Ernest Miller Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. His father was the owner of a prosperous real estate business. His father, Dr. Hemingway, imparted to Ernest the importance of appearances, especially in public. Dr. Hemingway invented surgical forceps for which he would not accept money. He believed that one should not profit from something important for the good of mankind. Ernest’s father, a man of high ideals, was very strict and censored the books he allowed his children to read.

He forbad Ernest’s sister from studying ballet for it was coeducational, and dancing together led to “hell and damnation”. Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest’s mother, considered herself pure and proper. She was a dreamer who was upset at anything which disturbed her perception of the world as beautiful. She hated dirty diapers, upset stomachs, and cleaning house; they were not fit for a lady. She taught her children to always act with decorum. She adored the singing of the birds and the smell of flowers. Her children were expected to behave properly and to please her, always.

Mrs. Hemingway treated Ernest, when he was a small boy, as if he were a female baby doll and she dressed him accordingly. This arrangement was alright until Ernest got to the age when he wanted to be a “gun-toting Pawnee Bill”. He began, at that time, to pull away from his mother, and never forgave her for his humiliation. The town of Oak Park, where Ernest grew up, was very old fashioned and quite religious. The townspeople forbad the word “virgin” from appearing in school books, and the word “breast” was questioned, though it appeared in the Bible.

Ernest loved to fish, canoe and explore the woods. When he couldn’t get outside, he escaped to his room and read books. He loved to tell stories to his classmates, often insisting that a friend listen to one of his stories. In spite of his mother’s desire, he played on the football team at Oak Park High School. As a student, Ernest was a perfectionist about his grammar and studied English with a fervor. He contributed articles to the weekly school newspaper. It seems that the principal did not approve of Ernest’s writings and he complained, often, about the content of Ernest’s articles.

Ernest was clear about his writing; he wanted people to “see and feel” and he wanted to enjoy himself while writing. Ernest loved having fun. If nothing was happening, mischievous Ernest made something happen. He would sometimes use forbidden words just to create a ruckus. Ernest, though wild and crazy, was a warm, caring individual. He loved the sea, mountains and the stars and hated anyone who he saw as a phoney. During World War I, Ernest, rejected from service because of a bad left eye, was an ambulance driver, in Italy, for the Red Cross.

Very much like the hero of A Farewell to Arms, Ernest is shot in his knee and recuperates in a hospital, tended by a caring nurse named Agnes. Like Frederick Henry, in the book, he fell in love with the nurse and was given a medal for his heroism. Ernest returned home after the war, rejected by the nurse with whom he fell in love. He would party late into the night and invite, to his house, people his parents disapproved of. Ernest’s mother rejected him and he felt that he had to move from home.

He moved in with a friend living in Chicago and he wrote articles for The Toronto Star. In Chicago he met and then married Hadley Richardson. She believed that he should spend all his time in writing, and bought him a typewriter for his birthday. They decided that the best place for a writer to live was Paris, where he could devote himself to his writing. He said, at the time, that the most difficult thing to write about was being a man. They could not live on income from his stories and so Ernest, again, wrote for The Toronto Star.

Ernest took Hadley to Italy to show her where he had been during the war. He was devastated, everything had changed, everything was destroyed. Hadley became pregnant and was sick all the time. She and Ernest decided to move to Canada. He had, by then written three stories and ten poems. Hadley gave birth to a boy who they named John Hadley Nicano Hemingway. Even though he had his family Ernest was unhappy and decided to return to Paris. It was in Paris that Ernest got word that a publisher wanted to print his book, In Our Time, but with some changes.

The publisher felt that the sex was to blatant, but Ernest refused to change one word. Around 1925, Ernest started writing a novel about a young man in World War I, but had to stop after a few pages, and proceeded to write another novel, instead. This novel was based on his experiences while living in Pamplona, Spain. He planned on calling this book Fiesta, but changed the name to The Sun Also Rises, a saying from the Bible. This book, as in his other books, shows Hemingway obsessed with death. In 1927, Ernest found himself unhappy with his wife and son.

They decided to divorce and he married Pauline, a woman he had been involved with while he was married to Hadley. A year later, Ernest was able to complete his war novel which he called A Farewell to Arms. The novel was about the pain of war, of finding love in this time of pain. It portrayed the battles, the retreats, the fears, the gore and the terrible waste of war. This novel was well-received by his publisher, Max Perkins,but Ernest had to substitute dashes for the “dirty” language. Ernest used his life when he wrote; using everything he did and everything that ever happened to him.

He nevertheless remained a private person; wanting his stories to be read but wanting to be left alone. He once said, “Don’t look at me. Look at my words. ” A common theme throughout Hemingway’s stories is that no matter how hard we fight to live, we end up defeated, but we are here and we must go on. At age 31 he wrote Death in the Afternoon, about bullfighting in his beloved Spain. Ernest was a restless man; he traveled all over the United States, Europe, Cuba and Africa. At the age of 37 Ernest met the woman who would be his third wife; Martha Gellhorn, a writer like himself.

He went to Spain, he said, to become an “antiwar correspondent”, and found that war was like a club where everyone was playing the same game, and he was never lonely. Martha went to Spain as a war correspondent and they lived together. He knew that he was hurting Pauline, but like his need to travel and have new experiences, he could not stop himself from getting involved with women. In 1940 he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls and dedicated it to Martha, whom he married at the end of that year. He found himself traveling between Havana, Cuba and Ketchum, Idaho, which he did for the rest of his life.

During World War II, Ernest became a secret agent for the United States. He suggested that he use his boat, the “Pillar”, to surprise German submarines and attack them with hidden machine guns. It was at this time that Ernest, always a drinker, started drinking most of his days away. He would host wild, fancy parties and did not write at all during the next three years. At war’s end, Ernest went to England and met an American foreign correspondent named Mary Welsh. He divorced Martha and married Mary in Havana, in 1946. Ernest was a man of extremes; living either in luxury or happy to do without material things.

Ernest, always haunted by memories of his mother, would not go to her funeral when she died in 1951. He admitted that he hated his mother’s guts. Ernest wrote The Old Man and the Sea in only two months. He was on top of the world, the book was printed by Life Magazine and thousands of copies were sold in the United States. This novel and A Farewell to Arms were both made into movies. In 1953 he went on a safari with Mary, and he was in heaven hunting big game. Though Ernest had a serious accident, and later became ill, he could never admit that he had any weaknesses; nothing would stop him, certainly not pain.

In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Toward the end, Ernest started to travel again, but almost the way that someone does who knows that he will soon die. He suddenly started becoming paranoid and to forget things. He became obsessed with sin; his upbringing was showing, but still was inconsistent in his behavior. He never got over feeling like a bad person, as his father, mother and grandfather had taught him. In the last year of his life, he lived inside of his dreams, similar to his mother, who he hated with all his heart.

He was suicidal and had electric shock treatments for his depression and strange behavior. On a Sunday morning, July 2, 1961, Ernest Miller Hemingway killed himself with a shotgun. Ernest Hemingway takes much of the storyline of his novel, A Farewell to Arms, from his personal experiences. The main character of the book, Frederick Henry, often referred to as Tenete, experiences many of the same situations which Hemingway, himself, lived. Some of these similarities are exact while some are less similar, and some events have a completely different outcome.

Hemingway, like Henry, enjoyed drinking large amounts of alcohol. Both of them were involved in World War I, in a medical capacity, but neither of them were regular army personnel. Like Hemingway, Henry was shot in his right knee, during a battle. Both men were Americans, but a difference worth noting was that Hemingway was a driver for the American Red Cross, while Henry was a medic for the Italian Army. In real life, Hemingway met his love, Agnes, a nurse, in the hospital after being shot; Henry met his love, Catherine Barkley, also a nurse, before he was shot and hospitalized.

In both cases, the relationships with these women were strengthened while the men were hospitalized. Another difference is that Hemingway’s romance was short-lived, while, the book seemed to indicate that, Henry’s romance, though they never married, was strong and would have lasted. In A Farewell to Arms, Catherine and her child died while she was giving birth, this was not the case with Agnes who left Henry for an Italian Army officer. It seems to me that the differences between the two men were only surface differences. They allowed Hemingway to call the novel a work of fiction.

Had he written an autobiography the book would probably not have been well-received because Hemingway was not, at that time, a well known author. Although Hemingway denied critics’ views that A Farewell to Arms was symbolic, had he not made any changes they would not have been as impressed with the war atmosphere and with the naivete of a young man who experiences war for the first time. Hemingway, because he was so private, probably did not want to expose his life to everyone, and so the slight changes would prove that it was not himself and his own experiences which he was writing about.

I believe that Hemingway had Catherine and her child die, not to look different from his own life, but because he had a sick and morbid personality. There is great power in being an author, you can make things happen which do not necessarily occur in real life. It is obvious that Hemingway felt, as a young child and throughout his life, powerless, and so he created lives by writing stories. Hemingway acted out his feelings of inadequacy and powerlessness by hunting, drinking, spending lots of money and having many girlfriends. I think that Hemingway was obsessed with death and not too sane.

His obsession shows itself in the morbid death of Miss Barkley and her child. Hemingway was probably very confused about religion and sin and somehow felt or feared that people would or should be punished for enjoying life’s pleasures. Probably, the strongest reason for writing about Catherine Barkley’s death and the death of her child was Hemingway’s belief that death comes to everyone; it was inevitable. Death ends life before you have a chance to learn and live. He writes, in A Farewell to Arms, “They threw you in and told you the rules and the first time they caught you off base they killed you. . they killed you in the end. You could count on that. Stay around and they would kill you. ”

Hemingway, even in high school, wrote stories which showed that people should expect the unexpected. His stories offended and angered the principal of his school. I think that Hemingway liked shocking and annoying people; he was certainly rebellious. If he would have written an ending where Miss Barkley and her child had lived, it would have been too easy and common; Hemingway was certainly not like everyone else, and he seemed to be proud of that fact.

Even the fact that Hemingway wrote curses and had a lot of sex in his books shows that he liked to shock people. When his publisher asked that he change some words and make his books more acceptable to people, Hemingway refused, then was forced to compromise. I think that the major difference between Hemingway and Henry was that Henry was a likable and normal person while Hemingway was strange and very difficult. Hemingway liked doing things his way and either people had to accept him the way he was or too bad for them. I think that Hemingway probably did not even like himself and that was one reason that he couldn’t really like other people.

Hemingway seemed to use people only for his own pleasure, and maybe he wanted to think that he was like Henry who was a nicer person. In the book, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Malcolm Cowley focuses on the symbolism of rain. He sees rain, a frequent occurrence in the book, as symbolizing disaster. He points out that, at the beginning of A Farewell to Arms, Henry talks about how “things went very badly” and how this is connected to “At the start of the winter came permanent rain”. Later on in the book we see Miss Barkley afraid of rain.

She says, “Sometimes I see me dead in it”, referring to the rain. It is raining the entire time Miss Barkley is in childbirth and when both she and her baby die. Wyndham Lewis, in the same book of critical essays, points out that Hemingway is obsessed with war, the setting for much of A Farewell to Arms. He feels that the author sees war as an alternative to baseball, a sport of kings. He says that the war years “were a democratic, a levelling, school”. For Hemingway, raised in a strict home environment, war is a release; an opportunity to show that he is a real man.

The essayist, Edgar Johnson says that for the loner “it is society as a whole that is rejected, social responsibility, social concern” abandoned. Lieutenant Henry, like Hemingway, leads a private life as an isolated individual. He socializes with the officers, talks with the priest and visits the officer’s brothel, but those relationships are superficial. This avoidance of real relationships and involvement do not show an insensitive person, but rather someone who is protecting himself from getting involved and hurt.

It is clear that in all of Hemingway’s books and from his own life that he sees the world as his enemy. Johnson says, “He will solve the problem of dealing with the world by taking refuge in individualism and isolated personal relationships and sensations”. John Killinger says that it was inevitable that Catherine and her baby would die. The theme, that a person is trapped in relationships, is shown in all Hemingway’s stories. In A Farewell to Arms Catherine asks Henry if he feels trapped, now that she is pregnant. He admits that he does, “maybe a little”.

This idea, points out Killinger, is ingrained in Hemingway’s thinking and that he was not too happy about fatherhood. In Cross Country Snow, Nick regrets that he has to give up skiing in the Alps with a male friend to return to his wife who is having a baby. In Hemingway’s story Hills Like White Elephants the man wants his sweetheart to have an abortion so that they can continue as they once lived. In To Have and Have Not, Richard Gordon took his wife to “that dirty aborting horror”. Catherine’s death, in A Farewell to Arms, saves the author’s hero from the hell of a complicated life.

Ernest Hemingway and Symbolism

Ernest Miller Hemingway is a well-known American author who wrote in the twentieth century. He has written several novels such as, A Farewell to Arms, For Whom the Bell Tolls, and The Old Man and the Sea. The Sun Also Rises was finished on April 1, 1926 and was published in October of 1926 (Selkirk 96, Bruccoli 75). The Sun Also Rises was Hemingway’s expression of his own life. He had changed the names of his friends and some of the details, but the real identities of the characters were obvious to anyone in Paris (Selkirk 92).

The Sun Also Rises encapsulates the angst of the ost-World War I generation, know as the Lost Generation. This poignantly beautiful story of a group of American and English expatriates on a sojourn from Paris to Pamplona represents a dramatic step forward for Hemingway’s evolving style. Featuring Left Bank Paris in the 1920’s and brutally realistic descriptions of bullfighting in Spain, the story is about the flamboyant Lady Brett Ashley and the hapless Jake Barnes (Wilson 4).

Ernest Miller Hemingway is an American author who has penned several novels and short stories; one of his works is The Sun Also Rises. Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois. Hemingway was raised with the conservative Midwestern values of strong religion, hard work, physical fitness and self-determination; if one adhered to these parameters, he was taught, he would be ensured of success in whatever field he chose (Wilson 1). As a boy, he was taught by his father to hunt and fish.

When he wasn’t hunting or fishing his mother taught him the finer points of music. Hemingway never had a knack for music and suffered through choir practices and cello lessons, however the musical knowledge he acquired from his mother helped him share in his first wife Hadley’s interest in the piano (1). Hemingway received his formal schooling in the Oak Park public school system. In high school he was mediocre at sports, playing football, swimming, water basketball and serving as the track team manager (1). He also worked on the school newspaper called the Trapeze.

Hemingway graduated in the spring of 1917 and instead of going to college the following fall like his parents expected, he took a job as a reporter for the Kansas City Star (Hemingway preface). Hemingway signed up as a volunteer ambulance driver for the Red Cross during WWI (Wilson 2). He was accepted in December of 1917, left his job at he paper in April of 1918, and sailed for Europe in May (2). When Hemingway returned home from Italy in January of 1919 he found Oak Park dull compared to the adventures of war (3).

With a letter of introduction from Sherwood Anderson, Hemingway met some of Paris’ prominent writers and artists and forged quick friendships with them during his first few years (4). Counted among those friends were Ezra Pound, Gertrude Stein, Sylvia Beach, James Joyce, Max Eastman, Lincoln Steffens and Wyndahm Lewis, and he was acquainted with the painters Miro and Picasso (4). Hemingway was inspired to write ifferent works at different times because of the events that occured in his life. Hemingway died July 2, 1961, at his home, as the result of self-inflicted gunshot wounds.

Ernest Hemingway had a different style of writing than the other authors in his time. “The Sun Also Rises is the book that established Hemingway as a literary force and it introduced the world to the Lost Generation” (Wilson 5). The Lost Generation is referred to as the disillusioned that fought in the war. “Two of the novel’s main characters, Lady Brett Ashley and Jake Barnes, typify the Lost Generation” (1). “This ook has a lot of thematic issues, but the reader really needs to think to be able to pick up on all of them” (2).

Friendship, stoicism, and natural grace under pressure are offered as the values that matter in an otherwise amoral often-senseless world (1). “His mind is set on writing only” (3). The only thing Hemingway thought about was writing and finishing The Sun Also Rises. “The writing is as strong and powerful as a swift kick to the head” (4). This quote is referring to Hemingway’s strong and complex style of writing. “Hemingway writes about the dreariness of everyday life but it is interesting at the mphasis on drinking during the age of prohibition” (3). The only failing is that the messages he delivers are a little empty in that we know he delivers them in a way that we like (4).

His morals are hard to understand unless you can achieve his state of mind. The main characters of the novel are Jake Barnes, Brett Ashley, Robert Cohn, and Pedro Romero. While the characters are realistically drawn, each has a sort of representative quality that defines his or her relationship with the group and with the age in which the novel is set. Jake Barnes has his war wound, which robs him of the ability to have sex hough not the desire; he is capable of survival and communication though not regeneration.

Robert Cohn’s Jewishness marks him for exclusion and underlines the snobbishness of this circle even in its apparent informality. However, he is alienated more by his stubborn chivalry and romanticism, expressed in his constant seriousness and his obsessive attachment to Brett. Brett is the promiscuous femme fatale; Mike is the indiscreet alcoholic; Bill Gorton is the perceptive joker (who makes the sustained reference to stuffed dogs). The overall plot concern of understanding is summarized by he minor but important character of the count:” That is the secret.

You must get to know the values” (Hemingway 60). He has searched for meaning all of his life and has found it in understanding the values. Most of the other characters have yet to find the values. Jake is still stuck in the past, unable to get beyond the permanence of his war wound. Yet, he can still envision of future with Brett. Brett, who will always remain in her conquests’ memories, is trying to forget herself in drink and meaningless sex. In spite of this, she can clearly and accurately visualize the improbability of any future with Jake. One of the ain themes of The Sun Also Rises is impotence.

Not only Jake’s physical impotence, but also the powerlessness of the bull in the face of its imminent cruel death, the characters’ barrenness of emotion and lack of sensitivity, their ineffectiveness, alcoholism, and failure to work out some sort of meaningful “personal philosophy” and an “exhausted cynicism. Hemingway shows war wounds as the destroyer of love: Jake pursues love without sex and Brett pursues sex without love. Other themes found under the umbrella of impotence are: lack of family, rootlessness, nihilism, and alienation, being from somewhere else and being cut off from the past.

It is the cyclical nature of the novel, heralded in the second epigraph (from Ecclesiastics): “One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh; but the earth abideth forever . . . The sun also riseth, and the sun goeth down . . . All the rivers run into the sea . . . unto the place from whence the rivers come, thither they return again. ” The Sun Also Rises was Hemingway’s best-selling novel and is still a popular book today. The Sun Also Rises was about the events that were taking place in Hemingway’s life. The Sun Also Rises can be related to real life by accepting the fact that it was written from a man’s real life experience.

Ernest Miller Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. His father was the owner of a prosperous real estate business. His father, Dr. Hemingway, imparted to Ernest the importance of appearances, especially in public. Dr. Hemingway invented surgical forceps for which he would not accept money. He believed that one should not profit from something important for the good of mankind. Ernest’s father, a man of high ideals, was very strict and censored the books he allowed his children to read.

He forbad Ernest’s sister from studying ballet for it was coeducational, and dancing together led to “hell and damnation”. Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest’s mother, considered herself pure and proper. She was a dreamer who was upset at anything which disturbed her perception of the world as beautiful. She hated dirty diapers, upset stomachs, and cleaning house; they were not fit for a lady. She taught her children to always act with decorum. She adored the singing of the birds and the smell of flowers. Her children were expected to behave properly and to please her, always.

Mrs. Hemingway treated Ernest, when he was a small boy, as if he were a female baby doll and she dressed him accordingly. This arrangement was alright until Ernest got to the age when he wanted o be a “gun-toting Pawnee Bill”. He began, at that time, to pull away from his mother, and never forgave her for his humiliation. The town of Oak Park, where Ernest grew up, was very old fashioned and quite religious. The townspeople forbad the word “virgin” from appearing in school books, and the word “breast” was questioned, though it appeared in the Bible.

Ernest loved to fish, canoe and explore the woods. When he couldn’t get outside, he escaped to his room and read books. He loved to tell stories to his classmates, often insisting that a friend listen to one of his stories. In spite of his mother’s esire, he played on the football team at Oak Park High School. As a student, Ernest was a perfectionist about his grammar and studied English with a fervor. He contributed articles to the weekly school newspaper. It seems that the principal did not approve of Ernest’s writings and he complained, often, about the content of Ernest’s articles.

Ernest was clear about his writing; he wanted people to “see and feel” and he wanted to enjoy himself while writing. Ernest loved having fun. If nothing was happening, mischievous Ernest made something happen. He would sometimes use forbidden words just to create a ruckus. Ernest, though wild and crazy, was a warm, caring individual. He loved the sea, mountains and the stars and hated anyone who he saw as a phoney. During World War I, Ernest, rejected from service because of a bad left eye, was an ambulance driver, in Italy, for the Red Cross.

Very much like the hero of A Farewell to Arms, Ernest is shot in his knee and recuperates in a hospital, tended by a caring nurse named Agnes. Like Frederick Henry, in the book, he fell in love with the nurse and was given a medal for his heroism. Ernest returned home after the war, rejected by the nurse with whom he fell in love. He would party late into the night and invite, to his house, people his parents disapproved of. Ernest’s mother rejected him and he felt that he had to move from home.

He moved in with a friend living in Chicago and he wrote articles for The Toronto Star. In Chicago he met and then married Hadley Richardson. She believed that he should spend all his time in writing, and bought him a typewriter for his birthday. They decided that the best place for a writer to live was Paris, where he could devote himself to his writing. He said, at the time, that the most difficult thing to write about was being a man. They ould not live on income from his stories and so Ernest, again, wrote for The Toronto Star.

Ernest took Hadley to Italy to show her where he had been during the war. He was devastated, everything had changed, everything was destroyed. Hadley became pregnant and was sick all the time. She and Ernest decided to move to Canada. He had, by then written three stories and ten poems. Hadley gave birth to a boy who they named John Hadley Nicano Hemingway. Even though he had his family Ernest was unhappy and decided to return to Paris. It was in Paris that Ernest got word that a publisher wanted to print his book, In Our Time, but with some changes.

The publisher felt that the sex was to blatant, but Ernest refused to change one word. Around 1925, Ernest started writing a novel about a young man in World War I, but had to stop after a few pages, and proceeded to write another novel, instead. This novel was based on his experiences while living in Pamplona, Spain. He planned on calling this book Fiesta, but changed the name to The Sun Also Rises, a saying from the Bible. This book, as in his other books, shows Hemingway obsessed with death. In 1927, Ernest found himself unhappy with his wife and son.

They decided to divorce and he married Pauline, a woman he had been involved with while he was married to Hadley. A year later, Ernest was able to complete his war novel which he called A Farewell to Arms. The novel was about the pain of war, of finding love in this time of pain. It portrayed the battles, the retreats, the fears, the gore and the terrible waste of war. This novel was well-received by his publisher, Max Perkins,but Ernest had to substitute dashes for the “dirty” language. Ernest used his life when he wrote; using everything he did and everything that ever happened to him.

He nevertheless remained a private person; wanting his stories to be read but wanting to be left alone. He once said, “Don’t look at me. Look at my words. ” A common theme throughout Hemingway’s stories is that no matter how hard we fight to live, we end up defeated, but we are here and we must go on. At age 31 he wrote Death in the Afternoon, about bullfighting in his beloved Spain. Ernest was a restless man; he traveled all over the United States, Europe, Cuba and Africa. At the age of 37 Ernest met the woman who would be his third wife; Martha Gellhorn, a writer like himself.

He went to Spain, he said, to become an antiwar correspondent”, and found that war was like a club where everyone was playing the same game, and he was never lonely. Martha went to Spain as a war correspondent and they lived together. He knew that he was hurting Pauline, but like his need to travel and have new experiences, he could not stop himself from getting involved with women. In 1940 he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls and dedicated it to Martha, whom he married at the end of that year. He found himself traveling between Havana, Cuba and Ketchum, Idaho, which he did for the rest of his life.

During World War II, Ernest became a secret agent for the United States. He suggested that he use his boat, the “Pillar”, to surprise German submarines and attack them with hidden machine guns. It was at this time that Ernest, always a drinker, started drinking most of his days away. He would host wild, fancy parties and did not write at all during the next three years. At war’s end, Ernest went to England and met an American foreign correspondent named Mary Welsh. He divorced Martha and married Mary in Havana, in 1946. Ernest was a man of extremes; living either in luxury or happy to do without material things.

Ernest, always haunted by memories of his mother, would not go to er funeral when she died in 1951. He admitted that he hated his mother’s guts. Ernest wrote The Old Man and the Sea in only two months. He was on top of the world, the book was printed by Life Magazine and thousands of copies were sold in the United States. This novel and A Farewell to Arms were both made into movies. In 1953 he went on a safari with Mary, and he was in heaven hunting big game. Though Ernest had a serious accident, and later became ill, he could never admit that he had any weaknesses; nothing would stop him, certainly not pain.

In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Toward the end, Ernest started to ravel again, but almost the way that someone does who knows that he will soon die. He suddenly started becoming paranoid and to forget things. He became obsessed with sin; his upbringing was showing, but still was inconsistent in his behavior. He never got over feeling like a bad person, as his father, mother and grandfather had taught him. In the last year of his life, he lived inside of his dreams, similar to his mother, who he hated with all his heart.

He was suicidal and had electric shock treatments for his depression and strange behavior. On a Sunday morning, July 2, 1961, Ernest Miller Hemingway killed himself with a shotgun. Ernest Hemingway takes much of the storyline of his novel, A Farewell to Arms, from his personal experiences. The main character of the book, Frederick Henry, often referred to as Tenete, experiences many of the same situations which Hemingway, himself, lived. Some of these similarities are exact while some are less similar, and some events have a completely different outcome.

Hemingway, like Henry, enjoyed drinking large amounts of alcohol. Both of them were involved in World War I, in a medical capacity, but neither of them were regular army personnel. Like Hemingway, Henry was shot in his right knee, during a battle. Both men were Americans, but a difference worth noting was that Hemingway was a driver for the American Red Cross, while Henry was a medic for the Italian Army. In real life, Hemingway met his love, Agnes, a nurse, in the hospital after being shot; Henry met his love, Catherine Barkley, also a nurse, before he was shot and hospitalized.

In both cases, the relationships with these women were strengthened while the men were hospitalized. Another difference is that Hemingway’s romance was short-lived, while, the book seemed to indicate that, Henry’s romance, though they never married, was strong and would have lasted. In A Farewell to Arms, Catherine and her child died while she was giving birth, this was not the case with Agnes who left Henry for an Italian Army officer. It seems to me that the differences between the two men were only surface differences. They allowed Hemingway to call the novel a work of fiction.

Had he written an autobiography the book would probably not have been well-received because Hemingway was not, at that time, a well known author. Although Hemingway denied critics’ views that A Farewell to Arms was symbolic, had he not made any changes they would not have been as impressed with the war tmosphere and with the naivete of a young man who experiences war for the first time. Hemingway, because he was so private, probably did not want to expose his life to everyone, and so the slight changes would prove that it was not himself and his own experiences which he was writing about.

I believe that Hemingway had Catherine and her child die, not to look different from his own life, but because he had a sick and morbid personality. There is great power in being an author, you can make things happen which do not necessarily occur in real life. It is obvious that Hemingway felt, as a young child and throughout is life, powerless, and so he created lives by writing stories. Hemingway acted out his feelings of inadequacy and powerlessness by hunting, drinking, spending lots of money and having many girlfriends. I think that Hemingway was obsessed with death and not too sane.

His obsession shows itself in the morbid death of Miss Barkley and her child. Hemingway was probably very confused about religion and sin and somehow felt or feared that people would or should be punished for enjoying life’s pleasures. Probably, the strongest reason for writing about Catherine Barkley’s death and the death of her child was Hemingway’s belief hat death comes to everyone; it was inevitable. Death ends life before you have a chance to learn and live.

He writes, in A Farewell to Arms, “They threw you in and told you the rules and the first time they caught you off base they killed you. .. they killed you in the end. You could count on that. Stay around and they would kill you. ” Hemingway, even in high school, wrote stories which showed that people should expect the unexpected. His stories offended and angered the principal of his school. I think that Hemingway liked shocking and annoying people; he was certainly rebellious. If he ould have written an ending where Miss Barkley and her child had lived, it would have been too easy and common; Hemingway was certainly not like everyone else, and he seemed to be proud of that fact.

Even the fact that Hemingway wrote curses and had a lot of sex in his books shows that he liked to shock people. When his publisher asked that he change some words and make his books more acceptable to people, Hemingway refused, then was forced to compromise. I think that the major difference between Hemingway and Henry was that Henry was a likable and normal person while Hemingway was strange and very difficult. Hemingway liked doing things his way and either people had to accept him the way he was or too bad for them. I think that Hemingway probably did not even like himself and that was one reason that he couldn’t really like other people.

Hemingway seemed to use people only for his own pleasure, and maybe he wanted to think that he was like Henry who was a nicer person. In the book, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Malcolm Cowley focuses on the symbolism of rain. He sees rain, a frequent occurrence in the book, as symbolizing disaster. He points out that, at the beginning of A Farewell to Arms, Henry alks about how “things went very badly” and how this is connected to “At the start of the winter came permanent rain”. Later on in the book we see Miss Barkley afraid of rain.

She says, “Sometimes I see me dead in it”, referring to the rain. It is raining the entire time Miss Barkley is in childbirth and when both she and her baby die. Wyndham Lewis, in the same book of critical essays, points out that Hemingway is obsessed with war, the setting for much of A Farewell to Arms. He feels that the author sees war as an alternative to baseball, a sport of kings. He says that the war ears “were a democratic, a levelling, school”. For Hemingway, raised in a strict home environment, war is a release; an opportunity to show that he is a real man.

The essayist, Edgar Johnson says that for the loner “it is society as a whole that is rejected, social responsibility, social concern” abandoned. Lieutenant Henry, like Hemingway, leads a private life as an isolated individual. He socializes with the officers, talks with the priest and visits the officer’s brothel, but those relationships are superficial. This avoidance of real relationships and involvement do not show an insensitive person, ut rather someone who is protecting himself from getting involved and hurt.

It is clear that in all of Hemingway’s books and from his own life that he sees the world as his enemy. Johnson says, “He will solve the problem of dealing with the world by taking refuge in individualism and isolated personal relationships and sensations”. John Killinger says that it was inevitable that Catherine and her baby would die. The theme, that a person is trapped in relationships, is shown in all Hemingway’s stories. In A Farewell to Arms Catherine asks Henry if he feels trapped, now that she is pregnant. He admits that he does, “maybe a little”.

This idea, points out Killinger, is ingrained in Hemingway’s thinking and that he was not too happy about fatherhood. In Cross Country Snow, Nick regrets that he has to give up skiing in the Alps with a male friend to return to his wife who is having a baby. In Hemingway’s story Hills Like White Elephants the man wants his sweetheart to have an abortion so that they can continue as they once lived. In To Have and Have Not, Richard Gordon took his wife to “that dirty aborting horror”. Catherine’s death, in A Farewell to Arms, saves the author’s hero from the hell of a complicated life.

The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Miller Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway was a novelist and short story writer, who became well known for the passion that he used in all his writings. Many of his works are regarded as classics of American Literature, and some have even been made into motion pictures. The Old Man and the Sea, which is the story about an old Cuban fisherman, was published in 1952. Because of this creation, in 1954 Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois. He was educated in Oak Park High School and graduated in 1917.

After graduating, Hemingway became a reporter for the Kansas City Star. He left his job within a few months to serve as a volunteer ambulance driver in Italy during World War I (1914-1918). After the war he served as a correspondent on the Toronto Star and then settled in Paris. While there, he was encouraged in creative work by the American expatiate writers Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein. During World War II, Hemingway became a reporter for the United States First Army; although he was not a soldier, he participated in several battles.

After the war Hemingway settled near Havana, Cuba in 1958. While Hemingway lived near Havana, Cuba, a friend of his told him about an old man that lived nearby. Thats where he got the idea of writing the Nobel Prize short story winner titled, The Old Man and the Sea. The story of the old man that his friend told him about made him think about the sea and the way people go fishing everyday to eat in Cuba. In some parts of this country, fishing is their only way of survival. By fishing they are able to feed themselves and their families.

They also sell fish in order to attain money to purchase any more materials and equipment that they may need in he future. Hemingways economical writing style often seems simple and almost childlike, but his method is calculated and used to complex effect. Hemingway provided detached descriptions of action using simple nouns and verbs to capture the scenes precisely in his writing. He avoided describing his characters emotions and feelings by using this method of writing. Instead, Hemingway would use small phrases to describe his characters.

His writing tried to express a feeling that would capture the readers attention and help them visualize the scene as if they ere really there. He believed that if the writer was actually in the situation that he is writing about, the story would get straight to the point and would eliminate all the little details. Hemingways style of writing has had an enormous influence on American writers. Many American writers have followed the footsteps of Hemingway and have tried or are now using his method. Ernest Hemingway had a lot of important thoughts when writing each and every one of his novelettes.

He used themes of helplessness and defeat in his original work, but he began to xpress concern about social problems in the late 1930s. One of his novels, To Have and Have Not deals with political injustices. In the novel For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), which deals with the Spanish Civil War, he showed that the loss of liberty anywhere in the world is a warning that liberty is endangered everywhere. During the next decade Hemingways literary efforts were Men at War: The Best War Stories of all time (1942), which he edited, and the novel Across the River and into the Trees (1950).

In 1954 Hemingway wrote the short story f The Old Man and the Sea with which he won the 1953 Pulitzer Prize in literature. The next year after winning the Pulitzer Prize he was awarded he was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature. In the year of 1961 Ernest Miller Hemingway committed suicide (he shot himself on the head) I think Ernest Hemingway was one of the best novelette writers ever, in fact he is my second favorite author after Christopher Pike. Two of the stories Ive read that he wrote are For Whom the Bell Tolls and The Old Man and the Sea which I read in my World Literature class.

While searching on the Internet I ound an audio message where Ernest Hemingway said something very interesting: For all true writer, each book should be a new beginning where he tries again for something that is beyond attainment. He Should always try for something that has never been done or that others have tried and failed. Then sometimes, with good luck, he will succeed. This quote tries to tell other writers to begin their latest literature with the same passion as the first time they ever wrote a piece of literature. Hemingway believed that every book he wrote was the beginning of his career as a novelist.

Biography of Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899 in a small community of Oak Park, Illinois. He was the second child out of six, with four sisters and one brother. The area Ernest grew up in was a very conservative area of Illinois and was raised with values of strong religion, hard work, physical fitness and self-determination. His household was a very strict one that didn’t allow any enjoyment on Sundays and disobedience was strictly punished. Ernest’s father taught him good morals and values that he if he followed that he would be good in life.

His father also taught him to hunt and fish around the Lake Michigan area and to love nature. The family would spend their summers in the wilderness and their winters back near Chicago. For the rest of his life Hemingway remained an avid fisherman and never lived far form a fishing hole. The outdoors is where he created a lot of his work, and a place where he got a lot of his inspiration from. Hemingway went to school in the Oak Park public school system where he wrote for the High School paper. Hemingway graduated high school in 1917 and then he took a job as a reporter for the Kansas City Star.

This was against his parent’s wishes of him going to college to become a professional. While Hemingway worked for the Star, he learned to elaborate more and polished his writing ability positively. He found out after awhile that writing for the newspaper wasn’t for him. He had tried to join the military after he had graduated from high school but they did not accept him in because of a vision problem. Hemingway was anxious to be a part of the military because the United States was involved in World War I.

Hemingway heard about the Red Cross’s mission to find ambulance drivers for the war. The Red Cross accepted Hemingway in and he was first shipped to Italy. Ernest was very proud because he knew that ambulance drivers were important personnel and played a very important part in the war. They had to risk their own lives and go into battlefields and pick up the wounded or dead. His initiation in the ambulance corps was a remarkable first day because a munitions depot exploded. He found himself on his first day picking up body parts and wounded people.

Two days after that he was sent to an ambulance unit in a place called Schio which he found very boring and demanded a different assignment. He signed up for a canteen duty that mounted canteens that fed and provided for the troops who were on the ‘battlefield’. A little later he was hit by Austrian artillery and shrapnel was stuck in his leg. It took him several months to walk again fully, but this longed stay at the hospital had some positive to it too. He formed a romance with a nurse named Agnes von Kurowsky, which he considered as one of his first loves.

Hemingway’s wounding by artillery his recovery at a hospital in Milan, including the relationship with this nurse Agnes von Kurowsky, all inspired his great novel A Farewell To Arms. When Hemingway returned home from Italy, he found his hometown dull from the war and romance of Agnes that he had just left. His parents began to pressure him to find work or to further his education, but Hemingway couldn’t seem to muster interest in anything. He had received some $1,000 dollars in insurance payments for his war wounds, which allowed him to avoid work for nearly a year.

During this time he spent his time at the library or at home reading. He spoke to small civic organizations about his war exploits also. In this experience in his life he writes a story of what he encountered. “Soldier’s Home” conveys his feelings of frustration and shame upon returning home to a town and to parents who still had a romantic notion of war and who didn’t understand the psychological impact the war had on him. Hemingway later took another writing job at The Toronto Star and fell in love again.

He married Hadley Richardson and moved there after to France as a European correspondent for the Star. He began meeting very important writers in his stay in Paris and moved back to North America to give birth to their new child. Hemingway and Hadley separated when he had an affair with another woman Vogue Editor from Arkansas called Pauline Pfeiffer. Hadley had insisted that in order for Hemingway to gain a divorce from her, that Hemingway and Pauline Pfeiffer were to live apart for six months and if, after that time, they were still in love, she would give him a divorce.

Hemingway succeeded with this ultimatum and married Pauline after his divorce went through. Pauline’s and Hemingway’s three week honeymoon was spent at a small fishing port in France. Sea, sun, fishing, swimming and writing occupied his time but he cut his foot badly which became infected with anthrax. He got severely sick,depressed, and couldn’t even write. He wrote another work The Mount Of Kiliminjaro on this experience.

Again his romantic escapades take another turn as he divorces Pauline and marries Martha Gellhorn that didn’t even last two years before he fell in love with another woman, Mary Welsh. He found the rest of his days in depression of the failed marriage of Martha. Ernest Hemingway forged a literary reputation unsurpassed in the twentieth century and created a mythological hero in himself that captivated (and at times confounded) not only serious literary critics but the average man as well. He also had established himself as an avid outdoorsman, and being a lady’s man, which some say got the best of him.

A Critical Analysis of The Snows of Kilimanjaro

Ernest Hemingways background influenced him to write the short story The Snows of Kilimanjaro. One important influence on the story was that Hemingway had a fear of dying without finishing a work. Hemingway confirmed this fear in many interviews. Baker, in The Slopes of Kilimanjaro, states that Hemingway could well express the feelings of Harry because they both feared death in the event that they may have unfinished a work (50). Similarly, in The Snows of Kilimanjaro Harry, the protagonist, is constantly facing death.

In an effort to get his ideas and feelings expressed, Harry resorts to flashbacks, which to him were very real moments (Chaman 111). In addition to his feelings on mortality, another influence on the story is Hemingways history with women. Hemingway married many times, possibly inciting the bitter feelings toward the women in his stories. By comparison, Harry is very bitter towards the woman, his companion on the wild African Safari. He demonstrates bitterness best in comments like you bitch, you rich bitch (Hemingway 9) and she shot very well this good, this rich bitch, this kindly caretaker and destroyer of his talent (11).

Perhaps the most important influence on the story is that Hemingway had been on many safaris in Africa. In an interview with Pilmpton, Hemingway states that for The Snows of Kilimanjaro, he drew on his knowledge and experience acquired on the same long hunting trip and tried to convey the feelings felt while on his trip (qtd. 32). This background together with a believable plot, convincing characterization, and important literary devices enables Ernest Hemingway in The Snows of Kilimanjaro to develop the theme that a person should neither waste the gifts he holds nor lead his life taking advantage of others.

To develop this theme, Hemingway creates a believable plot through an internal conflict and a determinate ending. Hemingway formulates a believable plot through the internal conflict in Harry. Harry, an aspiring writer, came to realize in his dying all that he had not accomplished. He began to blame others for the death that was awaiting him and for all the things, he never wrote. Harry shows his disappointment of not being able to write by stating he would never write the things that he had saved to write until he knew enough to write them well (Hemingway 5).

Harrys first blame for not being successful was his present wife, whom he married for her money. Harry emphasizes his quest for a better life and more money in the statement, Your damned money was my armour. My Swift and my Armour (9). He further separates himself from his wife by implying he did not like doing things with her. Harry established this feeling with the statement, the only thing I ever really liked to do with you I cant do now (9). Harry also changed his opinion on dying many times.

At times, he seemed to welcome the thought of ending it all, and at other times he was bored with the idea of dying. In the end, Harry was afraid of dying and tried to fend off his death; he tried to send it away without speaking(15). Along with the internal conflict, Hemingway further creates a believable plot in his story by using a determinate ending. With the reference to the dead leopard on the mountain, Hemingway foreshadows the ending of the story from the very beginning.

This short preamble indicates someone in the story will fall short of his or her goals. While dying of gangrene, Harry can see the vultures that were once circling above now beginning to perch around the camp sight (3). The next clue that Harry was going to die was the appearance of the hyena. Whenever the hyena appeared, it was to symbolize the onslaught of death. When Harry faced the realization of his death, it came with a rushof a sudden evil-smelling emptinessthat the hyena slipped lightly on the edge of it (15).

Furthermore, when the death actually occurred it was the hyena that announced it with a strange, human, almost crying sound (27). In addition to creating the theme with a believable plot, Hemingway also develops the theme of The Snows of Kilimanjaro by convincingly characterizing Harry, the protagonist. Harry was a convincing character because he was constantly facing his death. From the beginning when the reader finds out he had gangrene, the story tells the reader that even if his leg was removed, he would still die.

This whole short story is centered on the death of the protagonist, Harry. He went through many stages throughout the story, at first denial, then acceptance, and finally fear of death. Besides being convincing because he behaved consistently, Harry was a convincing character because his love of money motivated him to lie and even fail at his dream of being a writer. Harry, while in one of his fits, says to his wife, if you had not left your own people, your goddamned Old Westbury, Saratoga, Palm Beach people to take me on—, hinting that the higher class from which she came was at blame.

Harry had, in fact caused the downfall of his writing career by drinking so much that he blunted the edge of his perceptions, by laziness, by sloth, and by snobbery, by pride and prejudice, by hook and crook (11). He had chosen to make a living other than by the pen- by chasing the money of others. Finally, Harry is convincing because he is plausible. Harry, like many others when faced with a problem, was looking for another reason for his destruction and not facing the truth. The truth is that in all his pursuits for money, he has forgotten his own dream of being a writer.

He is also not unlike others who, when faced with final death, become frightened and try to escape the weight on his chest. Perhaps the most important way Hemingway develops the theme of this story is that he uses foreshadowing and symbolism. Hemingway uses symbols, including the memories that Harry recalls and the different animals to enforce the theme of The Snows of Kilimanjaro. Perhaps the most obvious occurrence of symbols is that of the different animals. The different types of animals represent both the type of person Harry wishes to be, and the type of person he actually is.

First is the leopard, it represents all that he has not accomplished. The leopard, being the fastest land animal has mastered his surroundings and accomplished greatness. Harrys quest for excellence in his writing is shown throughout the story, this is directly correrlery to the great skill and dominance of the leopard of his kingdom. Harry strives to be like the leopard and accomplish greatness, but because of his blaming of others, he falls short. He is more comparable to that of the hyena. The hyena is a scavenging animal, dirty and sneaky.

Harry is like the hyena in that he scavenges off the women in his life. He does not care about them; he only cares about what they might supply him with. In the story, the woman goes off to kill a piece of meat (10). Secondly, Hemingway also uses foreshadowing to help develop the theme. The first thing we read about it the dead leopard, leading the reader to think of death. Then as the story progresses the reader reads of the huge, filthy birds, and how they are slowly progressing closer and closer just like the death approaching Harry.

After analyzing how the authors background, the plot, the characterization, and the literary devices contribute to the development of the theme The Snows of Kilimanjaro, one understands why this story rates high on the literary scale of value. One reason that this story rates high is that it fully achieves its purpose. The story achieves its purpose by the use of different writing skills and techniques. Hemingway uses not only his great analytical mind, bus draws upon his own experiences in life. His travels to Africa, and his troubled past with women, are both shown to detail in this writing.

Hemingway then develops his theme by using the internal conflicts of the characters, and through the development of conflict introduces a believable plot. The most important way he develops the theme is by using symbolism. From the start, Hemingway is using symbols, and in every turning point, from the vultures introducing the death to the hyena bringing it in the end the story uses symbols. His use of symbolism is a contribution to the characters, and the overall readability of the story. Secondly, another reason this story rates high is that it has a significant purpose.

Hemingway in writing “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” fulfils the purpose of entertaining, and entertainment with a deaper side it makes the reader think about life. He not only keeps the reader reading, but makes the reader think why or what made the character do this. This background together with a believable plot, convincing characterization, and important literary devices enables Ernest Hemingway in The Snows of Kilimanjaro to develop the theme that a person should neither waste the gifts he holds nor lead his life taking advantage of others.

Ernest Miller Hemingway Essay

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. His father was the owner of a prosperous real estate business. His father, Dr. Hemingway, imparted to Ernest the importance of appearances, especially in public. Dr. Hemingway invented surgical forceps for which he would not accept money. He believed that one should not profit from something important for the good of mankind. Ernest’s father, a man of high ideals, was very strict and censored the books he allowed his children to read.

He forbad Ernest’s sister from studying ballet for it was coeducational, and dancing together led to hell and damnation”. Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest’s mother, considered herself pure and proper. She was a dreamer who was upset at anything which disturbed her perception of the world as beautiful. She hated dirty diapers, upset stomachs, and cleaning house; they were not fit for a lady. She taught her children to always act with decorum. She adored the singing of the birds and the smell of flowers. Her children were expected to behave properly and to please her, always.

Mrs. Hemingway treated Ernest, when he was a small boy, as if he were a female baby doll and she dressed him accordingly. This arrangement was alright until Ernest got to the age when he wanted to be a “gun-toting Pawnee Bill”. He began, at that time, to pull away from his mother, and never forgave her for his humiliation. The town of Oak Park, where Ernest grew up, was very old fashioned and quite religious. The townspeople forbad the word “virgin” from appearing in school books, and the word “breast” was questioned, though it appeared in the Bible.

Ernest loved to fish, canoe and explore the woods. When he couldn’t get outside, he escaped to his room and read books. He loved to tell stories to his lassmates, often insisting that a friend listen to one of his stories. In spite of his mother’s desire, he played on the football team at Oak Park High School. As a student, Ernest was a perfectionist about his grammar and studied English with a fervor. He contributed articles to the weekly school newspaper. It seems that the principal did not approve of Ernest’s writings and he complained, often, about the content of Ernest’s articles.

Ernest was clear about his writing; he wanted people to “see and feel” and he wanted to enjoy himself while writing. Ernest loved having fun. If nothing was happening, ischievous Ernest made something happen. He would sometimes use forbidden words just to create a ruckus. Ernest, though wild and crazy, was a warm, caring individual. He loved the sea, mountains and the stars and hated anyone who he saw as a phoney. During World War I, Ernest, rejected from service because of a bad left eye, was an ambulance driver, in Italy, for the Red Cross.

Very much like the hero of A Farewell to Arms, Ernest is shot in his knee and recuperates in a hospital, tended by a caring nurse named Agnes. Like Frederick Henry, in the book, he fell in love with the nurse and was given a medal for his heroism. Ernest returned home after the war, rejected by the nurse with whom he fell in love. He would party late into the night and invite, to his house, people his parents disapproved of. Ernest’s mother rejected him and he felt that he had to move from home.

He moved in with a friend living in Chicago and he wrote articles for The Toronto Star. In Chicago he met and then married Hadley Richardson. She believed that he should spend all his time in writing, and bought him a typewriter for his birthday. They decided that the best place for a writer to live was Paris, where he could devote himself to his writing. He said, t the time, that the most difficult thing to write about was being a man. They could not live on income from his stories and so Ernest, again, wrote for The Toronto Star.

Ernest took Hadley to Italy to show her where he had been during the war. He was devastated, everything had changed, everything was destroyed. Hadley became pregnant and was sick all the time. She and Ernest decided to move to Canada. He had, by then written three stories and ten poems. Hadley gave birth to a boy who they named John Hadley Nicano Hemingway. Even though he had his family Ernest was unhappy and decided to return to Paris. It was in Paris hat Ernest got word that a publisher wanted to print his book, In Our Time, but with some changes.

The publisher felt that the sex was to blatant, but Ernest refused to change one word. Around 1925, Ernest started writing a novel about a young man in World War I, but had to stop after a few pages, and proceeded to write another novel, instead. This novel was based on his experiences while living in Pamplona, Spain. He planned on calling this book Fiesta, but changed the name to The Sun Also Rises, a saying from the Bible. This book, as in his other books, shows Hemingway obsessed with death. In 1927, Ernest found himself nhappy with his wife and son.

They decided to divorce and he married Pauline, a woman he had been involved with while he was married to Hadley. A year later, Ernest was able to complete his war novel which he called A Farewell to Arms. The novel was about the pain of war, of finding love in this time of pain. It portrayed the battles, the retreats, the fears, the gore and the terrible waste of war. This novel was well-received by his publisher, Max Perkins,but Ernest had to substitute dashes for the “dirty” language. Ernest used his life when he wrote; using everything he did and everything that ever happened to him.

He nevertheless remained a private person; wanting his stories to be read but wanting to be left alone. He once said, “Don’t look at me. Look at my words. ” A common theme throughout Hemingway’s stories is that no matter how hard we fight to live, we end up defeated, but we are here and we must go on. At age 31 he wrote Death in the Afternoon, about bullfighting in his beloved Spain. Ernest was a restless man; he traveled all over the United States, Europe, Cuba and Africa. At the age of 37 Ernest met the woman who would be his third wife; Martha Gellhorn, a writer like himself.

He went to Spain, he said, to become an antiwar correspondent”, and found that war was like a club where everyone was playing the same game, and he was never lonely. Martha went to Spain as a war correspondent and they lived together. He knew that he was hurting Pauline, but like his need to travel and have new experiences, he could not stop himself from getting involved with women. In 1940 he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls and dedicated it to Martha, whom he married at the end of that year. He found himself traveling between Havana, Cuba and Ketchum, Idaho, which he did for the rest of his life.

During World War II, Ernest became a secret agent for he United States. He suggested that he use his boat, the “Pillar”, to surprise German submarines and attack them with hidden machine guns. It was at this time that Ernest, always a drinker, started drinking most of his days away. He would host wild, fancy parties and did not write at all during the next three years. At war’s end, Ernest went to England and met an American foreign correspondent named Mary Welsh. He divorced Martha and married Mary in Havana, in 1946. Ernest was a man of extremes; living either in luxury or happy to do without material things.

Ernest, always haunted by memories of his mother, would ot go to her funeral when she died in 1951. He admitted that he hated his mother’s guts. Ernest wrote The Old Man and the Sea in only two months. He was on top of the world, the book was printed by Life Magazine and thousands of copies were sold in the United States. This novel and A Farewell to Arms were both made into movies. In 1953 he went on a safari with Mary, and he was in heaven hunting big game. Though Ernest had a serious accident, and later became ill, he could never admit that he had any weaknesses; nothing would stop him, certainly not pain.

In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Toward the nd, Ernest started to travel again, but almost the way that someone does who knows that he will soon die. He suddenly started becoming paranoid and to forget things. He became obsessed with sin; his upbringing was showing, but still was inconsistent in his behavior. He never got over feeling like a bad person, as his father, mother and grandfather had taught him. In the last year of his life, he lived inside of his dreams, similar to his mother, who he hated with all his heart.

He was suicidal and had electric shock treatments for his depression and strange behavior. On a Sunday morning, July 2, 1961, Ernest Miller Hemingway illed himself with a shotgun. Ernest Hemingway takes much of the storyline of his novel, A Farewell to Arms, from his personal experiences. The main character of the book, Frederick Henry, often referred to as Tenete, experiences many of the same situations which Hemingway, himself, lived. Some of these similarities are exact while some are less similar, and some events have a completely different outcome.

Hemingway, like Henry, enjoyed drinking large amounts of alcohol. Both of them were involved in World War I, in a medical capacity, but neither of them were regular army personnel. Like Hemingway, Henry was shot in is right knee, during a battle. Both men were Americans, but a difference worth noting was that Hemingway was a driver for the American Red Cross, while Henry was a medic for the Italian Army. In real life, Hemingway met his love, Agnes, a nurse, in the hospital after being shot; Henry met his love, Catherine Barkley, also a nurse, before he was shot and hospitalized.

In both cases, the relationships with these women were strengthened while the men were hospitalized. Another difference is that Hemingway’s romance was short-lived, while, the book seemed to indicate that, Henry’s romance, though they never arried, was strong and would have lasted. In A Farewell to Arms, Catherine and her child died while she was giving birth, this was not the case with Agnes who left Henry for an Italian Army officer. It seems to me that the differences between the two men were only surface differences. They allowed Hemingway to call the novel a work of fiction.

Had he written an autobiography the book would probably not have been well-received because Hemingway was not, at that time, a well known author. Although Hemingway denied critics’ views that A Farewell to Arms was symbolic, had he not made any changes they would not have been as mpressed with the war atmosphere and with the naivete of a young man who experiences war for the first time. Hemingway, because he was so private, probably did not want to expose his life to everyone, and so the slight changes would prove that it was not himself and his own experiences which he was writing about.

I believe that Hemingway had Catherine and her child die, not to look different from his own life, but because he had a sick and morbid personality. There is great power in being an author, you can make things happen which do not necessarily occur in real life. It is obvious that Hemingway felt, as a young hild and throughout his life, powerless, and so he created lives by writing stories. Hemingway acted out his feelings of inadequacy and powerlessness by hunting, drinking, spending lots of money and having many girlfriends. I think that Hemingway was obsessed with death and not too sane.

His obsession shows itself in the morbid death of Miss Barkley and her child. Hemingway was probably very confused about religion and sin and somehow felt or feared that people would or should be punished for enjoying life’s pleasures. Probably, the strongest reason for writing about Catherine Barkley’s death and the death of er child was Hemingway’s belief that death comes to everyone; it was inevitable. Death ends life before you have a chance to learn and live. He writes, in A Farewell to Arms, “They threw you in and told you the rules and the first time they caught you off base they killed you. .. they killed you in the end. You could count on that.

Stay around and they would kill you. ” Hemingway, even in high school, wrote stories which showed that people should expect the unexpected. His stories offended and angered the principal of his school. I think that Hemingway liked shocking and annoying people; he was certainly rebellious. If he would have written an ending where Miss Barkley and her child had lived, it would have been too easy and common; Hemingway was certainly not like everyone else, and he seemed to be proud of that fact.

Even the fact that Hemingway wrote curses and had a lot of sex in his books shows that he liked to shock people. When his publisher asked that he change some words and make his books more acceptable to people, Hemingway refused, then was forced to compromise. I think that the major difference between Hemingway and Henry was that Henry was a likable and normal person while Hemingway was strange nd very difficult. Hemingway liked doing things his way and either people had to accept him the way he was or too bad for them. I think that Hemingway probably did not even like himself and that was one reason that he couldn’t really like other people.

Hemingway seemed to use people only for his own pleasure, and maybe he wanted to think that he was like Henry who was a nicer person. In the book, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Malcolm Cowley focuses on the symbolism of rain. He sees rain, a frequent occurrence in the book, as symbolizing disaster. He points out that, at the eginning of A Farewell to Arms, Henry talks about how “things went very badly” and how this is connected to “At the start of the winter came permanent rain”. Later on in the book we see Miss Barkley afraid of rain.

She says, “Sometimes I see me dead in it”, referring to the rain. It is raining the entire time Miss Barkley is in childbirth and when both she and her baby die. Wyndham Lewis, in the same book of critical essays, points out that Hemingway is obsessed with war, the setting for much of A Farewell to Arms. He feels that the author sees war as an alternative to baseball, a sport of ings. He says that the war years “were a democratic, a levelling, school”. For Hemingway, raised in a strict home environment, war is a release; an opportunity to show that he is a real man.

The essayist, Edgar Johnson says that for the loner “it is society as a whole that is rejected, social responsibility, social concern” abandoned. Lieutenant Henry, like Hemingway, leads a private life as an isolated individual. He socializes with the officers, talks with the priest and visits the officer’s brothel, but those relationships are superficial. This avoidance of real relationships and nvolvement do not show an insensitive person, but rather someone who is protecting himself from getting involved and hurt.

It is clear that in all of Hemingway’s books and from his own life that he sees the world as his enemy. Johnson says, “He will solve the problem of dealing with the world by taking refuge in individualism and isolated personal relationships and sensations”. John Killinger says that it was inevitable that Catherine and her baby would die. The theme, that a person is trapped in relationships, is shown in all Hemingway’s stories. In A Farewell to Arms Catherine asks Henry if he feels trapped, now that she is pregnant. He admits that he does, “maybe a little”.

This idea, points out Killinger, is ingrained in Hemingway’s thinking and that he was not too happy about fatherhood. In Cross Country Snow, Nick regrets that he has to give up skiing in the Alps with a male friend to return to his wife who is having a baby. In Hemingway’s story Hills Like White Elephants the man wants his sweetheart to have an abortion so that they can continue as they once lived. In To Have and Have Not, Richard Gordon took his wife to “that dirty aborting horror”. Catherine’s death, in A Farewell to Arms, saves the author’s hero from the hell of a complicated life.

Ernest Miller Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. His father was the owner of a prosperous real estate business. His father, Dr. Hemingway, imparted to Ernest the importance of appearances, especially in public. Dr. Hemingway invented surgical forceps for which he would not accept money. He believed that one should not profit from something important for the good of mankind. Ernest’s father, a man of high ideals, was very strict and censored the books he allowed his children to read.

He forbad Ernest’s sister from studying ballet for it was coeducational, and dancing together led to “hell and damnation”. Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest’s mother, considered herself pure and proper. She was a dreamer who was upset at anything which disturbed her perception of the world as beautiful. She hated dirty diapers, upset stomachs, and cleaning house; they were not fit for a lady. She taught her children to always act with decorum. She adored the singing of the birds and the smell of flowers. Her children were expected to behave properly and to please her, always.

Mrs. Hemingway treated Ernest, when he was a small boy, as if he were a female baby doll and she dressed him accordingly. This arrangement was alright ntil Ernest got to the age when he wanted to be a “gun-toting Pawnee Bill”. He began, at that time, to pull away from his mother, and never forgave her for his humiliation. The town of Oak Park, where Ernest grew up, was very old fashioned and quite religious. The townspeople forbad the word “virgin” from appearing in school books, and the word “breast” was questioned, though it appeared in the Bible.

Ernest loved to fish, canoe and explore the woods. When he couldn’t get outside, he escaped to his room and read books. He loved to tell stories to his classmates, often insisting that a friend listen to one of his stories. In spite of his mother’s desire, he played on the football team at Oak Park High School. As a student, Ernest was a perfectionist about his grammar and studied English with a fervor. He contributed articles to the weekly school newspaper. It seems that the principal did not approve of Ernest’s writings and he complained, often, about the content of Ernest’s articles.

Ernest was clear about his writing; he wanted people to “see and feel” and he wanted to enjoy himself while writing. Ernest loved having fun. If nothing was happening, mischievous Ernest made something happen. He would sometimes use forbidden words just to create a ruckus. Ernest, though wild and crazy, was a warm, caring individual. He loved the sea, mountains and the stars and hated anyone who he saw as a phoney. During World War I, Ernest, rejected from service because of a bad left eye, was an ambulance driver, in Italy, for the Red Cross.

Very much like the hero of A Farewell to Arms, Ernest is shot in his knee and recuperates in a hospital, tended by a caring nurse named Agnes. Like Frederick Henry, in the book, he fell in love with the nurse and was given a medal for his heroism. Ernest returned home after the war, rejected by the nurse with whom he fell in love. He would party late into the night and invite, to his house, people his parents disapproved of. Ernest’s mother rejected him and he felt that he had to move from home.

He moved in with a friend living in Chicago and he wrote articles for The Toronto Star. In Chicago he met and then married Hadley Richardson. She believed that he should spend all his time in writing, and bought him a typewriter for his birthday. They decided that the best place for a writer to live was Paris, where he could devote himself to his writing. He said, at the time, that the most difficult thing to write about was being a man. They ould not live on income from his stories and so Ernest, again, wrote for The Toronto Star.

Ernest took Hadley to Italy to show her where he had been during the war. He was devastated, everything had changed, everything was destroyed. Hadley became pregnant and was sick all the time. She and Ernest decided to move to Canada. He had, by then written three stories and ten poems. Hadley gave birth to a boy who they named John Hadley Nicano Hemingway. Even though he had his family Ernest was unhappy and decided to return to Paris. It was in Paris that Ernest got word that a publisher wanted to print his book, In Our Time, but with some changes.

The publisher felt that the sex was to blatant, but Ernest refused to change one word. Around 1925, Ernest started writing a novel about a young man in World War I, but had to stop after a few pages, and proceeded to write another novel, instead. This novel was based on his experiences while living in Pamplona, Spain. He planned on calling this book Fiesta, but changed the name to The Sun Also Rises, a saying from the Bible. This book, as in his other books, shows Hemingway obsessed with death. In 1927, Ernest found himself unhappy with his wife and son.

They decided to divorce and he married Pauline, a woman he had been involved with while he was married to Hadley. A year later, Ernest was able to complete his war novel which he called A Farewell to Arms. The novel was about the pain of war, of finding love in this time of pain. It portrayed the battles, the retreats, the fears, the gore and the terrible waste of war. This novel was well-received by his publisher, Max Perkins,but Ernest had to substitute dashes for the “dirty” language. Ernest used his life when he wrote; using everything he did and everything that ever happened to him.

He nevertheless remained a private person; wanting his stories to be read but wanting to be left alone. He once said, “Don’t look at me. Look at my words. ” A common theme throughout Hemingway’s stories is that no matter how hard we fight to live, we end up defeated, but we are here and we must go on. At age 31 he wrote Death in the Afternoon, about bullfighting in his beloved Spain. Ernest was a restless man; he traveled all over the United States, Europe, Cuba and Africa. At the age of 37 Ernest met the woman who would be his third wife; Martha Gellhorn, a writer like himself. He went to

Spain, he said, to become an “antiwar correspondent”, and found that war was like a club where everyone was playing the same game, and he was never lonely. Martha went to Spain as a war correspondent and they lived together. He knew that he was hurting Pauline, but like his need to travel and have new experiences, he could not stop himself from getting involved with women. In 1940 he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls and dedicated it to Martha, whom he married at the end of that year. He found himself traveling between Havana, Cuba and Ketchum, Idaho, which he did for the rest of his life. During

World War II, Ernest became a secret agent for the United States. He suggested that he use his boat, the “Pillar”, to surprise German submarines and attack them with hidden machine guns. It was at this time that Ernest, always a drinker, started drinking most of his days away. He would host wild, fancy parties and did not write at all during the next three years. At war’s end, Ernest went to England and met an American foreign correspondent named Mary Welsh. He divorced Martha and married Mary in Havana, in 1946. Ernest was a man of extremes; living either in luxury or happy to do without material things.

Ernest, always haunted by memories of his mother, would not go to her funeral when she died in 1951. He admitted that he hated his mother’s guts. Ernest wrote The Old Man and the Sea in only two months. He was on top of the world, the book was printed by Life Magazine and thousands of copies were sold in the United States. This novel and A Farewell to Arms were both made into movies. In 1953 he went on a safari with Mary, and he was in heaven hunting big game. Though Ernest had a serious accident, and later became ill, he could never admit that he had any weaknesses; nothing would stop him, certainly not pain.

In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Toward the end, Ernest started to travel again, but almost the way that someone does who knows that he will soon die. He suddenly started becoming paranoid and to forget things. He became obsessed with sin; his upbringing was showing, but still was inconsistent in his behavior. He never got over feeling like a bad person, as his father, mother and grandfather had taught him. In the last year of his life, he lived inside of his dreams, similar to his mother, who he hated with all his heart.

He was suicidal and had electric shock treatments for his depression and strange behavior. On a Sunday morning, July 2, 1961, Ernest Miller Hemingway killed himself with a shotgun. Ernest Hemingway takes much of the storyline of his novel, A Farewell to Arms, from his personal experiences. The main character of the book, Frederick Henry, often referred to as Tenete, experiences many of the same situations which Hemingway, himself, lived. Some of these similarities are exact while some are less similar, and some events have a completely different outcome.

Hemingway, like Henry, enjoyed drinking large amounts of alcohol. Both of them were involved in World War I, in a medical capacity, but neither of hem were regular army personnel. Like Hemingway, Henry was shot in his right knee, during a battle. Both men were Americans, but a difference worth noting was that Hemingway was a driver for the American Red Cross, while Henry was a medic for the Italian Army. In real life, Hemingway met his love, Agnes, a nurse, in the hospital after being shot; Henry met his love, Catherine Barkley, also a nurse, before he was shot and hospitalized.

In both cases, the relationships with these women were strengthened while the men were hospitalized. Another difference is that Hemingway’s romance was short-lived, while, the book seemed o indicate that, Henry’s romance, though they never married, was strong and would have lasted. In A Farewell to Arms, Catherine and her child died while she was giving birth, this was not the case with Agnes who left Henry for an Italian Army officer. It seems to me that the differences between the two men were only surface differences. They allowed Hemingway to call the novel a work of fiction.

Had he written an autobiography the book would probably not have been well-received because Hemingway was not, at that time, a well known author. Although Hemingway denied critics’ views that A Farewell to Arms was symbolic, ad he not made any changes they would not have been as impressed with the war atmosphere and with the naivete of a young man who experiences war for the first time. Hemingway, because he was so private, probably did not want to expose his life to everyone, and so the slight changes would prove that it was not himself and his own experiences which he was writing about.

I believe that Hemingway had Catherine and her child die, not to look different from his own life, but because he had a sick and morbid personality. There is great power in being an author, you can make things happen which do ot necessarily occur in real life. It is obvious that Hemingway felt, as a young child and throughout his life, powerless, and so he created lives by writing stories. Hemingway acted out his feelings of inadequacy and powerlessness by hunting, drinking, spending lots of money and having many girlfriends. I think that Hemingway was obsessed with death and not too sane.

His obsession shows itself in the morbid death of Miss Barkley and her child. Hemingway was probably very confused about religion and sin and somehow felt or feared that people would or should be punished for enjoying life’s pleasures. Probably, the strongest reason for writing about Catherine Barkley’s death and the death of her child was Hemingway’s belief that death comes to everyone; it was inevitable. Death ends life before you have a chance to learn and live. He writes, in A Farewell to Arms, “They threw you in and told you the rules and the first time they caught you off base they killed you. .. they killed you in the end. You could count on that.

Stay around and they would kill you. ” Hemingway, even in high school, wrote stories which showed that people should expect the unexpected. His stories offended and angered the principal of his school. I think that Hemingway liked shocking and annoying people; he was certainly rebellious. If he would have written an ending where Miss Barkley and her child had lived, it would have been too easy and common; Hemingway was certainly not like everyone else, and he seemed to be proud of that fact.

Even the fact that Hemingway wrote curses and had a lot of sex in his books shows that he liked to shock people. When his publisher asked that he change some words and make his books more acceptable to people, Hemingway refused, then was forced to compromise. I think that the major difference between Hemingway and Henry was that Henry was a likable and normal person while Hemingway was strange and very difficult. Hemingway liked doing things his way and either people had to accept him the way he was or too bad for them. I think that Hemingway probably did not even like himself and that was one reason that he couldn’t really like other people.

Hemingway seemed to use people only for his own pleasure, and maybe he wanted to think that he was like Henry who was a nicer person. In the book, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Malcolm Cowley focuses on the symbolism of rain. He sees rain, a frequent occurrence in the book, as symbolizing disaster. He points out that, at the beginning of A Farewell to Arms, Henry talks about how “things went very badly” and how this is connected to “At the start of the winter came permanent rain”. Later on in the book we see Miss Barkley afraid of rain.

She says, “Sometimes I see me dead in it”, referring to the rain. It is raining the entire time Miss Barkley is in childbirth and when both she and her baby die. Wyndham Lewis, in the same book of critical essays, points out that Hemingway is obsessed with war, the setting for much of A Farewell to Arms. He feels that the author sees war as an alternative to baseball, a sport of kings. He says that the war years “were a democratic, a levelling, school”. For Hemingway, raised in a strict home environment, war is a release; an opportunity to show that he is a real man.

The essayist, Edgar Johnson says that for the loner “it is society as a whole that is rejected, social responsibility, social concern” abandoned. Lieutenant Henry, like Hemingway, leads a private life as an isolated individual. He socializes with the officers, talks with the priest and visits the officer’s brothel, but those relationships are superficial. This avoidance of real relationships and involvement do not show an insensitive person, but ather someone who is protecting himself from getting involved and hurt.

It is clear that in all of Hemingway’s books and from his own life that he sees the world as his enemy. Johnson says, “He will solve the problem of dealing with the world by taking refuge in individualism and isolated personal relationships and sensations”. John Killinger says that it was inevitable that Catherine and her baby would die. The theme, that a person is trapped in relationships, is shown in all Hemingway’s stories. In A Farewell to Arms Catherine asks Henry if he feels trapped, now that she is pregnant. He admits that he does, “maybe a ittle”.

This idea, points out Killinger, is ingrained in Hemingway’s thinking and that he was not too happy about fatherhood. In Cross Country Snow, Nick regrets that he has to give up skiing in the Alps with a male friend to return to his wife who is having a baby. In Hemingway’s story Hills Like White Elephants the man wants his sweetheart to have an abortion so that they can continue as they once lived. In To Have and Have Not, Richard Gordon took his wife to “that dirty aborting horror”. Catherine’s death, in A Farewell to Arms, saves the author’s hero from the hell of a complicated life.

Hemingways life within his works

Although Ernest Hemingway is considered by many to be the most brilliant writer in modern literature, he can easily be considered one of the most troubled also. His works such as, The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, and The Old Man and the Sea, are American classics, each one representing different stages in his life. He is an undeniable collision of literary talent and iconic personality who took Americans around the world with his new style of fiction, and he took fiction to new levels of pop culture status (Retrospective).

It is clear to anyone who reads Hemingways stories that the things he experienced from his childhood throughout the rest of his life, no matter if it was joy or pain, it was reflected within his work. Hemingways early life begins in such a fashion that one could only assume that the best possible way for him to express himself completely, without having to wonder whether or not he is fully understood, is through writing. His mother, Grace Hemingway, suffered from a medical condition called the Oedipus complex, which is a subconscious sexual desire for the parent of the opposite sex.

Because his mother suffered from this disease, she used to groom his sister and him to look like dolls. Hemingway still managed to be close with his mother and father, due mostly to the fact that his father would take him out hunting and things of that nature on the weekends. If one thing had to be pointed out as the reason for Hemingways confusion, it has to the fact that he was dressed up like a little girl. He went from hating his father and idolizing his mother because he had thought his mother was castrated by his father, and he thought that his mother was the head of the household.

His emotions later shifted toward his father because after his father had committed suicide, he seemed to believe that his mother had castrated his father, and that she was a part of the reason he had killed himself (cocoa pg. 1). After Hemingway finished school, he acquired a job working for a local newspaper, but it was nothing to brag about. In 1921, four years after his graduation, he married and relocated to Paris to pursue a writing career. While in Paris Hemingway became friends with such known authors as Ezra Pound and F. Scott Fitzgerald.

It was in Paris that Hemingway was introduced to a publisher named Charles Scribner, Jr. (Desnoyers). Through Scribner Publishing Hemingway released The Sun Also Rises, Men Without Women and A Farewell to Arms (thinkquest). In 1922 Hemingway joined the Army and participated in World War One. It would not be fair to the soldiers to actually had to battle on the front lines to say that he fought in the war. He was, however, seriously injured in the line of duty. While driving a truck that was delivering food to the soldiers who were at war and putting their lives on the line, Hemingway was shot (usafa).

He severely injured his leg and had to have surgery on it, the operation was successful and Hemingway was awarded an Italian medal of valor, and the local media dubbed him a hero because he was the first American soldier wounded in the war (Desnoyers). And so the legend begins. People claim that Hemingway told them he was a soldier fighting on the front lines in the war and that is how he got shot and why he received a medal. Then there were the people that knew what his role really was in the war and because the rumor that he started spread so quickly, a lot of people did not know which story to believe.

This is all attributed to the fact that he is a great story teller and now he has a serious achievement under belt. The mysteries of Hemingways life and Hemingways writings begin to deepen. Which stories actually happened? Which did he invent? Did he come to believe the fiction as many of his family, friends, and admirers did? Hemingway, the ultimate storyteller, was not only telling stories, he was reinventing himself, according to a student of his life and work, Megan Floyd Desnoyers. A Sun Also Rises is the book that boosted Hemingway into the spotlight.

This story, which was written in the late 1920s, is a story about affairs of the heart. Not necessarily love, but lust. The main characters in the story are Jake and Brett. Brett seems to bounce from one man to another, growing fond of Jake at one point but sill floating around hopelessly. Jake never really lets go of the feelings that he holds for Brett, even though she is continuously going from one man to the next. At the end of this story, Jake is left with only a hug and a kiss as he gets to watch Brett leave him to go be with another guy named Mike.

Hemingway gives the reader the feeling that this is a daytime soap opera, but what makes things so strange is the fact that he pulled this from within himself. The events that take place within this story are, in reality, the same emotions, thoughts and feelings that Hemingway posses. Because of the way he was treated by his mother as a child, he felt that women were the dominant figures in society (cocoa pg. 1). Men were considered the heartbreakers, not women, but Hemingway knew nothing of this. In A Farewell to Arms Hemingway gives indications of his state of mind during the World War One period.

The main character, Frederic, falls in love with this woman named Catherine, and as the story goes along she becomes pregnant. He gets injured in the war (just as Hemingway had) and discharged. Still in Europe, he moves to a small town way from the war so that he and Catherine are safe. It is in this town that Catherine goes into labor, there are complications, and the baby dies because it is choked by the umbilical cord. On top of this tragedy, Catherine starts hemorrhaging and soon dies. It is at this point that the novel ends with Frederic roaming the rainy streets in complete shock and grief.

Comparing the similarities between Frederic and Hemingways actual life, there is no wonder why this mans novels were so great. The creativity and emotional energy in all of his literature developed into a successful pattern (McCaffery pg. 115). Desnoyers says that He was great at putting things together and made up whatever was needed to suit his artistic purposes. It was right after the war that Hemingway began writing this novel, but it was during the war that Hemingways first wife, Hadley, gave birth to his first child, John. Soon after the war though, Hemingway got a divorced and married Pauline Pfeiffer.

They moved to Key West, Florida, and it was there that Hemingway got the news that his father had committed suicide. It would seem that Hemingway was in love with life. He had his new bride; they were expecting a child and living in a beautiful area. Then he got the telegram informing him of his fathers death and all of a sudden he was at an emotion low. When he became a middle-aged man, Hemingways opinion on his mother and fathers situation had changed. He took notice to the way his mother controlled his father which led him to now believe that she castrated his father.

Hemingway now hated his mother because he blamed her for his fathers suicide and this hatred grew stronger once he became aware of how he was treated as a child. He was angry that his mother never truly assigned him a specific gender (cocoa pg. 1). With the swing in his emotions favoring his father and not his mother, Hemingway felt that his father, who he at one time wished to kill, did not deserver to die. The same empty and lonely feeling that Frederic felt at the end are clearly the same feelings that Hemingway felt after his fathers suicide.

The style in which this novel also gives an indication that he is drawing from his real life experiences. Jackson J. Benson explains it that Hemingway was able to assume the both the father and the son roles and both an objective and subjective point of view. In a sense Hemingway is twice removed from the emotional turmoil at the center of the story, (pg. 72). It is through this novel that Hemingway escaped his pain. Finally, his most famous work, The Old Man and the Sea gives a glimpse into Hemingway the older man. After he moved to Florida with Pauline, he took up fishing as a hobby and became quite good at it.

This is the story of a man named Santiago who is running low on luck. He has not caught a fish in about 40 days and he goes out to sea in hopes of catching something to prove to his one single friend, Manolin, that he still has luck. Out to sea the old man spots a huge marlin and manages to capture it, but sharks follow a trail of blood left by the fish and they come to eat the marlin remains. The old man tries his hardest to fight the sharks off but they wont stop until they have eaten the entire marlin. Near death, the old man fights until he has no more fight left in him.

The sharks devour everything including the marlin bones, the old man heads back in-land returning home with the same thing he left with, nothing. Hemingway is questioning why human beings (himself in particular) try to go against nature. He is making a statement by saying that people put themselves in horrible situations because of they have too much pride. This novel does not reflect upon Hemingway as easily as the previous two. One can only assume that Hemingway is nearing the end of his life and he feels guilty somehow for not being the perfect son, husband, or father.

He has a quote that he used in Farewell to Arms that sums up his attitude. He says There are some things which cannot be learned quicklythey are the very simplest things, and because it takes a mans life to know them the little new that each man gets is very costly (cocoa pg. 3). The Old Man and the Sea was Hemingways last major work before he committed suicide. He left behind a ton of negative speculation about himself, but he also left behind a legacy. Hemingway changed the face of fictional literature with his style.

As Ronald Berman states, Hemingway is concerned with two related problems, telling the truth and staying silent about it (pg. 123). Hemingway spoke the truth in his writings and that was his intent. John Baker, another student of Hemingways work says, No biography can portray a man that he actually was. The best that can be hoped for is an approximation, from which all that is false has been expunged and in most of what is true has been set forth, (vii). He was one of the greatest writers in the history American literature, and did not live long enough to see the lasting impression that was left by the life he lived and wrote about.

Ernest Miller Hemingway, American novelist, journalist, writer of short stories

Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American novelist, journalist, writer of short stories, and winner of the 1954 Nobel Prize for literature. He created a distinguished body of prose fiction, much of it based on adventurous life. He was born on July 21, 1899, the second of six children, in Oak Park, Ill. , in a house built by his widowed grandfather, Ernest Hall. Oak Park was a Protestant, upper middle class suburb of Chicago. He died on July 2, 1961. Early Years Hemingway stated in Green Hills of Africa that civil war is the best war for a writer.

Both of his grandfathers fought in the Civil War and the family was proud of its military traditions. The Hemingway children were brought up on heroic tales of the Civil War. Ernest was also fascinated by the wars and heroes at the turn of the century: the Spanish-American War (1898);, the Goer War (1899-1902); and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05), which inspired him to collect military cartoons. Ernest loved to read the Old Testament when he was a boy because it was so full of battles. (Meyers 3) Ernest Hemingway’s maternal grandfather was Ernest Hall, who was injured in the Civil War.

He tried to shoot himself when he was near death, but Hemingway’s father had removed the bullets from his gun. Ernest was six years old at the time, and thought his father shouldn’t have prevented his grandfather from committing suicide. His paternal grandfather was Anson Hemingway. He was a formal, serious, and deeply religious man who was active in the temperance movement. He established a prosperous real-estate business. Both families were prosperous. Hemingway’s parents were Clarence Edmonds “Ed” Hemingway and Grace Hall. They had a fairly happy marriage although they were very different.

Grace was the dominant one in the marriage. Hemingway was an active, imaginative, and fearless youngster. He said at an early age that he wasn’t afraid of anything. He was aggressive, self-confident, and had a tendency to exaggerate. His mother said that he delighted in shooting imaginary wolves, bears, lions, buffalo, etc. , and liked to pretend he was a “soldser”. She also said he threw temper tantrums if he didn’t get his way. (Meyers 9) Hemingway’s mother, Grace was an accomplished singer and at one time wanted a career on stage. She settled for being a wife and mother and taught private piano lessons in her home.

His father, “Ed”, was a doctor who pursued science. His father was a strict disciplinarian while Grace was more permissive. She saw that her children had music lessons and were exposed to the arts. Ernest never had a knack for music and suffered through choir practices and cello lessons. The gift of the doctor to his children was a knowledge and love of nature. He taught Ernest how to build fires and cook in the open, how to use and ax to build a shelter, how to make fishing flies, how to make bullets, and how to handle fishing gear and guns.

He also taught them how to prepare small animals for mounting and how to dress and cook game. Ernest inherited the temperament and artistic talent of mother and the looks and sporting skills of his father. Both parents, when he was a boy, were foes of dirt and disorder. They brought up their children to follow strict schedules, stand inspection and be scrupulously neat and tidy. Ernest went to high school in Oak Park where he enjoyed writing for the school’s literary magazine, reporting for the school’s weekly newspaper called The Trapeze.

He was mediocre at sports, playing football, swimming, water basketball and serving as the track team manager. Upon graduation in 1917, he was faced with three choices: college, war, or work. His father wanted him to go to college and be a doctor, but he rejected that; he was not in any hurry to go to war, and a job with the Kansas City Star wouldn’t open until October, so he spent the summer on the farm in Michigan. In October, he took the job as a cub reporter for the Kansas City Star and got seven educational months with them.

As a boy his father taught him to hunt and fish along the shores and in the forests surrounding Lake Michigan. The Hemingway’s had a summer house called Windemere on Horton Bay at the northern end of Lake Michigan and the family would spend the summer months their trying to stay cool. Hemingway would fish the different streams that ran into the lake, or would take the row boat out on the bay and do some fishing there. He would also go squirrel hunting in the woods near the summer house, discovering early the serenity to be found while alone in the forest or on a stream.

It was something he could always go back to throughout his life, wherever he was. Nature would be the touchstone of Hemingway’s life and work, and though he often found himself living in major cities like Chicago, Toronto and Paris early in his career, once he became successful he chose somewhat isolated places to live like Key West, or San Francisco de Paula, Cuba, a small village outside of Havana, or after Cuba fell to Castro, Ketchurn, Idaho. All were convenient locales for hunting and fishing. When young Hemingway was in school in the winter in Oak Park, he dreamed of summer to come.

For fourteen years his earthly paradise was Wallon Lake near Petoskey, Michigan, where his family spent its summers. Here he enjoyed playing, fishing, hunting, picking berries, etc. At the time of Hemingway’s graduation from High School, World War I was raging in Europe and despite Woodrow Wilson’s attempts to keep America out of the war, the United States joined the Allies in the fight against Germany and Austria in April, 1917. When Hemingway turned eighteen he tried to enlist in the army, but was deferred because of poor vision; he had a bad left eye that he probably inherited from his mother who also had poor vision.

When he heard the Red Cross was taking volunteers as ambulance drivers he quickly signed up. He was accepted in December of 1917, left his job at the paper in April of 1918, and sailed for Europe in May. In the short time that Hemingway worked for the Kansas City Star he learned some stylistic lessons that would later influence his fiction. The newspaper advocated short sentences, short paragraphs, active verbs, authenticity, compression, clarity and immediacy. Hemingway later said: “Those were the best rules I ever learned for the business of writing. I’ve never forgotten them. ”

Hemingway, upon reaching Europe, first went to Paris, then in early June, after receiving his orders, traveled to Milan, Italy. The day he arrived, a munitions factory exploded and he had to carry mutilated bodies and body parts to a makeshift morgue… it was an immediate and powerful initiation into the horrors of war. Two days later he was sent to an ambulance unit at a the town of Sohio, where he worked driving ambulances. On July 8, 1918, only a few weeks after arriving, Hemingway was seriously wounded by fragments from an Austrian mortar shell which landed just a few feet away.

At the time Hemingway, was distributing chocolate to Italian soldiers in the trenches near the front lines. The explosion knocked Hemingway unconscious while killing one Italian soldier and blowing the legs off another. What happened next has been debated for some time. In a letter to Hemingway’s father, Ted Brumback, one of Emest’s fellow ambulance drivers, wrote that despite over 200 pieces of shrapnel being lodged in Hemingway’s legs, he still managed to carry another wounded soldier back to the first aid station, along the way being hit in his legs by several machine gun bullets.

Whether he carried the wounded soldier or not, doesn’t diminish Hemingway’s sacrifice. He was awarded the Italian Silver Medal for Valor with the official Italian citation reading: “Gravely wounded by numerous pieces of shrapnel from an enemy shell, with an admirable spirit of brotherhood, before taking care of himself, he rendered generous assistance to the Italian soldiers more seriously wounded by the same explosion and did not allow himself to be carried elsewhere until after they had been evacuated.

Hemingway described his injuries to a friend of his: “There was one of those big noises you sometimes hear at the front. I died then. I felt my soul or something coming right out of my body, like you’d pull a silk handkerchief out of a pocket by one comer. It flew all around and then came back and went in again and I wasn’t dead any more. ” (AOL 2) His Loves Apparently, Ernest was attractive to women, and he wasn’t satisfied with just one woman. His first love was an American nurse, Agnes von Kurowsky, whom he met while convalescing from his war wounds in Milano, Italy.

She was a tall and dark-haired girl who had been reared in Washington, D. C. She was kind, generous, and bright, fond of people, and full of bubbling energy. All the young men in the hospital wanted to get well quickly so that they could have a date with Agnes, Ernest included. Ernest was soon “wildly” in love with Agnes. Agnes refused to permit the affair to progress beyond the kissing stage. She wasn’t ready to marry and settle down. Young Ernest returned to the United States in January to a heroes welcome. He continued to write to Agnes whom he missed very much.

In March, he received a letter from her telling him that she had fallen in love with someone else. Ernest was so upset that he got sick and had to go to bed. In the fall of 1920, Hemingway became the contributing editor of a trade journal in Chicago. Here he met Elizabeth Hadley Richardson who was twenty-eight, a tall girl with auburn hair. She had lost her father by suicide. She was a little tongue-tied in his presence, but she thought to herself that he liked her for three reasons: Her hair was red, her skirt was a good length, and she played nicely on Doodles’s piano.

When she went home to St. Louis, they began to exchange letters every week. (Baker 76) Ernest went to see her in March . They discussed money , and as she had a small trust fund, she sent him money. When he went again to St. Louis for the Memorial Day weekend, wedding plans were settled. They got married on Sept. 3, 1921. To this union there was born one son, John Hadley Nicanor “Bumby” Hemingway, on October 10, 1923. In 1925, while living in Paris, France, Ernest met Pauline Pfeiffer, the daughter of a landowning squire Piggott, Arkansas.

She was small with slender limbs like delicate little birds and had bobbed hair. She worked for the Paris edition of Vogue magazine. At first, Pauline didn’t like Ernest, but later became friends of both Ernest and Hadley. She became very attracted to Ernest. In 1926, she moved in with the Heminways who were quarantined because of whooping cough. Ernest later wrote: “an unmarried young woman becomes the temporary best friend of another young woman who is married, goes to live with the husband and wife and then unknowingly, innocently and unrelentingly sets out to marry the husband.

When the husband is a writer and doing difficult work so that he is occupied much of the time and is not a good companion or partner to his wife for a big part of the day, the arrangement has advantages until you know how it works out. The husband has two attractive girls around when he has finished work. One is new and strange and if he has bad luck he gets to love them both. Then, instead of the two of them and their child, there are three of them. First it is stimulating and fun and it goes on that way for a while. All things truly wicked start from innocence.

So you live day by day and enjoy what you have and do not worry. You lie and hate it and it destroys you and every day is more dangerous, but you live day to day as in a war. ” (Baker 163) In 1927, Ernest and Hadley were divorced and Ernest married Pauline. They left Paris and moved to Key West, Florida. To this union there were born two sons, Patrick and Gregory. In December, 1936, Ernest met Martha Gellhorn in Sloppy Joe’s place in Key West. She was a tall girl with bright blond hair that reached to her shoulders. She was from St. Louis and was also a writer. They developed a friendship which later turned to love.

They both served as war correspondents during the Spanish Civil War. After a long affair with Martha, Pauline and Ernest were divorced, and Ernest married Martha in 1940. He said he found it “wonderful to be legal” after four years of association. (Baker 355) He took her to an estate he had purchased outside Havana, Cuba, La Finca Vigia, his residence for 20 years. (Grolier 2) In 1944, shortly before the Allied invasion of Normandy, Ernest moved to London as war correspondent for Collier’s. Shortly after his arrival in London, Ernest met a diminutive blonde from northern Minnesota.

Her name was Mary Welsh and she had just turned thirty-six. During the Spanish Civil War, after five years on the Chicago Daily News, she had come to England to work as a feature writer for Lord Beaverbrook’s Daily Express. She was married to Noel Monks, an Australian reporter. When Ernest met her, he became interested in her. They fell in love and started having a relationship. Martha officially divorced him in December of 1945, and Mary and Ernest formalized their marriage in Havana on March 14, 1946. Mary and Ernest stayed together until his death, even though he still saw other women. His Works

The first novel of Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises (1926), is a semiautobiographical account of the adventures of a group of expatriates, members of the so-called lost generation, in France and Spain in 1925. They are led by Jake Barnes, a journalist. Although a war wound has made Jake impotent, he and Robert Cohn, another American romantic, are rivals for the attentions of Lady Brett Ashley. The action moves from Paris to Pamplona and the fiesta of San Fermin, where the real hero, a bullfighter named Pedro Romero, conquers several bulls as well as Lady Brett, who nobly rejects her Spanish lover and returns hopelessly to Jake.

A Farewell to Arms (1929), Ernest Hemingway’s third novel, helped popularize the author’s spare, deceptively simple prose. Set on the Italian front during the disastrous years 1915-17, A Farewell to Arms relates the story of Lt. Frederic Henry, a U. S. ambulance driver, and his love for Catherine Barkley, a British nurse, who has helped him recuperate from leg wounds. Following the Italian retreat from Caporetto, during which Henry barely escapes execution for desertion, they flee to Switzerland.

Their Swiss idyll terminates tragically, however, when Catherine dies in childbirth. Hemingway drew partly on personal experience for the brilliantly recreated war sequences, and the amatory episodes, though much fictionalized, recall his abortive love for Agnes yon Kurowsky, his American nurse in Milan. The novel was filmed in 1932 and again in 1958. (Grolier) A powerful but flawed novel, To Have and Have Not (1937), concerning the hard-luck career of a sailor of fortune in the Caribbean, contained hints that Hemingway might be moving toward the political left.

This view was partly confirmed by his espousal of the Loyalist cause during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39), in which he served as correspondent for the North American Newspaper Alliance. This experience led to his most ambitious novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), on the tragedy that had befallen the Spanish people. (Grolier) For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), Ernest Hemingway’s fifth and most genuinely tragic novel, grew out of his personal observations of the Spanish Civil War.

It tells the story of Robert Jordan, an American teacher who has volunteered his services to the Loyalists in their fight against the Fascist rebels. Charged with dynamiting a strategic bridge, he joins a guerrilla band in the Guadarrama Mountains. His brief love affair with the young woman Maria is partly instigated by the spiritualist Pilar, who foresees Jordan’s death. Despite the treason of Pilar’s consort Pablo, Jordan destroys the bridge, but dies while covering the guerrillas’ retreat. A film version of the novel appeared in 1943. (Grolier)

Ernest Hemingway’s novel The Old Man and the Sea (1952), tells the moving story of Santiago, an aged Cuban fisherman who endures immense hardships in conquering a gigantic marlin, only to lose his prize to a succession of voracious sharks during the long voyage home in a skiff too small to accommodate his catch. The novella was based on a true story that Hemingway had heard 15 years earlier. In the interim he charged the story with many ulterior meanings and invoked Christian symbolism to suggest that, in Santiago’s words, “A man can be destroyed but not defeated.

These are just a few of Hemingway’s works. He wrote many more books, both fiction and non-fiction, many short stories and poems. His Adventures Hemingway led a very vigorous and adventurous life. You would think that after being so severely wounded at age 19 that he would want to live a quieter life. But, it seems, as he said when a very young boy, he wasn’t afraid of anything. He lived and worked in Paris, Key West, Cuba, and traveled in Europe and Africa. By the 1930’s Hemingway’s fame was worldwide.

His great adventure of 1933-34 was a big-game safari in Kenya and Tanganyika, from which he returned laden with trophies and the materials for his nonfictional Green Hills of Africa (1935). Two arresting short stories, “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” and “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber” (1936), also grew out of the African experience. In 1941, a few months before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Ernest and his wife Martha flew to China to report on the Sino-Japanese War. Six months after the United States entered World War II, Hemingway armed his cabin cruiser, Pilar, and spent two years hunting German submarines in the Caribbean.

After finishing the Old Man and the Sea in 1952, and after discussing with Leland Hayward about making a film version of the novel, Ernest was eager to go another shooting safari in Africa. Most of Ernest’s thoughts were now of Africa. The pending business with Leland Hayward delayed his departure all through the spring of 1953, and he chafed at the postponement. For nearly three years, he said he had labored steadily at sea level. Now he was eager to “get up into the hills. ” He sharpened his shooting eye with quail-hunting expeditions into the back country, and banged away at pigeons in the Club de Cazadores.

Baker 508) On the first Monday in May while he was fishing, he heard The Old Man and the Sea had won the Pulitzer fiction prize for 1952. He was very pleased as it was the only Pulitzer he had ever won. They finally left on their trip, going to Spain for the bullfights and sightseeing. Then they went to Paris, and finally boarded a ship for the voyage to Mombasa. After several months in Africa, and shooting a lot of game, they left on January 21, 1954, in a Cessna plane. The plane crashed after flying into birds. The next day the plane they were taking burst into flames on take-off.

Ernest had a concussion, a ruptured liver, spleen, and kidney, temporary loss of vision in the left eye, loss of hearing in the left ear, a crushed vertebra, a sprained right arm and shoulder, a sprained left leg, paralysis of the sphincter, and first degree burns on his face, arms, and head. Because of these injuries, he was unable to go to Sweden to accept the 1954 Nobel Prize for literature. He enjoyed many activities such as bull-fights, deep sea fishing, and dude-ranching in Wyoming. He wrote Death in the Afternoon (1932) which was an exhaustive nonfiction survey of the art and sociology of the Spanish bullfight.

Despite two airplane crashes that ended his second African safari (1953-1954) and obliged him to accept the 1954 Nobel Prize for literature in absentia, Hemingway’s productivity continued in the late 1950’s with A Moveable Feast (1964), a memoir of his youth in Paris, and a three-part novel, Islands in the stream, about Bimini and Cuba. He also wrote sections of a new book about Africa and “The Dangerous summer”, on the Spanish bullfights of 1959. The End By his sixtieth birthday in 1959, Hemingway’s health was beginning to fail. He had a serious kidney infection, and extremely high blood pressure.

His mental health was also seriously impaired. In 1960 he left Cuba for Ketchum, Idaho, where he had recently acquired a house. After his second stay in Mayo Clinic and a series of shock treatments for his mental conditions, the doctors thought he was well enough to go home to Ketchum. When Mary came to get him, she knew that an enormous mistake was being made. Ernest was eager to go home, and she felt that she must comply. They reached Ketchum on Friday, June 30th, 1961. Sunday morning Ernest awoke early, put on his red robe, and padded softly down the carpeted stairway.

He went down into the basement and unlocked the gun storage room. He chose a double-barreled Boss shotgun, took some shells from one of the boxes, climbed back upstairs to the front foyer, slipped in two shells, lowered the gun butt carefully to the floor, leaned forward, pressed the twin barrels against his forehead just above the eyebrows, and tripped both triggers. (Baker 563-64) After the electric-shocks his memory was fried by attempts to burn the depression out of his brain. With memory went insight and motivation to write. A whole universe of mourning descended.

A depression that couldn’t be killed by electrical pulses. Only the double fisted thud of lead would do. He couldn’t write any more. His guard was down. The last punch was a knockout. He loved to drink, hunt, and gamble. He loved beautiful women and moments of purity. He loved the company of trusted friends. He loved bullfights, boxing, rivalry and rebellion. He loved so many things so deeply. He overflowed, spilling them onto the page – through his fingertips – he inhaled life and exhaled words. They were the same to him. Now he’s holding his breath forever.

Ernest Hemingway – An American Contemporary

Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American novelist, journalist, writer of short stories, and winner of the 1954 Nobel Prize for literature. He created a distinguished body of prose fiction, much of it based on adventurous life. He was born on July 21, 1899, the second of six children, in Oak Park, Ill. , in a house built by his widowed grandfather, Ernest Hall. Oak Park was a Protestant, upper middle class suburb of Chicago. He died on July 2, 1961. Early Years Hemingway stated in Green Hills of Africa that civil war is the best war for a writer.

Both of his grandfathers fought in the Civil War and the family was proud of its military traditions. The Hemingway children were brought up on heroic tales of the Civil War. Ernest was also fascinated by the wars and heroes at the turn of the century: the Spanish-American War (1898);, the Goer War (1899-1902); and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05), which inspired him to collect military cartoons. Ernest loved to read the Old Testament when he was a boy because it was so full of battles. (Meyers 3) Ernest Hemingway’s maternal grandfather was Ernest Hall, who was injured in the Civil War.

He tried to shoot himself when he was near death, but Hemingway’s father had removed the bullets from his gun. Ernest was six years old at the time, and thought his father shouldn’t have prevented his grandfather from committing suicide. His paternal grandfather was Anson Hemingway. He was a formal, serious, and deeply religious man who was active in the temperance movement. He established a prosperous real-estate business. Both families were prosperous. Hemingway’s parents were Clarence Edmonds “Ed” Hemingway and Grace Hall. They had a fairly happy marriage although they were very different.

Grace was the dominant one in the marriage. Hemingway was an active, imaginative, and fearless youngster. He said at an early age that he wasn’t afraid of anything. He was aggressive, self-confident, and had a tendency to exaggerate. His mother said that he delighted in shooting imaginary wolves, bears, lions, buffalo, etc. , and liked to pretend he was a “soldser”. She also said he threw temper tantrums if he didn’t get his way. (Meyers 9) Hemingway’s mother, Grace was an accomplished singer and at one time wanted a career on stage. She settled for being a wife and mother and taught private piano lessons in her home.

His father, “Ed”, was a doctor who pursued science. His father was a strict disciplinarian while Grace was more permissive. She saw that her children had music lessons and were exposed to the arts. Ernest never had a knack for music and suffered through choir practices and cello lessons. The gift of the doctor to his children was a knowledge and love of nature. He taught Ernest how to build fires and cook in the open, how to use and ax to build a shelter, how to make fishing flies, how to make bullets, and how to handle fishing gear and guns.

He also taught them how to prepare small animals for mounting and how to dress and cook game. Ernest inherited the temperament and artistic talent of mother and the looks and sporting skills of his father. Both parents, when he was a boy, were foes of dirt and disorder. They brought up their children to follow strict schedules, stand inspection and be scrupulously neat and tidy. Ernest went to high school in Oak Park where he enjoyed writing for the school’s literary magazine, reporting for the school’s weekly newspaper called The Trapeze.

He was mediocre at sports, playing football, swimming, water basketball and serving as the track team manager. Upon graduation in 1917, he was faced with three choices: college, war, or work. His father wanted him to go to college and be a doctor, but he rejected that; he was not in any hurry to go to war, and a job with the Kansas City Star wouldn’t open until October, so he spent the summer on the farm in Michigan. In October, he took the job as a cub reporter for the Kansas City Star and got seven educational months with them.

As a boy his father taught him to hunt and fish along the shores and in the forests surrounding Lake Michigan. The Hemingway’s had a summer house called Windemere on Horton Bay at the northern end of Lake Michigan and the family would spend the summer months their trying to stay cool. Hemingway would fish the different streams that ran into the lake, or would take the row boat out on the bay and do some fishing there. He would also go squirrel hunting in the woods near the summer house, discovering early the serenity to be found while alone in the forest or on a stream.

It was something he could always go back to throughout his life, wherever he was. Nature would be the touchstone of Hemingway’s life and work, and though he often found himself living in major cities like Chicago, Toronto and Paris early in his career, once he became successful he chose somewhat isolated places to live like Key West, or San Francisco de Paula, Cuba, a small village outside of Havana, or after Cuba fell to Castro, Ketchurn, Idaho. All were convenient locales for hunting and fishing. When young Hemingway was in school in the winter in Oak Park, he dreamed of summer to come.

For fourteen years his earthly paradise was Wallon Lake near Petoskey, Michigan, where his family spent its summers. Here he enjoyed playing, fishing, hunting, picking berries, etc. At the time of Hemingway’s graduation from High School, World War I was raging in Europe and despite Woodrow Wilson’s attempts to keep America out of the war, the United States joined the Allies in the fight against Germany and Austria in April, 1917. When Hemingway turned eighteen he tried to enlist in the army, but was deferred because of poor vision; he had a bad left eye that he probably inherited from his mother who also had poor vision.

When he heard the Red Cross was taking volunteers as ambulance drivers he quickly signed up. He was accepted in December of 1917, left his job at the paper in April of 1918, and sailed for Europe in May. In the short time that Hemingway worked for the Kansas City Star he learned some stylistic lessons that would later influence his fiction. The newspaper advocated short sentences, short paragraphs, active verbs, authenticity, compression, clarity and immediacy. Hemingway later said: “Those were the best rules I ever learned for the business of writing. I’ve never forgotten them. ”

Hemingway, upon reaching Europe, first went to Paris, then in early June, after receiving his orders, traveled to Milan, Italy. The day he arrived, a munitions factory exploded and he had to carry mutilated bodies and body parts to a makeshift morgue… it was an immediate and powerful initiation into the horrors of war. Two days later he was sent to an ambulance unit at a the town of Sohio, where he worked driving ambulances. On July 8, 1918, only a few weeks after arriving, Hemingway was seriously wounded by fragments from an Austrian mortar shell which landed just a few feet away.

At the time Hemingway, was distributing chocolate to Italian soldiers in the trenches near the front lines. The explosion knocked Hemingway unconscious while killing one Italian soldier and blowing the legs off another. What happened next has been debated for some time. In a letter to Hemingway’s father, Ted Brumback, one of Emest’s fellow ambulance drivers, wrote that despite over 200 pieces of shrapnel being lodged in Hemingway’s legs, he still managed to carry another wounded soldier back to the first aid station, along the way being hit in his legs by several machine gun bullets.

Whether he carried the wounded soldier or not, doesn’t diminish Hemingway’s sacrifice. He was awarded the Italian Silver Medal for Valor with the official Italian citation reading: “Gravely wounded by numerous pieces of shrapnel from an enemy shell, with an admirable spirit of brotherhood, before taking care of himself, he rendered generous assistance to the Italian soldiers more seriously wounded by the same explosion and did not allow himself to be carried elsewhere until after they had been evacuated.

Hemingway described his injuries to a friend of his: “There was one of those big noises you sometimes hear at the front. I died then. I felt my soul or something coming right out of my body, like you’d pull a silk handkerchief out of a pocket by one comer. It flew all around and then came back and went in again and I wasn’t dead any more. ” (AOL 2) His Loves Apparently, Ernest was attractive to women, and he wasn’t satisfied with just one woman. His first love was an American nurse, Agnes von Kurowsky, whom he met while convalescing from his war wounds in Milano, Italy.

She was a tall and dark-haired girl who had been reared in Washington, D. C. She was kind, generous, and bright, fond of people, and full of bubbling energy. All the young men in the hospital wanted to get well quickly so that they could have a date with Agnes, Ernest included. Ernest was soon “wildly” in love with Agnes. Agnes refused to permit the affair to progress beyond the kissing stage. She wasn’t ready to marry and settle down. Young Ernest returned to the United States in January to a heroes welcome. He continued to write to Agnes whom he missed very much.

In March, he received a letter from her telling him that she had fallen in love with someone else. Ernest was so upset that he got sick and had to go to bed. In the fall of 1920, Hemingway became the contributing editor of a trade journal in Chicago. Here he met Elizabeth Hadley Richardson who was twenty-eight, a tall girl with auburn hair. She had lost her father by suicide. She was a little tongue-tied in his presence, but she thought to herself that he liked her for three reasons: Her hair was red, her skirt was a good length, and she played nicely on Doodles’s piano.

When she went home to St. Louis, they began to exchange letters every week. (Baker 76) Ernest went to see her in March . They discussed money , and as she had a small trust fund, she sent him money. When he went again to St. Louis for the Memorial Day weekend, wedding plans were settled. They got married on Sept. 3, 1921. To this union there was born one son, John Hadley Nicanor “Bumby” Hemingway, on October 10, 1923. In 1925, while living in Paris, France, Ernest met Pauline Pfeiffer, the daughter of a landowning squire Piggott, Arkansas.

She was small with slender limbs like delicate little birds and had bobbed hair. She worked for the Paris edition of Vogue magazine. At first, Pauline didn’t like Ernest, but later became friends of both Ernest and Hadley. She became very attracted to Ernest. In 1926, she moved in with the Heminways who were quarantined because of whooping cough. Ernest later wrote: “an unmarried young woman becomes the temporary best friend of another young woman who is married, goes to live with the husband and wife and then unknowingly, innocently and unrelentingly sets out to marry the husband.

When the husband is a writer and doing difficult work so that he is occupied much of the time and is not a good companion or partner to his wife for a big part of the day, the arrangement has advantages until you know how it works out. The husband has two attractive girls around when he has finished work. One is new and strange and if he has bad luck he gets to love them both. Then, instead of the two of them and their child, there are three of them. First it is stimulating and fun and it goes on that way for a while. All things truly wicked start from innocence.

So you live day by day and enjoy what you have and do not worry. You lie and hate it and it destroys you and every day is more dangerous, but you live day to day as in a war. ” (Baker 163) In 1927, Ernest and Hadley were divorced and Ernest married Pauline. They left Paris and moved to Key West, Florida. To this union there were born two sons, Patrick and Gregory. In December, 1936, Ernest met Martha Gellhorn in Sloppy Joe’s place in Key West. She was a tall girl with bright blond hair that reached to her shoulders. She was from St. Louis and was also a writer. They developed a friendship which later turned to love.

They both served as war correspondents during the Spanish Civil War. After a long affair with Martha, Pauline and Ernest were divorced, and Ernest married Martha in 1940. He said he found it “wonderful to be legal” after four years of association. (Baker 355) He took her to an estate he had purchased outside Havana, Cuba, La Finca Vigia, his residence for 20 years. (Grolier 2) In 1944, shortly before the Allied invasion of Normandy, Ernest moved to London as war correspondent for Collier’s. Shortly after his arrival in London, Ernest met a diminutive blonde from northern Minnesota.

Her name was Mary Welsh and she had just turned thirty-six. During the Spanish Civil War, after five years on the Chicago Daily News, she had come to England to work as a feature writer for Lord Beaverbrook’s Daily Express. She was married to Noel Monks, an Australian reporter. When Ernest met her, he became interested in her. They fell in love and started having a relationship. Martha officially divorced him in December of 1945, and Mary and Ernest formalized their marriage in Havana on March 14, 1946. Mary and Ernest stayed together until his death, even though he still saw other women.

Dr. Hemingway and Grace Hall Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. His father was the owner of a prosperous real estate business. His father, Dr. Hemingway, imparted to Ernest the importance of appearances, especially in public. Dr. Hemingway invented surgical forceps for which he would not accept money. He believed that one should not profit from something important for the good of mankind. Ernest’s father, a man of high ideals, was very strict and censored the books he allowed his children to read.

He forbad Ernest’s sister from studying ballet for it was coeducational, and dancing together led to “hell and damnation”. Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest’s mother, considered herself pure and proper. She was a dreamer who was upset at anything which disturbed her perception of the world as beautiful. She hated dirty diapers, upset stomachs, and cleaning house; they were not fit for a lady. She taught her children to always act with decorum. She adored the singing of the birds and the smell of flowers. Her children were expected to behave properly and to please her, always.

Mrs. Hemingway treated Ernest, when he was a small boy, as if he were afemale baby doll and she dressed him accordingly. This arrangement was alright until Ernest got to the age when he wanted to be a “gun-toting Pawnee Bill”. He began, at that time, to pull away from his mother, and never forgave her for his humiliation. The town of Oak Park, where Ernest grew up, was very old fashioned and quite religious. The townspeople forbad the word “virgin” from appearing in school books, and the word “breast” was questioned, though it appeared in the Bible.

Ernest loved to fish, canoe and explore the woods. When he couldn’t get outside, he escaped to his room and read books. He loved to tell stories to his classmates, often insisting that a friend listen to one of his stories. In spite of his mother’s desire, he played on the football team at Oak Park High School. As a student, Ernest was a perfectionist about his grammar and studied English with a fervor. He contributed articles to the weekly school newspaper. It seems that the principal did not approve of Ernest’s writings and he complained, often, about the content of Ernest’s articles.

Ernest was clear about his writing; he wanted people to “see and feel” and he wanted to enjoy himself while writing. Ernest loved having fun. If nothing was happening, mischievous Ernest made something happen. He would sometimes use forbidden words just to create a ruckus. Ernest, though wild and crazy, was a warm, caring individual. He loved the sea, mountains and the stars and hated anyone who he saw as a phoney. During World War I, Ernest, rejected from service because of a bad left eye, was an ambulance driver, in Italy, for the Red Cross.

Very much like the hero of A Farewell to Arms, Ernest is shot in his knee and recuperates in a hospital, tended by a caring nurse named Agnes. Like Frederick Henry, in the book, he fell in love with the nurse and was given a medal for his heroism. Ernest returned home after the war, rejected by the nurse with whom he fell in love. He would party late into the night and invite, to his house, people his parents disapproved of. Ernest’s mother rejected him and he felt that he had to move from home.

He moved in with a friend living in Chicago and he wrote articles for The Toronto Star. In Chicago he met and then married Hadley Richardson. She believed that he should spend all his time in writing, and bought him a typewriter for his birthday. They decided that the best place for a writer to live was Paris, where he could devote himself to his writing. He said, at the time, that the most difficult thing to write about was being a man. They could not live on income from his stories and so Ernest, again, wrote for The Toronto Star.

Ernest took Hadley to Italy to show her where he had been during the war. He was devastated, everything had changed, everything was destroyed. Hadley became pregnant and was sick all the time. She and Ernest decided to move to Canada. He had, by then written three stories and ten poems. Hadley gave birth to a boy who they named John Hadley Nicano Hemingway. Even though he had his family Ernest was unhappy and decided to return to Paris. It was in Paris that Ernest got word that a publisher wanted to print his book, In Our Time, but with some changes.

The publisher felt that the sex was to blatant, but Ernest refused to change one word. Around 1925, Ernest started writing a novel about a young man in World War I, but had to stop after a few pages, and proceeded to write another novel, instead. This novel was based on his experiences while living in Pamplona, Spain. He planned on calling this book Fiesta, but changed the name to The Sun Also Rises, a saying from the Bible. This book, as in his other books, shows Hemingway obsessed with death. In 1927, Ernest found himself unhappy with his wife and son.

They decided to divorce and he married Pauline, a woman he had been involved with while he was married to Hadley. A year later, Ernest was able to complete his war novel which he called A Farewell to Arms. The novel was about the pain of war, of finding love in this time of pain. It portrayed the battles, the retreats, the fears, the gore and the terrible waste of war. This novel was well-received by his publisher, Max Perkins,but Ernest had to substitute dashes for the “dirty” language. Ernest used his life when he wrote; using everything he did and everything that ever happened to him.

He nevertheless remained a private person; wanting his stories to be read but wanting to be left alone. He once said, “Don’t look at me. Look at my words. ” A common theme throughout Hemingway’s stories is that no matter how hard we fight to live, we end up defeated, but we are here and we must go on. At age 31 he wrote Death in the Afternoon, about bullfighting in his beloved Spain. Ernest was a restless man; he traveled all over the United States, Europe, Cuba and Africa. At the age of 37 Ernest met the woman who would be his third wife; Martha Gellhorn, a writer like himself.

He went to Spain, he said, to become an “antiwar correspondent”, and found that war was like a club where everyone was playing the same game, and he was never lonely. Martha went to Spain as a war correspondent and they lived together. He knew that he was hurting Pauline, but like his need to travel and have new experiences, he could not stop himself from getting involved with women. In 1940 he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls and dedicated it to Martha, whom he married at the end of that year. He found himself traveling between Havana, Cuba and Ketchum, Idaho, which he did for the rest of his life.

During World War II, Ernest became a secret agent for the United States. He suggested that he use his boat, the “Pillar”, to surprise German submarines and attack them with hidden machine guns. It was at this time that Ernest, always a drinker, started drinking most of his days away. He would host wild, fancy parties and did not write at all during the next three years. At war’s end, Ernest went to England and met an American foreign correspondent named Mary Welsh. He divorced Martha and married Mary in Havana, in 1946.

Ernest was a man of extremes; living either in luxury or happy to do without material things. Ernest, always haunted by memories of his mother, would not go to her funeral when she died in 1951. He admitted that he hated his mother’s guts. Ernest wrote The Old Man and the Sea in only two months. He was on top of the world, the book was printed by Life Magazine and thousands of copies were sold in the United States. This novel and A Farewell to Arms were both made into movies. In 1953 he went on a safari with Mary, and he was in heaven hunting big game.

Though Ernest had a serious accident, and later became ill, he could never admit that he had any weaknesses; nothing would stop him, certainly not pain. In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Toward the end, Ernest started to travel again, but almost the way that someone does who knows that he will soon die. He suddenly started becoming paranoid and to forget things. He became obsessed with sin; his upbringing was showing, but still was inconsistent in his behavior. He never got over feeling like a bad person, as his father, mother and grandfather had taught him.

In the last year of his life, he lived inside of his dreams, similar to his mother, who he hated with all his heart. He was suicidal and had electric shock treatments for his depression and strange behavior. On a Sunday morning, July 2, 1961, Ernest Miller Hemingway killed himself with a shotgun. Ernest Hemingway takes much of the storyline of his novel, A Farewell to Arms, from his personal experiences. The main character of the book, Frederick Henry, often referred to as Tenete, experiences many of the same situations which Hemingway, himself, lived.

Some of these similarities are exact while some are less similar, and some events have a completely different outcome. Hemingway, like Henry, enjoyed drinking large amounts of alcohol. Both of them were involved in World War I, in a medical capacity, but neither of them were regular army personnel. Like Hemingway, Henry was shot in his right knee, during a battle. Both men were Americans, but a difference worth noting was that Hemingway was a driver for the American Red Cross, while Henry was a medic for the Italian Army.

In real life, Hemingway met his love, Agnes, a nurse, in the hospital after being shot; Henry met his love, Catherine Barkley, also a nurse, before he was shot and hospitalized. In both cases, the relationships with these women were strengthened while the men were hospitalized. Another difference is that Hemingway’s romance was short-lived, while, the book seemed to indicate that, Henry’s romance, though they never married, was strong and would have lasted. In A Farewell to Arms, Catherine and her child died while she was giving birth, this was not the case with Agnes who left Henry for an Italian Army officer.

It seems to me that the differences between the two men were only surface differences. They allowed Hemingway to call the novel a work of fiction. Had he written an autobiography the book would probably not have been well-received because Hemingway was not, at that time, a well known author. Although Hemingway denied critics’ views that A Farewell to Arms was symbolic, had he not made any changes they would not have been as impressed with the war atmosphere and with the naivete of a young man who experiences war for the first time.

Hemingway, because he was so private, probably did not want to expose his life to everyone, and so the slight changes would prove that it was not himself and his own experiences which he was writing about. I believe that Hemingway had Catherine and her child die, not to look different from his own life, but because he had a sick and morbid personality. There is great power in being an author, you can make things happen which do not necessarily occur in real life. It is obvious that Hemingway felt, as a young child and throughout his life, powerless, and so he created lives by writing stories.

Hemingway acted out his feelings of inadequacy and powerlessness by hunting, drinking, spending lots of money and having many girlfriends. I think that Hemingway was obsessed with death and not too sane. His obsession shows itself in the morbid death of Miss Barkley and her child. Hemingway was probably very confused about religion and sin and somehow felt or feared that people would or should be punished for enjoying life’s pleasures. Probably, the strongest reason for writing about Catherine Barkley’s death and the death of her child was Hemingway’s belief that death comes to everyone; it was inevitable.

Death ends life before you have a chance to learn and live. He writes, in A Farewell to Arms, “They threw you in and told you the rules and the first time they caught you off base they killed you. … they killed you in the end. You could count on that. Stay around and they would kill you. ” Hemingway, even in high school, wrote stories which showed that people should expect the unexpected. His stories offended and angered the principal of his school. I think that Hemingway liked shocking and annoying people; he was certainly rebellious.

If he would have written an ending where Miss Barkley and her child had lived, it would have been too easy and common; Hemingway was certainly not like everyone else, and he seemed to be proud of that fact. Even the fact that Hemingway wrote curses and had a lot of sex in his books shows that he liked to shock people. When his publisher asked that he change some words and make his books more acceptable to people, Hemingway refused, then was forced to compromise. I think that the major difference between Hemingway and Henry was that Henry was a likable and normal person while Hemingway was strange and very difficult.

Hemingway liked doing things his way and either people had to accept him the way he was or too bad for them. I think that Hemingway probably did not even like himself and that was one reason that he couldn’t really like other people. Hemingway seemed to use people only for his own pleasure, and maybe he wanted to think that he was like Henry who was a nicer person In the book, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Malcolm Cowley focuses on the symbolism of rain. He sees rain, a frequent occurrence in the book, as symbolizing disaster.

He points out that, at the beginning of A Farewell to Arms, Henry talks about how “things went very badly” and how this is connected to “At the start of the winter came permanent rain”. Later on in the book we see Miss Barkley afraid of rain. She says, “Sometimes I see me dead in it”, referring to the rain. It is raining the entire time Miss Barkley is in childbirth and when both she and her baby die. Wyndham Lewis, in the same book of critical essays, points out that Hemingway is obsessed with war, the setting for much of A Farewell to Arms.

He feels that the author sees war as an alternative to baseball, a sport of kings. He says that the war years “were a democratic, a levelling, school”. For Hemingway, raised in a strict home environment, war is a release; an opportunity to show that he is a real man. The essayist, Edgar Johnson says that for the loner “it is society as a whole that is rejected, social responsibility, social concern” abandoned. Lieutenant Henry, like Hemingway, leads a private life as an isolated individual. He socializes with the officers, talks with the priest and visits the officer’s brothel, but those relationships are superficial.

This avoidance of real relationships and involvement do not show an insensitive person, but rather someone who is protecting himself from getting involved and hurt. It is clear that in all of Hemingway’s books and from his own life that he sees the world as his enemy. Johnson says, “He will solve the problem of dealing with the world by taking refuge in individualism and isolated personal relationships and sensations”. John Killinger says that it was inevitable that Catherine and her baby would die. The theme, that a person is trapped in relationships, is shown in all Hemingway’s stories.

In A Farewell to Arms Catherine asks Henry if he feels trapped, now that she is pregnant. He admits that he does, “maybe a little”. This idea, points out Killinger, is ingrained in Hemingway’s thinking and that he was not too happy about fatherhood. In Cross Country Snow, Nick regrets that he has to give up skiing in the Alps with a male friend to return to his wife who is having a baby. In Hemingway’s story Hills Like White Elephants the man wants his sweetheart to have an abortion so that they can continue as they once lived.

Ernest Hemingway Lived His Life As He Wanted

His writing touched the hearts of millions. His sentences were short and to the point but his novels strong and unforgettable. He wrote about what he felt like writing about. On July 21, 1899, Ernest Hemingway was born. He was created by Dr. Clarence Edmonds and Grace Hall Hemingway. His hometown was a small town named Oak Park. Oak Park was in Illinois. His father was a practicing doctor, and later taught him how to hunt and fish. His mother on the other hand had wished that he would become a professional musician.

Hemingway did not like his mother and when he grew up he would call her “the old bitch”. He grew up in a somewhat religious environment. He went to Oak Park and River Forest High School, which is where he realized his writing gift. Besides writing, other activities that he loved included swimming, and boxing. When he was18 years old he had an important decision to make he could either move to Kansas city, which was growing more and more every day, or he could go to collage. His final choice was that he would move to Kansas City.

In Kansas City he got a job as a cub reporter on the Kansas City Star. At the train station his father, who latter on in Ernest’s life would commit suicide which would totally disgust Ernest, kissed his son goodbye with tears in his eyes. This exact moment in time would be the soul purpose for a book he wrote called “For Whom the Bell Tolls”. One of the reasons why he wrote that book is because he felt so much older than his father at that time that he could hardly bear it any longer. While he was at Kansas City he was quite and did not stand out much. He stayed to himself.

He went through a little culture shock due to the fact that Kansas City was a lot more complex than Oak Hill was. His writing style was first introduced by the Star. His writing was brief, and to the point. His writing had to be like that at the time because he was a news writer, but he would carry that style over to fiction when the time came. In May of 1918, Hemingway wanted to join the Army but could not due to a defective left eye which he inherited from his mother. Instead of joining the Army he joined the Red Cross. Later on in his Red Cross years he became Second Lieutenant of the Red Cross.

While he was overseas he was sneaking smokes and chocolate into the soldiers he was hit in the leg by an Austrian machine gun. He also got over a hundred pieces of metal stuck in his body. Even though he was in extreme pain he managed to carry a wounded soldier to safety which was a hundred yards away. For his courageous action he won the Italian Medal of Valor. He spent all of his recovery time at the Ospedale Croce Rossa American, in Milan. His stay in Italy was the perfect place for his novel A farewell to arms. He was allowed to go home after his stay at the American Hospital in Italy.

He returned to Oak Hill without any complaints. He lived with his mom until he refused to get a job was kicked out of the house. After that he moved to Chicago and got a job writing for the Toronto Star and was a sparring partner for boxers. It was in Chicago that he met a very pretty lady named Elizabeth Hadly Richerdson. Hemingway badly wanted to marry her but money was a problem so they moved to Paris. Because he had a child on the way and no real publications, he decided to move back to Canada. It was there that John Hadly Hemingway was born in 1923.

His nick name was Bumby, that was also the name he preferred to be called by. When he was in the Spanish was he fought the way he wanted to fight, he attended dinner parties in London. The parties were way away from the fighting lines (D-Day had already passed by now). After a drunken party where he babbled on about hunting, fishing, and bull fighting he was in an extremely bad car accident. He was hospitalized for having serious head trama. Well when Martha got there she did not comfort him with kind words she laughed at his sad state as he lay in the hospital.

In a flash he got rid of her. Well after that he got a Nobel Peace prize for a new book called “The Old Man and the Sea”. During a plane trip, the plane crashed leaving him with a concussion, paralysis of the sphincter, first degree burns in his face, arm and head, a sprained right arm and shoulder, a crushed vertebra, and a ruptured liver, spleen and kidney. He was in continuos pain for quite a while. He was latter committed to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Before he went to Minnesota he had a big birthday party that took 2 months to plan.

There was champaign from pairs, Chinese food from London, codfish from Madrid. There was a shooting booth, fireworks specialist, flamenco dancers, waiters, barmen, and cooks from all over the world. This party lasted 24 hours from noon of July 21st to noon July 22nd. There were guests from allover. Guest that where invited where General C. T. Lanham from Washington, Ernest’s old pals from Paris, Italian Royalty and the Maharajah of Behar. When it was allover Ernest said “What I enjoyed most about the party is that these old friends still care enough to come so far.

The thing about old friends now s that there are so few of them” There where a couple shocks in his life. One of them was the death of one of his closest friend which died of cancer. Another shock was when he was forced to move out of his only true home during the Cuban revolution came there, and the last shock was when his black lab died, he was his one true companion. He would lie at Ernest’s feet when he was writing. On April 23rd 1961, Ernest tried to kill himself by putting a gun to his head. At about 7:30 a. m. July 2, 1961, Mary Hemingway, his wife at the time, heard a gun go off in the other room. She hurried towards the sound of the gunshot. Down stairs by the gun rack she saw Ernest with his favorite 12 gauge shot gin whish was laid with silver. That shotgun had been made just for him. After Mary’s shock was over she went over to her neighbors house and told then to call the press. When the press arrived she made an announcement: “Mr. Hemingway accidently shot himself while cleaning a gun yesterday morning at 7:30 a. m. No time has been set for the funeral services, which will be private.

After that announcement had been made, his son John said the following:”Mary made a mistake in saying that he was cleaning a shotgun, I mean, somebody said ‘What was he doing?! ‘ and she said ‘Cleaning a shotgun. ‘ There also was a big point made that the hunting season was over but, hell, they used to shoot clay birds outside in the block all the time. Not only that, but if you have guns or anything else you like very much, that you pick it up you should be very careful with them, no matter what anybody may feel. There is doubt. “Ernest Hemingway was buried July 6, 1961 beneath the way cool scape of the Sawtooth Mountains.

Only about 50 people mostly Idaho neighbors gathered in a small Katchum cemetery near a federal highway. They all gathered around his rose covered coffin. During his service Mary and Hemingway’s 3 sons asked the priest to read Hemingway’s favorite passage from Ecclesiastes. However the priest did not understand the meaning of their request, so he read only the first line which was in different wording from its original version. He read from the Roman Catholic Douay version. One of the things that he said during the ceremony is, “Oh Lord, grant thy servant Earnest the remission of his sins.

A Biography of Ernest Miller Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born at eight o’clock in the morning on July 21, 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois. In the nearly sixty two years of his life that followed he forged a literary reputation unsurpassed in the twentieth century and created a mythological hero in himself that captivated (and at times confounded) not only serious literary critics but the average man as well… in a word, he was a star.

Born in the family home at 439 North Oak Park Avenue, a house built by his widowed grandfather Ernest Hall, Hemingway was the second of Dr. Clarence and Grace Hall Hemingway’s six children; he had four sisters and one brother. He was named after his maternal grandfather Ernest Hall and his great uncle Miller Hall. Oak Park was a mainly Protestant, upper middle-class suburb of Chicago that Hemingway would later refer to as a town of “wide lawns and narrow minds. ” Only ten miles from the big city, Oak Park was really much farther away philosophically.

It was basically a conservative town that tried to isolate itself from Chicago’s liberal seediness. Hemingway was raised with the conservative Midwestern values of strong religion, hard work, physical fitness and self determination; if one adhered to these parameters, he was taught, he would be ensured of success in whatever field he chose. As a boy he was taught by his father to hunt and fish along the shores and in the forests surrounding Lake Michigan.

The Hemingways had a summer house called Windemere on Walloon Lake in northern Michigan, and the family would spend the summer months there trying to stay cool. Hemingway would either fish the different streams that ran into the lake, or would take the row boat out to do some fishing there. He would also go squirrel hunting in the woods near the summer house, discovering early in life the serenity to be found while alone in the forest or wading a stream.

It was something he could always go back to throughout his life, wherever he was. Nature would be the touchstone of Hemingway’s life and work, and though he often found himself living in major cities like Chicago, Toronto and Paris early in his career, once he became successful he chose somewhat isolated places to live like Key West, or San Francisco de Paula, Cuba, or Ketchum, Idaho. All were convenient locales for hunting and fishing. When he wasn’t hunting or fishing his mother taught him the finer points of music.

Grace was an accomplished singer who once had aspirations of a career on stage, but eventually settled down with her husband and occupied her time by giving voice and music lessons to local children, including her own. Hemingway never had a knack for music and suffered through choir practices and cello lessons, however the musical knowledge he acquired from his mother helped him share in his first wife Hadley’s interest in the piano. Hemingway received his formal schooling in the Oak Park public school system.

In high school he was mediocre at sports, playing football, swimming, water basketball and serving as the track team manager. He enjoyed working on the high school newspaper called the Trapeze, where he wrote his first articles, usually humorous pieces in the style of Ring Lardner, a popular satirist of the time. Hemingway graduated in the spring of 1917 and instead of going to college the following fall like his parents expected, he took a job as a cub reporter for the Kansas City Star; the job was arranged for by his Uncle Tyler who was a close friend of the chief editorial writer of the paper.

At the time of Hemingway’s graduation from High School, World War I was raging in Europe and despite Woodrow Wilson’s attempts to keep America out of the war, the United States joined the Allies in the fight against Germany and Austria in April, 1917. When Hemingway turned eighteen he tried to enlist in the army, but was deferred because of poor vision; he had a bad left eye that he probably inherited from his mother, who also had poor vision. When he heard the Red Cross was taking volunteers as ambulance drivers he quickly signed up.

He was accepted in December of 1917, left his job at the paper in April of 1918, and sailed for Europe in May. In the short time that Hemingway worked for the Kansas City Star he learned some stylistic lessons that would later influence his fiction. The newspaper advocated short sentences, short paragraphs, active verbs, authenticity, compression, clarity and immediacy. Hemingway later said: “Those were the best rules I ever learned for the business of writing. I’ve never forgotten them. ”

Hemingway first went to Paris upon reaching Europe, then traveled to Milan in early June after receiving his orders. The day he arrived, a munitions factory exploded and he had to carry mutilated bodies and body parts to a makeshift morgue; it was an immediate and powerful initiation into the horrors of war. Two days later he was sent to an ambulance unit in the town of Schio, where he worked driving ambulances. On July 8, 1918, only a few weeks after arriving, Hemingway was seriously wounded by fragments from an Austrian mortar shell which had landed just a few feet away.

At the time, Hemingway was distributing chocolate and cigarettes to Italian soldiers in the trenches near the front lines. The explosion knocked Hemingway unconscious, killed an Italian soldier and blew the legs off another. What happened next has been debated for some time. In a letter to Hemingway’s father, Ted Brumback, one of Ernest’s fellow ambulance drivers, wrote that despite over 200 pieces of shrapnel being lodged in Hemingway’s legs he still managed to carry another wounded soldier back to the first aid station; along the way he was hit in the legs by several machine gun bullets.

Whether he carried the wounded soldier or not, doesn’t diminish Hemingway’s sacrifice. He was awarded the Italian Silver Medal for Valor with the official Italian citation reading: “Gravely wounded by numerous pieces of shrapnel from an enemy shell, with an admirable spirit of brotherhood, before taking care of himself, he rendered generous assistance to the Italian soldiers more seriously wounded by the same explosion and did not allow himself to be carried elsewhere until after they had been evacuated.

Hemingway described his injuries to a friend of his: “There was one of those big noises you sometimes hear at the front. I died then. I felt my soul or something coming right out of my body, like you’d pull a silk handkerchief out of a pocket by one corner. It flew all around and then came back and went in again and I wasn’t dead any more. ” Hemingway’s wounding along the Piave River in Italy and his subsequent recovery at a hospital in Milan, including the relationship with his nurse Agnes von Kurowsky, all inspired his great novel A Farewell To Arms.

Ernest Hemingway – The Man and His Work

On July 2, 1961, a writer whom many critics call the greatest writer of this century, a man who had a zest for adventure, a winner of the Nobel Prize and the Pulitzer Prize, a man who held esteem everywhere on that July day, that man put a shotgun to his head and killed himself. That man was Ernest Hemingway. Though he chose to end his life, his heart and soul lives on through his many books and short stories. Hemingways work is his voice on how he viewed society, specifically American society and the values it held.

No other author of this century has had such a general and lasting influence on the generation which grew up between the world wars as Ernest Hemingway (Lania 5). The youth that came of age during this time came to adopt the habits, way of life, and essentially the values of Hemingways characters. The author , however, was just depicting his characters as he saw the typical American in the 1920s. In his mind this meant a people filled with melancholy denial. Hemingway became the chief reporter of what became known as the Lost Generation.

This phrase is attributed to Gertrude Stein, a friend of Hemingways, who meant youth, angry with life itself after the war; drowning themselves in alcohol; sleeping away the days and sharing their beds with a new partner each night. Thus, Hemingway depicts America as a society with a profuse amount of twisted values. A constant theme runs through all of Hemingways work. That man can be defeated but not destroyed. Once such novel that depicts this, as well as American values, is A Farewell to Arms.

During the course of the story, the two main characters lieutenant Frederick Henry and nurse Catherine Barkley, become the victims of a cruel and hostile age. Their love story, which starts in a field hospital where the lieutenant is being treated for severe leg injuries, ends with Catherines death. She dies in childbirth but it is actually the war that condemns them both to destruction. After the Italian defeat at Caporetto, the lieutenant becomes a deserter. He flees with his now impregnated lover to Switzerland, but they cannot escape the despair and horror of the war.

Their attempts to wipe it out by consuming bottle after bottle of alcohol has only ill effects. This novel is a drawn out definition of Steins generation. It is the story of a man torn apart by the reality of war and love. In the beginning of the war Frederick is disappointed at the lack of action. When his first test on the field of battle occurs, however, he sees the truth of war as a friend dies in his arms. At first the reader may think that the lieutenant was insensitive, but his true feelings show in these two lines: I wiped my hand on my shirt and another floating light came very slowly down and I looked at my leg and was very afraid.

Oh, God, I said, get me out of here. (Hemingway 55) From this point on the war begins to break him down. The lieutenants increasing consumption of alcohol lets on that he is trying to avoid thinking about what has happened to him. The wine flows so freely that the porter at the hospital carries out the lieutenants trash by the sack load. The drinking causes him to have jaundice as well as happy thoughtsthe price he pays for the liquor. Hemingway shows American drinking habits in this book which coincide with Steins idea.

Frederick, like many men and women in the 1920s, sought to avoid his problems by turning to alcohol to make him feel better about himself and his situation. Along with a drinking problem the bedridden man decides to take his nurse as his lover. Lieutenant Frederick convinces himself he is in love with her and thinks nothing of it when he finds the nurse is with child. To avert his attention from the war he takes responsibility for Catherine and in the end becomes a deserter only to have his lover die in the end. Sex without marriage plays a major role in the book, as it was a characteristic of Americas youth during that time.

All that was considered was feeling good and having fun, not having an emotional attachment to the person that slept with you. A Farewell to Arms is a modest chapter from Hemingways own life. Not only does the lieutenants fate correspond with his own from the trenches, through injury, to the hospital but Catherines death was also inspired by personal experience. Hemingways second son, Patrick, was born while writing the first draft of the novel. The delivery was difficult and the mother had to have a Cesarean delivery, like Catherine in the novel.

Then, just as Hemingway was starting on his final draft, his father committed suicide. This greatly influenced the authors views on death. The fact that the book was a tragic one, Hemingway wrote, did not make me unhappy since I believed that life was a tragedy and knew it could only have one end. Along with the numerous novels he wrote, Ernest Hemingway was also a devoted short story writer. His stories covered every subject from fishing to hunting to death. One story that continues the man cannot be destroyed theme, is The Macomber Affair, also called The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber.

There are three main characters in this story of courage and cowardice: Francis Macomber, his wife Margot, and their English guide Wilson. Macomber is a weakling, completely dominated by Margot. Fundamentally, the marriage is breaking apart, and is only held together by the fact that Margot is reluctant to part with her husbands wealth. She takes Wilson as her lover and does not even attempt to conceal the affair, for she knows her husband is too weak and cowardly to do anything about it. Hemingway examines again the separation between emotional attachment and sexual acts in this short story.

Margot does not feel anything for the guide but sleeps with him to show Francis her domineering power. Macombers weakness causes him to suffer greatly. Twice he makes himself look ridiculous in front of Wilson by running away from a wounded lion on the attack. These episodes cause him to lose even the last bit of his self-respect. However, Macomber makes up for the occurrences when tracking down a buffalo. When a wounded animal decides to attack, Francis fires continuously at it, fearlessly staring death in the face. It is in these few moments that he finds himself at last a happy man. Finally he has conquered his weakness.

His happiness is short lived, for Margot shoots him a few minutes later. She begrudges Macomber the triumph of having proved himself as a man. He must die, as he threatens to escape from her domination. The destructive power of wealth, the senseless greed for money and its harmful effects on relationships and on American life were subjects which occupied Hemingway greatly at the time he wrote this story. In The Macomber Affair he portrayed a marriage which he felt was typical of the corruption found in certain parts of wealthy American society. In these places, marriage was a business devoid of any sincere feeling or passion.

A key to understanding Hemingway can be found in the characters of his heroes and in their beliefs. The leading character appears in various roles in the many novels and short stories, although he is always the same type. Whether an ordinary soldier, smuggler or gambler, black man or journalist he is a man scarred by experience. He has always been seriously wounded physically or mentally, either during war, in the sports ring, during his childhood or in the fight for existence. At some time or another something terrible has happened to him, and the memory constantly haunts him.

However strong and tough he seems, he is centrally a sick man. He must prove himself to himself: his strength and his courage are nothing but a victory over fear. Hemingways world is a world at wareither in the literal sense or the unforgiving, brutal fight for existence. A hostile and unsympathetic world. Those who wish to survive must know how to kill. In The Old Man and the Sea, the old Cuban fisherman triumphs through the devoted determination of his fight with the great fish. In the end, however, the sharks eat away his prey and deprive him of the reward for his sacrifice. The part played by women in Hemingways work is significant.

He handles sex without being sensitive or finicky. His lovers have nothing in common either spiritually or intellectually, nor do they seek it in each other. They are not partners not even enemies. As a result their relationship is neither exalted or pitiful. It always has a flavor of rape or harlotry. The heroine is either a man-eater, an aggravating, even dangerous element in a mans world, or a passive creature, completely submissive to man, a willing instrument in the pouring out of his desire. These types of women are found in The Macomber Affairs Margot, and A Farewell to Arms Catherine respectively.

Hemingways women seem unreal and hollow to the reader but they are how the author perceives American females. Behind his portrayals of characters, his reports, and his fiction there is the beat of a suffering heart and the fight of a wounded soul -the heart and soul of Hemingway himself. The hero of a Hemingway novel is Hemingway. His life unfolds to the reader and explains the enigma in his literature. Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois. A small town close to Chicago where Hemingways parents were members of high society.

His father, Clarence Edmunds Hemingway, was a busy doctor who enjoyed hunting and fishing. He took more pride in the animals he killed than in the patients he saved. Ernests mother, Grace, was interested in religion and music, two interests she was unable to pass on to her son. Unsatisfied with life at home, ( later Hemingway remarked that the best schooling for a writer was an unhappy childhood),Ernest ran away from home twice before finding his love sports. He participated in boxing, swimming, and football, excelling in all three. His thirst for action was not quenched, however, until he joined the Italian army with the Red Cross.

Hemingways service experiences later became the basis for many short stories and novels. In fact his injury shortly after joining the Red Cross became the story line of A Farewell to Arms. Two weeks before his nineteenth birthday, a grenade landed a few feet from Hemingway on one of his daily trips to the trenches. He was severely wounded. When he came to, Ernest hauled a screaming comrade onto his back and began dragging himself away. An enemy spotlight found him, however, and rained machine gun fire down on him. When he regained consciousness he was on a stretcher and his comrade was dead.

This is exactly what happens to lieutenant Frederick Henry in the novel, and it is the point of the story where he begins to fall apart. On his return to America after the war, Hemingway suffered from insomnia and horrible nightmares. Attempting to rid his mind of war memories, he wrote about his experiences in many short stories and best novels. He described his horror of war, never making it sound wonderful or full of glory, on the other hand he never brings up any complaint or protest against it. It is Hemingways belief that the horrors of war are unavoidable (Hotchner 117).

The travels of Hemingway are another source of influence on the authors work. Many, in fact most, of his short stories and novels take place in a foreign country. France, particularly Paris, Spain, and Africa are Hemingways treasured spots. The author always seemed to come back to America, but left after only a short while, being disgusted with the society. It is interesting that Hemingway became the best chronicler of the lost generation, for he hated them and took no part in it. (Hotchner 188) Perhaps the one situation that had the most effect on Ernest Hemingway was his father committing suicide.

Ernest had never had a good relationship with father. In the novel For Whom the Bell Tolls, the hero Jordan touches on the subject of his fathers suicide and says: Ill never forget how sick it made me the first time I knew he was a coward. Jordan continues: If he wasnt a coward he would have stood up to that woman and had not let her bully him. I wonder what I would have been like if he had married a different woman. This passage, as well as several domineering women characters in Hemingways work, makes you question how he felt towards his mother.

Ernest Hemingways literature is work in which happiness is short lived, caused temporarily by alcohol then destroyed by the reality of death. He did not glorify love affairs, but make them cheap and unemotional. Wealth is described as evil and corrupting in his novels. Though not delightful stories, the author makes the reader think and question values in a different way. Hemingway looked down upon American society during the 1920s, yet he himself was overcome by denial in the end. Though the unsympathetic world, and diseased mind, destroyed Ernest Hemingways flesh, his heart and soul were placed upon the page and will never be defeated.

Ernest Miller Hemingway, Analysis Of Biography

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. His father was the owner of a prosperous real estate business. His father, Dr. Hemingway, imparted to Ernest the importance of appearances, especially in public. Dr. Hemingway invented surgical forceps for which he would not accept money. He believed that one should not profit from something important for the good of mankind. Ernest’s father, a man of high ideals, was very strict and censored the books he allowed his children to read.

He forbad Ernest’s sister from studying ballet for it was coeducational, and dancing together led to “hell and damnation”. Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest’s mother, considered herself pure and proper. She was a dreamer who was upset at anything which disturbed her perception of the world as beautiful. She hated dirty diapers, upset stomachs, and cleaning house; they were not fit for a lady. She taught her children to always act with decorum. She adored the singing of the birds and the smell of flowers. Her children were expected to behave properly and to please her, always.

Mrs. Hemingway treated Ernest, when he was a small boy, as if he were a female baby doll and she dressed him accordingly. This arrangement was alright until Ernest got to the age when he wanted to be a “gun-toting Pawnee Bill”. He began, at that time, to pull away from his mother, and never forgave her for his humiliation. The town of Oak Park, where Ernest grew up, was very old fashioned and quite religious. The townspeople forbad the word “virgin” from appearing in school books, and the word “breast” was questioned, though it appeared in the Bible.

Ernest loved to fish, canoe and explore the woods. When he couldn’t get outside, he escaped to his room and read books. He loved to tell stories to his classmates, often insisting that a friend listen to one of his stories. In spite of his mother’s desire, he played on the football team at Oak Park High School. As a student, Ernest was a perfectionist about his grammar and studied English with a fervor. He contributed articles to the weekly school newspaper. It seems that the principal did not approve of Ernest’s writings and he complained, often, about the content of Ernest’s articles.

Ernest was clear about his writing; he wanted people to “see and feel” and he wanted to enjoy himself while writing. Ernest loved having fun. If nothing was happening, mischievous Ernest made something happen. He would sometimes use forbidden words just to create a ruckus. Ernest, though wild and crazy, was a warm, caring individual. He loved the sea, mountains and the stars and hated anyone who he saw as a fake. During World War I, Ernest, rejected from service because of a bad left eye, was an ambulance driver, in Italy, for the Red Cross.

Very much like the hero of A Farewell to Arms, Ernest is shot in his knee and recuperates in a hospital, tended by a caring nurse named Agnes. Like Frederick Henry, in the book, he fell in love with the nurse and was given a medal for his heroism. Ernest returned home after the war, rejected by the nurse with whom he fell in love. He would party late into the night and invite, to his house, people his parents disapproved of. Ernest’s mother rejected him and he felt that he had to move from home.

He moved in with a friend living in Chicago and he wrote articles for The Toronto Star. In Chicago he met and then married Hadley Richardson. She believed that he should spend all his time in writing, and bought him a typewriter for his birthday. They decided that the best place for a writer to live was Paris, where he could devote himself to his writing. He said, at the time, that the most difficult thing to write about was being a man. They could not live on income from his stories and so Ernest, again, wrote for The Toronto Star.

Ernest took Hadley to Italy to show her where he had been during the war. He was devastated, everything had changed, everything was destroyed. Hadley became pregnant and was sick all the time. She and Ernest decided to move to Canada. He had, by then written three stories and ten poems. Hadley gave birth to a boy who they named John Hadley Nicano Hemingway. Even though he had his family Ernest was unhappy and decided to return to Paris. It was in Paris that Ernest got word that a publisher wanted to print his book, In Our Time, but with some changes.

The publisher felt that the sex was to blatant, but Ernest refused to change one word. Around 1925, Ernest started writing a novel about a young man in World War I, but had to stop after a few pages, and proceeded to write another novel, instead. This novel was based on his experiences while living in Pamplona, Spain. He planned on calling this book Fiesta, but changed the name to The Sun Also Rises, a saying from the Bible. This book, as in his other books, shows Hemingway obsessed with death. In 1927, Ernest found himself unhappy with his wife and son.

They decided to divorce and he married Pauline, a woman he had been involved with while he was married to Hadley. A year later, Ernest was able to complete his war novel which he called A Farewell to Arms. The novel was about the pain of war, of finding love in this time of pain. It portrayed the battles, the retreats, the fears, the gore and the terrible waste of war. This novel was well-received by his publisher, Max Perkins,but Ernest had to substitute dashes for the “dirty” language. Ernest used his life when he wrote; using everything he did and everything that ever happened to him.

He nevertheless remained a private person; wanting his stories to be read but wanting to be left alone. He once said, “Don’t look at me. Look at my words. ” A common theme throughout Hemingway’s stories is that no matter how hard we fight to live, we end up defeated, but we are here and we must go on. At age 31 he wrote Death in the Afternoon, about bullfighting in his beloved Spain. Ernest was a restless man; he traveled all over the United States, Europe, Cuba and Africa. At the age of 37 Ernest met the woman who would be his third wife; Martha Gellhorn, a writer like himself.

He went to Spain, he said, to become an “antiwar Correspondent”, and found that war was like a club where everyone was playing the same game, and he was never lonely. Martha went to Spain as a war correspondent and they lived together. He knew that he was hurting Pauline, but like his need to travel and have new experiences, he could not stop himself from getting involved with women. In 1940 he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls and dedicated it to Martha, whom he married at the end of that year. He found himself traveling between Havana, Cuba and Ketchum, Idaho, which he did for the rest of his life.

During World War II, Ernest became a secret agent for the United States. He suggested that he use his boat, the “Pillar”, to surprise German submarines and attack them with hidden machine guns. It was at this time that Ernest, always a drinker, started drinking most of his days away. He would host wild, fancy parties and did not write at all during the next three years. At war’s end, Ernest went to England and met an American foreign correspondent named Mary Welsh. He divorced Martha and married Mary in Havana, in 1946. Ernest was a man of extremes; living either in luxury or happy to do without material things.

Ernest, always haunted by memories of his mother, would not go to her funeral when she died in 1951. He admitted that he hated his mother’s guts. Ernest wrote The Old Man and the Sea in only two months. He was on top of the world, the book was printed by Life Magazine and thousands of copies were sold in the United States. This novel and A Farewell to Arms were both made into movies. In 1953 he went on a safari with Mary, and he was in heaven hunting big game. Though Ernest had a serious accident, and later became ill, he could never admit that he had any weaknesses; nothing would stop him, certainly not pain.

In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Toward the end, Ernest started to travel again, but almost the way that someone does who knows that he will soon die. He suddenly started becoming paranoid and to forget things. He became obsessed with sin; his upbringing was showing, but still was inconsistent in his behavior. He never got over feeling like a bad person, as his father, mother and grandfather had taught him. In the last year of his life, he lived inside of his dreams, similar to his mother, who he hated with all his heart.

He was suicidal and had electric shock treatments for his depression and strange behavior. On a Sunday morning, July 2, 1961, Ernest Miller Hemingway killed himself with a shotgun. Ernest Hemingway takes much of the storyline of his novel, A Farewell to Arms, from his personal experiences. The main character of the book, Frederick Henry, often referred to as Tenete, experiences many of the same situations which Hemingway, himself, lived. Some of these similarities are exact while some are less similar, and some events have a completely different outcome.

Hemingway, like Henry, enjoyed drinking large amounts of alcohol. Both of them were involved in World War I, in a medical capacity, but neither of them were regular army personnel. Like Hemingway, Henry was shot in his right knee, during a battle. Both men were Americans, but a difference worth noting was that Hemingway was a driver for the American Red Cross, while Henry was a medic for the Italian Army. In real life, Hemingway met his love, Agnes, a nurse, in the hospital after being shot; Henry met his love, Catherine Barkley, also a nurse, before he was shot and hospitalized.

In both cases, the relationships with these women were strengthened while the men were hospitalized. Another difference is that Hemingway’s romance was short-lived, while, the book seemed to indicate that, Henry’s romance, though they never married, was strong and would have lasted. In A Farewell to Arms, Catherine and her child died while she was giving birth, this was not the case with Agnes who left Henry for an Italian Army officer. It seems to me that the differences between the two men were only surface differences. They allowed Hemingway to call the novel a work of fiction.

Had he written an autobiography the book would probably not have been well-received because Hemingway was not, at that time, a well known author. Although Hemingway denied critics’ views that A Farewell to Arms was symbolic, had he not made any changes they would not have been as impressed with the war atmosphere and with the naivete of a young man who experiences war for the first time. Hemingway, because he was so private, probably did not want to expose his life to everyone, and so the slight changes would prove that it was not himself and his own experiences which he was writing about.

I believe that Hemingway had Catherine and her child die, not to look different from his own life, but because he had a sick and morbid personality. There is great power in being an author, you can make things happen which do not necessarily occur in real life. It is obvious that Hemingway felt, as a young child and throughout his life, powerless, and so he created lives by writing stories. Hemingway acted out his feelings of inadequacy and powerlessness by hunting, drinking, spending lots of money and having many girlfriends. I think that Hemingway was obsessed with death and not too sane.

His obsession shows itself in the morbid death of Miss Barkley and her child. Hemingway was probably very confused about religion and sin and somehow felt or feared that people would or should be punished for enjoying life’s pleasures. Probably, the strongest reason for writing about Catherine Barkley’s death and the death of her child was Hemingway’s belief that death comes to everyone; it was inevitable. Death ends life before you have a chance to learn and live. He writes, in A Farewell to Arms, “They threw you in and told you the rules and the first time they caught you off base they killed you. . they killed you in the end. You could count on that.

Stay around and they would kill you. ” Hemingway, even in high school, wrote stories which showed that people should expect the unexpected. His stories offended and angered the principal of his school. I think that Hemingway liked shocking and annoying people; he was certainly rebellious. If he would have written an ending where Miss Barkley and her child had lived, it would have been too easy and common; Hemingway was certainly not like everyone else, and he seemed to be proud of that fact.

Even the fact that Hemingway wrote curses and had a lot of sex in his books shows that he liked to shock people. When his publisher asked that he change some words and make his books more acceptable to people, Hemingway refused, then was forced to compromise. I think that the major difference between Hemingway and Henry was hat Henry was a likable and normal person while Hemingway was strange and very difficult. Hemingway liked doing things his way and either people had to accept him the way he was or too bad for them. I think that Hemingway probably did not even like himself and that was one reason that he couldn’t really like other people.

Hemingway seemed to use people only for his own pleasure, and maybe he wanted to think that he was like Henry who was a nicer person. In the book, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Malcolm Cowley focuses on the symbolism of rain. He sees rain, a frequent occurrence in the book, as symbolizing disaster. He points out that, at the beginning of A Farewell to Arms, Henry talks about how “things went very badly” and how this is connected to “At the start of the winter came permanent rain”. Later on in the book we see Miss Barkley afraid of rain.

She says, “Sometimes I see me dead in it”, referring to the rain. It is raining the entire time Miss Barkley is in childbirth and when both she and her baby die. Wyndham Lewis, in the same book of critical essays, points out that Hemingway is obsessed with war, the setting for much of A Farewell to Arms. He feels that the author sees war as an alternative to baseball, a sport of kings. He says that the war years “were a democratic, a levelling, school”. For Hemingway, raised in a strict home environment, war is a release; an opportunity to show that he is a real man.

The essayist, Edgar Johnson says that for the loner “it is society as a whole that is rejected, social responsibility, social concern” abandoned. Lieutenant Henry, like Hemingway, leads a private life as an isolated individual. He socializes with the officers, talks with the priest and visits the officer’s brothel, but those relationships are superficial. This avoidance of real relationships and involvement do not show an insensitive person, but rather omeone who is protecting himself from getting involved and hurt.

It is clear that in all of Hemingway’s books and from his own life that he sees the world as his enemy. Johnson says, “He will solve the problem of dealing with the world by taking refuge in individualism and isolated personal relationships and sensations”. John Killinger says that it was inevitable that Catherine and her baby would die. The theme, that a person is trapped in relationships, is shown in all Hemingway’s stories. In A Farewell to Arms Catherine asks Henry if he feels trapped, now that she is pregnant. He admits that he does, “maybe a little”.

This idea, points out Killinger, is ingrained in Hemingway’s thinking and that he was not too happy about fatherhood. In Cross Country Snow, Nick Regrets that he has to give up skiing in the Alps with a male friend to return to his wife who is having a baby. In Hemingway’s story Hills Like White Elephants the man wants his sweetheart to have an abortion so that they can continue as they once lived. In To Have and Have Not, Richard Gordon took his wife to “that dirty aborting horror”. Catherine’s death, in A Farewell to Arms, saves the author’s hero from the hell of a complicated life.

Ernest Miller Hemingway Life

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. His father was the owner of a prosperous real estate business. His father, Dr. Hemingway, imparted to Ernest the importance of appearances, especially in public. Dr. Hemingway invented surgical forceps for which he would not accept money. He believed that one should not profit from something important for the good of mankind. Ernest’s father, a man of high ideals, was very strict and censored the books he allowed his children to read.

He forbad Ernest’s sister from studying ballet for it was coeducational, and dancing together led to “hell and damnation”. Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest’s mother, considered herself pure and proper. She was a dreamer who was upset at anything which disturbed her perception of the world as beautiful. She hated dirty diapers, upset stomachs, and cleaning house; they were not fit for a lady. She taught her children to always act with decorum. She adored the singing of the birds and the smell of flowers. Her children were expected to behave properly and to please her, always.

Mrs. Hemingway treated Ernest, when he was a small boy, as if he were a female baby doll and she dressed him accordingly. This arrangement was alright until Ernest got to the age when he wanted to be a “gun-toting Pawnee Bill”. He began, at that time, to pull away from his mother, and never forgave her for his humiliation. The town of Oak Park, where Ernest grew up, was very old fashioned and quite religious. The townspeople forbad the word “virgin” from appearing in school books, and the word “breast” was questioned, though it appeared in the Bible.

Ernest loved to fish, canoe and explore the woods. When he couldn’t get outside, he escaped to his room and read books. He loved to tell stories to his classmates, often insisting that a friend listen to one of his stories. In spite of his mother’s desire, he played on the football team at Oak Park High School. As a student, Ernest was a perfectionist about his grammar and studied English with a fervor. He contributed articles to the weekly school newspaper. It seems that the principal did not approve of Ernest’s writings and he complained, often, about the content of Ernest’s articles.

Ernest was clear about his writing; he wanted people to “see and feel” and he wanted to enjoy himself while writing. Ernest loved having fun. If nothing was happening, mischievous Ernest made something happen. He would sometimes use forbidden words just to create a ruckus. Ernest, though wild and crazy, was a warm, caring individual. He loved the sea, mountains and the stars and hated anyone who he saw as a phoney. During World War I, Ernest, rejected from service because of a bad left eye, was an ambulance driver, in Italy, for the Red Cross.

Very much like the hero of A Farewell to Arms, Ernest is shot in his knee and recuperates in a hospital, tended by a caring nurse named Agnes. Like Frederick Henry, in the book, he fell in love with the nurse and was given a medal for his heroism. Ernest returned home after the war, rejected by the nurse with whom he fell in love. He would party late into the night and invite, to his house, people his parents disapproved of. Ernest’s mother rejected him and he felt that he had to move from home.

He moved in with a friend living in Chicago and he wrote articles for The Toronto Star. In Chicago he met and then married Hadley Richardson. She believed that he should spend all his time in writing, and bought him a typewriter for his birthday. They decided that the best place for a writer to live was Paris, where he could devote himself to his writing. He said, at the time, that the most difficult thing to write about was being a man. They could not live on income from his stories and so Ernest, again, wrote for The Toronto Star.

Ernest took Hadley to Italy to show her where he had been during the war. He was devastated, everything had changed, everything was destroyed. Hadley became pregnant and was sick all the time. She and Ernest decided to move to Canada. He had, by then written three stories and ten poems. Hadley gave birth to a boy who they named John Hadley Nicano Hemingway. Even though he had his family Ernest was unhappy and decided to return to Paris. It was in Paris that Ernest got word that a publisher wanted to print his book, In Our Time, but with some changes.

The publisher felt that the sex was to blatant, but Ernest refused to change one word. Around 1925, Ernest started writing a novel about a young man in World War I, but had to stop after a few pages, and proceeded to write another novel, instead. This novel was based on his experiences while living in Pamplona, Spain. He planned on calling this book Fiesta, but changed the name to The Sun Also Rises, a saying from the Bible. This book, as in his other books, shows Hemingway obsessed with death. In 1927, Ernest found himself unhappy with his wife and son.

They decided to divorce and he married Pauline, a woman he had been involved with while he was married to Hadley. A year later, Ernest was able to complete his war novel which he called A Farewell to Arms. The novel was about the pain of war, of finding love in this time of pain. It portrayed the battles, the retreats, the fears, the gore and the terrible waste of war. This novel was well-received by his publisher, Max Perkins, but Ernest had to substitute dashes for the “dirty” language. Ernest used his life when he wrote; using everything he did and everything that ever happened to him.

He nevertheless remained a private person; wanting his stories to be read but wanting to be left alone. He once said, “Don’t look at me. Look at my words. ” A common theme throughout Hemingway’s stories is that no matter how hard we fight to live, we end up defeated, but we are here and we must go on. At age 31 he wrote Death in the Afternoon, about bullfighting in his beloved Spain. Ernest was a restless man; he traveled all over the United States, Europe, Cuba and Africa. At the age of 37 Ernest met the woman who would be his third wife; Martha Gellhorn, a writer like himself.

He went to Spain, he said, to become an “antiwar correspondent”, and found that war was like a club where everyone was playing the same game, and he was never lonely. Martha went to Spain as a war correspondent and they lived together. He knew that he was hurting Pauline, but like his need to travel and have new experiences, he could not stop himself from getting involved with women. In 1940 he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls and dedicated it to Martha, whom he married at the end of that year. He found himself traveling between Havana, Cuba and Ketchum, Idaho, which he did for the rest of his life.

During World War II, Ernest became a secret agent for the United States. He suggested that he use his boat, the “Pillar”, to surprise German submarines and attack them with hidden machine guns. It was at this time that Ernest, always a drinker, started drinking most of his days away. He would host wild, fancy parties and did not write at all during the next three years. At war’s end, Ernest went to England and met an American foreign correspondent named Mary Welsh. He divorced Martha and married Mary in Havana, in 1946. Ernest was a man of extremes; living either in luxury or happy to do without material things.

Ernest, always haunted by memories of his mother, would not go to her funeral when she died in 1951. He admitted that he hated his mother’s guts. Ernest wrote The Old Man and the Sea in only two months. He was on top of the world, the book was printed by Life Magazine and thousands of copies were sold in the United States. This novel and A Farewell to Arms were both made into movies. In 1953 he went on a safari with Mary, and he was in heaven hunting big game. Though Ernest had a serious accident, and later became ill, he could never admit that he had any weaknesses; nothing would stop him, certainly not pain.

In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Toward the end, Ernest started to travel again, but almost the way that someone does who knows that he will soon die. He suddenly started becoming paranoid and to forget things. He became obsessed with sin; his upbringing was showing, but still was inconsistent in his behavior. He never got over feeling like a bad person, as his father, mother and grandfather had taught him. In the last year of his life, he lived inside of his dreams, similar to his mother, who he hated with all his heart.

He was suicidal and had electric shock treatments for his depression and strange behavior. On a Sunday morning, July 2, 1961, Ernest Miller Hemingway killed himself with a shotgun. Ernest Hemingway takes much of the storyline of his novel, A Farewell to Arms, from his personal experiences. The main character of the book, Frederick Henry, often referred to as Tenete, experiences many of the same situations which Hemingway, himself, lived. Some of these similarities are exact while some are less similar, and some events have a completely different outcome.

Hemingway, like Henry, enjoyed drinking large amounts of alcohol. Both of them were involved in World War I, in a medical capacity, but neither of them were regular army personnel. Like Hemingway, Henry was shot in his right knee, during a battle. Both men were Americans, but a difference worth noting was that Hemingway was a driver for the American Red Cross, while Henry was a medic for the Italian Army. In real life, Hemingway met his love, Agnes, a nurse, in the hospital after being shot; Henry met his love, Catherine Barkley, also a nurse, before he was shot and hospitalized.

In both cases, the relationships with these women were strengthened while the men were hospitalized. Another difference is that Hemingway’s romance was short-lived, while, the book seemed to indicate that, Henry’s romance, though they never married, was strong and would have lasted. In A Farewell to Arms, Catherine and her child died while she was giving birth, this was not the case with Agnes who left Henry for an Italian Army officer. It seems to me that the differences between the two men were only surface differences. They allowed Hemingway to call the novel a work of fiction.

Had he written an autobiography the book would probably not have been well-received because Hemingway was not, at that time, a well known author. Although Hemingway denied critics’ views that A Farewell to Arms was symbolic, had he not made any changes they would not have been as impressed with the war atmosphere and with the naivete of a young man who experiences war for the first time. Hemingway, because he was so private, probably did not want to expose his life to everyone, and so the slight changes would prove that it was not himself and his own experiences which he was writing about.

I believe that Hemingway had Catherine and her child die, not to look different from his own life, but because he had a sick and morbid personality. There is great power in being an author, you can make things happen which do not necessarily occur in real life. It is obvious that Hemingway felt, as a young child and throughout his life, powerless, and so he created lives by writing stories. Hemingway acted out his feelings of inadequacy and powerlessness by hunting, drinking, spending lots of money and having many girlfriends. I think that Hemingway was obsessed with death and not too sane.

His obsession shows itself in the morbid death of Miss Barkley and her child. Hemingway was probably very confused about religion and sin and somehow felt or feared that people would or should be punished for enjoying life’s pleasures. Probably, the strongest reason for writing about Catherine Barkley’s death and the death of her child was Hemingway’s belief that death comes to everyone; it was inevitable. Death ends life before you have a chance to learn and live. He writes, in A Farewell to Arms, “They threw you in and told you the rules and the first time they caught you off base they killed you. . they killed you in the end. You could count on that. Stay around and they would kill you. ”

Hemingway, even in high school, wrote stories which showed that people should expect the unexpected. His stories offended and angered the principal of his school. I think that Hemingway liked shocking and annoying people; he was certainly rebellious. If he would have written an ending where Miss Barkley and her child had lived, it would have been too easy and common; Hemingway was certainly not like everyone else, and he seemed to be proud of that fact.

Even the fact that Hemingway wrote curses and had a lot of sex in his books shows that he liked to shock people. When his publisher asked that he change some words and make his books more acceptable to people, Hemingway refused, then was forced to compromise. I think that the major difference between Hemingway and Henry was that Henry was a likable and normal person while Hemingway was strange and very difficult. Hemingway liked doing things his way and either people had to accept him the way he was or too bad for them. I think that Hemingway probably did not even like himself and that was one reason that he couldn’t really like other people.

Hemingway seemed to use people only for his own pleasure, and maybe he wanted to think that he was like Henry who was a nicer person. In the book, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Malcolm Cowley focuses on the symbolism of rain. He sees rain, a frequent occurrence in the book, as symbolizing disaster. He points out that, at the beginning of A Farewell to Arms, Henry talks about how “things went very badly” and how this is connected to “At the start of the winter came permanent rain”. Later on in the book we see Miss Barkley afraid of rain.

She says, “Sometimes I see me dead in it”, referring to the rain. It is raining the entire time Miss Barkley is in childbirth and when both she and her baby die. Wyndham Lewis, in the same book of critical essays, points out that Hemingway is obsessed with war, the setting for much of A Farewell to Arms. He feels that the author sees war as an alternative to baseball, a sport of kings. He says that the war years “were a democratic, a levelling, school”. For Hemingway, raised in a strict home environment, war is a release; an opportunity to show that he is a real man.

The essayist, Edgar Johnson says that for the loner “it is society as a whole that is rejected, social responsibility, social concern” abandoned. Lieutenant Henry, like Hemingway, leads a private life as an isolated individual. He socializes with the officers, talks with the priest and visits the officer’s brothel, but those relationships are superficial. This avoidance of real relationships and involvement do not show an insensitive person, but rather someone who is protecting himself from getting involved and hurt.

It is clear that in all of Hemingway’s books and from his own life that he sees the world as his enemy. Johnson says, “He will solve the problem of dealing with the world by taking refuge in individualism and isolated personal relationships and sensations”. John Killinger says that it was inevitable that Catherine and her baby would die. The theme, that a person is trapped in relationships, is shown in all Hemingway’s stories. In A Farewell to Arms Catherine asks Henry if he feels trapped, now that she is pregnant. He admits that he does, “maybe a little”.

This idea, points out Killinger, is ingrained in Hemingway’s thinking and that he was not too happy about fatherhood. In Cross Country Snow, Nick regrets that he has to give up skiing in the Alps with a male friend to return to his wife who is having a baby. In Hemingway’s story Hills Like White Elephants the man wants his sweetheart to have an abortion so that they can continue as they once lived. In To Have and Have Not, Richard Gordon took his wife to “that dirty aborting horror”. Catherine’s death, in A Farewell to Arms, saves the author’s hero from the hell of a complicated life.

Biography of Ernest Miller Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born at eight o’clock in the morning on July 21, 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois. In the nearly sixty two years of his life that followed he forged a literary reputation unsurpassed in the twentieth century and created a mythological hero in himself that captivated (and at times confounded) not only serious literary critics but the average man as well… in a word, he was a star.

Born in the family home at 439 North Oak Park Avenue, a house built by his widowed grandfather Ernest Hall, Hemingway was the second of Dr. Clarence and Grace Hall Hemingway’s six children; he had four sisters and one brother. He was named after his maternal grandfather Ernest Hall and his great uncle Miller Hall. Oak Park was a mainly Protestant, upper middle-class suburb of Chicago that Hemingway would later refer to as a town of “wide lawns and narrow minds. ” Only ten miles from the big city, Oak Park was really much farther away philosophically.

It was basically a conservative town that tried to isolate itself from Chicago’s liberal seediness. Hemingway was raised with the conservative Midwestern values of strong religion, hard work, physical fitness and self determination; if one adhered to these parameters, he was taught, he would be ensured of success in whatever field he chose. As a boy he was taught by his father to hunt and fish along the shores and in the forests surrounding Lake Michigan.

The Hemingways had a summer house called Windemere on Walloon Lake in northern Michigan, and the family would spend the summer months there trying to stay cool. Hemingway would either fish the different streams that ran into the lake, or would take the row boat out to do some fishing there. He would also go squirrel hunting in the woods near the summer house, discovering early in life the serenity to be found while alone in the forest or wading a stream.

It was something he could always go back to throughout his life, wherever he was. Nature would be the touchstone of Hemingway’s life and work, and though he often found himself living in major cities like Chicago, Toronto and Paris early in his career, once he became successful he chose somewhat isolated places to live like Key West, or San Francisco de Paula, Cuba, or Ketchum, Idaho. All were convenient locales for hunting and fishing. When he wasn’t hunting or fishing his mother taught him the finer points of music.

Grace was an accomplished singer who once had aspirations of a career on stage, but eventually settled down with her husband and occupied her time by giving voice and music lessons to local children, including her own. Hemingway never had a knack for music and suffered through choir practices and cello lessons, however the musical knowledge he acquired from his mother helped him share in his first wife Hadley’s interest in the piano. Hemingway received his formal schooling in the Oak Park public school system.

In high school he was mediocre at sports, playing football, swimming, water basketball and serving as the track team manager. He enjoyed working on the high school newspaper called the Trapeze, where he wrote his first articles, usually humorous pieces in the style of Ring Lardner, a popular satirist of the time. Hemingway graduated in the spring of 1917 and instead of going to college the following fall like his parents expected, he took a job as a cub reporter for the Kansas City Star; the job was arranged for by his Uncle Tyler who was a close friend of the chief editorial writer of the paper.

At the time of Hemingway’s graduation from High School, World War I was raging in Europe and despite Woodrow Wilson’s attempts to keep America out of the war, the United States joined the Allies in the fight against Germany and Austria in April, 1917. When Hemingway turned eighteen he tried to enlist in the army, but was deferred because of poor vision; he had a bad left eye that he probably inherited from his mother, who also had poor vision. When he heard the Red Cross was taking volunteers as ambulance drivers he quickly signed up.

He was accepted in December of 1917, left his job at the paper in April of 1918, and sailed for Europe in May. In the short time that Hemingway worked for the Kansas City Star he learned some stylistic lessons that would later influence his fiction. The newspaper advocated short sentences, short paragraphs, active verbs, authenticity, compression, clarity and immediacy. Hemingway later said: “Those were the best rules I ever learned for the business of writing. I’ve never forgotten them. ” Hemingway first went to Paris upon reaching Europe, then traveled to Milan in early June after receiving his orders.

The day he arrived, a munitions factory exploded and he had to carry mutilated bodies and body parts to a makeshift morgue; it was an immediate and powerful initiation into the horrors of war. Two days later he was sent to an ambulance unit in the town of Schio, where he worked driving ambulances. On July 8, 1918, only a few weeks after arriving, Hemingway was seriously wounded by fragments from an Austrian mortar shell which had landed just a few feet away. At the time, Hemingway was distributing chocolate and cigarettes to Italian soldiers in the trenches near the front lines.

The explosion knocked Hemingway unconscious, killed an Italian soldier and blew the legs off another. What happened next has been debated for some time. In a letter to Hemingway’s father, Ted Brumback, one of Ernest’s fellow ambulance drivers, wrote that despite over 200 pieces of shrapnel being lodged in Hemingway’s legs he still managed to carry another wounded soldier back to the first aid station; along the way he was hit in the legs by several machine gun bullets. Whether he carried the wounded soldier or not, doesn’t diminish Hemingway’s sacrifice.

He was awarded the Italian Silver Medal for Valor with the official Italian citation reading: “Gravely wounded by numerous pieces of shrapnel from an enemy shell, with an admirable spirit of brotherhood, before taking care of himself, he rendered generous assistance to the Italian soldiers more seriously wounded by the same explosion and did not allow himself to be carried elsewhere until after they had been evacuated. ” Hemingway described his injuries to a friend of his: “There was one of those big noises you sometimes hear at the front. I died then.

I felt my soul or something coming right out of my body, like you’d pull a silk handkerchief out of a pocket by one corner. It flew all around and then came back and went in again and I wasn’t dead any more. ” Hemingway’s wounding along the Piave River in Italy and his subsequent recovery at a hospital in Milan, including the relationship with his nurse Agnes von Kurowsky, all inspired his great novel A Farewell To Arms. A Soldier’s Home… When Hemingway returned home from Italy in January of 1919 he found Oak Park dull compared to the adventures of war, the beauty of foreign lands and the romance of an older woman, Agnes von Kurowsky.

He was nineteen years old and only a year and a half removed from high school, but the war had matured him beyond his years. Living with his parents, who never quite appreciated what their son had been through, was difficult. Soon after his homecoming they began to question his future, began to pressure him to find work or to further his education, but Hemingway couldn’t seem to muster interest in anything. He had received some $1,000 dollars in insurance payments for his war wounds, which allowed him to avoid work for nearly a year.

He lived at his parent’s house and spent his time at the library or at home reading. He spoke to small civic organizations about his war exploits and was often seen in his Red Cross uniform, walking about town. For a time though, Hemingway questioned his role as a war hero, and when asked to tell of his experiences he often exaggerated to satisfy his audience. Hemingway’s story “Soldier’s Home” conveys his feelings of frustration and shame upon returning home to a town and to parents who still had a romantic notion of war and who didn’t understand the psychological impact the war had had on their son.

The last speaking engagement the young Hemingway took was at the Petoskey (Michigan) Public Library, and it would be important to Hemingway not for what he said but for who heard it. In the audience was Harriett Connable, the wife of an executive for the Woolworth’s company in Toronto. As Hemingway spun his war tales Harriett couldn’t help but notice the differences between Hemingway and her own son. Hemingway appeared confident, strong, intelligent and athletic, while her son was slight, somewhat handicapped by a weak right arm and spent most of his time indoors.

Harriett Connable thought her son needed someone to show him the joys of physical activity and Hemingway seemed the perfect candidate to tutor and watch over him while she and her husband Ralph vacationed in Florida. So, she asked Hemingway if he would do it. Hemingway took the position, which offered him time to write and a chance to work for the Toronto Star Weekly, the editor of which Ralph Connable promised to introduce Hemingway to. Hemingway wrote for the Star Weekly even after moving to Chicago in the fall of 1920.

While living at a friend’s house he met Hadley Richardson and they quickly fell in love. The two married in September 1921 and by November of the same year Hemingway accepted an offer to work with the Toronto Daily Star as its European corespondent. Hemingway and his new bride would go to Paris, France where the whole of literature was being changed by the likes of Ezra Pound, James Joyce, Gertrude Stein and Ford Maddox Ford. He would not miss his chance to change it as well. Hemingway’s First Life In Paris

The Hemingways arrived in Paris on December 22, 1921 and a few weeks later moved into their first apartment at 74 rue Cardinal Lemoine. It was a miserable apartment with no running water and a bathroom that was basically a closet with a slop bucket inside. Hemingway tried to minimize the primitiveness of the living quarters for his wife Hadley who had grown up in relative splendor, but despite the conditions she endured, carried away by her husbands enthusiasm for living the bohemian lifestyle.

Ironically, they could have afforded much better; with Hemingway’s job and Hadley’s trust fund their annual income was $3,000, a decent sum in the inflated economies of Europe at the time. Hemingway rented a room at 39 rue Descartes where he could do his writing in peace. With a letter of introduction from Sherwood Anderson, Hemingway met some of Paris’ prominent writers and artists and forged quick friendships with them during his first few years.

Counted among those friends were Ezra Pound, Gertrude Stein, Sylvia Beach, James Joyce, Max Eastman, Lincoln Steffens and Wyndahm Lewis, and he was acquainted with the painters Miro and Picasso. These friendships would be instrumental in Hemingway’s development as a writer and artist. Hemingway’s reporting during his first two years in Paris was extensive, covering the Geneva Conference in April of 1922, The Greco-Turkish War in October, the Luasanne Conference in November and the post war convention in the Ruhr Valley in early 1923.

Along with the political pieces he wrote lifestyle pieces as well, covering fishing, bullfighting, social life in Europe, skiing, bobsledding and more. Just as Hemingway was beginning to make a name for himself as a reporter and a fledgling fiction writer, and just as he and his wife were hitting their stride socially in Europe, the couple found out that Hadley was pregnant with their first child. Wanting the baby born in North America where the doctors and hospitals were better, the Hemingways left Paris in 1923 and moved to Toronto, where he wrote for the Toronto Daily Star and waited for their child to arrive.

John Hadley Nicanor Hemingway was born on October 10, 1923 and by January of 1924 the young family boarded a ship and headed back to Paris where Hemingway would finish making a name for himself. With a recommendation from Ezra Pound, Ford Maddox Ford let Hemingway edit his fledgling literary magazine the Transatlantic Review. In recommending Hemingway to Ford, Pound said “… He’s an experienced journalist. He writes very good verse and he’s the finest prose stylist in the world. ” Ford published some of Hemingway’s early stories, including “Indian Camp” and “Cross Country Snow” and generally praised the younger writer.

The magazine lasted only a year and a half (until 1925), but allowed Hemingway to work out his own artistic theories and to see them in print in a respectable journal. An unparalleled creative flurry… From 1925 to 1929 Hemingway produced some of the most important works of 20th century fiction, including the landmark short story collection In Our Time (1925) which contained “The Big Two-Hearted River. ” In 1926 he came out with his first true novel, The Sun Also Rises (after publishing Torrents of Spring, a comic novel parodying Sherwood Anderson in 1925).

He followed that book with Men Without Women in 1927; it was another book of stories which collected “The Killers,” and “In Another Country. ” In 1929 he published A Farewell to Arms, arguably the finest novel to emerge from World War I. In four short years he went from being an unknown writer to being the most important writer of his generation, and perhaps the 20th century. The first version of in our time (characterized by the lowercase letters in the title) was published by William Bird’s Three Mountain Press in 1924 and illustrated Hemingway’s new theories on literature.

It contained only the vignettes that would later appear as interchapters in the American version published by Boni & Liveright in 1925. This small 32 page book, of which only 170 copies were printed, contained the essence of Hemingway’s aesthetic theory which stated that omitting the right thing from a story could actually strengthen it. Hemingway equated this theory with the structure of an iceberg where only 1/8 of the iceberg could be seen above water while the remaining 7/8 under the surface provided the iceberg’s dignity of motion and contributed to its momentum.

Hemingway felt a story could be constructed the same way and this theory shows up even in these early vignettes. A year after the small printing of in our time came out, Boni & Liveright published the American version, which contains ten short stories along with the vignettes. The collection of stories is amazing, including the much anthologized “Soldier’s Home,” as well as “Indian Camp,” “A Very Short Story,” “My Old Man” and the classic “Big Two-Hearted River” parts one and two.

Big Two Hearted River” was a eureka story for Hemingway, who realized that his theory of omission really could work in the story form. Next came The Torrents of Spring, a short comic novel that satired Hemingway’s early mentor Sherwood Anderson and allowed him to break his relationship with Boni & Liveright to move to Scribner’s. Scribner’s published Torrents (which Scott Fitzgerald called the finest comic novel ever written by an American) in 1925, then a year later published Hemingway’s second novel The Sun Also Rises, which the publisher had bought sight unseen.

The Sun Also Rises introduced the world to the “lost generation” and was a critical and commercial success. Set in Paris and Spain, the book was a story of unrequitable love against a backdrop of bars and bullfighting. In 1927 came Men Without Women and soon after he began working on A Farewell To Arms. While he could do no wrong with his writing career, his personal life had began to show signs of wear. He divorced his first wife Hadley in 1927 and married Pauline Pfeiffer, an occasional fashion reporter for the likes of Vanity Fair and Vogue, later that year.

In 1928 Hemingway and Pauline left Paris for Key West, Florida in search of new surroundings to go with their new life together. They would live there for nearly twelve years, and Hemingway found it a wonderful place to work and to play, discovering the sport of big game fishing which would become a life-long passion and a source for much of his later writing. That same year Hemingway received word of his father’s death by suicide. Clarence Hemingway had begun to suffer from a number of physical ailments that would exacerbate an already fragile mental state.

He had developed diabetes, endured painful angina and extreme headaches. On top of these physical problems he also suffered from a dismal financial situation after speculative real estate purchases in Florida never panned out. His problems seemingly insurmountable, Clarence Hemingway shot himself in the head. Ernest immediately traveled to Oak Park to arrange for his funeral. Key West The new Hemingways heard of Key West from Ernest’s friend John Dos Passos, and the two stopped at the tiny Florida island on their way back from Paris.

They soon discovered that life in remote Key West was like living in a foreign country while still perched on the southernmost tip of America. Hemingway loved it. “It’s the best place I’ve ever been anytime, anywhere, flowers, tamarind trees, guava trees, coconut palms… Got tight last night on absinthe and did knife tricks. ” After renting an apartment and a house for a couple of years the Hemingways bought a large house at 907 Whitehead Street with $12,500 of help from Pauline’s wealthy Uncle Gus.

Pauline was pregnant at the time and on June 28, 1928 gave birth to Patrick by cesarean section. It was in December of that year that Hemingway received the cable reporting his father’s suicide. Despite the personal turmoil and change Hemingway continued to work on A Farewell to Arms, finishing it in January of 1929. The novel was published on September 27, 1929 to a level of critical acclaim that Hemingway wouldn’t see again until 1940 with the publication of his Spanish war novel For Whom the Bell Tolls.

In between Hemingway entered his experimental phase which confounded critics but still, to some extent, satisfied his audience. In 1931 Pauline gave birth to Gregory, their second son together, and the last of Hemingway’s children. After A Farewell to Arms Hemingway published his 1932 Spanish bullfighting dissertation, Death in the Afternoon. While writing an encyclopedic book on bullfighting he still managed to make it readable even by those who had no real interest in the corrida. He inserts observations on Spanish culture, writers, food, people, politics, history, etc.

Hemingway wrote about the purpose of his Spanish book, “It is intended as an introduction to the modern Spanish bullfight and attempts to explain that spectacle both emotionally and practically. It was written because there was no book which did this in Spanish or in English. ” Though a non-fiction book, Death in the Afternoon does codify one of Hemingway’s literary concepts of the stoical hero facing deadly opposition while still performing his duties with professionalism and skill, or “grace under pressure,” as Hemingway described it.

Many critics took issue with an apparent change in Hemingway from detracted artist to actual character in one of his own works. They disliked a blustery tone Hemingway drifted into , particularly when discussing writers, writing and art in general. It was the genesis of the public “Papa” image that would grow over the remaining 30 years of his life, at times almost obscuring the serious artist within. Returning to fiction in 1933, Hemingway published Winner Take Nothing, a volume of short stories.

The book contained 14 stories, including “A Clean Well Lighted Place,” “Fathers and Sons,” and “A Way You’ll Never Be. ” The book sold well despite a mediocre critical reception and despite the terrible economic depression the world was then mired in. James Joyce, one of Hemingway’s friends from his early Paris days, wrote glowingly of “A Clean, Well Lighted Place” as follows: “He has reduced the veil between literature and life, which is what every writer strives to do. Have you read A Clean, Well Lighted Place’?… It is masterly.

Indeed, it is one of the best stories ever written… ” In the summer of 1933 the Hemingways and their Key West friend Charles Thompson journeyed to Africa for a big game safari. Ever since reading of Teddy Roosevelt’s African hunting exploits as a boy, Hemingway wanted to test his hunting skills against the biggest and most dangerous animals on earth. With a $25,000 loan form Pauline’s uncle Gus (the same uncle who helped them buy their Key West home) Hemingway spent three months hunting on the dark continent, all the while gathering material for his future writing.

In 1935 he published Green Hills of Africa, a pseudo non-fiction account of his safari. Unfortunately, he picked up where he left off in Death in the Afternoon. While the book contained some decent writing about Africa and its animals it was overshadowed by Hemingway’s again digression into the blustery tone of his alter ego. In the book Hemingway harshly criticizes his supposed friends, making the reader cringe at his insensitivity. He portrays himself as courageous, skillful and cool while depicting others, including his friend Charles Thompson, as mean-spirited and selfish.

In a telling review the prominent literary critic Edmund Wilson poked at Hemingway, saying “he has produced what must be the only book ever written which makes Africa and its animals seem dull. ” Oddly though, from the same safari Hemingway gathered the material for two of his finest short stories, “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” and “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber. ” In both stories the protagonist shows a weakness that is contrary to what the typical Hemingway hero exhibits. Harry, the dying writer in “The Snows of Kilimanjaro,” laments his wasted talent, a talent diminished by drink, women, wealth and laziness.

Macomber in “The Short Happy Life… ” shows cowardice under pressure and just as he redeems himself his wife shoots him. As in other Hemingway stories, a curious effect can be seen in these African tales. Often in Hemingway’s non-fiction work the truth is obscured by Hemingway’s need to promote his public personality, his need to portray himself as above fear, above pettiness, above any negative quality that would tarnish that image. In his fiction though, certain negative qualities, whatever they might be, are in the characters as flaws that often lead to their destruction.

Beyond that, in a biographical context, the actual events of Hemingway’s life end up in his fiction rather than in his non-fiction. For example: Hemingway’s World War I injuries more closely resemble those of Frederic Henry in A Farewell To Arms than the accounts you see repeated in old biographical blurbs which tell of how he fought with the elite Italian forces, how after being hit by a mortar he carried a wounded soldier through machine gun fire to the field hospital, and how he refused medical treatment until others were treated before him.

Earnest Hemingway’s Works

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. His father was the owner of a prosperous real estate business. His father, Dr. Hemingway, imparted to Ernest the importance of appearances, especially in public. Dr. Hemingway invented surgical forceps for which he would not accept money. He believed that one should not profit from something important for the good of mankind. Ernest’s father, a man of high ideals, was very strict and censored the books he allowed his children to read.

He forbad Ernest’s sister from studying ballet for it was coeducational, and dancing together led to “hell and damnation”. Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest’s mother, considered herself pure and proper. She was a dreamer who was upset at anything which disturbed her perception of the world as beautiful. She hated dirty diapers, upset stomachs, and cleaning house; they were not fit for a lady. She taught her children to always act with decorum. She adored the singing of the birds and the smell of flowers. Her children were expected to behave properly and to please her, always.

Mrs. Hemingway treated Ernest, when he was a small boy, as if he were a female baby doll and she dressed him accordingly. This arrangement was alright until Ernest got to the age when he wanted to be a “gun-toting Pawnee Bill”. He began, at that time, to pull away from his mother, and never forgave her for his humiliation. The town of Oak Park, where Ernest grew up, was very old fashioned and quite religious. The townspeople forbad the word “virgin” from appearing in school books, and the word “breast” was questioned, though it appeared in the Bible.

Ernest loved to fish, canoe and explore the woods. When he couldn’t get outside, he escaped to his room and read books. He loved to tell stories to his classmates, often insisting that a friend listen to one of his stories. In spite of his mother’s desire, he played on the football team at Oak Park High School. As a student, Ernest was a perfectionist about his grammar and studied English with a fervor. He contributed articles to the weekly school newspaper. It seems that the principal did not approve of Ernest’s writings and he complained, often, about the content of Ernest’s articles.

Ernest was clear about his writing; he wanted people to “see and feel” and he wanted to enjoy himself while writing. Ernest loved having fun. If nothing was happening, mischievous Ernest made something happen. He would sometimes use forbidden words just to create a ruckus. Ernest, though wild and crazy, was a warm, caring individual. He loved the sea, mountains and the stars and hated anyone who he saw as a phoney. During World War I, Ernest, rejected from service because of a bad left eye, was an ambulance driver, in Italy, for the Red Cross.

Very much like the hero of A Farewell to Arms, Ernest is shot in his knee and recuperates in a hospital, tended by a caring nurse named Agnes. Like Frederick Henry, in the book, he fell in love with the nurse and was given a medal for his heroism. Ernest returned home after the war, rejected by the nurse with whom he fell in love. He would party late into the night and invite, to his house, people his parents disapproved of. Ernest’s mother rejected him and he felt that he had to move from home.

He moved in with a friend living in Chicago and he wrote articles for The Toronto Star. In Chicago he met and then married Hadley Richardson. She believed that he should spend all his time in writing, and bought him a typewriter for his birthday. They decided that the best place for a writer to live was Paris, where he could devote himself to his writing. He said, at the time, that the most difficult thing to write about was being a man. They could not live on income from his stories and so Ernest, again, wrote for The Toronto Star.

Ernest took Hadley to Italy to show her where he had been during the war. He was devastated, everything had changed, everything was destroyed. Hadley became pregnant and was sick all the time. She and Ernest decided to move to Canada. He had, by then written three stories and ten poems. Hadley gave birth to a boy who they named John Hadley Nicano Hemingway. Even though he had his family Ernest was unhappy and decided to return to Paris. It was in Paris that Ernest got word that a publisher wanted to print his book, In Our Time, but with some changes.

The publisher felt that the sex was to blatant, but Ernest refused to change one word. Around 1925, Ernest started writing a novel about a young man in World War I, but had to stop after a few pages, and proceeded to write another novel, instead. This novel was based on his experiences while living in Pamplona, Spain. He planned on calling this book Fiesta, but changed the name to The Sun Also Rises, a saying from the Bible. This book, as in his other books, shows Hemingway obsessed with death. In 1927, Ernest found himself unhappy with his wife and son.

They decided to divorce and he married Pauline, a woman he had been involved with while he was married to Hadley. A year later, Ernest was able to complete his war novel which he called A Farewell to Arms. The novel was about the pain of war, of finding love in this time of pain. It portrayed the battles, the retreats, the fears, the gore and the terrible waste of war. This novel was well-received by his publisher, Max Perkins, but Ernest had to substitute dashes for the “dirty” language. Ernest used his life when he wrote; using everything he did and everything that ever happened to him.

He nevertheless remained a private person; wanting his stories to be read but wanting to be left alone. He once said, “Don’t look at me. Look at my words. ” A common theme throughout Hemingway’s stories is that no matter how hard we fight to live, we end up defeated, but we are here and we must go on. At age 31 he wrote Death in the Afternoon, about bullfighting in his beloved Spain. Ernest was a restless man; he traveled all over the United States, Europe, Cuba and Africa. At the age of 37 Ernest met the woman who would be his third wife; Martha Gellhorn, a writer like himself.

He went to Spain, he said, to become an “antiwar correspondent”, and found that war was like a club where everyone was playing the same game, and he was never lonely. Martha went to Spain as a war correspondent and they lived together. He knew that he was hurting Pauline, but like his need to travel and have new experiences, he could not stop himself from getting involved with women. In 1940 he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls and dedicated it to Martha, whom he married at the end of that year. He found himself traveling between Havana, Cuba and Ketchum, Idaho, which he did for the rest of his life.

During World War II, Ernest became a secret agent for the United States. He suggested that he use his boat, the “Pillar”, to surprise German submarines and attack them with hidden machine guns. It was at this time that Ernest, always a drinker, started drinking most of his days away. He would host wild, fancy parties and did not write at all during the next three years. At war’s end, Ernest went to England and met an American foreign correspondent named Mary Welsh. He divorced Martha and married Mary in Havana, in 1946. Ernest was a man of extremes; living either in luxury or happy to do without material things.

Ernest, always haunted by memories of his mother, would not go to her funeral when she died in 1951. He admitted that he hated his mother’s guts. Ernest wrote The Old Man and the Sea in only two months. He was on top of the world, the book was printed by Life Magazine and thousands of copies were sold in the United States. This novel and A Farewell to Arms were both made into movies. In 1953 he went on a safari with Mary, and he was in heaven hunting big game. Though Ernest had a serious accident, and later became ill, he could never admit that he had any weaknesses; nothing would stop him, certainly not pain.

In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature…… Toward the end, Ernest started to travel again, but almost the way that someone does who knows that he will soon die. He suddenly started becoming paranoid and to forget things. He became obsessed with sin; his upbringing was showing, but still was inconsistent in his behavior. He never got over feeling like a bad person, as his father, mother and grandfather had taught him. In the last year of his life, he lived inside of his dreams, similar to his mother, who he hated with all his heart.

He was suicidal and had electric shock treatments for his depression and strange behavior. On a Sunday morning, July 2, 1961, Ernest Miller Hemingway killed himself with a shotgun. Ernest Hemingway takes much of the storyline of his novel, A Farewell to Arms, from his personal experiences. The main character of the book, Frederick Henry, often referred to as Tenete, experiences many of the same situations which Hemingway, himself, lived. Some of these similarities are exact while some are less similar, and some events have a completely different outcome.

Hemingway, like Henry, enjoyed drinking large amounts of alcohol. Both of them were involved in World War I, in a medical capacity, but neither of them were regular army personnel. Like Hemingway, Henry was shot in his right knee, during a battle. Both men were Americans, but a difference worth noting was that Hemingway was a driver for the American Red Cross, while Henry was a medic for the Italian Army. In real life, Hemingway met his love, Agnes, a nurse, in the hospital after being shot; Henry met his love, Catherine Barkley, also a nurse, before he was shot and hospitalized.

In both cases, the relationships with these women were strengthened while the men were hospitalized. Another difference is that Hemingway’s romance was short-lived, while, the book seemed to indicate that, Henry’s romance, though they never married, was strong and would have lasted. In A Farewell to Arms, Catherine and her child died while she was giving birth, this was not the case with Agnes who left Henry for an Italian Army officer. It seems to me that the differences between the two men were only surface differences. They allowed Hemingway to call the novel a work of fiction.

Had he written an autobiography the book would probably not have been well-received because Hemingway was not, at that time, a well known author. Although Hemingway denied critics’ views that A Farewell to Arms was symbolic, had he not made any changes they would not have been as impressed with the war atmosphere and with the naivete of a young man who experiences war for the first time. Hemingway, because he was so private, probably did not want to expose his life to everyone, and so the slight changes would prove that it was not himself and his own experiences which he was writing about.

I believe that Hemingway had Catherine and her child die, not to look different from his own life, but because he had a sick and morbid personality. There is great power in being an author, you can make things happen which do not necessarily occur in real life. It is obvious that Hemingway felt, as a young child and throughout his life, powerless, and so he created lives by writing stories. Hemingway acted out his feelings of inadequacy and powerlessness by hunting, drinking, spending lots of money and having many girlfriends. I think that Hemingway was obsessed with death and not too sane.

His obsession shows itself in the morbid death of Miss Barkley and her child. Hemingway was probably very confused about religion and sin and somehow felt or feared that people would or should be punished for enjoying life’s pleasures. Probably, the strongest reason for writing about Catherine Barkley’s death and the death of her child was Hemingway’s belief that death comes to everyone; it was inevitable. Death ends life before you have a chance to learn and live. He writes, in A Farewell to Arms, “They threw you in and told you the rules and the first time they caught you off base they killed you. . they killed you in the end.

You could count on that. Stay around and they would kill you. ” Hemingway, even in high school, wrote stories which showed that people should expect the unexpected. His stories offended and angered the principal of his school. I think that Hemingway liked shocking and annoying people; he was certainly rebellious. If he would have written an ending where Miss Barkley and her child had lived, it would have been too easy and common; Hemingway was certainly not like everyone else, and he seemed to be proud of that fact.

Even the fact that Hemingway wrote curses and had a lot of sex in his books shows that he liked to shock people. When his publisher asked that he change some words and make his books more acceptable to people, Hemingway refused, then was forced to compromise. I think that the major difference between Hemingway and Henry was that Henry was a likable and normal person while Hemingway was strange and very difficult. Hemingway liked doing things his way and either people had to accept him the way he was or too bad for them. I think that Hemingway probably did not even like himself and that was one reason that he couldn’t really like other people.

Hemingway seemed to use people only for his own pleasure, and maybe he wanted to think that he was like Henry who was a nicer person. In the book, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Malcolm Cowley focuses on the symbolism of rain. He sees rain, a frequent occurrence in the book, as symbolizing disaster. He points out that, at the beginning of A Farewell to Arms, Henry talks about how “things went very badly” and how this is connected to “At the start of the winter came permanent rain”. Later on in the book we see Miss Barkley afraid of rain.

She says, “Sometimes I see me dead in it”, referring to the rain. It is raining the entire time Miss Barkley is in childbirth and when both she and her baby die. Wyndham Lewis, in the same book of critical essays, points out that Hemingway is obsessed with war, the setting for much of A Farewell to Arms. He feels that the author sees war as an alternative to baseball, a sport of kings. He says that the war years “were a democratic, a levelling, school”. For Hemingway, raised in a strict home environment, war is a release; an opportunity to show that he is a real man.

The essayist, Edgar Johnson says that for the loner “it is society as a whole that is rejected, social responsibility, social concern” abandoned. Lieutenant Henry, like Hemingway, leads a private life as an isolated individual. He socializes with the officers, talks with the priest and visits the officer’s brothel, but those relationships are superficial. This avoidance of real relationships and involvement do not show an insensitive person, but rather someone who is protecting himself from getting involved and hurt.

It is clear that in all of Hemingway’s books and from his own life that he sees the world as his enemy. Johnson says, “He will solve the problem of dealing with the world by taking refuge in individualism and isolated personal relationships and sensations”. John Killinger says that it was inevitable that Catherine and her baby would die. The theme, that a person is trapped in relationships, is shown in all Hemingway’s stories. In A Farewell to Arms Catherine asks Henry if he feels trapped, now that she is pregnant. He admits that he does, “maybe a little”.

This idea, points out Killinger, is ingrained in Hemingway’s thinking and that he was not too happy about fatherhood. In Cross Country Snow, Nick regrets that he has to give up skiing in the Alps with a male friend to return to his wife who is having a baby. In Hemingway’s story Hills Like White Elephants the man wants his sweetheart to have an abortion so that they can continue as they once lived. In To Have and Have Not, Richard Gordon took his wife to “that dirty aborting horror”. Catherine’s death, in A Farewell to Arms, saves the author’s hero from the hell of a complicated life.

Biography of Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. His father was the owner of a prosperous real estate business. His father, Dr. Hemingway, imparted to Ernest the importance of appearances, especially in public. Dr. Hemingway invented surgical forceps for which he would not accept money. He believed that one should not profit from something important for the good of mankind. Ernest’s father, a man of high ideals, was very strict and censored the books he allowed his children to read.

He forbad Ernest’s sister from studying ballet for it was coeducational, and dancing together led to “hell and damnation”. Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest’s mother, considered herself pure and proper. She was a dreamer who was upset at anything which disturbed her perception of the world as beautiful. She hated dirty diapers, upset stomachs, and cleaning house; they were not fit for a lady. She taught her children to always act with decorum. She adored the singing of the birds and the smell of flowers. Her children were expected to behave properly and to please her, always.

Mrs. Hemingway treated Ernest, when he was a small boy, as if he were a female baby doll and she dressed him accordingly. This arrangement was alright ntil Ernest got to the age when he wanted to be a “gun-toting Pawnee Bill”. He began, at that time, to pull away from his mother, and never forgave her for his humiliation. The town of Oak Park, where Ernest grew up, was very old fashioned and quite religious. The townspeople forbad the word “virgin” from appearing in school books, and the word “breast” was questioned, though it appeared in the Bible.

Ernest loved to fish, canoe and explore the woods. When he couldn’t get outside, he escaped to his room and read books. He loved to tell stories to his classmates, often insisting that a friend listen to one of his stories. In spite of his mother’s desire, he played on the football team at Oak Park High School. As a student, Ernest was a perfectionist about his grammar and studied English with a fervor. He contributed articles to the weekly school newspaper. It seems that the principal did not approve of Ernest’s writings and he complained, often, about the content of Ernest’s articles.

Ernest was clear about his writing; he wanted people to “see and feel” and he wanted to enjoy himself while writing. Ernest loved having fun. If nothing was happening, mischievous Ernest made something happen. He would sometimes use forbidden words just to create a ruckus. Ernest, though wild and crazy, was a warm, caring individual. He loved the sea, mountains and the stars and hated anyone who he saw as a phoney. During World War I, Ernest, rejected from service because of a bad left eye, was an ambulance driver, in Italy, for the Red Cross.

Very much like the hero of A Farewell to Arms, Ernest is shot in his knee and recuperates in a hospital, tended by a caring nurse named Agnes. Like Frederick Henry, in the book, he fell in love with the nurse and was given a medal for his heroism. Ernest returned home after the war, rejected by the nurse with whom he fell in love. He ould party late into the night and invite, to his house, people his parents disapproved of. Ernest’s mother rejected him and he felt that he had to move from home.

He moved in with a friend living in Chicago and he wrote articles for The Toronto Star. In Chicago he met and then married Hadley Richardson. She believed that he should spend all his time in writing, and bought him a typewriter for his birthday. They decided that the best place for a writer to live was Paris, where he could devote himself to his writing. He said, at the time, that the most difficult thing to write about was being a man. They ould not live on income from his stories and so Ernest, again, wrote for The Toronto Star.

Ernest took Hadley to Italy to show her where he had been during the war. He was devastated, everything had changed, everything was destroyed. Hadley became pregnant and was sick all the time. She and Ernest decided to move to Canada. He had, by then written three stories and ten poems. Hadley gave birth to a boy who they named John Hadley Nicano Hemingway. Even though he had his family Ernest was unhappy and decided to return to Paris. It was in Paris that Ernest got word that a publisher wanted to print his book, In Our Time, but with some changes.

The publisher felt that the sex was to blatant, but Ernest refused to change one word. Around 1925, Ernest started writing a novel about a young man in World War I, but had to stop after a few pages, and proceeded to write another novel, instead. This novel was based on his experiences while living in Pamplona, Spain. He planned on calling this book Fiesta, but changed the name to The Sun Also Rises, a saying from the Bible. This book, as in his other books, shows Hemingway obsessed with death. In 1927, Ernest found himself unhappy with his wife and son.

They decided to divorce and he married Pauline, a woman he had been nvolved with while he was married to Hadley. A year later, Ernest was able to complete his war novel which he called A Farewell to Arms. The novel was about the pain of war, of finding love in this time of pain. It portrayed the battles, the retreats, the fears, the gore and the terrible waste of war. This novel was well-received by his publisher, Max Perkins,but Ernest had to substitute dashes for the “dirty” language. Ernest used his life when he wrote; using everything he did and everything that ever happened to him.

He nevertheless remained a private person; wanting his stories to be read but wanting to be left alone. He once said, “Don’t look at me. Look at my words. ” A common theme throughout Hemingway’s stories is that no matter how hard we fight to live, we end up defeated, but we are here and we must go on. At age 31 he wrote Death in the Afternoon, about bullfighting in his beloved Spain. Ernest was a restless man; he traveled all over the United States, Europe, Cuba and Africa. At the age of 37 Ernest met the woman who would be his third wife; Martha Gellhorn, a writer like himself.

He went to Spain, he said, to become an “antiwar correspondent”, and found that war was like a club where everyone was playing the same game, and he was ever lonely. Martha went to Spain as a war correspondent and they lived together. He knew that he was hurting Pauline, but like his need to travel and have new experiences, he could not stop himself from getting involved with women. In 1940 he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls and dedicated it to Martha, whom he married at the end of that year. He found himself traveling between Havana, Cuba and Ketchum, Idaho, which he did for the rest of his life.

During World War II, Ernest became a secret agent for the United States. He suggested that he use his boat, the “Pillar”, to surprise German submarines and ttack them with hidden machine guns. It was at this time that Ernest, always a drinker, started drinking most of his days away. He would host wild, fancy parties and did not write at all during the next three years. At war’s end, Ernest went to England and met an American foreign correspondent named Mary Welsh. He divorced Martha and married Mary in Havana, in 1946. Ernest was a man of extremes; living either in luxury or happy to do without material things.

Ernest, always haunted by memories of his mother, would not go to her funeral when she died in 1951. He admitted that he hated his mother’s uts. Ernest wrote The Old Man and the Sea in only two months. He was on top of the world, the book was printed by Life Magazine and thousands of copies were sold in the United States. This novel and A Farewell to Arms were both made into movies. In 1953 he went on a safari with Mary, and he was in heaven hunting big game. Though Ernest had a serious accident, and later became ill, he could never admit that he had any weaknesses; nothing would stop him, certainly not pain.

In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Toward the end, Ernest started to travel again, but almost the way that someone oes who knows that he will soon die. He suddenly started becoming paranoid and to forget things. He became obsessed with sin; his upbringing was showing, but still was inconsistent in his behavior. He never got over feeling like a bad person, as his father, mother and grandfather had taught him. In the last year of his life, he lived inside of his dreams, similar to his mother, who he hated with all his heart.

He was suicidal and had electric shock treatments for his depression and strange behavior. On a Sunday morning, July 2, 1961, Ernest Miller Hemingway killed himself with a shotgun. Ernest Hemingway takes much of the storyline of his novel, A Farewell to Arms, from his personal experiences. The main character of the book, Frederick Henry, often referred to as Tenete, experiences many of the same situations which Hemingway, himself, lived. Some of these similarities are exact while some are less similar, and some events have a completely different outcome.

Hemingway, like Henry, enjoyed drinking large amounts of alcohol. Both of them were involved in World War I, in a medical capacity, but neither of them were regular army personnel. Like Hemingway, Henry was shot in his right knee, uring a battle. Both men were Americans, but a difference worth noting was that Hemingway was a driver for the American Red Cross, while Henry was a medic for the Italian Army. In real life, Hemingway met his love, Agnes, a nurse, in the hospital after being shot; Henry met his love, Catherine Barkley, also a nurse, before he was shot and hospitalized.

In both cases, the relationships with these women were strengthened while the men were hospitalized. Another difference is that Hemingway’s romance was short-lived, while, the book seemed to indicate that, Henry’s romance, though they never married, was strong nd would have lasted. In A Farewell to Arms, Catherine and her child died while she was giving birth, this was not the case with Agnes who left Henry for an Italian Army officer. It seems to me that the differences between the two men were only surface differences. They allowed Hemingway to call the novel a work of fiction.

Had he written an autobiography the book would probably not have been well-received because Hemingway was not, at that time, a well known author. Although Hemingway denied critics’ views that A Farewell to Arms was symbolic, had he not made any changes they would not have been as mpressed with the war atmosphere and with the naivete of a young man who experiences war for the first time. Hemingway, because he was so private, probably did not want to expose his life to everyone, and so the slight changes would prove that it was not himself and his own experiences which he was writing about.

I believe that Hemingway had Catherine and her child die, not to look different from his own life, but because he had a sick and morbid personality. There is great power in being an author, you can make things happen which do not necessarily occur in real life. It is obvious that Hemingway felt, as young child and throughout his life, powerless, and so he created lives by writing stories. Hemingway acted out his feelings of inadequacy and powerlessness by hunting, drinking, spending lots of money and having many girlfriends. I think that Hemingway was obsessed with death and not too sane.

His obsession shows itself in the morbid death of Miss Barkley and her child. Hemingway was probably very confused about religion and sin and somehow felt or feared that people would or should be punished for enjoying life’s pleasures. Probably, the strongest reason for writing about Catherine Barkley’s eath and the death of her child was Hemingway’s belief that death comes to everyone; it was inevitable. Death ends life before you have a chance to learn and live. He writes, in A Farewell to Arms, “They threw you in and told you the rules and the first time they caught you off base they killed you. .. they killed you in the end. You could count on that. Stay around and they would kill you. ”

Hemingway, even in high school, wrote stories which showed that people should expect the unexpected. His stories offended and angered the principal of his school. I think that Hemingway liked shocking and annoying eople; he was certainly rebellious. If he would have written an ending where Miss Barkley and her child had lived, it would have been too easy and common; Hemingway was certainly not like everyone else, and he seemed to be proud of that fact.

Even the fact that Hemingway wrote curses and had a lot of sex in his books shows that he liked to shock people. When his publisher asked that he change some words and make his books more acceptable to people, Hemingway refused, then was forced to compromise. I think that the major difference between Hemingway and Henry was that Henry was a likable and normal person hile Hemingway was strange and very difficult. Hemingway liked doing things his way and either people had to accept him the way he was or too bad for them. I think that Hemingway probably did not even like himself and that was one reason that he couldn’t really like other people.

Hemingway seemed to use people only for his own pleasure, and maybe he wanted to think that he was like Henry who was a nicer person. In the book, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Malcolm Cowley focuses on the symbolism of rain. He sees rain, a frequent occurrence in the book, as symbolizing disaster. He oints out that, at the beginning of A Farewell to Arms, Henry talks about how “things went very badly” and how this is connected to “At the start of the winter came permanent rain”. Later on in the book we see Miss Barkley afraid of rain.

She says, “Sometimes I see me dead in it”, referring to the rain. It is raining the entire time Miss Barkley is in childbirth and when both she and her baby die. Wyndham Lewis, in the same book of critical essays, points out that Hemingway is obsessed with war, the setting for much of A Farewell to Arms. He feels that the author sees war as an alternative to baseball, a sport f kings. He says that the war years “were a democratic, a levelling, school”. For Hemingway, raised in a strict home environment, war is a release; an opportunity to show that he is a real man.

The essayist, Edgar Johnson says that for the loner “it is society as a whole that is rejected, social responsibility, social concern” abandoned. Lieutenant Henry, like Hemingway, leads a private life as an isolated individual. He socializes with the officers, talks with the priest and visits the officer’s brothel, but those relationships are superficial. This avoidance of real relationships and involvement o not show an insensitive person, but rather someone who is protecting himself from getting involved and hurt.

It is clear that in all of Hemingway’s books and from his own life that he sees the world as his enemy. Johnson says, “He will solve the problem of dealing with the world by taking refuge in individualism and isolated personal relationships and sensations”. John Killinger says that it was inevitable that Catherine and her baby would die. The theme, that a person is trapped in relationships, is shown in all Hemingway’s stories. In A Farewell to Arms Catherine asks Henry if he feels trapped, now that she is pregnant. He admits that he does, “maybe a little”.

This idea, points out Killinger, is ingrained in Hemingway’s thinking and that he was not too happy about fatherhood. In Cross Country Snow, Nick regrets that he has to give up skiing in the Alps with a male friend to return to his wife who is having a baby. In Hemingway’s story Hills Like White Elephants the man wants his sweetheart to have an abortion so that they can continue as they once lived. In To Have and Have Not, Richard Gordon took his wife to “that dirty aborting horror”. Catherine’s death, in A Farewell to Arms, saves the author’s hero from the hell of a complicated life.

Ernest Miller Hemingway Essay

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. His father was the owner of a prosperous real estate business. His father, Dr. Hemingway, imparted to Ernest the importance of appearances, especially in public. Dr. Hemingway invented surgical forceps for which he would not accept money. He believed that one should not profit from something important for the good of mankind. Ernest’s father, a man of high ideals, was very strict and censored the books he allowed his children to read.

He forbad Ernest’s sister from studying ballet for it was coeducational, and dancing together led to hell and damnation”. Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest’s mother, considered herself pure and proper. She was a dreamer who was upset at anything which disturbed her perception of the world as beautiful. She hated dirty diapers, upset stomachs, and cleaning house; they were not fit for a lady. She taught her children to always act with decorum. She adored the singing of the birds and the smell of flowers. Her children were expected to behave properly and to please her, always.

Mrs. Hemingway treated Ernest, when he was a small boy, as if he were a female baby doll and she dressed him accordingly. This arrangement was alright until Ernest got to the age when he wanted to be a “gun-toting Pawnee Bill”. He began, at that time, to pull away from his mother, and never forgave her for his humiliation. The town of Oak Park, where Ernest grew up, was very old fashioned and quite religious. The townspeople forbad the word “virgin” from appearing in school books, and the word “breast” was questioned, though it appeared in the Bible.

Ernest loved to fish, canoe and explore the woods. When he couldn’t get outside, he escaped to his room and read books. He loved to tell stories to his lassmates, often insisting that a friend listen to one of his stories. In spite of his mother’s desire, he played on the football team at Oak Park High School. As a student, Ernest was a perfectionist about his grammar and studied English with a fervor. He contributed articles to the weekly school newspaper. It seems that the principal did not approve of Ernest’s writings and he complained, often, about the content of Ernest’s articles.

Ernest was clear about his writing; he wanted people to “see and feel” and he wanted to enjoy himself while writing. Ernest loved having fun. If nothing was happening, ischievous Ernest made something happen. He would sometimes use forbidden words just to create a ruckus. Ernest, though wild and crazy, was a warm, caring individual. He loved the sea, mountains and the stars and hated anyone who he saw as a phoney. During World War I, Ernest, rejected from service because of a bad left eye, was an ambulance driver, in Italy, for the Red Cross.

Very much like the hero of A Farewell to Arms, Ernest is shot in his knee and recuperates in a hospital, tended by a caring nurse named Agnes. Like Frederick Henry, in the book, he fell in love with the nurse and was given a medal for his heroism. Ernest returned home after the war, rejected by the nurse with whom he fell in love. He would party late into the night and invite, to his house, people his parents disapproved of. Ernest’s mother rejected him and he felt that he had to move from home.

He moved in with a friend living in Chicago and he wrote articles for The Toronto Star. In Chicago he met and then married Hadley Richardson. She believed that he should spend all his time in writing, and bought him a typewriter for his birthday. They decided that the best place for a writer to live was Paris, where he could devote himself to his writing. He said, t the time, that the most difficult thing to write about was being a man. They could not live on income from his stories and so Ernest, again, wrote for The Toronto Star.

Ernest took Hadley to Italy to show her where he had been during the war. He was devastated, everything had changed, everything was destroyed. Hadley became pregnant and was sick all the time. She and Ernest decided to move to Canada. He had, by then written three stories and ten poems. Hadley gave birth to a boy who they named John Hadley Nicano Hemingway. Even though he had his family Ernest was unhappy and decided to return to Paris. It was in Paris hat Ernest got word that a publisher wanted to print his book, In Our Time, but with some changes.

The publisher felt that the sex was to blatant, but Ernest refused to change one word. Around 1925, Ernest started writing a novel about a young man in World War I, but had to stop after a few pages, and proceeded to write another novel, instead. This novel was based on his experiences while living in Pamplona, Spain. He planned on calling this book Fiesta, but changed the name to The Sun Also Rises, a saying from the Bible. This book, as in his other books, shows Hemingway obsessed with death. In 1927, Ernest found himself nhappy with his wife and son.

They decided to divorce and he married Pauline, a woman he had been involved with while he was married to Hadley. A year later, Ernest was able to complete his war novel which he called A Farewell to Arms. The novel was about the pain of war, of finding love in this time of pain. It portrayed the battles, the retreats, the fears, the gore and the terrible waste of war. This novel was well-received by his publisher, Max Perkins,but Ernest had to substitute dashes for the “dirty” language. Ernest used his life when he wrote; using everything he did and everything that ever happened to him.

He nevertheless remained a private person; wanting his stories to be read but wanting to be left alone. He once said, “Don’t look at me. Look at my words. ” A common theme throughout Hemingway’s stories is that no matter how hard we fight to live, we end up defeated, but we are here and we must go on. At age 31 he wrote Death in the Afternoon, about bullfighting in his beloved Spain. Ernest was a restless man; he traveled all over the United States, Europe, Cuba and Africa. At the age of 37 Ernest met the woman who would be his third wife; Martha Gellhorn, a writer like himself.

He went to Spain, he said, to become an antiwar correspondent”, and found that war was like a club where everyone was playing the same game, and he was never lonely. Martha went to Spain as a war correspondent and they lived together. He knew that he was hurting Pauline, but like his need to travel and have new experiences, he could not stop himself from getting involved with women. In 1940 he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls and dedicated it to Martha, whom he married at the end of that year. He found himself traveling between Havana, Cuba and Ketchum, Idaho, which he did for the rest of his life.

During World War II, Ernest became a secret agent for he United States. He suggested that he use his boat, the “Pillar”, to surprise German submarines and attack them with hidden machine guns. It was at this time that Ernest, always a drinker, started drinking most of his days away. He would host wild, fancy parties and did not write at all during the next three years. At war’s end, Ernest went to England and met an American foreign correspondent named Mary Welsh. He divorced Martha and married Mary in Havana, in 1946. Ernest was a man of extremes; living either in luxury or happy to do without material things.

Ernest, always haunted by memories of his mother, would ot go to her funeral when she died in 1951. He admitted that he hated his mother’s guts. Ernest wrote The Old Man and the Sea in only two months. He was on top of the world, the book was printed by Life Magazine and thousands of copies were sold in the United States. This novel and A Farewell to Arms were both made into movies. In 1953 he went on a safari with Mary, and he was in heaven hunting big game. Though Ernest had a serious accident, and later became ill, he could never admit that he had any weaknesses; nothing would stop him, certainly not pain.

In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Toward the nd, Ernest started to travel again, but almost the way that someone does who knows that he will soon die. He suddenly started becoming paranoid and to forget things. He became obsessed with sin; his upbringing was showing, but still was inconsistent in his behavior. He never got over feeling like a bad person, as his father, mother and grandfather had taught him. In the last year of his life, he lived inside of his dreams, similar to his mother, who he hated with all his heart.

He was suicidal and had electric shock treatments for his depression and strange behavior. On a Sunday morning, July 2, 1961, Ernest Miller Hemingway illed himself with a shotgun. Ernest Hemingway takes much of the storyline of his novel, A Farewell to Arms, from his personal experiences. The main character of the book, Frederick Henry, often referred to as Tenete, experiences many of the same situations which Hemingway, himself, lived. Some of these similarities are exact while some are less similar, and some events have a completely different outcome.

Hemingway, like Henry, enjoyed drinking large amounts of alcohol. Both of them were involved in World War I, in a medical capacity, but neither of them were regular army personnel. Like Hemingway, Henry was shot in is right knee, during a battle. Both men were Americans, but a difference worth noting was that Hemingway was a driver for the American Red Cross, while Henry was a medic for the Italian Army. In real life, Hemingway met his love, Agnes, a nurse, in the hospital after being shot; Henry met his love, Catherine Barkley, also a nurse, before he was shot and hospitalized.

In both cases, the relationships with these women were strengthened while the men were hospitalized. Another difference is that Hemingway’s romance was short-lived, while, the book seemed to indicate that, Henry’s romance, though they never arried, was strong and would have lasted. In A Farewell to Arms, Catherine and her child died while she was giving birth, this was not the case with Agnes who left Henry for an Italian Army officer. It seems to me that the differences between the two men were only surface differences. They allowed Hemingway to call the novel a work of fiction.

Had he written an autobiography the book would probably not have been well-received because Hemingway was not, at that time, a well known author. Although Hemingway denied critics’ views that A Farewell to Arms was symbolic, had he not made any changes they would not have been as mpressed with the war atmosphere and with the naivete of a young man who experiences war for the first time. Hemingway, because he was so private, probably did not want to expose his life to everyone, and so the slight changes would prove that it was not himself and his own experiences which he was writing about.

I believe that Hemingway had Catherine and her child die, not to look different from his own life, but because he had a sick and morbid personality. There is great power in being an author, you can make things happen which do not necessarily occur in real life. It is obvious that Hemingway felt, as a young hild and throughout his life, powerless, and so he created lives by writing stories. Hemingway acted out his feelings of inadequacy and powerlessness by hunting, drinking, spending lots of money and having many girlfriends. I think that Hemingway was obsessed with death and not too sane.

His obsession shows itself in the morbid death of Miss Barkley and her child. Hemingway was probably very confused about religion and sin and somehow felt or feared that people would or should be punished for enjoying life’s pleasures. Probably, the strongest reason for writing about Catherine Barkley’s death and the death of er child was Hemingway’s belief that death comes to everyone; it was inevitable. Death ends life before you have a chance to learn and live.

He writes, in A Farewell to Arms, “They threw you in and told you the rules and the first time they caught you off base they killed you. .. they killed you in the end. You could count on that. Stay around and they would kill you. ” Hemingway, even in high school, wrote stories which showed that people should expect the unexpected. His stories offended and angered the principal of his school. I think that Hemingway liked shocking and annoying people; he was certainly rebellious. If he would have written an ending where Miss Barkley and her child had lived, it would have been too easy and common; Hemingway was certainly not like everyone else, and he seemed to be proud of that fact.

Even the fact that Hemingway wrote curses and had a lot of sex in his books shows that he liked to shock people. When his publisher asked that he change some words and make his books more acceptable to people, Hemingway refused, then was forced to compromise. I think that the major difference between Hemingway and Henry was that Henry was a likable and normal person while Hemingway was strange nd very difficult. Hemingway liked doing things his way and either people had to accept him the way he was or too bad for them. I think that Hemingway probably did not even like himself and that was one reason that he couldn’t really like other people.

Hemingway seemed to use people only for his own pleasure, and maybe he wanted to think that he was like Henry who was a nicer person. In the book, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Malcolm Cowley focuses on the symbolism of rain. He sees rain, a frequent occurrence in the book, as symbolizing disaster. He points out that, at the eginning of A Farewell to Arms, Henry talks about how “things went very badly” and how this is connected to “At the start of the winter came permanent rain”. Later on in the book we see Miss Barkley afraid of rain.

She says, “Sometimes I see me dead in it”, referring to the rain. It is raining the entire time Miss Barkley is in childbirth and when both she and her baby die. Wyndham Lewis, in the same book of critical essays, points out that Hemingway is obsessed with war, the setting for much of A Farewell to Arms. He feels that the author sees war as an alternative to baseball, a sport of ings. He says that the war years “were a democratic, a levelling, school”. For Hemingway, raised in a strict home environment, war is a release; an opportunity to show that he is a real man.

The essayist, Edgar Johnson says that for the loner “it is society as a whole that is rejected, social responsibility, social concern” abandoned. Lieutenant Henry, like Hemingway, leads a private life as an isolated individual. He socializes with the officers, talks with the priest and visits the officer’s brothel, but those relationships are superficial. This avoidance of real relationships and nvolvement do not show an insensitive person, but rather someone who is protecting himself from getting involved and hurt.

It is clear that in all of Hemingway’s books and from his own life that he sees the world as his enemy. Johnson says, “He will solve the problem of dealing with the world by taking refuge in individualism and isolated personal relationships and sensations”. John Killinger says that it was inevitable that Catherine and her baby would die. The theme, that a person is trapped in relationships, is shown in all Hemingway’s stories. In A Farewell to Arms Catherine asks Henry if he feels trapped, now that she is pregnant. He admits that he does, “maybe a little”.

This idea, points out Killinger, is ingrained in Hemingway’s thinking and that he was not too happy about fatherhood. In Cross Country Snow, Nick regrets that he has to give up skiing in the Alps with a male friend to return to his wife who is having a baby. In Hemingway’s story Hills Like White Elephants the man wants his sweetheart to have an abortion so that they can continue as they once lived. In To Have and Have Not, Richard Gordon took his wife to “that dirty aborting horror”. Catherine’s death, in A Farewell to Arms, saves the author’s hero from the hell of a complicated life.

Ernest Hemingway Biography Analysis

Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois, in July of 1899. His full name was Ernest Miller Hemingway. His father was a physician and his mother was very artistic and responsive to the culture of her day. In high school Ernest participated in many sports. He participated only because he was expected to not because he wanted to or enjoyed playing. However, from the beginning his only true love was for writing. At the young age of eighteen, Hemingway began a promising career in writing, that would provide for him for years to come.

He contributed regularly to the Tabula, a literary magazine, and he worked riefly as a reporter for the Kansas City Star. Hemingway had a very unique style, which was by no means spontaneous. It came from many years of reporting that gave him his crisp language. He has been defined as the master of dialog. He developed a plain, yet forceful prose style characterized by simple sentences and exact descriptions. He also created a! type of male character who faces violence and destruction with courage. This is often referred to as Hemingways “code hero”.

He had a huge influence on twentieth century writers and his style has been imitated by a large number of authors. He learned to write objectively from Lionel Calhoun Morse, a family journalist of the day. Many of Hemingways themes refer to death and the difficulties in the lives of men. Hemingway, later decided he wanted to fight in the war in Europe. Yet after being turned down twelve times by the health examiner, he volunteered for the Red Cross Ambulance Service. In May of 1918, he was shipped to Europe as “honorary lieutenant” to see service with the Italian Army.

Hemingways experience with the Italian army and his first experience at war gave him substance for his second novel, A Farewell To Arms (www. library. com). Hemingways most famous works were two of his first: The Sun Also Rises(1926) and A Farewell To Arms(1929). When Hemingway returned to America in 1927, he began to write his collection of short stories, which included: “A Clean-Well Lighted Place”; “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber”; and “The Snows of Kilimanjaro”. He also wrote nonfiction. His Death in the Afternoon deals with bullfighting, which he enjoyed.

In Green Hills of Africa(1935) he describes his experience on an African Safari. When he went to Spain, he used the war setting to compose, For Whom the Bell Tolls. By the 1940s he was internationally famous. Across the River and Through the Trees showed his quickly increasing bitterness for life. Further, The Old Man and The Sea exposed Hemingways concern for presenting a tough, masculine image. Hemingway suffered both mental and physical illnesses during the 1950s which caused his suicide on July 2, 1961. “A Movable Feast” was published after! his death.

It has been defined as a notebook he kept in the 1920s, while in Paris, France. Baker 1988). Although Hemingway is dead, he was a remarkable man, and his style and notorious works live on through he writers of today. 3. When Frederic meets Catherine we know nothing about her except that she is an English nurse whose fianc has died in the war. She is first portrayed as being beautiful and somewhat distant. As we get to know her we begin to see her concern for love and its expression. She ends up giving herself completely to Frederic. This makes her a static character and causes us to notice the significant changes in Frederic throughout the novel.

Catherine fits the description of Hemingways code hero very well. This is because he finds meaning in her world, denies formal religion as a sort of comfort, and faces both life and death with little to no self pity. With her extreme “goodness and constancy to Frederic, she has been criticized as a dream image, as a bland creature with very little personality, and as an unrealistic image of a woman (www. elibrary. com)”. Cat and Frederics love for one another seems somewhat strange and unreal. However we as readers must also consider! the harsh and abnormal circumstances in which the two live.

They therefore must base their relationship ith and love for one another around their jobs and the war that contains them. Frederic is a confused man who is somewhat unfit for and in some ways not prepared to live in the war setting. Having left everything he knows back in America, Frederic has much trouble finding any real meaning in life. He is a disillusioned man who is looking for values to believe in. However, he also finds no comfort in formal religion, such as Christianity. He has decided to come to Europe, placing himself in a dangerous position, and having no plans or visions of his future.

He is an American ambulance driver who s not taking a gun into his hands, but trying to help others in a time of need. Frederics friend Rinaldi introduced he and Catherine and they started dating. While in the hospital with a blown-out knee, he realizes that he is crazy in love with Catherine and she instantly becomes all that is important in his life. He finds commitment and feelings in his relationship with Catherine, which is unlike anything he has experienced in the past. Then he g! oes off to the front and sees his friends being killed. With all of the chaos he cant stand to be away from the woman he loves.

He decides to abandon the war and his job to safely live with Catherine. In Frederics relationship with Catherine we can also see the hero in terms of Hemingways “code”. In the beginning of their relationship, Frederic is a hero, free of women. He is playing a mind game in which he believes he has control. But once he considers Cat as a sacred object, he no longer adheres to the code, in respect to women. During the story as Cat lets him dominate her, he still remains within the boundaries of the code. He is still Hemingways man that must show masculinity and control.

Catherine, however proves to fit the code” more precisely than Frederic, because she remains within the boundaries throughout the entire novel. In contrast, Frederic seems to follow others and only towards the end of the novel does he truly qualify as a model “code hero”.! Though Catherine Barkley and Frederic Henry have many abstract qualities and are different in many ways, they both qualify as being Hemingways “code hero”. 4. The primary attribute of the code hero is courage: “the hero must act honestly in terms of reality and establish his own values or beliefs by acting courageously (www. elibrary. om)”.

Hemingway implies that there is no “alternative” in life and that those who seek one come to find inner as well as outer disaster. The hero can not be found turning to any abstract ideal such as religion or politics and he does not pretend that people or places are other than they really are. He avoids self pity, knowing that it is a form of dishonesty. The hero must not make trouble for others and does not know of a thing called human nature. Thus there are no rules or guidelines in life. Also the hero must not view himself as better or worse of than another person (www. elibrary. com).

He is a man of action not theory. A code hero has the concept of death that “when youre dead youre dead” and he has no clear view of heaven. He believes that “life is all” and that he must receive! constant gratification. Hemingways hero must be self disciplined and have grace under pressure. Finally Hemingway states that only in the face of death can man discover his own “sense of potentiality(Cliff 1993)”. Throughout the novel, the two main characters, Catherine and Frederic have shown a great deal of courage. Frederic left his family and home behind to venture into a world with many uncertainties.

He watched many of his expectations turn sour after entering the war. Through all of this however, Frederic never once felt sorry for himself or opened his emotions to anyone. At the hospital, Frederic challenged his fate and lost, yet he never really broke down. He was outwardly calm as he accepted the struggles that fate delivered upon him, just as the Hemingway code dictates. Catherine displayed just as much if not more courage than Frederic. While in labor, after the delivery and before her death Cat showed a type of courage unknown to most others.

She did not mourn for her complications, yet faced them with an understanding that she could not stop them. Catherine was mentally as well as physically brave. She proved to be a true heroine through the many sacrifi! ces she gave of herself. Through these many examples, it is clear that both Catherine Barkley and Frederic Henry adhere to Heminways “code hero”. 2. Throughout his novel, A Farewell To Arms , Hemingway presents many World War 1 antagonists. He also illustrates the jobs of the two main characters and discusses the time and place where the action unfolds.

The entire novel is based on the harsh realities of the war and the complicated lives of those which it entraps. The author is very descriptive in his introduction of characters and development of meaningful settings. There are many World War 1 antagonists in Hemingways powerful novel that are open in expressing there beliefs about the war. The priest shares his moral disagreements with war and the actions that are taking place. Rinaldi, being a surgeon, sees victims of the war first hand and views the war as being nothing but a tremendous cause of pain, destruction, and corruption.

He tells Henry that it is only when he is operating to fight the “ravages of war wreaked on the bodies of soldiers”, that he feels his true manhood. Catherine Barkley is opposed to the war because it separates she and Frederic from being together and only gets in the way of their relationship. She has seen the wounds it has given Frederic and how it has injured and killed many innocent soldiers. Frederic also complies with the fact that the war is no less than a wall standing between he and Cat. Therefore he makes the decision to abandon his job to live with her (Cliff 1993).

Although they are both antagonists of the war, Frederic and Catherine both have specific jobs they must do to make money and help others. Frederic is an American ambulance driver and a second lieutenant. Catherine is an English nurse who transfers to different hospitals in order to take care of needy patients. Having these titles, both characters serve as preservers of life. Frederic preserves life by delivering bodies to the hospitals and Cat helps to save injured soldiers after they are delivered. Both have unselfish jobs and commit themselves fully to their work in order to spend time together.

Ernest Hemingway, a major American novelist

Ernest Hemingway was a major American novelist and short story writer whose principal themes were violence, machismo, and the nature of what is called now ‘male bonding. ‘; His renowned style for his firmly non-intellectual fiction is characterized by understatement and terse dialogue (Riley 231). Hemingway had a life that included him running away several times. Hemingway had many jobs before becoming a novelist and short story writer. He also had many influences, from his father’s suicide to painters that influenced his writings.

Ernest Hemingway, an American novelist and short story writer, whose style is characterized by crispness, childish dialogue and emotional understatement that has made him a major novelist and short story writer (Riley 231). Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois on July, 21 1899 to his mother Grace Hall and his father Clarence Edmonds Hemingway (Rood 187). Even though he was born into a upper-middle class family, he single handedly revised the Byronic stereotype of the artist-adventurer (Lesniak 20).

Hemingway’s childhood was rarely mentioned, other then that he tried to run away from ome several times when he was still in high school (Lesniak 23). After Hemingway graduated from Oak Park High School, he went to work, in 1917, as a reporter at the Kansas City Star. In 1918 he enlisted as an ambulance driver for the Red Cross in Italy. In 1920 he starts working as a reporter and a foreign correspondent for Toronto. After being an ambulance driver in Italy in World War I, he converted to Catholicism and he often referred to himself for the rest of his life as ‘a rotten Catholic’; (Lesnaik 20).

Hemingway married four times during his life, each time to a Midwestern American girl. First he married Hadley Richardson on September 3, 1921. On May 10, 1927 he married Pauline Pfeiffer. On November 21, 1940 he married Martha Gellhorn. Finally on March 14, 1946 he married Mary Walsh. He regarded the end of a marriage as a personal defeat (Rood 187). Hemingway had many kinds of figures. He was a craftsman dedicated to the art of letters who rarely wavered in his adherence to the highest standards of artistic probity.

He also significantly influenced twentieth century writing on all levels through his pronouncements and the principles of professionalism which he introduced and lived. Hemingway was also a night-club roisterer, a slick and chromatically unreal advertisement in the rotogravures, unfairly ‘good copy’; for the gossip columnists, public brawler and braggart, and the ‘batter’d. wreck’d old man’; who appeared to Seymour Betsky and Leslie Fielder as an ‘unsure schoolboy,’; desperately uncertain and frail (Lesniak 19).

Hemingway was awarded many awards, they included the Pulitzer prize for his novel ‘The Old Man and the Sea’; in 1953, the Noble Prize in 1954 and the American Academy of Arts and Letters Award of Merit in 1954 (Rood 187). On July 2, 1961, Hemingway was found dead with self inflicted wounds at his home in Ketchum, Idaho (Rood 188). A great lose for all literature lovers and admirers. Hemingway had many kinds of writing style, from his style compared to Cezanne painting style to that of his style having short and simple sentences.

Sheldon Norman described these characteristics of Hemingway’s writing tyle: ‘first, short and simple sentence structure, with heavy use of parallelism, which convey the effect of control, terseness, and blunt honesty; second, purged diction which above all eschews the use of bookish, latinate, or abstract words and thus achieves the effect of being heard or spoken or transcribed from reality rather then appearing as a contract of the imagination; and third, skillful use of repetition and a kind of verbal counterpoint, which operate either by pairing or juxtaposing opposites, or else by running the same word or phrase through a series of shifting meanings and inflections Lesniak 192).

Ernest believed that if he could see himself clear and whole, his vision might be useful to others who also lived in his world. However, in order to project those metaphors cleanly, he had to subject the total techniques of his writings to the natural rhythms of his own personality (Rovit 165).

Hemingway loved to play with words, toy with them, make puns and savor sounds, juggle a rhyme or utter a snappy piece of slang. Words came alive for him not just on the pages of books, but also in his conversations. He tried to find new and original ways of saying things. English is the one subject that never was difficult for him (Ferrell 35). Hemingway decided that he would write one story about each thing he knew about. He was doing this all the time he was writing and it was and severe discipline he said (Lesniak 192). People compare his writing style to that of Cezanne’s painting style. A Cezanne like simplicity of scene is built up with the touches of a master and the great effects are achieved with a sublime economy.

At these moments, style and substance are of one piece, each growing from the other, and one cannot imagine that life could exist except as describe (Lesniak 193) Hemingway’s work is still too fresh and close to people to be snugly categorized in literary history, but people think that they have demonstrated a configuration of very probable shapes and designs which future Hemingway’s criticism and scholarship is likely to extend, refurbish, and correct (Rovit 163). Hemingway like to use metaphors in his writings. Typically he will use the metaphors of games, sports, bullfights, and wars to describe his views on life. Baseball, football, horseracing, hunting and fishing provided him with his consistent metaphors for expression (Lesniak 31,32).

The metaphor of violent games provided Hemingway with a structure in which he could cast his aesthetic – present again and again, his portraits of the artist, as a hunter, fisherman, matador, soldier, prizefighter, and gambler (Lesniak 32). Hemingway had many influences and things that influenced him. Some of Hemingway’s literary influences included Ring Lardner, Sherwood Anderson, Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein (Lesniak 192). But he took some of Stein’s style and used it in his writings.

He took what was a ‘colloquial – in appearance – American style,’; full of repeated words, prepositional phrases and present participles, in which he wrote his early published stories in this style (Lesniak 192). When learning about his father’s suicide, Hemingway was influenced more. While he was writing the second draft of A Farewell to Arms, he learned of his father’s suicide.

This fact would influence the interior drama of his fiction. It is pointed out after the publication of A Farewell to Arms, Hemingway’s fictional output noticeably slows down (Lesniak 70). The volume is also noticeable for its savage concern with homosexuality and castration, and it is surely remarkable that none of the stories has a love interest. (Lesniak 70). In conclusion, Hemingway was a major novelist and short story writer of his time. By having the influences, like his father’s suicide, painters and violence. His writing approaches were his ways of approaching his identity of discovering himself in the projected metaphors of his experiences (Lesniak 165).

Ernest Hemmingway, A Masculine Writer Of Immense Emotion

Ernest Hemmingway is a masculine writer of immense emotion. He writes off of his life experiences and his feelings towards different subjects. Ernest Hemingway’s themes are virile on the surface, but when analyzed, one will find them to be romantic and sentimental. As one will find through the reading of Hemingway’s works he is a very masculine writer. Says one critic: “Hemingway fans have long made reference to the “Hemingway Hero’s”, or the “macho men” which seem to dominate most of the author’s semi-autobiographical works”(essortment1).

Brian Dennis writes: “Hemingway’s themes show part of his life. He was a man who delights in fishing, in hunting, in horseplay, and was a man filled with what used to be called animal spirits”(dennis02). Michael Reynolds states: “From 1921 to 1938 it has been the same story, love and pity and pride and loneliness concealed in a brief reportage of cruel facts”(reynolds369). Another expert explained that: “The glorification of the dangerous life of hunting and fishing is keeping Hemingway from deserving people, from writing about the life of his times”(jackson72).

As for Hemingway himself he calls himself a man’s man. Michael Reynolds stated that: “The method is to effete for Mr. Hemingway, who cannot develop themes for his work without first sailing for Cape Town of chartering a fishing smack or hiring a guide to the caribou country. Hemingway stated: “Writers should work alone. They should see each other only when their work is done, and not too often then. Otherwise they become like writers in New York. All angleworms in a bottle, trying to derive knowledge and nourishment from their own contact and from the bottle”(reynolds371).

In the face of so much advise, Hemingway continued to write only about what he knows, only as he sees it, only when he wants to, that is a quality that Hemingway posses that few other writers have”(waldhorn03). “The source of his material and spring to his imagination was his own life. Issues of intellect, history, myth, and society were beside the point. It is what his eyes say and heart felt that he cured into fiction”(fenton91). Says Charles Fenton about Hemingway.

To examine the extent of the masculinity of Hemingway’s themes, one must first get to know what some critics say about the themes of some of his stories. Speaking of “The Sun Also Rises” editors of a website dedicated to this book explained: “No amount of analysis can convey the quality of “The Sun Also Rises”. It is truly a gripping story, told in a lean hard athletic narrative. Mr. Hemingway shows uncanny skill at implementing his own masculine beliefs and values into a theme of immense emotion”(essortment2).

Seeing through the masculinity in the story Justin Day writes: “Mr. Hemingway has such a hold on his values that he makes an absorbing, beautifully and tenderly absurd, heartbreaking narrative of it, when on the surface, it seems as if it is going to be one of his infamous “Man Stories”(day3). Speaking of “A Farewell to Arms” which is a highly reviewed Hemingway story, Arthur Waldhorn writes that: “The chief result is of enamel luster imparted to the story as a whole, not precisely and iridescence, but a white light, rather, that pales and flashes, but never warms.

Which is Hemingway’s way of thinking, it is apparent that he has soft spots in his work and in his thoughts, but he refuses to let them show”(Waldhorn2). Reviewing the same story Jeff Marx states that “a Victorian telling the story of Henry and Catherine would have waxed sentimental; he would have sought the tears of his reader. And he would surely himself shed tears as he wrote”(jackson73). Many believe that Hemingway wrote about fictional characters that had the life that Ernest Hemingway himself tried to lead.

Brian Dennis speaking of the story “To Have and Have Not” states: “Henry was a big bruiser of a man, hard as they come, happily married by reason of a strong physical attachment, and was the father of two girls”(dennis14). As stated before many critics believe that Hemingway’s themes are sentimental and somewhat romantic. For example Michael Reynolds writes: “Hemingway has tremendous personality. It is not the usual kind of personality in literature, not D. H.

Lawrence’s or Chekhov’s, or Max Beerbohm’s; it isn’t inflammatory or pervasive or repellant; indeed it is a personality in retreat, almost in hiding; an implied personality just as Hemingway’s sense of values is an implied sense of values(reynolds373). Hemingway seems to be a romantic man with a masculine way of thinking. One feels that he learns about people by listening to them, not by talking to them. In the end he probably learns more that way(jackson73).

But he remains in a subtle sense, a stranger among his themes and characters”(fenton76). Alfred Aronowitz does not think that it is very difficult to find that Hemingway’s themes are romantic. He states “Everybody, more or less, knows that at the bottom Hemingway is a romantic and a sentimentalist, it is not a new discovery yet it remains an interesting one to discuss” (aronowitz41). “It has given him the physical sensations of direct action, rude contact, swift pace.

It has given him something to be downright, and if necessary, harsh about without exposing himself as inhumane; it has given him somebody else’s code to interpret so that he need not formulate (which is a much harder job) a code of his own; it has given him, perhaps, the right to despise. Which in turn, provides us with a false understanding of Mr. Hemingway” (aronowitz41). Alfred Aronowitz continued on to say. Hemingway’s themes explain his lifestyle, or the lifestyle that he made apparent to the public eye.

No writer can go on and on writing about the same things when they are merely things that he observed, overheard, or impaled with his intelligence quite like Hemingway”(jackson74). Says Jeff Marx. It is said that the themes that Ernest Hemingway had in his stories were things that just popped in his mind through a day of being alone or a day of hunting (fenton82). One can then come to the conclusion that Hemingway was a dreamer and not too much in tune with the reality that was his life, as such the themes in his stories proved this (fenton83).

Alfred Aronowitz believed that Ernest Hemingway’s way of thinking provided themes for Hemingway’s stories. “Hemingway seemed to always have a contrasting theme in his stories. When Hemingway was at a down time in life, he would write about a hero, also when Hemingway was seemingly on cloud nine, he would write about murder”(Aronowitz43). After over 50 years of analysis, there are still thousands of opinions and hypothesis on why Hemingway wrote about what he did. But there are a few things that are agreed upon.

Ernest Hemmingway was came off as a man’s man (reynolds371). It is a fact that most of his stories consisted of predominantly masculine themes. Whether it is a world war hero or an everyday macho man, Hemmingway seems to have always been a writer that reached out to a male audience (fenton89). Through research one will also find Hemingway’s themes to be somewhat romantic and sentimental (aronowitz41). All of these facts concerning Hemingway go for not if one does not get the writer to know for oneself. He is truly a brilliant and thoughtful writer (fenton88).

Hemingway’s “The Snows of Kilimanjaro”

Hemingway’s “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” is a story about a man and his dying, his relationship to his wife, and his recollections of a troubling existence. It is also, more importantly, a story about writing. Through the story of Harry, a deceptive, dying, decaying writer, Hemingway expresses his own feelings about writing, as an art, as a means of financial support, and as an inescapable urge. Much criticism has been written about the failures of Harry in “Snows” (although most of it, apparently, is not available in Library West) and most of this is wildly far from understanding the most important ideas Hemingway presents.

I will attempt to explain why what has been written is wrong and why what has not been written is fundamental to the story. Several critics have tried to analogize Harry’s failure to write what he wants to write to his failure to achieve the summit of Mt. Kilimanjaro. What they have overlooked, intentionally or not, is that Harry and his wife are not actually trying to climb the mountain. They have no lofty goals to reach the highest point in Africa, but are in their position while hunting game. They have gone to Africa on a safari and it is only a happenstance that they are situated at the base of he mountain when the story occurs.

Obviously the mountain has significance in the story, but to view it as a symbol of another one of Harry’s failures is to place more responsibility on it than Hemingway intended. It has also been written that when Harry comes to realize the summit in his death-dream, Hemingway is absolving him of his failures and granting salvation on the protagonist in the form of a successful climb. Harry has failed to achieve that for which he was striving in life, but in and through death he is able to gain fulfillment. Unfortunately again critics are (intentionally? ignoring the fact that Harry and Compton do not ever reach the top of Mt.

Kilimanjaro. Harry dreams that this is where he is headed, but Hemingway never has him actually arrive there. Instead the reader leaves Harry in an indeterminate state and returns to the world of the living, albeit sleeping, unnamed wife. Finally, some critics revel in the pretense that Harry never writes the things about which he most wants, and is therefore a failure. Harry is the author who cannot bring himself to write about his past experiences, who cannot capture his sensory erceptions in language, who cannot summon the ability to do what has made him who he is.

The critic Macdonald goes to great pains to explain that the italicized portions of the story are the ones about which Harry has always desired, but never been able, to write. Macdonald points out that the italicized text is comprised of the experiences which would have made good fiction, had they been written. Sadly, Macdonald would have us believe, Harry is never given the opportunity to write these stories because he has grown soft, he has lost the ability to create, he has failed as a writer. Macdonald says that Hemingway portrays Harry as a man who is a “failed artist” but this is not true.

Hemingway portrays Harry as an artist who is struggling with his art, an art that Hemingway knows intimately. It is, in fact, a struggling which Hemingway utilizes wonderfully to show just how crippling the loss of one’s muse is to a writer. He is also able to communicate just how deceptive that muse can be, and how once that muse infects a writer, he is no longer in control over his craft. Through “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” Hemingway manages to convey the most universal of truths: Text is alive. Once something has been written, all aspects of intentionality are lost.

Every word, every phrase carries with it so much convoluted and inexplicable baggage into any reader’s mind that to try and assume what a writer is trying to write is a supreme exercise in futility. The best that can be done is to try and untangle what something means without trying to project that meaning onto anyone else’s understanding of it. After all the critics and professors and students and bathtub readers have gone over what you’ve written with their own eyes, all that is left is simply what you have placed on the page.

Like Frankenstein’s monster, the text, once it leaves the author’s pen (pencil, word-processor, computer, dictaphone… ), has a life completely unto itself. It can be read but it cannot be altered. It can be interpreted, but it cannot be understood. The only reason to view Harry as a failure is because he never writes what he wants to write. The stories, the text he most desires to write, he fears, will die with him. But what Harry is never allowed to write, the pieces of “Snows” in italics, is in fact written. How can Harry be viewed as a failure when what he most desires to write is, in the end, readable?

Ernest Hemingway – one of the greatest writers of the century

Ernest Hemingway was one of the greatest writers of the century. He was born at the close of the old century but was able to see the Disorders of the new century. Hemingway was marvelous in bringing about his pictorial effects for his readers even in his drunken state. Hemingway was skilled in the way he presented the real and concrete to be the first essentials in his writing. He put life back on the page so that we could see the grim reality of the truth. Hemingways style brought minute details to the surface so that the readers would understand his meanings. In the stories that I have chosen the critics have analyzed the story.

In this paper I intend to prove that Ernest Hemingways writing in Soldiers Home and Hills Like White Elephants influenced American writing styles through Symbols, Themes and writing techniques. In several of Hemingways short stories, he uses one or more animals as symbols around which the story revolves. As central symbols, Hemingways animals are the manifestations of the psychological states and emotional desire of the main characters in the stories. He uses the symbols to enable the reader to comprehend the often not stated psychological forces that motivates them.

Hemingways use of symbolism is a contribution to the richness of his characters. It provides the reader with a vehicle through which they can associate. Without them the stories would lose much of their color and clarity. In the short story Soldiers Home, Majorie Smelstor said the title of this story suggests a familiar American landmark and symbol, The soldiers home, a place for retired military to live and relive their war experiences In this tale, however, the soldiers home is neither a haven for ex-soldiers nor an environment for reminiscing (MaGill 2170).

Another symbol is the lies that Kerb lives with every day. Marjorie Smelstor said For the townspeople do not want to hear the truth about the atrocities of battle, preferring, instead, lies about the heroics of war (MaGill 2170). Marjorie Smelstor said In the end of the story Mrs. Kerbs reasserts her maternal role, reminding her son that she held him next to her heart when he was a tiny baby, Reducing kerbs to the juvenile lie: I know, mummy Ill try and be a good boy for you (MaGill 2171). The other story that I have chosen is Hills Like White Elephants it has many different symbols that relate to peoples lives.

Hal Hollady said The name of the girl (Jig) is a symbolic name. It is a name of a lively dance. The name implies that she may change her mind about the abortion [at any time] (MaGill 1020). This story does not come out and tell you what is going on between the man and the woman. The symbols relate to what is happening. One of the important symbols is the bamboo bead curtain [that hangs] across the doorway of the station bar room (Gilmor 47 ). The curtain[according to the critics] represents the mans desire to maintain the status quo in their relationship.

The curtain represents their emotional separation as well, for they regard it differently as they do the more familiar symbol of the hills (Organ 11). Hills refer to the shape of the belly of a pregnant woman, and white elephant is an idiom that refers to useless or unwanted things (Organ 11). Making more specific symbol of the bead curtain, Elliot thinks that when jig takes hold of the two strains of beads they represent the rosary beads and her also being a catholic. When Jig plays with the beads the man thinks that she is playing with a childs toy, thus the curtain may symbolize the unborn child.

The abortion is not merely a perfectly natural or simple operation to her, it is a symbolic act. Jig thinks this will cut her off irrevocably from what is good and alive in the world (MaGill 1019). [Towards the end of the story] the landscape takes on a powerful [picture]. It describes where the couple waits for the train. The country is brown and dry. The girl feels that the dry is a representation to herself as the barren. On the other side of the tracks the fields are green with several trees (MaGill 1020). In these two stories Hemingway demonstrates how he uses the symbols to display the emotion of the characters.

Hemingways themes are the main plots of the stories that sometimes uneventful. It is not what does happen but what is not said that is important. In the Soldiers Home The detached objective voice in this story is characteristic of Hemingways work and serves to maintain a constant tension between narration and subject matter (Wilson 205 ). One of the stories central concern is described by a term that was once fashionable the generation gap (Wilson 205). The gap is more like a chasm that separates the ex-marine from the towns people (MaGill 2171).

Before the war, the conventional values of Kerbs hometown had been, for the most part, American values (MaGill 2171). When the main character kerb came home from the war he is changed but the townspeople are not. The conflict is between challenger and challenged. The tension between Americans moving into the modern world and Americans protecting Victorians values (MaGill 2173 ). It just happened that after World War 1. The soldiers were among the chief challengers. Kerbs return from the war changed by his experiences, but the local citizenry is exactly what they were before the war, sure of themselves and their values (Magill 2173).

Like Kerbs of Soldiers Home he will later retract his denial of love [but] is not truthful in his retraction (Magill 2173). In the main themes of Hills like white Elephant the story is mostly dialog and has very little action. The critics describe this story like A game of chess. Hemingways story deals with the sterility and vacuity of the modern world (Halladay 1019). [This is] a masterfully compressed story of a couples discussion concerning a mans proposal that the[ girl jig], summits to an abortion (Wilson 205).

Hemingways characters seem to live in a world without God, traditions or values. He is quite literal minded, quite pragmatic, quite unemotional: an admirable fellow by modern patriarchal standards. The woman, on the other hand, is unreasonable enough to imagine that hills look like white elephants. There might be some virtue to having a child who would surely be like a white elephant, a sacred beast in some cultures, but in America or Europe, something that is more trouble than it is worth (MaGill 1020). The man well situated in his life and does not want to be bothered with more responsibility.

The boredom of the man and desperation of the girl reveal the emptiness of the postwar generation and the critical necessity of taking responsibility for the quality of ones life (MaGill 1020). The girl jig, tries to talk to him about it but does not get the response she wants so she ends up not wanting to talk at all. Marjorie Smelstor said She is tugging at the Americans sympathy strings and playing him like a fiddle (Gagne 2). In this story Jig is a tragic figure seemingly driven into a barren and empty existence by her love for this man.

Hemingways brief and seemingly objective story is a powerful condemnation of the aimlessness, hypocrisy, moral and spiritual poverty of the modern world (MaGill 1021). In the end the couple presumably board the train; she has the abortion; and their relationship continues its downward drift into a barren emptiness. Hemingway was a unique individual as a writer. He influenced many writers with the technique of his writing style. Young said [Hemingways] relationship between [his stories and] his own life is an immediate and intricate one (Marowski, Stine 5).

Some stories appear to report details of actual experience as faithfully as he might have entered them in his diary. Young said, In others the ploy of his imagination has transformed experiences into a new and different reality (Marowski, Stine 5). This style is what made Hemingway different from the other writers. Paul Rosenfeld said, In the story Soldiers Home this is one of Hemingways form half left in limbo of the stencil. The happy relief to this and other stories that he left incomplete pieces (Guton 211).

Hemingways narrative technique, sentence structure, dialogue, and the use of several symbolism are imagery strategies that create a marriage between form and content in the story. Horce P. Jones points out that Hemingway makes a couple of errs in the story (Monteiro 50). First it’s clear that both errs were deliberate on Hemingways part. It serves as suttle but telling tail to establish the cool detached irony he evidently wanted for [Soldiers Home](Horce 50). It [is] unlikely that the editors missed Hemingways err with the discrepancy of dates and months (Monteiro 50). One] err is when [Hemingway writes that] Soldier Kerbs returns home years later after the war was over. Kerbs missed out on the town celebrating the return of the soldiers. The other err Hemingway wrote was that Kerbs was a soldier who had enlisted in the marines in 1917, but the story refers to Kerbs as a soldier. To refer to a marine in these terms is anathema (Monteiro 51). The editor felt this was how Hemingway wanted the story to be with the errs so he left it the way it was. Marjorie Smelstor said The sentence structure was suited to the message of restraint of the famous Hemingway code of grace under pressure (Gagne 2171).

The context in which the details are presented makes this apparent. It guides the reader to clearly ironic tone [this] controls [the readers] interpretation of [the] facts as presented (Monteiro 50). In style and technique of Hills Like White Elephants is a quintessential early Hemingway story, the use of the language of speech as the basis for the story, the insistence on the presentation rather than contrary the condensation and the intensity are all basic elements of his theory of fiction (MaGill 198).

Hemingways technique plays an important role in this story. The use of clear and economical style to reveal a relationship which is troubled and complex is ironic (MaGill 198). The story is carefully written. Through out the reader will understand the relationship between the American and the girl. The language is simple and even colloquial, this expresses feelings (Gagne 3). The story starts out with Spanish as the language so you would think of the setting of Mexico or Spain. Hemingway uses the language so it would not be a mistake or inconceivable (Gagne 3).

In using this technique he is able to keep you in suspense of the story, but also have you understand his way of writing. Hemingway [uses a single word, anise to] reveal his greatness as a writer to the unerring details conveyed. [The word anise] portrays the conflict and strain in communication between the girl and the [American] as they discuss whether or not to abort the embryo ( Passey 32). Anise is a cleansing drink. It has a seed that aids in expelling gas from the alimentary canal to relieve colic.

Colic is a paroxysm of abdominal pain localized in a hollow organ. The American orders this drink for him and the girl. This clearly shows you that the conflict and lack of communication between the two of them (Passey 33). The answer is still unresolved and the girl must choose between the man and the baby. At the end of the story the reader is not sure of the girl’s decision. Hemingway left the end of the story unresolved. In his life time Ernest Hemingway enjoyed tremendous success as a writer.

His ability to describe a story in detail was his best talent. On the two stories, Ernest showed his unique ability of story telling. Hemingway was very clever in using Symbols to bring his characters to life. Hemingway wrote many of war stories but was never a soldier. He just had the talent of looking at life and writing it down in a symbolic way. Most all the critics come up with the conclusion that Hemingway was truly talented. He influenced other American writers with his style, symbols, themes and technique.

A Farewell To Arms written by Ernest Hemingway Analysis

A Farewell To Arms written by Ernest Hemingway illustrates a typical love story between two people, this love story plays out in a war torn Italy during world war I, where Italy was battling Austria, the novels main characters, lieutenant Fredrick Henry an American ambulance driver serving in the Italian army and Catherine Barkley an English volunteer nurse who served in Italy. The novel portrays Henry as a drunk who traveled from one house of prostitution to the next, he was not happy with his lifestyle.

Henry feels detached from life and is on a quest for identification, he gives a particular insight about how he feels about women clear, cold and dry. Henry loved to play the role of a womanizer. He is isolated from his family and compatriots. He is an American fighting a war in another country. In my opinion Henry is emotionally exhausted and it appears he has no place to go. Henry meets Catherine Barkley, near the front between Italy and Austria-Hungary. Catherine suffered during this war before she met Henry. Catherine had lost her fianc during this war.

She was startled by rain in her nightmares. She perceived rain as death. At first Henry wanted to seduce the nurse, to him it was a game, he had told the nurse that he loved her, but she had caught on to his game. Catherine confronted Henry and told him what she thought of his game. He was severely wounded on one of his runs. Henry was sent to the American hospital where Catherine worked. That is where he actually began to fall in love with her. He fully recovered and returned to the war-front, during a retreat the Italians started to fall apart.

Henry shot an engineer sergeant under his command for dereliction, later in the confusion Henry is arrested by the battle police for the crime of not being Italian. He is disgusted with the army and facing death at the hands of the battle police during questioning. Henry decided he has had enough of the war, he ran into the river to escape. After swimming to safety, Henry boards a train to reunite with his love Catherine whom is pregnant with his child. Here is where he meets with an Italian bartender who will help him escape to Switzerland by boat.

Henry and Catherine plan to get married soon after the baby is born. The months past while they are in the safety of Switzerland. Henry is awaken one morning by Catherine stirring in bed. She was having severe pain; they rushed to a hospital, she would be required to have a caesarean. A nurse informed Henry that the baby did not survived. The baby was born dead, suffocated with its umbilical cord wrapped around his neck. The nurse then informed him about Catharines situation, she had a hemorrhage. Henry wanted to be by Catherines side but the nurse did not let him in the room.

He knew that Catherine would not make it. Henry sat outside in the hall, at this point he begins to pray to God, Dont let her die. Oh God, please dont let her die. Ill do anything for you if you wont let her die. Please, please, please, dear God, dont let her die. Dear God please make her not die. Ill do anything you say if you dont let her die. You took the baby but dont let her die. That was all right but dont let her die. Please, please, dear God, dont let her die. (330) This is one part in the entire novel that the author has shown any emotions by Henry.

The nurse signaled him to come into the room. He approached Catherine and began to cry by her side. Catherine was very ill and was falling unconscious; the doctor had asked Henry to exit the room. Henry exited the room to the hallway with the doctor, he was offered some company for his way home but he declined any offers made by the doctor and nurses. Catherine had die from her birth labor. Henry went into the room, got the nurses out and shut the door then he proceeded to turn off the lights, it wasnt any good for him, it was like saying good-by to a statue.

After a while he left the hospital and walked back to the hotel in the rain. Henry had lost something of great value. He realized death is the end and when it comes; there is nowhere to go. He accepted death as the end of existence. I would recommend a Farewell To Arms by Ernest Hemingway. It is a novel where it places two people against all odds. It reveals how a man can change from being a sensuous womanizer, insensitive, alcoholic, rude, and atheist to a man who settled down and sought everything he hoped for in life by finding someone to love and admire.

It also shows how two people can devote their differences in understanding each others tragedies and emotions. Henry and Catherines relationship shows how they use and maintain each others self images, providing themselves with the support they need. Many modern couples can identify with these aspects of this novel and the problems that occur in their relationship, but cannot assume the love-playing role. By reading this book it can enlighten couples of what true love should be.

In many of our relationships we have encountered problems that we fail to over come. This novel shows that there is nothing impossible for a couple to overcome together. We let many people dictate to us what love should be about. We do not make much of an effort to accomplish and pursue what we feel love is. Sometimes we need to understand that no matter what happens in life or in death Love is a hard thing to let go. This is why I would recommend this novel to a friend who is trying to find a true meaning of Love.

A Farewell To Arms: Style

Critics usually describe Hemingway’s style as simple, spare, and journalistic. These are all good words; they all apply. Perhaps because of his training as a newspaperman, Hemingway is a master of the declarative, subject-verb-object sentence. His writing has been likened to a boxer’s punches–combinations of lefts and rights coming at us without pause. Take the following passage: We were all cooked. The thing was not to recognize it. The last country to realize they were cooked would win the war. We had another drink. Was I on somebody’s staff? No. He was. It was all balls.

The style gains power because it is so full of sensory detail. There was an inn in the trees at the Bains de l’Allaiz where the woodcutters stopped to drink, and we sat inside warmed by the stove and drank hot red wine with spices and lemon in it. They called it gluhwein and it was a good thing to warm you and to celebrate with. The inn was dark and smoky inside and afterward when you went out the cold air came sharply into your lungs and numbed the edge of your nose as you inhaled.

The simplicity and the sensory richness flow directly from Hemingway’s and his haracters’–beliefs. The punchy, vivid language has the immediacy of a news bulletin: these are facts, Hemingway is telling us, and they can’t be ignored. And just as Frederic Henry comes to distrust abstractions like “patriotism,” so does Hemingway distrust them. Instead he seeks the concrete, the tangible: “hot red wine with spices, cold air that numbs your nose. ” A simple “good” becomes higher praise than another writer’s string of decorative adjectives.

Though Hemingway is best known for the tough simplicity of style seen in the irst passage cited above, if we take a close look at A Farewell to Arms, we will often find another Hemingway at work–a writer who is aiming for certain complex effects, who is experimenting with language, and who is often self- consciously manipulating words. Some sentences are clause-filled and eighty or more words long. Take for example the description in Chapter 1 that begins, “There were mists over the river and clouds on the mountain”; it paints an entire dreary wartime autumn and foreshadows the deaths not only of many of the soldiers but of Catherine.

Hemingway’s style changes, too, when it reflects his characters’ changing states of mind. Writing from Frederic Henry’s point of view, he sometimes uses a modified stream-of-consciousness technique, a method for spilling out on paper the inner thoughts of a character. Usually Henry’s thoughts are choppy, staccato, but when he becomes drunk the language does too, as in the passage in Chapter 3: I had gone to no such place but to the smoke of cafes and nights when the room whirled and you needed to look at the wall to make it stop, nights in bed, drunk, hen you knew that that was all there was, and the strange excitement of waking and not knowing who it was with you, and the world all unreal in the dark and so exciting that you must resume again unknowing and not caring in the night, sure that this was all and all and all and not caring. The rhythm, the repetition, have us reeling with Henry.

Thus, Hemingway’s prose is in fact an instrument finely tuned to reflect his characters and their world. As we read A Farewell to Arms, we must try to understand the thoughts and feelings Hemingway seeks to inspire in us by the way he uses language.

Ernest Hemingway Biography

Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21st, 1899. He was the son of Dr. Clarence Edmonds and Grace Hall Hemingway. He grew up in a small town called Oak Park, Illinois. Hemingway was brought up in a somewhat conservative household by his parents who pushed the value of politeness and religion. It wasn’t until he began English classes in school that his writing talent began to shine. After he graduated from high school Hemingway turned his back on university and he decided to move to Kansas City. It was there where he got his first job as a writer.

He was a reporter for the Kansas City Star. The Star was the first to introduce to him the news writing format which demands brief, to the point sentences and the smooth flowing of ideas. It seems that Hemingway adapted this style to his fiction writng. Hemingway demonstrates this talent in a short story called “A Clean Well-Lighted Place”. When he was 19 Hemingway enlisted in the army. He was rejected due to a defective left eye. He then turned to the Red Cross in which he became a second lieutenant. The Red Cross brought him to the front lines of the war in Italy.

It was here where he saw many disturbing sights which probably had a hand in shaping his character. After extensive injuries from the war, Hemingway returned unhappily to Oak Park. The impression left on him by his participation in the war had greatly changed him. He began living at home again but refused to get a job, even when his mother ordered him to. Soon she kicked him out and he moved to Chicago. Here he made a living writing for the Toronto Star and working as a sparring partner for boxers. While he was in Chicago he met his first wife, the young and innocent Elizabeth Hadley Richardson.

Soon the young couple were married and they moved to Paris. It was here where Hemingway encountered many of the greats, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ezra Pound, Gertrude Stein, James Joyce, John Dos Passos and Ford Madox Ford. It was Stein who took him under her wing. She was first to point him in the direction of the simple declarative sentence, which was another great influence on his style. It seems to me that it wasn’t until Hemingway developed an interest in bull fighting that the idea for “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” may have come around. Bull fighting seemed to trigger a whole new interest in Spain.

The short story “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” was set in a small cafe in Madrid, Spain. There is an old deaf man who sits alone on a patio, sipping brandy. Together two waiters observe the old man who is their last customer. The old man is comforted by the peaceful atmosphere of the cafe but the younger waiter wants him to leave. Hemingway may have seen himself as the older waiter, he was about thirty-five years old when this story was written. In the story the older waiter comes from the stand-point that he is getting old and he does not really have anything to show for life, no friends, not very much money, and no real love.

At this point in his life, Hemingway may have seen himself here. “A Clean and Well-Lighted Place” originally appeared in a short story book, To Have and Have Not. This is a good summary phrase for this story. You have happiness or you don’t, you have friends or lovers or you don’t, you have money or you don’t, and for those people who don’t, there must be a place where they can seek a false sense of comfort, like a quiet cafe in Spain. I feel that Hemingway might have been feeling lonely and unfulfilled when he wrote this story.

The cafe might have been a fantasy place where he may have liked to go to comfort himself. It seems that he puts himself in the place of the older waiter who really has nothing but his work. Hemingway probably felt that he had nothing but his writing. There was an interesting part in the story that slants towards a religious theme. He writes, “It was nothing that he knew too well. It was all a nothing and a men was nothing too. It was only that and light was all it needed and a certain cleanness and order. Some lived in it and never felt it but he knew it all was nada.

Our nada who art in nada, nada be thy name… ” and he goes on from there. It first seemed like gibberish to me but when I asked a friend who is fluent in Spanish, if “nada” was a word in Spanish she said, “sure, it means ‘nothing'”. I think he wants the story to flirt with sacrilege by saying there’s only emptyness in the end. I liked this story because Hemingway is such an amazing writer. He can make you think about huge themes in the space of a short story. The dialogue is sparse yet he can still create characters so vibrant it is like watching a movie.

Hemingway’s short stories are very well thought out. In the story there is also talk about the old deaf man trying to commit suicide. This interests me because suicide seemed to fascinate Hemingway. Earlier in life his father disgusted him by committing suicide and then there is mention of it in the story. Hemingway may have felt that suicide was the only way to deal with a problem. Sadly enough Hemingway started suffering from mental problems later in life and he was admitted to a mental hospital. There he was treated and released sometime later.

Farewell To Arms: “You are all a lost generation”

This quotations importance on author Earnest Hemmingway is reflected in his modern Romeo and Juliet novel entitled A Farewell to Arms. The recurring tone of the novel suggests that the only reality is the harsh truth which is anything but romantic and proves that in the end, all is futile. This generation in which Stein spoke of to Hemingway is the generation of romantic war times. This idea is symbolized in the character Catherine Barkleys vision of her wartime love where she states.

I remember having this silly idea he might come to the hospital where I was. With a sabre cut, I suppose, and a bandage around his head. Or shot through the shoulder. Something picturesque. This is the picturesque front, I said. Yes, she said. People cant realize what France is like. If they did, it couldnt all go on. He didnt have a sabre cut. They blew him all to bits. (20) Catherines pathetic ideal of a picturesque rendezvous is also the majority mentality at the time. Her realization of the cruel truth is but a glimpse of the futile art of war and life.

Yet, even though it appears that she, who ultimately represents all of society in this scene, realizes this truth, she in fact is ignorant to it many times throughout the novel. The novel is terrorized by the overlaying tone of the harsh nihilism. Belief in nihilism is the melancholy view in which there is no point to life, and faith in nothing. This tone is best portrayed in the agony of Henry when questioned about his desires for the war by the priest. I had hoped for something . Defeat? No. Something more. There isnt anything more. Except victory. It may be worse.

I hoped for a long time for victory. Me too. Now I dont know. It has to be one or the other. I dont believe in victory any more. I dont . But I dont believe in defeat. Though it may be better. What do you believe in? In sleep, I said. He stood up. I am very sorry to have stayed so long. But I like so to talk with you. It is very nice to talk again. I said that about sleeping, meaning nothing. (179) As the dismal priest describes his lack of faith on the side of victory, the irony of the passage is increased when Henry confronts his nihilistic ways with the priest who represents the opposite.

His belief in sleep is more like his morbid belief in death as the only escape, while the priest sadly believes, but just not in victory. Even the little ray of hope in the end is lost. One may think that there is something to keep going for, yet as this novel proves, that truly all, including love is futile. This is the Romeo and Juliet dynamo that has been analyzed by many critics, and even the author himself. The ignorant, yet lovable Catherines death is truly the breaking of the last string holding off the nihilistic darkness.

As Henry says, it was like saying good-by to a statue. After a while I went out and left the hospital and walked back to the hotel in the rain (332). Sadly, her deceased corpse, reminds him of those marble bust which where so cold they reminded him of a cemetery. Henrys true birth of total nihilism and fultilism is born when the one single light of hope and faith in his life is swept away to the sleep. The one thing that kept him going, the shimmering light of dear Catherine and the promise of a child and hope of a happy life together, all fades into the rain.

The most ironically depressing part is that this was the price you paid for sleeping together (320). And that the death of Catherine was caused by the child, which in turn was caused by Henry. Throughout the novel, the reoccurring theme of futile hope, all comes down to the same thing. Its the picturesque war; its the realization of escape through sleep; its the vain love. They all point to one thing; nothing. It is the reinforcement of fatalism and nihilism through this tragedy which is the demise of a lost generation.

Ernest Hemmingway’s “A Farewell To Arms” as a classic display of literature

Ernest Hemmingways A Farewell To Arms is a classic display of literature. The way he develops his characters is ingenious. In the beginning of the story I did not like the way it was going. As I read deeper into the book, A Farewell To Arms I discovered the complexity of the characters themselves. I discovered that Frederic Henry was a rather complex character as well. When you are finally given the full picture of Frederic Henry, you realize that he can be described in several different ways. First, Frederic Henry is a round and very dynamic character.

You also realize that because Mr. Henrys mannerisms are so easily recognizable, he is a stock character as well. The point of view in the story is written in first person. The first person point of view is that of Frederic Henry. The stories underlying theme is identity. Throughout the whole story Frederic Henry is revealing himself to the audience and discovering himself at the same time. A secondary theme in the story is that Catherine, Frederics love interest, is slightly crazy. Throughout the story, I was intrigued by the things that Frederic Henry revealed to the audience.

While reading the story it was as if you were right there with Frederic, going through the same things he did, and knowing every intimate detail. The aspects that Frederic Henry display are the aspects of a well developed character and a true war hero. The first aspect I would like to touch on is that Frederic Henry is a well-rounded character. As the story progresses we learn more and more about the character Frederic Henry. Though it may seem like a small point, a good example of how we learn more about Frederic as the story progresses is the fact that he is nameless in the first four chapters.

Throughout the first four chapters, Frederic Henry is referred to as lieutenant by his peers and baby by his girlfriend. Its not until chapter five that he is referred to as Mr. Henry. Then we learn his full name, Frederic Henry, in chapter thirteen. Another example of Frederic Henry being a round character is that he is closely involved in just about every part of the story. Of course he would have to be involved in the majority of the story because its basically the confession of his life. The entire story we learn about Mr. Henry, and we watch him grow to become a good man.

Even when Frederic is not involved in the seen, he is still involved in many aspects of the scene. As other characters converse we still learn more about Frederic Henry and his relationship with each character. The second aspect of Frederic Henry as a character that I would like to display is the fact that he is a very dynamic character. Throughout the entire story Frederic Henry grows and changes. In the beginning Frederic is part of a group of soldiers. But as the story progresses and he and Catherine fall more into love Frederic begins to isolate he and Catherine from the group.

Instead of saying we in accordance to his group of friends he uses we to represent him and Catherine. Aside from isolating himself from his group of friends Frederic Henry changes from a rather self-centered person to a caring person. Instead of planning for his future and living to fulfill his needs he begins involving Catherine in the picture as well. Not only does he change in respect to Catherine but he changes in respect to other characters as well. Mr. Henry begins to look out for others needs, particularly in the battles he is involved with.

A great example of this is when Frederic gets injured badly he insists that the other soldiers be treated first. (Lewis, 46) There are countless other times when Frederic tries to help other soldiers, showing complete selflessness, but unfortunately fails. Though he failed to save Catherine, he showed major change from the way he was at the beginning of the story when he did all he could to save her. As the story progresses Frederic grows more and more familiar to the audience and his personality becomes more audience friendly. The third aspect of Frederic Henrys character is that he is a stock character.

A stock character is a character that is easily identifiable by the way they behave. Frederic Henry is very easy to identify. First off he almost always speaks in the plural form. For example, when he buys himself a gun he turns to Catherine and says, now we are fully armed, as if she too is armed. (Monteiro, 71) Another characteristic that Frederic Henry has, is that he is always trying to help other people. Throughout the entire story there are examples of he and his men out on the battlefield, and Frederic coming to someones aid.

Since this behavior takes place so many times you automatically know that it is Frederic Henry who is coming to the rescue. The event that is most memorable is when Frederic and his men are captured and Frederic manages to help all his men escape. Upon the escape Frederic rows he and his crew for over twenty miles to safety, in Switzerland. (Gellens, 45) The point of view in A Farewell To Arms, is a first person point of view. The interesting thing is that even though its a first person point of view, its a first person point of view that is expressed in a plural sense.

All threw the story Frederic Henry uses the phrase we to refer to himself and his group of friends. Another interesting thing is that later into the story Frederics usage of the word we changes from referring to his group of friends to his relationship with Catherine. The story is also a confession in a way. Its a confession because as he tells the story he admits to his shortcomings early on. Not only does he admit his shortcomings but its as if he needed to expresses his regret for the people he was not able save. (Lewis, 46) The entire story is told from Frederic Henrys perspective.

You see things as they happen through his eyes only. While telling the story Frederic Henry sounds almost apologetic, and when he retells his adventures, he uses a negative tone. The theme in the story is identity. The whole point of the story is Frederic Henry revealing himself to the audience and essentially explaining who he is. Time after time Frederic lets the audience in on intimate details. By explaining himself and his actions it is easier for the audience to identify with Frederic and put themselves in his place. By putting the audience member in his place, he forces you to participate in every adventure he goes through.

A secondary theme is presented as well. The secondary theme is one that portrays Catherine. Some skeptics think that Catherines central theme is craziness. (Lewis, 46) throughout the storyt she is called crazy and is referred to as the crazy one. Catherine even refers to herself as being crazy. An example of when Catherine refers to herself as crazy is when she says, I havent been happy for a long time, and when I met you perhaps I was a nearly crazy. She questions her sanity again when Frederic says I dont want you to get Scotch and crazy tonight and the Catherine replies I am Scotch and crazy. Lewis, 102) Some interesting points about Frederic Henrys character is that he is actually the antagonist as opposed to the protagonist. (Lewis, 46) The evidence for such an argument is all throughout the story. Time after time Frederic tries to save people, but fails almost every time. Such a quality brings hope into the eyes of the audience but then lets them down time and time again. Though there were several successful escapes and rescues the failures still outweighed the successes. In the beginning of the story Frederics self-centeredness is rather annoying and makes you dislike him.

Self-centeredness is the quality of an antagonist. Ernest Hemmingways A Farewell To Arms was all in all a good story. It displayed the trials and tribulations of an American soldier during wartime. The character Frederic Henry is a well-rounded and dynamic character. The fact that Frederic Henry was a stock character made him easy to recognize and therefore made the story easier to follow. Though the story was told through a first person point of view Ernest Hemmingway kept the story interesting by telling it through a plural first person. The underlying theme of the story was identity.

Frederic spent the whole story explaining who he was to the audience. The way Frederic told the story, he made it easy for the audience member to identify with him, therefore making it easier for the audience member to put themselves in his place. An interesting secondary theme is the theme that implies Catherine is crazy. Because of things Catherine says and does the crazy theme seems to fit her personality. Throughout the story there is plenty of evidence of all these things and these aspects made the story even better and much more fun to read.

The novel A Farewell to Arms, (1929) by Ernest Hemingway

The novel A Farewell to Arms, (1929) by Ernest Hemingway, takes place on the Italian front of World War I. Fredrick Henry is an American Lieutenant who drives an ambulance for the Italian army. On his leave time he often visits whorehouses and gets drunk. While fighting in the war, his knee gets injured and he has to go to the hospital in Milan where he meets a British nurse named Catherine Barkley and falls in love with her. During one of their many sexual affairs, Catherine gets pregnant. Fredrick greatly wants to desert the war because he is tired of seeing Italian solders killing each other.

Fredrick and Catherine then escape to Switzerland by rowing across a lake. After they escape to Switzerland, Catherine has the baby, but during labor there are complications and she must deliver by having cesarean section. Other problems arise, she begins hemorrhaging, and dies. The baby also dies from the birth. Although this novel is not perfect, he uses very elaborate writing, and also shows how important it is to have good morals. “I loved to take her hair down and she sat on the bed and kept very still, except suddenly she would dip down to kiss me while I was doing it… inside a tent or behind a falls. This novel is very graphic when it comes to them having sex or while he is at the whorehouses during his leave time. Many things in this novel are inappropriate for children and adults.

In more ways then one, Hemingway didn’t like women very much, one example is in chapter nine where he takes page and a half to describe how a solder dies who is not a main character in the book. But in chapter forty-one, he only uses approximately three lines to tell that Catharine dies, and she is a main character. In this novel there are a few things wrong. “The plain was rich with crops; there were many orchards of fruit trees… ut the nights were cool and there was not the feeling of a storm coming. ” The elaboration and choice of diction in this book is extraordinary. Hemingway uses so many words to describe the little things in this book.

“There was a great splashing and I saw the starshells go up and burst… biting his arm, the stump of his leg twitching,” is another great example of how he uses much elaboration in the novel. In this novel, it is shown that a man guided by morals has a structured and placid life. Fredrick who believes “nada” encounters tragedies in his life. He has nothing to judge his world by, nothing to guide him; he has no moral character.

He admires the priest because his life is guided by a choice to believe in a higher power and by the knowledge that he must chose good to improve the world in which he lives. Fredrick admires this lifestyle of peace and contentness, but can’t bring himself to guide his own life by a higher power or by good choices. This novel, A Farewell to Arms is well known and often read throughout the world because it shows the conflict in man to do and chose the right during the setting of war. It shows the good and evil in mankind. It also is one of Ernest Hemingway best written novels.

A Farewell To Arms

Critics usually describe Hemingway’s style as simple, spare, and journalistic. These are all good words; they all apply. Perhaps because of his training as a newspaperman, Hemingway is a master of the declarative, subject-verb-object sentence. His writing has been likened to a boxer’s punches–combinations of lefts and rights coming at us without pause. Take the following passage: We were all cooked. The thing was not to recognize it. The last country to realize they were cooked would win the war. We had another drink. Was I on somebody’s staff? No. He was.

It was all balls. The style gains power because it is so full of sensory detail. There was an inn in the trees at the Bains de l’Allaiz where the woodcutters stopped to drink, and we sat inside warmed by the stove and drank hot red wine with spices and lemon in it. They called it gluhwein and it was a good thing to warm you and to celebrate with. The inn was dark and smoky inside and afterward when you went out the cold air came sharply into your lungs and numbed the edge of your nose as you inhaled. The simplicity and the sensory richness flow directly from

Hemingway’s and his characters’–beliefs. The punchy, vivid language has the immediacy of a news bulletin: these are facts, Hemingway is telling us, and they can’t be ignored. And just as Frederic Henry comes to distrust abstractions like “patriotism,” so does Hemingway distrust them. Instead he seeks the concrete, the tangible: “hot red wine with spices, cold air that numbs your nose. ” A simple “good” becomes higher praise than another writer’s string of decorative adjectives.

Though Hemingway is best known for the tough simplicity of tyle seen in the first passage cited above, if we take a close look at A Farewell to Arms, we will often find another Hemingway at work–a writer who is aiming for certain complex effects, who is experimenting with language, and who is often self-consciously manipulating words. Some sentences are clause-filled and eighty or more words long. Take for example the description in Chapter 1 that begins, “There were mists over the river and clouds on the mountain”; it paints an entire dreary wartime autumn and foreshadows the deaths not only of many of the soldiers but of Catherine.

Hemingway’s style changes, too, when it reflects his characters’ changing states of mind. Writing from Frederic Henry’s point of view, he sometimes uses a modified stream-of-consciousness technique, a method for spilling out on paper the inner thoughts of a character. Usually Henry’s thoughts are choppy, staccato, but when he becomes drunk the language does too, as in the passage in Chapter 3: I had gone to no such place but to the smoke of cafes and nights when the room whirled and you needed to look at the wall to make it stop, nights in bed, drunk, when you knew hat that was all there was, and the strange excitement of waking and not knowing who it was with you, and the world all unreal in the dark and so exciting that you must resume again unknowing and not caring in the night, sure that this was all and all and all and not caring. The rhythm, the repetition, have us reeling with Henry.

Thus, Hemingway’s prose is in fact an instrument finely tuned to reflect his characters and their world. As we read A Farewell to Arms, we must try to understand the thoughts and feelings Hemingway seeks to inspire in us by the way he uses language.

The book Ernest Hemingway and his world

The book Ernest Hemingway and his world was written by Anthony Burgess and it was published in 1978 by Charles Scribners Sons. Its main concept is about the life of Ernest Hemingway and how he differed from his fellow writers in being a very strong man of action. There are many settings in the book because Ernest Hemingway was a man who traveled all his life to all of the United States, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean, and several other places. The author describes what Hemingway would do in each of these places and what the consequences caused by his actions were.

The first setting is in Oak Park Illinois, this is where Ernest Hemingway is born on July 21, 1899. When he grows up, Ernest goes to war in Europe and after that he comes back and moves to Chicago, which is where he marries Hadley Richardson. After they get married, they move to Canada where Hemingway’s son is born. When he finds himself unhappy, he divorces Hadley and moves to Paris where he meets and marries Pauline Pfeiffer, after a short period of time, he divorces her and marries Mary Welsh in Havana.

In 1953 he goes to a safari in Africa and has a serious accident, which leaves him ill for the rest of his days. At his last home in Ketchum, Idaho, on a Sunday morning on July 2, 1961, Ernest Miller Hemingway commits suicide. The author shows all the main conflicts that Hemingway goes through. I wonder how he knew such personal details about Hemingway’s life knowing that he was always a very private person. It is shown how Ernest is always treated by as a baby by his mom and how he never forgives her for his humiliation.

When he was in high school he would sometimes get in trouble for using forbidden words in the school paper. He would do this just to create a ruckus. The author lets us know how Hemingway’s heart is broken when a nurse he falls in love with, rejects him for another man. He also lets us see that Ernest is a very insensitive person when he leaves his wife and son for another woman, and this one for his third, and then finally fourth wife. This shows how unstable Ernest is.

He becomes so unstable that he takes his own life when he can’t handle all his problems. Burgess apparently wants the public to see how Hemingway lived an adventurous life and even though he always looked and acted very manly, he had a very confusing life and this probably explains why he didn’t fear death, especially his own. He also compares how Ernest takes much of his storyline from his novel, A Farewell to Arms, from his personal experiences.

The main character of the book experiences many of the same situations Hemingway faced. Some of these similarities are exact while some are less similar, and some events have a completely different outcome. I think that Anthony Burgess does a good job in this biography because he lets the public see all the details of Ernest Hemingway’s success and failures. I liked reading about Hemingway’s life because it was very interesting and I wouldn’t mind reading one of his famous books like A Farewell to Arms or Death in the Afternoon.

Ernest Miller Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. His father was the owner of a prosperous real estate business. His father, Dr. Hemingway, imparted to Ernest the importance of appearances, especially in public. Dr. Hemingway invented surgical forceps for which he would not accept money. He believed that one should not profit from something important for the good of mankind. Ernest’s father, a man of high ideals, was very strict and censored the books he allowed his children to read. He forbad Ernest’s sister from studying ballet for it was coeducational, and dancing together led to “hell and damnation”.

Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest’s mother, considered herself pure and proper. She was a dreamer who was upset at anything which disturbed her perception of the world as beautiful. She hated dirty diapers, upset stomachs, and cleaning house; they were not fit for a lady. She taught her children to always act with decorum. She adored the singing of the birds and the smell of flowers. Her children were expected to behave properly and to please her, always. Mrs. Hemingway treated Ernest, when he was a small boy, as if he were a female baby doll and she dressed him accordingly.

This arrangement was alright until Ernest got to the age when he wanted to be a “gun-toting Pawnee Bill”. He began, at that time, to pull away from his mother, and never forgave her for his humiliation. The town of Oak Park, where Ernest grew up, was very old fashioned and quite religious. The townspeople forbad the word “virgin” from appearing in school books, and the word “breast” was questioned, though it appeared in the Bible. Ernest loved to fish, canoe and explore the woods. When he couldn’t get outside, he escaped to his room and read books.

He loved to tell stories to his classmates, often insisting that a friend listen to one of his stories. In spite of his mother’s desire, he played on the football team at Oak Park High School. As a student, Ernest was a perfectionist about his grammar and studied English with a fervor. He contributed articles to the weekly school newspaper. It seems that the principal did not approve of Ernest’s writings and he complained, often, about the content of Ernest’s articles. Ernest was clear about his writing; he wanted people to “see and feel” and he wanted to enjoy himself while writing.

Ernest loved having fun. If nothing was happening, mischievous Ernest made something happen. He would sometimes use forbidden words just to create a ruckus. Ernest, though wild and crazy, was a warm, caring individual. He loved the sea, mountains and the stars and hated anyone who he saw as a phoney. During World War I, Ernest, rejected from service because of a bad left eye, was an ambulance driver, in Italy, for the Red Cross. Very much like the hero of A Farewell to Arms, Ernest is shot in his knee and recuperates in a hospital, tended by a caring nurse named Agnes.

Like Frederick Henry, in the book, he fell in love with the nurse and was given a medal for his heroism. Ernest returned home after the war, rejected by the nurse with whom he fell in love. He would party late into the night and invite, to his house, people his parents disapproved of. Ernest’s mother rejected him and he felt that he had to move from home. He moved in with a friend living in Chicago and he wrote articles for The Toronto Star. In Chicago he met and then married Hadley Richardson. She believed that he should spend all his time in writing, and bought him a typewriter for his birthday.

They decided that the best place for a writer to live was Paris, where he could devote himself to his writing. He said, at the time, that the most difficult thing to write about was being a man. They could not live on income from his stories and so Ernest, again, wrote for The Toronto Star. Ernest took Hadley to Italy to show her where he had been during the war. He was devastated, everything had changed, everything was destroyed. Hadley became pregnant and was sick all the time. She and Ernest decided to move to Canada. He had, by then written three stories and ten poems.

Hadley gave birth to a boy who they named John Hadley Nicano Hemingway. Even though he had his family Ernest was unhappy and decided to return to Paris. It was in Paris that Ernest got word that a publisher wanted to print his book, In Our Time, but with some changes. The publisher felt that the sex was to blatant, but Ernest refused to change one word. Around 1925, Ernest started writing a novel about a young man in World War I, but had to stop after a few pages, and proceeded to write another novel, instead. This novel was based on his experiences while living in Pamplona, Spain.

He planned on calling this book Fiesta, but changed the name to The Sun Also Rises, a saying from the Bible. This book, as in his other books, shows Hemingway obsessed with death. In 1927, Ernest found himself unhappy with his wife and son. They decided to divorce and he married Pauline, a woman he had been involved with while he was married to Hadley. A year later, Ernest was able to complete his war novel which he called A Farewell to Arms. The novel was about the pain of war, of finding love in this time of pain. It portrayed the battles, the retreats, the fears, the gore and the terrible waste of war.

This novel was well-received by his publisher, Max Perkins,but Ernest had to substitute dashes for the “dirty” language. Ernest used his life when he wrote; using everything he did and everything that ever happened to him. He nevertheless remained a private person; wanting his stories to be read but wanting to be left alone. He once said, “Don’t look at me. Look at my words. ” A common theme throughout Hemingway’s stories is that no matter how hard we fight to live, we end up defeated, but we are here and we must go on.

At age 31 he wrote Death in the Afternoon, about bullfighting in his beloved Spain. Ernest was a restless man; he traveled all over the United States, Europe, Cuba and Africa. At the age of 37 Ernest met the woman who would be his third wife; Martha Gellhorn, a writer like himself. He went to Spain, he said, to become an “antiwar correspondent”, and found that war was like a club where everyone was playing the same game, and he was never lonely. Martha went to Spain as a war correspondent and they lived together.

He knew that he was hurting Pauline, but like his need to travel and have new experiences, he could not stop himself from getting involved with women. In 1940 he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls and dedicated it to Martha, whom he married at the end of that year. He found himself traveling between Havana, Cuba and Ketchum, Idaho, which he did for the rest of his life. During World War II, Ernest became a secret agent for the United States. He suggested that he use his boat, the “Pillar”, to surprise German submarines and attack them with hidden machine guns.

It was at this time that Ernest, always a drinker, started drinking most of his days away. He would host wild, fancy parties and did not write at all during the next three years. At war’s end, Ernest went to England and met an American foreign correspondent named Mary Welsh. He divorced Martha and married Mary in Havana, in 1946. Ernest was a man of extremes; living either in luxury or happy to do without material things. Ernest, always haunted by memories of his mother, would not go to her funeral when she died in 1951.

He admitted that he hated his mother’s guts. Ernest wrote The Old Man and the Sea in only two months. He was on top of the world, the book was printed by Life Magazine and thousands of copies were sold in the United States. This novel and A Farewell to Arms were both made into movies. In 1953 he went on a safari with Mary, and he was in heaven hunting big game. Though Ernest had a serious accident, and later became ill, he could never admit that he had any weaknesses; nothing would stop him, certainly not pain. In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature.

Toward the end, Ernest started to travel again, but almost the way that someone does who knows that he will soon die. He suddenly started becoming paranoid and to forget things. He became obsessed with sin; his upbringing was showing, but still was inconsistent in his behavior. He never got over feeling like a bad person, as his father, mother and grandfather had taught him. In the last year of his life, he lived inside of his dreams, similar to his mother, who he hated with all his heart. He was suicidal and had electric shock treatments for his depression and strange behavior.

On a Sunday morning, July 2, 1961, Ernest Miller Hemingway killed himself with a shotgun. Ernest Hemingway takes much of the storyline of his novel, A Farewell to Arms, from his personal experiences. The main character of the book, Frederick Henry, often referred to as Tenete, experiences many of the same situations which Hemingway, himself, lived. Some of these similarities are exact while some are less similar, and some events have a completely different outcome. Hemingway, like Henry, enjoyed drinking large amounts of alcohol.

Both of them were involved in World War I, in a medical capacity, but neither of them were regular army personnel. Like Hemingway, Henry was shot in his right knee, during a battle. Both men were Americans, but a difference worth noting was that Hemingway was a driver for the American Red Cross, while Henry was a medic for the Italian Army. In real life, Hemingway met his love, Agnes, a nurse, in the hospital after being shot; Henry met his love, Catherine Barkley, also a nurse, before he was shot and hospitalized. In both cases, the relationships with these women were strengthened while the men were hospitalized.

Another difference is that Hemingway’s romance was short-lived, while, the book seemed to indicate that, Henry’s romance, though they never married, was strong and would have lasted. In A Farewell to Arms, Catherine and her child died while she was giving birth, this was not the case with Agnes who left Henry for an Italian Army officer. It seems to me that the differences between the two men were only surface differences. They allowed Hemingway to call the novel a work of fiction. Had he written an autobiography the book would probably not have been well-received because Hemingway was not, at that time, a well known author.

Although Hemingway denied critics’ views that A Farewell to Arms was symbolic, had he not made any changes they would not have been as impressed with the war atmosphere and with the naivete of a young man who experiences war for the first time. Hemingway, because he was so private, probably did not want to expose his life to everyone, and so the slight changes would prove that it was not himself and his own experiences which he was writing about. I believe that Hemingway had Catherine and her child die, not to look different from his own life, but because he had a sick and morbid personality.

There is great power in being an author, you can make things happen which do not necessarily occur in real life. It is obvious that Hemingway felt, as a young child and throughout his life, powerless, and so he created lives by writing stories. Hemingway acted out his feelings of inadequacy and powerlessness by hunting, drinking, spending lots of money and having many girlfriends. I think that Hemingway was obsessed with death and not too sane. His obsession shows itself in the morbid death of Miss Barkley and her child.

Hemingway was probably very confused about religion and sin and somehow felt or feared that people would or should be punished for enjoying life’s pleasures. Probably, the strongest reason for writing about Catherine Barkley’s death and the death of her child was Hemingway’s belief that death comes to everyone; it was inevitable. Death ends life before you have a chance to learn and live. He writes, in A Farewell to Arms, “They threw you in and told you the rules and the first time they caught you off base they killed you. … they killed you in the end. You could count on that.

Stay around and they would kill you. ” Hemingway, even in high school, wrote stories which showed that people should expect the unexpected. His stories offended and angered the principal of his school. I think that Hemingway liked shocking and annoying people; he was certainly rebellious. If he would have written an ending where Miss Barkley and her child had lived, it would have been too easy and common; Hemingway was certainly not like everyone else, and he seemed to be proud of that fact. Even the fact that Hemingway wrote curses and had a lot of sex in his books shows that he liked to shock people.

When his publisher asked that he change some words and make his books more acceptable to people, Hemingway refused, then was forced to compromise. I think that the major difference between Hemingway and Henry was that Henry was a likable and normal person while Hemingway was strange and very difficult. Hemingway liked doing things his way and either people had to accept him the way he was or too bad for them. I think that Hemingway probably did not even like himself and that was one reason that he couldn’t really like other people.

Hemingway seemed to use people only for his own pleasure, and maybe he wanted to think that he was like Henry who was a nicer person. In the book, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Malcolm Cowley focuses on the symbolism of rain. He sees rain, a frequent occurrence in the book, as symbolizing disaster. He points out that, at the beginning of A Farewell to Arms, Henry talks about how “things went very badly” and how this is connected to “At the start of the winter came permanent rain”. Later on in the book we see Miss Barkley afraid of rain.

She says, “Sometimes I see me dead in it”, referring to the rain. It is raining the entire time Miss Barkley is in childbirth and when both she and her baby die. Wyndham Lewis, in the same book of critical essays, points out that Hemingway is obsessed with war, the setting for much of A Farewell to Arms. He feels that the author sees war as an alternative to baseball, a sport of kings. He says that the war years “were a democratic, a levelling, school”. For Hemingway, raised in a strict home environment, war is a release; an opportunity to show that he is a real man.

The essayist, Edgar Johnson says that for the loner “it is society as a whole that is rejected, social responsibility, social concern” abandoned. Lieutenant Henry, like Hemingway, leads a private life as an isolated individual. He socializes with the officers, talks with the priest and visits the officer’s brothel, but those relationships are superficial. This avoidance of real relationships and involvement do not show an insensitive person, but rather someone who is protecting himself from getting involved and hurt.

It is clear that in all of Hemingway’s books and from his own life that he sees the world as his enemy. Johnson says, “He will solve the problem of dealing with the world by taking refuge in individualism and isolated personal relationships and sensations”. John Killinger says that it was inevitable that Catherine and her baby would die. The theme, that a person is trapped in relationships, is shown in all Hemingway’s stories. In A Farewell to Arms Catherine asks Henry if he feels trapped, now that she is pregnant. He admits that he does, “maybe a little”.

This idea, points out Killinger, is ingrained in Hemingway’s thinking and that he was not too happy about fatherhood. In Cross Country Snow, Nick regrets that he has to give up skiing in the Alps with a male friend to return to his wife who is having a baby. In Hemingway’s story Hills Like White Elephants the man wants his sweetheart to have an abortion so that they can continue as they once lived. In To Have and Have Not, Richard Gordon took his wife to “that dirty aborting horror”. Catherine’s death, in A Farewell to Arms, saves the author’s hero from the hell of a complicated life.

Ernest Miller Hemingway Biography

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. His father was the owner of a prosperous real estate business. His father, Dr. Hemingway, imparted to Ernest the importance of appearances, especially in public. Dr. Hemingway invented surgical forceps for which he would not accept money. He believed that one should not profit from something important for the good of mankind. Ernest’s father, a man of high ideals, was very strict and censored the books he allowed his children to read.

He forbad Ernest’s sister from studying ballet for it was coeducational, and dancing together led to “hell and damnation”. Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest’s mother, considered herself pure and proper. She was a dreamer who was upset at anything which disturbed her perception of the world as beautiful. She hated dirty diapers, upset stomachs, and cleaning house; they were not fit for a lady. She taught her children to always act with decorum. She adored the singing of the birds and the smell of flowers. Her children were expected to behave properly and to please her, always.

Mrs. Hemingway treated Ernest, when he was a small boy, as if he were a female baby doll and she dressed him accordingly. This arrangement was alright until Ernest got to the age when he wanted to be a “gun-toting Pawnee Bill”. He began, at that time, to pull away from his mother, and never forgave her for his humiliation. The town of Oak Park, where Ernest grew up, was very old fashioned and quite religious. The townspeople forbad the word “virgin” from appearing in school books, and the word “breast” was questioned, though it appeared in the Bible.

Ernest loved to fish, canoe and explore the woods. When he couldn’t get outside, he escaped to his room and read books. He loved to tell stories to his classmates, often insisting that a friend listen to one of his stories. In spite of his mother’s desire, he played on the football team at Oak Park High School. As a student, Ernest was a perfectionist about his grammar and studied English with a fervor. He contributed articles to the weekly school newspaper. It seems that the principal did not approve of Ernest’s writings and he complained, often, about the content of Ernest’s articles.

Ernest was clear about his writing; he wanted people to “see and feel” and he wanted to enjoy himself while writing. Ernest loved having fun. If nothing was happening, mischievous Ernest made something happen. He would sometimes use forbidden words just to create a ruckus. Ernest, though wild and crazy, was a warm, caring individual. He loved the sea, mountains and the stars and hated anyone who he saw as a phoney. During World War I, Ernest, rejected from service because of a bad left eye, was an ambulance driver, in Italy, for the Red Cross.

Very much like the hero of A Farewell to Arms, Ernest is shot in his knee and recuperates in a hospital, tended by a caring nurse named Agnes. Like Frederick Henry, in the book, he fell in love with the nurse and was given a medal for his heroism. Ernest returned home after the war, rejected by the nurse with whom he fell in love. He would party late into the night and invite, to his house, people his parents disapproved of. Ernest’s mother rejected him and he felt that he had to move from home.

He moved in with a friend living in Chicago and he wrote articles for The Toronto Star. In Chicago he met and then married Hadley Richardson. She believed that he should spend all his time in writing, and bought him a typewriter for his birthday. They decided that the best place for a writer to live was Paris, where he could devote himself to his writing. He said, at the time, that the most difficult thing to write about was being a man. They could not live on income from his stories and so Ernest, again, wrote for The Toronto Star.

Ernest took Hadley to Italy to show her where he had been during the war. He was devastated, everything had changed, everything was destroyed. Hadley became pregnant and was sick all the time. She and Ernest decided to move to Canada. He had, by then written three stories and ten poems. Hadley gave birth to a boy who they named John Hadley Nicano Hemingway. Even though he had his family Ernest was unhappy and decided to return to Paris. It was in Paris that Ernest got word that a publisher wanted to print his book, In Our Time, but with some changes.

The publisher felt that the sex was to blatant, but Ernest refused to change one word. Around 1925, Ernest started writing a novel about a young man in World War I, but had to stop after a few pages, and proceeded to write another novel, instead. This novel was based on his experiences while living in Pamplona, Spain. He planned on calling this book Fiesta, but changed the name to The Sun Also Rises, a saying from the Bible. This book, as in his other books, shows Hemingway obsessed with death. In 1927, Ernest found himself unhappy with his wife and son.

They decided to divorce and he married Pauline, a woman he had been involved with while he was married to Hadley. A year later, Ernest was able to complete his war novel which he called A Farewell to Arms. The novel was about the pain of war, of finding love in this time of pain. It portrayed the battles, the retreats, the fears, the gore and the terrible waste of war. This novel was well-received by his publisher, Max Perkins,but Ernest had to substitute dashes for the “dirty” language. Ernest used his life when he wrote; using everything he did and everything that ever happened to him.

He nevertheless remained a private person; wanting his stories to be read but wanting to be left alone. He once said, “Don’t look at me. Look at my words. ” A common theme throughout Hemingway’s stories is that no matter how hard we fight to live, we end up defeated, but we are here and we must go on. At age 31 he wrote Death in the Afternoon, about bullfighting in his beloved Spain. Ernest was a restless man; he traveled all over the United States, Europe, Cuba and Africa. At the age of 37 Ernest met the woman who would be his third wife; Martha Gellhorn, a writer like himself.

He went to Spain, he said, to become an “antiwar correspondent”, and found that war was like a club where everyone was playing the same game, and he was never lonely. Martha went to Spain as a war correspondent and they lived together. He knew that he was hurting Pauline, but like his need to travel and have new experiences, he could not stop himself from getting involved with women. In 1940 he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls and dedicated it to Martha, whom he married at the end of that year. He found himself traveling between Havana, Cuba and Ketchum, Idaho, which he did for the rest of his life.

During World War II, Ernest became a secret agent for the United States. He suggested that he use his boat, the “Pillar”, to surprise German submarines and attack them with hidden machine guns. It was at this time that Ernest, always a drinker, started drinking most of his days away. He would host wild, fancy parties and did not write at all during the next three years. At war’s end, Ernest went to England and met an American foreign correspondent named Mary Welsh. He divorced Martha and married Mary in Havana, in 1946. Ernest was a man of extremes; living either in luxury or happy to do without material things.

Ernest, always haunted by memories of his mother, would not go to her funeral when she died in 1951. He admitted that he hated his mother’s guts. Ernest wrote The Old Man and the Sea in only two months. He was on top of the world, the book was printed by Life Magazine and thousands of copies were sold in the United States. This novel and A Farewell to Arms were both made into movies. In 1953 he went on a safari with Mary, and he was in heaven hunting big game. Though Ernest had a serious accident, and later became ill, he could never admit that he had any weaknesses; nothing would stop him, certainly not pain.

In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Toward the end, Ernest started to travel again, but almost the way that someone does who knows that he will soon die. He suddenly started becoming paranoid and to forget things. He became obsessed with sin; his upbringing was showing, but still was inconsistent in his behavior. He never got over feeling like a bad person, as his father, mother and grandfather had taught him. In the last year of his life, he lived inside of his dreams, similar to his mother, who he hated with all his heart.

He was suicidal and had electric shock treatments for his depression and strange behavior. On a Sunday morning, July 2, 1961, Ernest Miller Hemingway killed himself with a shotgun. Ernest Hemingway takes much of the storyline of his novel, A Farewell to Arms, from his personal experiences. The main character of the book, Frederick Henry, often referred to as Tenete, experiences many of the same situations which Hemingway, himself, lived. Some of these similarities are exact while some are less similar, and some events have a completely different outcome.

Hemingway, like Henry, enjoyed drinking large amounts of alcohol. Both of them were involved in World War I, in a medical capacity, but neither of them were regular army personnel. Like Hemingway, Henry was shot in his right knee, during a battle. Both men were Americans, but a difference worth noting was that Hemingway was a driver for the American Red Cross, while Henry was a medic for the Italian Army. In real life, Hemingway met his love, Agnes, a nurse, in the hospital after being shot; Henry met his love, Catherine Barkley, also a nurse, before he was shot and hospitalized.

In both cases, the relationships with these women were strengthened while the men were hospitalized. Another difference is that Hemingway’s romance was short-lived, while, the book seemed to indicate that, Henry’s romance, though they never married, was strong and would have lasted. In A Farewell to Arms, Catherine and her child died while she was giving birth, this was not the case with Agnes who left Henry for an Italian Army officer. It seems to me that the differences between the two men were only surface differences. They allowed Hemingway to call the novel a work of fiction.

Had he written an autobiography the book would probably not have been well-received because Hemingway was not, at that time, a well known author. Although Hemingway denied critics’ views that A Farewell to Arms was symbolic, had he not made any changes they would not have been as impressed with the war atmosphere and with the naivete of a young man who experiences war for the first time. Hemingway, because he was so private, probably did not want to expose his life to everyone, and so the slight changes would prove that it was not himself and his own experiences which he was writing about.

I believe that Hemingway had Catherine and her child die, not to look different from his own life, but because he had a sick and morbid personality. There is great power in being an author, you can make things happen which do not necessarily occur in real life. It is obvious that Hemingway felt, as a young child and throughout his life, powerless, and so he created lives by writing stories. Hemingway acted out his feelings of inadequacy and powerlessness by hunting, drinking, spending lots of money and having many girlfriends. I think that Hemingway was obsessed with death and not too sane.

His obsession shows itself in the morbid death of Miss Barkley and her child. Hemingway was probably very confused about religion and sin and somehow felt or feared that people would or should be punished for enjoying life’s pleasures. Probably, the strongest reason for writing about Catherine Barkley’s death and the death of her child was Hemingway’s belief that death comes to everyone; it was inevitable. Death ends life before you have a chance to learn and live. He writes, in A Farewell to Arms, “They threw you in and told you the rules and the first time they caught you off base they killed you. .. they killed you in the end. You could count on that. Stay around and they would kill you. ” Hemingway, even in high school, wrote stories which showed that people should expect the unexpected. His stories offended and angered the principal of his school. I think that Hemingway liked shocking and annoying people; he was certainly rebellious. If he would have written an ending where Miss Barkley and her child had lived, it would have been too easy and common; Hemingway was certainly not like everyone else, and he seemed to be proud of that fact.

Even the fact that Hemingway wrote curses and had a lot of sex in his books shows that he liked to shock people. When his publisher asked that he change some words and make his books more acceptable to people, Hemingway refused, then was forced to compromise. I think that the major difference between Hemingway and Henry was that Henry was a likable and normal person while Hemingway was strange and very difficult. Hemingway liked doing things his way and either people had to accept him the way he was or too bad for them. I think that Hemingway probably did not even like himself and that was one reason that he couldn’t really like other people.

Hemingway seemed to use people only for his own pleasure, and maybe he wanted to think that he was like Henry who was a nicer person. In the book, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Malcolm Cowley focuses on the symbolism of rain. He sees rain, a frequent occurrence in the book, as symbolizing disaster. He points out that, at the beginning of A Farewell to Arms, Henry talks about how “things went very badly” and how this is connected to “At the start of the winter came permanent rain”. Later on in the book we see Miss Barkley afraid of rain.

She says, “Sometimes I see me dead in it”, referring to the rain. It is raining the entire time Miss Barkley is in childbirth and when both she and her baby die. Wyndham Lewis, in the same book of critical essays, points out that Hemingway is obsessed with war, the setting for much of A Farewell to Arms. He feels that the author sees war as an alternative to baseball, a sport of kings. He says that the war years “were a democratic, a levelling, school”. For Hemingway, raised in a strict home environment, war is a release; an opportunity to show that he is a real man.

The essayist, Edgar Johnson says that for the loner “it is society as a whole that is rejected, social responsibility, social concern” abandoned. Lieutenant Henry, like Hemingway, leads a private life as an isolated individual. He socializes with the officers, talks with the priest and visits the officer’s brothel, but those relationships are superficial. This avoidance of real relationships and involvement do not show an insensitive person, but rather someone who is protecting himself from getting involved and hurt.

It is clear that in all of Hemingway’s books and from his own life that he sees the world as his enemy. Johnson says, “He will solve the problem of dealing with the world by taking refuge in individualism and isolated personal relationships and sensations”. John Killinger says that it was inevitable that Catherine and her baby would die. The theme, that a person is trapped in relationships, is shown in all Hemingway’s stories. In A Farewell to Arms Catherine asks Henry if he feels trapped, now that she is pregnant. He admits that he does, “maybe a little”.

This idea, points out Killinger, is ingrained in Hemingway’s thinking and that he was not too happy about fatherhood. In Cross Country Snow, Nick regrets that he has to give up skiing in the Alps with a male friend to return to his wife who is having a baby. In Hemingway’s story Hills Like White Elephants the man wants his sweetheart to have an abortion so that they can continue as they once lived. In To Have and Have Not, Richard Gordon took his wife to “that dirty aborting horror”. Catherine’s death, in A Farewell to Arms, saves the author’s hero from the hell of a complicated life. – ENDNOTES . Malcolm Cowley, “Rain as Disaster”, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Jay Gellens, Prentice-Hall, Inc. :1970, pp. 54-55 . Wyndham Lewis, “The Dumb Ox in Love and War”, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Jay Gellens, Prentice-Hall, Inc. :1970, p. 76 . Edgar Johnson, “Farewell the Separate Peace”, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Jay Gellens, Prentice-Hall, Inc. :1970, pp. 112-113 . John Killinger, “The Existential Hero”, Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Farewell to Arms, Jay Gellens, Prentice-Hall,

Passage Analysis – A Farewell to Arms

One measure of a powerful writer lies in her ability to write literature in which any passage can be set apart from its context and still express the qualities of the whole. When this occurs, the integrated profundity of the entire work is a sign of true artistry. Ernest Hemingway, an author of the Lost Generation, was one such writer who mastered the art of investing simple sentence structure with layers of complex meaning. Hemingway, who was a journalist in the earlier years of his writing career, was known for writing in a declarative or terse style of prose.

The depth of emotion and meaning that he conveyed through such minimalistic text is astounding. He also experimented with a stream-of-consciousness technique developed by writers such as James Joyce and William Faulkner to an interior dimension to his prose. In A Farewell to Arms, the story of wartime romance between an American soldier in the Italian Army, Frederic, and Catherine, the British nurse who cares for him, there are a multitude of passages which could easily stand alone as poetry because of their symbolic meaning.

However, when these exceptional passages are woven into the fabric of the novel as a whole, the reader is able to reach an even greater level of understanding. One extraordinary passage is found near the end of the novel during which Frederic Henry agonizes over the danger his lover’s in while she struggles with the birth of their baby. By juxtaposing the imminent birth of Frederic’s child with the possible death of his beloved, Hemingway explores a deep ambivalence about the meaning of life and loss. Throughout this passage, structure plays an important role in illuminating Frederic’s emotional metamorphosis from concern to desperation.

The passage opens with Frederic watching “poor, poor dear Cat” (line 1) in her apparent state of helplessness as she struggles through giving birth. Through strong word choice, Hemingway continues to display Frederic’s obvious contemptuous feelings about the biological consequences of love. He views Catherine’s pain and suffering as the “price you [pay]” (line 1) for loving someone. Ironically, a birth is usually shown in a positive light as the pain one suffers to birth a child pales in comparison to the tremendous joy of receiving a newborn baby.

Despite conventions, Frederic feels as if he has been trapped by some malignant force of life and is anything but happy about the impending birth. However, he goes on to “Thank God for gas, anyway,” (line 3) bringing a religious aspect to the poem. The casual syntax of this sentence belittles the meaning or importance of God, as Frederic is only referring to Him in a colloquial manner. His mention of anesthetics with relation to God can be seen as a metaphor, especially when taken in context of the novel.

Set in a time of war, everybody is looking for a way out of their pain, and consequently every character becomes addicted to some form of escape. While the addictive substance ranges from God, to alcohol, to love, each is used as a tool to escape from the grim reality of life. “Once it started, they were in the mill-race. ” (lines 4-5) When describing Catherine’s labor, this metaphor of an ever moving, driving stream of water that incessantly pushes a mill wheel gives the reader a sense of the uncontrollable chaos of birth or life, in general.

Likewise, the water in an unstoppable stream is a very powerful force that demands the complete subjugation of whatever comes in its way. In this way, water is used as a symbol for Frederic’s sense of an arbitrary higher power leaving people helpless in its path. “So now they got her in the end. You never get away with anything. Get away hell! It would have been the same if we had been married fifty times. ” (lines 7-9) Again Frederic accuses a higher power of setting the trap of childbirth, but at the same time discards the possibility of a supreme being because of the term “they. Frederic dismisses his assumption that Catherine’s current suffering is a consequence of sex out of wedlock, as he begins to dismiss any ideas of an orderly universe with an all-controlling divine power.

A sudden sense of anxiety and doubt about Catherine’s welfare marks a change in the tone of the passage. “And what if she should die? ” (line 10) This concern is repeated ten times throughout the passage, but at this stage, Frederic reasons with himself in order to make himself confident in his lover’s safety. He simply responds, “She won’t die,” (line 10) which is a perfectly reasonable assumption for most births.

The word choice of “won’t” means she will not die, which implies a certain amount of flexibility or choice. While it is reasonable to feel that she will not die, by repeating this sentence, which is phrased in the negative, Hemingway clearly emphasizes the opposite of its surface meaning. This underlines the focus on Catherine’s death, rather than her life, adding an element of foreshadowing. The feeling of raw emotion expressed as Frederic questions himself in a cyclical manner is a direct effect of the loose structure.

Hemingway probably used the stream-of-consciousness technique for this passage to give the reader a more authentic sense of Frederic’s subjective state. Conventionally shaped prose can distance the reader from a character’s inner truth. Hemingway’s style makes the experience more accessible to the reader and therefore gives the passage much more power. Frederic reassures himself by reiterating that all husbands feel worried about their wives’ health, simply because they don’t want their wives to suffer, but that everything will be fine in the end.

However, as he continues this cycle of doubt, he increasingly becomes less confident up until the point where he begins to panic. Asking himself about the eventuality of Catherine’s death yet again, he changes his response to, “She can’t die. ” (line 15) signifying the transition from doubt to true fear. The careful use of diction that indicates this change is simply the difference between “won’t” and “can’t. ” While will not’ is reasonable by the fact that it leaves some room for doubt, cannot’ is unrealistically certain and suggests Frederic’s distorted point of view.

When he notices himself slipping into panic mode, he tries to regain his composure by telling himself, “Don’t be a fool. ” (line 16) The typical Hemingway character is famous for acting with grace under pressure, so when Frederic notices his own doubts and insecurity, it is hard for him to acknowledge and he tries to force the fear out of his mind. The stream-of-consciousness style of this passage paints a realistic picture of his internal struggle against recognizing his fears as he attempts to act with the manly courage that is typical to his character. It’s just nature giving her hell,” (line 17) continues this internal reasoning but ties in the religious theme yet again.

Hemingway uses religious imagery in another trivializing manner to address Frederic’s lost faith in a divine power. By using such a colloquial phrase, he dismisses the possible impact by a God on the situation. As Frederic’s internal battle reaches a culmination with increasing questions of, “What if she should die? ” (lines 15, 16, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25) the structure of the passage begins to parallel the structure of childbirth.

This extended metaphor of the cyclical nature of the language as it represents the cyclical nature of birth, brings more depth to the spasms of fear that Frederic experiences. During the process of childbirth, the frequency and intensity of contractions amplify as time passes. This progression is directly mimicked in Hemingway’s prose. The diction within this powerful repetition even symbolizes the contractions of labor. The double meaning of contraction’ is applied to create this symbol, since it can either be defined as the shortening or thickening of muscles or a combination of two words into one.

The phrases that Frederic repeats to quell his fear are “She can’t die” or “She won’t die,” two phrases that are based on a grammatical contraction. As these contractions become more and more frequent up until the end, the reader is able to experience the sensation of birth, making the experience a reality. The power of this passage generates from the organic emotional experience that it conveys to the reader. Hemingway’s freestyle structure, careful word choice, and profound metaphors all add to the intense exploration of Frederic’s feelings of fear and doubt.

Childbirth is naturally a time of reflection and contemplation seeing as it brings an enormous change to the lifestyle of those who have brought the child into the world. As Frederic anxiously stands by while his lover fights to give birth to their baby, he considers the meaning of life. Faced with the fear of Catherine’s death, he attempts to find a reason for the pain and suffering he has undergone and comes to the dismal conclusion that the universe is a disordered and even hostile environmentviews that Hemingway’s characters commonly hold.

This passage exhibits the complete evolvement of Frederic’s character as he establishes his philosophy of life. In this single passage, all of the major themes of the novel are expressed: religion, love, and pain. As Catherine struggles to create a life, Frederic struggles to make sense out of life and find the deeper meaning. Poor, poor dear Cat. And this was the price you paid for sleep-ing together. This was the end of the trap. This was what people got for loving each other. Thank God for gas, anyway. What must it have been like before there were anasthetics?

Once it started, they were in the mill-race. Catherine had a good time in the time of pregnancy. It wasn’t bad. She was hardly ever sick. She was not awfully uncomfortable until toward the last. So now they got her in the end. You never got away with anything. Get away hell! It would have been the same if we had been married fifty times. And what if she should die? She won’t die. People don’t die in child-birth nowadays. That was what all husbands thought. Yes, but what if she should die? She won’t die. She’s just having a bad time.

The initial labor is usually protracted. She’s only having a bad time. Afterward we’d say what a bad time and Catherine would say it wasn’t really so bad. But what if she should die? She can’t die. Yes, but what if she should die? She can’t, I tell you. Don’t be a fool. It’s just a bad time. It’s just nature giving her hell. It’s only the first labor, which is almost always protracted. Yes, but what if she should die? She can’t die. Why would she die? What reason is there for her to die? There’s just a child that has to be born, the by-product of good nights in Milan.

It makes trouble and is born and then you look after it and get fond of it maybe. But what if she should die? She won’t die. But what if she should die? She won’t. She’s all right. But what if she should die? She can’t die. But what if she should die? Hey, what about that? What if she should die? Passage Analysis- A Farewell to Arms One measure of a powerful writer lies in her ability to write literature in which any passage can be set apart from its context and still express the qualities of the whole. When this occurs, the integrated profundity of the entire work is a sign of true artistry.

Ernest Hemingway, an author of the Lost Generation, was one such writer who mastered the art of investing simple sentence structure with layers of complex meaning. Hemingway, who was a journalist in the earlier years of his writing career, was known for writing in a declarative or terse style of prose. The depth of emotion and meaning that he conveyed through such minimalistic text is astounding. He also experimented with a stream-of-consciousness technique developed by writers such as James Joyce and William Faulkner to an interior dimension to his prose.

In A Farewell to Arms, the story of wartime romance between an American soldier in the Italian Army, Frederic, and Catherine, the British nurse who cares for him, there are a multitude of passages which could easily stand alone as poetry because of their symbolic meaning. However, when these exceptional passages are woven into the fabric of the novel as a whole, the reader is able to reach an even greater level of understanding. One extraordinary passage is found near the end of the novel during which Frederic Henry agonizes over the danger his lover’s in while she struggles with the birth of their baby.

By juxtaposing the imminent birth of Frederic’s child with the possible death of his beloved, Hemingway explores a deep ambivalence about the meaning of life and loss. Throughout this passage, structure plays an important role in illuminating Frederic’s emotional metamorphosis from concern to desperation. The passage opens with Frederic watching “poor, poor dear Cat” (line 1) in her apparent state of helplessness as she struggles through giving birth. Through strong word choice, Hemingway continues to display Frederic’s obvious contemptuous feelings about the biological consequences of love.

He views Catherine’s pain and suffering as the “price you [pay]” (line 1) for loving someone. Ironically, a birth is usually shown in a positive light as the pain one suffers to birth a child pales in comparison to the tremendous joy of receiving a newborn baby. Despite conventions, Frederic feels as if he has been trapped by some malignant force of life and is anything but happy about the impending birth. However, he goes on to “Thank God for gas, anyway,” (line 3) bringing a religious aspect to the poem.

The casual syntax of this sentence belittles the meaning or importance of God, as Frederic is only referring to Him in a colloquial manner. His mention of anesthetics with relation to God can be seen as a metaphor, especially when taken in context of the novel. Set in a time of war, everybody is looking for a way out of their pain, and consequently every character becomes addicted to some form of escape. While the addictive substance ranges from God, to alcohol, to love, each is used as a tool to escape from the grim reality of life. “Once it started, they were in the mill-race. (lines 4-5)

When describing Catherine’s labor, this metaphor of an ever moving, driving stream of water that incessantly pushes a mill wheel gives the reader a sense of the uncontrollable chaos of birth or life, in general. Likewise, the water in an unstoppable stream is a very powerful force that demands the complete subjugation of whatever comes in its way. In this way, water is used as a symbol for Frederic’s sense of an arbitrary higher power leaving people helpless in its path. “So now they got her in the end. You never get away with anything. Get away hell!

It would have been the same if we had been married fifty times. ” (lines 7-9) Again Frederic accuses a higher power of setting the trap of childbirth, but at the same time discards the possibility of a supreme being because of the term “they. ” Frederic dismisses his assumption that Catherine’s current suffering is a consequence of sex out of wedlock, as he begins to dismiss any ideas of an orderly universe with an all-controlling divine power. A sudden sense of anxiety and doubt about Catherine’s welfare marks a change in the tone of the passage. “And what if she should die? (line 10)

This concern is repeated ten times throughout the passage, but at this stage, Frederic reasons with himself in order to make himself confident in his lover’s safety. He simply responds, “She won’t die,” (line 10) which is a perfectly reasonable assumption for most births. The word choice of “won’t” means she will not die, which implies a certain amount of flexibility or choice. While it is reasonable to feel that she will not die, by repeating this sentence, which is phrased in the negative, Hemingway clearly emphasizes the opposite of its surface meaning.

This underlines the focus on Catherine’s death, rather than her life, adding an element of foreshadowing. The feeling of raw emotion expressed as Frederic questions himself in a cyclical manner is a direct effect of the loose structure. Hemingway probably used the stream-of-consciousness technique for this passage to give the reader a more authentic sense of Frederic’s subjective state. Conventionally shaped prose can distance the reader from a character’s inner truth. Hemingway’s style makes the experience more accessible to the reader and therefore gives the passage much more power.

Frederic reassures himself by reiterating that all husbands feel worried about their wives’ health, simply because they don’t want their wives to suffer, but that everything will be fine in the end. However, as he continues this cycle of doubt, he increasingly becomes less confident up until the point where he begins to panic. Asking himself about the eventuality of Catherine’s death yet again, he changes his response to, “She can’t die. ” (line 15) signifying the transition from doubt to true fear. The careful use of diction that indicates this change is simply the difference between “won’t” and “can’t.

While will not’ is reasonable by the fact that it leaves some room for doubt, cannot’ is unrealistically certain and suggests Frederic’s distorted point of view. When he notices himself slipping into panic mode, he tries to regain his composure by telling himself, “Don’t be a fool. ” (line 16) The typical Hemingway character is famous for acting with grace under pressure, so when Frederic notices his own doubts and insecurity, it is hard for him to acknowledge and he tries to force the fear out of his mind.

The stream-of-consciousness style of this passage paints a realistic picture of his internal struggle against recognizing his fears as he attempts to act with the manly courage that is typical to his character. “It’s just nature giving her hell,” (line 17) continues this internal reasoning but ties in the religious theme yet again. Hemingway uses religious imagery in another trivializing manner to address Frederic’s lost faith in a divine power. By using such a colloquial phrase, he dismisses the possible impact by a God on the situation.

As Frederic’s internal battle reaches a culmination with increasing questions of, “What if she should die? ” (lines 15, 16, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25) the structure of the passage begins to parallel the structure of childbirth. This extended metaphor of the cyclical nature of the language as it represents the cyclical nature of birth, brings more depth to the spasms of fear that Frederic experiences. During the process of childbirth, the frequency and intensity of contractions amplify as time passes. This progression is directly mimicked in Hemingway’s prose.

The diction within this powerful repetition even symbolizes the contractions of labor. The double meaning of contraction’ is applied to create this symbol, since it can either be defined as the shortening or thickening of muscles or a combination of two words into one. The phrases that Frederic repeats to quell his fear are “She can’t die” or “She won’t die,” two phrases that are based on a grammatical contraction. As these contractions become more and more frequent up until the end, the reader is able to experience the sensation of birth, making the experience a reality.

The power of this passage generates from the organic emotional experience that it conveys to the reader. Hemingway’s freestyle structure, careful word choice, and profound metaphors all add to the intense exploration of Frederic’s feelings of fear and doubt. Childbirth is naturally a time of reflection and contemplation seeing as it brings an enormous change to the lifestyle of those who have brought the child into the world. As Frederic anxiously stands by while his lover fights to give birth to their baby, he considers the meaning of life.

Faced with the fear of Catherine’s death, he attempts to find a reason for the pain and suffering he has undergone and comes to the dismal conclusion that the universe is a disordered and even hostile environmentviews that Hemingway’s characters commonly hold. This passage exhibits the complete evolvement of Frederic’s character as he establishes his philosophy of life. In this single passage, all of the major themes of the novel are expressed: religion, love, and pain. As Catherine struggles to create a life, Frederic struggles to make sense out of life and find the deeper meaning.

Reader Response to A Clean, Well-Lighted Place by Ernest Hemingway

In 1933, Ernest Hemmingway wrote A Clean, Well-Lighted Place. It’s a story of two waiters working late one night in a cafe. Their last customer, a lonely old man getting drunk, is their last customer. The younger waiter wishes the customer would leave while the other waiter is indifferent because he isn’t in so much of a hurry. I had a definite, differentiated response to this piece of literature because in my occupation I can relate to both cafe workers. Hemmingway’s somber tale is about conquering late night loneliness in a bright cafe. The customer drinking brandy suffers from it and so does the older waiter.

However, the younger waiter cannot understand loneliness because he probably hasn’t been very lonely in his life. He mentions a couple times throughout the story that he wished to be able to go home to his wife, yet the old man and old waiter have no wives to go home to like he does. This story have a deeper meaning to me because I often am in a similar situation at work. For a little over three years, I’ve been a weekend bartender at an American Legion Club. I almost always work the entire weekends, open to close, which proves to be a tortorous schedule at times.

Like the cafe in Hemmingway’s tale, the Legion is a civilized place, often well lit, and quieter than most clubs. Because members have to either have served in the military during wartime or have a relative that did, the patronage is often older and more respectful than an average barroom. And because most members are older, they may not have a family to go home to, or they may be just a little more dismal because their lives have been longer and harder than most. In many ways, they are very much like the old man sipping brandy while hiding in the shadows of the leaves in Hemmingway’s cafe.

And in many ways, I am like the young waiter, anxious to leave. The young waiter seems selfish and inconsiderate of anyone else. In the beginning of the story, he’s confused why the old man tried to kill himself. “He has plenty of money,” he says, as if that’s the only thing anyone needs for happiness. When the old man orders another drink, the younger waiter warns him that he’ll get drunk, as if to waver his own responsibility rather than to warn the old man for his sake. At work, I often feel the same, that people get what they deserve and that it’s no one’s fault but their own.

When the hours get late and my eyelids get heavy, I catagorize my customers and make their lives seem trivial. Because I’m selfish, I want my customers to leave so that I can then leave and go to bed. If I stick around too long at work, I’ll catch a second wind and be wide awake by the time I finally do get home. Then I’ll have trouble sleeping and staying awake the following day behind the bar. One late night can wreck the entire weekend. In Hemmingway’s story the younger waiter tells the old man (who probably can’t hear him because he’s deaf) that he should’ve killed himself.

This is a terribly cruel thing to say but I would guess that he really didn’t mean it. He only wants him to go home because he can’t understand his need of staying. In the young waiter’s eyes he isn’t selfish for wanting to go home, but the old man is selfish for staying. This is a common thought of mine when I’m working. Why must people come so early and stay so late? It seems eternities pass while they’re there. Though I’d never vocalize a death threat to any of my customers I do sometimes wish them some gruesome fates.

And I get so despreate sometimes that I ponder pouring out some of their beer as they go to the bathroom, just so they’d leave quicker. This is the same sort of anxiety that the young waiter has. He doesn’t understand the importance of a place where other lonely souls may linger. He can only think of himself, and when you’re young, it’s hard to think of anyone else. The other waiter in Hemmingway’s tale begins seeming indifferent to the old customer. But as the story progresses, he defends him because he can relate to his despair.

He calls him clean and like himself, lacking of confidence and a place to exist that reminds him he’s still alive. Drinking at home just isn’t the same, he tells his younger co-worker, and they both agree to this. The old man sits looking out the window, as if life was a movie to him, and he was living it by observing. Near the end of the story, he admits his reluctance to close up the cafe because he knows that there may be someone who needs a “clean, well-lighted place. ” However anxious I am behind the bar to go home some nights, I feel this way too.

Besides the obvious advantage of a larger paycheck, late nights behind the bar can be rewarding in many ways. As the day dies and night is born, the moods lighten. Customers, touched by a few drinks, mellow out, and become a lot more entertaining. That’s not to say they all get drunk and funny, even though that happens too. But they get more friendly, and as thirsty for each other’s company as they are for another beer. If I don’t have any plans for the following day, I don’t mind keeping the bar open for this mellow crowd numbing their despair with the drink.

Oftentimes I enjoy their company too, and I understand their need for my consideration in serving them a few more drinks. My impatience can and usually does wait. On any given night I may seem more one way than the other. It depends on the particular day and how long and hard I’ve worked. Since reading A Clean, Well-Lighted Place I’ve become more aware of my reactions behind the bar. I try to balance the two viewpoints out, often disguising my anxiety by pretending I don’t mind at all staying open later. The truth is I do, but not as much as I may think I do sometimes.

I think I owe my customers a little common courtesy in taking their side into consideration. After all, when I’m their age, the tables might be turned. I may be hanging around in a bar, in need of a clean, well-lighted place, urging the bartender not to close the lights on me. Reader Response to A Clean, Well-Lighted Place Clean Well-Lighted Place Essays Reader Response to A Clean, Well-Lighted Place In 1933, Ernest Hemmingway wrote A Clean, Well-Lighted Place. It’s a story of two waiters working late one night in a cafe. Their last customer, a lonely old man getting drunk, is their last customer.

The younger waiter wishes the customer would leave while the other waiter is indifferent because he isn’t in so much of a hurry. I had a definite, differentiated response to this piece of literature because in my occupation I can relate to both cafe workers. Hemmingway’s somber tale is about conquering late night loneliness in a bright cafe. The customer drinking brandy suffers from it and so does the older waiter. However, the younger waiter cannot understand loneliness because he probably hasn’t been very lonely in his life.

He mentions a couple times throughout the story that he wished to be able to go home to his wife, yet the old man and old waiter have no wives to go home to like he does. This story have a deeper meaning to me because I often am in a similar situation at work. For a little over three years, I’ve been a weekend bartender at an American Legion Club. I almost always work the entire weekends, open to close, which proves to be a tortorous schedule at times. Like the cafe in Hemmingway’s tale, the Legion is a civilized place, often well lit, and quieter than most clubs.

Because members have to either have served in the military during wartime or have a relative that did, the patronage is often older and more respectful than an average barroom. And because most members are older, they may not have a family to go home to, or they may be just a little more dismal because their lives have been longer and harder than most. In many ways, they are very much like the old man sipping brandy while hiding in the shadows of the leaves in Hemmingway’s cafe. And in many ways, I am like the young waiter, anxious to leave. The young waiter seems selfish and inconsiderate of anyone else.

In the beginning of the story, he’s confused why the old man tried to kill himself. “He has plenty of money,” he says, as if that’s the only thing anyone needs for happiness. When the old man orders another drink, the younger waiter warns him that he’ll get drunk, as if to waver his own responsibility rather than to warn the old man for his sake. At work, I often feel the same, that people get what they deserve and that it’s no one’s fault but their own. When the hours get late and my eyelids get heavy, I catagorize my customers and make their lives seem trivial.

Because I’m selfish, I want my customers to leave so that I can then leave and go to bed. If I stick around too long at work, I’ll catch a second wind and be wide awake by the time I finally do get home. Then I’ll have trouble sleeping and staying awake the following day behind the bar. One late night can wreck the entire weekend. In Hemmingway’s story the younger waiter tells the old man (who probably can’t hear him because he’s deaf) that he should’ve killed himself. This is a terribly cruel thing to say but I would guess that he really didn’t mean it.

He only wants him to go home because he can’t understand his need of staying. In the young waiter’s eyes he isn’t selfish for wanting to go home, but the old man is selfish for staying. This is a common thought of mine when I’m working. Why must people come so early and stay so late? It seems eternities pass while they’re there. Though I’d never vocalize a death threat to any of my customers I do sometimes wish them some gruesome fates. And I get so despreate sometimes that I ponder pouring out some of their beer as they go to the bathroom, just so they’d leave quicker.

This is the same sort of anxiety that the young waiter has. He doesn’t understand the importance of a place where other lonely souls may linger. He can only think of himself, and when you’re young, it’s hard to think of anyone else. The other waiter in Hemmingway’s tale begins seeming indifferent to the old customer. But as the story progresses, he defends him because he can relate to his despair. He calls him clean and like himself, lacking of confidence and a place to exist that reminds him he’s still alive. Drinking at home just isn’t the same, he tells his younger co-worker, and they both agree to this.

The old man sits looking out the window, as if life was a movie to him, and he was living it by observing. Near the end of the story, he admits his reluctance to close up the cafe because he knows that there may be someone who needs a “clean, well-lighted place. ” However anxious I am behind the bar to go home some nights, I feel this way too. Besides the obvious advantage of a larger paycheck, late nights behind the bar can be rewarding in many ways. As the day dies and night is born, the moods lighten. Customers, touched by a few drinks, mellow out, and become a lot more entertaining.

That’s not to say they all get drunk and funny, even though that happens too. But they get more friendly, and as thirsty for each other’s company as they are for another beer. If I don’t have any plans for the following day, I don’t mind keeping the bar open for this mellow crowd numbing their despair with the drink. Oftentimes I enjoy their company too, and I understand their need for my consideration in serving them a few more drinks. My impatience can and usually does wait. On any given night I may seem more one way than the other. It depends on the particular day and how long and hard I’ve worked.

Since reading A Clean, Well-Lighted Place I’ve become more aware of my reactions behind the bar. I try to balance the two viewpoints out, often disguising my anxiety by pretending I don’t mind at all staying open later. The truth is I do, but not as much as I may think I do sometimes. I think I owe my customers a little common courtesy in taking their side into consideration. After all, when I’m their age, the tables might be turned. I may be hanging around in a bar, in need of a clean, well-lighted place, urging the bartender not to close the lights on me.

Hemingway’s Old Man And The Sea. Man vs Nature

This part of the story has to do with Santiago against nature and the sea. In this part of the story, he goes out and fights nature in the form of terrible forces and dangerous creatures, among them, a marlin, sharks and hunger. He starts the story in a small skiff and moves out in a journey to capture a fish after a long losing streak of eighty-four days. Unfortunately his friend must desert him due to this problem and a greater force, his parents. Santiago must go out into the danger alone. For three harsh days and nights he fights a fish of enormous power.

This is the second form of nature he must conquer. Earlier in the story, the first part of nature is himself, for which he must fight off his hunger. This is a harsh part of the story. He manages though to get a few bites in the form of flying fish and dolphin of which he would like to have salt on. This part of the story tells of a cold and harsh sea, that is, one that has value and mystery as well as death and danger. It has commercial value as well as the population of life in it. It is dark and treacherous though, and every day there is a challenge.

A similar story tells about a tidal pool with life called `Cannery Road’. This part of the story has to deal with figures of Christ. It mainly deals with Santiago as being a figure of Christ and other characters as props, that is, characters which carry out the form of biblical themes. On the day before he leaves when he wakes up, Manolin, his helper, comes to his aid with food and drink. Also a point that might be good is that he has had bad luck with his goal for a great period of time and is sure it will work this time.

Later, though, when Santiago needs him for the quest he sets out to do, Manolin deserts him, although he may not have wanted to at this time. In the novel Santiago comes upon a force bigger than his skiff, the marlin which misleads him out far past his intended reach. This is where he starts to lose his strength against something which seems a greater force. Santiago has a struggle of three days, which is significent because of the three days in Easter, and continues to fight on though his goal may not aquire anything.

This is another idea through which Christ did, a struggle to get a goal done even though it may mean certain destruction to himself. This might accomplish nothing but the satisfaction of doing this and also has great risks. Finally he comes upon a painful experience with his hand which is in great pain and won’t move. This is useful in the place where Christ loses his physical self and has less to deal with. On the third day, he recovers himself and returns to his home even though his only remaining treasure was a broken skiff, experience, and a torn up marlin.

And in the final conclusion, you can see him dragging the mast of his skiff, a cross-like object, in his hand. This story has a certain sequence of events, first it has a hunter vs. his prey. This hunter does respect th e prey. Throughout the book it has this series of events: encounter, battle, defeat, and respect for the prey. This is Hemmingway’s `Code of Honor’. This part of the novel has to do with relationships between two characters. The first to discuss are Santiago and Manolin, Manolin being the small follower of the old man named Santiago.

Manolin is a small person that follows Santiago and listens to his wisdom. They treat each other unfriendly though for Manolin calls the Santiago ‘old man’ and he calls Manolin `boy’ which seems to be absurd. In that situation I would consider both of them to go see a doctor. The next relationship to talk about would be that between Santiago and the village, which seems to be much better. He is given credit for food and he also is waiting to show his greatness to the villageby catching a great fish as soon as he can.

His thought on that, though, is that any fisherman can ctach it during the easy season but only a few can go out and catch one during the hard season. He has no consideration for the luck, and would rather try to fish through being exact rather than being lucky. The other relationship in this story has to do with Manolin and his parents. Manolin seems to be very rebellious against his parents, although he does submit to their demands. Santiago’s greatest link to the village is the boy. Santiago may be poor in the story, yet is proud.

This story when compared to being imaginative is good, but in real life is somewhat of a `Fish Story’. The part where an old man being able to load in a ton of fish is very unimaginable. The scenario, though, is very interesting for the part of the old man. He goes out all alone into the depths of the ocean without an idea for what is in store. This story has good points, for when it comes to the better parts of the story, it emphasizes by placing in mind step by step of the way he does certain actions.

The part of the story which, to the best of my belief, had no part or reference in the story was the dream of lions on a beach of Africa, which this fisherman probably had never even visited much less seeing lions on a beach. This was like most stories in the main plot. First characters are introduced, then a threat reveals itself, showing true natures of all the characters, and finally the threat is fought off or it remains, leaving the reader in suspense. This had a good plot but needed more to go on in my opinion. Hemingway’s strong parts of this story are emphasized on vocabulary.

He probably learned these fisherman terms for he once was a fisherman in Cuba. There is one problem to this, though. Throughout the story he uses these terms over and over although the ordinary person, like me, would forget them after the first use of them and unfortunately he doesn’t ever re-coin the terms again throughout the book. Some vocabulary he uses stands for sharks or the sea itself. Others he uses for bait. The main idea though in this part is to let the reader get the feel for the life, setting and character of the fisherman himself.

This is a great move to place yet is also very hard to co-exist with the average reader. This has some good points, though, and among them is review. The reader must review the story and skim it in order to rethink the concept of the word. Then he or she must return to the current position in the book and place it into the text. The concept of vocabulary is a standard not to live by, and should not be placed into most books unless the terms are to be used many times throughout the book. Hemingway has merged three themes already mentioned above successfully unto this book.

Among them are figures of Christ, Nature (the sea), and a code of honor. This was challenging. The obvious ones were nature, it’s cruelty and compassion. Nature caused his hand pain yet healed it, caused hunger yet satisfied it, and gave the fish yet reclaimed it. This is the way nature works. Nature is actually more luck than a set of rules, for it can shift back and forth with the greatest of ease. The second theme, religion, could not be easily pulled from the text. The best clue to where it happens is the falls of Santiago as well as his carrying the mast.

This symbolizes the end of Christ, although Santiago on the other hand is just retiring for the night. But it could be interpreted as the end of the book for which it is. The code of honor is not actually probably the hardest to interpret. It can only be pulled from context, which is the hardest to do. It has mainly to do with the rise, battle and fall of the prey and respect following. The problem in this is that Santiago was at fault for expanding out so far, and it was dangerous. This is similiar to the book A Journey to the Center of the Earth, which I recently read.

A Clean, Well-Lighted Place by Ernest Hemingway Essay

“A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” was published by Scribner’s Magazine in March of 1933, but it was not until 1956 that an apparent inconsistency in the waiters’ dialogue was brought to Hemingway’s attention. Hemingway’s thirteen word reply to Judson Jerome, an Assistant Professor of English at Antioch College, said that he had read the story again and it still made perfect sense to him. Despite this letter, Scribner’s republished “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” in 1965 with a slight change in the waiters’ dialogue that they argued would fix the apparent anomaly.

Scribner’s decision to alter the original text, the letter Hemingway wrote o Professor Jerome, and several papers on the subject all add up to a literary controversy that still churns among Hemingway scholars. I will argue that the original text is the correct text and Scribner’s just failed to interpret it properly. They failed to notice nuances in Hemingway’s writing that appear throughout many of his other works. They obviously thought Hemingway’s reply to Professor Jerome was made without notice of the inconsistency. Most important, I believe they did not evaluate the character of the two waiters in “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place. A careful examination of the character of each waiter can make it pparent that the original text was correct and that there was no need for Scribner’s to alter the text.

The dialogue in question results from a conversation the two waiters have concerning the old man’s attempted suicide. One waiter asks “Who cut him down? “, to which the other waiter replies “His niece. ” Later in the story, the original text appears to confuse who possesses the knowledge about the suicide. The waiter who previously said “His niece”, now says: “I Know. You said she cut him down. This seems to assume the knowledge about the attempted suicide has either passed from one waiter to another, or that we ave incorrectly attributed the first exchange to the wrong waiters.

So which waiter asked about cutting down the old man? When the disputed dialogue between the two waiters takes place, we do not know enough about them to develop an outline of character. As the story progresses, the character of the two waiters emerges through their dialogue and thoughts, as does many of Hemingway’s characters. Once the character of each waiter is developed and understood, the dialogue makes more sense when the story is read again.

The older waiter, who is unhurried and can empathize with the old man, akes declarative and judgmental statements throughout the story. Much like Count Mippipopolous in “The Sun Also Rises”, the older waiter is a reflective man who understands life and is not compelled to rush his time. He says things that convey his nature: “The old man is clean. He drinks without spilling. ” and “I am of those who like to stay late at the cafe. ” The older waiter shows concern for the old man and it would only be reasonable to assume that he knows a little about him.

So if the older waiter knows about the attempted suicide, why did the original text “confuse” the issue? The younger waiter shows all the impatience of youth and an uncaring attitude towards the old man. He is more concerned about getting home to his wife and to bed before three than he is about the old man. This becomes obvious when he says, “An old man is a nasty thing. ” We can assume that because the younger waiter cares only that the old man pays his tab, he is not paying close attention to what the older waiter is saying about him.

This might be viewed as a long inference, but taken with the original text it interprets quite clearly. We have seen that the older waiter possess the character of a man Hemingway would probably respect and admire. He is reserved, contemplative, judgmental, and possesses many of the characteristics of a Hemingway hero. The older waiter was trying to make sense of what he probably saw as an age of confusion. The soldier that passes by suggests a conflict is occurring and adds to the old waiter’s perception of confusion.

He was trying to tell the younger waiter how honest and decent it is just to sit in a clean cafe and drink a few brandies by yourself while trying to make sense of life. He tries to tell him that it is different to sit in a well-lighted cafe than it is to sit at a loud or irty bar. The cafe is a place of quiet refuge and the older waiter understands this. The young waiter does not pay close attention to what the older waiter is saying because he is too concerned with his own affairs. Understanding the differences in each waiter’s character and the inferences that can be drawn from them is crucial when attributing the dialogue to the waiter.

Certain proposals made by Otto Reinert (1959) and Charles May (1971) about Hemingway’s unconventional presentation of dialogue can be debunked if it is assumed the waiters have consistent characters. Reinert and May suggest that Hemingway wrote two lines of ialogue, but intended them to be said by the same person who in this case would be the young waiter. This would switch to whom the proceeding dialogue is attributed to and puts the younger waiter in the position of telling the older waiter about the old man’s attempted suicide.

Reinert and May say that another double dialogue occurs when the older waiter says: “He must be eighty years old. Anyway I should say he was eighty. ” This switches the dialogue again and explains the apparent inconsistency in the original text when the older waiter says to the younger waiter, “You said she cut him down. This would work well, except the dialogue that Reinert and May suggests is said by the younger waiter does not seem in line with his character. I cannot accept that the older waiter is suddenly asking all the questions and that the younger waiter knows enough about the old man to answer them.

While it is true that we are unable to know who speaks which line during the first two dialogues of the story, when taken as a whole the characters of the waiters emerge and we are able to attribute lines to each waiter. The character of each waiter indicates to me that the older waiter knew bout the old man and was therefore telling the younger waiter about him. If this is so, then the original text still appears to be inconsistent, but a look at Hemingway’s droll approach to humor will suggest otherwise. George H.

Thomson’s article ” ‘A Clean, Well-Lighted Place’: Interpreting the Original Text” first gave me the idea that Hemingway might have imbued the older waiter with a dry humor that is found in other Hemingway characters. Jacob Barnes in “The Sun Also Rises” and the narrator in “Green Hills of Africa” possess this dark humor and Hemingway uses it effectively to befuddle other characters or to add to the cynicism of a ituation. The narrator in “Green Hills of Africa” pretends to aim at humans while hunting and the guide misunderstands and takes him seriously.

In “The Sun Also Rises” Jake speaks of a woman with bad teeth smiling that “wonderful smile. ” The humor in “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” is more subtle, but if it exists as Thomson speculates, then it clears up the apparent inconsistency in the waiters’ dialogue. When the older waiter tells the younger waiter that the old man tried to hang himself, the younger waiter asks, “Who cut him down? ” Thomson suggests the younger waiter was not thinking clearly because it is easier o lift someone up and untie the rope or to untie the rope itself than it is to cut the rope and let the person fall down.

The older waiter notes this, but decides to barb the younger waiter by replying, “His niece. ” He does this without further explanation of the particulars because he knows the younger waiter is completely disinterested anyway. This is shown by the younger waiter’s next response: “Why did they do it? ” Even though the older waiter said niece, the younger waiter responds with “they” suggesting he was not listening. Where the inconsistency is purported to occur in the original text, it is y feeling that the older waiter is still barbing the younger waiter, but the younger waiter’s aloofness prevents him from realizing this.

Younger waiter: “His niece looks after him. ” Older waiter: “I know. You said she cut him down. ” Taken literally there is no inconsistency because it was the younger waiter who suggested someone cut him down. The older waiter simply agreed with him. I could just imagine the scene when the older waiter said this to the younger waiter. His eyes would glance up, a thin smile would appear on his lips, but the younger waiter would not be looking. His onsternation would focused towards the old man who was keeping him from bed.

The older waiter was prodding the younger waiter for suggesting that to take care of the old man all one had to do was cut him down. When the younger waiter did not respond to his jab, the older waiter probably just shook his head and went on to tell him the old man was not so bad. This might be construed in some camps as just rank speculation, but I enjoy playing with the original text and trying to interpret what Hemingway wrote, not what Scribner’s wrote. Whether or not Hemingway intended this apparent anomaly to be interpreted this way is unknown, but I do believe he intended to write it as it was in the original text.

The effect of what Hemingway wrote must be analyzed through his style and usage of language, but it must be done through what he wrote and not what satisfies someone else’s common sense. Category: Book Reports Ernest Hemingway “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” was published by Scribner’s Magazine in March of 1933, but it was not until 1956 that an apparent inconsistency in the waiters’ dialogue was brought to Hemingway’s attention. Hemingway’s thirteen word reply to Judson Jerome, an Assistant Professor of English at Antioch College, said that he had read the story again and it still made perfect sense to him.

Despite this letter, Scribner’s republished “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” in 1965 with a slight change in the waiters’ dialogue that they argued would fix the apparent anomaly. Scribner’s decision to alter the original text, the letter Hemingway wrote to Professor Jerome, and several papers on the subject all add up to a literary controversy that still churns among Hemingway scholars. I will argue that the original text is the correct text and Scribner’s just failed to interpret it properly. They failed to notice nuances in Hemingway’s writing that appear throughout many of his other works.

They obviously thought Hemingway’s reply to Professor Jerome was made without notice of the inconsistency. Most important, I believe they did not evaluate the character of the two waiters in “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place. ” A careful examination of the character of each waiter can make it apparent that the original text was correct and that there was no need for Scribner’s to alter the text. The dialogue in question results from a conversation the two waiters have concerning the old man’s attempted suicide. One waiter asks “Who cut him down? , to which the other waiter replies “His niece. Later in the story, the original text appears to confuse who possesses the knowledge about the suicide. The waiter who previously said “His niece”, now says: “I Know.

You said she cut him down. ” This seems to assume the knowledge about the attempted suicide has either passed from one waiter to another, or that we have incorrectly attributed the first exchange to the wrong waiters. So which waiter asked about cutting down the old man? When the disputed dialogue between the two waiters takes place, we do not know enough about them to develop an outline of character.

As the story progresses, the character of the two waiters emerges through their dialogue and thoughts, as does many of Hemingway’s characters. Once the character of each waiter is developed and understood, the dialogue makes more sense when the story is read again. The older waiter, who is unhurried and can empathize with the old man, makes declarative and judgmental statements throughout the story. Much like Count Mippipopolous in “The Sun Also Rises”, the older waiter is a reflective man who understands life and is not compelled to rush his time. He says things that convey his nature: “The old man is clean.

He drinks without spilling. ” and “I am of those who like to stay late at the cafe. ” The older waiter shows concern for the old man and it would only be reasonable to assume that he knows a little about him. So if the older waiter knows about the attempted suicide, why did the original text “confuse” the issue? The younger waiter shows all the impatience of youth and an uncaring attitude towards the old man. He is more concerned about getting home to his wife and to bed before three than he is about the old man. This becomes obvious when he says, “An old man is a nasty thing.

We can assume hat because the younger waiter cares only that the old man pays his tab, he is not paying close attention to what the older waiter is saying about him. This might be viewed as a long inference, but taken with the original text it interprets quite clearly. We have seen that the older waiter possess the character of a man Hemingway would probably respect and admire. He is reserved, contemplative, judgmental, and possesses many of the characteristics of a Hemingway hero. The older waiter was trying to make sense of what he probably saw as an age of confusion.

The soldier that passes by suggests a onflict is occurring and adds to the old waiter’s perception of confusion. He was trying to tell the younger waiter how honest and decent it is just to sit in a clean cafe and drink a few brandies by yourself while trying to make sense of life. He tries to tell him that it is different to sit in a well-lighted cafe than it is to sit at a loud or dirty bar. The cafe is a place of quiet refuge and the older waiter understands this. The young waiter does not pay close attention to what the older waiter is saying because he is too concerned with his own affairs.

Understanding the differences in each waiter’s character and the nferences that can be drawn from them is crucial when attributing the dialogue to the waiter. Certain proposals made by Otto Reinert (1959) and Charles May (1971) about Hemingway’s unconventional presentation of dialogue can be debunked if it is assumed the waiters have consistent characters. Reinert and May suggest that Hemingway wrote two lines of dialogue, but intended them to be said by the same person who in this case would be the young waiter.

This would switch to whom the proceeding dialogue is attributed to and puts the younger waiter in the position of telling the older waiter about the old man’s attempted suicide. Reinert and May say that another double dialogue occurs when the older waiter says: “He must be eighty years old. Anyway I should say he was eighty. ” This switches the dialogue again and explains the apparent inconsistency in the original text when the older waiter says to the younger waiter, “You said she cut him down. This would work well, except the dialogue that Reinert and May suggests is said by the younger waiter does not seem in line with his character. I cannot accept that the older waiter is suddenly asking all the questions and that the younger waiter knows enough about the old man to answer them. While it is true that we are unable to know who speaks which line during the first two dialogues of the story, when taken as a whole the characters of the waiters emerge and we are able to attribute lines to each waiter.

The character of each waiter indicates to me that the older waiter knew about the old man and was therefore telling the younger waiter about him. If this is so, then the original text still appears to be inconsistent, but a look at Hemingway’s droll approach to humor will suggest otherwise. George H. Thomson’s article ” ‘A Clean, Well-Lighted Place’: Interpreting he Original Text” first gave me the idea that Hemingway might have imbued the older waiter with a dry humor that is found in other Hemingway characters.

Jacob Barnes in “The Sun Also Rises” and the narrator in “Green Hills of Africa” possess this dark humor and Hemingway uses it effectively to befuddle other characters or to add to the cynicism of a situation. The narrator in “Green Hills of Africa” pretends to aim at humans while hunting and the guide misunderstands and takes him seriously. In “The Sun Also Rises” Jake speaks of a woman with bad teeth smiling that “wonderful smile. The humor in “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” is more subtle, but if it exists as Thomson speculates, then it clears up the apparent inconsistency in the waiters’ dialogue.

When the older waiter tells the younger waiter that the old man tried to hang himself, the younger waiter asks, “Who cut him down? ” Thomson suggests the younger waiter was not thinking clearly because it is easier to lift someone up and untie the rope or to untie the rope itself than it is to cut the rope and let the person fall down. The older waiter notes this, but decides to barb the younger waiter by replying, “His niece. ” He oes this without further explanation of the particulars because he knows the younger waiter is completely disinterested anyway.

This is shown by the younger waiter’s next response: “Why did they do it? ” Even though the older waiter said niece, the younger waiter responds with “they” suggesting he was not listening. Where the inconsistency is purported to occur in the original text, it is my feeling that the older waiter is still barbing the younger waiter, but the younger waiter’s aloofness prevents him from realizing this. Younger waiter: “His niece looks after him. ” Older waiter: “I know. You said she cut him down. ” Taken literally there is no inconsistency because it was the younger waiter who suggested someone cut him down.

The older waiter simply agreed with him. I could just imagine the scene when the older waiter said this to the younger waiter. His eyes would glance up, a thin smile would appear on his lips, but the younger waiter would not be looking. His consternation would focused towards the old man who was keeping him from bed. The older waiter was prodding the younger waiter for suggesting that to take care of the old man all one had to do was cut him down. When the younger waiter did not respond to his jab, the older waiter probably just hook his head and went on to tell him the old man was not so bad.

This might be construed in some camps as just rank speculation, but I enjoy playing with the original text and trying to interpret what Hemingway wrote, not what Scribner’s wrote. Whether or not Hemingway intended this apparent anomaly to be interpreted this way is unknown, but I do believe he intended to write it as it was in the original text. The effect of what Hemingway wrote must be analyzed through his style and usage of language, but it must be done through what he wrote and not what satisfies someone else’s common sense.

Anderson and Hemingway’s use of the First Person

“It is a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing. “At one point in his short story, “Big Two-Hearted River: Part II”, Hemingway’s character Nick speaks in the first person. Why he adopts, for one line only, the first person voice is an interesting question, without an easy answer. Sherwood Anderson does the same thing in the introduction to his work, Winesburg, Ohio. The first piece, called “The Book of the Grotesque”, is told from the first person point of view. But after this introduction, Anderson chooses not to allow the first person to narrate the work.

Anderson and Hemingway both wrote collections of short stories told in the third person, and the intrusion of the first person narrator in these two pieces is unsettling. In both instances, though, the reader is left with a much more absorbing story; one in which the reader is, in fact, a main character. With the exception of “My Old Man”, which is entirely in the first person , and “On the Quai at Smyrna”, which is only possibly in the first person, there is just one instance in In Our Time in which a character speaks in the first person.

It occurs in “Big Two-Hearted River: Part II”, an intensely personal story which completely immerses the reader in the actions and thoughts of Nick Adams. Hemingway’s utilization of the omniscient third person narrator allows the reader to visualize all of Nick’s actions and surroundings, which would have been much more difficult to accomplish using first person narration. Nick is seen setting up his camp in “Big Two-Hearted River: Part I” in intimate detail, from choosing the perfect place to set his tent to boiling a pot of coffee before going to sleep.

The story is completely written the in third person and is full of images, sounds, and smells. In “Big Two-Hearted River: Part II” Hemingway exactly describes Nick’s actions as he fishes for trout. Details of his fishing trip are told so clearly that the reader is almost an active participant in the expedition instead of someone reading a story. He carefully and expertly finds grasshoppers for bait, goes about breakfast and lunch-making, and sets off into the cold river. By being both inside and outside Nick’s thoughts, the reader can sense precisely the drama that Hemingway wishes to bring to trout fishing.

Nick catches one trout and throws it back to the river because it is too small. When he hooks a second one, it is an emotional battle between man and fish. Nick tries as hard as he can, but the fish snaps the line and escapes. Then, as Nick thinks about the fate of the trout which got away, Hemingway writes, “He felt like a rock, too, before he started off. By God, he was a big one. By God, he was the biggest one I ever heard of. ” This sudden switch to first-person narration is startling to the reader. Until this point Hemingway had solely used third person narration, but he did it so well that the reader feels as one with Nick.

It is not definite whether this is Nick or Hemingway speaking. It could easily be either of the two. Hemingway doesn’t include, “he thought,” or, “he said to himself,” and so it is unclear. The result is the same regardless. Using first person narration at this point serves to make the story more alive, more personal. It jolts the reader into realizing the humanity of Nick; he is no longer the object of a story but a real person. If Nick is making so much stir over it that he speaks directly to the reader, he must feel passionately about it.

Or if Hemingway is so moved by the size of the trout that he exclaims at its size, I can only accept that Nick also feels this excitement. The sudden intrusion of the first person narrator makes the story more complete and its only character more life-like. It also brings the reader into the story as a listener. Sherwood Anderson’s collection of short stories, Winesburg, Ohio, also has a moment of first person narration. The introductory story, “The Book of the Grotesque”, is written in first person. The story begins as a third person narration, a tale about an old writer.

Using a third person narration, Anderson writes about an old man and his episode with a carpenter. Then the old man goes to bed and the reader learns his thoughts. In the middle of describing what he is thinking, Anderson switches to first person narration. Suddenly there is a narrator speaking directly to the reader. The narrator says, “And then, of course, he had known people, many people, known them in a peculiarly intimate way that was different from the way in which you and I know people. ” At this point the story becomes more than just a static piece, for the reader is somehow now in it.

There is an ambiguity, however, because the reader does not know if the narrator is Anderson himself or another completely distinct character. As when Hemingway used this ploy, the result is the same regardless. The reader is no longer merely a reader, but has unexpectedly been transformed into an active participant in the book. Throughout the rest of “The Book of the Grotesque”, the narrator is speaking to the reader. Not only that, but the narrator is telling the reader about a book which was never published, but is almost surely the one the reader is in fact reading.

In case the reader should forget, there is one other instance, several stories later, in which Anderson adopts first person narration. In “Respectability” he writes, “I go to fast. ” Like Hemingway would do years later, Anderson was forcing the reader to become a part of the story. The entire book is a dialogue between narrator and reader. The effect is that the reader becomes even more involved in the stories. Both of these works are unlike others from the same time period which are told completely using first person narration. Gertrude Stein’s The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas and Anita Loos’ Gentlemen Prefer Blondes are both written wholly in the first person.

But both of these read like diaries, of which the reader is just that – a reader. Neither one has a point at which the reader is so definitely brought into the story consciously by the author. By jumping abruptly into first person instead of using it all along, Hemingway and Anderson more effectively do this. Anderson’s and Hemingway’s sudden switches to first person narration of course could not have been mere mistakes, and their reasons may have been even more convoluted than imaginable to late twentieth century readers.

What is left are two collections of short stories in which the reader plays an actual role. The intrusion of first person narration makes these stories come alive in a way that a third person narration cannot, a tribute to the skill of both of these authors. Anderson and Hemingway’s use of the First Person “It is a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing. “At one point in his short story, “Big Two-Hearted River: Part II”, Hemingway’s character Nick speaks in the first person. Why he adopts, for one line only, the first person voice is an interesting question, without an easy answer.

Sherwood Anderson does the same thing in the introduction to his work, Winesburg, Ohio. The first piece, called “The Book of the Grotesque”, is told from the first person point of view. But after this introduction, Anderson chooses not to allow the first person to narrate the work. Anderson and Hemingway both wrote collections of short stories told in the third person, and the intrusion of the first person narrator in these two pieces is unsettling. In both instances, though, the reader is left with a much more absorbing story; one in which the reader is, in fact, a main character.

With the exception of “My Old Man”, which is entirely in the first person , and “On the Quai at Smyrna”, which is only possibly in the first person, there is just one instance in In Our Time in which a character speaks in the first person. It occurs in “Big Two-Hearted River: Part II”, an intensely personal story which completely immerses the reader in the actions and thoughts of Nick Adams. Hemingway’s utilization of the omniscient third person narrator allows the reader to visualize all of Nick’s actions and surroundings, which would have been much more difficult to accomplish using first person narration.

Nick is seen setting up his camp in “Big Two-Hearted River: Part I” in intimate detail, from choosing the perfect place to set his tent to boiling a pot of coffee before going to sleep. The story is completely written the in third person and is full of images, sounds, and smells. In “Big Two-Hearted River: Part II” Hemingway exactly describes Nick’s actions as he fishes for trout. Details of his fishing trip are told so clearly that the reader is almost an active participant in the expedition instead of someone reading a story.

He carefully and expertly finds grasshoppers for bait, goes about breakfast and lunch-making, and sets off into the cold river. By being both inside and outside Nick’s thoughts, the reader can sense precisely the drama that Hemingway wishes to bring to trout fishing. Nick catches one trout and throws it back to the river because it is too small. When he hooks a second one, it is an emotional battle between man and fish. Nick tries as hard as he can, but the fish snaps the line and escapes. Then, as Nick thinks about the fate of the trout which got away, Hemingway writes, “He felt like a rock, too, before he started off.

By God, he was a big one. By God, he was the biggest one I ever heard of. ” This sudden switch to first-person narration is startling to the reader. Until this point Hemingway had solely used third person narration, but he did it so well that the reader feels as one with Nick. It is not definite whether this is Nick or Hemingway speaking. It could easily be either of the two. Hemingway doesn’t include, “he thought,” or, “he said to himself,” and so it is unclear. The result is the same regardless. Using first person narration at this point serves to make the story more alive, more personal.

It jolts the reader into realizing the humanity of Nick; he is no longer the object of a story but a real person. If Nick is making so much stir over it that he speaks directly to the reader, he must feel passionately about it. Or if Hemingway is so moved by the size of the trout that he exclaims at its size, I can only accept that Nick also feels this excitement. The sudden intrusion of the first person narrator makes the story more complete and its only character more life-like. It also brings the reader into the story as a listener.

Sherwood Anderson’s collection of short stories, Winesburg, Ohio, also has a moment of first person narration. The introductory story, “The Book of the Grotesque”, is written in first person. The story begins as a third person narration, a tale about an old writer. Using a third person narration, Anderson writes about an old man and his episode with a carpenter. Then the old man goes to bed and the reader learns his thoughts. In the middle of describing what he is thinking, Anderson switches to first person narration. Suddenly there is a narrator speaking directly to the reader.

The narrator says, “And then, of course, he had known people, many people, known them in a peculiarly intimate way that was different from the way in which you and I know people. ” At this point the story becomes more than just a static piece, for the reader is somehow now in it. There is an ambiguity, however, because the reader does not know if the narrator is Anderson himself or another completely distinct character. As when Hemingway used this ploy, the result is the same regardless. The reader is no longer merely a reader, but has unexpectedly been transformed into an active participant in the book.

Throughout the rest of “The Book of the Grotesque”, the narrator is speaking to the reader. Not only that, but the narrator is telling the reader about a book which was never published, but is almost surely the one the reader is in fact reading. In case the reader should forget, there is one other instance, several stories later, in which Anderson adopts first person narration. In “Respectability” he writes, “I go to fast. ” Like Hemingway would do years later, Anderson was forcing the reader to become a part of the story.

The entire book is a dialogue between narrator and reader. The effect is that the reader becomes even more involved in the stories. Both of these works are unlike others from the same time period which are told completely using first person narration. Gertrude Stein’s The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas and Anita Loos’ Gentlemen Prefer Blondes are both written wholly in the first person. But both of these read like diaries, of which the reader is just that – a reader. Neither one has a point at which the reader is so definitely brought into the story consciously by the author.

By jumping abruptly into first person instead of using it all along, Hemingway and Anderson more effectively do this. Anderson’s and Hemingway’s sudden switches to first person narration of course could not have been mere mistakes, and their reasons may have been even more convoluted than imaginable to late twentieth century readers. What is left are two collections of short stories in which the reader plays an actual role. The intrusion of first person narration makes these stories come alive in a way that a third person narration cannot, a tribute to the skill of both of these authors.