range of circumstances, psychologists have observed and catalogued some of the drug’s more striking effects. Neurologists and physiologists have found out something about the mechanism of its action upon the central nervous system.

And at least one Professional philosopher has taken mescalin for the light it may throw on such ancient, unsolved riddles as the place of mind in nature and the relationship between brain and consciousness. There matters rested until, two or three years ago, a new and perhaps highly significant fact was observed. * Actually the fact had been staring everyone in the face for several decades; but nobody, as it happened, had noticed it until a Young English psychiatrist, at present working in Canada, was struck by the close similarity, in chemical composition, between mescalin and adrenalin.

Further research revealed that lysergic acid, an extremely potent hallucinogen derived from ergot, has a structural biochemical relationship to the others. Then came the discovery that adrenochrome, which is a product of the decomposition of adrenalin, can produce many of the symptoms observed in mescalin intoxication. But adrenochrome probably occurs spontaneously in the human body. In other words, each one of us may be capable of manufacturing a chemical, minute doses of which are known to cause Profound changes in consciousness.

Certain of these changes are similar to those which occur in that most characteristic plague of the twentieth century, schizophrenia. Is the mental disorder due to a chemical disorder? And is the chemical disorder due, in its turn, to psychological distresses affecting the adrenals? It would be rash and premature to affirm it. The most we can say is that some kind of a prima facie case has been made out. Meanwhile the clue is being systematically followed, the sleuths–biochemists , psychiatrists, psychologists–are on the trail.

By a series of, for me, extremely fortunate circumstances I found myself, in the spring of 1953, squarely athwart that trail. One of the sleuths had come on business to California. In spite of seventy years of mescalin research, the psychological material at his disposal was still absurdly inadequate, and he was anxious to add to it. I was on the spot and willing, indeed eager, to be a guinea pig. Thus it came about that, one bright May morning, I swallowed four-tenths of a gram of mescalin dissolved in half a glass of water and sat down to wait for the results.

We live together, we act on, and react to, one another; but always and in all circumstances we are by ourselves. The martyrs go hand in hand into the arena; they are crucified alone. Embraced, the lovers desperately try to fuse their insulated ecstasies into a single self-transcendence; in vain. By its very nature every embodied spirit is doomed to suffer and enjoy in solitude. Sensations, feelings, insights, fancies–all these are private and, ex- cept through symbols and at second hand, incommunicable.

We can pool information about experiences, but never the experiences themselves. From family to nation, every human group is a society of island universes. Most island universes are sufficiently like one another to Permit of inferential understanding or even of mutual empathy or “feeling into. ” Thus, remembering our own bereavements and humiliations, we can condole with others in analogous circumstances, can put ourselves (always, of course, in a slightly Pickwickian sense) in their places. But in certain cases communication between universes is incomplete or even nonexistent.

The mind is its own place, and the Places inhabited by the insane and the exceptionally gifted are so different from the places where ordinary men and women live, that there is little or no common ground of memory to serve as a basis for understanding or fellow feeling. Words are uttered, but fail to enlighten. The things and events to which the symbols refer belong to mutually exclusive realms of experience. To see ourselves as others see us is a most salutary gift. Hardly less important is the capacity to see others as they see themselves.

But what if these others belong to a different species and inhabit a radically alien universe? For example, how can the sane get to know what it actually feels like to be mad? Or, short of being born again as a visionary, a medium, or a musical genius, how can we ever visit the worlds which, to Blake, to Swedenborg, to Johann Sebastian Bach, were home? And how can a man at the extreme limits of ectomorphy and cerebrotonia ever put himself in the place of one at the limits of endomorphy and viscerotonia, or, except within certain circumscribed areas, share the feelings of one who stands at the limits of mesomorphy and somatotonia?

To the unmitigated behaviorist such questions, I suppose, are meaningless. But for those who theoretically believe what in practice they know to be true–namely, that there is an inside to experience as well as an out- side–the problems posed are real problems, all the more grave for being, some completely insoluble, some soluble only in exceptional circumstances and by methods not available to everyone. Thus, it seems virtually certain that I shall never know what it feels like to be Sir John Falstaff or Joe Louis.

On the other hand, it had always seemed to me possible that, through hypnosis, for ex- ample, or autohypnosis, by means of systematic meditation, or else by taking the appropriate drug, I might so change my ordinary mode of consciousness as to be able to know, from the inside, what the visionary, the medium, even the mystic were talking about. From what I had read of the mescalin experience I was convinced in advance that the drug would admit me, at least for a few hours, into the kind of inner world described by Blake and AE.

But what I had expected did not happen. I had expected to lie with my eyes shut, looking at visions of many-colored geometries, of animated architectures, rich with gems and fabulously lovely, of landscapes with heroic figures, of symbolic dramas trembling perpetually on the verge of the ultimate revelation. But I had not reckoned, it was evident, with the idiosyncrasies of my mental make-up, the facts of my temperament, training and habits. I am and, for as long as I can remember, I have always been a poor visualizer.

Words, even the pregnant words of poets, do not evoke pictures in my mind. No hypnagogic visions greet me on the verge of sleep. When I recall something, the memory does not present itself to me as a vividly seen event or object. By an effort of the will, I can evoke a not very vivid image of what happened yesterday afternoon, of how the Lungarno used to look before the bridges were destroyed, of the Bayswater Road when the only buses were green and tiny and drawn by aged horses at three and a half miles an hour.

But such images have little substance and absolutely no autonomous life of their own. They stand to real, perceived objects in the same relation as Homer’s ghosts stood to the men of flesh and blood, who came to visit them in the shades. Only when I have a high temperature do my mental images come to independent life. To those in whom the faculty of visualization is strong my inner world must seem curiously drab, limited and uninteresting.

This was the world–a poor thing but my own–which I expected to see transformed into something completely unlike itself. The change which actually took place in that world was in no sense revolutionary. Half an hour after swallowing the drug I became aware of a slow dance of golden lights. A little later there were sumptuous red surfaces swelling and expanding from bright nodes of energy that vibrated with a continuously changing, patterned life.

At another time the closing of my eyes revealed a complex of gray structures, within which pale bluish spheres kept emerging into intense solidity and, having emerged, would slide noiselessly upwards, out of sight. But at no time were there faces or forms of men or animals. I saw no landscapes, no enormous spaces, no magical growth and metamorphosis of buildings, nothing remotely like a drama or a parable. The other world to which mescalin admitted me was not the world of visions; it existed out there, in what I could see with my eyes open.

The great change was in the realm of objective fact. What had happened to my subjective universe was relatively unimportant. I took my pill at eleven. An hour and a half later, I was sitting in my study, looking intently at a small glass vase. The vase contained only three flowers-a full-blown Belie of Portugal rose, shell pink with a hint at every petal’s base of a hotter, flamier hue; a large magenta and cream-colored carnation; and, pale purple at the end of its broken stalk, the bold heraldic blossom of an iris.

Fortuitous and provisional, the little nosegay broke all the rules of traditional good taste. At breakfast that morning I had been struck by the lively dissonance of its colors. But that was no longer the point. I was not looking now at an unusual flower arrangement. I was seeing what Adam had seen on the morning of his creation-the miracle, moment by moment, of naked existence. “Is it agreeable? ” somebody asked.

During this Part of the experiment, all conversations were recorded on a dictating machine, and it has been possible for me to refresh my memory of what was said. ) “Neither agreeable nor disagreeable,” I answered. “it just is. ” Istigkeit–wasn’t that the word Meister Eckhart liked to use? “Is-ness. ” The Being of Platonic philosophy– except that Plate seems to have made the enormous, the grotesque mistake of separating Being from becoming and identifying it with the mathematical abstraction of the Idea.

He could never, poor fellow, have seen a bunch of flowers shining with their own inner light and all but quivering under the pressure of the significance with which they were charged; could never have perceived that what rose and iris and carnation so intensely signified was nothing more, and nothing less, than what they were–a transience that was yet eternal life, a perpetual perishing that was at the same time pure Being, a bundle of minute, unique particulars in which, by some unspeakable and yet self-evident paradox, was to be seen the divine source of all existence.

I continued to look at the flowers, and in their living light I seemed to detect the qualitative equivalent of breathing–but of a breathing without returns to a starting point, with no recurrent ebbs but only a repeated flow from beauty to heightened beauty, from deeper to ever deeper meaning. Words like “grace” and “transfigu- ration” came to my mind, and this, of course, was what, among other things, they stood for. My eyes traveled from the rose to the carnation, and from that feathery incandescence to the smooth scrolls of sentient amethyst which were the iris.

The Beatific Vision, Sat Chit Ananda, Being-Awareness-Bliss-for the first time I understood, not on the verbal level, not by inchoate hints or at a distance, but precisely and completely what those prodigious syllables referred to. And then I remembered a passage I had read in one of Suzuki’s essays. “What is the Dharma-Body of the Buddha? ” (‘”the Dharma-Body of the Buddha” is another way of saying Mind, Suchness, the Void, the Godhead. )

The question is asked in a Zen monastery by an earnest and bewildered novice. And with the prompt irrelevance of one of the Marx Brothers, the Master answers, “The hedge at the bottom of the garden. And the man who realizes this truth,” the novice dubiously inquires, ‘”what, may I ask, is he? ” Groucho gives him a whack over the shoulders with his staff and answers, “A golden-haired lion. ” It had been, when I read it, only a vaguely pregnant piece of nonsense. Now it was all as clear as day, as evi- dent as Euclid. Of course the Dharma-Body of the Buddha was the hedge at the bottom of the garden. At the same time, and no less obviously, it was these flowers, it was anything that I–or rather the blessed Not-I, released for a moment from my throttling embrace–cared to look at.

The books, for example, with which my study walls were lined. Like the flowers, they glowed, when I looked at them, with brighter colors, a profounder significance. Red books, like rubies; emerald books; books bound in white jade; books of agate; of aquamarine, of yellow topaz; lapis lazuli books whose color was so intense, so intrinsically meaningful, that they seemed to be on the point of leaving the shelves to thrust themselves more insistently on my attention.

Cold Fusion: The Continuing Mystery

In March of 1989, a discovery was made that rocked the scientific world. Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischman had announced that they were able to create and sustain a cold fusion process. After intense media attention, and corresponding interest in future test, the subject seemed to have faded away. Future tests proved inconclusive, and when the quick promise of easy energy didnt materialize, most quickly forgot the subject. Little is said about the continuing research in the scientific community to further our understanding of the free energy enigma.

Is it science fiction, on the border of legitamete science, or is it a practical field worthy of serious attention? Cold Fusion is the merging of two dissimilar metal hydrides. The process is exothermic, and can generate energy in one of two ways. Energy can be input in to a system and multiplied, or energy alone can be generated although in a much smaller amount. For example, one watt of energy can be input and 3 watts recovered. Some systems are capable of producing hundreds of watts per individual watt. The actual physics of the reaction is not completely understood.

Some claim it is merely a chemical reaction not yet understood, while others are convinced it is a nuclear reaction. One example is a cold fusion cell which used . 04 grams of metal hydride. It produced 86 megajoules over a two month period. A similar chemical reaction would have required 2,000 grams of chemicals to produce the same amount of energy. Another interesting point regarding this cell was the fact it had to be deliberately shut down. There was no sign of the reaction tapering off. The skepticism regarding cold fusion stems from two separate studies, one done by MIT, and the other by the Energy Resources Advisory Board.

The MIT study has been palled by attacks on the methods used to present the information. The chief science writer at the Institute denounced the study and resigned. The report contained altered graphs and an unclear method. The ERAB report was inconclusive, but presented to congress in a such a way as to present all of the negatives in order to maintain funding for their existed programs, instead of transferring research money to others. Numerous labs across the country are still conducting cold fusion research.

Among the most noticeable are Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, The Naval Research Laboratory, and a large Japanese energy consortium. Cold fusion is only produced three out of ten times under the best conditions, but this is enough to justify continued research. The first transitors were only successful one out of a hundred times until the mechanisms were completely understood. The science of the reaction taking place in cold fusion is still not clear. When pieces of the puzzle begin to fit together better, the success rate will increase, and yields will go up.

The actual set up of a cold fusion cell is an electrolyte such as hydrogen or deuterium in which a electrode made of specially treated and prepared steel is immersed. The lattice structure of the metal is filled with the hydrogen, where the fusion occurs. The problem is most metals fracture when subjected to these conditions. High loading is the state in which the metal survives, and begins to produce energy. There are numerous different methods and materials that are used to accomplish this goal. The original was a Heavy water solution with an electrolyte, in which a current is passed between a palladium alloy electrode.

Several other new methods are in use today but the most promising is the Ceramic Proton Conductor. In this case, a low current is passed through a strontium-cerium-oxide in deuterium atmosphere. The reaction gives off significant excess energy. Cold fusion differs significantly from traditional nuclear power in several beneficial ways. The primary benefit would be the ease of obtaining materials. Were a practical system to develop, there would be more energy in one square mile of sea water than in all of the oil reserves on earth today. A second attractive feature is the lack of hazardous or radioactive byproducts.

The only thing given off is a low level of helium, neutrons, tritium, and some transmutation of the host metal. Compared to the heavy metal waste of traditional fission, it seems to be a drastic improvement. A negative is although the energy produced can be great, the relative power is low. The reaction does not have the instantaneous power of traditional chemical reactions, but rather a prolonged low level intensity. This makes easy use of the energy made at this point more difficult. There is the belief also that Cold Fusion is not a nuclear reaction at all.

Some think that the process is merely a chemical reaction not yet understood by todays laws of chemistry. This presents numerous gray areas in the understanding of the reactions taking place in the experiments. If indeed it is a chemical reaction then there is some flaw in our understanding of chemical reactions. The lack of nuclear byproducts when in theory there should be lends strong credence to this belief though. Only continued experimentation and new exploration will help explain the mystery. The use of cold fusion would be a boon to mankind.

Its use would solve all energy delimmas currently facing the petroleum dependant modern society. Elimination of pollution, economy, and ready availability of raw materials would be a tremendous improvement over todays combustion engines and chemical cells. More so than any other alternative energy solution, cold fusion presents a source that is truly renewable and, if it lives up to its hypothesis, a large enough amount of power. No other means to date has proven its practical use on a large scale. Cold fusion could be the solution to the problems of global warming and pollution.

Eight Scientist Research

Since the dawn of time, man has yearned to know the origin of existence, how life was started, and the source of creation. Many scientists, from ancient Greece to modern civilization, began the search for answers by first studying our solar system, mapping the stars, trying to unlock their secrets. These eight scientists paved the way for any basic knowledge of the universe. Born in 270 BC, the Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos, was the first scientist known to suggest that the earth revolves around the sun. Little is known of the childhood of Aristarchus, as well as his entire life.

His only recorded works come from Archimedes and Plutarch, which discuss his ideas of the movement of all the planets in the solar system. Unfortunately, the lack in technological advances greatly affected his observations, making them inaccurate, especially his geometrical equations. The major contribution Aristarchus is known for is a more precise scale of our solar system. Aristarchus of Samos is honored today with a lunar crater named for him, which is also the brightest point on the moon. Claudius Ptolemaeus, also known as Ptolemy, is considered one of the greatest and most influential astronomers of the ancient world.

Almost all of his observations and works were done in Alexandria, Egypt, the home of the largest library and school of the ancient world, which when found, greatly benefited scientists in decoding the ancient astronomers calculations and theories. The life of Ptolomy is vague, as is the reaction to his works at the time. His system of astronomy, which is in his book the Syntaxis, was accepted as correct until the year 1543 AD. In this system, the earth was the center of the universe, and was the axis of a huge rotating sphere, which spun.

On the outer edges of the sphere were the stars, and the sun and other heavenly bodies were in between the earth and stars. Ptolomy accounted for the movement of the planets using three mathematical constructions: the eccentric, epicycle, and the equant. The eccentric construction is the only one of the three not centered on the earth. The epicycle says that the planet moves in a small circle, which in itself is moving around a bigger circle. The last of the three constructions, the equant, suggested that the center of motion on a large circle was separated from the center of the circle.

The contributions of Ptolomy are numerous, and today he is known as one of the greatest astronomers and mathematicians of the ancient world. The father of modern astronomer, Nicolaus Copernicus, was born in Poland in 1743. All that is known of his childhood is that his father died when Nicolaus was ten years old, so he was raised by his uncle. Copernicus was lucky that his uncle was a prominent Bishop and made sure that Nicolaus received a good education. He enrolled in the University of Cracow to study mathematics, astronomy, astrology, and philosophy.

After completing his studies there, Copernicus traveled abroad and also enrolled in the Universities of Bologna and Padua to study both medicine and law. After his return to Poland, he was elected as canon, due greatly to his uncles influence, so Copernicus devoted his time to astronomy. In 1512, Copernicus began a critical study of all the proposed models of the universe and decided that the model that Ptolomy was too complicated to be possible. He then created the Copernican system, in which the sun was the center of the universe and all the planets were in constant orbit around it.

But Copernicus deemed it necessary to include two of Ptolomys constructions, the epicycle and the eccentric, to explain The constant variable in the movement of the planets because he believed that all planets were in a circular orbit around the sun. Since Copernicus used two of Ptolomys ideas, his model was about as inaccurate. Before Nicolaus Copernicus died in 1543, he finished his book De Revoliutionibus, which translates to On The Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs. Although unable to prove his theory, the works of Copernicus paved the way for all modern plans of the solar system.

The Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe, born in 1546, was the inventor of many important astronomical instruments. The childhood of Brahe was very traumatic, since he was kidnapped at a young age by his very wealthy uncle and together they lived in his uncles castle in Tostrup, Scania. His uncle financed Tychos education, first sending him to the University of Copenhagen for four years to study law. Brahe decided to turn to astronomy on August 21, 1560, when he witnessed a total solar eclipse, which is not totally spectacular, except for the fact that he was fascinated that astronomers could accurately predict the times of these occurrences.

So, in 1562, Brahes uncle sent him to the University of Leipzig, where he stayed until 1565. While there, he discovered that al the exsisting almanacs were inaccurate in their mapping of Jupiter and Saturn. With great enthusiasm, Brahe decided to devote his life to the gaining of accurate observations of the universe, so he could fix the excisting tables, or create his own. For the next five years, Brahe traveled throughout Europe, acquiring mathematical knowledge and astronomical instruments. In 1570, Brahes uncle died and he inherited the entire estate, and an observatory was soon built.

His first major discovery came on November 11, 1572, when he discovered a new star in the constellation of Cassiopeia. His discovery of the new star and his publication of his observations in De nova stella in 1573 marked a transformation from a Danish astronomer to a world-renowned scientist. He soon built a new observatory on the island of Hveen, which he equipped with all of the latest tools and instruments in astronomy. All of the equipment at that time was still used by the naked eye, telescopic having not been invented.

Brahe received help from the King of Prussia, Frederick II, to build an observatory and make as many accurate observations as possible to be recorded. This constituted the greatest portion of Tychos life. He also proposed a slightly modified version of the Copernican system, where all the planets revolved around the sun, except for earth, in which the sun revolved around. Tycho Brahes accomplishments with such a limited source of tools and knowledge is considered one of the greatest achievements of the Renaissance. He died in 1610, and is still considered to be the greatest astronomer before telescopes.

Luckily, he left all of his work to Kepler. The German scientist Kepler, born in Weil, Germany in 1571, was the founder of three laws of planetary orbit in the solar system. After graduating from the University of Tubingen, which is where he learned the Copernican theory, began as a teacher at a Lutheran school in Graz, Austia, but soon left for religious persecutions. He soon becomes the assistant of Tycho Brahe in the Prague. Even after the death of his mentor Brahe, Kepler still firmly believed in the Copernican model. To honor his lost mentor, Kepler attempted to find the orbit of Mars to fit the calculations of Brahe.

The belief at this time was that the planets moved in perfect circular order, but Kepler could not find proof of this. So Kepler used an ellipse instead, and to his benefit, discovered that it worked. Following the work of Brahe, Kepler stated his three laws of planetary motion. The first law stated that each planetary orbit is an ellipse with the sun as the focus point and the other focuses an empty point in space. His second law stated that each of the planets revolve around the sun in a line so that the sun will affect equal areas of the planet at equal times.

These two laws were published in Keplers Astronomia Nova. The final of Keplers laws states that the square of the sidereal period of any planet is directly proportional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. This law was published in Harmonices Mundi, and can be reffered to as the harmonic law. This law allows astronomers to calculate the relative differences from the sun to a particular planet from the measurements of its orbital. Kepler also discovered that K is not a constant because the mass of the planets, however small, is not quite zeroed.

The next scientist, Galileo Galilei, known simply as Galileo, was born in Pisa, Italy in 1564, and is considered by many scientists and historians to be the father of modern experimental science. In 1570, the Galilei family moved to Florence, Italy which is where Galileo received his education from a monastery. He was sent to the University of Piza by his father in 1581, where he studied and became a doctor. His major studies were in medicine and Aristotles philosophy, although medicine never truly interested him.

He discovered an unnatural talent for mathematics and in 1585, convinced his father to let him leave the University of Pisa and went back Florence to become a tutor of mathematics. In this time of his life, Galileo began to question Aristotelian philosophy and the scientific process at that time. In his spare time, he invented the hydrostatic balance, which measured the specific gravity of an object by weighing it in water. In 1589, Galileo received an invitation to teach mathematics at the University of Pisa, a position that required him to teach Ptolemic astronomy.

He gained a greater knowledge of the astronomical theory, and later became a professor at the University of Padua in 1592. He spent the next eight-teen years. He was convinced that the Copernican theory was correct, and in 1609 created his first telescope, which used magnifying glasses to see distant objects. With his latest invention, Galileo found evidence that disproved Aristotle and Ptolomey. One of his discoveries was that the moon contained numerous craters and mountains, and also discovered four of Jupiters moons, which proved that Jupiter did nor orbit the earth.

He named these moons the Medicine Planets. In 1610, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo de Medici, who appointed Galileo his personal mathematician, a position which required him to move back to Florence. While in Florence, many more discoveries came, one being the evidence of sunspots, which helped to prove the Copernican theory. He became world-renowned when, in 1610, he published his findings. Since Galileo discovered a few problems with the Aristotlian theory of motion, he developed his own theory of the motion of free-falling objects.

In 1632, Galileo published his Dialogue concerning the two Chief World Systems in which he presented his arguments both for and against the earth centered planetary system and the sun centered planetary system. He was then placed under house arrest in his villa in Florence for these views. He finally died in 1642, but his works and thoughts eventually led to the modern scientific process and modern mathematics. Sir Isaac Newton was born in 1642 in Lincolnshire, England. He was a premature infant and was not expected to live past one week, but fortunately survived.

He attended school in the local day schools and then later in Grantham, but his true interest was in engineering. He left school at fourteen years old when his stepfather suddenly died, and was forced to help his mother on the farm. He soon became so obsessed with books and studying that he was sent back to school. In 1661, he was accepted into the University of Cambridge and graduated in 1665, which is an accomplishment in itself. Newton soon began pondering gravity and why objects fell toward the center of the earth. He was the first scientist to realize that it could extend for infinity.

He later returned to Cambridge and taught Mathematics there for two years, but left again in 1669. In 1672, he was elected into the Royal Society and constructed the first reflecting telescope, and also invented calculus. He published all of this in two books, Principia in 1684, and Opticks in 1704. Principia contains the first unified theory of space, which includes his laws of motion and gravitation. He also mentions his three laws of motion, which are considered to be some of the greatest contributions to all of science. In 1705, Newton was knighted by Queen Anne. He died a bachelor in 1727.

Soon after the death of Sir Isaac Newton, a quote he wrote of himself was found in his works. It read: If I have seen further than other men, it is because I have stood upon the shoulders of giants. This shows that even after all he discovered he believed that the scientists before helped pave the way more than he did. Born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Germany was probably the most renowned scientist in History. Albert Einstein was of both German and Jewish descent, a fact that would later greatly influence his life. He had a typical childhood, showing no genius qualities that he is well known for.

He attended public school in Munich and Aarau, but became uninterested in the methods of German education, and would constantly skip school to go into wilderness to read. At age 17, Einstein began an intense study of mathematics at the Swiss Institute of Zurich. He graduated in 1900 and became a patent examiner at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern in 1902. In his free time, he studied scientific observations and in 1905 became a Swiss citizen. The same year, he sent three papers into German Scientific Scientific Periodical, the Annalen der Physik (Annals of Physics), and each became a new branch of physics.

He received his first Nobel Prize for physics for the paper in 1922. His second paper, The Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, introduced his Special Theory of Relativity. His third paper was concerned with Brownian motion, which is the behavior of microscopic particles in either a liquid or gas, which later confirmed the atomic model. In 1905, he received a doctorate in physics from the University of Zurich. In 1911, he became the professor of physics at the University of Prague. He then held the same job at the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich in 1912.

Einstein was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin in 1913, and in 1914, he again became a German citizen when he accepted the position Professor of Physics at the University of Berlin. In 1916, he published his General Theory of Relativity. While in the United States during the Second World War, the Nazi government took Einsteins house, possessions, and citizenship. He then accepted a position as a staff member t the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, where he stayed for the rest of his life. In 1940, Einstein became United States citizen. He was also offered the presidency of Isreal in 1952, but declined.

Albert Einstein died on April 8, 1955. While alive, Einstein became dissatisfied with most of the current theories of physics, so he constructed his own. He was the first to realize that all motion and position was relative, and that that the fact that two events happening at the same time was useless knowledge. With his Special Theory of Relativity, he created to postulates for governing it. The first is that the laws of physics must be at the same prospective for an observer through the period of observation. The second postulate used was that the speed of light in a vacuum must also be the same for all observers.

In the theory, Einstein treated time and space as a single-four dimension space-time continuum. The resultant of this is that no object can move faster than the speed of light. Einstein is also credited with being the scientist who jump-started the creation of the first atomic bomb, the item that ended World War II. Einsteins achievements are also considered the greatest of all scientists by many. The history of all the scientists mentioned helps to create a better understanding of the solar system in which we live. These scientists are the worlds keys to solving the mysteries of the universe, which have plagued mankind for all of time.

Naturalisitic Observation Essay

Naturalistic observation takes place as scientists perform observations in a naturally occurring situation, without becoming actively involved. In performing naturalistic observations, a scientist does not make an effort to manipulate or change what is occurring. The purpose of this kind of experimentation is to create a detailed record of the events that happen and of perceptible associations between events, without having any control on the results.

Apparently the objective in performing naturalistic observation is to arrange the data collection so that what is going on is comprehensible to the observer, but is not so important or conspicuous that they become the focus of attention or matter to participants. Natural observation is the initial phase of many systems of investigation in psychology as well as in other sciences. Such observations give a fundamental implication of the main variables and analytical connections between them which can be examined later in a more thorough manner.

Through my experience with naturalistic observation, I tested the relevance of the scientific method. I repeated the explorations of Kalfus by observing the Adelphi University parking lot to determine how many entering cars had drivers wearing their seat belts. The purpose of fulfilling this task was to determine if there is a difference in the number of drivers of one gender utilizing the seat belt from the other as well as determining if there is a difference in Caucasian drivers using the seat belt from African American drivers.

I hypothesize that approximately 90% of women drivers will be wearing a seat belt while only 70 % of males will be wearing one. I also hypothesize that 80% of these participants who are wearing a seat belt will be Caucasian and 75% of them will be African American. To gather my data, I began by preparing a chart. This chart included seven columns that described twenty five cars, a yes and a no column, a female and male column and an African American and a Caucasian participant’s column.

I continued my research by situating myself in front of the University Center at approximately noon on April 28th. . I positioned myself on a bench to the right because that is where cars enter the parking lot. I sat there with my sunglasses on as if I was waiting for someone or just catching some sun. As cars came through the entrance, I would glance over in that direction, with sunglasses on so that it doesn’t appear that I looking straight into the car. I recorded in my chart each time a new car entered.

When I had observed twenty five drivers, my chart showed that out of these twenty five drivers, twelve were women and thirteen were men. . The observations showed there were distinctions between the number of men wearing seat belts and women wearing them as well as a difference observed how many Caucasian drivers wore seat belts and how many African American drivers did. My results conclude that 91. 6% of women wear their seat belts while only 42. 6% of males use it.

I was also able to conclude that 69. of the black participants wore their seat belt and 50% of the white participants wore theirs. According to my recorded information, the total of drivers coming into the Adelphi campus parking lot wearing their seat belts was 68%. As the number of deaths increased as a result of failure to apply seat belts, laws were enforced to minimize this problem. In 1987, Kalfus inspected just how affective these regulations were. His records show that within a year, the typical obedience level increased from 74. 2% to 92. 8% due to the new seat belt laws that had been distributed.

Those who were least prone to act in accordance with these regulations were males ranging from the ages of eighteen to twenty five; nevertheless, they included a great fraction of the total source of participants. Drivers who choose to take advantage of the safety belt and those who don’t, were not capable of categorization by their social, financial or racial backgrounds. As oppose to kalfus’ observations, recorded approximately thirteen years ago, my observations were able to distinguish a slight variation between seat belts users of different races.

While nine out of thirteen African American participants had their seat belt on, only fifty Caucasians had theirs on. My results were unsuccessful in supporting most of my hypotheses. I had hypothesized that the total percentage of users would estimate to approximately 79%. My observations proved that only 68% of my participants are users. I hypothesized 90% of women to be users but fortunately 92% were users. While I had expected 70% of males to be buckled up only 46. 2% were.

I had estimated that 80% would be Caucasian and 75% African American but examinations showed that only 69. were African American and 50% Caucasian. I had based my assumptions on my own stereotypes of these groups. I suppose that women are more responsible and mature than men therefore I made my educated guess based on that while I guessed men to be less cooperative because they see themselves as tough and rejecting any kind of assistance. Because of historical marks between the two races, I hypothesized Caucasians to score higher and African Americans to score slightly lower than Caucasians.

My results implicate that today there is so much individuality and we cannot stereotype because we are proving ourselves to be incorrect. I believe this exercise can reveal much about our society because we are not manipulating the participants. I think naturalistic observation is the most accurate form of data collecting because it neglects bias approaches. This exercise could be improved by including other races such as Asians, Hispanics etc because they are a large part of our population.

Science and God

“In the beginning, when God created the heavens and the earth” (Genesis 1:1), the words that start it all if you are a Catholic. Children are brought up to believe that God took seven days out of his schedule to create the earth and all that is in and on it from a “formless wasteland” (Genesis 1:2). He gave man his shape and the keys to paradise and life rolls on from there. They know history of man through the Bible, and if it is not in the Bible, it did not happen.

Die hard followers the Bible know little outside of the Good Book and thusly show their Those who took on the ideals of the enlightenment or raised with little to no theological beliefs have questioned the existence of God and the Bible. They have chosen to have the power of science be their creator and savior. No mythical oracles, no prophets, just the theories of motion, space, and relativity to guide them in their lives, and the gap has never been filled. To them, all of the questions can be answered with one answer: E=MC2. Since the first questions of the validity of the Bible arose with people like Aristotle, Plato, and Moses Maimonides.

In fact, Maimonides said, “conflicts between science and the Bible arise from either from a lack of scientific knowledge or a defective understanding of the Bible,” (Schroeder, 1997). What he means is that science cannot answer everything with science or the Bible; there must be some happy medium where the two can play off each other. The belief in religion and the understanding of science do not have to conflict and contradict each other; they can work together in helping people fully understand the universe, the world, life and death, and most importantly themselves.

The universe that surrounds us had no origin in the Bible, it is just there and only the creation of the earth is discussed. Scientists have calculated the power of the big bang to be 10120 in strength. “If the energy of the big bang were different by one part of 10120 there would be no life anywhere in the universe. The universe is tuned for life from its inception,” (Schroeder, 1997). This statement is relaying messages of the two schools of thought at once. The religion translation of this statement is that something that precise could only have been made by some divine creator.

The Scientific translation is none at all; this is one of the many answers that science has not been able to provide. This is where many scientists have conceded to believing in some sort of Supreme Being. There is no way that the universe could have been that lucky to create the elements needed to spring forth life. “The precision is as if one could throw a dart across the entire universe and hit a bulls-eye one millimeter in diameter on the other side,” (Schroeder, 1997). In addition, what caused the big bang to occur? Are we the left over of some other universe?

On that same note, are we the result of some sort of big bounce from a previous universe that collapsed? This too has no answer to why the universe exists or why it gave such a perfect formula for life. The inception of the world also leaves some gray areas in both the religious and scientific areas. First in the religious argument: that “if the laws of nature are not fixed, if they are being tampered with in some miraculous way, then science is useless. The consistency of nature is a basic tenet of all scientific inquiry,” (Schroeder, 1997).

The man made science works on a set of rules and theories that must be true to be called as such. They must work every time in order to create validity and the same affects everywhere. What ever goes up must come down. Water is composed of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen. Gasoline is flammable and combustible. All of these are constants no matter where we are in the universe. If the right variables are present then the event will occur. It becomes a scientific impossibility to turn water into wine, walk on water, or create man from mud. The religious point of view is not far off from the science.

Genesis agrees: when life first appears on the third day, the word creation does not appear (in the text). We are merely told “The earth brought forth” life. Earth had within it the necessary properties for life to flourish,” (Schroeder, 1997). The book of Genesis is not clear on how God created life; people are just to assume that He created it out of thin air by his divine power. Miracles happen when God makes the impossible a reality where the rules of nature no longer apply, and He can do what He wishes like a painter on a canvas. The parts of the Bible that deal specifically with miracles explain them explicitly.

Jesus walking on the water to show Peter and Paul his majesty; Jesus changing water into wine at the wedding in Cana; helping the blind see again; all are scientific impossibilities, but the Bible says it is true because Jesus is the son of God. Divinity in the eyes of all Christians has the upper hand. Science and evolution dominate the mind of the scientifically enlightened. Sociologists (behavioral scientists) describe religion as merely the answers to where do we come from (birth), and where do we go when we die? Two very important questions in every person’s life, but only one school of thought has an answer for both.

Religion talks of the “miracle of birth” as being something given to a woman for being faithful to God. When we die, we are judged on how we lived our lives on earth. If in the eye’s of God we led a good life we ascend into the divine paradise also know as heaven; if not we ascend into the netherworld also know as Hades or Hell. It is very cut and dry on the death issue. Skeptics of the Bible, not necessarily the scientifically enlightened, argue that the entire idea of heaven and hell and being good on earth to avoid damnation is just a scare tactic put on by the church to keep people in line and/or get money from them to save their souls.

Either way they see post-mortem judgment as a farce by the church to control us so we fear God. Science has only answered one of the questions definitively, the birth issue. We are products of the combining of make and female chromosomes that come together in the form of semen from males and the female egg during sexual relations. This definition is about as cut and dry as the religious point of view in the subject. The scientific death explanation is about as cold as the birth one, but still does not give an answer to the afterlife.

Death as seen as the body simply shutting down the heart, brain, and other vital organs stop functioning, thus having no energy left to operate and live. It does not tell where you go when you die if you go anywhere at all. God intentionally keeps that a secret from mortal men so that fear and obedience can be instilled. Science cannot explain the afterlife with a theory or a rule that has to follow an equation or variable. It is just out of the field of study for science. People of the past have ascribed either to a scientific answer or to a theological belief to answer the questions they have.

People pray to God for a cure to their disease, others visit a doctor or pharmacist. Nowadays people have become more liberal with their beliefs and where they look for answers. Priests go to the drugstore and scientists have been attending Sunday mass. The blending of the religions does not close doors and minds; it opens the mind to new interpretations of science and the Bible just the same. Harmony is being found, and questions that are more personal are being answered. It is truly something everyone can agree on.

An Important Property Of Semiconductors

Silicon is the raw material most often used in integrated circuit (IC) fabrication. It is the second most abundant substance on the earth. It is extracted from rocks and common beach sand and put through an exhaustive purification process. In this form, silicon is the purist industrial substance that man produces, with impurities comprising less than one part in a billion. That is the equivalent of one tennis ball in a string of golf balls stretching from the earth to the moon. Semiconductors are usually materials which have energy-band gaps smaller than 2eV.

An important property of semiconductors is the ability to change heir resistivity over several orders of magnitude by doping. Semiconductors have electrical resistivities between 10-5 and 107 ohms. Semiconductors can be crystalline or amorphous. Elemental semiconductors are simple-element semiconductor materials such as silicon or germanium. Silicon is the most common semiconductor material used today. It is used for diodes, transistors, integrated circuits, memories, infrared detection and lenses, light-emitting diodes (LED), photosensors, strain gages, solar cells, charge transfer devices, radiation detectors and a variety of other devices.

Silicon belongs to the group IV in the periodic table. It is a grey brittle material with a diamond cubic structure. Silicon is conventionally doped with Phosphorus, Arsenic and Antimony and Boron, Aluminum, and Gallium acceptors. The energy gap of silicon is 1. 1 eV. This value permits the operation of silicon semiconductors devices at higher temperatures than germanium. Now I will give you some brief history of the evolution of electronics which will help you understand more about semiconductors and the silicon chip.

In the early 1900’s before integrated circuits and silicon chips were invented, omputers and radios were made with vacuum tubes. The vacuum tube was invented in 1906 by Dr. Lee DeForest. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, vacuum tubes were used to conduct, modulate and amplify electrical signals. They made possible a variety of new products including the radio and the computer. However vacuum tubes had some inherent problems. They were bulky, delicate and expensive, consumed a great deal of power, took time to warm up, got very hot, and eventually burned out.

The first digital computer contained 18,000 vacuum tubes, weighed 50 tins, and required 140 kilowatts of power. By the 930’s, researchers at the Bell Telephone Laboratories were looking for a replacement for the vacuum tube. They began studying the electrical properties of semiconductors which are non-metallic substances, such as silicon, that are neither conductors of electricity, like metal, nor insulators like wood, but whose electrical properties lie between these extremes. By 1947 the transistor was invented.

The Bell Labs research team sought a way of directly altering the electrical properties of semiconductor material. They learned they could change and control these properties by “doping” the semiconductor, or nfusing it with selected elements, heated to a gaseous phase. When the semiconductor was also heated, atoms from the gases would seep into it and modify its pure, crystal structure by displacing some atoms. Because these dopant atoms had different amount of electrons than the semiconductor atoms, they formed conductive paths.

If the dopant atoms had more electrons than the semiconductor atoms, the doped regions were called n-type to signify and excess of negative charge. Less electrons, or an excess of positive charge, created p-type regions. By allowing this dopant to take place in carefully elineated areas on the surface of the semiconductor, p-type regions could be created within n-type regions, and vice-versa. The transistor was much smaller than the vacuum tube, did not get very hot, and did not require a headed filament that would eventually burn out.

Finally in 1958, integrated circuits were invented. By the mid 1950’s, the first commercial transistors were being shipped. However research continued. The scientist began to think that if one transistor could be built within one solid piece of semiconductor material, why not multiple transistors or even an entire circuit. With in a few years this speculation became one solid piece of material. These integrated circuits(ICs) reduced the number of electrical interconnections required in a piece of electronic equipment, thus increasing reliability and speed.

In contrast, the first digital electronic computer built with 18,000 vacuum tubes and weighed 50 tons, cost about 1 million, required 140 kilowatts of power, and occupied an entire room. Today, a complete computer, fabricated within a single piece of silicon the size of a child’s fingernail, cost only about $10. 00. Now I will tell you the method of how the integrated circuits and he silicon chip is formed. Before the IC is actually created a large scale drawing, about 400 times larger than the actual size is created. It takes approximately one year to create an integrated circuit.

Then they have to make a mask. Depending on the level of complexity, an IC will require from 5 to 18 different glass masks, or “work plates” to create the layers of circuit patterns that must be transferred to the surface of a silicon wafer. Mask-making begins with an electron-beam exposure system called MEBES. MEBES translates the digitized data from the pattern generating tape into physical form by hooting an intense beam of electrons at a chemically coated glass plate. The result is a precise rendering, in its exact size, of a single circuit layer, often less than one-quarter inch square.

Working with incredible precision , it can produce a line one- sixtieth the width of a human hair. After purification, molten silicon is doped, to give it a specific electrical characteristic. Then it is grown as a crystal into a cylindrical ingot. A diamond saw is used to slice the ingot into thin, circular wafers which are then polished to a perfect mirror finish mechanically and chemically. At this point IC fabrication is ready to begin. To begin the fabrication process, a silicon wafer (p-type, in this case) is loaded into a 1200 C furnace through which pure oxygen flows.

The end result is an added layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2), “grown” on the surface of the wafer. The oxidized wafer is then coated with photoresist, a light-sensitive, honey-like emulsion. In this case we use a negative resist that hardens when exposed to ultra-violet light. To transfer the first layer of circuit patterns, the appropriate glass mask is placed directly over the wafer. In a machine much like a ery precise photographic enlarger, an ultraviolet light is projected through the mask.

The dark pattern on the mask conceals the wafer beneath it, allowing the photoresist to stay soft; but in all other areas, where light passes through the clear glass, the photoresist hardens. The wafer is then washed in a solvent that removes the soft photoresist, but leaves the hardened photoresist on the wafer. Where the photoresist was removed, the oxide layer is exposed. An etching bath removes this exposed oxide, as well as the remaining photoresist. What remains is a stencil of the mask attern, in the form of minute channels of oxide and silicon.

The wafer is placed in a diffusion furnace which will be filled with gaseous compounds (all n- type dopants), for a process known as impurity doping. In the hot furnace, the dopant atoms enter the areas of exposed silicon, forming a pattern of n-type material. An etching bath removes the remaining oxide, and a new layer of silicon (n-) is deposited onto the wafer. The first layer of the chip is now complete, and the masking process begins again: a new layer of oxide is grown, the wafer is coated with photoresist, the econd mask pattern is exposed to the wafer, and the oxide is etched away to reveal new diffusion areas.

The process is repeated for every mask – as many as 18 – needed to create a particular IC. Of critical importance here is the precise alignment of each mask over the wafer surface. It is out of alignment more than a fraction of a micrometer (one-millionth of a meter), the entire wafer is useless. During the last diffusion a layer of oxide is again grown over the water. Most of this oxide layer is left on the wafer to serve as an electrical insulator, and only small openings are etched hrough the oxide to expose circuit contact areas.

To interconnect these areas, a thin layer of metal (usually aluminum) is deposited over the entire surface. The metal dips down into the circuit contact areas, touching the silicon. Most of the surface metal is then etched away, leaving an interconnection pattern between the circuit elements. The final layer is “vapox”, or vapour-deposited-oxide, a glass-like material that protects the IC from contamination and damage. It, too, is etched away, but only above the “bonding pads”, the square aluminum areas to which wires will later be attached.

The science Astrology

Astrology is the science of certain cryptic relations between the celestial bodies and terrestrial life. It is considered an art and a practical science. It lays no claim to be what used to be called an exact science, but studies certain predispositions or tendencies in human life, which are sometimes indicated so clearly that they become virtual certainties. The possible uses of astrology are endless and may be used to a variety of means. Since the days of the Chaldeans, it was known that the sun, moon, and planets followed similar paths, the zodiac.

It is a zone of the celestial sphere that extends from 8. degrees on either side if the path of the sun. As a primitive calendar, the zodiacal belt was arbitrarily divided into twelve sections of 30 degrees each. these are the famous signs of the zodiac. The orgins of the names given to each sign extend into the most remote regions of antiquity. Terrestrial animal gods, whether real or imagined , were one day projected onto the constellations which, in the Chaldean imagination, they resembled. This celestial menagerie has furthermore given the zodiac its name, for in greek, it means “route of animals.

The sun enters the first zodiacal sign, Aries , and then continues its path hrough the remaining eleven signs. The twelve signs of the zodiac are: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces. The moon and the planets pass through the signs too, but obviously at different speeds from those of the sun. The moon, which is close to the earth, circles the zodiac in twenty-nine days, while the planet Pluto needs two hundred fifty years. Planets also can be seen to slow down, stop, and even reverse directions in relationship to the constellations that they cross.

In reality, the planet inexorably continues along its way. But the speed of the earth itself interacts with that of the planet to occasionally give this impression. The symbolism of the twelve signs is a very ancient tradition passed along from Manilius and Ptolemy of Alexandria. It ascribes well-defined properties to each sign, influences transmitted to the child at birth that determine his character, health, and destiny. Passing through twelve signs, the planets, play different parts. Being born at the moment when one of the signs is occupied by several planets confers the properties of this sign on the individual.

The most important celestial figure is that of the sun. This what determines what sign the child was born under. In this way an ancient tradition has divided human beings into twelve psychological types whose descriptions are intuitive of human nature. This interpretation of the twelve signs is a blend of several different works but generally agree on the signification of the signs of the zodiac. ARIES (March 21-April 20) Ruled by Mars, the Aries is the incarnation of violent will, impatience, impulsiveness, and rapid, often precipitated, decisions.

The principal qualities are enthusiasm, courage, independence, and pride. But Aries is too aggressive and impulsive. Like the animal that it symbolizes, he has a great tendency to thrust ahead with his horns without having reflected beforehand. To succeed in life the aries must keep his enthusiasm but moderate his ardor. The Aries essence is the principal of acceleration personified. “Fast” is the word that governs all activities from falling in love to saving a hopeless situation. Ariens talk fast, think fast, move fast and have no patience for people who don’t.

Ariens thrive on challenge and are born leaders, eager to break through old barriers to watch their ideas take hold. Their nature is dynamic, fiery and iercely determined to have its own way, regardless. And because they can be such an audacious, impassioned, overwhelming force to handle, they get their own way more often than not. A displeased Aries can be like a tornado: if caught standing in the path of either, there is no way to remain impervious. There may be disturbing sounds and things may begin to fly, but it doesn’t last long. Ariens are highly generative and immensely positive in their approach to all they undertake.

There is an extraordinary courage in this sign that springs from vitality and confidence that sings of miracles. This is a sign that senses possibility in the improbable and that can create new conditions out of chaos. The Aries vision is progressive and expansive, and their approach enthusiastic and inspiring. They bring an incandescence to everything they care about. One strength this sign is missing is subtlety. And one way this deficiency comes through is with the kind of candor that can kill. When Ariens are good, they are very good; when they are bad, they are very bad.

Taurus (April 21-May 22) It is Venus who governs this sign. In general, Taurus is a concrete being, firmly attached to the goods of this world. He has a strong but peaceful sensuality. His anger is rare, in the image of the peaceful beast that is his totem, but it comes abruptly and violently: he easily “sees red. ” Most often however, he demonstrates his good sense, stability and fidelity. He can sometimes be reproached for lack of detachment and disinterestedness. Taurus is archetypal earth, steady and enduring, solid as the ground beneath one’s feet.

By nature, Taureans are strong and basic, practical and uncomplicated in their approach to life. Taureans are loyal and loving in pragmatic ways that promote positive feelings. Builders of bonds, nests, and amilies, Taureans know instinctively how to make a house a home. Taureans have a way of consuming their own possessions, or preserving and cherishing them like objects of fine art. The sheer sensuous pleasure that a Taurean is capable of taking in life is something the more mental signs can learn from. However, like anything else, it is prone to excess and can pose problems.

The Taurean tunes negative can be cold, brutal, violent, and sadistic, the type of person to take a life simply to make an angry point. Bottled up and often displaced anger is a key problem for they do not deal well with their deeper emotions. When fixed in a chosen direction and highly motivated, the typical Taurean can outendure all competition, opposition and obstacles of every kind. However, the motivation has to spring from something that is highly valued. Gemini (May 21-June 21) It is Gemini that influences the gemini, the crafty Mercury, god of eloquence, merchants and thieves.

He is above all a shrewd being, constantly proving his adaptability in all circumstances. He enjoys social contacts. All recognize Gemini’s brilliance and spirituality. He must nonetheless guard against falling into easiness that would make of him a superficial, unstable and ixed-up individual. He should put intelligence in the service of a durable cause. In love,he must be careful of artificiality, and put more sincerity into rushes of feeling. “I think therefore I am” is the classic Gemini code for carrying on with life.

Geminis meet all of their problems “head” on and have a set of reasons for all their motivations-including those that are purely emotional. People born under this sign are smart and glib, social and superficially clever. Gemini is the sign of communication, and most Geminis can talk their way out of a maximum-security prison. Or, when the guileful trickster takes over, they can manipulate somebody else behind bars. Geminis tend to be self-involved and fear those who sabotage their sense of freedom. Seeking stimulation but having a strong sense of self-preservation, they will avoid anything that seriously threatens their ego base.

Instinctively, they select and sort out what or who is most important in their scheme of things. Quite often such discriminations are based on a desire for power. Highly verbal and gregarious, Geminis have a gift for talking and taking advantage of the attention that their clever words attract. There is great power in their ability to generate an eager and receptive audience. Caught up in the moment, they lack self-consciousness and have the ability to get the most dolorous crowd to break into contagious laughter.

Because the thinking process overrides their ability to feel, Geminis have to train their minds to work for them rather than against them. A powerful mind is a calm, focused and disciplined one. On the other hand, a mind that is out of control gets nowhere, and is a Gemini pitfall which finds expression in many aspects of life. Cancer (June 22-July 22) Like the moon that governs this sign, Cancer is an imaginative, sensitive, and dreamy individual. Somewhat self-effacing, he enjoys family life, where his timidity- and somewhat weakness- seems to be protected from the hardness of this world.

The feeling for the past is more attractive that the future. He often feels a nostalgia for childhood and the protection of his mother and must try to overcome this attitude. Cancer must strive to impose his qualities of shrewdness and intuition on groups of people. In love, it is not good for the cancer to give too much importance to the wounds of self-love, and he must learn o declare himself at the right moment. Ruled by the tides of their fluctuating emotions, Cancers are Moon people, mysterious as the sea at night, delicate as a moon beam shimmering on the surface of a still and haunted lake.

In their own unique ways, Cancers are haunted-by their fears and anguished fantasies, their attachment to the past, their driven compulsions and their quiet, self-obsessed dramas that sometimes move them to the brink of madness. Self-enclosed and saturated with their own emotions, Cancers feel everything that they don’t deliberately shut out. it is a highly strung inner orld of intense emotional velocity that is ignited by any threat to their sense of control. Sometimes sensitive and compassionate, sometimes cold and cut off from the world, Cancers are influenced by both the inner and outer atmosphere.

The result is a person easily pressured by onslaughts on their self-preservation. In the Cancer mind, the unconscious is very close to the surface. as the first of the three water signs, much of life is about learning to live with this emotional makeup in the middle of a cold an insecure material world. Cancers are often criticized as being extremely self-centered people. However, it is, in truth, as if there is no self, only a self-protective shell. With emotions so close to the surface, Cancers are hopelessly sentimental. Generous to a fault, they can be a fool for love.

When it comes to work , the classic Cancerian has the concentration of a brain surgeon and the drive to go along with it. Tenacious, task-oriented and intense, Cancers tend to be perfectionists who take their work personally-and sometimes a little too seriously. There are Cancers who leave the office at the office. However, it is likely that they work overtime, don’t take time for lunch, and go home hours after the cleaning lady. Leo (July 23-August 22) Having elected to reside in this sign, the sun confers its force, amplitude, and radiance on those born in Leo.

Leo is a proud, individualistic, and generous being. Authority and willpower are among the dominant character traits. Thus he has strong trump cards to help obtain success in life. Leo must be wary, however, of pride and unmeasured action, and govern ambitions with the measure of his abilities. He must avoid being too susceptible to flattery. In love, he has a tendency to transform his life into the stage of the theater. He should be more reserved in the manifestations of his rushes of feeling. hose who love him will be grateful for this.

Leo is the sign of the sun, and like the sun itself, Leos shine with stellar incandescence. Leos’ magnetism makes them highly memorable people who exude power and personableness. Personality is the Leo strong point. When so desiring, the Leo charm can tame serpents and turn the world at large into an adoring enclave. At their best they give off a scintillating sort of radiance. They are positive and enthusiastic, spirited, dynamic and larger than life. Leos expect the best from themselves and everyone around them.

It is this attitude that helps them achieve their dreams. This is the sign that is determined to do things its own way, at all costs, with no patience for the opinions of others. When this works, the Leo energy and willfulness can create miracles. When it backfires, it’s probably more comfortable hanging out in a towering inferno. Although Leos are overachiever with highly successful track records, they tend to underestimate their accomplishments. The anxiety deep within them concerning performance never allows them to rest and gives them problems delegating authority.

They embrace perfectionistic standards and feel contempt for mediocrity. Virgo (August 23-September 23) It is mercury that rules this sign. But it is not the subtle and airy Mercury of gemini. Intelligence is more matter-of-fact: less gifted but deeper. The Virgo is rightly considered calculating, prudent and attached to minor details to the point of fixation. For the Virgo, reason overcomes the heart; precision seems to be more important than intuition, of which he is wary. In love, Virgo is not very demonstrative, or at least, unable to decide, a late marriage will be his lot.

Commonly known as the sign of the nitpicking perfectionist, Virgos often consider themselves to be discriminators graced with divine sanction. Seeing flaws like Librans see beautiful faces, Virgos are often controlled by their visions. In time, their visions go into what makes up a life. The single most important challenge in the Virgo experience is to see things in larger terms. Virgos’ visions determine their career success, quality of experience in relationships, health, and overall quality of life. The perfectionism so often associated with this sign, has in fact far less to do with perfection than with a diminished view of the whole.

It is the sort of perception that focuses in on the loose thread rather than the color of of he fabric. Virgos are victimized by a deadly dreariness that is born of duty and discipline, self-control and routinized regimes. People born under this sign often have to wake up to the possibilities of their own life and the power within themselves. Shortsighted, Virgos settle easily for the minor roles that are so often assigned to them rather than stretching them beyond and utilizing the gifts of what could be a superior mind.

Libra (September 23- October 22) Governed by Venus, the planet of harmony and arts, one word characterizes Libra: equilibrium, as the sign it symbolizes. Libra is sociable, refined, and understanding, partly to conciliatory solutions. But be careful, for he is gifted with a very fine sense of justice, and will engage in battle if he considers that he has been ridiculed. In sentimental relationships, Libra is praised for his sweetness and elegance, with an occasionally somewhat exaggerated coquetishness. Aggressiveness must be stimulated, for Libra’s distinguished nonchalance can prevent his social success.

In many respects, Libra is a sign of paradox. Librans sprout from a series of contradictions: self versus nonself, mental versus emotional, pleasure versus athos, generosity versus greed, control versus chaos. Underneath the smiling face and stellar charm lies a character with many convolutions, confusions, frustrations and ambivaleces concerning its identity. Combine this with very high intelligence and you have people who think a great deal about how they ought to be, how they should have been, how they might have been and how they will be if only… nd so on.

While this highly complicated process sounds self- centered, it is in fact the workings of a self that doesn’t feel complete by itself. It always seems that something is missing, and whether that appears to e another person, a significant promotion, or a successful project that will prove one’s worth, the day-to-day drama is often a torturous spiral. The need to affirm one’s self is so strong in Libras that it makes many of them burn with ambition. In the intensity of striving and accomplishing, one leaves a sense of lacking behind.

Alas the fuel for such ambition is the kind of anxiety that never lets one calm down. The satisfaction that comes from having achieved one’s goal is soon supplanted by the necessity for a new creation. And so continues the rise and fall of doing and being. In between each gap is like a gasp in which a threatening, self-diminishing voice sneaks through. Scorpio (October 23- November 21) Mars, the god of war, and Pluto, the god of the underworld, share this kingdom. It suffices to say that the child of Scorpio is not a being of rest. There is in him a depth of violent aggressiveness and undiscipline, but also of anguish.

Scorpios enemies must contend with his piercing critical sense, which permits the rapid discovery of the chinks in their armor, for it is certain that he has flair. There is also scientific curiosity which penetrates the depths ature’s secrets, even if they are dangerous. Passionate and jealous in love, possessing strong sexuality; in a word, Scorpio has the best and the worst. By developing the best, he is able to have exceptional success in life. Scorpio might be the most misunderstood sign in the zodiac. It is a convoluted sign, commonly associated with mystery, sex, power, and intrigue.

In social gatherings where the conversation has descended to the most superficial astrological chitchat, Scorpio gets more than its share of abuse. Much of this has to do with the fact that at any given point a great deal f the Scorpionic agenda remains hidden. Intensely private, strongly secretive and rather suspicious, Scorpio does not reveal itself to anyone, nor does it form close overnight friendships. For the most part, members of this sign stand aloof from more obvious social interactions. Scorpios prefer one-to-one situations to large parties at which people present their social facades.

This is a sign of depth and depth perception. Scorpios see and feel more than most people, and not infrequently these feelings are complicated and problematic. Because of this, at a very early age, they develop a deep need for control, long with a list of goals and game plans that will take them where they want to go. Scorpio is the power behind the throne, and has the substance of which CEO’s are made. Success is what they are after. They ca be secretive and ruthless to achieve their desired position. Sagittarius (November 22-December 20) Jupiter is the master os this sign.

He confers an honest, generous and loyal nature. Sagittarius has true nobility of character that works through goodness and moderation. He enjoys escaping from the banality of day-to-day life, and travelling attracts him. Furthermore, these travels can be imaginary s well as real. Sagittarius is a sign of the philosophical mind. In love, he prefers legality and lasting feelings to brief and violent passions and adventures. The essence of sagittarian nature is possibility personified. Diminishment of any kind depresses the classic Sagittarian, as does anyone or anything interfering with the Sagittarian’s sense of freedom.

Sagittarians always want to feel free to make choices and to move in any direction that suits them. Sagittarius is the sign of the adventurer, bound only by his own beliefs. Sagittarians have expansive minds and are eager to learn, and experience, always estless and impatient to move ahead. The classic Sagittarian is a democratic individual with ideals that often define the lifestyle. The Sagittarian soul desires expansion at all costs and is sensitive to social issues that affect the functioning of self and fellow man. Sagittarians want the best possible worlds. They will never stop searching until they find it.

For a great many members of this sign, the entire experience of life is one endless exploration. Sagittarians see possibility where other signs perceive limitations. They also have a genius for seeing splendid things that the common mind might consider silly. The Sagittarian nature wants to soar, and after landing, to remain unimpeded. This can cause some unsettling problems when encountering the situation called “daily life. ” Sagittarians want life to be perfect, and they don’t want to waste their perfect time dinking around with petty, boring details or being bothered by a moronic boss with no vision.

Capricorn (December 21-January 19) This region of the winter sky has been attributed by astrologers to the morose Saturn. Capricorn is serious, often on the defensive; decisions are taken in a calm atmosphere, and he is farsighted. He is very ambitious, but is areful not to show it, preferring to act in the shadows rather than in the broad daylight. It is not worth the trouble to attempt flattery, for Capricorn will not be susceptible. He is cold, objective, and wary by nature. He will not try to please in love, and some might reproach a lack of spirit; feeling exist, but they are buried deep inside.

Capricorn will never sacrifice his carer to a passing fling or even to a passion. A born executive with sky-high goals, Capricorn is the classic accomplishmentarian. Driven beyond high ambition, this is a sign that doesn’t believe in giving up. Patient, enduring and steadfast in the face of all obstacles, Capricorn instinctively understands the value of time. This is a sign that can outwait all opposition and then confidently move in for the kill. Invariably, Capricorn gets what it wants because it goes about it in all the right ways.

Hardworking, highly organized, diligent, down to earth and quietly determined, Capricorns make great tycoons, business chieftains, politicians, presidents and entrepreneurs. The Capricorn mind is intrinsically materialistic. It knows the value of a dollar in several different countries and the most recent fluctuation in the rice of gold. Capricorns value their possessions like some people value their children, and they look at life through a prism of appearance-what you see is what you get. Capricorns are born climbers who will make it to the top and eventually own it.

And once securely positioned in place, attest that there is no other way to go. Like everything else. Capricorns take their status very seriously and never tire of their material rewards. The material to Capricorn is worth, their worth. Having an eye for fine quality, they fully enjoy the luxury of owning the best. To the Capricorn mind, excellence is always its own reward. Aquarius (January 20- February 18) Modern astrologers have assigned this sign to the planet Uranus. Like it, Aquarius is gifted with a lively intelligence, and taken dy the new, sometimes by the utopian.

Originality and idealism are two principle character traits. Very disinterested, Aquarius is enthused by great revolutionary causes, but will not descend into the arena. The battle of ideas is sufficient, for the Aquarius always has a depth of reserve, dreaminess, and sensitivity. He is not very realistic in love, and demonstrates much independence and fantasy. He is able to please and to be devoted but does not like to become attached. Aquarius must beware of solitude. Authentic airheads, Aquarian minds are airborne and aglow with ideals that often have to do with utopian empires and progressive, inventive lifestyle alternatives.

In astrology, the element of air has to do with the cerebral realm and all that this implies, such as mental creations and concoctions, communications and intellectual vistas contained by the frameworks of the mind. Aquarians are often brainy people, full of brilliance and visionary explosions, seeing so far ahead that they leave the present behind. The characteristic Aquarian is far more mental than emotional. Aquarians, in fact, have feelings about their mental constructs and intellectual aspirations. Their most beautiful love experience passes straight through the brain.

The craving for a sense of possibility is a pervasive one in the Aquarian’s scheme of things. It is the motivational force behind the humanitarian involvements and strongly cherished dreams and ideals. The end of the sixties, which sang of the “Age of Aquarius,” epitomized the spirit of blind ideas put forth as truth, without deeper understanding of the comprehensive whole, or the complicated timing of social change. The Aquarian ind, rolling on a track, does not take detours. Nor, is it intellectually open to their possibility. This is a sign associated with a great deal of fanaticism and willful rebellion.

Aquarians are heedless and reckless, throwing caution to the wind creating situations that are self-destructive. It is this blind which brings them their share of headaches, heartaches and trouble. Pisces (February 19- March 20) Naturally it is Neptune, god of the sea that governs this sign. Everyone agrees that Pisces is emotive and impressionable. He is praised for intuition, poetic ability, sense of compassion, and devotion. But Pisces must overcome the indecision of his character as well as his nonchalance; for activity can suffer from them, and Pisces can be thrown into a dreamy existence, one that is more than a little inefficient.

Feelings are marked with a blend of mysticism and sensuality, and the feeling of sacrifice dominates. Pisces is the sign of the psychic, the healer, the intuitive who is in tune with the synchronicities of the universe. Pisces nature is emotional, sensitive and subjective. Their imagination and intelligence are subtly insightful. The Pisces soul is one of mystery and longing. Deep inside a slumbering ivinity haunts a more conscious experience of life. There is an unearthly quality to the Pisces sensibility that is associated with the twelfth house.

This is a place of monasteries and hidden meanings, astral experiences, dreams, drugs and superconsious states of mind. Pisces is a sign that deeply reflects its ruler, Neptune, the planet of fantasy and illusion, romanticism, compassion, sympathy and the supernatural. Like the vibration of Neptune, the Pisces mind is changeable and fluid, fanciful and ready to flow in any direction. Pisceans are secretive and hold a place inside themselves that they share ith only a soul mate. Because they are so psychic, subjective and idealistic, this soul experiences often unsatisfied.

Instead, they will merge with and see themselves mirrored in their life supports and security blankets and the deeper need for unity will be sublimated by the experience of sharing. They are constantly searching for their true soul-mate. There is no real way to know if astrology is reality or fiction, but it does broaden our horizons to a new way of thinking. Perhaps time and seasons have caused the similarities to be there, perhaps it is just a coincidence. You must be the judge.

What is cosmogony

Cosmogony can be defined as a study of the physical universe in terms of its originating time and space. In other words, cosmogony is the study of the universe and its origins. The origin and the nature of the universe have been one of the most debated topics throughout history. Both the scientific and theological communities have yet to ascertain a common ground on how the universe came into being and whether it was an act of “God” or merely a spontaneous and random phenomenon.

New discoveries in the scientific world provide new viewpoints on the creation of the universe and its relevance to a upreme intelligent “Creator. Due to mankind’s constantly changing perspective of the world by scientific means, the argument on the origin of the universe is also forced to progress and develop itself.

Through the analysis of the works by Thomas Aquinas, David Hume, and John Haught, the development of the theory on the originating cause of the universe, through the course of history, can be easily identified. A very early interpretation on the origin of the universe and the existence of a “Creator” can be found in Thomas Aquinas’ Summa Theologica. Thomas Aquinas, in Summa Theologica, indirectly ffers his own views on the origin of the universe.

The term indirectly is used because his arguments are found in his five proofs for the existence of God and are not directly targeted at establishing a viewpoint on the origin of the universe. Aquinas’ first implication on the origin of the universe can be found in his first proof. Aquinas states that “in the world some things are in motion. ” Anything that is in motion, therefore, must have been placed in motion by something else. This chain of movement, however, can not go on to infinity for there would be no first or any intermediate movers.

Therefore there exists a first unmoved mover that is the cause of all in motion (Aquinas, Q. 2, art. 3, “I answer”). Aquinas, in mentioning “the first unmoved mover,” is referring to God. Although Aquinas’ first proof can be read in a literal sense one must analyze it figuratively in order to deduce his viewpoint on cosmogony. The act of the first unmoved mover putting the first object into motion is symbolic of Aquinas’ belief that God created the universe. God, in putting the first object into motion, created the universe.

Consequently, other objects were put into motion within that universe. This is the chain of motion discussed in Aquinas’ proof. In other words, to Aquinas, the existence of our universe in motion is a result of an act of God (the creator of the universe). Several observations can be made in examining Aquinas’ viewpoint on cosmogony. First of all, the argument takes a very linear path. The proof is too simple for such a large task as proving the existence of God. It does not take into account complex ideas that obviously declare this proof erroneous.

For example, it is common knowledge today that all things are made of atoms and that all atoms are in constant motion. Therefore, there is no such thing as an inanimate object in existence. Another problems with Aquinas’ viewpoint is that it does not consider the possibility that motion, and not rest, is the natural order of things. For if everything is in motion, would it not make more sense to declare motion as the natural order? (Hume, VIII. 4) Although a seemingly dysfunctional argument on Aquinas’ part, one must take into account the time period in which this proof was constructed.

Aquinas lived and wrote in the 13th century, before the existence of atomic science and other scientific theories. In this, one could asily see how the lack of science and other “future knowledge” contribute to a very primitive insight on cosmogony. Furthermore, with the development of worldly knowledge, the argument on the originating cause of the universe is also forced to develop in order to accommodate such changes. David Hume, for example, in Dialogues and Natural History of Religion, discusses cosmogony in a modern 18th century light.

In the text, Hume creates three characters each representing a different viewpoint of religious belief. Demea represents the orthodox believer, Cleanthes represents the modern 18th century eist, and Philo represents Hume’s position, the skeptic. By using the three characters, Hume is able to argue all sides of a certain issue, and through the character Philo, is able to voice his own views. Hume employs this method for the discussion of cosmogony as well. Hume voices the opinion of the deist empiricist on the origin of the universe through Cleanthes.

The order and arrangement of nature, the curious adjustment of final causes, the plain use and intention of every part and organ; all these bespeak in the clearest language an intelligent cause or author. ” (Hume, IV. 7) For the 18th century deist, the rder of nature, the final causes produced in the universe, and the specific purpose of everything in existence, is enough evidence to assume an intelligent being created the universe. For example, the way in which the food chain maintains all of nature’s beings in balance or the way that every organ on our body has a specific and purposeful use.

These accommodations could not possibly be a coincidence or accident. On the contrary, everything works out because the “Creator” meant it to work out. Cleanthes views the universe as a well oiled machine that was built by God with all the intentions present in nature. Hume/Philo, however, is reluctant to put any fine point on the origins of the universe. ” The discoveries by microscopes, as they open a new universe in miniature, are still objections, according to you (Cleanthes); arguments according to me.

The farther we push our researches of this kind, we are still led to infer the universal cause of All to be vastly different from mankind, or from any object of human experience and observation. ” (Hume, V. 4) In this passage Hume displays his own viewpoint that mankind can not comprehend the power in which this universe was created by. He neither denies nor advocates the xistence of an original being. Instead, he takes the agnostic position in that all we are capable of learning only leads us to more questions, and that by human experience it is impossible to comprehend the true divine power.

The agnostic approach taken by Hume is characteristic of the 18th century Enlightenment. In contrast to Aquinas, Hume advocates an empiricist method in which all knowledge must be traced back to an original sense perception. The employment of the empiricist principle is the prime reason we can not know anything about God or the creation of the universe. The acknowledgement of different religious viewpoints, the establishment of the agnostic position, and the use of the empiricist principle, are new ideas used in the argument for the origin of the universe.

The 18th century Enlightenment values are highly evident in Hume’s text. It is obvious how the 13th century argument presented by Aquinas has changed in order to accommodate the new viewpoints available in the 18th century. Through the analysis of Hume’s work, and put in comparison with earlier views, the development of the argument for the origin of the universe is easily identifiable. John F. Haught in Science and Religion: From Conflict to Conversation, further develops the cosmogonical argument. In the text, Haught discusses to great extent, the relationship between the scientific and the theological communities.

Similarly to David Hume’s dialogue approach, Haught employs four different viewpoints in which science and religion can be related. These can be identified as Conflict, Contrast, Contact, and Confirmation. “Conflict- the conviction that science and religion are fundamentally irreconcilable; Contrast- the claim that there can be no genuine conflict since eligion and science are each responding to radically different questions Contact- an approach that looks for dialogue, interaction, and possible “consonance” between Science and religion Confirmation- the ways in which religion supports and nourishes the entire scientific enterprises. Haught, p. 9)

Employing these four viewpoints, Haught discusses our current 20th century views on cosmogony. Perhaps the largest part of Haught’s argument comes from the “Big Bang Theory. ” The big bang is hypothesized to be the cosmic explosion that marked the origin of the universe and the beginning of time. Haught acknowledges the big bang as a possible cause of the universe and moves even further to state that the big bang would justify the biblical idea of divine creation as depicted in Genesis. Haught, p. 101)

However, similarly to Hume, Haught also acknowledges the possibility that the universe may not have come into existence at all. He states, “Perhaps the universe always was and always will be. ” (Haught, p. 101) This point of view would seriously challenge large portions of Christian doctrine. Haught employs the four relations in order to clarify and mediate between the two extreme views of osmogony.

The conflict argument states that “it is not at all self-evident that just because the universe had a beginning it also had to have a creatorEthe cosmos may have had a beginning, but it could have burst into existence spontaneously, without any cause. ” (Haught, p. 106) Haught brings up the possibility of nothing having existed prior to the big bang. The idea of a spontaneous explosion creating the universe is not characteristic of either Aquinas’ or Hume’s eras. Furthermore, Haught’s explanation puts the purpose of our existence into question.

If the universe is a product of a Creator than we exist for the purpose of carrying out the Creators expectations. This is similar to how a clock maker puts every single gear and spring into a specific position in order for the clock to run. However, if we are merely a result of a random cosmic explosion than we are all products of a gigantic cosmic accident. Haught concludes the Conflict position by stating that although the big bang theory seems to smooth over religious/scientific conflicts, the constant changing nature of science discredits the validity of the relation. (Haught, p. 09)

Again t is obvious that 20th century science and observations has contributed in the development of the cosmogonical argument. Haught, in demonstrating the Contrast relationship, brings up the idea that the “big bang physics provides no new ammunition for theology. ” (Haught, p. 109) He goes on further to say that “creation is not about chronological beginnings so much as it is about the world’s being grounded continuously in the graciousness of God. ” (Haught, p. 111) Haught discusses the idea that the big bang actually has no basis for a theological proof and that it has entirely nothing to do with creation itself.

Instead, we exist in a universe that is solely dependent on God and that above the importance of creation itself we should show gratitude for our existence. Without the knowledge of the big bang or other scientific evidences, this idea on the nature of the universe could not be conceived. Thus we can say that Haught’s Contrast relationship is a product of 20th century thinking and that it further puts the argument of cosmogony into development. Haught’s Contact relationship, however, differs slightly from that of the Contrast and Conflict relationships.

The Contact relationship states that “Although we do not ish to base our faith directly on the scientific ideas, our reserve does not mean that the big bang cosmology is theologically irrelevant. ” (Haught, p. 114) Haught states here that the big bang, although not the sole aspect of creation, is still a large piece of the cosmogonical puzzle. He also brings up the idea that according to scientist the “big bang is not over and done with. It is still happening. ” (Haught, p. 117) It is the idea that the universe is in constant creation by God, and that although the big bang may have been the beginning, it can not be defined as creation itself.

This is yet another demonstration of a scientific bullet in a theological gun. Once again, this development of the cosmogonical argument accurately reflects the time period it was conceived in. Thomas Aquinas, David Hume, and John Haught all posses their own ideas and beliefs on the origination of the universe. Their arguments reflect the knowledge and logic of each person’s era. The cosmogonical argument is constantly in development as the world changes in terms of the knowledge at hand. With Aquinas we see a linear and logical argument, with an absence of scientific foundation.

Hume develops three different arguments with the empiricist principle at hand. Haught, similarly to Hume, uses different viewpoints in order to convey his opinions on the originating cause of the universe. He incorporates the big bang theory with the theological argument of Genesis. As history progresses, our knowledge of the world progresses, and thus our views on cosmogony progress. This development of the cosmogonical argument can be easily traced through the works of Aquinas, Hume, and Haught. Undoubtedly, new discoveries in our near future will lead us to new insights on the origin of the universe.

Superconductivity report essay

We’ve all heard about superconductivity. But, do we all know what it is? How it works and what are its uses? To start talking about superconductivity, we must try to understand the how “normal” conductivity works. This will make it much easier to understand how the “super” part functions. In the following paragraphs, I will explain how superconductivity works, some of the current problems and some examples of its uses. Conductivity is the ability of a substance to carry electricity.

Some substances like copper, aluminium, silver and gold do it very well. They are called conductors. Others conduct electricity partially and they are called semi-conductors. The concept of electric transmission is very simple to understand. The wire that conducts the electric current is made of atoms which have equal numbers of protons and electrons making the atoms electrically neutral. If this balance is disturbed by gain or loss of electrons, the atoms will become electrically charged and are called ions. Electrons occupy energy states.

Each level requires a certain amount of energy. For an electron to move to a higher level, it will require the right amount of energy. Electrons can move between different levels and between different materials but to do that, they require the right amount of energy and an “empty” slot in the band they enter. The metallic conductors have a lot of these slots and this is where the free electrons will head when voltage (energy) is applied. A simpler way to look at this is to think of atoms aligned in a straight line (wire).

If we add an electron to the first atom of the line, that atom would have an excess of electrons so it releases an other electron which will go to the second atom and he process repeats again and again until an electron pops out from the end of the wire. We can then say that conduction of an electrical current is simply electrons moving from one empty slot to another in the atoms’ outer shells. The problem with these conductors is the fact that they do not let all the current get through.

Whenever an electric current flows, it encounters some resistance, which changes the electrical energy into heat. This is what causes the wires to heat. The conductors become themselves like a resistance but an unwanted one. This explains why only 95% of the power generated by an AC generator reaches consumers. The rest is converted into useless heat along the way. The conducting wire is made of vibrating atoms called lattice. The higher the temperature, the more the lattice shakes making it harder for the electrons to travel through that wire.

It becomes  like a jungle full of obstacles. Some of the electrons will bump with the vibrating atoms and impurities and fly off in all directions and lose energy in form of heat. This is known as friction. This is where superconductivity comes into work. Inside a superconductor, the attice and the impurities are still there, but their state is much different from that of an ordinary conductor. Superconductivity was discovered in 1911 by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, a Dutch physicist. It is the ability to conduct electricity without resistance and without loss.

At that time, it took liquid helium to get extremely low temperatures to make a substance superconduct, around 4 kelvins. That wasn’t very far from absolute Zero (The theoretical temperature at which the atoms and molecules of a substance lose all of their frantic heat-dependent energy and at which all resistance stops short. Kelvin believed that electrons travelling in a conductor would come to a complete stop as the temperature got close to absolute zero. But others were not so sure. Kelvin was wrong. The colder it gets, the less the lattice shakes, making it easier for electrons to get through.

There’s one theory that explains best what happens in a superconducting wire: When a conductor is cooled to super low temperatures, the electrons travelling inside it would join up in some way and move as a team. The problem with this notion was that electrons carry negative charges and like charges repel. This repulsion would prevent the electrons from forming their team. The answer to that was phonons. It is believed that packets of sound waves (phonons) that are emitted by the vibrating lattice overcome the electrons natural repulsion making it possible for them to travel in team.

It’s as if they were all holding hands together. If one of them falls in a hole or bumps into something, the preceding electron would pull him and the following one would push. There was  no chance of getting lost. Since the lattice was cooled, there was less vibration making t easier for the paired electrons to go through. That theory worked well for the conventional, metallic, low-temperature superconducting materials. But later on, new materials were discovered. It conducted at temperatures never before dreamed possible. That material was ceramic. What was believed to be an insulator became a superconductor.

The latest Ceramic material discovered superconducts at 125 Kelvin. This is still far away from room temperature but now, liquid nitrogen could be used. It is much cheaper than the rare, expensive liquid Helium. Scientists still don’t know ow the new superconductivity works. Some scientists have suggested that the new ceramics are new kinds of metals that carry electrical charges, not via electrons, but through other charged particles. Throughout the time, scientists have succeeded in increasing the transition temperature which is the temperature required by a material to superconduct.

Although they have reached temperatures much higher than 4k, it is still difficult to use superconductors in the industry because it is well below room temperature. Another problem is the fact that the new ceramic conductors are too fragile. They cannot be bent, twisted, stretched and machined. This makes them really useless. Scientists are attempting to find a solution to that by trying to develop composite wires. This means that the superconducting material would be covered by a coating of copper.

If the ceramic loses its superconductivity, the copper would take over until the superconductor bounced back. The old superconductors have no problem with being flexible but the required very low temperatures remain to be a problem. One good thing about ceramics is the fact that they generate extremely high magnetic fields. The old superconductors use to fail under low magnetic fields but the new ones seem to do well even with extremely high magnetic field applied on them. The characteristics of a superconductor (low resistance and strong magnetic fields) seemed to have many uses.

Highly efficient power generators; superpowerful magnets; computers that process data in a flash; supersensitive electronic devices for geophysical exploration and military surveillance; economic energy-storage units; memory devices like centimetre-long video tapes with super conducting memory loops; high definition satellite television; highly ccurate medical diagnostic equipment; smaller electric motors for ship propulsion; magnetically levitated trains; more efficient particle accelerators; fusion reactors that would generate cheap, clean power; and even electromagnetic launch vehicles and magnetic tunnels that could accelerate spacecraft to escape velocity.

In my research, I had the chance to learn how two of these applications work: the magnetically levitated train and magnetically propelled ships. First, the magnetically levitated train, a fairly simple but brilliant concept. That train can reach great speeds since it had no friction with it’s rack. The guideway has thousands of electromagnets for levitation set in the floor along the way. More electromagnets for propulsion are set on the sides of the U-shaped track.

The superconducting magnets on the train have the same polarity of the electromagnets of the track, so they push against each other and make the train float about 4 inches above ground. The interesting concept comes with propulsion. The operator sends and AC current through the electromagnets on the sides and can control the speed of the train by changing the frequency of the pulses. Supposing that the positive peak reaches the first electromagnet on the side of the track. That magnet will push the magnet making the train move forward. When the negative peak reaches that same magnet, the magnet on the train would have moved forward so it will be pushed by that same magnet on the track and pulled by the following electromagnet on the track, which now has the positive voltage across it.

So the first would be pushing and the second would be pulling. It takes some time to clearly understand what is going on but it becomes so obvious afterwards. It’s as if the train was “surfing” on waves of voltage. Another interesting application is what is referred to as the magship. This ship has no engine, no propellers and no rudder. It has a unique power source which is electromagnetism. The generator on the boat creates a current which travels from one electrode to another which go underwater on each side of the ship. This makes the water electrically charged. This only works in salt water because pure water would not conduct the current.

The magnets which are located on the bottom of the ship would produce a magnetic field which will push the ater away making the ship move forward. There are a lot of problems related with that. The magnetic field could attract metallic objects and even other ships causing many accidents. As time goes by, transition temperature, critical field (maximum magnetic field intensity that a superconductor can support before failing), current capacity and all other problems are improving slowly. But, at least they show that we are moving in the right direction. A lot of people are getting interested in that field since it promises a lot for the future.

The Laser Essay

Before we can learn about the laser we need to know a little bit about light (since that is what a laser is made of). Light from our sun, or from an electric bulb, is called white light. It is really a mixture of all the different colours of light. The colours range from violet, indigo, and blue, to green, yellow, orange, and red. These make up the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Light is made up of particles, called PHOTONS, which travel in waves. The difference in the colour depends on the wavelength of the light.

Violet light has the shortest wavelength while red has the longest. There are other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum which includes infra-red, radar, television radio and micro- waves (past red on the spectrum), and on the other end of the spectrum are the other invisible radiations, ultra- violet, X rays, micro waves and gamma rays. The wavelength of the light is important to the subject of the laser. A laser is made up of COHERENT light, a special kind of light in which the wavelengths of the light are all the same length, and the crests of these waves are all lined up, or in PHASE.

The word Laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. What does that mean? Basically a laser is a device which produces and then amplifies light waves and concentrates them into an intense penetrating beam. The principles of the laser (and it’s cousin the maser) were established long before these devices were successfully developed. In 1916 Albert Einstein proposed stimulated emission, and other fundamental ideas were discussed by V. A. Fabrikant in 1940.

These ideas, followed by decades of intensive development of icrowave technology set the stage for the first maser (a laser made up of micro-waves), and this in turn helped to produce more advances in this area of science. These efforts cumulated in July 1960 when Theodore H. Maiman announced the generation of a pulse of coherent red light by means of a ruby crystal– the first laser. Laser light is produced by pumping some form of energy, such as light, from a flash tube (see below) into a LASING material, also known as a medium.

Media can be liquids, solids, gases, or a mixture of gases, such as the common helium- eon laser (see chart). Each medium produces a laser with a different wavelength and therefore each medium produces different coloured light. When the energy, in this case photons (light particles) enter the medium they smash into the atoms of the medium. The atom then releases another photon of a specific wavelength. When a loose photon hits an atom that hasn’t emitted it’s extra photon, both photons are released. That is called stimulated emission of radiation. A single flash from a flash lamp emits billions of pairs of photons into the medium.

The hotons are then released as coherent light. The first laser, a ruby laser, was made up of several main components. It had a flash tube coiled around a central rod of synthetic pink ruby. In this case the ruby is the medium. A quartz tube was located just underneath the ruby rod. A trigger electrode was connected to the quartz tube. All of this was enclosed in a polished aluminum casing. This was cooled by a forced air supply. This design was thought to be good enough but later an optical resonator was added to redirect light in the right direction which increased laser erformance.

The optical resonator was a mirror at one end of the laser to redirect light back into the laser and a partially reflective laser which lets some coherent light through. Today there are many types of lasers which include solid state lasers, which have a solid media. The most common of this is a rod of ruby crystals and neodymium-doped glasses and crystals. These offer the highest energy output of all lasers. Another laser type is the gas laser, which can be made of a pure gas or a mixture of gases or even a vaporized metal in a quartz tube.

The helium- eon laser has hight frequency stability and Carbon Dioxide lasers are the most efficient and powerful continuous wave lasers. The most compact type of laser is the Semiconductor laser, made from layers of sem i-conducting materials. Since these can run by direct application of electrical current these have many uses, such as CD players and laser printers. Liquid lasers are usually made with a synthetic dye. Their frequency can be adjusted by a prism inside the laser cavity. An electron laser is a laser which uses free electrons pumped to lasing capability by magnets.

These are powerful research instruments because they are tunable and a small number could cover the entire spectrum from infrared to x rays. They should be able to produce ver high power lasers now too expensive to produce. As mentioned before, the laser has many applications in the scientific community and in our daily lives. In medicine they can be used to painlessly cut and reseal organs or removing tumours, as well as cosmetic surgery. Holography is a fun part of the laser technology because lasers are what creates the holographic images. Microscopic objects can be made into 3D images using x ray asers.

The information applications of the lasers are for reading and writing data to CD’s. They are used to make high capacity audio and video recording and playback (music CD’s and laser disk players). The militaries of the world use lasers for many things including tracking enemy movements and as anti-satellite and ballistic missile defence weapons. Some people might say that the laser is one of the most important advances in human technology ever, and some might not, but it is definitely one of the most important advances in the twentieth century.

Dinosaurs Extinction Essay

The first question that must be posed when trying to crack the mystery of the mass extinction is to ask, throughout history were there any other occurences of this magnitude? The answer is a resounding yes. Altogether over time there has been about eight mass extinctions to large land dwelling vertebrates. The most recent was about ten thousand years ago, killing most of the giant mammals like mammoths, mastodons, super-large camels, saber-toothed tigers, and others (Bakker 428).

The second question, is whether or not these mass extinctions follow a pattern? Once again the answer is yes. Every time a mass extinction occurs on he land ecosystem, the oceanic system is hurt. When the dinosaurs died, many sea animals also died out (Bakker 428-430). The final question to be asked, is when these mass extinctions occur, are both land and water animals affected, and if so, are they affected at the same point in time?

All saltwater animals suffered, however, freshwater creatures were left unaffected. Plants on land did suffer, but not nearly as much as the dinosaurs and other creatures that depended on them as a food source. (Bakker 431). Since the time that the first dinosaur was discovered, paleontologists have been pondering the demise of the inosaurs. Over a hundred theories have been produced to explain this mass extinction (Psihoyos 255).

The dinosaurs may have died because, “the weather got too hot,” ; “the weather got too cold,” ; “the weather got too dry,” ; “the weather got too wet,” ; “the weather became too hot in the summer and too cold in the winter,” ; “the land became too hilly,” ; “new kinds of plants evolved which poisoned all the dinosaurs,” ; “new kinds of insects evolved which spread deadly diseases,” ; “new kinds of mammals evolved which competed for food,” ; “new kinds of animals evolved which ate all of he dinosaurs’ eggs,” ; “a giant meteor hit the earth,” ; “a supernova exploded near the earth,” ; “cosmic rays bombarded the earth,” ; or “massive volcanoes erupted all over the earth at once (Bakker 425).

Scientists’ beliefs seem to fall into two basic common positions, the Catastrophists, and the Gradualists (Psihoyos 255). The Catastrophists believe that a huge catastrophic event took place, killing all of the dinosaurs. The most popular theory of the Catastrophists is the asteroid theory. An asteroid called Chicxulub hit the earth creating a 150 mile wide crater near the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. The date this asteroid hit the earth was sometime about 65. 7 million years ago, just about the time the dinosaurs died (Psihoyos 255). When this two-mile-wide asteroid hit the earth, it probably shattered and sent tons and tons of asteroid-earth dust into the stratosphere.

The lack of light caused by the dust blocking out the sun would have caused many plants to die out, leaving plant eating dinosaurs to die, and with no herbivores to hunt, the carnivorous dinosaurs would die out, the domino effect (Krishtalka 19-20). This event also would have frozen the earth, another reason why it would kill ll of the dinosaurs. No one can prove this theory, but it is one of the most recent theories among scientists these days, as to what killed off all of the dinosaurs. The dinosaurs were around for roughly 140 million years. They were the ruling beasts of the earth for this whole period. Then, 65 million years ago the dinosaurs just all died. None flying through the air, none swimming in the water, none walking on land.

They were all just gone. “The death of the dinosaurs was the biggest mass extinction in the history of the earth (Bates 8-10). ” The first clue that led scientists to the asteroid theory was the inding of a thin layer of clay in the ground. In 1978 Walter Alvarez, a Professor of geology from Berkeley, California, was driving up out of a deep limestone gorge behind Gubbio, Italy, when he noticed something strange. Limestone was formed when little prehistoric sea animals called forams died and fell to the bottom of the ocean to form rock. When he was driving along he side of this gorge he noticed that right at one point, all of the forams were gone.

This also happened to be a point in the ground right at 65 million years, right about the time the dinosaurs died. Another strange thing Alvarez noticed was that right in between the forams and the above rock was a thin layer of clay. He felt that the clay might be important so he chipped a piece off, and hid it away. Upon his arrival back in California he showed the clay to his father, Luis Alvarez. Together they decided to find out what this clay was doing in the middle of the rock. To see how long the clay took to form, the measured the density of iridium, a metal in cosmic dust that the earth collects as it revolves around the sun. To their amazement, though, the clay contained massive amounts of iridium.

Now they didn’t care how long the clay took to form, but why it contained so much iridium. After a while, they came up with a working theory. Perhaps a comet or asteroid crashed into the earth. Both of these contain extremely high amounts of iridium, so it was a perfectly working explanation. Upon impact this heavenly body would smash into millions of little pieces, fly into the atmosphere, and cause destruction on the earth (Bates 11-14). This clay is a marker between the Cretaceous and the Tertiary periods. It is now called the K-T boundary. When the K-T boundary was looked for in New Zealand and in Denmark, it was still found. There is another place the iridium could have come from, and that is the center of the earth.

But, unless volcanoes erupted all over the entire world at once, this is a very unlikely place for it to have come from. So, with all this in mind, the answer became very clear for Luis and Walter Alvarez and their colleagues. This clay layer came from outer space (Krishtalka 20-21). Finally, in the early 1990’s, researchers found something very exciting. They had discovered Chicxulub. Chicxulub is a non-volcanic crater buried in the Gulf of Mexico. This crater is more than a hundred miles across. The size, structure, and composition of this crater led scientists to believe that approximately 65 million years ago an asteroid, two miles in diameter, came flying towards the earth (Horner 208).

As scientists look at the K-T boundary, they noticed something else strange, nowhere on earth can dinosaur remains be found on or above this line of clay. In fact, the closest any remains have been found were about nine feet below it. It would be hard for scientists to say exactly how many years nine feet of earth represents, but it’s safe to say it would be around 100,000 years. Experts who feel an asteroid killed the dinosaurs say that it just took all of 100,000 years for the dust cloud to resettle to the ground, and by that time, the dinosaurs were long gone (Horner 211-212). Another cause, less common, yet still possible, for the extinction of the dinosaurs, is the “Deccan Trap” thoery.

The Deccan Traps was a massive volcanic eruption that took place just about the time the dinosaurs died. So much lava was spewed in this eruption that the Himalayan Mountains were formed. Also, though, enough ash could have been thrown up into the atmosphere in this eruption, that the sun ould have been blocked out, killing the dinosaurs, some plants and other animals (Psihoyos 255). Researchers are beginning to agree that a catastrophic event at the end of the Cretaceous caused mass mortality, but not immediate extinction. This is ironic, however, because for years scientists have tried to prove this catastrophe caused sudden and rapid extinction. Now that rapid extinction has been accepted, it turns out it wasn’t so rapid after all (Hs 221).

This is exactly what the gradualists believe, that this extinction was slow. They believe this extinction was brought on by something like climate hanges, smaller volcanic eruptions, rampant spreading of deserts, or the drainage of inland seas. All of these, however are caused by continental drift. This is a weak belief, though, because as paleontologist Jim Jensen said, “Continental drift can be used to explain everything- from lousy weather to Republicans (Psihoyos 255). ” If the dinosaurs died slowly, it would be very likely that the cause would be more random than a single catastrophic event. Some members of some groups may be eliminated, but not all members of any one group.

Looking at certain studies, this is what scientists found, a steady ecline in genera of dinosaurs from the oldest (deepest) layers of the column, to the youngest (Horner 213-214). A column of sediments in North Dakota, “A detailed breakdown shows that the apparently fixed number of species owes much to rapid recovery after mass extinctions… Species diversity was drastically reduced at the end of each geological era, not only at the species level, but among genera and families too (Hs 94). ” There are also a fair number of scientists who believe in both kinds of theories. They have called the combination of events that led up to this extinction, “The worst weekend in the history of the world (Hs 95). “

Null hypothesis essay

Null hypothesis of the experiment is that the group containing four members will perform better than the group containing two members. This is the foundation from which we have conducted our experiment. The research our experiment was founded on was that carried out by Taylor and Faust (1952). They carried out an experiment on 105 student’s, which was designed in the method of the game twenty questions’. The students were split into teams of one member, two members and four members.

They were then told that the experimenter would keep an object in mind whether it is animal vegetable or mineral was also stated, and they were then allowed 20 questions and guesses to reveal the identity of the object. In there experiment they found that the group of two members performed better than the group of four members in terms of how many guesses and questions it took them and how long it took them to deduce the identity of the object. However Taylor and Faust found that the efficiency did not differ in any significant way.

Thomas and Fink (1961) stated that, for the majority of tasks, a group of five individuals is the optimal’ size. The method for which a certain task is undertaken change as the size increases, according to Hare (1976). He states that as the size increases the approach towards introducing information to aid problem solving becomes more mechanical’ in nature. According to Coleman & James (1961) cohesion tends to be weaker and moral tends to be lower in a larger group than in a smaller one. The reason they state this happens is because, in the majority of cases there is a lack of intimacy within the group and in extremely large groups the members are almost strangers to one another. The size of a group is considered to be a restrictive condition on the quantity and quality of connection that can transpire amongst particular members. Kephart (1950) established that as group size increases the number of relationships that exist among member’s increases greatly.

He suggests that as a result of this increase in relationships among members there will be an increased tendency towards divisions into subgroups in which participants relate to one another. According to research, two-person groups frequently consequent in a rise in tension. The tension is usually caused by the creation of a dominant-submissive’ relationship that comes into being. Two main disadvantages of this are one member will either become argumentative towards the other, or they will, conversely, become inactive in terms of the game or experiment.

Wolff (1950) suggests, contrary to this idea, that the possibility also exists for the greatest degree of intimacy. ‘ Specific roles’ tend to be associated with group thinking research. In majority of psychological research shows a clear indication of a leader’ coming forward in a group. However, the larger the group gets, the more delegation of thoughts and ideas, therefore increase in the possibility that two or more individuals may seem to take charge.

This delegation may generate an increase in suggestions by other members, as there is no clear distinctive leader rather a few of them. In other words, they will be more confident to speak up once they hear two or more people speaking up. This idea supports the notion that larger groups work better than smaller ones. There are also stipulations that groups of odd numbers perform better as there tends to be less of a power struggle among members. The members tend to agree with the majority opinion and thus faster agreement results.

The relevance of many of these concepts and experiments to our experiment will be covered in the discussion section of the assignment. The group’s dynamics all have their influences on the overall result, these include the individual experiences and framworks of thinking, as well as their individual personalities, which allow them to take specific roles within the group. Other factors include the way in relationships among members, and the way they interact amongst themselves. As the group size is moderately small we are able to recognise this easily as the examiner.

The progress of Biotechnology

The scientific rules of genetics were not known until the nineteenth century, when Gregor Mendel determined from his study of plants that particles that can not be seen carry traits that are passed on from generation to generation. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick made the makeup of the genetic code called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, the genetic material that is in all living cells. Deoxyribonucleic acid encodes the order of amino acids that have peptides and proteins.

In the 1970s, researchers started experimenting with the transfer of a specific part of DNA from one organism to another, letting the other organism make a new protein and make a new trait. This scientific breakthrough led to the progress of biotechnology or genetic engineering, as we know it today. It is very clear that the use of biotechnology in agriculture will have great implications for agriculture, the environment, and the economy around the world. It is already making an impact on the world’s food supply. Some of the first genetically improved products have included major food crops, such as soybeans and corn, as well as cotton.

These genetic changes help plants protect themselves against insects or make them tolerant to herbicides that are used to control weeds. The economic benefits for farmers have been seen, and data is proving that genetically improved crops make the environment better by reducing the use of insecticides and herbicides. Scientists are working on more products that will include direct consumer benefits, such as increased levels of vitamins in fruits and vegetables, improved amino acid or fatty acid, or improved texture and taste.

The first genetically improved crop was a tomato, approved for commercial sale in the United States in 1994. Calgene, a biotechnology company in California, engineered tomatoes so that the enzyme that degrades pectin and makes the tomato soft is took out. This lets tomatoes develop a vine-ripened aroma and flavor and remain firm longer than normal tomatoes. One advantage of plant biotechnology is that it is possible to transfer only the gene or genes of the trait the person wants into new plants in a more accurate manner within a short period of time.

Plant biotechnology also lets the transfer of genes from organisms that are not plants, such as bacteria, to plants, as well as between plants that are not compatible. For example, genes from soil bacteria have been put into a number of crop plants to let them protect themselves against insects. . By using biotechnology, you can make a stronger strain of the same substance. You can also give better nutrition to and flavor to foods and give it the ability to fight off pest and diseases.

Biotechnology is able to cut off a certain gene in one organism, take it out, and then put it in another organism. In research laboratories, certain strains of bacteria are being made to degrade oil spills, manufacture alcohol, help the disposal of waste, and help make medicine. A lack of information about biotechnology has led to confusion and fear about products made by using biotechnology. It is important to understand what biotechnology is and how it can be used to create solutions for tomorrow’s world.

Nutrition professionals are in a important position to explain to consumers the way biotechnology works, the risks and benefits, and the regulatory processes in place to assure the food, feed, and environmental safety of these crops and products. Biotechnology is providing real answers to some of the greatest challenges we face in this new century, such as hunger and malnutrition, as well as more effective ways to prevent diseases and treat serious illnesses. Biotechnology is an available and exciting new development, which is already improving the way we live.

Fury of the Quantum Fist

Quantum mechanics will be our most powerful tool in the world of tomorrow. For those of you that did not know this, quantum mechanics is a physics system or theory using the assumption that energy exists in discrete units. It is probably no exaggeration to say that quantum mechanics is the most successful scientific theory in history. This has been a great success, but in spite of the fact the origins of the quantum theory stretch back nearly a century, it is only in recent years that the general public has become aware of the subject.

Indeed, until a few years ago, the very word quantum was almost unknown outside the scientific community. Now books with quantum’ in the title are absurdly numerous. The reason for this recent surge in interest can be traced to the truly strange nature of quantum mechanical ideas. Quantum physics amounts to much more than a theory of atomic and subatomic processes, it represents nothing less than a complete transformation of our world view. “Its [quantum physics] implications for the nature of reality and the relationship between observer and observed are both subtle and profound. (Barenco)”

A description of the world in which an object can apparently be in more than one place at the same time, in which a particle can penetrate a barrier without breaking it, in which something can be both a wave and a particle, and in which widely separated particles can cooperate in an almost psychic fashion, is bound to be both thrilling and bemusing. Niels Bohr, one of the founders of the theory, once remarked that anybody who is not shocked by quantum mechanics hasn’t understood it. For decades the complexity and incredibility of the quantum world was an obstacle to the theory being known outside the scientific community.

Then in the 1970’s a number of writers recognized that the deep philosophical implications of quantum mechanics would be of considerable interest to the wider public, especially as some of the quantum mechanics concepts were of a mystical origin. In addition, technological advances enabled certain key ideas of the theory to be tested in the laboratory for the first time, amid considerable publicity. Although this broader interest was largely stimulated by the philosophical implications of the subject, the practical applications of quantum mechanics had been going from strength to strength.

What the public perceived as primarily a set of revolutionary speculations about the nature of reality, professional physicists and engineers regarded as a means to make new devices and handsome profits. In fact, quantum mechanics has always been a very practical subject. Even in the early years before the Second World War, its principles were applied to the electrical and thermal properties of metals and semiconductors. In the postwar years, the development of the transistor and the laser–two of the best-known quantum devices–heralded the information revolution.

Today we are surrounded by technology that owes its existence, directly or indirectly, to the applications of quantum mechanical processes. Everything from the CD player to non drip paint to car brake-lights, from MRI hospital imaging machines to the scanning tunneling microscope, quantum technology is now a serious money making business. Looking ahead to the next fifty years, quantum technology offers some breathtaking possibilities. The field of nanotechnology is very promising. The goal of scientists researching nanotechnology is the construction of machines with molecular dimensions.

This means that machines utilizing nanotechnology will be very small or microscopic. These machines will have potential applications in many fields such as medicine, computing and the fabrication of new and exotic materials. Quantum technologists can already trap individual atoms and experiment with them. “Quantum technologists can bounce atoms up and down on cunningly sculpted electromagnetic fields, produce atomic graffiti by displacing single atoms on a material surface, and display the structure of a crystal atom by atom. (Benjamin)”

These experiments probe the deep quantum regime, where Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and other aspects of quantum outlandishness significantly shape the restrictions and possibilities. The commonsense world of Newtonian machines is left far behind. This is the domain of undreamt possibilities, of microscopic circuits with novel electrical properties, of detectors so sensitive that they could pick up the equivalent of the drop of a pin on the other side of the earth, of devices to make and break codes that no conventional supercomputer could touch.

Consider, for example, the bizarre properties of the quantum vacuum. Normally we visualize empty space to be just that–a featureless void. But the quantum vacuum, though devoid of ordinary particles, nevertheless seethes with ghostly activity, as so-called virtual particles, spontaneously and unpredictably appear out of nowhere, only to survive fleetingly before disappearing into nothing once more. This ubiquitous, restless vacuum texture has immense implications. Cosmologists believe it may have been responsible for creating the entire universe.

Stephen Hawking believes it will cause black holes to evaporate away into heat radiation. In the laboratory it shows up as slight but measurable shifts in the energy levels of atoms. More importantly, the quantum activity of the vacuum introduces a very fundamental source of noise into many practical devices. To evade this noise requires scientists to develop ways of manipulating the quantum vacuum. Advances with lasers have enabled the vacuum noise to be “squeezed” or quieted below the natural background level, opening up the possibility of transmitting or detecting signals with unprecedented sensitivity.

Perhaps the most exciting and most powerful device on the quantum technology drawing board is the quantum computer, a machine that would be able to perform mathematical manipulations that are impossible, even in principle, on a conventional computer. In effect, a quantum computer could process information in many alternate realities simultaneously, and integrate them into a single real-world answer, enabling nothing less than a totally new type of mathematics at our disposal.

Indeed, all quantum systems essentially exploit the fact that the quantum microworld has no single, well-defined reality, but is a ghostly amalgam of alternate universes, a hybrid world in which possible realities merge and overlap to produce a final observed actuality. Quantum technology turns this unbelievable fantasy realm of mind-bending concepts into concrete, practical devices. The nineteenth century was known as the machine age, and the twentieth century will go down in history as the information age.

Unless we develop something better than quantum mechanics, however unlikely, the twenty-first century will be the quantum age. We must acknowledge the great benefit that quantum devices will bring, no matter what the cost. Imagine a computer whose memory is exponentially larger than its apparent physical size; a computer that can manipulate an exponential set of inputs simultaneously; a computer that sets itself apart from our classical examples of a computer. The computer you imagine is a quantum computer. It has immense capabilities and enormous power.

This computer would be able to solve many of our problems, including many problems that had not even surfaced yet. We must endeavor to overcome the obstacles that lie before us and construct our solution to everything. One of the many obstacles that stand in our way presently is the Shor algorithm. The Shor algorithm involves factorizing very large integers. It’s not that our computers can’t factor integers, it’s because it would take many years for even our best supercomputers to factor these large integers.

We’ve tested how capable our computers are at large integers before: “For instance, in 1994 a 129-digit number (known as RSA129 ) was successfully factored using this algorithm on approximately 1600 workstations scattered around the world; the entire factorization took eight months. Using this to estimate the prefactor of the above exponential scaling, we find that it would take roughly 800,000 years to factor a 250-digit number with the same computer power; similarly, a 1000 digit number would require years (significantly longer than the age of the universe).

Steane)” Numbers as large as these can be used to calculate the amount of fuel needed for a mission to Mars or predict the amount of electrons in a gallon of water. Remarkably, quantum computing would be able to solve the Shor algorithm. If we had a quantum computer, we could solve mathematical problems non-linearly. This result is of considerable commercial and military interest as one of the most common data encryption systems is based on the supposed computational difficulty of factoring large numbers. ” . . .

This] astonished the community by describing an algorithm which was not only efficient on a quantum computer, but also addressed a central problem in computer science: that of factorizing large integers. (Hoffman 63)” The first problem in making a quantum computer is that the quantum interference effects, which permit algorithms such as Shor’s, are extremely fragile: the quantum computer would be ultra-sensitive to experimental noise and impression. Scientists are developing ways to dampen the noise level around a possible quantum computer using lasers.

Although unbelievably complex and far from my grasp of understanding, scientists will be able to eventually unlock the secret to this puzzle with enough research. Quantum computers process information non-linearly. A quantum computer can follow all computational paths simultaneously. So, instead of doing one task at a time and doing everything step by step, a quantum computer will begin working on all steps at the same time. “If the fastest computer we have takes more than 24 hours just to run the calculation through for 1 output alone, then we are sunk, and can do nothing.

If we have a quantum computer, we can prepare the input in coherent superposition of the two inputs and do both calculations simultaneously in 24 hours. (Milburn 164) ” This demonstrates how completely different and new the quantum computer will be compared to every other computer ever built. It won’t just solve our current problems, it will find problems that we couldn’t have even predicted. We’ll be able to process information in ways only thought of in a science fiction novel. Quantum computation works on a completely subatomic level, therefore allowing enormous speed without the heat.

Classic computers (the ones we have today) are getting smaller and smaller and soon physics will limit our technological leaps and bounds. (Petru 91)” We simply won’t be able to make our current computers too much smaller. Quantum computers will be the answer to this problem. The quantum computer will hardly take up any space at all. Using quantum technology will allow us to maximize computational power and physical space. This is mostly because of the fact that quantum computers would process information using single photons.

The crucial problem would be to get it to work with single photons, mostly because this requires large optical non-linearities. Optical non-linearities tend not to stay in a unitary state due to their tendency to absorb light. Even so, there are advantages when processing information with single photons instead of a stream of electrons in a computer. With single photons the chips won’t melt and cause a breakdown. The photons will not generate any heat, therefore eliminating the problem that we currently have with our classical computers.

Quantum computing will and must be allowed to change our lives. Solving the Shor Algorithm, computing non-linearly, and finding a way around the heat dissipation problem in today’s computers are all problems that must be faced eventually, and quantum computing is the answer. We just need to put forth the effort, time, and money to construct the answer. The result will be computational power which makes today’s most advanced supercomputer look like an abacus. If we don’t take the chance then we are denying our future.

Darwins Theory of Natural Selection

Charles Darwin revolutionized biology when he introduced The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859. Although Wallace had also came upon this revelation shortly before Origins was published, Darwin had long been in development of this theory. Wallace amicably relinquished the idea to Darwin, allowing him to become the first pioneer of evolution. Darwin was not driven to publish his finding, which hed been collecting for several years before Wallace struck upon it, because he had never come across a single [naturalist] who seemed to doubt to permanence of species (Ridley, pp. ).

What follows are the key points of Darwins Theory of Natural Selection taken directly from the two chapters concerning it in his book Origins. In chapter III of Origins Darwin sets up his discussion on Natural Selection by establishing the struggle for existence in nature. By this he means not only an individuals need to fend of enemies and survive its environment but also its ability to create living, healthy, successful offspring. The first factor concerning this struggle is the ratio of increase in any given species.

Darwin explains how this struggle must be occurring otherwise a single species would dominate the entire earth because every single one of its offspring would survive. This is due to the fact that every species reproduces exponentially, a rate that would soon produce astonishing numbers if left unchecked. This does not happen however, because nature has a system of checks and balances. Although we may not be able to detect these checks, we can see their effects by the indisputable fact that one species doesnt completely dominate the planet.

These checks consist of enemies eating the young or even adults, the rigors of weather or environment, and countless others. In this way birds, for example, cannot populate beyond their food supply, and the grains they feed on are held in check, because even though they may produce thousands of seeds only a few are able to reach maturity. Darwin goes on to show how all plants and animals compete and relate to each other in this struggle for existence.

He does so by relating various personal observations that show the introduction of a different species of plant or animal can have a direct effect on the present survival of the indigenous species and even allow other foreign species to proliferate. This leads to interspecies survival, which Darwin considers the hardest struggle of all, and the one that may have the greatest effect on the evolution of a species through Natural Selection. It springs forth from the similarity in habits and constitution. Plants and animals of the same species must compete for the same food and the same space to live in.

Also, the original make-up of a plant or animal may give it an advantage to thrive in an ever-competitive environment. This brings us to Natural Selection and survival of the fittest that Darwin is most known for. Darwin begins chapter IV by comparing human selection to natures ability to select, dubbing his theory Natural Selection, and explaining how imperceptible it is for us (at least science in his time) to examine the minute changes slowly taking place in nature. Variations in a species now come into play, and how these adaptations concern Natural Selection.

Slight differences in an individual of a species will give rise to two situations. One is that it will be an injurious variation, which will definitely lead to the death of the individual because of the aforementioned struggle for existence. The other is a favorable adaptation in the individual’s ability to gather nutrients, survive its enemies, survive its environment, etc. The chance of this individual surviving is greater than its less adapted competitors, however slight, which gives it a better chance of leaving progeny. These progeny will also have these abilities, increasing their chances of survival.

Changes in the young can also bring about changes in the adult, as the individual approaches maturity, due to the difference in its original constitution. Once again, it will possibly leave new traits to its progeny (if they are advantageous and this variation doesnt die out), spreading the variation throughout the community and continuing the cycle of evolution. This is also known as ordinary selection because it begins with one individual and its constitution and habits. Another method of Natural Selection is sexual selection. Sexual selection arises from interspecies cross breeding.

This, Darwin explains, deviates from the struggle for existence and becomes the struggle for progeny. Advances in an individual will often allow it a better chance to procreate. A males ability to woo the female by singing, shows of strength, or decoration have definite effects as to whether or not he will be able to mate. The same goes for the females ability to attract the males attention. Some of these techniques or differences can also sometimes be used in the struggle for existence giving that particular variation the advantage.

Lastly, Darwin explains extinction and divergence of character in relation to Natural Selection. With extinction Darwin shows it is necessary for the adapted variation to proliferate. As the adapted variation begins to increase in numbers because of its greater ability to survive conditions, it’s obvious the older variety must become rarer. Rarity is the first sign of extinction, because with smaller numbers, there is a smaller chance of propagating, and a smaller chance of adapting. This will eventually lead to complete extinction.

Darwin places much importance on the divergence of character within a species, also. It explains how such a slight variation can lead to distinct species. It resides on the basis that each of the variations is added generation upon generation. These favorable adaptations when all put together make variations that are markedly different from the original progenitor. All of this combines to form new, distinct, better adapted life forms which have, since the beginning of life on earth, been evolving into the diverse, lush, beautiful variety we experience everyday.

Mescalin Research Essay

It was in 1886 that the German pharmacologist, Louis Lewin, published the first systematic study of the cactus, to which his own name was subsequently given. Anhalonium lewinii was new to science. To primitive religion and the Indians of Mexico and the American Southwest it was a friend of immemorially long standing. Indeed, it was much more than a friend. In the words of one of the early Spanish visitors to the New World, “they eat a root which they call peyote, and which they venerate as though it were a deity. ”

Why they should have venerated it as a deity became apparent when such eminent psychologists as Jaensch, Havelock Ellis and Weir Mitchell began their experiments with mescalin, the active principle of peyote. True, they stopped short at a point well this side of idolatry; but all concurred in assigning to mescalin a position among drugs of unique distinction. Administered in suitable doses, it changes the quality of consciousness more profoundly and yet is less toxic than any other substance in the pharmacologist’s repertory. Mescalin research has been going on sporadically ever since the days of Lewin and Havelock Ellis.

Chemists have not merely isolated the alkaloid; they have learned how to synthesize it, so that the supply no longer depends on the sparse and intermittent crop of a desert cactus. Alienists have dosed themselves with mescalin in the hope thereby of coming to a better, a first-hand, understanding of their patients’ mental processes. Working unfortunately upon too few subjects within too narrow a range of circumstances, psychologists have observed and catalogued some of the drug’s more striking effects. Neurologists and physiologists have found out something about the mechanism of its action upon the central nervous system.

And at least one Professional philosopher has taken mescalin for the light it may throw on such ancient, unsolved riddles as the place of mind in nature and the relationship between brain and consciousness. There matters rested until, two or three years ago, a new and perhaps highly significant fact was observed. * Actually the fact had been staring everyone in the face for several decades; but nobody, as it happened, had noticed it until a Young English psychiatrist, at present working in Canada, was struck by the close similarity, in chemical composition, between mescalin and adrenalin.

Further research revealed that lysergic acid, an extremely potent hallucinogen derived from ergot, has a structural biochemical relationship to the others. Then came the discovery that adrenochrome, which is a product of the decomposition of adrenalin, can produce many of the symptoms observed in mescalin intoxication. But adrenochrome probably occurs spontaneously in the human body. In other words, each one of us may be capable of manufacturing a chemical, minute doses of which are known to cause Profound changes in consciousness.

Certain of these changes are similar to those which occur in that most characteristic plague of the twentieth century, schizophrenia. Is the mental disorder due to a chemical disorder? And is the chemical disorder due, in its turn, to psychological distresses affecting the adrenals? It would be rash and premature to affirm it. The most we can say is that some kind of a prima facie case has been made out. Meanwhile the clue is being systematically followed, the sleuths–biochemists , psychiatrists, psychologists–are on the trail.

By a series of, for me, extremely fortunate circumstances I found myself, in the spring of 1953, squarely athwart that trail. One of the sleuths had come on business to California. In spite of seventy years of mescalin research, the psychological material at his disposal was still absurdly inadequate, and he was anxious to add to it. I was on the spot and willing, indeed eager, to be a guinea pig. Thus it came about that, one bright May morning, I swallowed four-tenths of a gram of mescalin dissolved in half a glass of water and sat down to wait for the results.

We live together, we act on, and react to, one another; but always and in all circumstances we are by ourselves. The martyrs go hand in hand into the arena; they are crucified alone. Embraced, the lovers desperately try to fuse their insulated ecstasies into a single self-transcendence; in vain. By its very nature every embodied spirit is doomed to suffer and enjoy in solitude. Sensations, feelings, insights, fancies–all these are private and, ex- cept through symbols and at second hand, incommunicable.

We can pool information about experiences, but never the experiences themselves. From family to nation, every human group is a society of island universes. Most island universes are sufficiently like one another to Permit of inferential understanding or even of mutual empathy or “feeling into. ” Thus, remembering our own bereavements and humiliations, we can condole with others in analogous circumstances, can put ourselves (always, of course, in a slightly Pickwickian sense) in their places. But in certain cases communication between universes is incomplete or even nonexistent.

The mind is its own place, and the Places inhabited by the insane and the exceptionally gifted are so different from the places where ordinary men and women live, that there is little or no common ground of memory to serve as a basis for understanding or fellow feeling. Words are uttered, but fail to enlighten. The things and events to which the symbols refer belong to mutually exclusive realms of experience. To see ourselves as others see us is a most salutary gift. Hardly less important is the capacity to see others as they see themselves.

But what if these others belong to a different species and inhabit a radically alien universe? For example, how can the sane get to know what it actually feels like to be mad? Or, short of being born again as a visionary, a medium, or a musical genius, how can we ever visit the worlds which, to Blake, to Swedenborg, to Johann Sebastian Bach, were home? And how can a man at the extreme limits of ectomorphy and cerebrotonia ever put himself in the place of one at the limits of endomorphy and viscerotonia, or, except within certain circumscribed areas, share the feelings of one who stands at the limits of mesomorphy and somatotonia?

To the unmitigated behaviorist such questions, I suppose, are meaningless. But for those who theoretically believe what in practice they know to be true–namely, that there is an inside to experience as well as an out- side–the problems posed are real problems, all the more grave for being, some completely insoluble, some soluble only in exceptional circumstances and by methods not available to everyone. Thus, it seems virtually certain that I shall never know what it feels like to be Sir John Falstaff or Joe Louis.

On the other hand, it had always seemed to me possible that, through hypnosis, for ex- ample, or autohypnosis, by means of systematic meditation, or else by taking the appropriate drug, I might so change my ordinary mode of consciousness as to be able to know, from the inside, what the visionary, the medium, even the mystic were talking about. From what I had read of the mescalin experience I was convinced in advance that the drug would admit me, at least for a few hours, into the kind of inner world described by Blake and AE.

But what I had expected did not happen. I had expected to lie with my eyes shut, looking at visions of many-colored geometries, of animated architectures, rich with gems and fabulously lovely, of landscapes with heroic figures, of symbolic dramas trembling perpetually on the verge of the ultimate revelation. But I had not reckoned, it was evident, with the idiosyncrasies of my mental make-up, the facts of my temperament, training and habits. I am and, for as long as I can remember, I have always been a poor visualizer.

Words, even the pregnant words of poets, do not evoke pictures in my mind. No hypnagogic visions greet me on the verge of sleep. When I recall something, the memory does not present itself to me as a vividly seen event or object. By an effort of the will, I can evoke a not very vivid image of what happened yesterday afternoon, of how the Lungarno used to look before the bridges were destroyed, of the Bayswater Road when the only buses were green and tiny and drawn by aged horses at three and a half miles an hour.

But such images have little substance and absolutely no autonomous life of their own. They stand to real, perceived objects in the same relation as Homer’s ghosts stood to the men of flesh and blood, who came to visit them in the shades. Only when I have a high temperature do my mental images come to independent life. To those in whom the faculty of visualization is strong my inner world must seem curiously drab, limited and uninteresting.

This was the world–a poor thing but my own–which I expected to see transformed into something completely unlike itself. The change which actually took place in that world was in no sense revolutionary. Half an hour after swallowing the drug I became aware of a slow dance of golden lights. A little later there were sumptuous red surfaces swelling and expanding from bright nodes of energy that vibrated with a continuously changing, patterned life.

At another time the closing of my eyes revealed a complex of gray structures, within which pale bluish spheres kept emerging into intense solidity and, having emerged, would slide noiselessly upwards, out of sight. But at no time were there faces or forms of men or animals. I saw no landscapes, no enormous spaces, no magical growth and metamorphosis of buildings, nothing remotely like a drama or a parable. The other world to which mescalin admitted me was not the world of visions; it existed out there, in what I could see with my eyes open.

The great change was in the realm of objective fact. What had happened to my subjective universe was relatively unimportant. I took my pill at eleven. An hour and a half later, I was sitting in my study, looking intently at a small glass vase. The vase contained only three flowers-a full-blown Belie of Portugal rose, shell pink with a hint at every petal’s base of a hotter, flamier hue; a large magenta and cream-colored carnation; and, pale purple at the end of its broken stalk, the bold heraldic blossom of an iris.

Fortuitous and provisional, the little nosegay broke all the rules of traditional good taste. At breakfast that morning I had been struck by the lively dissonance of its colors. But that was no longer the point. I was not looking now at an unusual flower arrangement. I was seeing what Adam had seen on the morning of his creation-the miracle, moment by moment, of naked existence. “Is it agreeable? ” somebody asked.

During this Part of the experiment, all conversations were recorded on a dictating machine, and it has been possible for me to refresh my memory of what was said. ) “Neither agreeable nor disagreeable,” I answered. “it just is. ” Istigkeit–wasn’t that the word Meister Eckhart liked to use? “Is-ness. ” The Being of Platonic philosophy– except that Plate seems to have made the enormous, the grotesque mistake of separating Being from becoming and identifying it with the mathematical abstraction of the Idea.

He could never, poor fellow, have seen a bunch of flowers shining with their own inner light and all but quivering under the pressure of the significance with which they were charged; could never have perceived that what rose and iris and carnation so intensely signified was nothing more, and nothing less, than what they were–a transience that was yet eternal life, a perpetual perishing that was at the same time pure Being, a bundle of minute, unique particulars in which, by some unspeakable and yet self-evident paradox, was to be seen the divine source of all existence.

I continued to look at the flowers, and in their living light I seemed to detect the qualitative equivalent of breathing–but of a breathing without returns to a starting point, with no recurrent ebbs but only a repeated flow from beauty to heightened beauty, from deeper to ever deeper meaning. Words like “grace” and “transfigu- ration” came to my mind, and this, of course, was what, among other things, they stood for. My eyes traveled from the rose to the carnation, and from that feathery incandescence to the smooth scrolls of sentient amethyst which were the iris.

The Beatific Vision, Sat Chit Ananda, Being-Awareness-Bliss-for the first time I understood, not on the verbal level, not by inchoate hints or at a distance, but precisely and completely what those prodigious syllables referred to. And then I remembered a passage I had read in one of Suzuki’s essays. “What is the Dharma-Body of the Buddha? ” (‘”the Dharma-Body of the Buddha” is another way of saying Mind, Suchness, the Void, the Godhead. ) The question is asked in a Zen monastery by an earnest and bewildered novice.

And with the prompt irrelevance of one of the Marx Brothers, the Master answers, “The hedge at the bottom of the garden. And the man who realizes this truth,” the novice dubiously inquires, ‘”what, may I ask, is he? ” Groucho gives him a whack over the shoulders with his staff and answers, “A golden-haired lion. ” It had been, when I read it, only a vaguely pregnant piece of nonsense. Now it was all as clear as day, as evi- dent as Euclid. Of course the Dharma-Body of the Buddha was the hedge at the bottom of the garden. At the same time, and no less obviously, it was these flowers, it was anything that I–or rather the blessed Not-I, released for a moment from my throttling embrace–cared to look at.

The books, for example, with which my study walls were lined. Like the flowers, they glowed, when I looked at them, with brighter colors, a profounder significance. Red books, like rubies; emerald books; books bound in white jade; books of agate; of aquamarine, of yellow topaz; lapis lazuli books whose color was so intense, so intrinsically meaningful, that they seemed to be on the point of leaving the shelves to thrust themselves more insistently on my attention. “What about spatial relationships? ” the investigator inquired, as I was looking at the books.

It was difficult to answer. True, the perspective looked rather odd, and the walls of the room no longer seemed to meet in right angles. But these were not the really important facts. The really important facts were that spatial relationships had ceased to matter very much and that my mind was perceiving the world in terms of other than spatial categories. At ordinary times the eye concerns itself with such problems as Where? –How far? How situated in relation to what? In the mescalin experience the implied questions to which the eye responds are of another order.

Place and distance cease to be of much interest. The mind does its Perceiving in terms of intensity of existence, profundity of significance, relationships within a pattern. I saw the books, but was not at all concerned with their positions in space. What I noticed, what impressed itself upon my mind was the fact that all of them glowed with living light and that in some the glory was more manifest than in others. In this context position and the three dimensions were beside the point. Not, of course, that the category of space had been abolished.

When I got up and walked about, I could do so quite normally, without misjudging the whereabouts of objects. Space was still there; but it had lost its predominance. The mind was primarily concerned, not with measures and locations, but with being and meaning. And along with indifference to space there went an even more complete indifference to time. “There seems to be plenty of it,” was all I would answer, when the investigator asked me to say what I felt about time. Plenty of it, but exactly how much was entirely irrelevant. I could, of course, have looked at my watch; but my watch, I knew, was in another universe.

My actual experience had been, was still, of an indefinite duration or alternatively of a perpetual present made up of one continually changing apocalypse. From the books the investigator directed my attention to the furniture. A small typing table stood in the center of the room; beyond it, from my point of view, was a wicker chair and beyond that a desk. The three pieces formed an intricate pattern of horizontals, uprights and diagonals–a pattern all the more interesting for not being interpreted in terms of spatial relationships.

Table, chair and desk came together in a composition that was like something by Braque or Juan Gris, a still life recognizably related to the objective world, but rendered without depth, without any attempt at photographic realism. I was looking at my furniture, not as the utilitarian who has to sit on chairs, to write at desks and tables, and not as the cameraman or scientific recorder, but as the pure aesthete whose concern is only with forms and their relationships within the field of vision or the picture space.

But as I looked, this purely aesthetic, Cubist’s-eye view gave place to what I can only describe as the sacramental vision of reality. I was back where I had been when I was looking at the flowers-back in a world where everything shone with the Inner Light, and was infinite in its significance.

The legs, for example, of that chair–how miraculous their tubularity, how supernatural their poiished smoothness! I spent several minutes–or was it several centuries? not merely gazing at those bamboo legs, but actually being them—or rather being myself in them; or, to be still more accurate (for “I” was not in- volved in the case, nor in a certain sense were “they”) being my Not-self in the Not-self which was the chair. Reflecting on my experience, I find myself agreeing with the eminent Cambridge philosopher, Dr. C. D. Broad, “that we should do well to consider much more seriously than we have hitherto been inclined to do the type of theory which Bergson put forward in connection with memory and sense perception.

The suggestion is that the function of the brain and nervous system and sense organs is in the main eliminative and not productive. Each person is at each moment capable of remembering all that has ever happened to him and of perceiving everything that is happening everywhere in the universe. The function of the brain and nervous system is to protect us from being overwhelmed and confused by this mass of largely useless and irrelevant knowledge, by shutting out most of what we should otherwise perceive or remember at any moment, and leaving only that very small and special selection which is likely to be practically useful.

According to such a theory, each one of us is potentially Mind at Large. But in so far as we are animals, our business is at all costs to survive. To make biological survival possible, Mind at Large has to be funneled through the reducing valve of the brain and nervous system. What comes out at the other end is a measly trickle of the kind of consciousness which will help us to stay alive on the surface of this Particular planet. To formulate and express the contents of this reduced awareness, man has invented and endlessly elaborated those symbol-systems and implicit philosophies which we call languages.

Every individual is at once the beneficiary and the victim of the linguistic tradition into which he has been born–the beneficiary inasmuch as language gives access to the accumulated records of other people’s experience, the victim in so far as it confirms him in the belief that reduced awareness is the only awareness and as it bedevils his sense of reality, so that he is all too apt to take his concepts for data, his words for actual things. That which, in the language of religion, is called “this world” is the universe of reduced awareness, expressed, and, as it were, petrified by language.

The various “other worlds,” with which human beings erratically make contact are so many elements in the totality of the awareness belonging to Mind at Large. Most people, most of the time, know only what comes through the reducing valve and is consecrated as genuinely real by the local language. Certain persons, however, seem to be born with a kind of by-pass that circumvents the reducing valve. In others temporary by-passes may be acquired either spontaneously, or as the result of deliberate “spiritual exercises,” or through hypnosis, or by means of drugs.

Through these permanent or temporary by-passes there flows, not indeed the perception “of everything that is happening everywhere in the universe” (for the by-pass does not abolish the reducing valve, which still excludes the total content of Mind at Large), but something more than, and above ah something different from, the carefully selected utilitarian material which our narrowed, individual minds regard as a complete, or at least sufficient, picture of reality. The brain is provided with a number of enzyme systems which serve to co-ordinate its workings.

Some of these enzymes regulate the supply of glucose to the brain cells. Mescalin inhibits the production of these enzymes and thus lowers the amount of glucose available to an organ that is in constant need of sugar. When mescalin reduces the brain’s normal ration of sugar what happens? Too few cases have been observed, and therefore a comprehensive answer cannot yet be given. But what happens to the majority of the few who have taken mescalin under supervision can be summarized as follows. The ability to remember and to “think straight” is little if at all reduced.

Listening to the recordings of my conversation under the influence of the drug, I cannot discover that I was then any stupider than I am at ordinary times. ) Visual impressions are greatly intensified and the eye recovers some of the perceptual innocence of childhood, when the sensum was not immediately and automatically subordinated to the concept. Interest in space is diminished and interest in time falls almost to zero. Though the intellect remains unimpaired and though perception is enormously improved, the will suffers a profound change for the worse.

The mescalin taker sees no reason for doing anything in particular and finds most of the causes for which, at ordinary times, he was prepared to act and suffer, profoundly uninteresting. He can’t be bothered with them, for the good reason that he has better things to think about. These better things may be experienced (as I experienced them) “out there,” or “in here,” or in both worlds, the inner and the outer, simultaneously or successively. That they are better seems to be self-evident to all mescalin takers who come to the drug with a sound liver and an untroubled mind.

These effects of mescalin are the sort of effects you could expect to follow the administration of a drug having the power to impair the efficiency of the cerebral reducing valve. When the brain runs out of sugar, the undernourished ego grows weak, can’t be bothered to undertake the necessary chores, and loses all interest in those spatial and temporal relationships which mean so much to an organism bent on getting on in the world. As Mind at Large seeps past the no longer watertight valve, all kinds of biologically useless things start to happen.

In some cases there may be extra-sensory perceptions. Other persons discover a world of visionary beauty. To others again is revealed the glory, the infinite value and meaningfulness of naked existence, of the given, uncon- ceptualized event. In the final stage of egolessness there is an “obscure knowledge” that All is in all–that All is actually each. This is as near, I take it, as a finite mind can ever come to “perceiving everything that is happening everywhere in the universe. ” In this context, how significant is the enormous heightening, under mescalin, of the perception of color!

For certain animals it is biologically very important to be able to distinguish certain hues. But beyond the limits of their utilitarian spectrum, most creatures are completely color blind. Bees, for example, spend most of their time “deflowering the fresh virgins of the spring”; but, as Von Frisch has shown, they can recognize only a very few colors. Man’s highly developed color sense is a biological luxury–inestimably precious to him as an intellectual and spiritual being, but unnecessary to his survival as an animal.

To judge by the adjectives which Homer puts into their mouths, the heroes of the Trojan War hardly excelled the bees in their capacity to distinguish colors. In this respect, at least, mankind’s advance has been prodigious. Mescalin raises all colors to a higher power and makes the percipient aware of innumerable fine shades of difference, to which, at ordinary times, he is completely blind. It would seem that, for Mind at Large, the socalled secondary characters of things are primary. Unlike Locke, it evidently feels that colors are more important, better worth attending to, than masses, positions and dimensions.

Like mescalin takers, many mystics perceive supernaturally brilliant colors, not only with the inward eye, but even in the objective world around them. Similar reports are made by psychics and sensitives. There are certain mediums to whom the mescalin taker’s brief revelation is a matter, during long periods, of daily and hourly experience. From this long but indispensable excursion into the realm of theory, we may now return to the miraculous facts–four bamboo chair legs in the middle of a room.

Like Wordsworth’s daffodils, they brought all manner of wealth–the gift, beyond price, of a new direct insight into the very Nature of Things, together with a more modest treasure of understanding in the field, especially, of the arts. A rose is a rose is a rose. But these chair legs were chair legs were St. Michael and all angels. Four or five hours after the event, when the effects of a cerebral sugar shortage were wearing off, I was taken for a little tour of the city, which included a visit, towards sundown, to what is modestly claimed to be the World’s Biggest Drug Store.

At the back of the W. B. D. S. , among the toys, the greeting cards and the comics, stood a row, surprisingly enough, of art books. I picked up the first volume that came to hand. It was on Van Gogh, and the picture at which the book opened was “The Chair”–that astounding portrait of a Ding an Sich, which the mad painter saw, with a kind of adoring terror, and tried to render on his canvas. But it was a task to which the power even of genius proved wholly inadequate. The chair Van Gogh had seen was obviously the same in essence as the chair I had seen.

But, though incomparably more real than the chairs of ordinary perception, the chair in his picture remained no more than an unusually expressive symbol of the fact. The fact had been manifested Suchness; this was only an emblem. Such emblems are sources of true knowledge about the Nature of Things, and this true knowledge may serve to prepare the mind which accepts it for immediate insights on its own account. But that is all. However expressive, symbols can never be the things they stand for.

It would be interesting, in this context, to make a study of the works of art available to the great knowers of Suchness. What sort of pictures did Eckhart look at? What sculptures and paintings played a part in the religious experience of St. John of the Cross, of Hakuin, of Hui-neng, of William Law? The questions are beyond my power to answer; but I strongly suspect that most of the great knowers of Suchness paid very little attention to art–some refusing to have anything to do with it at all, others being content with what a critical eye would regard as second-rate, or even, tenth-rate, works.

To a person whose transfigured and transfiguring mind can see the All in every this, the first-rateness or tenth-rateness of even a religious painting will be a matter of the most sovereign indifference. ) Art, I suppose, is only for beginners, or else for those resolute dead-enders, who have made up their minds to be content with the ersatz of Suchness, with symbols rather than with what they signify, with the elegantly composed recipe in lieu of actual dinner. I returned the Van Gogh to its rack and picked up the volume standing next to it. It was a book on Botti- celli.

I turned the pages. “The Birth of Venus”-never one of my favorites. “Mars and Venus,” that loveliness so passionately denounced by poor Ruskin at the height of his long-drawn sexual tragedy. The marvelously rich and intricate “Calumny of Apelles. ” And then a somewhat less familiar and not very good picture, “Judith. ” My attention was arrested and I gazed in fascination, not at the pale neurotic heroine or her attendant, not at the victim’s hairy head or the vernal landscape in the background, but at the purplish silk of Judith’s pleated bodice and long wind-blown skirts.

This was something I had seen before-seen that very morning, between the flowers and the furniture, when I looked down by chance, and went on passionately staring by choice, at my own crossed legs. Those folds in the trousers–what a labyrinth of endlessly significant complexity! And the texture of the gray flannel–how rich, how deeply, mysteriously sumptuous! And here they were again, in Botticelli’s picture. Civilized human beings wear clothes, therefore there can be no portraiture, no mythological or historical storytelling without representations of folded textiles.

But though it may account for the origins, mere tailoring can never explain the luxuriant development of drapery as a major theme of all the plastic arts. Artists, it is obvious, have always loved drapery for its own sake—or, rather, for their own. When you paint or carve drapery, you are painting or carving forms which, for all practical purposes, are non-representational-the kind of uncon- ditioned forms on which artists even in the most naturalistic tradition like to let themselves go.

In the average Madonna or Apostle the strictly human, fully representational element accounts for about ten per cent of the whole. All the rest consists of many colored variations on the inexhaustible theme of crumpled wool or linen. And these non-representational nine-tenths of a Madonna or an Apostle may be just as important qualitatively as they are in quantity. Very often they set the tone of the whole work of art, they state the key in which the theme is being rendered, they express the mood, the temperament, the attitude to life of the artist.

Stoical serenity reveals itself in the smooth surfaces, the broad untortured folds of Piero’s draperies. Torn between fact and wish, between cynicism and idealism, Bernini tempers the all but caricatural verisimilitude of his faces with enormous sartorial abstractions, which are the embodiment, in stone or bronze, of the everlasting commonplaces of rhetoric–the heroism, the holiness, the sublimity to which mankind perpetually aspires, for the most part in vain.

And here are El Greco’s disquietingly visceral skirts and mantles; here are the sharp, twisting, flame-like folds in which Cosimo Tura clothes his figures: in the first, tra- ditional spirituality breaks down into a nameless physiological yearning; in the second, there writhes an agonized sense of the world’s essential strangeness and hostility.

Or consider Watteau; his men and women play lutes, get ready for balls and harlequinades, embark, on velvet lawns and under noble trees, for the Cythera of every lover’s dream; their enormous melancholy and the flayed, excruciating sensibility of their creator find expression, not in the actions recorded, not in the gestures and the faces portrayed, but in the relief and texture of their taffeta skirts, their satin capes and doublets.

Not an inch of smooth surface here, not a moment of peace or confidence, only a silken wilderness of countless tiny pleats and wrinkles, with an incessant modulation–inner uncertainty rendered with the perfect assurance of a master hand—of tone into tone, of one indeterminate color into another.

The Classical World

The Classical World made many contributions to the development of science, literature, and ethics. These contributions have influenced the modern world today. Many mathematicians, astronomers, and scientists contributed to the development of many of the luxuries we enjoy today. Homer, author of The Iliad and The Odyssey, made contributions to the field of literature through his writing. In the field of ethics, many philosophers from the Classical World contributed to the standards, values, and principles of our society today. Some of the major contributions from the Classical World is in the field of science.

Mathematicians, astronomers, and scientists made important contributions that formed the basic element of science. From this basic element came the luxuries we enjoy today. Pythagoras, a mathematician, proved “the relationship between the legs and the hypotenuse of a right triangle. “1 From this, he derived the Pythagorean Theorem. This contribution mainly influenced architecture and geometry today. Equally, Eratosthenes also influenced architecture and geometry. He developed a method of determining the circumference of the Earth by using geometry.

Developed by Archimedes, the Archimedes Principle contributes greatly to the field of science. The principle states that “a body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. “2 The Archimedes Principle influenced the development of the boat and submarine. The Classical World also contributed to the field of literature. Literature has come a long way from the Classical World since its development by many authors and playwrights of this time period. Homer, author of The Iliad and The Odyssey, affected prose and poetry through his writing of Homeric poems.

Sophocles, a playwright, “presented many changes in Greek Drama. “3 These changes led to the development of more actors in a play and the addition of more scenery. Accordingly, these changes have influenced modern day movies in that they have more actors. Since the Classical World contributed to the fields of science and literature, it also helped develop the fields of ethics. The standards, values, and principles of a society were also contributed by various philosophers of the Classical World. Pythagoras founded the “Rosicrucian Fellowship,” a religious and philosophical school.

One of the hree main rules of this school was, “No eating beans or meat,” which most likely influenced the idea of the modern day vegetarian. Wanting people to think for themselves, Socrates did not want the people of his time to “imitate their elders. “4 To Socrates, “people should depend on reason and logic to guide their lives. ” 4 These beliefs have contributed to the development of ethics. Also these beliefs have influenced the basic thinking and making decisions of man. In these three fields, the Classical World made many contributions. The Classical World made many contributions to the fields of science, iterature, and ethics.

These contributions, in many ways, influenced the modern world. Mathematicians, astronomers, and scientists like Pythagoras, Eratosthenes, and Archimedes contributed to the field of science and influenced the modern world greatly. Contributing in the field of literature, Homer and Sophocles have affected prose, poetry, and Drama through their literary works. Philosophers have changed our views on different matters such as alternatives to eating. The contributions from the Classical World developed and influenced the way we view science, literature and Drama, and ethics in today’s society.

Cryogenics and the Future

Cryogenics is a study that is of great importance to the human race and has been a major project for engineers for the last 100 years. Cryogenics, which is derived from the Greek word kryos meaning “Icy Cold,” is the study of matter at low temperatures. However low is not even the right word for the temperatures involved in cryogenics, seeing as the highest temperature dealt with in cryogenics is 100 (C (-148 (F) and the lowest temperature used, is the unattainable temperature -273. 15 (C (-459. 67 (F).

Also, when speaking of cryogenics, the terms Celsius and Fahrenheit are rarely used. Instead scientists use a different measurement called the Kelvin (K). The Kelvin scale for Cryogenics goes from 173 K to a fraction of a Kelvin above absolute zero. There are also two main sciences used in cryogenics, and they are Superconductivity and Superfluidity. Cryogenics first came about in 1877, when a Swiss Physicist named Rasul Pictet and a French Engineer named Louis P. Cailletet liquefied oxygen for the first time.

Cailletet created liquid oxygen in his lab using a process known as adiabatic expansion, which is a “thermodynamic process in which the temperature f a gas is expanded without adding or extracting heat from the gas or the surrounding system”(Vance 26). At the same time Pictet used the “Joule-Thompson Effect,” a thermodynamic process that states that the “temperature of a fluid is reduced in a process involving expansion below a certain temperature and pressure”(McClintock 4).

After Cailletet and Pictet, a third method, known as cascading, was developed by Karol S. Olszewski and Zygmut von Wroblewski in Poland. At this point in history Oxygen was now able to be liquefied at 90 K, then soon after liquid Nitrogen was obtained at 77 K, and because of these dvancements scientist all over the world began competing in a race to lower the temperature of matter to Absolute Zero (0 K) [Vance, 1-10]. Then in 1898, James DeWar mad a major advance when he succeeded in liquifying hydrogen at 20 K.

The reason this advance was so spectacular was that at 20 K hydrogen is also boiling, and this presented a very difficult handling and storage problem. DeWar solved this problem by inventing a double- walled storage container known as the DeWar flask, which could contain and hold the liquid hydrogen for a few days. However, at this time scientists realized hat if they were going to make any more advances they would have to have better holding containers. So, scientists came up with insulation techniques that we still use today.

These techniques include expanded foam materials and radiation shielding. [McClintock 43-55] The last major advance in cryogenics finally came in 1908 when the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerling Onnes liquefied Helium at 4. 2 and then 3. 2 K. The rest of the advances in cryogenics have been extremely small since it is a fundamental Thermodynamic law that you can approach but never actually reach bsolute zero. Since 1908 our technology has greatly increased and we can now freeze sodium gas to within 40 millionths of a Kelvin above absolute zero.

However, in the back of every physicists head they want to break the Thermodynamic law and reach a temperature of absolute zero where every proton, electron, and neutron in an atom is absolutely frozen. Also , their are two subjects that are also closely related to cryogenics called Superconductivity and Superfluidity. Superconductivity is a low-temperature phenomenon where a metal loses all electrical resistance below a ertain temperature, called the Critical Temperature(Tc), and transfers to “… a state of zero resistance,… “(Tilley 11).

This unusual behavior was also discovered by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes. It was discovered when Onnes and one of his graduate students realized that Mercury loses all of its electrical resistance when it reaches a temperature of 4. 15 K. However, almost all elements and compounds have Tc’s between 1 K and 15 K (or -457. 68 (F and -432. 67 (F) so they would not be very useful to us on a day to day basis[McClintock 208- 226]. Then in 1986, J Gregore Bednorz and K. Alex Muller discovered that an oxide of lanthanum, barium, and copper becomes superconductive at 30 K.

This discovery shocked the world and stimulated scientists to find even more “High- Temperature Superconductors”. After this discovery, in 1987, scientists at the University of Houston and the University of Alabama discovered YBCO, a compound with a Tc of 95 K. This discovery made superconductivity possible above the boiling point of liquid Nitrogen, so now the relatively cheap, liquid nitrogen could replace the high priced liquid helium required for cryogenic experiments. To date the highest reported Tc is 125 K, which belongs to a compund made of Thallium, Barium, Calcium, Copper, and Oxygen.

Now, with the availability of high-temperature superconductors, all the sciences including, cryogenics have made extraordinary advances. Some applications are demonstrated by magnetically levitated trains, energy storage, motors, and Zero-Loss Transmission Lines. Also, superconducting electromagnets are used in Particle Accelerators, Fusion Energy Plants, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging devices (MRI’s) in Hospitals. Furthermore high-speed cryogenic computer memories and communication devices are in various stages of research. This field has grown immensely since 1986 as you can see and will probably keep growing.

The second subject related to cryogenics is Superfluidity. Superfluidity is a strange state of matter that is most common in liquid Helium, when it is below a temperature of 2. 17 K. Superfluidity means that the liquid “… discloses no viscosity when traveling through a capillary or narrow slit… “(Landau 195) and also flows “… through the slit disclosing no friction… (Landau 195) That this means is that when Helium reaches this state it can flow, without any friction, through the smallest holes and in between atoms in a compund.

If the top is off the beaker it is also possible for the liquid Helium to flow up the side of the baker and out of the beaker until all the liquid helium is gone. It was then discovered that when any liquid approaches about . 2 K it has almost the exact same properties of superconducting metals, as far as specific heat, magnetic properties, and thermal conductivity. Even though, both superconducting and Superfluidic aterials have similar properties, the phenomenon of Superfluidity is much more complex, and is not completely understood by today’s physicists.

Cryogenics also consists of many smaller sciences, including Cryobiology, which is “the study of the effects of low-temperatures on materials of biological origin. “(Vance 528) Developments in this field have led to modern methods of preserving blood, semen, tissue, and organs below the temperature that was obtained by the use of liquid nitrogen. Also Cryobiology has led to the development of the cryogenic scalpel which can deaden or destroy tissue with high degree of accuracy, making it possible to clot cuts as soon as you cut them.

So in theory you could one day have surgery without having to deal with any blood. Another field is Cryopumping. Cryopumping is the process “of condensing gas or vapor on a low-temperature surface. “(Vance 339) This is done by extracting gas from a vacuum vessel by conventional methods then freezing the remaining gas on low temperature coils. This process has been useful when trying to simulate the properties that the vacuum in outerspace will have on electronic circuitry.

Cryogenics has also been a part of many modern advances including: The transportation of energy in the form of a liquefied gas. Processing, handling, and providing food by cryogenic means has become a large business, providing both frozen and freeze-dried food. Liquid Oxygen powers rockets and propulsion systems for space research. Liquid Hydrogen is used in high-energy physics experiments. Using cryogenic drill bits so drilling for oil and other gases is easier. Chemical synthesis and catalysis. Better fire fighting fluids. Gas separation. Metal Fabrication.

As you can see by now cryogenics is still a very young science, but in the last ten years it has catapulted to being the backbone of almost every other form of science. However, its full potential will probably not be understood for quite a while. Though, as you can see, if we can grasp the concepts of cryogenics we will have a tool that will allow us to do things ranging from making better drill bits to exploring the universe. The future of cryogenics can best be summed up by Krafft A. Ehricke, a rocket developer, when he said, “It’s centeral goal is the preservation of civilization. “

The Wonderful World of Lasers

Laser stands for Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Lasers work by producing an intense beam of bright light that travels in one direction. The laser has the unique ability to produce one specific color or wavelength of light, which can be varied in its intensity and pulse duration. The newest laser systems have become remarkably precise and selective, allowing treatment results and safety levels not previously available.

All lasers contain an energized substance that can increase the intensity of light that passes through it. This substance is called the amplifying medium and it can be a solid, a liquid or a gas. Einstein can be considered as the father of the laser. 80 years ago he postulated photons and stimulated emission and won the Nobel Prize for related research on the photoelectric effect. This section discusses the historical evolution from microwave lasers to optical lasers and finally to x-ray lasers and lasers discovered in space.

Some theorists were on the right track, especially Planck, who proposed that nature acted by using “quanta” of energy. But it was the young, unknown Albert Einstein who explained everything and started the field of quantum mechanics with his paper on the photoelectric effect. Einstein showed that light does not consist of continuous waves, nor of small, hard particles. Instead, it exists as bundles of wave energy called photons. Each photon has an energy that corresponds to the frequency of the waves in the bundle.

The higher the frequency (the bluer the color), the greater the energy carried by that bundle. Einstein’s Nobel Prize was not awarded for either one of his relativity theories – the Nobel Committee thought them too speculative at the time. Rather Einstein won the prize for explaining the photoelectric effect. Two of Einstein’s 1905 papers were on the theory of atoms and molecules, yet there were still many scientists in 1905 who did not believe in atoms or molecules. There are many lasers such as the carbon dioxide laser or CO2 laser, and many forms of this too.

In contrast to the old carbon dioxide lasers, the newest generation of the CO2 laser delivers short bursts of extremely high-energy laser light. In a neodymium YAG (Nd:YAG) laser, the amplifying medium is a rod of yttrium aluminum garnate (YAG) containing neodymium ions. In a dye laser, it is a solution of a fluorescent dye in a solvent such as methanol. In a helium-neon laser, it is a mixture of the gases helium and neon. In a laser diode, it is a thin layer of semiconductor material sandwiched between other semiconductor layers.

The factor by which the intensity of the light is increased by the amplifying medium is known as the gain. The gain is not a constant for a particular type of medium. It depends critically upon the wavelength of the incoming light, the length of the amplifying medium and also upon the extent to which the amplifying medium has been energized. In order to increase the intensity of the light, we would need to energize the amplifying medium, or in other terms, pumping. There are several ways of pumping an amplifying medium.

When the amplifying medium is a solid, pumping is usually achieved by irradiating it with intense light. This light is absorbed by atoms or ions within the medium and raises them into higher energy states. Often, the pumping light comes from xenon-filled flash tubes that are positioned alongside the amplifying medium. Passing a high voltage electric discharge through the flash tubes causes them to emit an intense flash of white light, some of which is absorbed by the amplifying medium. A laser that is pumped in this way will have a pulsed output.

Pumping an amplifying medium by irradiating it with intense light is usually referred to optical pumping. In some cases, the source of the pumping light is another laser. Gaseous amplifying media have to be contained in some form of enclosure or tube and are often pumped by passing an electric discharge through the medium itself. The mechanism by which this elevates atoms or molecules in the gas to higher energy states depends upon the gas that is being excited and is often complex. In many gas lasers, the end windows of the laser tube are inclined at an angle and they are referred to as brewster windows.

Brewster windows are able to transmit a beam that is polarized in the plane of the diagram without losses due to reflection. Such a laser would have an output beam that is polarized. This remarkable technology is used in many fields such as surgery, military purposes, and accurate measurement in both speed and distance. Many people these days spend thousands on their low self-images by using laser surgery to enhance their looks and rid them of their blemishes. In a military point of view, lasers are a potential weapon and an extremely useful defense mechanism.

Even now, sci-fi tales of the laser gun have been told, we are not far off to its development. The laser has been used in the medical field as well. This revolutionary technology actually vaporizes the undesired skin tissue, one layer at a time, revealing fresh skin underneath. The CO2 lasers highly focused aim enables the dermatological surgeon to gently remove the skins surface with a low risk of scarring and complications in properly selected patients. The laser beam can gently vaporize and remove wrinkles, scars and blemishes, seal blood vessels or cut skin tissue.

Lasers can also be used in defense. For example the use of the laser attatched onto a satellite would enable us to destroy incoming or airborne missiles before they reach their target. Even though our government wasted millions of taxpayers money on the laser defense systems, they could waste more on developing new and improved satellites, or maybe even working ones too. An alternate technique for boost-phase interception requires that space interceptors be constantly over the enemy territory.

Keeping a sufficient number of interceptors continuously ready for action and over the enemy territory is costly, although not impossible. Advances in technology — lasers, neutral particle beams, non-nuclear “smart” weapons — make it possible to attack missiles as they rise. The laser is also a key tool used in measurement as well. The use of measuring with a laser is used in many fields such as measuring the distance between objects to even the speed of gases. An instrument called the iterferometer is used to measure very small changes in distance .

Todays scientist on the San Adreas fault is actually using this instrument in order to find slight movements created by the fault. Just like radar the laser can be used to measure long distances as well, but a even more accurately. Prior to the astronauts arrival on the moon, a mirror has been left in order to judge the distance between the moon and the earth by pulses of laser light aimed at the mirror. The reflection back is then divided by half, just like radar, to find the distance.

Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

Gravity if one of the four fundamental forces in the universe. Though the fundamental principles of it eluded scientists until Sir Isaac Newton was able to mathematically describe it in 1687 (Eddington 93). Gravity plays a serious part in everyday actions as it keeps everything on the ground; without gravity everything would be immobile unless a force was applied (then it would move infinitely because there would be no force to stop it). Perhaps, the best place to start then would be with such a simple item as an apple (after all it is what “sparked” Newton’s creativity).

The apple is ne of the two curiosities (the other being the moon) that led Newton to discover The Law of Universal Gravitation in 1666 (Eddington 93). As Newton later wrote, it is the story of the sight of an apple falling to the ground (he was resting at Woolsthorpe because of the plague at Cambridge) that caused Newton to wonder if this same force was what held the moon in place (Gamow 41). Newton knew that an object fell to the earth at a rate of about 9. 8 meters (32 feet) per second second as pointed out by Galileo.

Thus “the apple that fell from the tree” fell to Earth at about this rate. For the first basic xplanation of this we will assume a linear plane, one in which all forces act in only one direction. Therefore when the apple fell it went straight towards the center of the earth (accelerating at about 9. 8 meters per second second). Newton then figured that the same force that pulled the apple to Earth also pulls the moon to the earth. But what force keeps the moon from flying into the earth or the earth flying into the sun (Edwards 493)?

To better understand this, one other aspect must first be understood. Galileo showed that all objects fall to the earth at the same rate (the classic annonball and feather proved this). But why? If a piano and a saxophone were both dropped from the top of the Empire State Building then they would both slam into the ground at the same rate. Newton realized then that the moon and the apple were both being pulled towards Earth at the same rate but yet the moon was the only one who resisted the force and stayed in its elliptical orbit (Eddington 94).

Newton’s Third Law of Motion says that every force exerted by one object on another is equal to a force, but opposite in direction, exerted be the second object on the first (every reaction has an equal but opposite eaction). So the force of the earth pulling the apple to the ground is proportionally the same as the force the apple exerts back on the earth. Now Johannes Kepler lived some forty-five years before Isaac Newton. And he showed that the orbits of the planets in our solar system were elliptical.

When the time of Newton came around he mathematically proved that, if Kepler’s First Law was true, then the force on a planet varied inversely with the square of the distance between the planet and the sun. He did this using Kepler’s Third Law (Zitzewitz 160). The distance in this formula is from the center of the masses and is the average distance over their entire period. It is also important to note that the force acted in the direction of this line (an important factor when dealing with vectors) (Zitzewitz 160). Newton, confident that his idea of all objects exerting a force back on Earth, devised a formula for Universal Gravitation.

It is important to note that Newton was not the first to think of Universal Gravitation, he was just the first one to make considerable and remarkable proofs for it based on mathematical explanations. He said that if force is relative to the mass of an object and it’s acceleration then the force between two objects must also be the same. Thus he came up with the first part of the equation. Also, as he had proved earlier using Kepler’s Third Law of Motion, that the force between two objects is inversely proportional to their distances squared (an inverse square law), then that must also be part of the Universal Gravitation equation.

Thus we know that the two masses and the distance are related to the force; and because the distance is inversely proportional then the product of the masses ivided by the distance between their centers squared must equal the force between the two objects (Zitzewitz 161). Now earlier, Newton had proved that the force on an object was proportional to an object’s mass and its acceleration. And the equation that he had formulated so far did not include anything that would resemble the acceleration. Thus he knew that a gravitational constant must be present and that it should be the same throughout all of the universe.

However, due to scientific limitations he was never able to figure out the exact value of this constant (Zitzewitz 161). One hundred years later, though, an young engineer by the name of Cavendish devised a complex apparatus that was able to measure this gravitational constant. Basically by using very sensitive telescopes and known angles he was able to determine the distance one ball moved another ball. This is often known as “weighing the earth” (Zitzewitz 162-163). The effects of Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation were varied; but the most common use for his law was the prediction of several planets beyond Jupiter and Saturn.

In 1830, it appeared that Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation had not been correct because the orbit of Saturn did not follow his law. Some astronomers thought that the force of an undiscovered planet may be changing its course and in 1845 a couple of scientists at the Berlin Observatory began searching for this hidden planet. It did not take very long. The massive planet now known as Neptune was found on the first night of searching (Zitzewitz 164). Perhaps one of the most key things about any theory of gravity prior to Einstein was the fact that none of them proposed the origin of gravity.

Newton’s law always proved to be true in the common world but did not explain he source of the force (Eddington 95). Albert Einstein proposed his Theory of Gravity in his General Theory of Relativity. In this he said that space was a three dimensional plane and that masses curved this plane in one way or another (Eddington 95). Thus a massive object would cause a large “hole” and smaller objects would “orbit” it. It is interesting to note that in either case, Newton’s or Einstein’s law, both prove to be true in the common world. Massive universal objects, such as black holes, are an exception but that’s another story in itself (Edwards 498).

Polymerase Chain Reaction Simulation

The propose of this lab was to understand how by running a gel electrophoresis on a batch of DNA we are able to see how many approximately cycles it has gone through. Methods: Casting the Agarose Gel In this experiment . 8% solution was used. By using a 250ml flask the buffer solution was prepared. Using the equation to make enough solution for the entire lab class the equation had to be multiplied by four. The contents of this equation were added to the 250ml flask and swirled to evenly distribute it contents. Then a mark was placed on the outside of the flask to indicate the level of the solution before heating.

The flask opening had perafilm placed over it so that there was little to no evaporation. The solution was then placed in the microwave and heated. The solution was then heated for one min and swirled for evenly dissolved Agarose. The Agarose was then cooled, so that it was not to hot and the plate would crack. Some water was added to the solution because of there was some evaporation during heating. Once the gel had cooled, it was poured into the plate between the rubber dams. The plate was filled about half way up the comb arms. These dams are placed in the plate to prevent leaking.

Then the gel was added and allowed to completely soiditify, which takes around 20mins. Preparing the Gel for Electrophoresis once the rubber dams have been removed (carefully), the comb was then removed. Then the buffer was made. The buffer was made by using the equation, but also multiplying it by four, for the three lab groups. Then the chambers around the gel plate is filled with the buffer, just enough buffer to cover the gel plate in a very small amount. Then the dyes were loaded to there correct wells. Once the gels were added (carefully) the lid was placed on the plate and system was turned on.

The system ran for about 10mins. (Hint the system is running when there are bubbles occurring in the buffer solution. Once the gel had been run the exactly gel had been removed from the buffer, placed on tin foil and moisten with a small amount of buffer solution. Then the gel had a DNA Instastain sheet placed on top of it. The sheet was placed on the gel firmly and a beackr and gel casting tray were placed on top of the gel. The stain was allowed to set for two minuets. Then the gel was placed under ultra violet light and the pathways that the different wells made were seen very clearly.

This was how the results were accomplished. Results: Due to problems with the loading of the gel, the results of the gel were very inconclusive. The results that should have been observed by the group, are very small line at A (the standard DNA Fragments), At B (Control Sample after 0 cycles) there should have been an extremly small line. The wells for C (sample after 10 Cycles), D (sample after 30 cycles) and E (sample after 50 cycles) should progressavly get large from one to another. F should be the longest and most easily seen line, because this process was run overnight, which allowed more time for more DNA to be prepared.

Religion Versus Common Sense

Of all the things learned and decided in ones life, the subject of religion is always considered the most important. This report very well may upset some of the Bible belt Christians, who cannot seem to allow any thought or idea but there own, but it needs to be said. The basis is simple, in todays world, and especially here in America, the concept of religion has taken an unfortunate turn.

The power of religion has been given almost solely to the wrong people. Priest, Evangelist, Pastors, Cardinals, and all the rest have been given the power to interpret the Bible to their liking. People who attend church believe that they are going to Heaven simply for the fact that they attend every Sunday morning. I guess they feel that they can then criticize everyone for there sins, and forget about there own. The famous saying holds true,absolute power corrupts absolutely, and the church has been corrupted to an unbearable extent. Story after story, the public is bombarded with news highlights of corrupt Preachers and elevangelists who have embezzled money from the church and thousands of dollars from hard working citizens.

But the worst thing that the Christian society has going for it is the hypocritical majority that has saturated the whole population of the United States with the idea that the Church is basically a witch hunt.

Todays Churches are no longer places of Holy worship and gathering for study of the bible, but is instead a place for the ladies to show off there new dresses and to spread gossip that they heard throughout the week.

They call themselves Christians and Americans, but they are far from both. True Christians spread the faith and attempt to save lost souls, but instead have become involved in politics of the day. Case in point, when the Christians Coalition-back Kenneth Starr investigation began to attack President Clinton, I heard from several intelligent nonchristians that they could never see believing in a faith that allowed such persecution and hate.

Although they say they teach love, hate seems to be the main topic of the day. When it comes to the issue of separation of church and state, they are quick to jump and argue against it. This would be fine with me, but the ignorant fools only believe in discussing their own religion, blind to the fact that this is a direct slap in the face to everyone who worships another way. Who would want to convert to a religion so oblivious and asinine?

What about the issue of evolution? Most believe that it is sacrilegious to challenge the Bibles version of the dawn of time and the creation of man, but I believe that God has a way to explain everything that has happened and will happen, such as the end of time. For instance, it says that the Heavens and the Earth was created in seven days, but do you think God is running on the same clock we are? On the other hand, for that matter, do you think he is running on any clock at all?

Perhaps the seven days was in fact several billion years. However, to get back to the evolutionary discussion, it is science fact that evolution occurs. Whether social Darwinism or natural selection, evolution is the basic instinct of an animal to survive. To prove to any person that it is real, make someone step outside in the middle of winter with nothing on but a pair of shorts and a T-shirt. Next to them, place a jacket and some insulated pants. Reminding them that they cannot come inside for ten minutes, literally anyone would put the extra clothing on. Why? Because the person was, cold and they did not want to freeze.

Perhaps the most mind boggling thing that todays people think is there take on so-called other religions. Christians hate Muslims. Muslims hate Christians. Why? Because they are from different parts of the world. Not because they worship different religions, because although no one wants to here it, the two religions are the same.

It is said in the Bible that everyone will be given a chance to here the gospel, but that is nearly an impossible feat since Christianity is not even the worlds largest religion. The two religions believe and worship the same thing, only there are slight differences because they are so geologically diverse. When you put two mice of the same size in two separate environments, they will grow and adapt differently, although deep down they are essentially the same. It is unfortunate that todays Christians have there heads so far each others but with all the infighting that they cannot accomplish anything. How can I aspect them to reach out to followers of Islam if they are still bickering over each sect, such as Baptist, Church Of Christ, Presbyterians, and so fourth.

So when deciding on a religion, if one has no already choose one, perhaps one might follow my path. I believe in my God, who I put total and undying love and faith in. I would not think twice about dying for my beliefs, for I know that they are just and true. I do not fear death, since I know that a better place awaits me after this short span on Earth is over. I always remember a few simple things, my God is never short on cash, but helping others is the only way. I believe that a person must truly feel sorry for their sins, and must repent against them.

I believe that my views should be heard for they could save lost souls, but not to force them upon others, for it would scare them away perhaps forever. I believe to do on to others that you would have them do to you, which is the one that most Christians have forgotten. I finally believe (among several other things) that nearly all Monistic religions are the same, and that if you do truly believe in God and have been saved, that you will be welcomed into the Gates of Heaven. But please do not take my word for it find out for yourself. Thank you, God bless, and goodnight.

Argumentative and Persuasive Essay – Legalize Clon

Cloning is a very controversial topic since it relates to moral values of human beings. In February 1997 scientists in Scotland announced the birth of the first cloned sheep named Dolly, this heralded the future of cloning possibilities and scientists began extensive experiments on cloning and have since then cloned both plants and animals successfully. The next step was to clone actual human beings but before experiments could have been carried out pressure started build on the scientists because people started to doubt if cloning was ethical and morally correct. Governments began to introduce bans and constraints on cloning, as they felt cloning was not correct and because they represented the people of its country, it had to act on it. Cloning has its cons but its pros seem to overcome them greatly.

If cloning were allowed to be experimented scientists would come up of a way to clone body organs which are an exact replica of an individual body organ. This would prove very to be very beneficial to a person who may have lost a body organ such as a kidney, scientists could clone that particular organ for the individual, which, in the long run, would work better than a transplant organ.

Cloning will certainly expand the scope of medicine greatly, thus enhance the possibilities of conquering diseases such as the Parkinson’s disease, cancer and other diseases that were earlier considered incurable

Cloning could be used to increase the population of endangered species of animals and thus save them from total extinction. This would help maintain a natural balance on the earth and have a continuos natural life cycle.

Cloning could certainly benefit couples who are infertile and want to have a child of their own, thus they could use cloning to produce a baby with their similar characteristics. In fact they may be able to even choose the characteristics of their child. Equally important women who are single could have child, using cloning instead of artificial insemination. Cloning could also provide a copy of a child for a couple whose child had died.

Another goal of cloning is to produce livestock with ideal characters for the agricultural industry and to be able to manufacture biological products such as proteins for humans.

Some people would suggest that cloning is unnatural and not ethically correct but so would be talking medicine when you fall sick. The whole of the modern medicine world in based on unnaturalness, so it seems cloning would be part of that modern medicine world. Some people also suggest that clones of human beings would behave in different ways than a normal human being would however this is also wrong as the clones will behave like any other human being would behave as it will have all the characteristics of a normal human being, as long as the individual who was cloned had human characteristics, it wont really matter.

In conclusion I would like to say that, as you’ve seen above, cloning could be used in various ways to benefit the lives of humans .It is inevitable that cloning, at some stage, will play an important, if not vital, part in our lives therefore it is about time that society accepts this fact and lifts all constraints upon cloning so that more research can be carried out and help eliminate any risks associated with cloning.

A Simple Understanding of Physics

Science is divided into many disciplines.  One such division is physics.  The study of  relations among observations we can make of the universe constitutes the body of science, and relations among observations of the physical universe constitutes the subject matter of physics. (Adair, 25)  It is plain to see from this description that physics does encompass a wide array of studies.

The majority of physical phenomena investigated has been reduced to mathematical formulas by dedicated scientists endeavoring to understand and explain these A more refined interpretation of physics exerts Physics deals with the material aspect of the inanimate world, and is particularly concerned with processes in which the nature of the matter changes…the measured properties of lifeless matter involving no change of chemical composition and of energy and radiation, in all their many forms, are the particular province of physics. (Andrade, 204).

Through the scientific method and the use of mathematics, physicists have perfected formulas and laws to describe and predict the behavior and relationships of both matter and energy.  They have scrupulously dissected each facet defining the attributes of such phenomena as movement,  sound, light, electricity, magnetism and the processes of the cosmos.  It was through this research that the foundation for the development of the technological age was laid.  The original ideas of  telephones, airplanes, computers, hydraulics, and space travel have all become mere realities due to the study of In order to get a good idea of the definition of physics it is also important to explore some of the people who gave credibility to this aspect of science.

These people and their histories allow a humanization of a subject often perceived as passionless and automated.  One such person, who is probably the most famous among non-scientists, is Sir Isaac Newton.  The story of Newton discovering gravity while sitting under an apple tree has been immortalized in every elementary school students mind.  Of course few of them understand that his real efforts were to illustrate the motion of the planets.  His supreme achievement lay in the recognition that the force that caused an apple to fall to the ground and the force that kept the moon in place in its orbit round the Earth were only different manifestations of one universal Another one of the most crucial scientists was Galileo Galilei.

His clash with the Catholic Church and his belief that man could determine the nature of reality without the churchs assistance, but rather through his own observations, actually led to the conception of the scientific method.  It was through his initial exploration that he proved his theory of a heliocentric solar system.  This disagreement with the churchs earth is the center of the universe theory did cause him much strife, but his publications helped eventually establish Copernican Another well known student and teacher of physics is Albert Einstein.  His theory of relativity paved the way for the creation of atomic energy and the detonation of the first atomic bomb.

This same research also helped to further a better understanding of the motion of planets. The most revered physicist of modern day science has to be Stephen Hawking.  A student and professor of physics at Oxford university… (Hawking, 13), he not only furthered our understanding of the universe through his research on the properties and existence of black holes, but also attempted to explain his theories and others to the everyday layman in his best selling book A These men observed the natural processes around them and developed theories and formulas to elucidate and characterize why things appeared the way they did.  In short, physics is devoted to analysis and testing of extensive logical structures that can be (and usually are) built on narrow bases of experience, rather than to a study of relations among broad categories and observation. (Adair, 26).

In other words the more these men explored, the more they needed to specialize in more precise aspects of natural phenomena.  Today physics is fragmented into a myriad of specializations.  Each field taking ideas from another fields research and ultimately proving that the more we understand, the more we realize One of the earliest utilizations of the science of physics was in its ability to explain the way things moved, both on the ground and in the air.  By developing an acute understanding of the forces that affect movement, the possibilities of air and space travel became realities.

By observing and studying the way many different things move these scientists developed formulas that, once proven consistent, also helped them understand more ardently the nature of the universe.  They studied everything from the movement of the heavens to movements and relationships of sub atomic particles, which was made possible with the invention of the electron microscope.  In addition to the way things moved, some physicists studied the significance and fashions of heat, light, Few people today understand how much our culture owes to the study of physics.

The study of light and the way it reflects and refracts gave us eyeglasses that perfected ones vision.  The continued study of the movement of light has also led to the creation of lasers.  In addition to understanding how to light was directed this research also gave scientists a better understanding of the way the eye worked which, in turn, led to the development of cameras For the traditional college student, physics may be part of a regular course load.  And for too many of these students it is simply a series of useless formulas and theories.

As students attend physics class and attempt to do their homework, more often than not many get confused and frustrated and either end up withdrawing from (or failing) class. Yet, to the willing and persevering student physics can be a great tool.  As students of Physics it is important we understand the many tools studying this discipline affords us  Not only is it key to understanding the working of much of our environment, but also it is an excellent exercise for the analytical mind. Physics has to be one of the most crucial scientific disciplines in our culture today.  It has provided us with the technology to stay healthier, live longer and more comfortably, and to process more information than all the generations before us put together. It is through this research that we have come to understand our place in the universe, our relationship to all things, and the nature

Bibliography:

Adair, Robert.  The Great Design – Particles, Fields and Creation.  (1987).

New York, New York,  Oxford University Press, 25-26. Andrade, E.  An Approach to Modern Physics.  (1956).

Garden City, New York.  Doubleday Anchor Books, 204. Burns, Desmond and MacDonald, Simon.  Physics for Biology and Pre-Medical Students.(1970).

Reading, Massachusetts.  Addison-Wesley Publishing Company,  195.  Hawking, Stephen.  A Brief History of Time.  (1988).

New York, New York.  Bantam Books.  13

Astrology – Applications in Business

Astrology is the science of certain cryptic relations between the celestial bodies and terrestrial life. It is considered an art and a practical science. It lays no claim to be what used to be called an exact science, but studies certain predispositions or tendencies in human life, which are sometimes indicated so clearly that they become virtual certainties. The possible uses of astrology are endless and may be used to a variety of means. Since the days of the Chaldeans, it was known that the sun, moon, and planets followed similar paths, the zodiac.

It is a zone of the celestial sphere that extends from 8. degrees on either side if the path of the sun. As a primitive calendar, the zodiacal belt was arbitrarily divided into twelve sections of 30 degrees each. these are the famous signs of the zodiac. The orgins of the names given to each sign extend into the most remote regions of antiquity. Terrestrial animal gods, whether real or imagined , were one day projected onto the constellations which, in the Chaldean imagination, they resembled. This celestial menagerie has furthermore given the zodiac its name, for in greek, it means “route of animals.

The sun enters the first zodiacal sign, Aries , and then ontinues its path through the remaining eleven signs. The twelve signs of the zodiac are: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces. The moon and the planets pass through the signs too, but obviously at different speeds from those of the sun. The moon, which is close to the earth, circles the zodiac in twenty-nine days, while the planet Pluto needs two hundred fifty years. Planets also can be seen to slow down, stop, and even reverse directions in relationship to the constellations that they cross.

In reality, the planet inexorably continues along its way. But the speed of the earth itself interacts with that of the planet to occasionally give this impression. The symbolism of the twelve signs is a very ancient tradition passed along from Manilius and Ptolemy of Alexandria. It ascribes well-defined properties to each sign, influences transmitted to the child at birth that determine his character, health, and destiny. Passing through twelve signs, the planets, play different parts. Being born at the moment when one of the signs is occupied by several planets confers the properties of this sign on the individual.

The most important celestial figure is that of the sun. This what determines what sign the child was born under. In this way an ancient tradition has divided human beings into twelve psychological types whose descriptions are intuitive of human nature. This interpretation of the twelve signs is a blend of several different works but generally agree on the signification of the signs of the zodiac. ARIES (March 21-April 20) Ruled by Mars, the Aries is the incarnation of violent will, impatience, impulsiveness, and rapid, often precipitated, decisions. The principal qualities are enthusiasm, courage, independence, and pride.

But Aries is too aggressive and impulsive. Like the animal that it symbolizes, he has a great tendency to thrust ahead with his horns without having reflected beforehand. To succeed in life the aries must keep his enthusiasm but moderate his ardor. The Aries essence is the principal of acceleration personified. “Fast” is the word that governs all activities from falling in love to saving a hopeless situation. Ariens talk fast, think fast, move fast and have no patience for people who don’t. Ariens thrive on challenge and are born leaders, eager to break through old barriers to watch their ideas take hold.

Their nature is dynamic, fiery and fiercely determined to have its own ay, regardless. And because they can be such an audacious, impassioned, overwhelming force to handle, they get their own way more often than not. A displeased Aries can be like a tornado: if caught standing in the path of either, there is no way to remain impervious. There may be disturbing sounds and things may begin to fly, but it doesn’t last long. Ariens are highly generative and immensely positive in their approach to all they undertake. There is an extraordinary courage in this sign that springs from vitality and confidence that sings of miracles.

This is a sign that senses possibility n the improbable and that can create new conditions out of chaos. The Aries vision is progressive and expansive, and their approach enthusiastic and inspiring. They bring an incandescence to everything they care about. One strength this sign is missing is subtlety. And one way this deficiency comes through is with the kind of candor that can kill. When Ariens are good, they are very good; when they are bad, they are very bad. Taurus (April 21-May 22) It is Venus who governs this sign. In general, Taurus is a concrete being, firmly attached to the goods of this world.

He has a strong but peaceful sensuality. His anger is rare, in the mage of the peaceful beast that is his totem, but it comes abruptly and violently: he easily “sees red. ” Most often however, he demonstrates his good sense, stability and fidelity. He can sometimes be reproached for lack of detachment and disinterestedness. Taurus is archetypal earth, steady and enduring, solid as the ground beneath one’s feet. By nature, Taureans are strong and basic, practical and uncomplicated in their approach to life. Taureans are loyal and loving in pragmatic ways that promote positive feelings.

Builders of bonds, nests, and families, Taureans know instinctively how to make a house a home. Taureans have a way of consuming their own possessions, or preserving and cherishing them like objects of fine art. The sheer sensuous pleasure that a Taurean is capable of taking in life is something the more mental signs can learn from. However, like anything else, it is prone to excess and can pose problems. The Taurean tunes negative can be cold, brutal, violent, and sadistic, the type of person to take a life simply to make an angry point.

Bottled up and often displaced anger is a key problem for they do not deal well with their deeper emotions. When fixed in a chosen direction and highly motivated, the ypical Taurean can outendure all competition, opposition and obstacles of every kind. However, the motivation has to spring from something that is highly valued. Gemini (May 21-June 21) It is Gemini that influences the gemini, the crafty Mercury, god of eloquence, merchants and thieves. He is above all a shrewd being, constantly proving his adaptability in all circumstances. He enjoys social contacts.

All recognize Gemini’s brilliance and spirituality. He must nonetheless guard against falling into easiness that would make of him a superficial, unstable and mixed-up individual. He should put intelligence in the service of a durable cause. In love,he must be careful of artificiality, and put more sincerity into rushes of feeling. “I think therefore I am” is the classic Gemini code for carrying on with life. Geminis meet all of their problems “head” on and have a set of reasons for all their motivations-including those that are purely emotional.

People born under this sign are smart and glib, social and superficially clever. Gemini is the sign of communication, and most Geminis can talk their way out of a maximum-security prison. Or, when the guileful trickster takes over, they can manipulate somebody else behind bars. Geminis tend to be self-involved and fear those who sabotage heir sense of freedom. Seeking stimulation but having a strong sense of self-preservation, they will avoid anything that seriously threatens their ego base. Instinctively, they select and sort out what or who is most important in their scheme of things.

Quite often such discriminations are based on a desire for power. Highly verbal and gregarious, Geminis have a gift for talking and taking advantage of the attention that their clever words attract. There is great power in their ability to generate an eager and receptive audience. Caught up in the moment, they lack self-consciousness and have the ability to get the most olorous crowd to break into contagious laughter. Because the thinking process overrides their ability to feel, Geminis have to train their minds to work for them rather than against them.

A powerful mind is a calm, focused and disciplined one. On the other hand, a mind that is out of control gets nowhere, and is a Gemini pitfall which finds expression in many aspects of life. Cancer (June 22-July 22) Like the moon that governs this sign, Cancer is an imaginative, sensitive, and dreamy individual. Somewhat self- effacing, he enjoys family life, where his timidity- and somewhat weakness- seems to be protected from the hardness of this world. The feeling for the past is more attractive that the future.

He often feels a nostalgia for childhood and the protection of his mother and must try to overcome this attitude. Cancer must strive to impose his qualities of shrewdness and intuition on groups of people. In love, it is not good for the cancer to give too much importance to the wounds of self-love, and he must learn to declare himself at the right moment. Ruled by the tides of their fluctuating emotions, Cancers are Moon people, mysterious as the sea at night, delicate as a moon beam shimmering on the surface of a still and haunted lake.

In their own unique ways, Cancers are haunted-by their fears and anguished fantasies, their attachment to the past, their driven compulsions and their quiet, self-obsessed dramas that sometimes move them to the brink of madness. Self-enclosed and saturated with their own emotions, Cancers feel everything that they don’t deliberately shut out. it is a highly strung inner world of intense emotional velocity that is ignited by any threat to their sense of control. Sometimes sensitive and compassionate, sometimes cold and cut off from the world, Cancers are influenced by both the inner and outer atmosphere.

The result is a person easily pressured by onslaughts on their self-preservation. In the Cancer mind, the unconscious is very close to the surface. as the first of the three water signs, much of life is about learning to live with this emotional makeup in the middle of a cold an insecure material world. Cancers are often criticized as being extremely self- centered people. However, it is, in truth, as if there is no self, only a self-protective shell. With emotions so close to the surface, Cancers are hopelessly sentimental. Generous to a fault, they can be a fool for love.

When it comes to work , the classic Cancerian has the oncentration of a brain surgeon and the drive to go along with it. Tenacious, task-oriented and intense, Cancers tend to be perfectionists who take their work personally-and sometimes a little too seriously. There are Cancers who leave the office at the office. However, it is likely that they work overtime, don’t take time for lunch, and go home hours after the cleaning lady. Leo (July 23-August 22) Having elected to reside in this sign, the sun confers its force, amplitude, and radiance on those born in Leo.

Leo is a proud, individualistic, and generous being. Authority and willpower are among the dominant character traits. Thus he has strong trump cards to help obtain success in life. Leo must be wary, however, of pride and unmeasured action, and govern ambitions with the measure of his abilities. He must avoid being too susceptible to flattery. In love, he has a tendency to transform his life into the stage of the theater. He should be more reserved in the manifestations of his rushes of feeling. those who love him will be grateful for this.

Leo is the sign of the sun, and like the sun itself, Leos shine with stellar incandescence. Leos’ magnetism makes them highly memorable people who exude power and personableness. Personality is the Leo strong point. When so desiring, the Leo charm can tame serpents and turn the world at large into an adoring enclave. At their best they give off a scintillating sort of radiance. They are positive and enthusiastic, spirited, dynamic and larger than life. Leos expect the best from themselves and everyone around them.

It is this attitude that helps them achieve their dreams. This is the sign that is determined to do things its own way, at all costs, with no patience for the opinions of others. When this works, the Leo energy and willfulness can create miracles. When it backfires, it’s probably more comfortable anging out in a towering inferno. Although Leos are overachiever with highly successful track records, they tend to underestimate their accomplishments. The anxiety deep within them concerning performance never allows them to rest and gives them problems delegating authority.

They embrace perfectionistic standards and feel contempt for mediocrity. Virgo (August 23-September 23) It is mercury that rules this sign. But it is not the subtle and airy Mercury of gemini. Intelligence is more matter-of-fact: less gifted but deeper. The Virgo is rightly considered calculating, prudent and attached to minor details to the point of fixation. For the Virgo, reason overcomes the heart; precision seems to be more important than intuition, of which he is wary. In love, Virgo is not very demonstrative, or at least, unable to decide, a late marriage will be his lot.

Commonly known as the sign of the nitpicking perfectionist, Virgos often consider themselves to be discriminators graced with divine sanction. Seeing flaws like Librans see beautiful faces, Virgos are often controlled by their visions. In time, their visions go into what makes up a life. The single most important challenge in the Virgo experience is to see things in larger terms. Virgos’ visions determine heir career success, quality of experience in relationships, health, and overall quality of life. The perfectionism so often associated with this sign, has in fact far less to do with perfection than with a diminished view of the whole.

It is the sort of perception that focuses in on the loose thread rather than the color of of the fabric. Virgos are victimized by a deadly dreariness that is born of duty and discipline, self-control and routinized regimes. People born under this sign often have to wake up to the possibilities of their own life and the power within themselves. Shortsighted, Virgos settle easily for the minor roles that are o often assigned to them rather than stretching them beyond and utilizing the gifts of what could be a superior mind.

Libra (September 23- October 22) Governed by Venus, the planet of harmony and arts, one word characterizes Libra: equilibrium, as the sign it symbolizes. Libra is sociable, refined, and understanding, party to conciliatory solutions. But be careful, for he is gifted with a very fine sense of justice, and will engage in battle if he considers that he has been ridiculed. In sentimental relationships, Libra is praised for hi sweetness and elegance, with an occasionally somewhat exaggerated coquetishness. Aggressiveness must be stimulated, for Libra’s distinguished nonchalance can prevent his social success.

In many respects, Libra is a sign of paradox. Librans sprout from a series of contradictions: self versus nonself, mental versus emotional, pleasure versus pathos, generosity versus greed, control versus chaos. Underneath the smiling face and stellar charm lies a character with many convolutions, confusions, frustrations and ambivaleces concerning its identity. Combine this with very high intelligence and you have people who think a great deal about how they ought to be, how they should ave been, how they might have been and how they will be if only… nd so on.

While this highly complicated process sounds self-centered, it is in fact the workings of a self that doesn’t feel complete by itself. It always seems that something is missing, and whether that appears to be another person, a significant promotion, or a successful project that will prove one’s worth, the day-to-day drama is often a torturous spiral. The need to affirm one’s self is so strong in Libras that it makes many of them burn with ambition. In the intensity of striving and accomplishing, one leaves a sense of lacking behind.

Alas the fuel for such ambition is the kind of anxiety that never lets one calm down. The satisfaction that comes from having achieved one’s goal is soon supplanted by the necessity for a new creation. And so continues the rise and fall of doing and being. In between each gap is like a gasp in which a threatening, self- diminishing voice sneaks through. Scorpio (October 23- November 21) Mars, the god of war, and Pluto, the god of the underworld, share this kingdom. It suffices to say that the child of Scorpio is not a being of rest. There is in him a depth of violent aggressiveness and undiscipline, but also of anguish.

Scorpios nemies must contend with his piercing critical sense, which permits the rapid discovery of the chinks in their armor, for it is certain that he has flair. There is also scientific curiosity which penetrates the depths nature’s secrets, even if they are dangerous. Passionate and jealous in love, possessing strong sexuality; in a word, Scorpio has the best and the worst. By developing the best, he is able to have exceptional success in life. Scorpio might be the most misunderstood sign in the zodiac. It is a convoluted sign, commonly associated with mystery, sex, power, and intrigue.

In social gatherings where the conversation as descended to the most superficial astrological chitchat, Scorpio gets more than its share of abuse. Much of this has to do with the fact that at any given point a great deal of the Scorpionic agenda remains hidden. Intensely private, strongly secretive and rather suspicious, Scorpio does not reveal itself to anyone, nor does it form close overnight friendships. For the most part, members of this sign stand aloof from more obvious social interactions. Scorpios prefer one-to- one situations to large parties at which people present their social facades.

This is a sign of depth and depth perception. Scorpios see and feel more than most people, and not infrequently these feelings are complicated and problematic. Because of this, at a very early age, they develop a deep need for control, along with a list of goals and game plans that will take them where they want to go. Scorpio is the power behind the throne, and has the substance of which CEO’s are made. Success is what they are after. They ca be secretive and ruthless to achieve their desired position. Sagittarius (November 22-December 20) Jupiter is the master os this sign.

He confers an honest, generous and loyal nature. Sagittarius has true nobility of haracter that works through goodness and moderation. He enjoys escaping from the banality of day-to-day life, and travelling attracts him. Furthermore, these travels can be imaginary as well as real. Sagittarius is a sign of the philosophical mind. In love, he prefers legality and lasting feelings to brief and violent passions and adventures. The essence of sagittarian nature is possibility personified. Diminishment of any kind depresses the classic Sagittarian, as does anyone or anything interfering with the Sagittarian’s sense of freedom.

Sagittarians always want to feel free to make choices and to move in any direction that suits hem. Sagittarius is the sign of the adventurer, bound only by his own beliefs. Sagittarians have expansive minds and are eager to learn, and experience, always restless and impatient to move ahead. The classic Sagittarian is a democratic individual with ideals that often define the lifestyle. The Sagittarian soul desires expansion at all costs and is sensitive to social issues that affect the functioning of self and fellow man. Sagittarians want the best possible worlds. They will never stop searching until they find it.

For a great many members of this sign, the entire experience of life is one endless exploration. Sagittarians see possibility where other signs perceive limitations. They also have a genius for seeing splendid things that the common mind might consider silly. The Sagittarian nature wants to soar, and after landing, to remain unimpeded. This can cause some unsettling problems when encountering the situation called “daily life. ” Sagittarians want life to be perfect, and they don’t want to waste their perfect time dinking around with petty, boring details or being bothered by a moronic boss with no vision.

Capricorn (December 21-January 19) This region of the winter sky has been attributed by astrologers to the morose Saturn. Capricorn is serious, often on the defensive; decisions are taken in a calm atmosphere, and he is farsighted. He is very ambitious, but is careful not to show it, preferring to act in the shadows rather than in the broad daylight. It is not worth the trouble to attempt flattery, for Capricorn will not be susceptible. He is cold, objective, and wary by nature. He will not try to please in love, and some might reproach a lack of spirit; feeling exist, but they are buried deep inside.

Capricorn will never sacrifice his carer to a passing fling or even to a passion. A born executive with sky-high goals, Capricorn is the lassic accomplishmentarian. Driven beyond high ambition, this is a sign that doesn’t believe in giving up. Patient, enduring and steadfast in the face of all obstacles, Capricorn instinctively understands the value of time. This is a sign that can outwait all opposition and then confidently move in for the kill. Invariably, Capricorn gets what it wants because it goes about it in all the right ways.

Hardworking, highly organized, diligent, down to earth and quietly determined, Capricorns make great tycoons, business chieftains, politicians, presidents and entrepreneurs. The Capricorn mind is intrinsically materialistic. It knows he value of a dollar in several different countries and the most recent fluctuation in the price of gold. Capricorns value their possessions like some people value their children, and they look at life through a prism of appearance-what you see is what you get. Capricorns are born climbers who will make it to the top and eventually own it.

And once securely positioned in place, attest that there is no other way to go. Like everything else. Capricorns take their status very seriously and never tire of their material rewards. The material to Capricorn is worth, their worth. Having an eye for fine quality, they fully enjoy he luxury of owning the best. To the Capricorn mind, excellence is always its own reward. Aquarius (January 20- February 18) Modern astrologers have assigned this sign to the planet Uranus. Like it, Aquarius is gifted with a lively intelligence, and taken dy the new, sometimes by the utopian.

Originality and idealism are two principle character traits. Very disinterested, Aquarius is enthused by great revolutionary causes, but will not descend into the arena. The battle of ideas is sufficient, for the Aquarius always has a depth of reserve, dreaminess, and sensitivity. He is not very realistic in love, and demonstrates uch independence and fantasy. He is able to please and to be devoted but does not like to become attached. Aquarius must beware of solitude. Authentic airheads, Aquarian minds are airborne and aglow with ideals that often have to do with utopian empires and progressive, inventive lifestyle alternatives.

In astrology, the element of air has to do with the cerebral realm and all that this implies, such as mental creations and concoctions, communications and intellectual vistas contained by the frameworks of the mind. Aquarians are often brainy people, full of brilliance and visionary explosions, seeing so far ahead that hey leave the present behind. The characteristic Aquarian is far more mental than emotional. Aquarians, in fact, have feelings about their mental constructs and intellectual aspirations. Their most beautiful love experience passes straight through the brain.

The craving for a sense of possibility is a pervasive one in the Aquarian’s scheme of things. It is the motivational force behind the humanitarian involvements and strongly cherished dreams and ideals. The end of the sixties, which sang of the “Age of Aquarius,” epitomized the spirit of blind ideas put forth as truth, without deeper understanding of the comprehensive whole, or the omplicated timing of social change. The Aquarian mind, rolling on a track, does not take detours. Nor, is it intellectually open to their possibility. This is a sign associated with a great deal of fanaticism and willful rebellion.

Aquarians are heedless and reckless, throwing caution to the wind creating situations that are self-destructive. It is this blind which brings them their share of headaches, heartaches and trouble. Pisces (February 19- March 20) Naturally it is Neptune, god of the sea that governs this sign. Everyone agrees that Pisces is emotive and impressionable. He is praised for intuition, poetic ability, sense of compassion, nd devotion. But Pisces must overcome the indecision of his character as well as his nonchalance; for activity can suffer from them, and Pisces can be thrown into a dreamy existence, one that is more than a little inefficient.

Feelings are marked with a blend of mysticism and sensuality, and the feeling of sacrifice dominates. Pisces is the sign of the psychic, the healer, the intuitive who is in tune with the synchronicities of the universe. Pisces nature is emotional, sensitive and subjective. Their imagination and intelligence are subtly insightful. The Pisces soul is one of mystery and longing. Deep inside slumbering divinity haunts a more conscious experience of life. There is an unearthly quality to the Pisces sensibility that is associated with the twelfth house.

This is a place of monasteries and hidden meanings, astral experiences, dreams, drugs and superconsious states of mind. Pisces is a sign that deeply reflects its ruler, Neptune, the planet of fantasy and illusion, romanticism, compassion, sympathy and the supernatural. Like the vibration of Neptune, the Pisces mind is changeable and fluid, fanciful and ready to flow in any direction. Pisceans are secretive and hold a place inside themselves hat they share with only a soul mate. Because they are so psychic, subjective and idealistic, this soul experiences often unsatisfied.

Instead, they will merge with and see themselves mirrored in their life supports and security blankets and the deeper need for unity will be sublimated by the experience of sharing. They are constantly searching for their true soul-mate. There is no real way to know if astrology is reality or fiction, but it does broaden our horizons to a new way of thinking. Perhaps time and seasons have caused the similarities to be there, perhaps it is just a coincidence. You must be the judge.

Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

Gravity if one of the four fundamental forces in the universe. Though the fundamental principles of it eluded scientists until Sir Isaac Newton was able to mathematically describe it in 1687 (Eddington 93). Gravity plays a serious part in everyday actions as it keeps everything on the ground; without gravity everything would be immobile unless a force was applied (then it would move infinitely because there would be no force to stop it). Perhaps, the best place to start then would be with such a simple item as an apple (after all it is what “sparked” Newton’s creativity).

The apple is ne of the two curiosities (the other being the moon) that led Newton to discover The Law of Universal Gravitation in 1666 (Eddington 93). As Newton later wrote, it is the story of the sight of an apple falling to the ground (he was resting at Woolsthorpe because of the plague at Cambridge) that caused Newton to wonder if this same force was what held the moon in place (Gamow 41). Newton knew that an object fell to the earth at a rate of about 9. 8 meters (32 feet) per second second as pointed out by Galileo.

Thus “the apple that fell from the tree” fell to Earth at about this rate. For the first basic xplanation of this we will assume a linear plane, one in which all forces act in only one direction. Therefore when the apple fell it went straight towards the center of the earth (accelerating at about 9. 8 meters per second second). Newton then figured that the same force that pulled the apple to Earth also pulls the moon to the earth. But what force keeps the moon from flying into the earth or the earth flying into the sun (Edwards 493)?

To better understand this, one other aspect must first be understood. Galileo showed that all objects fall to the earth at the same rate (the classic annonball and feather proved this). But why? If a piano and a saxophone were both dropped from the top of the Empire State Building then they would both slam into the ground at the same rate. Newton realized then that the moon and the apple were both being pulled towards Earth at the same rate but yet the moon was the only one who resisted the force and stayed in its elliptical orbit (Eddington 94).

Newton’s Third Law of Motion says that every force exerted by one object on another is equal to a force, but opposite in direction, exerted be the second object on the first (every reaction has an equal but opposite eaction). So the force of the earth pulling the apple to the ground is proportionally the same as the force the apple exerts back on the earth. Now Johannes Kepler lived some forty-five years before Isaac Newton. And he showed that the orbits of the planets in our solar system were elliptical.

When the time of Newton came around he mathematically proved that, if Kepler’s First Law was true, then the force on a planet varied inversely with the square of the distance between the planet and the sun. He did this using Kepler’s Third Law (Zitzewitz 160). The distance in this formula is from the center of the masses and is the average distance over their entire period. It is also important to note that the force acted in the direction of this line (an important factor when dealing with vectors) (Zitzewitz 160). Newton, confident that his idea of all objects exerting a force back on Earth, devised a formula for Universal Gravitation.

It is important to note that Newton was not the first to think of Universal Gravitation, he was just the first one to make considerable and remarkable proofs for it based on mathematical explanations. He said that if force is relative to the mass of an object and it’s acceleration then the force between two objects must also be the same. Thus he came up with the first part of the equation. Also, as he had proved earlier using Kepler’s Third Law of Motion, that the force between two objects is inversely proportional to their distances squared (an inverse square law), then that must also be part of the Universal Gravitation equation.

Thus we know that the two masses and the distance are related to the force; and because the distance is inversely proportional then the product of the masses ivided by the distance between their centers squared must equal the force between the two objects (Zitzewitz 161). Now earlier, Newton had proved that the force on an object was proportional to an object’s mass and its acceleration. And the equation that he had formulated so far did not include anything that would resemble the acceleration. Thus he knew that a gravitational constant must be present and that it should be the same throughout all of the universe.

However, due to scientific limitations he was never able to figure out the exact value of this constant (Zitzewitz 161). One hundred years later, though, an young engineer by the name of Cavendish devised a complex apparatus that was able to measure this gravitational constant. Basically by using very sensitive telescopes and known angles he was able to determine the distance one ball moved another ball. This is often known as “weighing the earth” (Zitzewitz 162-163). The effects of Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation were varied; but the most common use for his law was the prediction of several planets beyond Jupiter and Saturn.

In 1830, it appeared that Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation had not been correct because the orbit of Saturn did not follow his law. Some astronomers thought that the force of an undiscovered planet may be changing its course and in 1845 a couple of scientists at the Berlin Observatory began searching for this hidden planet. It did not take very long. The massive planet now known as Neptune was found on the first night of searching (Zitzewitz 164). Perhaps one of the most key things about any theory of gravity prior to Einstein was the fact that none of them proposed the origin of gravity.

Newton’s law always proved to be true in the common world but did not explain he source of the force (Eddington 95). Albert Einstein proposed his Theory of Gravity in his General Theory of Relativity. In this he said that space was a three dimensional plane and that masses curved this plane in one way or another (Eddington 95). Thus a massive object would cause a large “hole” and smaller objects would “orbit” it. It is interesting to note that in either case, Newton’s or Einstein’s law, both prove to be true in the common world. Massive universal objects, such as black holes, are an exception but that’s another story in itself (Edwards 498).

Light: A Fundamental Force In Our World

If asked what light is, one could say that it’s one of the most basic elements of our world and our universe as we perceive it. It is through sight that we receive 90% of our information. It is through the use of telescopes aiding the naked eye that we are aware of the heavenly bodies around us. It is through light that the energy from the sun is transferred to us. The sun’s energy supports the food chain; plants use it to turn water and CO2 into energy usable by other organisms. Solar energy was also used, indirectly, to produce all of the fossil fuels that we consume daily.

Since light is such a basic part of our existence, we should have a basic What we call light, the intangible, powerful force that powers our world, is somewhat hard to define in real terms. It shares properties with both particles and waves. It follows the same rules as a wave does–it moves in a regular fashion, in a perfect sine wave at a certain frequency. It travels in a straight line, and is subject to refraction. All of these characteristics are found in waves of any type, from radio frequency waves, up to Gamma and X- rays.

Light, however, also exhibits qualities haracteristic of particles such as neutrons and protons. A photon, or quanta, is the “packet” of energy that is sent in a light wave. Like a particle, the photon is believed to have a finite mass, and has the ability to affect other matter. As light strikes a photovoltaic solar cell, it knocks electrons in the silicon atoms on the surface into a higher state of energy. When these return to their normal, or “ground” state, energy is produced in the form of electricity. Thus, light is termed a “wave-particle,” and this property is called the “wave-particle duality of ature.

Many questions concerning what makes up light still lie unanswered, but this much is thought to be true. Light can be produced in a variety of ways. Our sun, like other stars, uses nuclear fusion to produce energy in the form of light and radiation. We can produce light artificially using several methods. If one starts a fire, it produces light and heat. (Heat, which is infrared radiation, is another type of light energy. ) The light and heat are a result of a chemical reaction, the combining of oxygen with the carbon in the wood.

This reaction leaves behind products which have less potential energy than they started with. The energy, which left as light and heat, was produced when electrons dropped in energy levels during the reaction. The excess energy from one atom was given off as a photon, producing light. If one examines a fluorescent or incandescent light bulb, one can see that all it is doing is having electricity stimulate a metallic or gaseous substrate, causing it to give off photons. The principle is the same as it was with the fire, only it is more controlled.

Still more controlled is the laser, which puts out its photons in a single frequency. This is achieved through a carefully designed apparatus which stimulates materials in a way that allows them to only put out light at a certain wavelength. Laser light is, therefore, of all one color. White light, or sunlight, is a broad mixture of wavelengths. All methods of producing light, natural and artificial, share one common feature: they rely on electrons changing energy levels to As there are a variety of methods of producing light, so are there a multitude of ways it can be applied.

The most obvious use of light is in supporting our food chain. Without light energy, nothing could live on our planet. The plants, which are at the bottom of the food chain, supply energy to all other organisms. We as humans are adapted to having sunlight around us, and taking in information with our eyes. Aside from keeping us alive, light is also employed in highly specialized applications. Laser light is being used in surgery. The highly concentrated beam of light is far more precise than any surgeon’s hand, and much finer than the sharpest blade.

In the area of communications, light is used in fiber optic networks for fast, crystal-clear connections. (Fiber optics allow light to travel in a finely directed path with very little distortion. ) Optical components in computers are starting to see use. Also, lasers are being used to produce holographic images, both for industrial and commercial markets. Holographic pictures can show an object three dimensionally, and in great detail. Finally, new ways of utilizing the sun’s energy are being developed that will allow light to be more efficiently converted to electricity.

Thus, light indeed has a wealth of applications. It must be remembered that, like most other things around us, light is something utilized on a daily basis, yet little understood. With continued research, we may someday unravel the mysteries surrounding this unique force which is constantly at work in our universe. The applications of light in the present are nothing compared with what could be gained if we could understand this strange mechanism; it may someday be the key to solving our energy problems, or unlocking the secret of the universe.

Peter Mitchell (1920 – 1992): Chemiosmotic Hypothesis

Peter Mitchell’s 1961 paper introducing the chemiosmotic hypothesis started a revolution which has echoed beyond bioenergetics to all biology, and shaped our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of biological energy conservation, ion and metabolite transport, bacterial motility, organelle structure and biosynthesis, membrane structure and function, homeostasis, the evolution of the eukaryote cell, and indeed every aspect of life in which these processes play a role.

The Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1978, awarded to Peter Mitchell as the sole recipient, recognized his predominant contribution towards establishing the validity of the chemiosmotic hypothesis, and ipso facto, the long struggle to convince an initially hostile establishment. The seeds of the chemiosmotic hypothesis, which lay in Peter’s attempts to understand bacterial transport and homeostasis, were pollinated by the earlier ideas of H. Lundergard, Robert Robertson, and Robert Davies and A. G. Ogston, on the coupling of electron transport and ATP synthesis to proton gradients.

Mitchell’s 1961 paper outlined the hypothesis in the form of several postulates which could be subjected to test. In retrospect, it was a great strength of this first paper that Peter did not go into too much detail; the ideas were new and strange, and were introduced to a field dominated by a few major laboratories with their own different ideas about how the coupling between electron transport and phosphorylation occurred.

It is interesting to look back and remember how sparse the clues were on which the hypothesis was based. At the time, the chemical hypothesis, based on analogy with Ephraim Racker’s mechanism of substrate level phosphorylation linked to triose phosphate oxidation, seemed secure. A few niggling difficulties were apparent. Why did so many different reagents act as uncouplers? Why were the enzymes of oxidative phosphorylation associated with the mitochondrial membrane? Why did coupling seem so dependent on the maintenance of structure?

How did mitochondria maintain their osmotic balance? How did substrates get in and out? But these must have seemed second-order problems to the main protagonists. It was these niggles that Mitchell’s hypothesis addressed. I first met Peter in 1962 when he visited Brian Chappell in Cambridge to talk mitochondriology. I was in my second year of Ph. D. research, and becoming familiar with the field. Brian had, at the start of my apprenticeship, set me to work in the library, with Peter’s 1961 paper as a starting point.

I must confess that I had little idea at the time of the importance of the paper; I didn’t know enough, either of the background bioenergetics or the physical chemistry, to understand what the issues were. But by the time of Peter’s visit, I had become involved in the work on mitochondrial ion transport initiated by Brian in collaboration with Guy Greville, and Brian had become interested in mechanisms. Peter arrived in an elegant if ancient Bentley convertible, and wrapped us in a corduroy enthusiasm.

He was in trouble with his hypothesis, because three labs claimed to have disproved it by isolating the intermediates expected from the chemical hypothesis. Peter was undaunted, and engaged in a mischievous discussion of the data and its validity. The challenge of the upstart chemiosmotic hypothesis to the prevailing chemical view of mechanism was to become a running battle, in which Peter engaged the establishment single-handed for several years before the first of a growing band of brothers (and sisters) joined him in the fray.

The early work from Andr Jagendorf’s lab on H+-uptake and pH-jump driven ATP synthesis by chloroplasts, the parallel work on ion and metabolite transport in mitochondria from Chappell’s lab, the work on ionophores and uncouplers by Bert Pressman, and by Brian Chappell and myself, the development of artificial membrane systems by Alec Bangham and by Paul Mueller, and Mitchell’s own work with Jennifer Moyle on proton measurements following O2 pulses, had demonstrated before 1965 the activities expected from the hypothesis, but it was to be ten years before the established leaders in the field were coaxed into a grudging acceptance of the hypothesis.

The bones of the chemiosmotic hypothesis were fleshed out by Mitchell in subsequent publications, most notably the two slim volumes published by Glynn Research Ltd. in 1966 and 1968, known affectionately in the laboratory as the Little Grey Books of Chairman M. Mitchell’s views were discussed in detail in an important review, A Scrutiny of the Chemiosmotic Hypothesis by Guy Greville, published in 1969, which established the seriousness of the challenge.

The field was evolving rapidly, and to those of us on the chemiosmotic side, the body of evidence favoring that point of view looked overwhelming. The hypothesis found early favor among the photosynthetic community, perhaps because of the elegance of the early demonstrations from Jagendorf’s lab, the explanation of amine uncoupling, the utility of the electrochromic membrane voltmeters, perhaps also because of the more physico-chemical bent of the field.

The eventual acceptance by the biochemical community came with the demonstration of reconstituted proton pumping activities for the isolated and purified enzymes of respiratory and photosynthetic chains in liposomes, mainly from Racker’s group, and the demonstration of coupled phosphorylation in the chimeric bacteriorhodopsin-ATP-ase liposome system by Walter Stoeckenius and Racker. Another important element was the growing physico-chemical sophistication of the bioenergetics community, especially among the younger research workers. Readers of Photosynthesis Research will need no guide to the present status of chemiosmosis. The ideas Peter Mitchell introduced, which seemed so rare at the time, are now the common currency of all our discussions.

The field has gone on to explore the deeper ramifications, from molecular mechanism at one end, through the compartmentalization of the eukaryote cell and metabolic integration, to evolution at the other. Although the chemiosmotic hypothesis was Peter’s most important contribution, he continued to introduce new ideas, including the Q-cycle hypothesis, which has dominated discussion of the mechanism of electron transfer and proton pumping in the quinol oxidizing complexes since 1975, and now seems well established as the basic mechanism. I found myself initially on the opposite side of the Q-cycle controversy. Of course, there seemed to me perfectly good reasons for thinking that the Q-cycle as then formulated was wrong, and Peter was always attentive in listening to them.

In trying to account for our objections (based on observation of electron transfer kinetics in photosynthetic bacteria), he quite early pointed out that the role of the Rieske iron-sulfur center might be crucial (Don’t you think the electron might be getting hung up on the Rieske? ). Our own results subsequently showed this to be the case, and led us to a modified Q-cycle mechanism which was among the models discussed by Peter in his 1976 review. Although Peter won most of his battles, he suffered a few defeats. The long controversy about the proton-pumping activity of cytochrome oxidase involved some fairly heated debates before it finally went to Mrten Wikstrm; and it looks as if the mechanism of ATP synthesis through the F1.

F0 ATP-ase is more along the lines envisaged by Paul Boyer than through Peter’s earlier proposals. In both these cases, with the benefit of hindsight it looks as if Peter underrated the role of the protein and the subtlety of evolution in designing molecular mechanism. It was part of Peter’s charm that, no matter how strongly he held his views, his stance was based on sound principles and experimental results, was always well argued, fair, and devoid of malice. When convinced, he conceded graciously; if his own views prevailed, he was happy to recognize the contributions of his opponents, and his unfailing habit of giving credit where credit was due allowed for an easy reconciliation.

Peter’s contributions have been formally recognized through the many honors, prizes and degrees conferred on him over the years. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society, a Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences, Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge (his alma mater), a Foreign Associate of the Acadmie des Sciences Francaise, and an Honorary member of the Society of General Microbiology, and the Japanese Biochemical Society. He received honorary doctorates from the Technical University, Berlin, the Universities of Exeter, Chicago, Liverpool, Bristol, Edinburgh, Hull, East Anglia, Cambridge and York.

Among other honors and prizes awarded were the CIBA Medal and Prize of the Biochemical Society in 1973, the Warren Triennial Prize (jointly) from the Trustees of the Massachusetts General Hospital in 1974, the Freedman Foundation award of the New York Academy of Sciences in 1974, the Feldberg Foundation Prize in 1976, the Rosenberg Award of Brandeis University in 1977, the Lipmann Lecturer, Gessellschaft fr Biologische Chemie, 1977, the Medal of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies in 1978, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry in 1978, the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1981, and the Medal of Honor of the Athens Municipal Council in 1982. The dry facts of Peter Mitchell’s life do him scant justice, and although he was at ease with his fame, I am sure he would not wish to be remembered simply in terms of the many prizes and honorary degrees heaped on him.

Peter listed among his leisure interests (and here I quote from the International Who’s Who), family life, home building, the creation of wealth and amenity, the restoration of buildings of architectural and historical interest, music, thinking, understanding, inventing, making, sailing. I can picture him filling out the questionnaire which elicited this list. There would have been a wry amusement in the task of defining himself, and a certain self-deprecation, but Peter would have tackled the job with characteristic honesty, diligence and intelligence. Glynn House and Glynn Research Ltd. (later the Glynn Research Foundation), were the happy outcome of a spell in hospital in the early 1960’s. On the recommendation of his doctor, Peter was looking for a vacation home in the South where he could recuperate.

The estate agent showed him the burnt-out shell of a country mansion, and Peter, more in jest than earnest, said he would give x,000 for the lot. He was surprised when, a few weeks later, the man called him in Edinburgh and said It’s yours. Using his private resources, Peter had the building remodelled, with the west wing as a residence, and the east wing and adjoining areas as research laboratories, library, seminar room, workshop, etc. , to accommodate a small research group. Over the years, Peter and Helen welcomed many friends and colleagues to the now beautifully restored Glynn House, and were unfailingly gracious and hospitable. Friendships were important to Peter.

He enjoyed conversation, and treated topics both high and low with a mixture of deep seriousness and impish humor. Discussions were a test bed for his latest ideas, and he relished the pursuit of odd angles and new perspectives. He held the view that science progresses though open discussion, and abhorred the notion that ideas or information should be closeted away, hidden from the competition. Peter’s approach to science was based on philosophical principles; he was interested not only in the science, but in the mechanism of scientific discovery. He was fascinated by the nature of creativity, the practice of science as a social system, the validation of scientific truth,- indeed, the whole process of science in action.

He was much affected by Popper and his ideas about the scientific method, and Popper’s influence can be seen in Peter’s insistence that hypotheses should be framed in the context of experimental tests. He regarded experimental results as of prime importance, and was as much interested in the intriguing observation as in the author’s interpretation. He believed strongly that science advances through the contributions of individuals, and that each individual is responsible for selection or discrimination with regard to any piece of information. He thought that much of the effectiveness of a successful scientist lay in the adequacy of this filtration process.

This view was captured in a nice remark he once made to me, that The trouble with most scientists is not that they don’t have good memories, but that they don’t have good forgeteries. Although in private he was not reluctant to criticize, he was generous and helpful in his more public interactions, and treated with respect the opinions of others, especially younger research workers coming into the field. In the wider context of his social and political views, Hayek was an early influence, and Peter would emphasize the role of the individual, and freedom of economic and political expression. Much of his thinking in the last 15 years was directed towards human and social problems, especially towards identifying mechanisms for conflict resolution.

In this context, he saw the bioenergetics community as a microcosm and a vehicle for experiment, and the Round Table Discussion meeting he organized at Glynn, was at least partly motivated by this interest. Although he had little time for socialism, he was a very human person, aware of his own foibles and vanities, and found through this a sympathy with the common human lot. His belief in the individual was tempered by a recognition that in a rational order, rights are earned and exercised in the context of the responsibilities each owes to society. He held to a set of standards, those of the gentleman, which many would see as archaic, and these and his talents raised him above the fray. His inspiration, humor, friendship, and the high standards of scholarship and behavior he brought to our field will be sorely missed.

Albert Einsteins Theory Of Relativity

Throughout the years, Einstein has been regarded as perhaps one of the greatest scientists who ever lived. Everyone knows his theory of relativity, E=mc2. Not everyone knows what it means, but everyone knows it nonetheless. Everyone can also instantly recognize Einstein, who never wore clothes that were as dignified as he was. He was a kind man, a pacifist. He always opted for the peaceful way out. There have been many technological advances since the days of Einstein. And despite some skepticism, the theories he developed 85 years ago are still the most accurate that we have.

Einstein comes from humble beginnings, born to a not-so-well-to-do family in Ulm, Germany. He came into this world on March 14, 1879, born to Hermann and Pauline Einstein. Early in life, he showed a great interest in mathematics and the sciences. When he was about eight years old, his father gave him a compass. Einstein wondered why it always pointed north. Einstein lay awake that night in bed wondering how an invisible force could pass through space (Strathern 13). His uncle gave him his first mathematics book and Einstein read it until he could do every problem in the book.

In school, Einstein wasn’t exactly a teacher’s pet. The teachers at German school during his childhood ‘prided themselves on behaving like bossy, pedantic sergeant majors’; (Strathern 13). Teachers told him he would never amount to anything. Einstein more than proved them wrong. The first years on his own were the roughest for Einstein. He was unable to keep a job and wasn’t credited enough for anyone to believe his theorems, yet. He married Mileva Maric in 1902 and they had their first son, Hans Albert, was born (Magill 1035).

Things came together for Einstein in 1905. While working as a patent clerk, he wrote five groundbreaking articles that were published in a major scientific newsletter of the time. The first paper, titled, ‘On A Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light,’; would earn him a Nobel Prize for physics in 1922. His second paper was titled, ‘A Determination on the Sized of Molecules. ‘; His third, ‘On the Motion of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid, according to the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat. His fourth paper was an important one.

‘On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies’; was his first paper on relativity. In this paper was his special theory of relativity and the fourth dimension (time). In his last paper of 1905 he stated the ever-famous formula, E=mc2, saying that mass and energy are equivalent. These papers made him known throughout the scientific world. He was offered honorary doctorate degrees from many colleges, some of which would not even let him into their college when Einstein had applied. He taught at many different schools.

He did not like it because between teaching, grading papers, and helping students (which he loved to do) he did not have the time to work on his ideas. In 1914, he took a job at the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin. He was now at the top of his profession. And most important of all, he now had the time to work on more revolutionary papers. Einstein completed his general theory of relativity in 1915, after nearly ten years of work. In 1919, British astrophysicist, Arthur Eddington, photographed a solar eclipse.

It revealed the light emitted from the stars was being bent as it passed close to the sun (Strathern 81). This confirmed Einstein’s general theory of relativity, and he was catapulted to stardom overnight. Soon Einstein became a household name. In 1919, he divorced Mileva and married his cousin, Elsa Lowenthal. Einstein won many awards afterwards, and for the rest of his life. Some of which included the English Royal Society’s Copley Medal, the Royal Astronomical Society’s Gold Medal, the first German Max Planck Medal, and the Nobel Prize for physics (Swisher 62).

Around this time, Hitler and Germany were becoming a world power. In 1932, Einstein and Elsa fled Germany never to return again. In 1940, eight years after fleeing Germany, Elsa and Einstein became citizens of the United States of America. Einstein became a friend and colleague of President Roosevelt. He wrote a letter to the president warning him of the potential use of his theories in military warfare. Soon, President Truman took over the war effort. Einstein, however, played no part in developing the atomic bomb which merely proved his theory of relativity (Magill 1036).

As a matter of fact, Einstein was just as shocked as the rest of the country when ‘Little Boy’; was dropped on Hiroshima and ‘Fat Boy’; was dropped on Nagasaki (Kevles). He was a sworn pacifist, and he tried to settle disputes the peaceful way. After the war, Einstein received a lot of bad press for ‘creating this weapon. ‘; As Einstein grew older, he tried to stay out of the spotlight. But this did now deviate his popularity. For his 70th birthday, he received what not too many people get for their birthday: an element.

For his 70th birthday, the element Einsteinium was named after him (Swisher 101). In 1952, he was invited to be the president of the newly formed country of Israel, a Jewish state established in 1948 (Swisher 101). After his wife, Elsa, died in 1936, Einstein’s longtime secretary and housekeeper, Helen Dukas, took care of him. For the last year of his life, Einstein spent much time in bed working on his theorems. On April 13, 1955, he was struck with severe stomach pains. He died five days later on April 18. Before he died, he told Helen Dukas there was to be no funeral, no grave, and no monument.

He wanted his brain to be used for research, his body cremated, and the ashes scattered in an undisclosed place. Many people have tried to prove his theories incorrect; all have been unsuccessful. They have only improved on something he did eighty-five years ago. He has had more influence on modern science than any person in history. For example, in 1977, two people did a study on the influence that Einstein had. They found 105 articles that had the word ‘Einstein’; in the title. They also found 452 cited Einstein within the article (Swisher 113).

Should any limits be placed on scientific developments

Man, powered by his imagination and inquisitive character, has wondered he mechanisms of Nature since time infinite. This quest for the truth, the ways in which his surrounding works, has led to many a scientific discoveries and innovations. Since the art of making fire and creating handcrafted tools, our civilization has come a long way. Science and Technology are making advances at an amazing rate. From telephones to the Internet, calculators to computers, cars to rockets and satellites, we are submerged in a sea of discoveries and inventions made possible by Science.

Fields like Medicine and communications have made inroads into our cultures and thus our lifestyles. So vast is the impact of Science in our lives, that people fear the unthinkable. It leads them to accusations such as Science tries to play God, as in the case of cloning. Repeatedly, it is also heard that we are so dependent on Science and Technology that we who create it are nothing but slaves to it. However I feel that it would not be wrong to term Science as a friend of Humanity.

This faithful friend has come through many a times. We have reaped innumerable benefits out of this friendship. Therefore in the question of whether any limits should be placed on scientific developments, we have to assess whether these benefits and also the cons. What better field of science then, to platform our discussion than the field of medicine and forensics, which has stirred much controversy? Medicine has helped humankind in uncountable ways. People have started taking charge of their own health and life.

Therefore, the life expectancy of a person living in the nineties is about twenty years more on an average from that which people enjoyed at the start of the last century. By the virtue of medicine, not only does a person live longer but also lives his life to the fullest in the best of health. Deadly diseases such as small pox, plague and polio have caused a large number of epidemics resulting in major loss of life. The Plague Epidemic of London in the 1600s had wiped out nearly a fifth of its population.

Researches and scientific effort led many scientists to find cures or preventive vaccinations for these life-threatening diseases. Today these diseases have been eradicated from the face of the earth. Thanks to our Science, millions of lives have been saved from the clutches of these evils. The field of medicine today is well equipped to cope with the health problems faced by man. Science behind Medicine has led to awareness and preventive education among the public.

Antibiotics and other medicines sometimes help us fight life-threatening conditions. In short, the patients are often handed a second chance to live. We are no longer at the complete mercy of nature. The right to choose and to take control of ones life has been passed down to the individual. As pointed out by Willard Gaylin in his essay, Harvesting the Dead, science has essentially changed the definition of death. Now although a person could be declared dead, he could have willed his usefulness beyond his mortality.

Medical technology has reached a point where organs can be transplanted from one individual to another. However many see red in such an act as desecration of a human body. But by donating his or her organs, the person would not only have saved someones life, he would have also found a meaning not only in his lifetime but also in his death. Medicine has often been cited as a means to over-population. Sure, it helps us live a little longer but it also provides us with birth control techniques such as contraceptives and sterility operations to help prevent it.

Speaking along this line, instead of blaming science for our troubles, would it not be right to blame those who do not heed the advice provided by Science and make use of the technology it has provided to curb over-population? Issues such as euthanasia and abortion have always been topics of debate in the field of medicine. Many equate these to murder and protest against its use. Even before the present day techniques were developed, people already had in place procedures that essentially had similar goals to what is now termed as euthanasia.

Science has just provided us with simpler ways that are not tough on the patients themselves. This in my opinion is no justification but the fact. Further man controls the use of any technology. It is a question of ethics of the person resorting to such means. If there is enough reason and rationale behind it, then it can be judged as an act of mercy. On the other hand, an abuse of this technology is nothing but a murder. Even if it results in a few cases of abuse of this science, we cannot possibly discount it as evil because it is its use that is bad.

There has been a lot of discussion and hype surrounding the recently unveiled Human Genome Project. As one of the researchers puts it, “It has opened a library of life which might take at least a century to explore”. With such a huge database at our command, there is no telling where scientific developments might lead us next. The mission of the Genome Project is to identify the thousands of genes found in man, determine their scientific sequences, interpret the data to find solutions to some of the unsolved questions on human life.

Though finding facts about our bodies is its main emphasis, it would also look into the possible ethical and legal consequences of unveiling such data to humankind. The project has been speculated to stop and even reverse the aging process. In short, it might be possible to bridge the gap between life and death. This bold claim has caused an uproar amongst people, they say that by acting in such a manner, we humans are trying to play the role of God. However, according to Capra of Tao of Physics, Science is trying to find the basic stuff that constitutes the reality.

This research has shed enormous amount of light on life. Though only a piece of the great jigsaw puzzle of life, it leads us one step closer to the whole picture. Understanding the data helps us find the meaning of life and who we really are. It helps us figure out why we act and behave in a manner that we commonly do. Thus with a better understanding of our bodies, we progress towards conditions which our bodies perhaps want. If this is so, then it can only result in better living standards. What would be that God, who does not yearn for the prosperity of His people?

The Genome Project supplies us with valuable information, which tend to further the good done by Medicine. The knowledge obtained about our DNA could help us to diagnose, treat and someday prevent the thousands of disorders and illnesses that affect us. Learning our genetic codes could help us determine the modes of attacks used by pathogens and viruses and thus wipe out deadly diseases such as malaria from humanity. Another possible use of this vast information can be marked out in Genetic Screening of pregnant mothers and their fetuses.

Some people see red in this citing discrimination of the less fortunate individuals where though genetically they are at a risk for some disease which they do not even show symptoms of. However, every coin has two sides to it. If the prediction turns out to be right, is it right to put that unborn child through a lifelong agony of pain and suffering, always depending on others to fend for them? The democracy that we live in guarantees its citizens with the freedom to choose.

After such genetic screening, all that we would be doing is handing the parents of the unborn child the right to choose life or abortion of their child. After all, they are going to care after him or her for the rest of their lives. The creation of Dolly, the sheep famed for being the first ever clone, has since led to the opening of a Pandoras box. The possibility of cloning human beings is now very much a reality. Cloning involves many religious, moral and ethical issues that need to be addressed. Is it unnatural?

Are we playing God? compelling arguments state that cloning of both human and non-human species results in harmful physical and psychological effects on both groups : cloning of human beings would result in severe psychological effects in the cloned child, and that the cloning of non-human species subjects them to unethical or moral treatment for human needs. However, cloning is good news for infertile couples hoping for a child of their own, or it can be used to clone animals on the brink of extinction to ensure its survival.

If cloning were allowed to be further developed, scientists would be able to clone body organs which are an exact replica of an individual body organ. This would prove to be very beneficial to a person who may have lost a body organ. For a lot of time, especially the period of the First World War, there had been talks about Eugenesis (Happy Genetics). It is simply a breeding program for humans with certain desirable characteristics for the benefit of humans. In recent times there has been much talk about designer babies, whereby the genetic make up of the future child is carefully selected and planned.

Thus these babies could possess everything a potential parent might want in a child: good looks, intelligence, perfect eyesight, atheletic abilities, lower risk of illnesses etc, right down to the little details like blond hair and blue eyes. While this pursuit for perfection could benefit society with smarter people, or less health problems, the future might be bleak for the children who were conceived naturally, they might even harbour feelings of resentment against parents who could, but didnt give them the best.

In my opinion, science, like most things have the good and the bad side to it. Douglas Shrader tries to explain through the Utilitarianism Principle that if an act produces more good than harms for a society, it can be reasoned out as a right thing to do for the society as a whole. Similarly, if we take a balance and weigh the benefits and costs of scientific developments, we would find that the case is not even close. The benefits such scientific discoveries could and have endowed on humanity far outweigh the costs .

The ethical and moral implications associated with it make it difficult to draw the line of limit. However, looking more closely at our world, we find ethics in most of the disciplines including religion. People can take advantage of any field if they wish to, but our social and political ties prevent most of us from acting in manners considered as taboos. Some people who yet work in ways to disrupt the social structure are often times rejected. Further there are laws in place to guarantee that no ones right to freedom of choice is infringed upon.

How The Process Of Aging Works

This report outlines the main theories of how the process of aging works. Since researchers have not discovered a universally-accepted theory of aging, the theories discussed are potential explanations of how we age. The likelihood of each hypothesis is considered roughly equal. The different theories discussed focus on the workings of different parts of the body, from the molecular level of DNA mutations and replication, to the organism level of becoming worn out. Aging is a very complex and gradual process, and its ongoing operation is present to some degree in all individuals.

It is a journey to the maturity, as well as to the degeneration of the body. Because aging affects every part of the body, many different steps are involved and various types of reactions occur. Changes in DNA take place, which can and often do affect the way the body functions; harmful genes are sometimes activated, and necessary ones deactivated. A decrease in important body proteins like hormones and certain types of body cells is almost inevitable. These, among many, are characteristic changes that take place in our bodies as time moves on and aging continues.

At present, a universal explanation for how we age or why we age does not exist, but there are many theories to explain this puzzle, and they are supported by continuous research. In this report, some of the how theories of aging will be examined. Among them are theories concerning spontaneous mutations, damage from free radicals, the clock gene, cellular aging, a weakened immune system, wear and tear, and hormonal and neuroendocrinous changes. Spontaneous Mutations The spontaneous mutations theory, also known as the somatic mutation hypothesis, states that the crucial events that cause aging are mutations.

These are changes in a cell=s DNA, which are passed on to daughter cells during mitosis. Since genes on DNA code for specific proteins, mutated genes may produce defective proteins, which do not work properly. Many proteins can be affected, such as enzymes, proteins comprising muscle tissue, and a recently discovered type of protein called transcription factors, which bind to DNA and regulate the individual activities of genes themselves. Physical mutagens are substances that increase the chance of mutation and include such physical phenomena as x-rays and radioactivity from radium.

The atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan are examples of physical mutagens that caused an increase in the number of cases of leukemia. Certain chemicals and radiation cause mutations to occur in DNA by giving off high energy particles. These particles collide with the DNA and knock off atoms of the DNA randomly, damaging it. DNA consists of sequences of four possible nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, paired so that adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine always pairs with cytosine.

As cells repair the damaged DNA, a different DNA base is often substituted. This base-substitution is known as a point mutation and can cause the production of a defective or damaged protein. Apart from being caused by radiation or chemicals, mutations also occur spontaneously but at lower rates. Physicist Leo Szilard and biochemist Denham Harmon proposed that because most mutations are harmful, the more spontaneous mutations that arise, the more abnormalities that arise as defective proteins are produced.

These could ultimately kill an individual (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 20). Although it has been proven that many proteins undergo alterations during aging, the spontaneous mutations theory is not the cause (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 21). It has, however, been proven that DNA is chemically altered during aging. Modifications in DNA bases, called I-spots, have been found to increase in number during aging. Besides I-spots, another modified base known as 8-hydroxyguanine, the DNA base guanine with an added OH group, has also been found to increase during aging.

It is unclear how changes such as these arise, but similar changes seem to be caused be exposure to mutation-causing chemicals, some of which are found in tobacco smoke (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 21). Another factor supporting the spontaneous mutations theory may lie in the temporal occurrence of genetic mutations. Certain cancers and abnormal growths seem to appear more frequently as the process of aging continues. Two tumour suppressor genes called p16 and p53 are responsible for slowing cell proliferation, and therefore keep certain cells from becoming cancerous.

However, if they become mutated, they do not carry out their function properly so cells with these mutations begin to grow and divide quickly, causing cancer and other growths (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 22). Werners syndrome is a disorder that significantly accelerates the aging process starting at around 20 years of age. Molecular geneticist Gerard Schellenburg has suggested that the function of the enzyme helicase, which normally unzips the DNA double helix before replication and removes randomly occurring mutations like base substitutions, does not function properly in people afflicted with Werners.

Therefore, the unzipping of the DNA double helix is disrupted and mutations are overlooked (Lafferty et al. , 1996, 60). Moreover, DNA occasionally loses one or more bases through the process of spontaneous deletion. This type of mutation seriously affects the mitochondria of the cell, a main source of energy within the cell. Mitochondria have their own DNA, mtDNA, which allows them to self-replicate. The mtDNA encodes for enzymes found within the mitochondria which help produce ATP, energy-storing molecules. During aging, the amount of mtDNA that possess lost segments of DNA increases.

Although still unproven, it is believed that this abnormal mtDNA may cause defects in energy production. Most mtDNA deletions occur in brain, muscle, and other tissue with little cell division. By the end of ones lifespan, certain parts of the brain consist of as much as 3% abnormal mtDNA (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 22). Many characteristics of aging have been proven to develop as a result of spontaneous mutations. However, many other changes associated with aging cannot be adequately explained by this theory. Damage from Free Radicals A free radical is a fragment of a molecule or atom that contains at least one unpaired electron.

Because unpaired electrons are unstable, an uneven electrical charge is created and the electrons attract those of other atoms or molecules to become stable and rectify the electrical imbalance. As they gain electrons from other molecules, they modify the other molecules. In this way, free radicals can damage DNA, and it is known that damaged DNA is involved in the aging process. Free radicals can be formed when atoms collide with one another, as in the impact of x-rays or UV radiation from sunlight on living cells.

They can start a chain reaction in which atoms or molecules snatch electrons from one another. This process of losing electrons is known as oxidation. Though oxidative damage can be slowed through the help of enzymes and the absorption of free radicals by antioxidants like vitamins E and C, free radicals continue to cause damage, however little, to DNA (Kronhausen et al. , 1989, 78). Cross-linking, or large-scale fusion of large cell molecules, is involved in a process responsible for the wrinkling of skin, the loss of flexibility, and rigor mortis.

It occurs when little or no antioxidant activity is present to alleviate the rapid stiffening of body tissues (Kronhausen et al. , 1989, 74). In older individuals, oxidized proteins in tissues have been found, and when proteins become oxidized, they usually become inactive. Lipids, which constitute a large part of the cell membrane, may also become oxidized, thereby reducing the fluidity of the cell membrane. Also, it is possible that vascular diseases are caused by oxidative damage since oxidized lipids in the blood cause arteries to thicken abnormally (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 24).

In addition, some scientists believe that difficulty in, or slowness of movement (when we age), as well as tremors associated with the aging disease called Parkinson=s disease are caused by oxidative damage (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 26). The neurotransmitter dopamine, found in the brain is damaged by free radicals produced by enzymes during the removal of dopamine from the synapses of the brain. During aging, damaged mtDNA is thought to collect in parts of the brain with high dopamine concentrations and is thought to be caused indirectly by the presence of these free radicals (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 25).

Some regions of the brain high in dopamine and damaged mtDNA happen to be the basal ganglia, the parts that aids in movement control (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 25). A Free Radical Reaction with Glucose As the body continues its normal survival processes, insulin becomes less effective in encouraging the uptake of glucose from the blood. In this way, the body develops insulin resistance. This condition is similar to the more serious type of diabetes called maturity-onset diabetes, or type II diabetes.

If diabetes was left untreated, the excess glucose in the bloodstream would not be taken into cells because of insulin resistance. Instead, the excess glucose in the blood would react with hemoglobin in a free radical reaction through a process called non-enzymatic glycation. Other proteins such as collagen and elastin, which make up the connective tissues between our brain and skull, and in our joints, can also become glycated. Once this occurs, they stop functioning properly. The result of this is that diverse compounds called advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) become attached to proteins.

The combination of AGEs with proteins forms a sticky substance that could dramatically reduce joint movement, clog arteries, and cloud tissues like the lens of the eye, leading to cataracts (Lafferty et al. , 1996, 56). Once glycated proteins are formed, they can cause further damage by interacting with free radicals from other sources (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 26). The Lethal Clock A gene called clock-1, which was believed to determine an organism=s lifespan was found in small organisms and a very similar gene has also recently been found in humans (Lafferty et al. , 1996, 58).

Although it is uncertain whether the clock genes affect how susceptible cells are to infections, or if they control the actual aging process, it is generally agreed upon that these genes have something to do, either directly or indirectly, with aging (Allis et al. , 1996, 64). It has been proposed in the clock theory that the demise of brain cells, of which we lose thousands each day, is due to regular, programmed cellular destruction, and not to random *accidents= (Keeton, 1992, 50). As cells divide, the number of divisions that they undergo is monitored and kept track of.

After a certain number of divisions, the clock genes are triggered and may produce proteins responsible for cell destruction (Keeton, 1992, 50). Cellular Aging In 1961, a discovery made by Leonard Hayflick showed that normal, diploid cells from such continually [email protected] parts of the body as skin, lungs, and bone marrow, divide a limited number of times. Although the cells stop dividing at the point just before DNA synthesis, they do not die. The longer-lived the species, the more divisions the cells undergo.

As the age of an individual increases, the number of potential divisions decreases (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 29). This discovery was found using fibroblasts, or cells found in the connective tissues throughout the body. The cells were placed in a laboratory dish under sterile conditions and allowed to grow and divide until they filled the dish. Then some of these cells were placed in a new dish until it was filled. The number of [email protected] necessary until the cells no longer grew and filled the dish represented the number of cell divisions (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 29).

It is not known why the cells stop dividing, but these AHayflick [email protected] may be caused by some genes responsible for halting the division of neurons during developmental stages (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 30). This limited number of cell divisions is often thought of as cellular aging (Lafferty et al. , 1996, 55), a microcosm of the process of gradual, yet, actual deceleration and deterioration of the body. Though remarkable discoveries support the fact that cells stop dividing, this theory does not seem to recognize why cells stop dividing.

Shortened Telomeres The theory that shortened telomeres are involved in aging is an extension of the cellular aging theory. Telomeres are highly repetitive sequences of nucleic bases found at the tips of chromosomes. They contain only a few genes. Their function is to protect chromosomes in a manner similar to Athe way a plastic cuff protects a [email protected] (Lafferty et al. , 1996, 57). After each DNA replication, telomeres on the daughter chromosomes become shorter than those on the parent strand. So after enough replications, which happens to be the Hayflick limit, the telomeres have become strikingly diminished and cell reproduction ceases.

It has been theorized that at this point, genes previously protected by telomeres become revealed and produce proteins that aid in the deterioration of tissue, characteristic of the aging process (Lafferty et al. , 1996, 57). To back up this theory, researchers have found that cells that do not stop dividing, such as sperm cells and many cancer cells, do not lose telomere DNA. These cells possess an enzyme called telomerase, which maintain telomeres (Lafferty et al. , 1996, 57). If this is true, then with an extra boost of telomerase, DNA may replicate many more times and in turn, we may be able to live longer.

Yet instead of slowing or stopping the process of aging, this possibility may only prolong it, since it has already been accepted that damaged, not a shortage of, DNA plays a large role in aging. The Bodys Weakened Immune System During aging, the efficiency of the immune system declines. Normally, novel antigens, foreign molecules found on the surface of viruses and bacteria, activate the production of antibodies secreted by white blood cells, or lymphocytes, called B-cells. The antigens act to neutralize the virus or bacteria, rendering it harmless. If the novel antigens are missed by the antibodies, a [email protected] process comes into play.

Macrophage cells safeguard the body and envelope foreign antigens that they later expose to T-cells for destruction. The pieces of virus that the macrophages pick up trigger the appropriate T-cell, which in turn replicates, producing more copies of itself. These T-cells, called memory T-cells, can recognize and destroy cells infected with the virus (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 35). These two methods of protecting the body from invasion make up the primary immune response, and this is the component of the immune system that decreases in efficiency as we age. The secondary response is the body=s resistance against pathogens it has already met.

The reason for the decline in the immune system=s efficiency is that over time, we come in contact with more viral and bacterial infections so that more of our T-cells have been stimulated, converted to memory T-cells, and therefore, used. That is, they cannot be used to fight off any new viruses or bacteria that invade the body. It is possible that the total number of T-cells is set early in life. If this is so, then as we grow older, having already fought off a number of infections, we have a smaller amount of [email protected] T-cells available to fight of infections that come our way (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 34).

In addition to the decrease in unused T-cells, antibodies used against the body=s own proteins are occasionally made. This faulty process is common in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 36). Whereas this theory of how we age is a very practical one, it almost assumes that older people die as a result of infections, no matter how mild, because of a weakened immune systems. This is often, not so. Wear and Tear Just as machinery and other equipment gets worn down through use, so too do our organs and cells.

It is almost inevitable that once our first cells have developed and our organs begin functioning, they also begin a very gradual deterioration through use. In fact, heavy use of our organs and bodies can accelerate this deterioration we call aging (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 33). In typists, for example, carpal tunnel syndrome and other degenerative problems come about faster and more commonly than in those who do not exhibit such specialized use of their fingers. On the other hand, problems can also arise from lack of use.

Muscle atrophy, which is noticed in the elderly is the result of a lack of muscle use (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 33). So assuming that moderate use of our bodies is healthy and will not promote any degenerative problems seems safe. Still, even regular, moderate use of one=s body, however long it can prevent certain problems, does not hold the body=s performance at the same level for very long. As aging continues, a loss of elasticity from the connective tissues in various parts of the body is experienced, and muscle performance, among other things, is reduced (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 33).

In 1900, the life expectancy in the U. S. was 47 years. It may be thought that this was the length of time the human body could withstand *wear and tear= before it Abroke down. @ Today, the life expectancy in the U. S. is about 76 years because of modern technology, and many beneficial medical breakthroughs (Lafferty et al. , 1996, 55). This large increase in life expectancies does not necessarily mean that human bodies can endure heavier use, or more wear and tear, but that it takes longer for our bodies to deteriorate now than it did in previous years.

At the molecular level, lipofuscins, or aging pigments, appear with increasing frequency in non-dividing cells. Because they contain oxidized lipids, it has been theorized that they are products of oxidative chemical reactions such as those involving free radicals (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 34). Modifications in Hormonal and Neuroendocrine Systems The pituitary, ovaries, and testes are part of a system of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream and which are controlled by the brain. This system is called the neuroendocrine system.

At puberty, a signal is sent by the pituitary gland to the ovaries and testes, telling them to produce more sex hormones such as estrogens and progesterone in women and androgens in men. In women, menopause, a stage in which the reproductive system is shut down, is reached. From this point in a woman=s life these hormones are no longer produced and many changes are experienced. Because some neurons can become [email protected] to estrogens, the absence of these hormones induces the brain to respond in different ways, such as sending a surge of blood to the skin.

This is sometimes called a Ahot [email protected] (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 37). Unlike hot flashes, a woman may experience harmful or dangerous changes because of menopause: osteoporosis, or the loss of compact bone is accelerated because bone-mineral metabolism is dependent on estrogen. Once this condition has reached a certain stage, it reduces the ability of bones to support body weight. It also immensely elevates the risk of bone fractures. In fact, as a woman increases in age, her risk of bone fracture due to osteoporosis increases exponentially (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 43).

In men, the number of abnormal sperm, incidence of lower testosterone production, and incidence of impotence have been found to increase with age. Because the brain controls the pulses of testosterone, it can be said that some of these changes arise because of different signals in the brain (Ricklefs and Finch, 1995, 44). The hormonal and neuroendocrine theory collects evidence mostly from a female way of life, yet both men and women experience the aging process and many of the same characteristics that go with it.

The knowledge that the process of aging is very complex can be deduced from the simple fact that there are many entirely different, yet plausible, theories of how aging works. In fact, the possibility that several of these theories are connected, or play a combined part in aging is not far fetched. Yet because the process of aging is so multifarious, just how humans complete or even begin the transition from youth to old age remains a mystery to some extent. However, with new evidence and proof supporting some of these hypotheses, opportunities for a healthier, longer life may arise.

The science Astrology

Astrology is the science of certain cryptic relations between the celestial bodies and terrestrial life. It is considered an art and a practical science. It lays no claim to be what used to be called an exact science, but studies certain predispositions or tendencies in human life, which are sometimes indicated so clearly that they become virtual certainties. The possible uses of astrology are endless and may be used to a variety of means. Since the days of the Chaldeans, it was known that the sun, moon, and planets followed similar paths, the zodiac.

It is a zone of the celestial sphere that extends from 8. degrees on either side if the path of the sun. As a primitive calendar, the zodiacal belt was arbitrarily divided into twelve sections of 30 degrees each. these are the famous signs of the zodiac. The orgins of the names given to each sign extend into the most remote regions of antiquity. Terrestrial animal gods, whether real or imagined , were one day projected onto the constellations which, in the Chaldean imagination, they resembled. This celestial menagerie has furthermore given the zodiac its name, for in greek, it means “route of animals.

The sun enters the first zodiacal sign, Aries , and then continues its path hrough the remaining eleven signs. The twelve signs of the zodiac are: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces. The moon and the planets pass through the signs too, but obviously at different speeds from those of the sun. The moon, which is close to the earth, circles the zodiac in twenty-nine days, while the planet Pluto needs two hundred fifty years. Planets also can be seen to slow down, stop, and even reverse directions in relationship to the constellations that they cross.

In reality, the planet inexorably continues along its way. But the speed of the earth itself interacts with that of the planet to occasionally give this impression. The symbolism of the twelve signs is a very ancient tradition passed along from Manilius and Ptolemy of Alexandria. It ascribes well-defined properties to each sign, influences transmitted to the child at birth that determine his character, health, and destiny. Passing through twelve signs, the planets, play different parts. Being born at the moment when one of the signs is occupied by several planets confers the properties of this sign on the individual.

The most important celestial figure is that of the sun. This what determines what sign the child was born under. In this way an ancient tradition has divided human beings into twelve psychological types whose descriptions are intuitive of human nature. This interpretation of the twelve signs is a blend of several different works but generally agree on the signification of the signs of the zodiac. ARIES (March 21-April 20) Ruled by Mars, the Aries is the incarnation of violent will, impatience, impulsiveness, and rapid, often precipitated, decisions.

The principal qualities are enthusiasm, courage, independence, and pride. But Aries is too aggressive and impulsive. Like the animal that it symbolizes, he has a great tendency to thrust ahead with his horns without having reflected beforehand. To succeed in life the aries must keep his enthusiasm but moderate his ardor. The Aries essence is the principal of acceleration personified. “Fast” is the word that governs all activities from falling in love to saving a hopeless situation. Ariens talk fast, think fast, move fast and have no patience for people who don’t.

Ariens thrive on challenge and are born leaders, eager to break through old barriers to watch their ideas take hold. Their nature is dynamic, fiery and iercely determined to have its own way, regardless. And because they can be such an audacious, impassioned, overwhelming force to handle, they get their own way more often than not. A displeased Aries can be like a tornado: if caught standing in the path of either, there is no way to remain impervious. There may be disturbing sounds and things may begin to fly, but it doesn’t last long. Ariens are highly generative and immensely positive in their approach to all they undertake.

There is an extraordinary courage in this sign that springs from vitality and confidence that sings of miracles. This is a sign that senses possibility in the improbable and that can create new conditions out of chaos. The Aries vision is progressive and expansive, and their approach enthusiastic and inspiring. They bring an incandescence to everything they care about. One strength this sign is missing is subtlety. And one way this deficiency comes through is with the kind of candor that can kill. When Ariens are good, they are very good; when they are bad, they are very bad.

Taurus (April 21-May 22) It is Venus who governs this sign. In general, Taurus is a concrete being, firmly attached to the goods of this world. He has a strong but peaceful sensuality. His anger is rare, in the image of the peaceful beast that is his totem, but it comes abruptly and violently: he easily “sees red. ” Most often however, he demonstrates his good sense, stability and fidelity. He can sometimes be reproached for lack of detachment and disinterestedness. Taurus is archetypal earth, steady and enduring, solid as the ground beneath one’s feet.

By nature, Taureans are strong and basic, practical and uncomplicated in their approach to life. Taureans are loyal and loving in pragmatic ways that promote positive feelings. Builders of bonds, nests, and amilies, Taureans know instinctively how to make a house a home. Taureans have a way of consuming their own possessions, or preserving and cherishing them like objects of fine art. The sheer sensuous pleasure that a Taurean is capable of taking in life is something the more mental signs can learn from. However, like anything else, it is prone to excess and can pose problems.

The Taurean tunes negative can be cold, brutal, violent, and sadistic, the type of person to take a life simply to make an angry point. Bottled up and often displaced anger is a key problem for they do not deal well with their deeper emotions. When fixed in a chosen direction and highly motivated, the typical Taurean can outendure all competition, opposition and obstacles of every kind. However, the motivation has to spring from something that is highly valued. Gemini (May 21-June 21) It is Gemini that influences the gemini, the crafty Mercury, god of eloquence, merchants and thieves.

He is above all a shrewd being, constantly proving his adaptability in all circumstances. He enjoys social contacts. All recognize Gemini’s brilliance and spirituality. He must nonetheless guard against falling into easiness that would make of him a superficial, unstable and ixed-up individual. He should put intelligence in the service of a durable cause. In love,he must be careful of artificiality, and put more sincerity into rushes of feeling. “I think therefore I am” is the classic Gemini code for carrying on with life.

Geminis meet all of their problems “head” on and have a set of reasons for all their motivations-including those that are purely emotional. People born under this sign are smart and glib, social and superficially clever. Gemini is the sign of communication, and most Geminis can talk their way out of a maximum-security prison. Or, when the guileful trickster takes over, they can manipulate somebody else behind bars. Geminis tend to be self-involved and fear those who sabotage their sense of freedom. Seeking stimulation but having a strong sense of self-preservation, they will avoid anything that seriously threatens their ego base.

Instinctively, they select and sort out what or who is most important in their scheme of things. Quite often such discriminations are based on a desire for power. Highly verbal and gregarious, Geminis have a gift for talking and taking advantage of the attention that their clever words attract. There is great power in their ability to generate an eager and receptive audience. Caught up in the moment, they lack self-consciousness and have the ability to get the most dolorous crowd to break into contagious laughter.

Because the thinking process overrides their ability to feel, Geminis have to train their minds to work for them rather than against them. A powerful mind is a calm, focused and disciplined one. On the other hand, a mind that is out of control gets nowhere, and is a Gemini pitfall which finds expression in many aspects of life. Cancer (June 22-July 22) Like the moon that governs this sign, Cancer is an imaginative, sensitive, and dreamy individual. Somewhat self-effacing, he enjoys family life, where his timidity- and somewhat weakness- seems to be protected from the hardness of this world.

The feeling for the past is more attractive that the future. He often feels a nostalgia for childhood and the protection of his mother and must try to overcome this attitude. Cancer must strive to impose his qualities of shrewdness and intuition on groups of people. In love, it is not good for the cancer to give too much importance to the wounds of self-love, and he must learn o declare himself at the right moment. Ruled by the tides of their fluctuating emotions, Cancers are Moon people, mysterious as the sea at night, delicate as a moon beam shimmering on the surface of a still and haunted lake.

In their own unique ways, Cancers are haunted-by their fears and anguished fantasies, their attachment to the past, their driven compulsions and their quiet, self-obsessed dramas that sometimes move them to the brink of madness. Self-enclosed and saturated with their own emotions, Cancers feel everything that they don’t deliberately shut out. it is a highly strung inner orld of intense emotional velocity that is ignited by any threat to their sense of control. Sometimes sensitive and compassionate, sometimes cold and cut off from the world, Cancers are influenced by both the inner and outer atmosphere.

The result is a person easily pressured by onslaughts on their self-preservation. In the Cancer mind, the unconscious is very close to the surface. as the first of the three water signs, much of life is about learning to live with this emotional makeup in the middle of a cold an insecure material world. Cancers are often criticized as being extremely self-centered people. However, it is, in truth, as if there is no self, only a self-protective shell. With emotions so close to the surface, Cancers are hopelessly sentimental. Generous to a fault, they can be a fool for love.

When it comes to work , the classic Cancerian has the concentration of a brain surgeon and the drive to go along with it. Tenacious, task-oriented and intense, Cancers tend to be perfectionists who take their work personally-and sometimes a little too seriously. There are Cancers who leave the office at the office. However, it is likely that they work overtime, don’t take time for lunch, and go home hours after the cleaning lady. Leo (July 23-August 22) Having elected to reside in this sign, the sun confers its force, amplitude, and radiance on those born in Leo.

Leo is a proud, individualistic, and generous being. Authority and willpower are among the dominant character traits. Thus he has strong trump cards to help obtain success in life. Leo must be wary, however, of pride and unmeasured action, and govern ambitions with the measure of his abilities. He must avoid being too susceptible to flattery. In love, he has a tendency to transform his life into the stage of the theater. He should be more reserved in the manifestations of his rushes of feeling. hose who love him will be grateful for this.

Leo is the sign of the sun, and like the sun itself, Leos shine with stellar incandescence. Leos’ magnetism makes them highly memorable people who exude power and personableness. Personality is the Leo strong point. When so desiring, the Leo charm can tame serpents and turn the world at large into an adoring enclave. At their best they give off a scintillating sort of radiance. They are positive and enthusiastic, spirited, dynamic and larger than life. Leos expect the best from themselves and everyone around them.

It is this attitude that helps them achieve their dreams. This is the sign that is determined to do things its own way, at all costs, with no patience for the opinions of others. When this works, the Leo energy and willfulness can create miracles. When it backfires, it’s probably more comfortable hanging out in a towering inferno. Although Leos are overachiever with highly successful track records, they tend to underestimate their accomplishments. The anxiety deep within them concerning performance never allows them to rest and gives them problems delegating authority.

They embrace perfectionistic standards and feel contempt for mediocrity. Virgo (August 23-September 23) It is mercury that rules this sign. But it is not the subtle and airy Mercury of gemini. Intelligence is more matter-of-fact: less gifted but deeper. The Virgo is rightly considered calculating, prudent and attached to minor details to the point of fixation. For the Virgo, reason overcomes the heart; precision seems to be more important than intuition, of which he is wary. In love, Virgo is not very demonstrative, or at least, unable to decide, a late marriage will be his lot.

Commonly known as the sign of the nitpicking perfectionist, Virgos often consider themselves to be discriminators graced with divine sanction. Seeing flaws like Librans see beautiful faces, Virgos are often controlled by their visions. In time, their visions go into what makes up a life. The single most important challenge in the Virgo experience is to see things in larger terms. Virgos’ visions determine their career success, quality of experience in relationships, health, and overall quality of life. The perfectionism so often associated with this sign, has in fact far less to do with perfection than with a diminished view of the whole.

It is the sort of perception that focuses in on the loose thread rather than the color of of he fabric. Virgos are victimized by a deadly dreariness that is born of duty and discipline, self-control and routinized regimes. People born under this sign often have to wake up to the possibilities of their own life and the power within themselves. Shortsighted, Virgos settle easily for the minor roles that are so often assigned to them rather than stretching them beyond and utilizing the gifts of what could be a superior mind.

Libra (September 23- October 22) Governed by Venus, the planet of harmony and arts, one word characterizes Libra: equilibrium, as the sign it symbolizes. Libra is sociable, refined, and understanding, partly to conciliatory solutions. But be careful, for he is gifted with a very fine sense of justice, and will engage in battle if he considers that he has been ridiculed. In sentimental relationships, Libra is praised for his sweetness and elegance, with an occasionally somewhat exaggerated coquetishness. Aggressiveness must be stimulated, for Libra’s distinguished nonchalance can prevent his social success.

In many respects, Libra is a sign of paradox. Librans sprout from a series of contradictions: self versus nonself, mental versus emotional, pleasure versus athos, generosity versus greed, control versus chaos. Underneath the smiling face and stellar charm lies a character with many convolutions, confusions, frustrations and ambivaleces concerning its identity. Combine this with very high intelligence and you have people who think a great deal about how they ought to be, how they should have been, how they might have been and how they will be if only… d so on. While this highly complicated process sounds self- centered, it is in fact the workings of a self that doesn’t feel complete by itself. It always seems that something is missing, and whether that appears to e another person, a significant promotion, or a successful project that will prove one’s worth, the day-to-day drama is often a torturous spiral. The need to affirm one’s self is so strong in Libras that it makes many of them burn with ambition. In the intensity of striving and accomplishing, one leaves a sense of lacking behind.

Alas the fuel for such ambition is the kind of anxiety that never lets one calm down. The satisfaction that comes from having achieved one’s goal is soon supplanted by the necessity for a new creation. And so continues the rise and fall of doing and being. In between each gap is like a gasp in which a threatening, self-diminishing voice sneaks through. Scorpio (October 23- November 21) Mars, the god of war, and Pluto, the god of the underworld, share this kingdom. It suffices to say that the child of Scorpio is not a being of rest. There is in him a depth of violent aggressiveness and undiscipline, but also of anguish.

Scorpios enemies must contend with his piercing critical sense, which permits the rapid discovery of the chinks in their armor, for it is certain that he has flair. There is also scientific curiosity which penetrates the depths ature’s secrets, even if they are dangerous. Passionate and jealous in love, possessing strong sexuality; in a word, Scorpio has the best and the worst. By developing the best, he is able to have exceptional success in life. Scorpio might be the most misunderstood sign in the zodiac. It is a convoluted sign, commonly associated with mystery, sex, power, and intrigue.

In social gatherings where the conversation has descended to the most superficial astrological chitchat, Scorpio gets more than its share of abuse. Much of this has to do with the fact that at any given point a great deal f the Scorpionic agenda remains hidden. Intensely private, strongly secretive and rather suspicious, Scorpio does not reveal itself to anyone, nor does it form close overnight friendships. For the most part, members of this sign stand aloof from more obvious social interactions. Scorpios prefer one-to-one situations to large parties at which people present their social facades.

This is a sign of depth and depth perception. Scorpios see and feel more than most people, and not infrequently these feelings are complicated and problematic. Because of this, at a very early age, they develop a deep need for control, long with a list of goals and game plans that will take them where they want to go. Scorpio is the power behind the throne, and has the substance of which CEO’s are made. Success is what they are after. They ca be secretive and ruthless to achieve their desired position. Sagittarius (November 22-December 20) Jupiter is the master os this sign.

He confers an honest, generous and loyal nature. Sagittarius has true nobility of character that works through goodness and moderation. He enjoys escaping from the banality of day-to-day life, and travelling attracts him. Furthermore, these travels can be imaginary s well as real. Sagittarius is a sign of the philosophical mind. In love, he prefers legality and lasting feelings to brief and violent passions and adventures. The essence of sagittarian nature is possibility personified. Diminishment of any kind depresses the classic Sagittarian, as does anyone or anything interfering with the Sagittarian’s sense of freedom.

Sagittarians always want to feel free to make choices and to move in any direction that suits them. Sagittarius is the sign of the adventurer, bound only by his own beliefs. Sagittarians have expansive minds and are eager to learn, and experience, always estless and impatient to move ahead. The classic Sagittarian is a democratic individual with ideals that often define the lifestyle. The Sagittarian soul desires expansion at all costs and is sensitive to social issues that affect the functioning of self and fellow man. Sagittarians want the best possible worlds. They will never stop searching until they find it.

For a great many members of this sign, the entire experience of life is one endless exploration. Sagittarians see possibility where other signs perceive limitations. They also have a genius for seeing splendid things that the common mind might consider silly. The Sagittarian nature wants to soar, and after landing, to remain unimpeded. This can cause some unsettling problems when encountering the situation called “daily life. ” Sagittarians want life to be perfect, and they don’t want to waste their perfect time dinking around with petty, boring details or being bothered by a moronic boss with no vision.

Capricorn (December 21-January 19) This region of the winter sky has been attributed by astrologers to the morose Saturn. Capricorn is serious, often on the defensive; decisions are taken in a calm atmosphere, and he is farsighted. He is very ambitious, but is areful not to show it, preferring to act in the shadows rather than in the broad daylight. It is not worth the trouble to attempt flattery, for Capricorn will not be susceptible. He is cold, objective, and wary by nature. He will not try to please in love, and some might reproach a lack of spirit; feeling exist, but they are buried deep inside.

Capricorn will never sacrifice his carer to a passing fling or even to a passion. A born executive with sky-high goals, Capricorn is the classic accomplishmentarian. Driven beyond high ambition, this is a sign that doesn’t believe in giving up. Patient, enduring and steadfast in the face of all obstacles, Capricorn instinctively understands the value of time. This is a sign that can outwait all opposition and then confidently move in for the kill. Invariably, Capricorn gets what it wants because it goes about it in all the right ways.

Hardworking, highly organized, diligent, down to earth and quietly determined, Capricorns make great tycoons, business chieftains, politicians, presidents and entrepreneurs. The Capricorn mind is intrinsically materialistic. It knows the value of a dollar in several different countries and the most recent fluctuation in the rice of gold. Capricorns value their possessions like some people value their children, and they look at life through a prism of appearance-what you see is what you get. Capricorns are born climbers who will make it to the top and eventually own it.

And once securely positioned in place, attest that there is no other way to go. Like everything else. Capricorns take their status very seriously and never tire of their material rewards. The material to Capricorn is worth, their worth. Having an eye for fine quality, they fully enjoy the luxury of owning the best. To the Capricorn mind, excellence is always its own reward. Aquarius (January 20- February 18) Modern astrologers have assigned this sign to the planet Uranus. Like it, Aquarius is gifted with a lively intelligence, and taken dy the new, sometimes by the utopian.

Originality and idealism are two principle character traits. Very disinterested, Aquarius is enthused by great revolutionary causes, but will not descend into the arena. The battle of ideas is sufficient, for the Aquarius always has a depth of reserve, dreaminess, and sensitivity. He is not very realistic in love, and demonstrates much independence and fantasy. He is able to please and to be devoted but does not like to become attached. Aquarius must beware of solitude. Authentic airheads, Aquarian minds are airborne and aglow with ideals that often have to do with utopian empires and progressive, inventive lifestyle alternatives.

In astrology, the element of air has to do with the cerebral realm and all that this implies, such as mental creations and concoctions, communications and intellectual vistas contained by the frameworks of the mind. Aquarians are often brainy people, full of brilliance and visionary explosions, seeing so far ahead that they leave the present behind. The characteristic Aquarian is far more mental than emotional. Aquarians, in fact, have feelings about their mental constructs and intellectual aspirations. Their most beautiful love experience passes straight through the brain.

The craving for a sense of possibility is a pervasive one in the Aquarian’s scheme of things. It is the motivational force behind the humanitarian involvements and strongly cherished dreams and ideals. The end of the sixties, which sang of the “Age of Aquarius,” epitomized the spirit of blind ideas put forth as truth, without deeper understanding of the comprehensive whole, or the complicated timing of social change. The Aquarian ind, rolling on a track, does not take detours. Nor, is it intellectually open to their possibility. This is a sign associated with a great deal of fanaticism and willful rebellion.

Aquarians are heedless and reckless, throwing caution to the wind creating situations that are self-destructive. It is this blind which brings them their share of headaches, heartaches and trouble. Pisces (February 19- March 20) Naturally it is Neptune, god of the sea that governs this sign. Everyone agrees that Pisces is emotive and impressionable. He is praised for intuition, poetic ability, sense of compassion, and devotion. But Pisces must overcome the indecision of his character as well as his nonchalance; for activity can suffer from them, and Pisces can be thrown into a dreamy existence, one that is more than a little inefficient.

Feelings are marked with a blend of mysticism and sensuality, and the feeling of sacrifice dominates. Pisces is the sign of the psychic, the healer, the intuitive who is in tune with the synchronicities of the universe. Pisces nature is emotional, sensitive and subjective. Their imagination and intelligence are subtly insightful. The Pisces soul is one of mystery and longing. Deep inside a slumbering ivinity haunts a more conscious experience of life. There is an unearthly quality to the Pisces sensibility that is associated with the twelfth house.

This is a place of monasteries and hidden meanings, astral experiences, dreams, drugs and superconsious states of mind. Pisces is a sign that deeply reflects its ruler, Neptune, the planet of fantasy and illusion, romanticism, compassion, sympathy and the supernatural. Like the vibration of Neptune, the Pisces mind is changeable and fluid, fanciful and ready to flow in any direction. Pisceans are secretive and hold a place inside themselves that they share ith only a soul mate. Because they are so psychic, subjective and idealistic, this soul experiences often unsatisfied.

Instead, they will merge with and see themselves mirrored in their life supports and security blankets and the deeper need for unity will be sublimated by the experience of sharing. They are constantly searching for their true soul-mate. There is no real way to know if astrology is reality or fiction, but it does broaden our horizons to a new way of thinking. Perhaps time and seasons have caused the similarities to be there, perhaps it is just a coincidence. You must be the judge.

Intelligent Design of the Universe

The search for knowledge about the origin of humanity is as old as its inhabitants. Since the early 1800’s mankind has narrowed the debate to creation by a Supreme Being and the theory of evolution. Ever since then, science has been at odds against religion. Now it appears that science is returning to religion. Scientists are finding proof that the universe was created by a Supreme Being. The word evolution refers to the change of something over a period of time(Webster’s 634).

In biology, the theory of evolution is “the complex of processes by which living organisms originated on earth and have been diversified and modified through sustained changes in form and function”(Valentine). This theory proposes that between 4 million and 10 million years ago, all organisms on earth had a common ancestor and that through a process of evolution, all living organisms descended from this common ancestor(Coyne). Chevalier de Lamarck, a French naturalist proposed a theory of evolution in 1809.

His idea did not get much scientific consideration until Charles R. Darwin announced his theory of evolution(Coyne). Darwin published “his most famous book, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection”(Valentine) in 1859. Darwin stated that offspring resemble their parents, yet they are not exactly identical to them. He also noted that some of these differences were not effects of their environment, but actually were passed down from parents to children(Valentine). Darwin is the most well known scientist to write on evolution. There are many different variations on the theory of evolution.

Darwin states that natural selection is the main reason for the evolution of life. The fight for food, water and other necessities benefits those creatures who are well adapted for the struggle. Those that cannot survive, die with no offspring to continue their genetic line. Natural selection is also called survival of the fittest. Another related idea to evolution is gradualism. “Gradualism is the idea that evolutionary changes do not occur suddenly but over large amounts of time, ranging from decades to millions of years”(Coyne).

Genetic drift is another way that scientists define evolution. When two of a species mate, their offspring gets 23 chromosomes from both parents. When a gene does not split and combine correctly, a mutation occurs. This mutation will get passed down from the creature to its offspring. In this way a species can permanently be changed(Coyne). Scientists who have accepted the general theory of evolution as fact disagree among themselves about the ratio of importance between natural selection and genetic drift. They also disagree about what caused the apparent gaps in fossil layers.

New species “abruptly”(Valentine) appear in the fossil record with no apparent mutation from another species, then remain unchanged for long periods of time. They do not seem to exhibit the gradual changes that would be expected by modern evolutionists(Valentine). Many people, including those in the scientific community, do not accept the theory of evolution as fact. When Darwin was alive, his theory was attacked by many scientists and religious leaders(Coyne). In the 1900’s, United States public high schools began teaching evolution in science classes.

By the 1920’s, laws in twenty states to ban the teaching of evolution in public schools had been proposed by people who did not want their children being indoctrinated. “They considered the teaching of the theory to be part of a dangerous trend toward the separation of religious beliefs from everyday life”(Coyne). Several of the proposed laws were passed into effect in states including Arkansas and Tennessee. “The ACLU challenged the Tennessee law in 1925 by defending a teacher named John T. Scopes, who had volunteered to stand trial on the charge of teaching evolution”(Coyne).

The ACLU lost the case but because of bad press, creationists appeared ignorant to science. However, in 1968 the Supreme Court of the United States “ruled that laws banning the teaching of evolution were unconstitutional because they made religious considerations part of the curriculum”(Coyne). The courts continue to give rulings on creation and evolution in schools, some have come as recently as 1987(Coyne). The fight to keep evolution out of the classroom is still persevering. Those who are pushing to keep evolution out of the public schools are primarily creationists.

Creation is the belief that a Supreme Being created the universe and all its contents from nothing(Vawter). Many different people have believed different stories of how and why this was accomplished. Judaism, Christianity and Islam are a few of the major faiths that teach Creation. There are many differences in what different people believe. Many Jews and Christians with a literal interpretation of the Bible or the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible, believe that God created the universe and all that is in it in six 24 hour days. They believe that each species on earth has remained relatively the same since the Creation.

These people “base their beliefs on the Bible”(Eve) and some use fossil evidence of long consistencies and abrupt changes(Valentine). Others believe that God created everything, but not in six days. Still others believe that God created the universe by lighting the fuse: the big bang was God’s way of creating the universe. Many people have gone in search for proof that the universe was created by a Supreme Being. The case for Intelligent Design was argued by Reverend William Paley of Carlisle, England in his 1802 book Natural Theology. Take, for instance, a rock and a watch.

How old are the two objects? The rock has “remained more or less the same perhaps since the earth was formed”(Miller 24). The watch is different because of the intricate gears, springs and parts. It was produced with a specific design and knowledge of the watchmaker, and watchmakers have not been around forever. Paley knew “there cannot be design without a designer; contrivance without a contriver…. The marks of design are too strong to be got over. Design must have had a designer. That designer must have been a person. That person is God”(Miller).

Paley’s examples are understandable examples that form “a line of reasoning known as the ‘argument from design’”(Miller). Even some evolutionists have come to realize that humanity is not an accident, even if they disagree with the six, 24 hour days belief. The Anthropic Principle is based on so called “technical observations about the evolution of the universe since the Big Bang”(Glynn 28). This principle has concluded that not only was the creation of the universe not an accident, but “the existence of human life is something for which the entire universe appears to have been intricately fine-tuned from the start”(28).

This principle is based on universal constants such as Planck’s constant and the gravitational constant. It started out as a list of coincidences, but as the list grew the more it appeared as if the universe had been designed for humanity to exist(29). The second law of thermodynamics has been extensively studied by scientists and people as another proof of creation. The second law of thermodynamics can be stated: “The thermodynamic principle which governs the behavior of systems is that, as they are moved away from equilibrium, they will utilize all avenues available to counter the applied gradients.

As the applied gradients increase, so does the system’s ability to oppose further movement from equilibrium”(Schneider 30). In every system, the entropy, or disorder, will increase, not decrease. This is one of a number of different analogies to simplify this law. There is a box with ten equal compartments. Ten thousand marbles are released into one compartment. If the box is randomly shaken, it is expected that the marbles would pass through the open doors in each compartment and there would be approximately 1000 marbles in each compartment.

It is highly improbable, yet not impossible that if the box continued to be shaken randomly, that all the marbles would go back into the same compartment they started in(28). The second law of thermodynamics is an excellent argument for creation. Creationists stand in “awe of the perfection of the earth… If it were a little farther away from the sun the entire planet would be one gigantic Antarctica; if it were a little closer, it would be one continuous Sahara Desert. Earth’s placement is precise; and that, my friends, is not a result of chance”(Limbaugh 154). There are infinite numbers of variables.

If one were changed just slightly, like the distance from the sun, Earth would be unhabitable and humans would not exist. This preciseness leads these people to use the second law of thermodynamics as an argument. An ordered world like Earth could not exist in a universe that was created by an explosion. Humanity itself is a good example for creation. The differences between other animals in nature and humans are vast. However, many evolutionists claim that we are animals ourselves. Jonathan Swift shows the absurdity of this comparison in the fourth book of Gulliver’s Travels.

Guliver is living between two extremes: the reason based Houyhnhms and the savage Yahoos. Gulliver tries so hard to fit in with the Houyhnhms, or horses. They “conclude that Gulliver ‘must be a perfect Yahoo’”(Suits 116), yet Gulliver believes that he is more Houyhnhm. This struggle can represent the origin struggle. The evolutionists say that humans were once like the Yahoos, but by saying that humanity evolved because of an haphazard accident, they are claiming that humans are now the superior being in the universe. They claim we are like the Houyhnhms(Sagan).

Humans are not like that. The Houyhnhms are divorced of passion. “They have no shame, no temptations, no conception of sin”(Williams 62). Marriage is “‘one of the necessary actions in a reasonable being’”(63). These definitely do not identify humanity. Gulliver “understands none of this”(72). Humans have the ability to use reason and humans have certain inherent desires that cannot be reasonably explained: love, marriage, and a sense of right and wrong. Still the debate continues. It seems “the double standard at work here is breathtaking”(Glynn 32).

Scientists who believe in evolution are free to use detailed accounts of what happened 4 billion years ago and base it on Darwin(Sagan). “But the moment scientists begin marshalling rather considerable and persuasive evidence for the opposite case, their speculation risks being branded by colleagues as ‘unscientific’”(Glynn 32). This parallels the third book of Gulliver’s Travels. The ways of the respected Laputan people were very precise, according to Gulliver. All their wise men reject what seems obviously the best way preform a task(Williams 49).

Member of the Academy are seen trying to weave with spider web and make ice into gunpowder(Swift 196). Such acts of stupidity are Swift’s attack on the Royal Society of England in Swift’s time; however the apply perfectly to many of the scientists who reject what they do not want to see. The argument about the origin of the universe will definitely continue. There will be those who argue both sides until this world comes to its end. To what extent people believe the Biblical teachings or what some scientists teach is a personal decision.

Darwin concluded his book: “There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been and are being evolved”(Miller 32). The more science seems to dig and research about the origins of humanity, the less likely it is that Earth and all the creatures on it were an accident. All the precision, consistency and detail point to an universal architect, a Supreme Being, God.

Theory of Holography

While working to improve the resolution of an electron microscope, a brilliant man named Dennis Gabor had developed a theory on Holography. This dates back to the year of 1947. Dennis Gabor is a British/Hungarian scientist who created the word Holography from Greek terms. He used the word holos, meaning whole, and gramma, meaning message. ” Gabor characterized his work as an experiment in serendipity that was begun too soon. The next decade brought about frustration in Holography because light sources available at the time were not coherent.

In 1960 a breakthrough came forth. The invention of the laser had pure and intense light that was well suited for the making of holograms. Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks of the University of Michigan both had realized that Holography could be used as a 3-D visual medium in 1962. After reading Gabor’s paper they decided to duplicate Gabor’s technique. Gabor’s technique was using the laser and an off axis technique borrowed from their work in the development of side reading radar. The outcome of this experiment was the first laser transmission hologram of 3-D objects.

The transmission holograms that Leith and Upatnieks created produced images with clarity and realistic depth. The only issue was that they required laser light to view the holographic image. The experimental work of both these men led to standardization of the equipment used to make holograms. Thousands of laboratories and studios today possess the necessary equipment. They are the following: A continuous wave laser, optical devices, such as, lens, mirrors, and beam splitters which is used to direct laser light, a film holder, and an isolation table on which exposures are made.

Stability is an essential trait because movement as small as a quarter wave length of light during exposures of a few minutes or even seconds can spoil a hologram completely. The staple of holographic methodology is the basic of the off-axis technique. The creation of a hologram is quite extensive. “A beam of laser light is visually separated into two beams. One, the reference beam, is directed toward a piece of holographic film and expanded (its diameter increased) so that the light covers the film evenly and completely.

The second (object) beam is directed at the subject of the composition and similarly expanded to illuminate it (Vacca, 16). ” The object beam carries information about the location, size, shape, and the texture of the subject when the object beam reflects off of it. “Some of this reflected object beam then meets the reference beam at the holographic film, producing an interference pattern which is recorded in the light sensitive emulsion (Vacca, 16). ” The hologram is illuminated at the same angle as the reference beam during the original exposure to reveal the 3-D image after the film is developed.

Another great experiment that occurred in 1962 was by Dr. Uri N. Denisyuk of the U. S. S. R. He combined Holography with natural color photography. Natural color photography was created by Nobel Laureate Gabriel Lippman in 1908. Denisyuk’s approach produced a white-light reflection hologram that could be viewed in light from an ordinary incandescent light bulb. Dr. T. H. Maimam of the Hughes Aircraft Corporation developed the pulsed ruby laser in 1960. This laser system was unlike the continuous wave laser normally used in holography.

It emitted a very powerful burst of light that lasted only a few nanoseconds, which would be a billionth of a second. It is possible to produce holograms of high-speed events, such as a bullet in flight, and of living subjects by it’s effectively freezing movement. In the year of 1967, the first hologram of a person was made. It paved the way for a specialized application of holography, which is classified as, pulsed holographic portraiture. The first mass distributed hologram which was a 4×3 transmission view of chess pieces on a board was contained in the 1967 World Book Encyclopedia Science Yearbook.

Along with it was an article that described the production of the hologram and the basic information about the history of holography. An advancement that was made in holography was a 05-watt He-Ne laser. “The laser was used on a nine-tone granite table in a 30-second exposure to make the original from which all the copies were produced (Fournier, 55). ” Another major advance in display holography occurred in 1968 with the help of Dr. Stephen A. Benton. Dr. Benton invented a white-light transmission holography while researching holographic television at Polaroid Research Laboratories.

This type of hologram can be viewed in ordinary white light creating a rainbow image from the seven colors, which make up white light. The depth and brilliance of the image and its rainbow spectrum soon infatuated artists who adapted this technique to their work and brought holography further into public awareness. Benton’s invention is especially significant because it made mass production possible of holograms using an embossing technique. These holograms are printed by stamping the interference pattern onto plastic. The resulting hologram can be duplicated millions of times for only a few cents apiece.

As a result, the publishing, advertising, and banking industries are currently today using embossed holograms. Dennis Gabor was finally recognized for his magnificent work in 1971. Gabor was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of holography in 1947. Lloyd Cross discovered what is called the integral hologram. He did this by combining white light transmission holography with conventional cinematography to produce moving 3 dimensional images in the year of 1972. “Sequential frames of 2-D motion-picture footage of a rotating subject are recorded on holographic film (Fournier 56).

When looked at, the composite images are synthesized by the human brain as a 3-D image. A great asset to the invention of holography was The Museum of Holography. The museum was founded in 1976 in New York City as an international center for the understanding and advancement of this new medium. Rosemary H. Jackson is the founder. It serves as the focal point for the art, science and technology, as well as the world’s foremost holography exhibitor. ‘One year later, the museum opened its Portrait Gallery of Famous New Yorkers (Hol-o-fame) with Martin E. Segal, NY Commission of Cultural Affairs noting, We congratulate the Museum.

I can’t think of anything that has happened in New York in the arts in the last four years that is more symbolic of this great city than this innovative, new, imaginative and enduring art form (Fournier 122). ’ Another great asset came about in 1977, the Museum of Holography’s traveling exhibition, Through the Looking Glass. ” It is based on its inaugural exhibition of the same name and was opened in Toronto. The traveling show visited art museums and galleries, children’s museums and science & technology centers in the United States and abroad for well over a decade.

Albert Einstein’s Life and Contributions to Science

Albert Einstein is one of the most well known scientists, physicists, and thinkers of all time. Many people regard him as a genius. His intelligence can be explained by his childhood, but can be proved by his contributions to the field of physics. Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Wrttemberg, Germany. He was raised by his father, Hermann, and his mother, Paulina Koch, as a Jewish child. His good family background is what many people believe to be the main reason for Einstein’s intellectual gigantism. His family was not perfect, however.

His family moved many times due to his father’s failed business adventures. As a child, Einstein was slow to learn to speak; this worried his parents a great deal. These fears were diminished when his parents noticed their child’s success in solving many puzzles. He also built many things with blocks at that young age, and when he got older, he was building enormous mansions out of playing cards. When Einstein was asked what first impressed and stimulated his mind, he told them that his father had showed him a compass at the age of five.

Young Albert was intrigued by how the needle always pointed in the same direction, no matter how the compass was turned. Einstein later said he felt “something deeply hidden had to be behind things. ” When Albert was old enough, he attended an elementary school in Aarau, and later moved on to a secondary school in Munich. He absolutely hated the high school he later went to in Munich. He felt that the mindless drilling in academic high schools was useless, so he quit at age fifteen nearing the end of the mid-term.

He much preferred to study at home, especially geometry and books on popular science. Later on, these studies came into conflict with his deep religious feelings when he realized that the Bible could not be literally true. To that shocking revelation, he created his lifelong distrust of authority. This led to the ease with which he was able to discard long-standing scientific prejudices. He also did this so he could join his parents who were living in Italy at the time. Einstein didn’t attend college. Instead, he went to the Swiss

Polytechnic Institute in Zurich in order to study mathematics and physics. After graduation in 1900, he became an examiner at the Swiss Patent Office. This job gave Einstein a lot of free time, during which he performed scientific experiments. These experiments led to the Papers of 1905. The Papers of 1905 were three papers written by Einstein to a German scientific periodical called Annals of Physics. The first paper was the Quantum Theory, which was basically about quanta and the flow of light. This explained how intense light could release electrons from metal.

For this paper, Einstein received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921. The second paper was Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. This is the most famous of Albert Einstein’s works. The theory of relativity revolutionized scientific thought with new ideas of time, space, mass, motion, and gravitation. It treated matter and energy as exchangeable, not distinct and also laid the basis of nuclear energy (E=mc). The third of these papers was about Brownian Motion. This paper confirmed the Atomic Theory of matter.

In 1915, Einstein announced the evelopment of the General Theory of Relativity, called the Unified Field Theory, which was based on his special theory. Einstein failed to establish this theory, though he spent the last 25 years of his life working on it. As previously stated, Einstein’s paper on relativity was the basis of nuclear energy. This led to the creation of atomic weapons. On August 2, 1929, Einstein wrote a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt that explained the possibility of an atomic bomb and that Nazi Germany was already trying to create one.

This letter brought about the Manhattan Project, which created the first nuclear weapon. From this point on, Einstein made few contributions to the fields of math, science, and physics; and when he did, they weren’t as big or important as the others were. Information on these is hard to find, since most biographies and articles about Einstein focus on the Papers of 1905. However, in 1952, Einstein was actually offered the Presidency of Israel. He declined this position though, saying that he wasn’t “fitted” for the role. He then died nearly three years later on April 15, 1955.

Cognitive Science Essay

Cognitive science, in the study of how organisms process information as well carry out life functions. The study of Cognitive science is said to have been originated in the 1940’s and 1950’s when researchers in various fields of science began to develop theories on the mind based on complex representations and computational procedures (Thagard, Cognitive Science). There are numerous branches of science whose theories contributed to the development of Coginitive Science. These subdivisions include cybernetics, theoretical computer science, linguistics, experimental pyschology, and neuroscience.

Cybernetics, a term used by Norbert Wiener is the study of control and communication in animals as well as machines (Lu, Definition of Cognitive Science). Some key events that took place in the 1940’s and 50’s within the branch of cybernetics that contributed to the advancement of Cognitive Science were two article’s, Behavior, Purpose and Teleology by Arturo Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener, and Julian Bigelow and A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity by Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts both published in 1943. These articles discussed regulatory processes.

These articles stimulated conferences about Circular Causal and Feedback Mechanisms in Biological and Social Systems and took place between the years of 1944 and 1953. To many, one of the most important events in the development of Cognitive science took place in 1948. This was the year that Norbert Wiener published his book Cybernetics (Jogasurya, Origin of Cybernetics). Alan Turning was an english mathematician heavily involved in the development of theoretical Computer Science. In 1936, Turing invented what is known as the Turing machine.

A Turing machine is hypothetical device that represents how computation is done. All computational processes can be abstractly described using a Turing machine. Linguistics is the scientific study of language. Before the 1950’s, linguistics was broken down into two main catagories, historical linguistics and structural liguistics. Noam Chomsky, an American linguist played an important role in the development of linguistics. Chomsky founded transformational-generative grammer. Transformation-generative grammer is a highly influential system of linguistic analysis.

Scientific Revolution Essay

Discuss the different beliefs, attitudes of Cervantes, Bunyan, Milton, Spinoza and Pascal. Discuss their skepticism/Dogmatic beliefs, their reasons behind it and your opinions. The scientific revolution brought a sudden explosion of revolutionary inventions, thought and literature. Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de a Spanish writer, who is considered by many to be one of the greatest Spanish authors, wrote with eloquent style and tremendous insight. Spain was a deeply Catholic country, with many of its literature reflecting this value.

However, Cervantes, became deeply entrenched in the strengths and weaknesses of religious idealism. He was a self educated man that was a gallant soldier and public servant. He was imprisoned in 1603 where he began to write one of his most famous works, Don Quixote. Cervantes wrote the book with the intention of ridiculing the popular chivalric ideas of the time. However, Cervantes came to admire his character, Don Quixote who was set up as the model for ridicule. In Cervantes’s literature, we are able to see the questions behind the archaic medieval values and chivalric ideas.

Two English writers, John Bunyan and John Milton emerged as the voice of Puritan ideas and values. John Bunyan, the author of Grace Abounding and The Pilgrims Progress, wrote about working people of England and their religious values. He served in Cromwell’s army, which helped to influence his writing style. In 1660, Bunyan was imprisoned for 12 years in response to his fierce preaching against the monarchy. Bunyan was a devout Puritan who wrote on the ways to which a Puritan must live. His later work, The life and Death of Mr. Badman told the story of a man who was damned to heaven for his bad habits.

John Milton was the son of a devout Puritan father and grew up reading Christian and pagan classics. Milton was a man who believed in the private lives of the individual. In 1642, when the decision came whether to keep the church or completely dissolve it, Milton sided with the dissolution of the national church in favor of local autonomy of individual congregations. He advocated the simplicity of the Presbyterian form of church government. Milton defended the rights of divorce in several tracts which later became targets for critics.

These tracts were censored by parliament and Milton in response wrote Areopagitica, where he defends freedom of the press. Milton believed that the government should have the least control over the lives of individuals. His book, Paradise Lost, became a model of the destructive qualities of pride and the redeeming ideas of humility. Milton was intrigued by the motives behind those who rebel against God. In Paradise Lost, Milton’s center character, the Devil becomes the tragic but prideful hero that would rather reign in hell than serve in heaven, symbolic of the corruption of pride and potential greatness.

Milton believed that human beings were responsible for their fate and that salvation could be brought about with improvement in character and God’s grace. Unlike Bunyan who believed that salvation was only given to those who were among the elect. An idea that Milton adamantly rejected. Baruch Spinoza, would be by far, one of the most controversial thinkers of the seventh century. He was excommunicated by his synagogue for his philosophy. Spinoza’s work was divided into five parts; which dealt with God, the mind, emotions, human bondage, and human freedom.

His book, Ethics was attacked by both Jews and Protestants for its support of pantheism, an idea equating God with nature. According to Spinoza, God and nature are one of the same; that substance which is self-caused, free and infinite is God. God exists in everything that exists and everything is in God. This idea was revolutionary in that many of the time saw God as higher than that. His ideas were condemned by his contemporaries but were readily embraced by the 19th century thinkers. Blaise Pascal, was a French mathematician and philosophical thinker.

Blaise became torn between the dogmatism and skepticism of the time. His goal was to write a piece of work that would combine the two. He rejected the skeptics of his age because they either were either atheist or accepted the divine idea of religion. His collection of reflections on humankind and religion were published under the title Pensees. Pascal supported the Jansenites who shared in the belief in human being’s total sinfulness and their complete dependence on faith and grace. An idea similar to that of Calvinists.

Pascal believed that science was independent of religion. According to Pascal, there were two essential truths in the Christian religion: that loving God, worthy of human attainment exists and that human beings are utterly unworthy of God because of their corruptive nature. Pascal was convinced that the belief in God improved life both psychologically and disciplined it morally. He worked to strengthen traditional religious belief and urged his peers to seek self-understanding by learned ignorance and recognizing misery.

Cold Fusion Essay

Cold fusion was first discovered in 1988 two weeks before easter. Fusion is the combination of two atoms. The sun fuses hydrogen and helium. For many years mankind has been experimenting in the field of fusion in order to harness its energy efficie ntly. Cold fusion is made in a test tube at room temperature according to Dr. B. Stanley Pons and Dr. Martin Fleischman, the inventors. As of today, there is no hard evidence of cold fusion at room temperature.

When this was first discovered, Pons and Fleischman pointed out that a power source the size of a cigarette lighter could power the entire city and the top 10 feet of Lake Michigan could ower the entire world for the next 15,000 years. There still is hope thought that they could create cold fusion and room temperature and Pons and Fleischman are researching it today. Detailed Description of Chemical Process The theory to how this fusion works is the Muon Theory. The muon theory is as follows: Speeding muons knock electrons out of their orbits around deuterium and tritium atoms.

Muons replace the electrons and form a smaller atom. This “muo-atom” the n captures another nucleus. The muon orbits more tightly around the two captive nuclei leading them to overcome heir natural repulsion of each other and fuse. This reaction produces a larger nucleus that almost immediately shatters, releasing energy. It also frees the muon, which can then repeat the cycle, causing several hundred more such fusions. The fact that the muon is 207 times heavier than an electron gives support for this theory.

A nuclei is orbited by an electron making a mini-solar system. If a muon is shot at the nuclei, it will bump the electrons into a smaller orbit and replace their orbit with muons. This then closes tightly around the atom, crushing the atom and nuclei together close enough to fuse. This creates energy and frees the muon thus starting this sequence all over again until the muon decays, which is about 2 millionths of a second, or sticks to another particle that is ejected by fusion. Pons and Fleischman have been the only one to record this phenomenon.

They have also been rejected by many because of this rare phenomenon that only they have experienced. Whether or not they did or did not, future experimentation may provide answe rs to the energy crisis of today. Detailed description of application of process The impact of such an efficient source of energy would be enormous to ay the least. Large, unsafe nuclear powerplants such as the one Smud is operating could be replaced by cold fusion at a small fraction of the cost it is today.

A “Puff”(Pons/Uta h/Fleischman/ Fusion) engine was supposed to be operating today if they were successful although they have run across many problems. Had a Puff engine been created, it would have to release a minimal amount of radiation for widespread use of it. Wh en they first reported their results, they predicted that Puff automobiles would already be made public, Puff aircrafts would already be flying overhead, and Puff eating plants would already be installed in homes.

They also predicted a Puff powerpl ant with more than 100M Watts capacity by 1994 and a space rocket by 1995. Impact of application of process on Society The greatest impact of this Puff era would be the money which would be saved. People were predicted to flock towards this new invention, had it been working. It may still work in the future yet there is little hope in the eyes other scientists. Th e greatest solution something like this could provide would be its help to the environment. Every day the earth is losing more and more of it’s natural, irrevocable recourses.

What is Cryonics

If you ask that question to most people, they would not have a clue. Cryonics is not very popular yet, but interest in cryonics has increased since the process was pioneered in 1967 by James H. Bedford. To be specific, cryonics is the controversial practice of freezing the remains of people whom doctors and the rest of the world consider dead, in the hopes of reviving them when medical technology can cure what ails them. The procedure itself features a very long and sometimes complicated process.

First, when the person is considered clinically dead, a team of specialists goes in and hooks the person up to a heart and lung resuscitator. Then, they begin to cool down the body with ice. Because the body is cooling at the rate of several degrees Celsius per second, there is little or none damage done to the cells. Third, they take the blood out of the body and replace it with an antifreeze substance. Next, the person is injected with drugs to slow down the metabolism of the brain and protect the cells from intense freezing. Then, the body is wrapped in a very well insulated sleeping bag and finally an aluminum outer covering.

Lastly, the body is placed in a dewar, which is a big steel container filled with liquid nitrogen at the temperature of 196 degrees Celsius below zero, where the body remains. There are many things that show the increase of cryonics. First, as of 1995, commercial cryonicists have signed up about 1,000 customers; another sixty have already been frozen. Many people who have signed up are afraid dying, others want to see the future, and others want to see what will come about from all the improvements that have been made in medicine.

Another reason is that people are just interested in the whole concept of cryonics. Lastly, the cryonic suspension procedure is becoming more advanced and so more people are deciding on having the procedure performed on them when they die. There are also some problems. One is that the cryonics companies are dealing with legal trouble and could be dealing with bankruptcy. Another is that the prices are very high, with prices ranging from $28,000 to $125,000 for a whole body suspension and $45-50,000 for a head-only suspension (neurosuspension).

Because most of the cryonics companies are in California, damage to the storage tanks from an earthquake is a big concern. The idea of cryonics also raises some moral and religious questions. If cryonics works, people centuries from now might not want to resuscitate the frozen. The biggest problem with cryonics is that there has not been an actual reanimation, which means bringing someone back to life, and so no one knows if it will ever work. According to the experts, they predicted that the first person to be brought back to life after being frozen and thawed would be in 1992.

That has not yet happened. My personal prediction is that it will take a couple of decades. I say that because in order for someone to be brought back to life, a cure for whatever ailed them would have to be discovered. Also, a body, whether it be robotic or cloned, would have to be found for a frozen head and that might be hard. I say that it will happen in approximately 2026, if it happens at all. There are some benefits to cryonics. One spin-off effect would be genetic cloning.

Scientists are hoping to genetically clone a body for the frozen heads before they can be thawed. Secondly, cures must be found in order for people to be reanimated. That would not only benefit the people cryonically suspended, but anyone else with the disease. If cryonics works, the worlds greatest minds could forever be saved. Lastly, cryonics would essentially become a form of time travel. Someone could be in the twenty-first century one minute, and the twenty-fourth century the next. Even though there are some spin-offs, there are also some ripple effects.

One of the worst ripple effects could be premortem suspension. In premortem suspension, people are frozen before their actual death. Another could be fraudulent practices by cryonics companies in which they freeze someone, take the money, and do not attempt to reanimate the person. Another ripple effect could be overpopulation. If reanimation is successful, more people might opt for cryonics. When they are reanimated, the population could sharply increase and cause overpopulation. Lastly, there are many unknown side effects.

Because there has not been a successful reanimation, no one knows what effects the long term freezing might have on ones body and/or brain. Although interest in cryonic suspension has risen, there are still many skeptics. Even though prices are expensive, there are some people that still want the procedure done to them. While reanimation after cryonic suspension has not occurred, future technology could make it possible. Cryonic suspension could possibly help fuel medical breakthroughs but, it could also create ethical questions. No one knows what the future holds for those frozen in time.