Edgar Allan Poe – scary writer

Edgar Allan Poe was a bizarre and often scary writer. People throughout history have often wondered why his writings were so fantastically different and unusual. They were not the result of a diseased mind, as some think. Rather they came from a tense and miserable life. Edgar Allan Poe was not a happy man. He was a victim of fate from the moment he was born to his death only forty years later. He died alone and unappreciated. It is quite obvious that his life affected his writings in a great way. In order to understand why, the historical background of Poe must be known.

Poe was born in Boston, Massachusetts on January 19, 1809. His parents were touring actors and both died before he was three years old. After this, he was taken into the home of John Allan, a prosperous merchant who lived in Richmond, Virginia. 1 When he was six, he studied in England for five years. Not much else is known about his childhood, except that it was uneventful. In 1826, when Poe was seventeen years old he entered the University of Virginia. It was also at this time that he was engaged to marry his childhood sweetheart, Sarah Elmira Royster.

He was a good student, but only stayed for a ear. He did not have enough money to make ends meet, so he ran up extremely large gambling debts to trying make more money. Then he could not afford to go to school anymore. John Allan refused to pay off Poe’s debts, and broke off his engagement to Sarah Elmira Royster. Since Poe had no other means of support, he enlisted in the army. By this time however, he had written and printed his first book, Tammerlane, and Minor Poems (1829). 2 After a few months though, John Allan and Poe were reconciled.

Allan arranged for Poe to be released from the army and enrolled him at West Point. During this time, his fellow cadets helped him publish another book of poetry. However, John Allan again did not provide Poe with enough money, and Poe decided to leave this time before racking up any more debts Still, Poe had no money and necessity forced him to live with his aunt, Mrs. Clemm, in Baltimore, Maryland. None of his poetry had sold particularly well, so he decided to write stories. He could find no publisher for his stories, and so resorted to entering writing contests to make money and receive exposure.

He was rarely successful, but eventually won. His short story, MS. Found in a Bottle was well liked and one of the judges in the contest, John P. Kennedy, befriended him. 3 It was on Kennedy’s recommendation that Poe became assistant editor of the Southern Literary Messenger, published at Richmond by T. W. White. It was at this time that Poe went through a period of emotional instability that he tried to control by drinking. This was a mistake because he was extremely sensitive to alcohol and became very drunk just from one or two drinks.

In May of 1836 Poe married his cousin, Virginia and brought her and her mother to live with him in Richmond. It was during this time that Poe produced a number of stories and even some verse. 4 Over the next few years, Poe went from good times to bad. He had become the editor of magazines and had written books, but none of these were paying off enough. He would always be laid off the editorial staff for differences over policies. He was doing so poorly that by the end of 1846 he was asking his friends and admirers for help. He was then living in a cottage with Mrs. Clemm and Virginia.

Virginia was dying of consumption and had to sleep in an unheated room. After six years f marriage she had become very ill, and her disease had driven Poe to distraction. Virginia died on January 30, 1847, and Poe broke down. It is here that much is learned about him and why he wrote the way he did. All of his life he had wanted to be loved and to have someone to love. Yet one by one, he kept losing the women in his life. His mother, Mrs. Allan, and now Virginia. He had wanted to lead a life of wealth and luxury and still, despite his tremendous talent, was forced to live as a poor man.

When he reached manhood, after a sheltered childhood and teenage years, is life seemed to be caught up in failures. So, he did what most people do. He found a way to escape. His method was writing. He found so much in common with his characters, that his life began to emulate theirs. Although it is probably the other way around. How tragic that the one thing that he was good at never seemed to do him any good. No matter what he wrote, he just kept sinking further and further into an abyss. This abyss could be called death or ultimate despair.

When we read Poe’s stories, we often find ourselves wondering how such a mind could function in society. This quotation from American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, very accurately describes the landscape of Poe’s stories: The world of Poe’s tales is a nightmarish universe. You cross wasted lands, silent, forsaken landscapes where both life and waters stagnate. Here and there you catch sight of lugubrious feudal buildings suggestive of horrible and mysterious happenings…… The inside of these sinister buildings is just as disquieting as the outside.

Everything is dark there, from the ebony furniture to the oaken ceiling. The walls are ung with heavy tapestries to which mysterious drafts constantly give ‘a hideous and uneasy animation. ‘ Even the windows are ‘of a leaden hue,’ so that the rays of either sun or moon passing through fall ‘with a ghastly lustre on the objects within. ‘ ……. it is usually night in the ghastly (one of his favorite adjectives) or red-blood light of the moon that Poe’s tales take place-or in the middle of terrific storms lit up by lurid flashes of lightning.

None of Poe’s characters could ever be normal, since they lived in this bizarre world. All of his heroes are usually alone, and if they are not crazy, they are on their way to becoming so rapidly. This leads one to wonder, just how lucid Poe was when he wrote these stories. Was he crazy or just upset and confused? Most texts and histories of Poe have it that he was influenced not only by his life, but by other writers. These include Hawthorne, Charles Brockden Brown, E. T. A. Hoffman, and William Godwin to name a few. Many of his stories show similarities to the works of the aforementioned.

Therefore another point is brought up, was Poe writing these stories as he result of a tortured existence and a need to escape, or was he writing to please readers and critics? In letters he wrote, he often pokes fun at his stories and says that they are sometimes intended as satire or banter. Also in his letters, he describes horrible events seemingly without any concern. So who can tell how he really felt since he might not have been totally sane and rational at the time. Even though Poe writes such bizarre tales he is never quite taken in with them. He fears but is at the same time skeptical.

He is frantic but at the same time lucid. It is not until the very end that Poe was consumed by something, and died. It might have been fear or something worse, something that could only be scraped up from the bottom of a nightmare. That is what killed him. Poe’s stories contain within them a fascination for death, decay, and insanity. He also displays very morbid characteristics and in some cases, sadistic. His murderers always seem to delight in killing their victims in the most painful and agonizing way. Still, terror seems to be the main theme. That is what Poe tries to bring about in his stories.

For example, in The Fall of he House of Usher what kills Roderick Usher is the sheer terror of his sister who appeared to have come back from the dead. According to Marie Bonaparte, one of Freud’s friends and disciples, all the disorders Poe suffered from can be explained by the Oedipus Complex and the trauma he suffered when his mother died. The Oedipus Complex is best described as a child’s unconscious desire for the exclusive love of the parent of the opposite sex. The desire includes jealousy toward the parent of the same sex and the unconscious wish for that parent’s death.

In fact, upon examining the omen in Poe’s stories, we find that they bear striking resemblance to the mother that Poe never had. So one gets a glimpse at how Poe’s life, filled with insurmountable obstacles and full of disappointments, indeed played a role in his writing. A good comparison would be Vincent Van Gogh. He also endured hardship and died at an early age. Poe was only forty when he passed away. Insignificant in his lifetime, it was only after his death that he was appreciated. He is now acclaimed as one of the greatest writers in American history. It is indeed a pity that he will never know or care.

Jack London – novelist and short story writer

Jack London fought his way up out of the factories and waterfront dives of West Oakland to become the highest paid, most popular novelist and short story writer of his day. He wrote passionately and prolifically about the great questions of life and death, the struggle to survive with dignity and integrity, and he wove these elemental ideas into stories of high adventure based on his own firsthand experiences at sea, or in Alaska, or in the fields and factories of California. As a result, his writing appealed not to the few, but to millions of people all around the world.

Along with his books and stories, however, Jack London was widely known for his personal exploits. He was a celebrity, a colorful and controversial personality who was often in the news. Generally fun-loving and playful, he could also be combative, and was quick to side with the underdog against injustice or oppression of any kind. He was a fiery and eloquent public speaker, and much sought after as a lecturer on socialism and other economic and political topics. Despite his avowed socialism, most people considered him a living symbol of rugged individualism, a man whose fabulous success was due not to special favor of any kind, but to a combination of unusual mental ability and immense vitality.

Strikingly handsome, full of laughter, restless and courageous to a fault, always eager for adventure on land or sea, he was one of the most attractive and romantic figures of his time.

Jack London ascribed his literary success largely to hard work – to “dig,” as he put it. He tried never to miss his early morning 1,000-word writing stint, and between 1900 and 1916 he completed over fifty books, including both fiction and non-fiction, hundreds of short stories, and numerous articles on a wide range of topics. Several of the books and many of the short stories are classics of their kind, well thought of in critical terms and still popular around the world. Today, almost countless editions of London’s writings are available and some of them have been translated into as many as seventy different languages.

In addition to his daily writing stint and his commitments as a lecturer, London also carried on voluminous correspondence (he received some 10,000 letters per year), read proofs of his work as it went to press, negotiated with his various agents and publishers, and conducted other business such as overseeing construction of his custom-built sailing ship, the Snark (1906 – 1907), construction of Wolf House (1910 – 1913), and the operation of his beloved Beauty Ranch, which became a primary preoccupation after about 1911. Along with all this, he had to continually generate new ideas for books and stories and do the research so necessary to his writing.

Somehow, he managed to do all these things and still find time to go swimming, horseback riding, or sailing on San Francisco Bay. He also spent 27 months cruising the South Pacific in the Snark, put in two tours of duty as an overseas war correspondent, traveled widely for pleasure, entertained a continual stream of guests whenever he was at home in Glen Ellen, and did his fair share of barroom socializing and debating. In order to fit all this living into the narrow confines of one lifetime, he often tried to make do with no more than four or five hours of sleep at night.

London was first attracted to the Sonoma Valley by its magnificent natural landscape, a unique combination of high hills, fields and streams, and a beautiful mixed forest of oaks, madrones, California buckeyes, Douglas Fir, and redwood trees. “When I first came here, tired of cities and people, I settled down on a little farm … 130 acres of the most beautiful, primitive land to be found in California.”

He didn’t care that the farm was badly run-down. Instead, he reveled in its deep canyons and forests, its year-round springs and streams. “All I wanted,” he said later, “was a quiet place in the country to write and loaf in and get out of Nature that something which we all need, only the most of us don’t know it.” Soon, however, he was busy buying farm equipment and livestock for his “mountain ranch.” He also began work on a new barn and started planning a fine new house. “This is to be no summer-residence proposition,” he wrote to his publisher in June 1905, “but a home all the year round. I am anchoring good and solid, and anchoring for keeps …”

Born January 12, 1876, he was only 29, but he was already internationally famous for Call of the Wild (1903), The Sea Wolf (1904), and other literary and journalistic accomplishments. He was divorced from Bessie (Maddern), his first wife and the mother of his two daughters, Joan and Little Bess, and he had married Charmian (Kittredge).

Living and owning land near Glen Ellen was a way of escaping from Oakland – from the city way of life he called the “man-trap.” But excited as he was about his plans for the ranch, London was still too restless, too eager for foreign travel and adventure, to settle down and spend all his time there. While his barn and other ranch improvements were still under construction he decided to build a ship and go sailing around the world – exploring, writing, adventuring – enjoying the “big moments of living” that he craved and that would give him still more material to write about.

The great voyage was to last seven years and take Jack and Charmian around the world. In fact it lasted 27 months and took them “only” as far as the South Pacific and Australia. Discouraged by a variety of health problems, and heartbroken about having to abandon the trip and sell the Snark, London returned to Glen Ellen and to his plans for the ranch.

In 1909, ’10 and ’11 he bought more land, and in 1911 moved from Glen Ellen to a small ranch house in the middle of his holdings. He rode horseback throughout the countryside, exploring every canyon, glen and hill top. And he threw himself into farming – scientific agriculture – as one of the few justifiable, basic, and idealistic ways of making a living. A significant portion of his later writing – Burning Daylight (1910), Valley of the Moon (1913), Little Lady of the Big House (1916) – had to do with the simple pleasures of country life, the satisfaction of making a living directly and honestly from the land and thereby remaining close to the realities of the natural world.

Jack and Charmian London’s dream house began to take definite shape early in 1911 as Albert Farr, a well-known San Francisco architect, put their ideas on paper in the form of drawings and sketches, and then supervised the early stages of construction. It was to be a grand house – one that would remain standing for a thousand years. By August 1913, London had spent approximately $80,000 (in pre-World War I dollars), and the project was nearly complete. On August 22 final cleanup got underway and plans were laid for moving the Londons’ specially designed, custom-built furniture and other personal belongings into the mansion. That night – at 2 a. m. – word came that the house was burning. By the time the Londons arrived on the scene the house was ablaze in every corner, the roof had collapsed, and even a stack of lumber some distance away was burning. Nothing could be done.

London looked on philosophically, but inside he was seriously wounded, for the loss was a crushing financial blow and the wreck of a long-cherished dream. Worse yet, he also had to face the probability that the fire had been deliberately set – perhaps by someone close to him. To this day, the mystery remains unsolved, but there are strong indications that the fire started by spontaneous combustion of oily rags which had been left in the building on that hot August night. London planned to rebuild Wolf House eventually, but at the time of his death in 1916 the house remained as it stands today, the stark but eloquent vestige of a unique and fascinating but shattered dream.

The destruction of the Wolf House left London terribly depressed, but after a few days he forced himself to go back to work. Using a $2,000 advance from Cosmopolitan Magazine, he added a new study to the little wood-frame ranch house in which he had been living since 1911. Here, in the middle of his beloved ranch, he continued to turn out the articles, short stories, and novels for which there was an ever-growing international market.

From the time he went east to meet with his publishers in New York, or to San Francisco or Los Angeles on other business. He also spent a considerable amount of time living and working aboard his 30-foot yawl, the Roamer, which he loved to sail around San Francisco Bay and throughout the nearby Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. In 1914 he went to Mexico as a war correspondent covering the role of U.S. troops and Navy ships in the Villa-Carranza revolt.

In 1915 and again in 1916 Charmian persuaded him to spend several months in Hawaii, where he seemed better able to relax and more willing to take care of himself. His greatest satisfaction, however, came from his ranch activities and from his ever more ambitious plans for expanding the ranch and increasing its productivity. These plans kept him perpetually in debt and under intense pressure to keep on writing as fast as he could, even though it might mean sacrificing quality in favor of quantity.

His doctors urged him to ease up, to change his work habits and his diet, to stop all use of alcohol, and to get more exercise. But he refused to change his way of life, and plunged on with his writing and his ranch, generously supporting friends and relations through it all. If anything, the press of his financial commitments and his increasingly severe health problems only made him expand his ambitions, dream even larger dreams, and work still harder and faster.

On November 22, 1916, Jack London died of gastrointestinal uremic poisoning. He was 40 years of age and had been suffering from a variety of ailments, including a kidney condition that was extraordinarily painful at times. Nevertheless, right up to the last day of his life he was full of bold plans and boundless enthusiasm for the future.

Isaac Bashevis Singer – Polish-American writer

There are many writers in this world, and many of them write short stories. These short stories are to-the-point works of literature that have one thing in common among all of them, themes. Isaac Bashevis Singer was one short story author. In this paper, It will be proven that he was an excellent short story author and that his work is greatly represented in his story “Yentl the Yeshiva Boy”. Isaac led a simple life at the beginning. He was born in 1904 and in Leconcin, a little town in Poland. Soon after his birth, his family moved to Warsaw. He lived there until 1935, when he traveled to the United States.

There his father and his paternal grandfather were rabbis, while his maternal grandfather also a rabbi, was in the Maskilic, or enlightened tradition. Isaac had a thoroughly traditional Jewish upbringing in which these two elements collided. What influenced Isaac the most into literature was his brother. Isaac looked up to him and followed some of his steps in becoming a writer, but soon made his own. Isaac’s life was full of hardships and misfortunes as well as many gratifying surprises and events. He lived during one of the hardest times in America, the Depression.

He did not let the world’s troubles bother him and kept on writing and publishing novels all throughout his life. He became a professor of literature at a college and passed on his ideas about the subject. He tried to teach all he knew but could not finish due to his recent death. What he taught did not go in vain thought. His most unique ideas were learned by many young writers, who will keep on writing in his style. Isaac, as you already know, wrote short stories. In these stories he would have four or fewer characters, in which two or one were his principal characters.

Settings would take place back in his homeland and places in Europe. They were never fictitious places. The time period in which these stories occurred would be in the present, which then was during the 1950’s, or a few years earlier. What was most unique were his short, to-the-point themes that were based on his own experience and will to share it. Isaac’s techniques for writing his stories are based on simplicity and humor. He used these techniques to lure readers into having an easy read and funny story to relax them, while learning something in the meantime.

He sharpened his skills throughout the years and got a bigger and bigger audience. “Yentl the Yeshiva Boy” was written during his learning stages and was not intended to be a published item. Since it was so good, he had a change of mind. This story took place in Israel, during the early 1950’s. He placed a humorous mood, but still having a calm sense in this story. It was a good combination. The story is about a Jewish girl who wanted to study the teachings of the Torah, but could not since she was a girl. She decided to trick her teachers by disguising herself as a boy and learning as much as she could.

During her journey, she fell in love with a boy who also had her same goals. Her love couldn’t be expressed, since she was supposed to be a boy. The climax was when she revealed herself to him and the whole world. She was just a girl who wanted to learn, no matter what her gender. Her determination brought her to her goal and she succeeded. There are two principal characters in this story, Yentl, who is the protagonist, and Avigdor. Yentl is a dynamic character, who changes her thoughts and ideas throughout the story. She is round, meaning that she is not a stereotype girl who lived her life like all others.

Avigdor is a static character, staying the same throughout the story. Being a static character influences him being a flat stereotype boy who back then grew up learning and becoming a rabbi. Yentl’s significance is crucial, since she is the protagonist, and Avigdor’s is also, being the person Yentl’s falls in love with stating that she could not stay a boy the rest of her life like she wanted to. The narrator in this story is omniscient, one who knows all and is everywhere. ” Yentl thought to herselfcould only be the solution”; this proves the omniscient participation of the narrator. 5)

Description techniques are that of an omniscient narrator, giving personal and non-personal thoughts, as well as describing the events and places. Isaac’s style is “keep it simple”. He wrote easy-to-read stories that were humorous at sometimes. The dialogue that he used was a simple reading one. They were common words used everyday. There is a vast extent of figurative language used in this story, making it relaxing to hear. Imagery was used to express some ideas, too. The theme was a very easy to find out. If you read the title of the book, and put two and two together, you would figure it out.

It is about discrimination based on gender and that it will hold no one if they determine themselves. It applies today in many ways, although there is not a great quantity in America, but back then when it was written, women could not even vote. He used this story to teach people that they can succeed at what they are determined themselves to do. Short stories are important to this world in the way that they educate, relax, and entertain. Isaac’s learnings, teachings, and prizes, like the Nobel Peace Prize, prove that he is an outstanding short story writer, and “Yentl the Yeshiva Boy” was an excellent example of his work.

The writer Andy Warhol

Never before have I encountered more intriguing works of art than those done by Andy Warhol. I have been curious about his life ever since I saw his work in Milwaukee. I saw his famous work of the Campbell’s Soup Can. By viewing this, one can tell he is not your average artist. I’m sure his life is full of interesting events that shaped him into who he was. As an artist myself, I would like to get to know the background of his life. I may then be able to appreciate his styles and understand why and how his works were created.

His life is as interesting as his artistic Andrew Warhola (his original name) was born one of three sons of Czech immigrants, somewhere in Pennsylvania on either August 6, 1928 or on September 28, 1930 (the date on his birth certificate). His father died when Andy was at a very young age. Thus, it forced Andy into a deep depression containing lack of self confidence. Much of his young life has been kept secret. However, he did report being very shy and depressed because he never felt comfortable with his homosexuality. His childhood life may have been full of the torture that children threw at him for being the different person he was. He was able to attend college.

After graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in pictorial design from Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1949, he went to New York City with Philip Pearlstein, who was a fellow student that later became a well-known realist painter. In 1960, Warhol finally began to paint in earnest and to view art seriously as a career. He began his career with commercial drawings of women’s shoes. In 1961, an early manifestation was his Dick Tracy, an enlarged version of the comic strip that was placed in the window of Lord & Taylor’s department store. He followed in his own footsteps to keep going in the ever-so-famous “pop art” track.

Warhol’s use of images are so close to the images themselves, thanks to the hotographic silkscreen technique, which is a process of applying the same image over and over again without changing the original. In 1963, he began turning film into his next aesthetic. He was the recorder of the world around him. Warhol saw this world as populated by hustlers of various sorts, motivated largely by money and the goods it would buy. Later that next year, he started to experiment in underground film. In the late 70’s he began to use sex and nudity to gain attention in his films.

Whether this was moral or not; it did, however, work. The rest of his short life as spent visiting with celebrities and keeping up with the world’s times. He tried to understand how the rest of the world saw things, but just never got there. Sadly, Warhol died of a heart failure on March 9, 1987, still wearing his famous blond hair wig. Andy’s diaries are not actual written records of his day to day accounts, but they are audio recordings of his phone conversations to Pat Hackett every Monday through Friday (from Wednesday, November 24, 1976 to Tuesday, February 17, 1987, just weeks before his death).

Warhol originally intended these daily records to be documentation of his minor “business” xpenses. He was just audited and felt the need to be extra careful. “In a word it was a diary. But whatever its broader objective, its narrow one, to satisfy tax auditors, was always on my mind” (Warhol xvi). Later on, he felt the diaries were a great way to explain his everyday occurrences for more than a decade of his life. This view of his life from his eyes is probably the most balanced view ever given. He may have changed since the 60’s, but it is still the truest representation of Andy, himself.

He never expressed the key happenings of his life; it’s as if we, the readers, lready knew them. He just usually mentions the quick everyday type things such as a cab ride to uptown New York. The first major influence on Andy Warhol’s life was the stepping stone of his artistic career, his enrollment in and completion of Carnegie Institute of Technology with a bachelor degree in pictorial design. After graduating he moved out to New York City, where his life blossomed. He lived for a couple of years with Philip Pearlstein, who he had met at school.

Warhol, with his education centered around design, set out to begin his career on the right foot. He started doing drawings for dvertisements in a women’s shoe catalog. It may not have been much to brag about, but it was at least something he could learn and gain from the experience given to him. Andy may have acquired his use of media exploited images through his beginning attempts at commercialism. He knew what sold to society, whether he agreed with it or not. He continued on with simplified pop art and he made it famous. He is the person most people think about when pop art is mentioned.

Through his advertising projects, he was conditioned to think only in glorification of people, products, and tyle. One of his popular works, the silkscreen of the Campbell’s Soup Can, is an example of this. It is an image that everyone is familiar with, and it is so common that sometimes it is overlooked. Many times, Andy took something simple and glorified it. This is how he made his designing skills useful in promotion. “One would compare Warhol to the pictorial hyper-realism of Norman Rockwell, and to the surrealism of Marcel Duchamp, and the radicalism of Jasper Johns” (Sagan 1).

A second major influence in Andy Warhol’s life is his participation in the underground film scene. It started in 1963, when he called himself “the recorder of society around him” (Moritz 590). He would find people for his movies in a club-type warehouse called Max’s Kansas City. Every night, celebrities of art, fashion, music, and underground film-making crowds gathered in the back corners of Max’s to try their chance at working with Warhol. In 1968, he was nearly killed by a woman who was in one of his short films.

She shot him on the side of his chest, but fortunately he was not killed. He still continued to make films; such famous ones are “Eat,” “Haircut,” “Sleep,” “Kiss,” and “Empire. He would make them boring on purpose to possibly prove a point. Again it was glorifying something thought of as being extremely pointless. In the late 70’s he began to use sex and nudity, featuring films concerning sexual bondage. He may have been simply looking for a shock value content. Many artists work off shock value, it takes only the true to admit it and still continue with it.

The last and most important influence on Warhol was his mother, Julia Warhola. When Andy first arrived in New York, he would share apartments with friends and acquaintances. Eventually he could afford a place of his own. Then his mother suddenly arrived in town and moved in with him. Her reason was to look after him. She would constantly keep an eye out for a wife for Andy. Little did she know he was interested in the opposite sex for marriage. Andy appreciated his mother, and never wanted to explain how she had an impact on him.

Maybe it was the fact that she meant well, and tried her hardest to take care of him. She lived with him on 89th Street and Lexington Avenue until 1971. By then, suffering from senility, she required constant care and Andy sent her back to Pittsburgh to be cared for by his two brothers, John and Paul. After suffering a stroke, she died in her nursing home in 1972. Andy did not except the fact too kindly. He would even go as far to say his mother was doing fine, when people would ask about her, even though she had already passed away.

Andy stayed quiet and tried to hide himself from the rest of society. He would avoid emotional interaction as much as he could. He did this so he could “shrink away from human touch” (Moritz 591). A man who started his life shy and uncomfortable, blossomed into an outspoken artist, now finished his life with feelings even worse than the beginning of his life. After extensive research I found that Andy had much more to his life than I had originally expected. He was involved in the classic rock band The Velvet Underground, with famous singer Lou Reed.

He actually even designed a few of the album covers. Most people remember the self-entitled album with the picture of a banana on it. Directly to the left of the banana read the words “peel me. ” If one would peel it, it would reveal the pink insides of a banana. Truly a work of Andy, I must say. Another thing I found was that Andy was not only homosexual, but he was “omnisexual. ” It as rumored he had no problem with sex with anyone or anything. Men, women, animals, you name it, it was probably thought of.

And last of all I found he was unusually kind and appreciative to others, especially the ones who worked for him. Pat Hackett, his editor, once said that she has never met a person who says “thank you” as much as Andy does. Not once have I been more informed on a person’s life. In the beginning I thought I knew a lot about. This research on Andy Warhol definitely reinforced my positive view of him. It may have possibly enhanced my appreciation for him as well. I enjoyed the honesty of the entire diary. Nothing was hidden from the reader and I felt as informed as a good friend of his would feel.

His life is an interesting one and I believe more people should try to investigate other lives of the unusual. It expands your own viewpoints to accept those of others. Many critics have different viewpoints on Warhol’s autobiography. He was still appreciated by those who understood his ideas. “But he had to have had some sense of history, or he wouldn’t have left the diaries behind to try to explain everything to future generations” (Plagens 1732). Some realize that the diaries are rather boring, but seem to see the true Andy come through in the entries.

Despite their virtuoso triviality, their naive snobbery and their incredible length, the diaries are not without a certain charm” (Amis 1732). Others saw the diaries as a simplistic record of events. “His diaries are more or less just records of who went where and did what with whom, that anybody else who’d been along could have kept” (Plagens 1732). It’s too bad he didn’t start the diaries earlier in his life, such as the 60’s, “when it would have been more interesting to now what he did and whom he was with, instead of waiting until 1976 to begin” (Plagens 1732).

Some even complained of the editing job done by Pat Hackett. “One problem with the diaries is their postmodern polish, such as the casual proofreading and editing” (Trebay 1732). The reason the editor didn’t fit up to par was the mere fact she wanted it to sound how Andy explained the day. “… still the book is great social history with its lip-smacking tales of loveless, sexless marriages, its gimlet-eyed view of other people’s success, and its rampant unclosetings” (Trebay 1732).

Really In The Works Of John Grisham

John Grisham incorporates many reality-based ideas into his novels. He uses experiences from his own life as plots in his novels. Many of his novels are from actual experiences portrayed in life today. Grisham uses his knowledge and experiences as a courtroom lawyer to create realistic novels that capture his readers’ attention. John Grisham combines his knowledge as a lawyer and his talent as a writer to become one of the best selling authors of the decade. John Grisham was born on February 8, 1955, in Jonesboro, Arkansas. His mother was a homemaker, and his father a construction worker.

As a child, Grisham wanted to play either professional baseball or professional baseball. He gave up the football dream early, but the baseball dream lasted through college. After a few years of trying his baseball career out, he realized baseball was not for him. He then shifted his gears and majored in accounting at Mississippi State University (http://www. random house. com/features/grisham/about. html). He then attended law school at the University of Mississippi. He graduated in 1981, the same year in which he married Renee Jones, who then became Renee Grisham.

John Grisham then began to practice law in Southaven, Mississippi for nearly a decade. He specialized in criminal defense and personal injury litigation. In 1983 he was elected to the Mississippi Sate House of Representatives. He served in the House of Representatives until 1990. While at Mississippi State University, he attempted to write two books, neither of which he finished. In 1984 he began to write a third book. He used his experience at Dessoto County Courthouse (http://www. randomhouse. com/features/grisham/about. html) to write this book.

The testimony of a twelve-year-old rape victim inspired Grisham to write a novel. After three years of grueling work on A Time to Kill his first book was completed. Initially rejected by many publishers, it was eventually bought by Wychwood Press, who gave it modest five thousand copy printing and published in 1988 (http://www. randomhouse. com/features/grisham/about. html). The success, although only slight, spiked Grisham’s new writing hobby. As he began his next book, that hobby turned into a full time career. Grisham has gone on to be recognized as one of the worlds’s best selling novelists (http://www. emiss. edu/debts/English/ms-writers/dir/grisham_john/).

The Firm stayed for 47 weeks on the New York Times Best Seller List. The Firm became the best selling novel of 1991 (http://www. randomhouse. com/ features/grisham/about. html). Several other of his novels began to reach number one on the New York Times Best Seller List. In fact, currently, there are over 60 million John Grisham Books printed all over the world. John Grisham, with wife Renee of 16 years, has 2 children, Ty and Shelia. Ty and Shelia are 13 and 11, respectively.

The family currently lives in two locations, a Victorian home in Mississippi and a plantation near Charlottesville, Virginia. After gaining his success as a writer, in 1996, Grisham returned to the courtroom, the starting point of his success. He was committed to a case dealing with a railroad brakeman killed. He had made the commitment before he became a full-time writer. He successfully won the case, and awarded his client with the biggest verdict of his career. Though the works of John Grisham are grounded in reality, they are not a part of the realism movement.

Realism is a term applied to literary composition that aims at an interpretation of the actualities of any aspect of life; free from subjective prejudice, idealism, or romantic color (Hart 698). Realists try to point to objective reality. A realist in neither optimistic nor pessimistic. The works of a realist are a reflection of a writer’s motive. The works of John Grisham are hypothetically realistic. Grisham’s novels are fiction but could easily be nonfiction. His plots are hypothetical, but with its realistic ideas, there is no need for it to be hypothetical. Realism and reality are two different styles of writing.

Most contemporary authors, like Grisham, use realistic ideas rather than realism because realism does not come naturally. Grisham uses experiences from his own life to write many of his novels. Many of his novels use realistic portrayals of courtroom encounters. Grisham uses his experience as a lawyer to create his novels. Many of his novels use realistic portrayals of courtroom encounters. Grisham uses his experience as a lawyer to create his novels. A Time To Kill was inspired by the harrowing testimony of a twelve year old rape victim he had witnessed (http://www. random house. com/features/grisham/ about. ml).

Grisham was curious with this case. He said “I never felt such emotion and human drama in my life. I became obsessed wondering what it would be like if the girls’ father had killed the rapist and was put on trial. I had to write it down. ” (Current Biography Yrbk 222). For the next three years Grisham spent his free time, in between work and family, on this book. In 1988, A Time to Kill was published. Although his scenario never happened in actuality, the situation could have happened. The realistic nature of this book is remarkable. John Grisham’s The Firm, was his best selling novel.

In fact it was described as the best selling novel of 1991 (http://www. randomhouse. com/features/grisham/about. html). Grisham used his knowledge as an attorney to write and realistic novel about a law student affiliated with a law firm that turned out to good to be true. After a series of mysterious murders were committed within the firm, with no apparent trace; and millions of Mafia money filtering throughout the firm, the young lawyer was faced with important decisions. Many of the ideas and plots in The Firm are so reality based many readers believe they are part of the plot themselves.

Gabriel Brandstrom depicts The Firm as being able to “capture the reader” (http://www. privat. katedral. se/nv96gabr/B96gabr/b-fir. htm). Grisham grounds his books in reality to captivate a reader’s attention. Grisham uses his characters to portray his reality theme. All of his characters are hypothetical, but also could easily be living beings. In fact, Grisham himself even resembles his characters. Grisham has the blue-eyed, brown-haired, fashionably unshaven good looks that one imagines a typical Grisham hero might possess (Current Biography Yrbk 224).

He makes his characters so realistic, that when one reads his novels, one may actually believe they are part of the plot. His characters along with his plots are definely part of a realistic style of writing. His uses realistic ideas, rather than the realism movement. Realistic thoughts come naturally while the idea of realism does not. The fact that realistic ideas come without deep thought or studies show that Grisham’s books comply with the average reader. The average reader is looking for something that they could understand and possible have the same experience. Grisham uses the concept of reality to entrance his readers.

A Full Life With Empty Barrels

Robert Lee Frost, legendary American poet whose poetry was written to be easily understood and reads similar to everyday speech, wrote several poems that are frequently recited and quoted. Frost’s arduous life is reflected in his poems; his poetry is both simple and complex. Frost uses deceptively simple strategies, imagery, metaphors, small details, nature, and traditional verse to convey feelings and intent, making him America’s most beloved and esteemed poet, both by the common man and the critics.

Robert Lee Frost’s poem “After Apple-Picking” reflects Frost’s life, his mistakes, regrets, and experiences, using a nostalgic tone. Frost, born in San Francisco on March 26, 1874, lived in California until he turned eleven, and his father died, which compelled his family to move to Lawrence, Massachusetts to live with his paternal grandparents. ” Because Frost is so intimately associated with rural New England, one tends to forget that the first landscape printed on his imagination was both urban and Californian.

That he came to appreciate, and to see in the maginative way a poet must see, the imagery of Vermont and New Hampshire has something to do with the anomaly of coming late to it. It’s as though he were dropped into the countryside north of Boston from outer space, and remained perpetually stunned by what he saw,” Robert Penn Warren observed. “I don’t think you can overemphasize that aspect of Frost. A native takes, or may take, a place for granted; if you have to earn your citizenship, your locality, it requires a special focus” (Parini 5).

Frost resided in pastoral New England for most of his adult life, and his laconic expression and focus on individualism embody the heart of this region. “An essentially pastoral poet often associated with rural New England, Frost wrote poems whose philosophical dimensions transcend any region ” (Biography 1). Many of Frost’s poems utilizes nature and are written in understandable language to express his admiration for the hard-working individual.

“Mr. Frost has dared to write and for the most part with success in the natural speech of New England; in natural spoken speech, which is very different from the “natural” speech of the newspapers, and of many professors” (Bloom 21). Frost had an extensive education. He was taught by his mother, “Frost received much of his early education at home, and his mother often read aloud from the works of Shakespeare, Poe, Emerson, and Wadsworth, as well as others” (Bloom 12). His early education while enhancing his love for the written word, did not lend itself to discipline and may have influenced him later in life.

Frost graduated from Lawrence High School in 1892 co-validictorian, with his future wife Elinor White. Frost attended both Harvard and Dartmouth where his lack of discipline may have surfaced as he never earned a degree. Frost’s family life was immersed in tragedy and sorrow. ” Were it not for his father’s death, it is likely we would have never heard of Robert Frost, as it was only after his father’s death that he returned with his mother to New England where many of his future works would take root” (Biography 1).

Frost’s marriage was a source of strain and tension. “Elinor’s determination to finish college plus Frost’s jealousy of her intellectual accomplishments were the first signs of a friction that would shadow their life together from before their marriage until her death…. ” (Quartermain 96). Frost’s life was rife with personal tragedy. ” The Frost’s family life, often strained by emotional and financial anxieties, was marked by a series of tragedies. Their first child Elliott died of Cholera at age 3. Another child Elinor Bettina died 2 days after birth.

Ray Bradbury – American author and screenwriter

“Ray Bradbury is one of the immortals among us, whose classic works of science fiction, fantasy and horror will be read a thousand years from now by our descendents and the relatives alike of the planets of a thousand distant stars. ” ( Dragon*con, website). Hes won many awards for his writings and lectures, and I have no doubt in my mind that his writings will live on forever. “It was a special pleasure to see things eaten, to see things blackened and changed.

With the brass nozzle in his fists, with this great python spitting its venomous kerosene upon the world, the blood pounded in his head, and his hands ere the hands of some amazing conductor playing all the symphonies of blazing and burning to bring down the tatters and charcoal ruins of history. With his symbolic helmet numbered 451 on his stolid head, and his eyes all orange flame with the thought of what came next, he flicked the igniter and the house jumped up in a gorging fire that burned the evening sky red and yellow and black.

He strode in a swarm of fireflies. He wanted above all, like the old joke, to shove a marshmallow on a stick in the furnace, while the flapping pigeon-winged books died on the porch and lawn of the house. While the books went up in sparkling whirls and blew away on a wind turned dark with burning. ” (Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451 67). The above is from Fahrenheit 451, a science fiction novel by Ray Bradbury. The quote describes the main concept of the book and is very appealing because it gives so much visual detail to the scene.

This story is set in the future where all books and other written materials are 02 out lawed. Guy Montags job is to burn books and the houses which the books are hidden in. He never questions his actions until he meets an old women who tells him how it was n the past when people didn’t live in fear and could read whatever they wished. Eventually he does everything he can to prevent books from being burned and starts wanting to learn more and more. “I thought that this novel exercised great social commentary on society as a whole”. It shows how important books are to all.

It also shows that some people feel that knowledge is a threat to power and rule. Reading is a freedom everyone should enjoy. Ray Bradbury is an American novelist, short-story writer, essayist, playwright, screenwriter, and poet. He was born in Waukegan, Illinois on August 22, 1920. The third son of Leonard Spaulding Bradbury and Esther Marie Moberg Bradbury. In the fall of 1926 Ray Bradbury’s family moved from Waukegan to Tucson, Arizona, only to return to Waukegan in May 1927. By 1931 Ray had begun writing his own stories on butcher paper.

In 1932, after his father was laid off from his job as a telephone lineman, the Bradbury family again moved to Tucson but again returned to Waukegan the following year. In 1934 the Bradbury family moved to Los Angeles, California. Bradbury graduated from a Los Angeles High School in 1938. His formal education ended there, but he furthered it by himself — at night in the ibrary and by day at his typewriter. (Bradbury, Fahrenheit back of book). He sold newspapers on Los Angeles street corners from 1938 to 1942. Bradbury’s first published story was “Hollerbochen’s Dilemma,” printed in 1938 in Imagination! an amateur fan magazine.

In 1939, Bradbury published four issues of Futuria Fantasia, his own fan magazine, contributing much of the published material himself. Bradbury’s first paid publication was “Pendulum” in 1941 to Super Science Stories. In 1942 Bradbury wrote “The Lake,” the story in which he discovered his distinctive writing style. ( Dragon*con, website). By 1943 he had given up his job selling newspapers and began writing full-time, contributing numerous short stories to periodicals. In 1945 his short story “The Big Black and White Game” was selected for Best American Short Stories.

In 1947 Bradbury married 03 Marguerite McClure, and that same year he gathered much of his best material and published them as Dark Carnival, his first short story collection. His reputation as a leading writer of science fiction was established with the publication of The Martian Chronicles in 1950 (published in England under the title The Silver Locusts), which describes the irst attempts of Earth people to conquer and colonize Mars, the constant thwarting of their efforts by the gentle, telepathic Martians, the eventual colonization, and finally the effect on the Martian settlers of a massive nuclear war on Earth.

Bradbury, The Martian Chronicles 45)As much a work of social criticism as of science fiction, The Martian Chronicles reflects some of the prevailing anxieties of America in the early atomic age of the 1950’s: the fear of nuclear war, the longing for a simpler life, reactions against racism and censorship, and fear of foreign political powers.

Gwendolyn Brooks – Poet, writer

Poet, writer. Born June 7, 1917, in Topeka, Kansas. Throughout most of the twentieth century, Gwendolyn Brooks was a lyrical chronicler of the black urban experience in America. In 1950, she became the first African-American poet to win the Pulitzer Prize. Brooks grew up on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois. She began writing poetry as a young girl, and by the age of 16 had begun publishing her poems regularly in The Chicago Defender.

She attended the Woodrow Wilson Junior College in Chicago before marrying a fellow writer, Henry L. Blakely, in 1939. The couple lived together in Chicago, divorcing in 1969 but reuniting in 1973. They had two children, Nora Brooks Blakely and Henry Blakely Jr. Brooks earned a good deal of critical attention in 1945 with the publication of her first anthology of poetry, A Street in Bronzeville. (Bronzeville was Brooks name for the predominately African-American South Side of Chicago. ) Over the next several years, Brooks won a grant from the American Academy of Arts and Letters and several fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation.

She published her second volume of verse, Annie Allen, in 1949. The book, which followed a Bronzeville girl throughout the stages of her life, was written in a loose, experimental form that Brooks called the sonnet-ballad. Annie Allen won the Pulitzer Prize the following year, catapulting Brooks to a whole new level of literary and popular acclaim. A novel, Maud Martha (1953), was less successful than Brooks poetry, which continued to meet with critical and popular success throughout the next decade.

A collection of childrens poems, entitled Bronzeville Boys and Girls (1956), was followed by The Bean Eaters (1960), widely considered to contain some of her finest verse, and Selected Poems (1963). In the latter half of the 1960s, Brooks poetry became mroe radical and took on a more explicit tone of social concern, a transition that coincided with the politically charged atmosphere of the decade and the influence of the black power movement among African-American writers and thinkers.

Her next volume of poetry, In the Mecca (1968), told the bleak story of people living in the Mecca, a large, fortress-like apartment building on the South Side that had deteriorated into a slum. The book clearly displayed Brooks new political awareness, including a poem entitled Malcolm X, after the black militant leader who was assassinated in 1965. In the Mecca was nominated for the National Book Award. It was also the last of Brooks books published by a mainstream publisher, Harper & Row.

Her next book, Riot (1969) was published by Broadside Press, a small, black-owned company based in Detroit. With a newly political tone and without a mainstream publisher, Brooks later works often received little attention from the critics at major publications. Nevertheless, she remained a major literary figure throughout the next several decades, publishing more than a dozen volumes of poetry, including Aloneness (1971), To Disembark (1981), The Near-Johannesburg Boy, and Other Poems (1986), Blacks (1987), Winnie (1988), and Children Coming Home (1991).

Brooks also published many nonfiction titles, most notably Report from Part One (1972), an assemblage of autobiographical writings, letters, and interviews, and Report from Part Two, published in 1996. In 1968, Brooks succeeded Carl Sandburg as the poet laureate of Illinois. She received a lifetime achievement award from the National Endowment of the Arts in 1989 as well as from the National Book Foundation in 1994. Also in 1994, she was selected by the National Endowment of the Humanities to be its Jefferson Lecturer. She won the National Medal of Arts in 1995 and has received over 50 honorary degrees.

J.D. Salinger – Controversial Writer

Many critics consider J. D. Salinger a very controversial writer, for the subject matters that he writes.. J. D. Salingers works were generally written during two time periods. The first time period was during World War II, and the second time period was during the 1960s. Critics feel that the works during the 1960 time period were very inappropriate, because of the problems for which he wrote. The main characters were generally misfits of society. In most of his works, he has the protagonist of the story go on a quest for happiness.

Salinger does not conform to the material happiness; the characters undergo a spiritual happiness. The characters generally start out as in bad conditions, through the end of his works they undergone changes that change them for the better. The works of J. D. Salinger show the quest for happiness through religion, loneliness, and symbolism. Salingers works often use religion in order to portray comfort. In Salingers Nine Stories Franny Glass keeps reciting the “Jesus Prayer” to cope with the suicide of her brother Seymour (Bloom in Bryfonski and Senick 69).

Salinger is able to use this prayer as a means of comfort for Franny. The prayer stands for the last hope for Franny in this situation. Franny would be lost if their was no prayer. (Bryfonski and Senick 71). Salinger shows us comfort in Catcher in the Rye. Holden Caufield, the protagonist, is very much in despair for losing his girlfriend, so Caufield reads a passage in the Bible. This helps Holden change his outlook on life (Salzberg 75). Holden was all alone at this point and had no one to turn back on, until he found the Bible (Salzberg 76).

In both stories the characters had found themselves in bad situations. The characters in these works have obstacles which they must overcome in order to achieve happiness (Salzman 34). Happiness is the very substance which all of these characters are striving for in Salingers works. Salinger uses religion in his works to comfort them so that they can proceed on their quest to achieve happiness. Salinger uses religion as a means for liberation. Salinger uses much of the Zen philosophy, as in the case of Nine Stories, to achieve this liberation (Madsen 93).

In Nine Stories one of the characters, Seymour Glass, is portrayed as Buddha in the sense that he wants to be liberated as Buddha was in his life (Madsen 93). Seymour Glass in Nine Stories has a certain philosophy about life, it is similar to the Eightfold Path used by Buddha when achieving nirvana (French in Matuz 212). Seymour Glass is on a quest to become free from all of the suffering in his life as Buddha was from his life (French in Matuz 213). Seymour follows the Eightfold path to become liberated from suffering (Madsen 96). Seymour achieves “nirvana” by living a good life and end anything that causes suffering.

Seymour is able to attain nirvana by committing suicide (Lundquist in Matuz 211). Salinger shows us that when Seymour committed suicide he let go of all of the suffering that he encountered, thus attaining the happiness he longed for (French, Salinger Revisited 132). Salinger shows liberation as an end to all suffering, thus creating happiness for the character. (French, Salinger Revisited 133). The final function of religion as a means to attain happiness was to gain peace In “The Young Lion,” Salinger uses religion to gain peace through a fictitious war.

In the story many of the soldiers were dying and the countries were in turmoil (Lundquist 312). The leaders in the story see a vision on the battlefield that changes them, and stops the war (Lundquist 315). Salinger shows how religion can be a force used to create happiness in a story, by creating peace (Lundquist 313). Salinger is able to use religion as a means of attaining happiness through peace. The story seemed very dismal, until religion intervened and stopped the conflict. Salinger creates happiness for the characters by stopping the conflict.

In “The Stranger” Salinger creates peace through a war by using more of the Zen philosophy. Salingers creates a “Pact of Peace” which stops the conflict between the Germans and Polish during WWII (Hamilton in Bryfonski and Senick 143) . The “Pact of Peace” was a teaching used by Buddha in the Zen philosophy (Hamilton in Bryfonski and Senick 143). Salinger uses Zen, in this case, to stop the conflict between the Polish and Germans(Hamilton in Bryfonski and Senick 143). In many of Salingers works the conflict, becomes a source for much of the unhappiness in the story (Wenke 212).

Salinger uses religion as a medium to create tranquility, consequently the characters to achieve happiness (Wenke 215). In many of Salingers works loneliness is used to isolate characters from evil. Salinger portrays all of society to be bad, and for many character’s isolation from society is the only way to achieve happiness (Grunwald 103). In Salingers Catcher in the Rye Holden Caufields entire plot deals with him trying to isolate from society. Holden realizes that society has become bad, and wants no part in this terrible life (French, Salinger Revisited 192).

Salinger uses society as the source of discord in this case to be isolated from. Holden is shown as a hermit at the end of Catcher in the Rye (Grunwald 68). Grunwald explains “Holdens tranquillity, at the end, can be ascribed to his isolation from society” (68). Holden only wants to be separated from the society which considers him a misfit. In Salingers works a source of unhappiness is usually the fact that society feels the characters are misfits. The characters can only become happy if they isolate themselves from this society.

Salinger uses loneliness also as a means to change in life. In “Raise the Roof Beam High,” Salinger is able to use isolation to change the life of Seymour Glass (Salzman 130). Seymour feels that society has become corrupt and must change his lifestyle in order for him to become happy (Salzman 134). Seymour sees that society has no more compassion on people, and that he must do something to change it (Salzman 136). In order for him to change society he must first isolate from society (Salzman 140). Salinger uses loneliness again to benefit mankind.

Salinger in this case makes a person change his lifestyle to isolate from society (Salzman 132). The benefits of this action are good not only for the person who has changed, but also help parts of society which are affected (Salzman 132). Loneliness in Salingers works benefits the characters greatly. Salinger is able to isolate the characters in his works in order for them to attain happiness (Grunwald 265). Salinger describes Seymour as “A recluse, who will never be part of society” (Grunwald 260). He shows that Seymour wants nothing of this world and wants to be as far away as possible.

The characters see that society has become bad, and in order for them to become happy they must get away from society, and live their own lives. Salinger uses many lucky symbols in his works to show to fulfill the quest for happiness. In “Soft-Broiled Sergeant” one of the soldiers wears a pair of lucky underwear, which saves him in battle and helps in finding the love of his life (French, J. D. Salinger 42). The underwear gives the soldier the happiness he is looking for (French, J. D. Salinger 45). Salinger many times uses funny lucky symbols like this, but can be found to provide happiness for the characters (Salzberg 121).

Another example of lucky symbols is in “For Esme” Salinger portrays the sun as a lucky symbol to Joseph Carney (French, J. D. Salinger 63). The sun is lucky to Joseph in that it helps Joseph turn his entire life around, from the rut it had been into a life of great prosperity (French, J. D. Salinger 66). The sun provides inspiration for Joseph to change his life (French, J. D. Salinger 66). The characters in J. D. Salingers works start out in bad situations. Through the use of lucky symbols their life is changed to what will make them happy. Salinger uses symbolism in his works also to foreshadow a better life.

In “Long Debut of Louis Taggett” the symbol of a cigarette being put out foreshadows the end of a marriage (Galloway in Curley and Kramer 58). The end of this marriage for Louis Taggett, means good for his life (Galloway in Curley and Kramer 61). Louis at the end of the story is able to concentrate more on his job, where he meets the woman that will really love him, and find wealth and prosperity (Galloway in Curley and Kramer 59). This symbolism to foreshadow is one of many examples of how Salinger uses symbolism to predict a better life (Galloway in Curley and Kramer 61).

Salinger many times use subtle, but important symbols to foreshadow better things (Galloway in Curley and Kramer 62). The character, in this work, has suffered through hardships. The characters life is in a total mess at the time. Salinger also shows foreshadowing to a better life through “The Last Day of the Last Furlough” (Matuz 157). In the story John Hendren is able Salinger uses symbolism for the character to fulfill his quest for happiness(Matuz 148)John Hendren who is in World War II, has always wore large wooden necklace given to him by his mother (Matuz 148).

This same necklace stops a bullet, which could have killed him(Matuz 149). John is later awarded a medal of respect for his valiant effort, giving him lots of fame(Matuz 149). Salinger shows how such symbols provide happiness to the lives of people (Wenke 237). Salinger uses allusion from other works to show how happiness will be fulfilled. In Salingers Catcher in the Rye, Salinger refers greatly in one chapter to ducks in central park. The ducks are in context to a scripture in the Bible, which tells of how the ducks are free (Galloway in Bloom 53).

Salinger later explains that Holden will become free as these ducks (Galloway in Bloom 54). In Catcher in the Rye Holdens main purpose was to be free from the suffering (Galloway in Bloom 58). The ducks represented how he would feel, being happy (Galloway in Bloom 56). Salinger also shows his symbolism from other works through the work of Mark Twain. Salinger portrays how Holden in Catcher in the Rye changes to a different man when he is at the water fountain in Central Park, as the case in Mark Twains Huckleberry Finn in which Huck changes when he is on the Mississippi River (Grunwald in Bloom 64).

Salinger uses symbolism from other books in his books to convey how the characters in his works will change for a better life (Grunwald in Bloom 67). Salinger uses much of the symbolism to show how the life of the characters has become happy. Salinger uses symbols to show the turning point of the characters lives. He shows that these symbols will change their lives for the better. The works of Salinger show the quest for happiness through religion, loneliness, and symbolism. Salingers writings deal with characters fulfilling their quest for happiness.

He would have the characters accomplish their quest by going through obstacles, in which they learned about their lives. He employed the religion, loneliness, and symbolism as means for the characters to understand how to obtain happiness in life. The writings of the Salinger, become very important for this time period, because he goes against the grain of society to show how it is wrong. The writings of Salinger, while they may have been excellent in style, have become very controversial for what he has portrayed in the society during this time period.

Jerome David Salinger, known as J.D.

Jerome David Salinger, known as J. D. , is an American short story writer and novelist. He was born on January 1, 1919 and is still alive at the age of 81. J. D. Salinger was born and raised in Manhattan. He went to prep school at Valley Forge Military Academy from 1934-1936. He spent 5 months in Europe when he was 18 or 19 years old. Then, in 1937 and 1938 he studied at Ursinus College and New York University. From 1939 to 1942, he went to Columbia University where he decided to become a writer. Salinger published short story collections and one novel. His best known work, The Catcher in the Rye, was published in 1951.

The short stories he wrote were “Nine Stories” in 1953, “Franny and Zooey” in 1961, “Raise High the Roofbeams, Carpenters and Seymour: An Introduction” in 1963, “Young Folk” in 1940 and “A Perfect Day for Bananafish” in 1948. Many critics have considered J. D. Salinger a very controversial writer because of the subject matters he wrote about. For example Salinger wrote about religion, intellectuals, emotional struggles of adolescents, loneliness and symbolism (Jones). Some critics feel his writing was inappropriate because of the topics he wrote about. The main characters were considered misfits of society.

The characters generally did not fit in with traditional American culture. They could not adjust to the real world. However, Salingers most successful stories are the ones about people who could not adjust. The super-intelligent humans who had to choose between the American culture at that time and the moral world, or choose between the “phony” real world and the morally “pure” world. Salinger creates these misfits, as heroes who do not fit into society. They struggle between the two worlds shallow and moral. The leading characters are on a mission of happiness.

At first, Salinger does not lead the characters to material happiness; he has them start out in a bad situation. By the time they make it through the end of the story they have changed for the better. One of these characters that he writes about in this situation is Holden Caufield in The Catcher in the Rye. He starts off in a bad situation because he has just flunked out of his third private boarding school. He finally gives up life on his own in Manhattan and returns home in solitude where he finds happiness. The critics found these situations that the characters were in debatable (Hamilton 113).

In “Franny and Zooey,” Franny and Zooey Glass are an example of Salingers misfit characters of the 60s. They are brother and sister who are super-intelligent freaks and cannot deal with society or reality. The controversy comes when they must chose between Salingers two worlds the real or phony. Their older brothers teach them Zen Buddhism and many other religions and philosophies. Salinger uses this religious theme with these two characters to show how they have to deal with their world of religion and how they have to stop using religion to deal with their problems (Green).

This religious theme was a controversial one for the author. Salinger often uses religion for comfort. He leads his characters on a journey for happiness through religion. It is a way to free them. Salinger uses much of the Zen philosophy to attain this freedom. The Zen Philosophy was a new sect of Buddhism that came out of China. It promoted Meditation as the way to personal fulfillment (“Zen” 146). One of Salingers characters in “Nine Stories” has a certain philosophy about life that runs parallel to the Eightfold Path used in the Buddhism religion. The Eightfold Path is one of the four Noble Truths.

It is a path to the suppression of suffering and it is made up of eight parts that form the cornerstone of the Buddhist faith. Buddha wanted to be liberated in his life just like the character in Salingers work who eventually achieves nirvana, the ultimate goal of the Buddhist path, by committing suicide. In this way, he lets go of all the suffering and attains happiness. It is a controversial way to view happiness. Religion is a force in the story to create happiness. Many times the story is very depressing until religion is introduced and peace is attained (“Buddhism” 432-433).

Salinger also shows a quest for happiness through loneliness. He isolates his characters from society. This is also a controversial point for critics. Keeping his characters isolated helps to keep them away from evil. Salinger looks at society as a bad thing. He keeps his characters away from it because he thinks that is the only way to achieve happiness. The entire plot of the novel, The Catcher in the Rye, revolves around this. The main character, Holden Caufield, is isolated from society. Salinger uses society as a bad and evil thing. It is something that Salinger feels his character should be kept away from.

Eventually this main character ends up totally alone at the end of the novel in isolation. He finds happiness through this isolation. According to Salinger, it is this isolation that brings happiness to his character. This misfit character needs to be isolated from a society that looks at him in a strange way. Salinger uses loneliness as a way to change his life (Foskett). Salinger is able to use loneliness as a way to change the life of Seymour Glass in a short story “Raise the Roof Beam High. ” Seymour sees society as corrupt and has a need to change his lifestyle to become happy.

There is no compassion for people in society and he feels he must change it. In order for him to do that he must first isolate himself from that society. Salinger uses this loneliness theme to make his characters change their lifestyles. This loneliness theme benefits the characters because they attain happiness by living their own lives (Green). Salinger uses some symbolism in his works to show happiness. There was lucky underwear in “Soft-Boiled Sergeant. ” This lucky underwear saves the character in battle and helps him find the love of his life.

This character obtains happiness (French 59). Many times Salinger uses odd lucky symbols for the characters to find happiness. The sun is used as a lucky symbol in “The Esme. ” The character in this story has his life turned around by the inspiration of the sun. Again, a bad situation for the character in the beginning of the story. Salinger also uses symbolism in his works to foreshadow a better life. In “Long Debut of Louis Taggett” the symbol of putting out a cigarette symbolizes the end of a marriage. It is the end of a marriage for Louis Taggett, which is good for his life.

This character is now able to think more about his job. He now meets the woman that will really love him. He will also find wealth and prosperity (58). This is another example of how Salinger uses symbolism to predict a better life. Louis Taggett has suffered many hardships. His life is a total mess but it does gets better. Still another example of foreshadowing a better life is shown in “The Last Day of the Last Furlough. ” Salinger uses symbolism in this story through the character of John Hendren. Symbolism is used by Salinger for the character to fulfill his pursuit for happiness.

John Hendren, a World War II soldier, has always wore a large wooden necklace which was given to him by his mother. It is this same necklace that stops a bullet and saves his life. He is later given a medal of respect for his valiant effort. It is yet another example of Salinger using symbolism to provide happiness in peoples lives (60). Many of J. D. Salingers works have a quest for happiness through controversial means. Religion, loneliness and symbolism are used to bring his characters from a bad situation at the beginning of the story to a good situation at the end of the story: happiness.

They learn about their lives by going through various struggles, all in the name of happiness. He used religion, loneliness and symbolism as a way for the characters to understand how obtainable happiness is in their life. Salinger was considered controversial during the time period when he wrote because he was a maverick: independent of any group. He went against society to show how wrong he thought it was. He has made the reader see what was wrong during this time period in a very different and controversial way (Hamilton 32).

Robert Browning – one of the most talented poets of the Victorian period

Robert Browning, one of the most talented poets of the Victorian period, is famous especially for his dramatic monologues. Often these long poems deal with such issues as love, death, and faith. Much of his work is directly reflective of his life and of those issues that were of direct concern to him. One conflict seen throughout Browning’s poetry is one of spirituality. His poetry forms a spiritual timeline; it reveals his spiritual influences and opinions. It formed his own Bible of beliefs which he possessed. Because Browning’s views on spirituality changed, his poetry also gives insight on the internal conflicts within his ife.

The paper will explore Robert Browning’s spiritual journey as is reflective in his poetry. Robert Browning was born in Camberwell, near London, England on May 7, 1812. He was raised by his father, also Robert Browning, and by his deeply religious mother, Sarah Anna Weideman-Browning. His often indulgent parents gave him the freedom to explore new literary and philosophical ideas of the time period, yet he was also instructed to believe the unexplained mysteries of the Christian faith(Miller, 1953). His mother, who had strong ties to the congregational church, took great time to instruct Robert in his eligious studies.

With this open atmosphere, however, Browning exhibited signs of disinterest in religion during his early childhood. The town preacher, in fact , found it necessary to publicly scold “for restlessness and inattention Master Robert Browning”(as cited in,Miller, 1953, p. 9). Robert Browning’s tendency toward skepticism was recorded early on. Robert Browning’s first deviation from his faith was at the age of fifteen or sixteen. His primary influences were the Flower family and the writing of P. B Shelley. Browning often traveled to the Flower’s ouse to discuss music, poetry, and aethism (Irvine & Honan, 1974).

Eliza Flower , with whom Browning was infatuated was an influence in Browning’s aethism. She was one of the primary influences that turned Browning away from the Christianity of his mother. His other influence, the writing of Shelley, a known aethist, taught Browning to be an independent free thinker. After reading Shelley’s book, Queen Mab , Browning became an aethist and a vegetarian(DeVane & Smalley, 1984). He rejected his mother’s world to gain a sense of liberty and independence(Irvine & Honan, 1974). This faith change at such an early age seemed to lead to a continual spiritual inconsistency throughout his life.

Browning had trouble accepting any faith or religion he chose to follow and often questioned his judgment in faith related decisions. Robert Browning considered Shelley to be moral because he was “true, simple hearted and brave”(cited in Payne, 1967, p. 198). He found him to also be a man of religious mind because Shelley was “everywhere taking for granted some of the capital dogmas of Christianity, while most vehemently denying their historical basement” (cited in Payne, 1967, p. 99). Browning clearly possessed a great respect for Shelley which followed him through much of his early poetry.

Browning’s life was “fundamentally affected”(Miller, 1953, p. 9) by the Shelley’s writing. During his adolescence, Browning may have recognized Shelley’s, “fearless spiritual independence”(Miller, 1953, p. 9). He noticed a “principal of conduct whereby to measure in the years to come not only the sum of his own poetic achievement but the very nature of human integrity itself”(Miller, 1953, p. 9). Although there is no available poetry written before his first published work, Pauline, his early aethism is still reflected in his early poetry.

Robert Browning eloped to Italy with Elizabeth Barret. Upon meeting his extremely religious wife and with her persuasion, Browning began to realize that Shelley’s poetry had led him to a life of self- absorption. Yet, “Robert took a skeptical attitude on the spiritual rappings, spurred on perhaps by his wife’s immediate will to believe”(Markus,1995, p. 219). Eventually, though, Robert Browning made the decision to return to his Christian faith, perhaps due to his respect for his deeply religious mother or to the persuasion by his spiritually inclined wife.

It is said that Elizabeth, Browning’s wife, believed that “spiritualism offered an alternative to melancholy: an assurance reinforcing faith”(Miller, 1953, p. 192). Browning, however was often skeptical of his wife’s spiritualism. Despite this, Pauline reveals a return to God, but also displays an undying reverence to Shelley. Pauline, Robert Browning’s first published work, was published in 1832. Pauline was undisputedly representative of Browning’s reacceptance of Christianity. Some critics believe that “his mother’s reaction to his intellectual rebellion was probable one of the major factors in Browning’s return to aith”(Williams,1970, p. 9).

Others agree that the unbending spiritual beliefs of his wife may have led him down such a road(Miller, 1953)). The exerpt in Pauline most clearly representing this is the conclusion which is also an invocation to Shelly. ” sun – treader I believe in God and truth and love; and as one just escaped from death… ” Browning’s contradictory attitude in Pauline proves that he is still lingering on the edge of aethism. Robert Browning does not praise Shelley’s ideals in Pauline, but it is clear that his great respect for Shelley did not dwindle with the writing of Pauline.

Browning’s attempt at returning to Christianity resulted in the hero of Pauline speaking of an “early loss of youthful idealism and sense of purpose, of his intellectual pride and the bitterness and emptiness which it brought to him”(Williams, 1970, p. 94). Unfortunately, in his invocation to Shelley as “sun-treader”, Browning’s devotion to him cannot be missed. One of Robert Browning’s next great literary achievements was the publishing of Paracelsus in 1835. Historically, Darwin had recently published The Origin of Species, and the new scientific ideas of volution caused many to revoke God, Jesus and Christian living.

Robert Browning, however had the opposite reaction. He took his knowledge of a competitive world and viewed it as a reason for hope and reason to continue his struggles. Browning saw this scientific revolution as a bridge connected God and man; and answer to the mysteries of life. The great reinforcement in Browning’s faith is evident in Paracelsus. Browning meditates “on the ability of God to restore his worn out youth – or, in other words, to extend the capacity of his human nature… ” (Williams,1970, p. 21).

Robert Browning says in Paracelsus, ” God! Thou art mind! . He comes to the realization that through God, everything exists, and also through God, the poetic talent he possesses was given. He reveals that, “if all poets, god ever meant should save the world, and therefore lent great gifts to, but who, proud, refused to do his work. ” God is said to have “lent” great gifts to those talented; it is a connection between God and the world. By Paracelsus, Browning’s reverence to Shelley is non existent. The next step in Browning’s spiritual journey occurs about ten years later when he begins to develop a dislike for the church.

Around 1845, Browning found himself focusing his anger on the church as an institution, especially the Catholic Church. In 1845, Robert Browning wrote ” The Confessional”, a short poem berating the Catholic Church. Browning writes: It is a lie – their priests, their pope, Their Saints, their… all they fear or hope Are lies… No part in aught they hope or fear! No heaven with them, no hell! -and here No earth. (1845) This poem appeared to have spurned underlying hatred and suspicion toward the Christian institution. In 1855, Browning wrote Fra Lippo Lippi. In this story, Browning criticizes the fact that

Christianity is too ideal for humanity; he does not address whether God exists but whether Christian living can truly exist in a corrupt modern society (Irvine & Honan, 1974). Here, Browning writes: You’ll not mistake an idle word spoke in a huff by a poor monk, God wot, tasting the air this spicy night… when ladies crowd to church at midsummer. And then I’ the front, of course a saint or two-… And so all’s saved for me, and for the church, A pretty picture gained. (1855) Browning notices the insincerity of the church goers and clearly satirizes the idea of unearned, expected salvation.

He finds it difficult to follow such a message. He had strong belief and faith in the existence of God, but also disdain in the institution that followed him. In his continual attempt to find inner peace, Robert Browning continued to face conflicts in his spiritual and religious future. In 1849, Robert Browning’s mother died. One year later he published two of his less-famous poems, “Christmas Eve” and “Easter Day”. These poems, due to their ambiguity, were neither extremely popular, nor critically praised. The two voices in Easter Day, the more powerful of the two poems, are often difficult to distinguish.

While one maintains that it is difficult to lead a Christian life, the other scolds and argues that it is easy. These associations are tied to the fall of Adam and Eve and their willingness and inclination toward evil. The voice calling to the difficulty of Christianity states that “He who in all his works below adapted to the needs of man, Made love the basis of his plan… while man who was so fit instead to hate as every day gave proof”( line 981), and blames man alone for his fall. The other sees Christianity as the ultimate struggle: ” With darkness, hunger toil, distress.. No ease henceforth, as one hat’s judged… hut from heaven” (line 1000, 1030).

The two voices represent the inner conflicts of Robert Browning. While he blames himself for the abandonment of the faith of his mother thereby hurting her, he sees Christianity as a lifelong struggle in hopes of something better which people have yet to explain. It is difficult to believe in condemnation when it cannot be proved. Presumably, these poems represent an argument which Robert Browning had with himself concerning his guilt over the death of his mother, and the abandonment of her principles. As Browning became older, death became an ever present danger.

He was confronted with the thought of hell condemnation and a fear of the existence of God. Rather than attempting to find secular peace, Robert Browning turned his heart and soul toward the Church and all of its principles. He was able to accept Christian dogma and believed in God as a part of his life, rather than death. As explained in Poetry Criticism: Browning concludes his long years of scrutiny not in a theodicy, but in a reaffirmation of his personal faith in God and the indestructibility of the soul. Not what God means in this vast universe, but what God means to him, Robert

Browning, and to all believing souls, is the sum and substance of it all. (p. 69) Browning lived his life with the concept of a God present always in the world. (DeVane and Smalley, 1984). His faith was not a philosophy or religion, but rather involved intuition. Browning discerned what God meant to him and what application it had on his life. His real theme in his poetry was a “God in the spirit of the individual”(Markus, 1995 p. 221). From his experiences,as expressed by professor Royce, Browning “met, in his own way, the problems set before him not only by tradition, the Christian onception of God” (cited in Payne,1967, p. 00).

Robert Browning’s spiritual journey was not one of disinterest but one of great meditation and thought. Browning appeared to take time contemplating his spiritual beliefs. In his poetry, there is evidence of God and Christianity in both positive and negative aspects. Both aspects helped Browning to make faith decisions and come to a conclusion that could leave him in peace. Robert Browning died December 12, 1889. He faced death with genuine knowledge of his beliefs concluding a long and conflictory study of his faith through the poetry he wrote.

The following poem is an accurate expression of the spiritual conclusion that Browning finally came to and freely accepted toward the end of his life. “Prospice” Fear death? – to feel the fog in my throat, The mist in my face, When the snows begin, and the blasts denote I am nearing the place, The power of the night, the press of the storm, The post of the foe; Where he stands, the Arch Fear in a visible form, Yet the strong man must go: For the journey is done and summit attained, And the barriers fall, Though a battle’s to fight ere the guerdon be gained, The reward of it all.

I was ever a fighter, so – one fight more, The best and the last! I would hate that death bandaged my eyes, and forbore And bade me creep past. No! let me taste the whole of it, fare like my peers The heroes of old, Bear the brunt, in a minute pay glad life’s arreaes Of pain, darkness, and old, For sudden the worst turns the best to the brave, The black minute’s at end, And the element’s rage, the fiend-voices that rave, Shall dwindle, shall blend, Shall change, shall become first a piece out of pain, Then a light, then thy breast, O thou soul of my soul! I shall clasp thee again, And with God be the rest!

Maya Angelou – one of the most influential and talented African American writers

Maya Angelou is one of the most influential and talented African American writers of our modern day. Those who read Angelous works should not pass the thought of where her influence came from. Maya Angelou’s work has been heavily affected by the era in which she began to write. The fifties and sixties were a tumultuous time for most African-Americans in the US.

The civil-rights movement, led by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the National Urban League, Martin Luther King, Jr. and others, was instrumental in securing legislation, notably the Civil-Rights Acts of 1964 and 1968 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Prohibiting discrimination in public accommodations, schools, employment, and voting for reasons of color, race, religion, or national origin. But all this was gained at a great price, the freedom of many saints who sacrificed for the greater cause, and many years of hard work. Martin Luther King, Jr. , Rosa Parks, Malcolm X, and others pushed for desegregation and equal rights in the face of strong white opposition, and it sometimes became violent.

Many whites protested integration. In 1951, Florida NAACP state secretary Harry T. Moore and his wife, Harriet, were killed Christmas night in a bombing of their house. No arrests were ever made. In 1953, black political leader Lamar D. Smith, 63, was shot to death in front of the Lincoln County Courthouse at Brookhaven, Mississippi, after seeking to qualify blacks to vote. More than twenty people witnessed the shooting, including several blacks, but nobody admitted to having seen anything and no witnesses testified against the three white men charged with the murder.

In 1954, black minister George W. Lee was killed at Belzoni, Mississippi, after a week of terror during which whites had vandalized blacks’ property. The blacks had refused to send their children to racially segregated schools, the whites had retaliated by refusing credit to blacks at local stores, and Lee had campaigned for black voting rights. In 1956, Southern congressmen issue a manifesto March 11, pledging to use “all lawful means” to upset the Supreme Court’s 1954 Desegregation ruling.

In 1957, Ku Klux Klansmen accused Alabama grocery-chain truck driver Willie Edwards, 25, of having made remarks to a white woman and forced him at pistol point January 23 to jump to his death from a bridge into the Alabama River. His body was found down river in late April. In 1959, Atlanta integrated its buses on January 21, but the governor of Georgia asked citizens to continue “voluntary” segregation. In 1963, four black Alabama schoolchildren were killed and nineteen people injured September 15 when a bomb exploded at Birmingham’s 16th Street Baptist Church while 200 were attending Sunday services.

The deaths provoked racial riots where police dogs were used to attack civil rights demonstrators. In 1964, an Atlanta restaurateur closed his restaurant rather than submit to federal government orders that he serve blacks as well as whites. His opposition to integration propelled him into the governorship of Georgia in 1967, and when he was unable to succeed himself, he continued as lieutenant governor. He passed out pickax handles on the street in front of his restaurant to partisans who would strike any blacks who try to enter. This is the world in which Maya Angelou grew up.

She was born Marguerite Johnson in St. Louis, Missouri. In the sixties, at the request of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. , she became the northern coordinator for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. In 1974, she was appointed by Gerald Ford to the Bicentennial Commission and later by Jimmy Carter to the Commission for International Woman of the Year. In 1993, she wrote and delivered the poem, On the Pulse of the Morning, at the inauguration of President Clinton, at his request. She has also written, produced, directed, and starred in productions for stage, film, and television.

Her most famous performance was probably in Roots on Broadway in 1977, for which she received a Tony award. Her writing is deeply personal, with short lines and a heavy dependence on rhythm and rhyme. Many critics regard it as overly simplistic and childish. ” at times her addiction to rhyme betrays her to banality” (Jayne,1996) She seems most sure of herself when writing about her culture and heritage. “One soon discovers that she is on her surest ground when she borrows’ various folk idioms and forms and thereby buttresses her poems by evoking aspects of a culture’s written and unwritten heritage” (Pamela,2000)

She often uses symbols that can also be found in the lyrics to songs that slaves sang in the fields while they worked. In Still I Rise, the theme of rising and flying to freedom flows throughout. This is based on old African folklore of an old medicine man, the only one left in his tribe not taken by the slave ships from native Africa. Now these are no ordinary people, because they have wings. It is also a highly spiritual tribe, and each person in the tribe has a flower planted in a garden and tended by the medicine man. (Lisandrelli)

These flowers are supposed to represent hope, and when the tribe becomes slaves, the flowers begin to die and the people lose their wings. The medicine man takes the flowers and replants them in the new world, tending them and making them grow again. With the help of his assistant, he reassures his tribe via secret visits that they will soon be free, but they must retain their hope. When the flowers have grown again and he has enough petals, he makes a special drink and feeds to all the members of his tribe. They grow their wings and fly away, out of the reach of the slave owners. (Lisandrelli,1996)

Another symbol frequently used in African folklore and restated in Angelou’s poetry is the drums. A staple in all ancient African rituals, this symbol is a tie to the past. Mentioned in Equality, Angelou uses the continuous beating and unchanging rhythms of the drums to declare that she will not change to be equal “While my drums beat out the message and the rhythms never change. Hear the tempo so compelling, hear the blood throb in my veins. Yes, my drums are beating nightly, and the rhythms never change” (Angelou) Frequent mentions of her heroes, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, Jr. nd Uncle Tom litter her poetry, adding detail to the pictures she paints if one knows the history behind these prominent references.

Elegy, for example was dedicated to Harriet Tubman and Fredrick Douglass, who she looked up to and admired for their courage and devotion to their race. (Reilly,1994) She exalts her homeland of the South despite her dark past there, from being raped by her mother’s boyfriend when she was eight to becoming an unplanned mother at the age of sixteen with a father she barely knew. (Reilly,1994) Although bare on rhyme , Angelou’s warmth, honesty, strength, and defiance come through in every word she sets down.

Ringing with black pride, her poetry conveys the struggles and triumphs of African-Americans during the past forty years. Maya Angelou is a remarkable Renaissance woman who is hailed as one of the great voices of contemporary literature. As poet, educator, historian, best-selling author, actress, playwright, civil-rights activist, producer and director, she continues to travel the world, spreading her legendary wisdom. (Miller,1982) “Within the rhythm of her poetry and elegance of her prose lies Angelou’s unique power to help readers of every orientation span the lines of race and class.

Passionate and exuberant, Angelou is an ambassador to people worldwide, sharing lessons on the human spirit, and what each of us can dream about, strive toward, fail at, endure and still survive. ” (Miller,1982) She is an advocate for the betterment and education of all, encouraging us to surpass our potential, both as individuals and as communities of people. Through her unselfish gifts of poetry, story and song, Maya Angelou continues to demonstrate what it means to be a truly Phenomenal Woman.

Percy Bysshe Shelley

From the early 19th century, Percy Bysshe Shelley is recognized as one of the most influential writers of the Romantic Period whose work is characterized by his use of imagery and symbolism. Such examples can be found in his poems such as Ode to the West Wind, Hymn to Intellectual Beauty, and Ozymandias. In Shelleys view, the poet is a dreamer, a visionary who uses these dreams and visions to persuade men to shake off the chains of the past, of custom, of selfishness, and to press onward to the vital task of constructing a world characterized by kindness, generosity, and love (Shairp, Shelly as a Lyric Poet 164)

In “Ode to the West Wind,” Shelley attempts to gain transcendence, for he shows that his thoughts, like the “winged seeds” (7) are trapped. The West Wind acts as a driving force for change and rejuvenation in the human and natural world. Shelley views winter not just as the last phase of vegetation but also as the last phase of life in the individual, the imagination, civilization and religion. Set in Autumn, Shelley observes the changing of the weather and its effects on the internal and external environment.

By examining this poem, the reader will see that Shelley can only reach his inspiration by having the wind carry his “dead thoughts” (63), which through an apocalyptic destruction, will lead to a rejuvenation of the imagination, the individual and the natural world. Shelley begins his poem by addressing the “Wild West Wind” (1). He quickly introduces the theme of death and compares the dead leaves to “ghosts” (3). The imagery of “Pestilence-stricken multitudes” makes the reader aware that Shelley is addressing more than a pile of leaves.

His claustrophobic mood becomes evident when he talks of the “wintry bed” (6) and “The winged seeds, where they lie cold and low/ Each like a corpse within its grave, until/ Thine azure sister of the Spring shall blow” (7-9). In the first line, Shelley use the phrase “winged seeds” which presents images of flying and freedom. The only problem is that they lay “cold and low” or unnourished or not elevated. He likens this with a feeling of being trapped. The important word is “seeds” for it shows that even in death, new life will grow out of the “grave.

The phrase “winged seeds” also brings images of religions, angels, and/or souls that continue to create new life. The arrangement and structure of the stanzas also serve purpose to emphasize Shelleys theme (Shelley, Complete Poems233). The stanzas are made up of interlinking three-line units with the rhyme scheme ababcbcdc, continuing this to the end of the stanza:

O wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumns being, (a) Thou, from whose unseen presence the leaves dead (b) Are driven, like ghosts from an enchanter fleeing, (a) Yellow, and black, and pale, and hectic red, (b) Pestilence-stricken multitudes: O thou, (c) Who chariotest to their dark wintry bed (b) The winged seeds, where they lie cold and low, (c) Each like a corpse within its grave, until (d) Thine azure sister of the Spring shall blow (c) Her clarion oer the dreaming earth, and fill (d) (Driving sweet buds like flocks to feed in air) (e) With living hues and odours plain and hill (d) Wild spirits, which art moving everywhere; (e) Destroyer and preserver; hear, oh, hear! (modified e)

In this, Shelley grasps a vision and exaggerates it to the point that it should awaken thoughts about the future: Scatter, as from an unextinguished hearth Ashes and sparks, my words among mankind! Be through my lips to unawakened earth The trumpet of a prophecy! O, Wind, If Winter comes, can spring be far behind? The first two stanzas carry the type of movement, much like that of the wind, through their rhyme schemes. The third stanza discusses the slowing down of the movement, while the next resumes with the wind movement apparent in the first stanza.

Finally, the poem culminates with the trumpet of a prophecy. In Shelleys Hymn to Intellectual Beauty, he symbolizes his comprehension of the power of human intellect through a number of stanzas in which he outlines the qualities of this power. In the first stanza, the concept of the unseen Power, or the mind, is introduced, and Shelley states his position on it.

Throughout the stanza, there is broad usage of reflective similes: As summer winds that creep from flower to flower; Like moonbeams that behind some piny mountain shower, Like hues and harmonies of evening, Like clouds in starlight widely spread, Like memory of music fled; These insubstantial elements of nature and memory are designed to illustrate the this power as something that is comparable to nature in beauty, but yet is somehow beyond human reach (Brewer, Hymn to988). Similes such as Like hues and harmonies of evening (Shelley 8) are used to elaborate on the fact that the power Shelley describes is balanced. The five similes in this stanza are all vague. The first four are all an intrinsic part of the preoccupation with nature says Brewer.

Through these similes Shelley constructs an image of the powers tremendous and forceful status (Swanicke, Poets: Interpreters of Their Age 170). In the second stanza, Shelley brings to attention the question of the power. In lines 14 and 15, he says the beauty shine[s] upon / human thought and then poses the question to beauty in the next line; where art thou gone? He recognizes however a series of even more rhetorical questions in lines 1620. Simultaneously, he asks why humanity remains disinterested in deifying the human intellect, which he believes is the reason for our scope / For love and hate, despondency and hope.

Naturally, the impact of nature is intense, which is shown by the ongoing figurative language being used: Ask why sunlight not for ever / Weaves rainbows oer yon mountain-river. This again shows how Shelley sees a celestial being as integral in nature, yet he is unhappy because humanity will not worship it. Stanza four deals with two ideas, one being that death would have no hold over us if humanity were to worship the power, and the other with celebrating the intellectual power (Brewer 989). The stanza opens with concepts of Love, hope, and Self-esteem.

Shelley proposes that, if the power was to stay firmly within his [mankinds] heart, then humanity would become immortal and omnipotent. Thus, implying that the power has to stay within people in order for death to become a dying flame. He concludes the stanza with Depart not as thy shadow came, / Depart notlest the grave should be, / Like life and fear, a dark reality, details which allude to the fact that the power has come into humanity so that people may become immortal. The fifth stanza illustrates how Shelley worships intellectual beauty.

Obviously, The change in emphasis from humankind to himself is made apparent. He describes how he spent his adolescent years searching for the power; and how he went through graveyards hoping to communicate with the dead in order to gain knowledge of the afterlife (Brewer 989). At one point he cries out to God to reveal himself, saying I called on poisonous names with which our youth is fed [religion]; / I was not heardI saw them [the dead] not. After receiving no response, he that the power he was searching for was within himself; hence, he shrieked, and clasped [his] hands in ecstasy.

An example within the poem that relates to his discovery of human intellect as a thing to be worshipped. The remaining stanzas conclude Shelleys impressions about the power and its influence, or lack of, in the later life. His personification of time, the phantoms of a thousand hours shows he believes in the omnipotence and surrounding nature of the power. Through the power he requests for the strength to overturn certain aspects of society that he feels are impeding freedom (Symons, Shelley 176). The last stanza is the story of adulthood, When noon is past.

In this stanza, Shelley makes it clear that adulthood is a time of apathy and passive behavior. He feels that after a young adulthood, where everything is questioned, middle age and eventually old age becomes a depressing situation. He concludes the poem by pleading to the Power to stay with him in adulthood and goes on to tell what the power can do for humanity (Brewer 990). In Shelleys Ozymandias, the title is used to convey the feeling that possessions do not equal immortality. Through use of vivid imagery and irony, Shelley explains that no one lives forever, much like the possessions they behold.

For example, he refers to the crumbled stone statue with only legs and head remaining, standing in the desert. The face is Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown, / And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command, / Tell that its sculptor well those passions read (4-6). He then goes on to say that on the pedestal these words appear: / My name is Ozymandias, king of kings: / Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair! (9-11), meaning that some time ago, a statue of a great man stood here, but yet over the years the magnificent statue has been reduced to rubble.

The poem illustrates to us that possessions do not last forever by comparing that to the king (Symons, Shelley 178). The king believed his kingdom would remain under his statues proud watch forever, but instead it wasted away in the dessert. When the speaker says Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair! (11), he means that despite all the power one may acquire in the course of their life, material possessions do not last forever. In the end, the Kings works are nothing, and the lines inscribed upon his statue are a sermon for those who read it (Swanicke, Poets: Interpreters of Their Age 171).

Percy Bysshe Shelley being a prominent romantic poet, is easily recognized as an influential writer whose work is distinguished by the use of vivid imagery and symbolism in his poems. Dying before reaching age thirty, he was never able to see his idealistic prophecy for humanity be fulfilled. Regardless, Percy Bysshe Shelleys literary work has had a unparalleled affect on society, and his concepts and ideas are still in circulation today, perhaps proving Mrs. Shelleys statement that very few knew his worth while he lived (Shelley, Complete poems282).

Edgar Allen Poe: Writing Style

The short story writer which I have chosen to research is Edgar Allen Poe. After reading one of his works in class, I realized that his mysterious style of writing greatly appealed to me. Although many critics have different views on Poe’s writing style, I think that Harold Bloom summed it up best when he said, “Poe has an uncanny talent for exposing our common nightmares and hysteria lurking beneath our carefully structured lives. ” ( 7) For me, this is done through his use of setting and narrative style.

In many of Poe’s works, setting is used to paint a dark and gloomy picture in our minds. I think that this was done deliberatly by Poe so that the reader can make a connection between darkness and death. For example, in the “Pit and the Pendulum”, the setting is originally pitch black. As the story unfolds, we see how the setting begins to play an important role in how the narrator discovers the many ways he may die. Although he must rely on his senses alone to feel his surroundings, he knows that somewhere in this dark, gloomy room, that death awaits him.

Richard Wilbur tells us how fitting the chamber in “The Pit and the Pendulum” actually was. “Though he lives on the rink of the pit, on the very verge of the plunge into unconciousness, he is still unable to disengage himself from the physical and temperal world. The physical oppreses him in the shape of lurid graveyard visions; the temporal oppreses him in the shape of an enormous and deadly pendulum. It is altogether appropriate, then, that this chamber should be constricting and cruelly angular” (63). Setting is also an important characteristic is Poe’s “The Fall of the House of Usher”.

The images he gives us such as how both the Usher family and the Usher mansion are crumbling from inside waiting to collapse, help us to onnect the background with the story. Vincent Buranelli says that “Poe is able to sysatin an atomosphere which is dark and dull. This is one of the tricks which he laregely derived from the tradition of the Gothic tale” (79). The whole setting in the story provides us with a feeling of melancholy. The Usher mansion appears vacant and barren. The same is true for the narrator.

As we picture in our minds the extreme decay and decomposistion, we can feelas though the life around it is also crumbling. Narration is also an element in Poe’s short story style that appears to link all of the stories together. He has a type of creativity which lets the reader see into the mind of the narrator or the main character of the story. Many of the characters in Poe’s stories seem to be insane. The narrator often seems to have some type of psychological problems. For exapmle, In Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado, ” the story opens with a first person narrator (Montresor) speaking about the planning of Fortunato’s death.

By the anger and remorse that Montresor has for Fortunato, one might think that this was a recent incident. It is not until the very end of the story that we realize, that the entire event ccurred fifty years ago. David Herbert Lawrence says, “To the characters in Poe’s story, hate is as inordinate as live. The lust of hate is the inordinate desire to consume and unspeakably possess the soul of the hated one, just as the lust of live is the desire to possess or be possessed be the beloved, uterly. ” (33).

Poe’s stories often have narrators that feel extreme hate or extreme love for another character in the story. Another example of Poe’s narrative style is seen in his story entitled,” The Black Cat”, where the narrator seems to have an obsession with pets. He has one “special” pet which is a black cat. Although their original relationship with each other is one of respect and love, the situation soon changes. The narrator becomes somewhat possessed with the hate for the car. He turns against his wife and stabs his cat in the eye.

By the end of the story, he killed his wife in an attempt to kill the cat. Afterwards, the narrator does not even feel remorse for the wrongful death of his wife. Instead, he is just happy that the cat dissapeared. This is just another instance in which the reader wonders what s the driving force begins the narrator’s insanity. Buranelli, “In both Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado” and his “The Black Cat”, the barrators act without conscience. There are no doubts, hesitiations or second thought to impede the narrative. Both narrators just sought revenge” (77).

Even though there are many more elements to Edgar Allan Poe’s short stories than just his creative use of narration and setting, these are characteristivs which has attracted the most attention. Poe has a way of writing in which he does not have to reveal too much, or paint a pretty picture or the reader in order to attract his attention. In D. H. Lawrence’s Studies in Classic American Literature, the author states, “Poe’s narrowness is like that of a sword, not that of a bottleneck: it is effective rather than constricting.

Nothing adventitious is in his great stories, only the essentials, the mininum of characterization, plot, and atmosphere. By ridding himself of everything except what is precisely to the point, he achieves unity of effect. ” (66). There is also a prominent distinction between right and wrong in Poe’s tories. Viscous characters tend to come to a bad end. This lets the reader accept these endings as a triumph of good over evil. As stated by Buranelli: “He has created a universe, given it psychological laws without denying the existence of the moral law, and peopled it with characters appropriate to such a universe.

Puttng overt mortality out of bounds helps to give him uniqueness” (74). After researching Edgar Allan Poe more in depth, I now have a much greater respect for him and a slightly different perspective of his stories. While it is still evident to me that narrative style and setting have a great eal to do with the development of Poe’s short stories, I also realise now that we can’t overlap and intertwine with other aspects of the story, making them equally as important.

I will end with a quote found in Vincent Buranelli’s Edgar Allan Poe: “Even though Poe is often looked upon as a gifted psychopath who is describing with consumate artistry his personal instablities and abnormalitiesm the fact remains that his superiority is more than a matter of art. There is a violent realism in his macabre writings unequaled by the Americans who worked in the same genre. “

Emily Elizabeth Dickinson

“Best Things dwell out of Sight”(#998) describes one of America’s greatest poets. She dwelled out of sight for most of her life and her poems, with the exception of seven published anonymously, remained out of sight until well after her death. Many literary scholars have attempted a biography on this mysterious woman and poet and yet none are conclusive. Dickinson remains an enigma even today but biographical speculation allows us to analyze some of her poetry even though we may be completely inaccurate about what we presuppose.

There are some facts about Emily Elizabeth Dickinson that we know for certain. She was born on December 10, 1830 and is recognized as one of America’s greatest poets. She had an older brother, William Austin Dickinson, born on April 16, 1829, and a younger sister, Lavinia Norcross Dickinson, born on February 28, 1833. She was raised in Amherst, Massachusetts, which was a small and tradition-bound town in the nineteenth century. Emily’s father, Edward Dickinson, was a grand figure in Amherst.

In his letters, he comes across as a remarkably ambitious man—“a typical success-oriented, work-oriented citizen of expansionist America,” in Richard Sewall’s characterization. Educated at Amherst College and Yale, he soon became the leading lawyer in town. For thirty-seven years he was the treasurer of the college that his father helped establish in 1821. Besides this, Edward had accomplished much success in his life but biographers of Emily’s life believe that he paid for his public success through his emotional destitution.

Emily’s father was a rigorous Calvinist and dominated the Dickinson family. His concept of life was rigid religious observance and obedience to God’s law as stated in the Bible. He prompted his children to read the Bible and attend church every Sunday. People who knew the Dickinsons referred to Edward as a “severe, latter-day Puritan, a power minded tyrant…”(Sewall: 8). However it seems that as ignorant as critics made him sound, Edward was modern-minded enough to educate all his children. Edward Dickinson adamantly believed that women should be educated, and sent his daughters to prominent schools.

Emily attended Amherst Academy where she graduated in 1847 and later attended Mount Holyoke Female Seminary for one year. Her parents withdrew her because of ill health but there is speculation that she returned home because she did not like the religious environment. After leaving school she returned home and spent the remainder of her life there. She took occasional trips but always returned home to her sanctuary and eventually stopped travelling and even leaving her house completely. She corresponded with her confidantes and friends through letters, rarely seeing them.

The men she corresponded with during her life include Benjamin Newton, a law student; Reverend Charles Wadsworth, a Philadelphia minister; Thomas Higginson, a literary critic and Civil War hero, and Otis Lord, a judge who had been her father’s closest friend. She regarded these men as intellectual advisers as well as friends. Although many of them found her poetry to be fascinating, none advised her to publish them. Dickinson wrote the majority of her poetry during the 1860’s at which time she had become increasingly reclusive. She began wearing only white dresses and she hardly left her home, let alone Amherst.

Although she occasionally visited friends, by the time she was forty years of age, she refused invitations to leave home and spent the remainder of her life taking care of her parents until they died (her father died in 1847, her mother died in 1882). Emily herself became bedridden during the last year of her life and her sister, Lavinia, nursed her until her death on May 15, 1886. Although there is much biographical information about Dickinson, it seems that the key details are missing. What is the connection between the events in Dickinson’s life and her poems?

The majority of her poems are about love, death, and religion. There are many explications of her biography through her poems but they are by no means factual. Critics also believe that she became obsessed with death at an early age when one of her dearest childhood friends, Sophia Holland, died in 1844. As an adult, Dickinson endured the pain of mourning for many dear friends and family members throughout her life. Dickinson’s poems are sometimes so obscure that it’s difficult to be certain of what she’s describing. When she uses the word “he” she could be describing God, a lover, the cosmos, or even death.

For example, the poem “He fumbles at your Soul”(#315) is ambiguous. We are never given an implication of what the poem is veering towards but then again that may be Dickinson’s intention. Nevertheless, Dickinson’s poetry is rich in rhetoric and creativity. Her poetry is just as mysterious as her life was and perhaps Dickinson wanted things to turn out the way they did. It seems that even her romantic life was just as ambiguous as her poetry. Many critics believe that Dickinson was in love with Susan Gilbert, her best friend who later became her brother’s wife.

There are many poems that Dickinson wrote which biographers believe to be distinctly about Susan. After a four-year break, Dickinson began to write poetry once again in 1858 with three principle themes: death, nature and Susan, about whom she wrote about ten of approximately fifty poems written in this year. With one exception, “One sister have I,” the poems Dickinson wrote about her sister-in-law are sullen and perplexed. Critics believe that Dickinson was feeling empty after Susan’s marriage to Austin, as though she lost a lover.

Ayn Rand’s Anthem

When born into the world, you are sheltered and nourished. When the appropriate age is reached you begin your schooling. Once your education is complete you are employed and work with complete security in your trade. At forty years of age you retire and spend the rest of your days with your peers, with everything requested provided for you.

That is as long as you learn at the same pace as everyone else. If you’re too bright you will be punished. And as long as you don’t ask too many questions, the overly inquisitive are beaten. As long as you don’t care who you are told to sleep with, because we know who your genes are most compatible with. And as long as you don’t believe you are any different or any better than anyone else is, because that will cost you your life. You aren’t granted a name or an identity or a soul. There are no individuals; there is only the collective. This is the world of Anthem.

Ayn Rand composes Anthem in an almost lyrical fashion and the majority of the text embraces poetry more faithfully than it does prose. This does little to affect the storytelling, but it encourages the reader to view the novella as an extended poem which detracts from the seriousness of the piece. Rand presents her tale of a man who dares to make individual choices, to seek knowledge in a dark age, to love the woman of his choice. In a society in which people have no names, no independence, and no values, he is hunted for the unpardonable crime: having the courage to stand above the crowd.

Rand’s own beliefs and her philosophy are most obviously seen through the protagonist, Equality’s, struggles. By having us bear witness to this oppression, her opinion on the detrimental effects of collectivism is projected to us. The world described in Anthem is a primitive one, although it is set in the future. All technological development has been lost, because What is not done collectively cannot be good, and, What is not thought by all men cannot be true. (p.81)

In this collectivist society, the individual has been lost to assimilation, and all creativity is suppressed. In spite of all of this, Equality has always been different; in the world in which he lives, this is a terrible sin. He is continually reprimanded for his free thinking, and for a variety of circumstances which are beyond his control. Among these are his height, and his ability to learn. This illustrates what Rand believes will happen should the state become too powerful. Her philosophy desires a limited government, where no one has the right to control an individual in ways such as these.

Those who break the terms of the oppression placed upon them in Anthem, are known as transgressors. Rand’s philosophy claims that all are entitled to as much as they are able to attain; therefore, to achieve freedom in Anthem, one must be willing to go beyond these enforced limitations. This is a key statement from the book, in that to transcend mediocrity one must more often than not disregard set limitations.

This initial transgression leads to his progression away from the state, and helps him to discover the power within himself. At this point, Equality is still not yet free. Complete freedom comes to him in the Uncharted Forest. It is here that he first begins to question authority, as Rand firmly believed that we should. Although he had been disobedient for some time, he had never considered his society as a flawed one. Equality says, We have broken the law, but we have never doubted it. (p.97) According to Rand, accepting without questioning will lead to the downfall of society. Anthem is meant to be an inspiration, as the saint of the pyre in the story inspired Equality to search for the unspeakable word.

This aforementioned word is I. Throughout the story, characters struggle with their language, unable to find a way to express themselves individually. Without any singular pronouns, the words of one are made to be the words of all. Throughout the story, Equality has two main accomplishments. One of these, is the discovery of the word I. The other is the rediscovery of electricity, the power of the sky. (p.56) This power is referred to as the light. This light is the central symbol in the story. It represents enlightenment, as well as the individual’s spirit and power. The allusion to Prometheus is obvious in this segment of the story. This is the message Rand wished to express in Anthem.

While Rand is often criticised for her work, and how her philosophy excuses man’s inhumanity to man, Ayn Rand has an incredible vision to offer – in many respects a radiantly rational one. I am convinced that there are errors in that vision and elements that need to be changed, eliminated, modified, or added and amplified, but I am also convinced that there is a great deal in her vision that will stand the test of time.

Objectivism was interesting in high school and there are elements of it that form the basis of my thought process, but it is something that you outgrow. In part I believe from Rand’s own statements. Individuals wish to think like her for a period of time and then wish to think like themselves. This is perhaps the only real good that comes from Rand’s work. Unfortunately there are many who cling to objectivism as the manual for life. While I would not advocate her philosophy, she is an exceptional writer and I would recommend Anthem. Just don’t get carried away.

Carl Sandburg Poetry

Carl Sandburg was unique compare to many other poets. All of the poems that he wrote were short and straight to the point. You would not find any poems that he had written that are over a page, yet still; his poems are very easy to understand. Sandburg lived through a lot of historic events, so all of his poems were about those historic events. As you know, history isnt always exciting or easy to learn. Yet, Sandburg was able to write about those times in a way that an average high school student can understand, unlike other poets like

Emily Dickinson or Edgar Allen Poe. Carl Sandburg should be included in an anthology of American poetry because of his writing technique and experience. Sandburg used a lot of the generalization methods to make his poems simpler to understand. Even though we know that sometimes-generalizing things are not good, Sandburg did a great job of it and was still able to write out everything he wanted to. Like I said, Carl Sandburg lived through some of the most famous historic events in the United States of all time. He had seen events like World

War I, the roaring 1920s, the Depression, World War II, the New Deal, and the Cold War. The anthology of American poetry needs more poets with his kind of experience. Ill bet you that he never had trouble trying to figure out what to write about. The poem I chose by Carl Sandburg was a poem called JAWS. Its a poem about World War I, and it talks about how the countries that were involved in the war had a chance to prevent war, but they ignored it. This poem should be included as an example of the poets work because its saying what e think and feel.

When we learn about how World War I was started, we would be thinking dont these countries realize what theyre getting themselves into and dont they have consciences. The poem JAWS talks about all these things so we can relate to it. Another reason why I think this poem should be included as an example of the poets work is because its short and straight to the point. If you were to give a high school student a choice of either reading a page long poem or a paragraph long poem, most chances are that student will pick he paragraph long one.

And just because the poem JAWS is short doesnt mean its not well written or incomplete with information. It has enough information for that certain type of poem and probably even an elementary student can understand it. This poem can be included in the canon because its about history and history is being taught on for all generations. It also should be included in the canon because not many poems in the canon are as short yet still contains so much information.

Edgar Alan Poe – American writer

Edgar Alan Poe was an American writer, known as a poet and most famous as the first master of the short story, especially tales of the mysterious and macabre. The literary merits of Poe’s writings have been debated since his death, but his works have remained popular and many major American and European writers have professed their artistic debt to him. Born in Boston Massachusetts, Poe was orphaned in his early child hood. Raised by John Adam, A successful businessman of Richmond, Virginia.

Taken by the Allan Family to England, at the age of six, Poe was placed in a private school upon returning to the US in 1820, he continued to study in private school. He attended the university of Virginia for a year but in 1827 his foster father displeased by the young mans drinking and gambling he refused to pay his debts and forced him to work as a clerk. Poe, disliking his new duties intensely, quit the job, and went to Boston. Published his first book in 1827, Tamerland and Other Poems, in 1827, the book was published anonymously.

Shortly afterward Poe enlisted in the U. S. Army and served a two-year term. In 1829 his second volume of verse, Al Aaraaf, was published, and he effected reconciliation with Allan, who secured him an appointment to the U. S. Military Academy. After only a few months at the academy Poe was dismissed for neglect of duty, and his foster father disowned him permanently. Poe’s third book, Poems, appeared in 1831, and the following year he moved to Baltimore, where he lived with his aunt and her 11year old daughter, Virginia Clemm. The following year his tale A MS. Found in a Bottle won a contest sponsored by the Baltimore Saturday Visitor.

From 1835 to 1837 Poe was an editor of the Southern Literary Messenger. In 1836 he married his young cousin. Throughout the next decade, much of which was marred by his wife’s long illness, Poe worked as an editor for various periodicals in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and in New York City. In 1847 Virginia died and Poe himself became ill; his disastrous addiction to liquor and his alleged use of drugs, may have contributed to his early death. The story a Tell-Tale Heart, by Edger Allan Poe is about a crazy man who has an obsession on another persons eye.

The man is crazy, but thinks that his sickness has sharpened his senses. He claims he can hear everything from heaven and earth and also many things in Hell. With all these self proclaim heightened senses the man wonders why is he considered mad. The crazy man lived with an elderly man. They were somewhat roommates. A specific characteristic of the elderly man drove the man he lived with crazy. It wasn’t bad habits or anything that you would think that would bring bickering between roommate. It was something that even the elderly man had no idea of. It was the elderly man’s eye.

His eye was kind of deformed, but to the roommate it was the sign of evil. He has been disgusted of the eye for the longest of time, but has never done anything that will harm the man. After time, the disturbed man plotted against his elderly roommate. During the week that action was going to take place the roommate was being extremely kind to the elderly man. His objective was to get rid the evil eye from his life. In a swift instent, in the bedroom of the old man, the disturbed roommate killed the man and rid himself of his evil eye. His covering up of the incident was, in his opinion, true generous.

The body was dismembered by every part and there was no mess. In the killers mind he wondered how a person who devised such a plan and cover up his tracks so well could be branded crazy. The next afternoon police came to the house. A shriek was heard and foul play was a suspicion. As before the man covered his tracks with virtually no flaw. No evidence of a violent disturbance was seen and an excuse for the absence of the elderly man was made. The man was very confident that his innocence would not be questioned in their mind. In the beginning of the story the man talked of how his sickness sharpened his senses.

This might have proven to be right because while the investigation was going all right the man heard the beating of the elderly man heart under the floor and it drove him mad. The confession came out. Edgar Alan Poe has cast a long shadow. He has probably had a greater influence than any other American writer. Although Poe’s tales and poems range from masterful to ludicrous, Poe exerted his most significant influence as a man who understood the temper of his times, and foreshadowed so much of the future of literature. His wide-ranging tales and his broad criticism sought a method for American literature where none had prevailed.

Poe deliberately sought great variety in his tales. A review of his more than seventy pieces of fiction testifies not merely to his range, but also to the significant popular genres he created or made his own which today form the staples of American fiction. Poe’s greatest influence comes about in the murder mystery. Although murders in fiction existed before Poe, his preoccupation with the ingenious solution of the crime established in his tales of ratiocination (the process of exact thinking) changed the emphasis from the acts to getting the facts.

Poe’s cerebral and eccentric detective Dupin (the ingenious are always fanciful and the truly imaginative never otherwise than analytic) Because of the power of Poe’s narrative voice, many a tale is indelible. Poe’s imaginative sociology in The Man of the Crowd will tell you more about loneliness in the crowd than David Riesman did. The psychological analysis in William Wilson is an excellent and frightening exploration of split personality two generations before Freud.

One would think that Poe would be best remembered for his powerful tales, but much of his international reputation rests on his critical acumen that pointed in equally new directions. Poe was among the first to discern the tendency of the age toward the curt, the condensed, the pointed, the readily diffused In a famous critical piece, Poe recognized Hawthorne as one of our few men of indisputable genius; he went on to formulate his famous conception of the short story, which must be designed for a single effect and every word of which must be made to count.

Poe’s method leads to the symbolist poetry of Mallarme and to Rimbaud and the dream inspired surrealists Poe’s brooding heroes and symbolic houses lead to the decadent heroes, new Roderick Ushers with their concern for the artificial detail of their shut-in paradise, reflected earlier in such Poe tales as The Mask of the Red Death and The Philosophy of Furniture.

Poe is returned to America through French symbolism, and so made digestible to such important American poets as T. S. Eliot and Wallace Stevens. In opposition to the romantic stress on the expression of personality, Poe insisted on the importance not of the artist, but of the created work of art. He stands as one of the few great innovators in American literature that took his place in international culture as an original creative force.

I disagree with the author that wrote that criticism. One thing is writing is imagination and not fears. Poe has many great tales and poems, in the stories that we read in class did not have to do anything with his fears. Poes life or any ones life would not influence their writing. The stories he wrote are incredibly creative and he has wide imaginations. I like his stories and I look forward to read more stories that he wrote.

J.D. Salinger, a very controversial writer

Many critics consider J. D. Salinger a very controversial writer, for the subject matters that he writes.. J. D. Salingers works were generally written during two time periods. The first time period was during World War II, and the second time period was during the 1960s. Critics feel that the works during the 1960 time period were very inappropriate, because of the problems for which he wrote. The main characters were generally misfits of society. In most of his works, he has the protagonist of the story go on a quest for happiness.

Salinger does not conform to the material happiness; the characters undergo a spiritual appiness. The characters generally start out as in bad conditions, through the end of his works they undergone changes that change them for the better. The works of J. D. Salinger show the quest for happiness through religion, loneliness, and symbolism. Salingers works often use religion in order to portray comfort. In Salingers Nine Stories Franny Glass keeps reciting the “Jesus Prayer” to cope with the suicide of her brother Seymour (Bloom in Bryfonski and Senick 69).

Salinger is able to use this prayer as a means of comfort for Franny. The prayer stands for the last hope for Franny in this ituation. Franny would be lost if their was no prayer. (Bryfonski and Senick 71). Salinger shows us comfort in Catcher in the Rye. Holden Caufield, the protagonist, is very much in despair for losing his girlfriend, so Caufield reads a passage in the Bible. This helps Holden change his outlook on life (Salzberg 75). Holden was all alone at this point and had no one to turn back on, until he found the Bible (Salzberg 76).

In both stories the characters had found themselves in bad situations. The characters in these works have obstacles which they must overcome in order to achieve happiness (Salzman 34). Happiness is the ! very substance which all of these characters are striving for in Salingers works. Salinger uses religion in his works to comfort them so that they can proceed on their quest to achieve happiness. Salinger uses religion as a means for liberation. Salinger uses much of the Zen philosophy, as in the case of Nine Stories, to achieve this liberation (Madsen 93).

In Nine Stories one of the characters, Seymour Glass, is portrayed as Buddha in the sense that he wants to be liberated as Buddha was in his life (Madsen 93). Seymour Glass in Nine Stories has a ertain philosophy about life, it is similar to the Eightfold Path used by Buddha when achieving nirvana (French in Matuz 212). Seymour Glass is on a quest to become free from all of the suffering in his life as Buddha was from his life (French in Matuz 213). Seymour follows the Eightfold path to become liberated from suffering (Madsen 96). Seymour achieves “nirvana” by living a good life and end anything that causes suffering.

Seymour is able to attain nirvana by committing suicide (Lundquist in Matuz 211). Salinger shows us that when Seymour committed suicide he let o of all of the suffering that he encountered, ! thus attaining the happiness he longed for (French, Salinger Revisited 132). Salinger shows liberation as an end to all suffering, thus creating happiness for the character. (French, Salinger Revisited 133). The final function of religion as a means to attain happiness was to gain peace In “The Young Lion,” Salinger uses religion to gain peace through a fictitious war.

In the story many of the soldiers were dying and the countries were in turmoil (Lundquist 312). The leaders in the story see a vision on the battlefield that changes them, and stops the war (Lundquist 15). Salinger shows how religion can be a force used to create happiness in a story, by creating peace (Lundquist 313). Salinger is able to use religion as a means of attaining happiness through peace. The story seemed very dismal, until religion intervened and stopped the conflict. Salinger creates happiness for the characters by stopping the conflict.

In “The Stranger” Salinger creates peace through a war by using more of the Zen philosophy. Salingers creates a “Pact of Peace” which stops the conflict between the Germans and Polish during WWII (Hamilton in Bryfonski and Senick 143) . The “Pact of Peace” ! was a teaching used by Buddha in the Zen philosophy (Hamilton in Bryfonski and Senick 143). Salinger uses Zen, in this case, to stop the conflict between the Polish and Germans(Hamilton in Bryfonski and Senick 143). In many of Salingers works the conflict, becomes a source for much of the unhappiness in the story (Wenke 212).

Salinger uses religion as a medium to create tranquility, consequently the characters to achieve happiness (Wenke 215). In many of Salingers works loneliness is used to isolate characters from evil. Salinger portrays all of society to be bad, and for many haracter’s isolation from society is the only way to achieve happiness (Grunwald 103). In Salingers Catcher in the Rye Holden Caufields entire plot deals with him trying to isolate from society. Holden realizes that society has become bad, and wants no part in this terrible life (French, Salinger Revisited 192).

Salinger uses society as the source of discord in this case to be isolated from. Holden is shown as a hermit at the end of Catcher in the Rye (Grunwald 68). Grunwald explains “Holdens tranquillity, at the end, can be ascribed to his isolation from society” (68). Holden only wants to be separated from the society which considers him a misfit. In Salingers works a source of unhappiness is usually the fact that society feels the characters are misfits. The characters can only become happy if they isolate themselves from this ! society.

Salinger uses loneliness also as a means to change in life. In “Raise the Roof Beam High,” Salinger is able to use isolation to change the life of Seymour Glass (Salzman 130). Seymour feels that society has become corrupt and must change his lifestyle in order for him to become happy (Salzman 134). Seymour sees that society has no more compassion on eople, and that he must do something to change it (Salzman 136). In order for him to change society he must first isolate from society (Salzman 140). Salinger uses loneliness again to benefit mankind.

Salinger in this case makes a person change his lifestyle to isolate from society (Salzman 132). The benefits of this action are good not only for the person who has changed, but also help parts of society which are affected (Salzman 132). Loneliness in Salingers works benefits the characters greatly. Salinger is able to isolate the characters in his works in order for them to attain happiness (Grunwald 265). Salinger des! cribes Seymour as “A recluse, who will never be part of society” (Grunwald 260). He shows that Seymour wants nothing of this world and wants to be as far away as possible.

The characters see that society has become bad, and in order for them to become happy they must get away from society, and live their own lives. Salinger uses many lucky symbols in his works to show to fulfill the quest for happiness. In “Soft-Broiled Sergeant” one of the soldiers wears a pair of lucky underwear, which saves him in battle and helps in finding the love of his life (French, J. D. Salinger 42). The underwear gives the soldier the happiness he is looking for (French, J. D. Salinger 45). Salinger many times uses funny lucky symbols like this, but can be found to provide happiness for the characters (Salzberg 121).

Another example of lucky symbols is in “For Esme” Salinger portrays the sun as a lucky symbol to Joseph Carney (French, J. D. Salinger 63). The sun is lucky to Joseph in that it helps Joseph turn his entire life around, from the rut it had been into a life of great prosperity (French, J. D. Salinger 66). The sun provides inspiration for Joseph to change his life (French, J. D. Salinger 66). The characters in J. D. Salingers works start out in bad situations. Through the use of lucky symbols th! eir life is changed to what will make them happy. Salinger uses symbolism in his works also to foreshadow a better life.

In “Long Debut of Louis Taggett” the symbol of a cigarette being put out foreshadows the end of a marriage (Galloway in Curley and Kramer 58). The end of this marriage for Louis Taggett, means good for his life (Galloway in Curley and Kramer 61). Louis at the end of the story is able to concentrate more on his job, where he meets the woman that will really ove him, and find wealth and prosperity (Galloway in Curley and Kramer 59). This symbolism to foreshadow is one of many examples of how Salinger uses symbolism to predict a better life (Galloway in Curley and Kramer 61).

Salinger many times use subtle, but important symbols to foreshadow better things (Galloway in Curley and Kramer 62). The character, in this work, has suffered through hardships. The characters life is in a total mess at the time. Salinger also shows foreshadowing to a better life through “The Last Day of the Last Furlough” (Mat! uz 157). In the story John Hendren is able Salinger uses symbolism for he character to fulfill his quest for happiness(Matuz 148)John Hendren who is in World War II, has always wore large wooden necklace given to him by his mother (Matuz 148).

This same necklace stops a bullet, which could have killed him(Matuz 149). John is later awarded a medal of respect for his valiant effort, giving him lots of fame(Matuz 149). Salinger shows how such symbols provide happiness to the lives of people (Wenke 237). Salinger uses allusion from other works to show how happiness will be fulfilled. In Salingers Catcher in the Rye, Salinger refers greatly in one chapter to ducks in central park. The ducks are in context to a scripture in the Bible, which tells of how the ducks are free (Galloway in Bloom 53).

Salinger later explains that Holden will become free as these ducks (Galloway in Bloom 54). In Catcher in the Rye Holdens main purpose was to be free from the suffering (Galloway in Bloom 58). The ducks represented how he would feel, being happy (Galloway in Bloom 56). Salinger also shows his symbolism from other works through the work of Mark Twain. Salinger portrays how Holden in Catcher in the Rye changes to a different man when he is at the water fountain in Central Park, as the ase in Mark Twains Huckleberry Finn in which Huck changes when he is on the Mississippi River (Grunwald in Bloom 64).

Salinger uses symbolism from other books in his books to convey how the charac! ters in his works will change for a better life (Grunwald in Bloom 67). Salinger uses much of the symbolism to show how the life of the characters has become happy. Salinger uses symbols to show the turning point of the characters lives. He shows that these symbols will change their lives for the better. The works of Salinger show the quest for happiness through religion, loneliness, and symbolism. Salingers writings deal with characters fulfilling their quest for happiness.

He would have the characters accomplish their quest by going through obstacles, in which they learned about their lives. He employed the religion, loneliness, and symbolism as means for the characters to understand how to obtain happiness in life. The writings of the Salinger, become very important for this time period, because he goes against the grain of society to show how it is wrong. The writings of Salinger, while they may have been excellent in style, have become very controversial for what he has portrayed in the society during this time period.

Stephen Edwin King, one of todays most popular and best selling writers

Stephen Edwin King is one of todays most popular and best selling writers. King combines the elements of psychological thrillers, science fiction, the paranormal, and detective themes into his stories. 1 In addition to these themes, King sticks to using great and vivid detail that is set in a realistic everyday place. 2 Stephen King who is mainly known for his novels, has broadened his horizons to different types of writings such as movie scripts, nonfiction, autobiographies, childrens books, and short stories.

While Stephen King might be best known for his novels The Stand and It, some of his best work hat has been published are his short stories such as The Body and Quitters Inc. 3 Kings works are so powerful because he uses his experience and observations from his everyday life and places them into his unique stories. Stephen Edwin King was born in Portland, Maine, on September 21, 1947, at the Maine General Hospital. 4

Stephen, his mother Nellie, and his adopted brother David were left to fend for themselves when Stephens father Donald, a Merchant Marine captain, left one day, to go the store to buy a pack of cigarettes, and never returned. His fathers leaving had a big indirect impact on Kings life. Stephen King recalls how his family life was altered: After my father took off, my mother, struggled, and then landed on her feet. My brother and I didnt see a great deal of her over the next nine years. She worked a succession of continuous low paying jobs. 6

Stephens first outlooks on life were influenced by his older brother and what he figured out on his own. While young Stephen and his family moved around the North Eastern and Central United States. When he was seven years old, they moved to Stratford, Connecticut. Here is where King got his first exposure to horror. One evening he listened to the radio adaptation of Ray Bradburys story Mars Is Heaven! That night King recalls he slept in the doorway, where the real and rational light of the bathroom bulb could shine on my face. “8

Stephen Kings exposure to oral storytelling on the radio had a large impact on his later writings. King tells his stories in visual terms so that the reader would be able to see what was happening in their own mind,somewhat in the same fashion the way it was done on the radio. Kings fascination with horror early on continued and was pushed along only a couple weeks after Bradburys tory.

One day little Stephen was looking through his mothers books and came across one named The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. After his mother finished reading the book to him, Stephen was hooked. He immediately asked her to read it again. King recalls that summer when I was seven, [my mother] must have read it to me half a dozen times. “10 Ironically that same year, while Stephen was still seven years old, he went to go see his first horror movie, The Creature from the Black Lagoon.

This is important because Stephen says, Since [the movie], I still see things cinematically. I write down everything I see. What I see, it seems like a movie to me. “11 During this year the biggest event that probably had the biggest impact on Stephen Kings writing style was the discovery of the author H. P. Lovecraft. King would later write of Lovecraft, He struck with the most force, and I still think, for all his shortcomings, he is the best writer of horror fiction that America has yet produced. “12 In many of Lovecrafts writings he always used his present surroundings as the back drop of his stories.

King has followed in his footsteps with the fictional town of Castle Rock, Maine. Castle Rock is acombination of several towns that King moved to and from with his family in his childhood. 13 The main town that it resembles is that of Durham, Maine. It was after the exposure to H. P. Lovecrafts stories that King first began to write. While growing up and moving around the way his family did, Stephen had never been able to feel comfortable and settle down in one place and make friends they way other kids his age did.

Around the age of twelve the King family finally settled in the town of Durham, Maine. For Stephen King, Durham was the place where his imagination began to hine. It was at this time that Stephen first began to make friends. Along with his friends, Stephen would go the movies a lot. Stephen would use the movies as a inspiration. Although he enjoyed going out and having fun, whenever he would come home, Stephen would immediately write down his experiences and observations. Frequently King would place his friends and family into childhood fantasy tales.

And one would always know how Stephen felt about them because of how long they lived in the story. It was not until college that Stephen King received any kind of real recognition for his writings. In the Fall of 1967, King finished his first novel, The Long Walk, and turned it into his sophomore American Literature professor for review. 14 After a couple of weeks and a couple rounds around the department, the English professors were stunned. They realized that they had a real writer on their hands.

From then until he graduated with a bachelors degree in English from University of Maine at Orono in the Spring of 1970, King concentrated on rounding off the edges of his writing technique. 15 One short story that best shows the type and technique of Stephen Kings writing is The Body. The Body, which has been adapted into to a Hollywood movie, was first published in the collection of short stories called Different Seasons. The story is a tale of four twelve year old friends who at the end of one summer go out on a journey in into the woods to see a dead body.

While on their journey they learn about life, friendship, and are propelled from innocent to experienced. On the surface of the story it appears to be simple journey with its occasional mishaps, but the true magnificence is that this story has a strong autobiographical coincidence. The main character, Gordie Lachance, s a boy growing up on his own through the memory of his dead older brother. Growing up, Gordie, an avid story teller, dreamed of becoming a writer. Before his brothers accidental death, all his parents would ever care about was his brother.

Since his death, Gordies parents have presumably shut themselves away from Gordie. This, to a certain degree is true of King. Because of his father leaving when Stephen was two, and his mother taking on around the clock jobs, he never really had any parental guidance. 16 The story itself is written with Gordie narrating in the present time look back at the ourney. At the time of his flashback, Gordie is a best selling author who has returned to his home town of Castle Rock to revisit his past.

This is ironic because at the time Stephen wrote the story he himself had just moved from Bolder, Colorado, back home to the town of Bangor. Kings childhood home town of Durham is used in several different stories under the fictional town name of Castle Rock. It is also noticeable how in the story when Gordie looks back to him and his brother, his brother is the only person who cares for him. He noticeably goes out of his way to look out for Gordie, and is lways encouraging his and asking him about his writing, while all his parents seem to do is ignore Gordie.

This also can be related to Kings past because while growing up his brother while only two years older then him, always seemed to be there for Stephen and look out for him. Probably the deepest imagery of the story is at the end of the novel. Gordie is shown back at home and putting the finishing touches on his latest work. While finishing up, Gordie is interrupted by his son who is shown in sense to be a good-natured and caring boy. Gordie experiences a deep love for his family at the time. This setup is presumably placed in the story as an escape for King. 17 King tells of his fear of providing for and caring for a family.

This shows King pushing away the fear, in a sense saying that he is all right. That he has now embraced the idea. 18 One of Kings best work is also one that does not fit in any category of his usual writings. For an author who usually writes horror, Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption, is a story that is a refreshing sidestep. The story tells of how Andy Dufresne, who is falsely tried, convicted, and sentenced to back to back life sentences for he double murder of his wife and her lover, deals with being trapped within a dreadful situation that are out of his hands.

Throughout the nineteen years that he is in Shawshank prison, Andy has to endure everything from a gang called the Sisters, who go around raping and beating their prey to being forced to create and run a money laundering scheme for the prison Warden. 19 If this story was written without the authors name on it, there is none of Stephen Kings characteristic style, except for maybe in one place in the story. The one possible place that even hints that it is from the mind of King is at the end f the story where Red is off to keep his promise to Andy.

Andy asks Red, that when he get out of jail to travel to a southern Maine town called Buxton and look for something he buried in a hay field under a large oak field. The suspense of what was buried and the description of the field in Buxton is what is typical of Stephen King. While the story is very uncharacteristic of King it does deep down relate to himself. The theme of hope and of how Andy overcomes the situation is one that is tied closely to King. It runs a direct parallel with life as a child and how his life has turned out.

Just as Andy was thrown into predicament and later escapes and lives his life on his own terms, Stephen, early on was forced to move from town to town with mother and brother. In the end Stephen escapes and now lives on his own terms. 20 Stephen Kings works are so powerful because he uses his experiences and observations from his life and places them into his unique works. What seems to make Stephen Kings stories almost magical is that the settings of his stories are placed into common every day places. Additionally, Stephens writings are true to life in peoples minds because he draws upon common fears.

The poet William Blake

William Blake wrote during the Romantic period which was a span between 1785 – 1830. Other great writers during this time were Mary Wollstonecraft, Coleridge, Wordsworth, and others. Some said that the Romantic period was the fairy tale way of writing through symbolism and allegory and also an age for individualism. A crucial point by Romantic theorist referred to the mind, emotions, and imagination of the poet (Abrams, et al 5).

In comparison to Blakes Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience Northrop Frys distinction between the imagined states of innocence and experience is stated as thus: orld of innocence: unfallen world/ unified self/ integration with nature/ time in harmony with rhythm of human existence. world of experience: fallen world/ fragmented divided self/ alienation from nature/ time as destructive, in opposition of human desire (Feldman).

This can be seen in The Lamb, and The Chimney Sweeper; from Songs of Innocence and in Songs of Experience The Tyger, and The Chimney Sweeper. Blake was little known as a poet during his lifetime. His reputation became established late in the 19th century. Blakes first book of poems was Poetical Sketches. This book of poems showed his dissatisfaction with the reigning poetic tradition and his restless quest for new forms and techniques (Abrams, et al 19). Blake was said to write symbolist poetry in which things such as a cloud, a flower, or a mountain was presented as an object imbued with significance beyond itself (Abrams, et al 8).

Blake along with other poets explored visionary states of consciousness that are common among children but violate the standard categories of adult judgement (Abrams, et al 10). This can be seen in Blakes Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience. In Songs of Innocence the speaker is often a child and in Songs of Experience the speaker is often an adult (Mack, et al 184). This could be due to the fact that children thought to be of what innocent adults have already experienced. Blake experimented with partial rhymes and novel rhythms and employed bold figures of speech that at times approximate symbols.

One of the strongest features in Blakes philosophy was his belief in imagination as an active force. He attacked rationalism, authoritarianism, industrialization, and organized religion as destructive of creative and spiritual energies(Feldman). Blake said that the two group of poems Songs of Innocence and of Experience represent the world as it is envisioned by what he calls, two contrary states of the human soul, (Abrams 19). In the Songs of Experience, such as London and The Tyger, Blake achieved his mature lyric techniques of metaphor and symbol which explode into a multiplicity of references (Abrams, et al 19).

The Song of Innocence is almost full of brightness, cheer, and peace yet, the Songs of Experience is depicting a world worn and full of miserable human beings (Mack, et al 785). Blakes works range from simplicity and lyrical style as in the Songs of Innocence and Experience to more elaborate style such as in The Four Zoas. For some, Blakes works can be difficult at times. One reason is that the reader is reading Blakes visions in Blakes own terms (Dover). Blake said that, The Nature of my Work is Visionary or Imaginative.

What he meant by this is often misinterpreted; on that note Blake said, that which can be made Explicit to the Idiots is not worth my care(Abrams). Even the introduction song to the Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience is a good example of not only Blakes views of the role of Innocence and Experience in regeneration, but also the complexity of the seemingly simple songs (Magill, et al 208). Some symbols in the poems are for instance the lamb in the Song of Innocence. The lamb is a symbol of Christ and his pureness and innocence.

The poem, The Tyger, has a few symbols also one of which is the lamb again and the tyger itself. In the poem Blake says, did he who made the lamb make thee(line 20)? This represents the purity of the lamb and the beast in the tyger and Blake is wondering how something so vicious could be created by God. The poem The Lamb, and the poem, The Tyger depict the nature of perception in those states and the contradictions which abide in each state (Magill, et al 209). Other symbols in his poetry are in the Introduction, the child on the cloud perhaps meaning pureness.

Also in Earths Answer, when he refers to Earth rasing her head up is very visionary and imaginative. Songs of Innocence and of Experience illustrate two imaginative realms: the state of innocence and the state of experience. They represent two different ways of seeing, and this is seen is Northrop Frys distinction between the two in paragraph one. In the song The Lamb, the child knows the lamb is innocent and pure. The speaker says, he is meek & he is mild (line 15), this represents the unfallen world. Time in harmony with rhythm of human existence is represented in The Chimney Sweeper,.

The child knows of death but also of living after death and having hope. The speaker speaks of his mother dying, this is the death part, and then has a vision of an Angel taking chimney sweepers to heaven. The fallen world is represented in Songs of Experience in the song The Tyger. The speaker knows that everything is not perfect including the tyger although he and the lamb were created by the same person, some sense of understanding is established. Time as destructive in opposition of human desire is represented by The Chimney Sweeper.

The speaker in the poem is older then in the one in Songs of Innocence. The speaker knows of death because both of his parents are already dead probably and he is just trying to make it in society by being a chimney sweeper. Many critics have commented and explored Blakes works. The poet Wordsworth commented that, there is no doubt that this poor man was mad, but there is something in his madness which interests me more than the sanity of the Lord Byron and Walter Scott. Another poet John Ruskin similarly felt that Blakes work was diseased and wild even if his mind was great and wise.

Carl Jung referred to Blake as a visionary poet who had achieved contact with the poetic well spring of the unconscious. Blake was said to see visions as early as age four. These visions included seeing trees filled with Angels, and God looking at him through the window. Many for this reason thought Blake mad. Were the critics right, was Blake genuinely mad, or was he just a poet trying to make a name for himself? His works were somewhat unique, and he did use a lot of new techniques. I found his work to be rather interesting and unusual.

I thought he used great metaphors and comparisons in his works. His works were full of symbols and symbolism. He did do a lot of fairy tale writing as the critics said took place during the Romantic period. He used his mind, emotions, and imagination to portray his thoughts and feelings in his work. Overall Blakes works were different, although the public did not recognize them as good poetry during the period in which he wrote. Today Blakes poetry, as well as his art, are greatly appreciated. Doing research on the internet I discovered this. There were many web sites dedicated to him and his works.

Stephen Edwin King, one of todays most popular and best selling writers

Stephen Edwin King is one of todays most popular and best selling writers. King combines the elements of psychological thrillers, science fiction, the paranormal, and detective themes into his stories. 1 In addition to these themes, King sticks to using great and vivid detail that is set in a realistic everyday place. 2 Stephen King who is mainly known for his novels, has broadened his horizons to different types of writings such as movie scripts, nonfiction, autobiographies, childrens books, and short stories.

While Stephen King might be best known for his novels The Stand and It, some of his best work hat has been published are his short stories such as The Body and Quitters Inc. 3 Kings works are so powerful because he uses his experience and observations from his everyday life and places them into his unique stories. Stephen Edwin King was born in Portland, Maine, on September 21, 1947, at the Maine General Hospital. 4

Stephen, his mother Nellie, and his adopted brother David were left to fend for themselves when Stephens father Donald, a Merchant Marine captain, left one day, to go the store to buy a pack of cigarettes, and never returned. His fathers leaving had a big indirect impact on Kings life. Stephen King recalls how his family life was altered: After my father took off, my mother, struggled, and then landed on her feet. My brother and I didnt see a great deal of her over the next nine years. She worked a succession of continuous low paying jobs. 6 Stephens first outlooks on life were influenced by his older brother and what he figured out on his own.

While young Stephen and his family moved around the North Eastern and Central United States. When he was seven years old, they moved to Stratford, Connecticut. Here is where King got his first exposure to horror. One evening he listened to the radio adaptation of Ray Bradburys story Mars Is Heaven! That night King recalls he slept in the doorway, where the real and rational light of the bathroom bulb could shine on my face. “8 Stephen Kings exposure to oral storytelling on the radio had a large impact on his later writings.

King tells his stories in visual terms so that the reader would be able to see what was happening in their own mind,somewhat in the same fashion the way it was done on the radio. Kings fascination with horror early on continued and was pushed along only a couple weeks after Bradburys tory. One day little Stephen was looking through his mothers books and came across one named The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.

After his mother finished reading the book to him, Stephen was hooked. He immediately asked her to read it again. King recalls that summer when I was seven, [my mother] must have read it to me half a dozen times. “10 Ironically that same year, while Stephen was still seven years old, he went to go see his first horror movie, The Creature from the Black Lagoon.

This is important because Stephen says, Since [the movie], I still see things cinematically. I write down everything I see. What I see, it seems like a movie to me. “11 During this year the biggest event that probably had the biggest impact on Stephen Kings writing style was the discovery of the author H. P. Lovecraft. King would later write of Lovecraft, He struck with the most force, and I still think, for all his shortcomings, he is the best writer of horror fiction that America has yet produced. “12 In many of Lovecrafts writings he always used his present surroundings as the back drop of his stories.

King has followed in his footsteps with the fictional town of Castle Rock, Maine. Castle Rock is acombination of several towns that King moved to and from with his family in his childhood. 13 The main town that it resembles is that of Durham, Maine. It was after the exposure to H. P. Lovecrafts stories that King first began to write. While growing up and moving around the way his family did, Stephen had never been able to feel comfortable and settle down in one place and make friends they way other kids his age did.

Around the age of twelve the King family finally settled in the town of Durham, Maine. For Stephen King, Durham was the place where his imagination began to hine. It was at this time that Stephen first began to make friends. Along with his friends, Stephen would go the movies a lot. Stephen would use the movies as a inspiration. Although he enjoyed going out and having fun, whenever he would come home, Stephen would immediately write down his experiences and observations. Frequently King would place his friends and family into childhood fantasy tales.

And one would always know how Stephen felt about them because of how long they lived in the story. It was not until college that Stephen King received any kind of real recognition for his writings. In the Fall of 1967, King finished his first novel, The Long Walk, and turned it into his sophomore American Literature professor for review. 14 After a couple of weeks and a couple rounds around the department, the English professors were stunned. They realized that they had a real writer on their hands.

From then until he graduated with a bachelors degree in English from University of Maine at Orono in the Spring of 1970, King concentrated on rounding off the edges of his writing technique. 15 One short story that best shows the type and technique of Stephen Kings writing is The Body. The Body, which has been adapted into to a Hollywood movie, was first published in the collection of short stories called Different Seasons. The story is a tale of four twelve year old friends who at the end of one summer go out on a journey in into the woods to see a dead body.

While on their journey they learn about life, friendship, and are propelled from innocent to experienced. On the surface of the story it appears to be simple journey with its occasional mishaps, but the true magnificence is that this story has a strong autobiographical coincidence. The main character, Gordie Lachance, s a boy growing up on his own through the memory of his dead older brother. Growing up, Gordie, an avid story teller, dreamed of becoming a writer. Before his brothers accidental death, all his parents would ever care about was his brother.

Since his death, Gordies parents have presumably shut themselves away from Gordie. This, to a certain degree is true of King. Because of his father leaving when Stephen was two, and his mother taking on around the clock jobs, he never really had any parental guidance. 16 The story itself is written with Gordie narrating in the present time look back at the ourney. At the time of his flashback, Gordie is a best selling author who has returned to his home town of Castle Rock to revisit his past.

This is ironic because at the time Stephen wrote the story he himself had just moved from Bolder, Colorado, back home to the town of Bangor. Kings childhood home town of Durham is used in several different stories under the fictional town name of Castle Rock. It is also noticeable how in the story when Gordie looks back to him and his brother, his brother is the only person who cares for him. He noticeably goes out of his way to look out for Gordie, and is lways encouraging his and asking him about his writing, while all his parents seem to do is ignore Gordie.

This also can be related to Kings past because while growing up his brother while only two years older then him, always seemed to be there for Stephen and look out for him. Probably the deepest imagery of the story is at the end of the novel. Gordie is shown back at home and putting the finishing touches on his latest work. While finishing up, Gordie is interrupted by his son who is shown in sense to be a good-natured and caring boy. Gordie experiences a deep love for his family at the time. This setup is presumably placed in the story as an escape for King. 17 King tells of his fear of providing for and caring for a family.

This shows King pushing away the fear, in a sense saying that he is all right. That he has now embraced the idea. 18 One of Kings best work is also one that does not fit in any category of his usual writings. For an author who usually writes horror, Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption, is a story that is a refreshing sidestep. The story tells of how Andy Dufresne, who is falsely tried, convicted, and sentenced to back to back life sentences for he double murder of his wife and her lover, deals with being trapped within a dreadful situation that are out of his hands.

Throughout the nineteen years that he is in Shawshank prison, Andy has to endure everything from a gang called the Sisters, who go around raping and beating their prey to being forced to create and run a money laundering scheme for the prison Warden. 19 If this story was written without the authors name on it, there is none of Stephen Kings characteristic style, except for maybe in one place in the story. The one possible place that even hints that it is from the mind of King is at the end f the story where Red is off to keep his promise to Andy.

Andy asks Red, that when he get out of jail to travel to a southern Maine town called Buxton and look for something he buried in a hay field under a large oak field. The suspense of what was buried and the description of the field in Buxton is what is typical of Stephen King. While the story is very uncharacteristic of King it does deep down relate to himself. The theme of hope and of how Andy overcomes the situation is one that is tied closely to King. It runs a direct parallel with life as a child and how his life has turned out.

Just as Andy was thrown into predicament and later escapes and lives his life on his own terms, Stephen, early on was forced to move from town to town with mother and brother. In the end Stephen escapes and now lives on his own terms. 20 Stephen Kings works are so powerful because he uses his experiences and observations from his life and places them into his unique works. What seems to make Stephen Kings stories almost magical is that the settings of his stories are placed into common every day places. Additionally, Stephens writings are true to life in peoples minds because he draws upon common fears.

Kate Chopin, American author

Kate Chopin was an American author who lived during the nineteenth century, but because of The Awakening, a novel which was considered scandalous at the time, she has just recently been “accepted into the canon of major American writers”(Trosky 105). Through Kate Chopins main character of The Awakening, Edna Pontellier, she is able to portray her feelings and desires that were otherwise suppressed by the ideals of American society at that time. Kate Chopin was born on February 8, 1851 in St. Louis, Missouri. She was brought up in a family that was a member of the prominent French- Creole community.

During her childhood she possessed a love for reading. Her favorite types of literature were fairy tales, poetry and novels. She secluded herself for almost two years, away from her family and school in her attic, spending the majority of her time reading (Trosky 102). After her schooling, Chopin spent her days as a belle in St. Louis high society. She was greatly admired for both her beauty and wit. She continued her readings, becoming more interested in contemporary works. In 1869, she traveled to New Orleans where she met Oscar Chopin, whom she married.

Though married, Chopin remained airly independent, practicing habits such as smoking and walking alone in the city, two things unheard of from women at that time. (Trosky 102) In 1883, Oscar Chopin died of swamp fever. By 1884, Kate moved with her six children back to St. Louis. Around this time, Chopin began her writing career, writing in periodicals and publishing collections of short stories. She received good reviews and continued to write at an impressive rate. Her acclaim was short lived though, following the publication of The Awakening.

“This work, which would eventually be recognized as her masterpiece and a seminal work in American feminist fiction, first proved her most notorious publication and her literary undoing. “(Trosky 103) At the time, Chopins novel was considered scandalous and immoral, for it dealt largely with a womens sexuality. At the time The Awakening was written, a novel would be judged on its moral message as much as its artistic merits. After the negative response of critics, Chopin published a few more works, but nothing was well received. She received little recognition, which when given, described her as an author of southern local color stories(Trosky 103).

Local color writing was a movement which tried to capture the feeling of a particular region through descriptions of local speech and manners(“The Age of Realism”). Eventually all of her publications went out of print. Around the same time Chopins health was declining, and on August 22, 1904, she died of a brain hemorrhage. (Trosky 103) Kate Chopin lived in and wrote during a period in American literature which was known as the Age of Realism. The Age of Realism occurred between the years of 1871 and 1913. “Realism was in part a revolt against romanticism and its idealized portrayal of life. ” (“The Age of Realism”)

Authors of realism wanted to show life as it really was. It encouraged writers to write about the problems and conditions around them, often using the dialects and language of ordinary people. (“The Age of”) Chopin was often compared to other realist writers of her time, such as George Washington Cable, who wrote similar to Chopin. The works of both Cable and Chopin were seen “almost entirely as an emancipation of Southern local color”(Springer 200). Cable, like Chopin was an author who wrote the Creoles. Both he and Chopin published a great deal of their work in magazines(“The Age of Realism”).

The Age of Realism is evident in Chopins works, which usually deal with those Americans of French decent living in Louisiana or in St. Louis. (Springer 201) She wrote about the real world, that of which she knew from her experiences growing up. Chopins major themes revolved around: a womans role in society, marriage, and a womans sexual nature and growing independence. (Davis 52) These topics were almost unheard of, for they were considered very wrong, “[violating] several nineteenth century principles of womanly literature decorum. “(Davis 60) As stated earlier, Chopin wanted to be independent, omething unexceptable for women at that time.

Her desire for independence was portrayed in The Awakening, by the novels main character Edna Pontellier. The Awakening takes place at Grand Isle, not far from New Orleans. Edna Pontellier is a woman who becomes very unhappy with her life. She finds herself in a marriage that is not out of love, but something expected of her. She has two children, whom she loves, but at the same time feels burdened by. As time goes on she grows more and more unhappy. Soon Edna begins to fall in love with another man, Robert Lebrun. Robert, becoming frightened by his feelings for Edna, leaves to live in Mexico, trying to forget Edna.

While Robert is gone, Edna becomes more and more independent. She refuses to do anything, even activities that she used to do without objection, such as sleeping in the same bed as her husband. She also neglects her children, and her duties as a wife and woman of the community. Robert eventually returns from Mexico, unable to stay away any longer, but his return is short lived. Robert leaves once again, realizing that what they are doing could never work because Edna is married with kids. Edna unable to bear the pain any longer, returns to Grand Isle, where she nd Robert first fell in love with one another.

Edna undresses herself and swims out as far as she can and drowns herself, leaving behind her husband and children. All of Chopins major themes are present in The Awakening. Ednas marriage to Leonce is a major factor of the story, because her marriage keeps her from being able to following her true feelings for Robert, the man she was really in love with. Ednas role in society is also questioned. The women of her time and class were expected to be very domestic, taking care of the children and socializing with the other women of the community meeting weekly.

Edna breaks the tradition, by going out on Tuesdays, the day when all the women come to visit her, to walk around the city alone. Edna also takes up art, doing sketches and drawings, not a very popular activity for women. The biggest shocker in the book, which may be why it received such bad criticism, is the fact that despite Ednas marriage she fantasizes about being with another man, and then acts on it. Ednas actions illustrate a womans sexual nature as well as her independence. Many of Ednas actions reflect the feelings of Kate Chopin.

When Chopin writes that Edna alks alone in the city, it can be said that Ednas actions are influenced by Chopin, who is also walked alone in the city and acted very independently. Although Chopins real life did not go as far as Ednas, it can almost be assumed that Kate Chopin lived the way she really wanted to through Edna. Kate Chopin was not a very successful writer during her lifetime, receiving no awards or special recognition. Kate Chopin wrote ahead of her time. Her contemporary writing style, although it can be appreciated now, ruined her writing career, depriving her of the recognition that she deserved during her lifetime.

Jack Kerouac Life

In the beginning Jack Kerouac lived a wild and exciting life outside the realm of everyday “normal” American life. Though On the Road and The Dharma Bums were Kerouac’s only commercial sucesses, he was a man who changed American literature and pop-culture. Kerouac virtually created a life-style devoted to life, art, literature, music, and poetry. When his movement grew out of his control, he came to despise it, and died lonely on the other side of what he once loved and cherished above all else.

But, on the way he created a style of writing which combined elements of all the great writers, with peed, common language, real people, and the reality of his life. In a public junior high school he began to read feverishly. In English classes he flourished, but socially he did not. Impressed deeply by Mark Twain and Jack London, Kerouac created his own imaginary world, which he recorded in hand-written “newspapers. ” These led to his first “novel” Jack Kerouac Explores the Merrimack, which he wrote in a notebook at the age of twelve (Clark, 22).

Skipping classes at Lowell High School, in Lowell Massachusetts, Kerouac was exposed to the work of Thomas Wolfe by a fellow student Sammy Sampas. They encouraged writing in each other, and Kerouac began writing seriously. Since the Kerouacs could not afford college, a local priest suggested he try for a football scholarship (Clark, 32). He was offered two; one from Colombia University and the other from Boston College. Kerouac opted for Columbia and first spent one year, by the request of the university, at the Horace Mann School for Boys.

Here he didn’t fit in with the rich prep- school crowd, but he was exposed to Hemmingway (Clark, 37). Here, also, in a school publication his work was first printed (Clark, 39). After two years of school at Columbia Kerouac made a decision that would change his life. He always believed he learned more outside of the classroom than in; and so after a series of arguments with his coach, he quit the team. Not long after he dropped out of school as well. He served briefly in the navy, and drinking heavily, was discharged on psychiatric grounds(Clark, 52).

Upon his return home he got a job with as a Merchant Marine. When he wasn’t working he spent his time with Allen Ginsberg, Lucien Carr, William S. Burroughs, and Neal Cassady (Jack Kerouac, 1). His family’s disapproval of is friends led him to a life balancing his friends and family. This is recorded in The Town and the City, a novel which Ginsberg’s professors got published. Not long after Kerouac began making the now famous series of cross-country trips with Cassady immortalized in On the Road (On the Road). But it would be seven years before On the Road would be published (Jack Kerouac, 2).

During these trips Kerouac made several literary discoveries that changed the American Novel. First and foremost he developed a “sketching” style of writing, inspired by an artist friend named Ed White and he speed of bop music. Here the main goal was to write on the spot. This became what he called “the great moment of discovering my soul,” (Clark, 102). Later this “sketching” developed into a style of writing unlike any other. He would write either on the spot or from memory, but always on many levels; imagination and reality, psychic and social, poetry and narrative, but always complete honesty.

To Kerouac this was “the only way to write. ” This style is evident first in Visions of Cody, Kerouac’s tribute to Cassady (Clark, 110). In 1952 Kerouac lived briefly in Mexico City with Burroughs. Here he wrote Dr. Sax, which was considered shocking even by Ginsberg who told Kerouac it would never be published because it was “so personal, so full of sex language,” (Clark, 115). Later Kerouac said Ginsberg was mishandling his career and didn’t take advantage of the sex and drug revolution that was sweeping the country in paperbacks(Clark, 117).

Ginsberg was wrong though. Dr. Sax was published, but not until 1959 (Clark, xvii). That fall he took a job with the Southern Pacific rail road. On the trains he developed another adaptation to his writing style. He called this “speed writing” which as supposed to “clack along all the way like a steam engine pulling a 100-car freight with a talky caboose at the end. ” He also became well practiced in describing the American land-scape, to the point where it almost becomes more of a character than a setting (Clark,118).

The job on the rail road, and his writing led him to an isolation that brought a beauty to his writing similar to Dickinson. This is very evident when comparing On the Road with later works such as The Dharma Bums and Big Sur. But, Ginsberg believed the isolation was making him too focused on “self as subject matter” but, this is what had arlier drawn Ginsberg to Kerouac’s writing (Clark,119). In 1953 Viking Press was still considering publishing Kerouac, Malcom Cowley rejected three of his books, but still considered him “the most interesting writer who is not being published today. Still On the Road remained unavailable to the American public (Clark, 123).

Meanwhile, Kerouac was perfecting his “spontaneous writing” style by combining it with his new “spontaneous prose”. Falling deeper into the New York underground Kerouac began using heroin, dopophine, and barbiturates in addition to the marijuana and alcohol he had become accustomed to. This experience was recorded in The Subterraneans which Kerouac wrote in just one 72 hour sitting in which he lost 15 pounds. This was as Jack described “really a fantastic athletic feat as well as mental,” (Clark, 127).

The manuscript thoroughly impressed Burroughs and Ginsberg who asked Kerouac to give them a detailed statement on his new style. Kerouac replied with a list titled The Essentials of Spontaneous Prose. This still remains the best explanation of Kerouac’s style; writing “without consciousness in semi-trance… excitedly, swiftly… from within, out -to be relaxed,” (Clark, 128). In 1954 Kerouac had possibly the most important interview of his life. John Holmes of The New York Times quoted Jack’s refferal to his group of writer and artist friends as “the beat generation.

This became the title of the article in which Holmes stated “it was Jack Kerouac who invented the phrase, and his unpublished narrative On the Road is the best record of their lives,” (Clark, 133). A new chapter in Kerouac’s life began when he found religion in Buddhism. Kerouac moved again to Mexico City. Here he wrote some of his longest poems. These were combined into the 242 choruses of Mexico City Blues. This is described as “an extended sequence of free-association, spontaneous poems.

He also began work on Tristessa which was not completed until the following year (Clark, 139). From Mexico City Kerouac moved to Berkley and became good friends with Gary Snyder, a Zen poet, (Jack Kerouac, 2). Kerouac spent a great deal of time during this period on long hikes with Snyder, who was the complete opposite of Cassady. Snyder’s influence was good for Kerouac’s spirituality as well as his writing (Palmer). This time is recorded in the beautiful descriptions in The Dharma Bums (The Dharma Bums). 955 was also the time of the now famous Six Gallery Poetry Reading.

It is now considered the night of “the birth of the San Francisico Poetry Renaissance. ” Here many of the “beat generation” writers and artists first gained fame. They were sad to see the man they regarded as the most talented of them so unhappy, carrying his life’s work around in a tattered rucksack (Jack Kerouac, 2). Finally, in 1957 On the Road was published and it became a best-seller. One Times critic referred to the publication as a “historic occasion in so far as the exposure of n authentic work of art is of any great moment.

Kerouac was rapidly gaining fame, but after six years of literary rejection, he didn’t know how to handle it. He was older, sadder, and smarter than the public had expected. He tried to live up to his wild On the Road image, which only lead him down the dark spiral of alcoholism (Jack Kerouac, 2). The publication of On the Road coincided with Ginsberg’s launch of the “united front,” a media campaign to join east and west coast artists. Ginsberg quietly slipped away to Europe and allowed Kerouac to bear the full force of the popular media.

The media ortrayed him as advocating illegal and immoral activities, but Kerouac was too drunk most of the time to intelligently deal with the criticisms and confrontations. He felt like “a kid dragged in by a cop,” (Clark, 164). His fame was beginning to grow, but this hindered his writing. He became involved with the wife of respected literary critic Kenneth Rexroth. Initially Rexroth had regarded Kerouac as “the peer of Celine,” (Clark, 147). Needless to say, as Kerouac’s fame spread Rexroth’s opinion of him continued to decline until the point where Kerouac was regarded as “more pitiful than ridiculous.

Eventually, Kerouac fell into disregard with most critics (Jack Kerouac, 2). The critics, as well as Kerouac, believed the “beat generation” was simply a fad, but Kerouac believed his writing was above the fad (Jack Kerouac, 2). But by the time The Subteraneans was published critics were saying “The best way to read Kerouac is with an oxygen mask. ” But, he Back in Lowell in 1961 Kerouac was hardly writing any more. The ladies of the town had organized a movement to get Kerouac’s books removed from the stores and libraries. Fed up, he moved with his mother to Florida.

His last major writing effort egan and in 10 days he finished Big Sur, the story of the alcohol delirium, paranoia, and madness he had suffered on a 1960 trip to California. It was written mainly as an apology and an explanation to everyone he had wronged during that time (Big Sur). By 1964 many of Cassady and Ginsberg were associating themselves more and more with the hippies of Ken Kesey, the Merry Pranksters, and The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test fame (The Electric… ). Kerouac, though, was a conservative at heart and avoided the psychedelic drug movement (Clark, 193).

This eventually to Kerouac being espised by even those who’s careers he began, and lives he had changed. In one meeting one of the Merry Pranksters had covered a couch with a flag. Ginsberg watched Kerouac slowly fold it up and “marveled sadly… history was… out of Jack’s hands now,” (Clark, 201). Neal Cassady died of a drug overdose in Mexico in 1968. Not long after, Jack Kerouac died of an abdominal hemorrhage and cirrhosis of the liver, he had literally drunk himself to death. He was only 47. He died a lonely death. A sad ending to the sad writer who gave so much of himself in his belief that “writing was his duty on earth. “

John Updike, This Concept In His Works

Whether it is novels, short stories or critiques; John Updike gives the reader his analysis on human behavior. He starts with realistic issues and adds a little imagination to create a novel that is rich in quality and relevant to the lifestyles and actions of man (Towers 157). A persons color, gender, and social class all influence and assemble their personality and view on life. Updike expresses this concept in his works and sometimes uses moral dilemmas and discriminations to show the influences. Moral dilemmas are evident in John Updikes novels Brazil and The Coup; related to color gender, and social class.

What attracts one person to another? Michael Faraday discussed how charged molecules in an electric field attract and repel. Molecules that are negatively charged attract the opposite positively charged molecules and like molecules repel (Zitzewitz and Neef 426). John Updike expresses this concept in his characterization of people within the book Brazil. Especially pertaining to the color of the characters skin. Tristao, the main character in Brazil, is a Negro man that lives in a low class environment and falls vigorously in love with Isabel, a higher class Caucasian woman.

As Faraday explains with molecules, when other substances become involved interference takes place (Zitzewitz and Neef 426). In Brazil, on a racial aspect, the substances that become involved bring the moral dilemmas. Trisao had been exposed to crime all his life, but when he met Isabel he was willing to throw away his past and concentrate on a future with her. Unfortunately, it wasnt that yielding. Isabels political father did not approve of the Negro, Tristao, because of the color of his flesh. He looked at blacks as being beasts and on a much lower and almost not human level.

John Updike expresses his feeling to his readers in the beginning of the book that blacks and whites are on the same level. He says that Black is a shade of brown. So is white, if you look. (qt. Updike, Brazil 3 ) in the opening sentence of the book. He hints that we should depend on each other, as this black ink depends on the piece of white paper. If we dont then a tremendous problems exists. Isabels political father attempted to establish a blockade on the force that attracted the opposite skinned couple together by sending men to capture Isabel and to guard Tristao.

Because of a white mans inability to see beyond the flesh, into the spectrum that the whole human race possesses, a dilemma of morality resulted. In The Coup, John Updike also comprises moral dilemmas related to color, when the main character Colonel Hakim Felix Ellellou, reflects upon his experiences in The United States. Colonel Ellellou is often referred to as the black among blacks, because he stands out in the customarily Negro population as being a leader and almost a heroic figure for his efforts to keep his needy nation a model of Islamic Marxism ( Towers 157).

While attending college in Wisconsin, Ellellou was faced with racial questions by his soon to be first wifes father. The man asked Ellellou What do you make of our American colored people? (qt. Updike, The Coup 154). Ellellou then realized that there was a sense of misunderstanding between whites and blacks. What is morally right has been shadowed and replaced by peoples opinion. He answered that it is not because of the skin that some people drowned a life of crime it is the nature of the person and how they have been taught to live and survive all of their life.

The man was to narrow minded to understand and except Ellellous views. This created the moral dilemma of race. How can one race truly understand the feelings of another? Ellellou created another problem by leaving The United States and returning to his country of Brazil, with the American girl. In the traditional history of the United States and in many modern customs women and men have been given different freedoms and roles in their society. Women have been treated as property and have not been allowed the basic rights, that morally everybody should be allowed.

In some cultures men have full control over their wife and sometimes there are many wives to one man. In Brazil, moral dilemmas are caused by these gender differences as well as racial issues. As a woman, in the society of Brazil, Isabel is more vulnerable to discrimination than a male would be in that particular nation. At one point in the story, Isabel was forced to be the wife of a Paulistan King. Women in the book Brazil, just like in many traditional societies, are thought of as being the caretaker. They watch over the children, do the housework, and essentially are their husbands servants.

As a male and a king, the Paulistan had the power to just choose a wife, without the womans control. A woman could not just choose a husband; the male only had this power. So while Isabel was the bride to the King, she was forced to do many tasks just like the Kings slaves. Tristao was captured as one of the kings slaves because he was black and Isabel could not easily save him because she was a female in a male dominated society. This was the dilemma related to gender and race. Isabel and Tristao could not be together because tradition was splitting them apart.

Updike expresses in The Coup, gender differences and how they create dilemmas as Ellellou visits each of his four wives with very different personalities. Kadongolimi, an enormously fat older woman from his home village; Candy, a white Wisconsin suburbanite who goes about veiled from head to foot disguised as a pious Berber and whose race as escaped public detection for many years; Sittina, the long-legged daughter of a Tutsi chief who prepped at a small college in Alabama and is, among other things a fashion designer and a world class sprinter, and Sheba, who specializes in getting stoned and oral sex (qt.

As you can see men can have many wives in the Muslim religion. They are accredited four wives to be exact. Men, in the imaginary nation of Kush, are very real to the historical and some modern societies on earth. Men have all the power and are on a much higher level than women, in the nation of Kush. That, right there, is a discrimination related to gender.

Women have no say in how the nation runs or works; unless they present their idea to a man; who, if he liked the idea, would then use the idea as his own. Many of Ellellous wives gave him ideas on how the nation should run, but Ellellou would use them as his ideas and sometimes he would neglect to listen. He was desperate for an improved nation of Kush and was unsure whether to allow women to help correct the nations destitution.

Irish Literature and Rebellion

In the heart of every Irishman hides a poet, burning with nationalistic passion for his beloved Emerald Isle. It is this same passion, which for centuries, Great Britain has attempted to snuff out of the Catholics of Ireland with tyrannical policies and the hegemony of the Protestant religion. Catholics were treated like second-class citizens in their native home. Centuries of oppression churned in the hearts of the Irish and came to a boil in the writings and literature of the sons and daughters of Ireland. The Literary Renaissance of Ireland produced some of the greatest writers the world has seen.

John O’Leary said it best, “literature must be national and nationalism must be literary” (Harmon, 65). Although there is an endless stream of profound poets and playwrights; John Synge, Lady Gregory, Oscar Wilde, etc. , this paper’s primary focus is on William Butler Yeats and James Joyce, and their contributions during the Irish Literary Renaissance and their perspectives on the “Irish Question. They preserved the names of the heroes of the past and celebrated the Irish spirit through their writings so that the sacrifice of many would not be in vain.

William Butler Yeats was born in the Dublin suburb of Sandymont on June 13, 1865. Interestingly enough, his family was of the Protestant faith. He wasn’t much of an activist at first and didn’t really care all that much for schooling either, “because I found it difficult to attend to anything less interesting than my thoughts, I was difficult to teach” (DLB 19, 403). However, in 1886 he met John O’Leary, an old Fenian leader. O’Leary had been a Young Irelander and fought in the insurrection of 1849. He took Yeats under his wing and introduced him to the world of fenians and fenianism.

His influence on Yeats’ writing is undeniable. Yeats began to write “in the way of [Sir Samuel] Ferguson and [James Clarence] Mangan” and evolve his nationalism and anti-English sentiment (O’Connor, 165). Yeats, like Ferguson, saw “literature in Irish was an essential part of the education of any Irishman and tried to make it so” (O’Connor, 150). He toured Ireland and established the National Literary Society. His greatest ambition was to unite Catholic Ireland and Protestant Ireland through national literature.

He loved Ireland and the Irish and wanted them to be one. Yeats never gave up his belief of uniting Ireland through language or on Ireland. However, he was troubled at the thought that his pen could be the cause of war. Although he was politically active, his focus was more on the cultural and literary realms than on a violent rebellion At the end of his life he was still wondering if his early writing had helped to seed the rising, to send out / Certain men the English shot’ (“The Man and the Echo, lines 11-12″)” (DLB 19, 420).

I was unable to find a copy of “The Man and the Echo” in print so I downloaded and from the internet and have attached it. ] He goes on further to question how because of his poems, he has caused the destruction of homes and families, “Could my spoken words have checked / There whereby a house lay wrecked? ” (The Man and the Echo, line 15-16). Yeats considers himself responsible for the death of his friends and others family. He is disappointed that his ink could be the reason for bloodshed. The “rising” that Yeats is talking about is the Easter Rising of 1916.

On April 24, 1916, a group of Irishmen that called themselves the Irish Republican Brotherhood led by Padraic Pearse and James Connolly’s Ctizen Army, posted the Declaration of the Republic on the door of the General Post Office in Dublin and declared Ireland a free country. [I have also attached a copy of the Declaration of the Republic for reference. Unfortunately, although anticipated by the nationalist’s leadership, the British Troops quickly suppressed the rebellion and the signatories were swiftly executed as an example to the Irish.

In the end, the rebels “fought with typical Irish gallantry, attacked by soldiers using artillery and outnumbering them twenty to one. Cut off from all possible support from the country, or from reinforcement of any kind, they held out for almost a week, during which Dublin was badly damaged and over three hundred people died” (Coogan, 14-15). Most importantly, the rebels inspired the heart and soul of the Irish population by sacrificing their lives for the independence of Ireland and cast themselves into martyrdom forever.

Yeats became possessed with the Irish spirit. He pledged that he would never allow the memories of those who sacrificed their lives to fade. In remembrance of the rising, Yeats composed “Easter 1916,” which predicts the “troubles” to persist for years to come in his refrain, “A terrible beauty is born” (Yeats, 53). Yeats galvanizes the heroism of Ireland’s martyrs and implores the Irish to do the same. He does not want the death of valiant men to be in vain.

Similarly, James Joyce damned the cruelty of the British in Ireland and calls on the memories of the heroes of yesteryear to instigate the nationalistic pride of every Irishmen. However, there is one great difference between Yeats and Joyce. While Yeats never left Ireland, Joyce believed the only way to fully appreciate the troubles was to remove yourself physically from them. This would allow Joyce to view both sides critically. He wanted to avoid the most famous quote of Yeats’ “Easter 1916,” “Too long a sacrifice / Can make a stone of the heart” (Yeats, 54).

Joyce believed that to envelop oneself in the politics of the “Irish Question” would only allow for censorship by both the Roman Catholic Church and the British government, and the eventual death of literature, so he exiled himself to the continent and continued his writings there. “When asked near the end of his life if he ever intended to return to Ireland, Joyce responded truthfully, Have I ever left it? ‘” (Joyce, jacket). James Joyce was born in the Dublin suburb of Rathgar on February 2, 1882.

He is best known for his novels A Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man (1916), Ulysses (1922), Finnegan’s Wake (1939), and his one book of short stories, Dubliners (1914). Although all of his works are overwhelming analyses of the social spectrum of Ireland and have undercurrents of political scrutiny, Dubliners is, in the words of Stendhal, a mirror’s image of the life and times of Dublin’s citizens. “The main theme of Dubliners is the paralysis of a society that squanders its moral resources” (DLB 10, 271).

Joyce condemned the actions on all sides of Ireland dilemma and cursed those who took for granted the blood, sweat and tears of those who have gone before them. He saw that there was no one person or group to point the finger at and instead encouraged everyone to take lessons from the past. Joyce referred to Charles Stewart Parnell as an example to everyone concerned. Parnell, “an Anglo-Irish Protestant landlord, emerged as the leading figure in the Irish Parliamentary Party” (Joyce, XXVIII).

Under the leadership of Parnell, the majority of the nationalist groups were united and he used his position to force Parliament to take into account the possibility of Home Rule in Ireland. Joyce believed Parnell’s methods to be the epitome of proper political activism and immortalized his convictions in “Ivy Day in the Committee Room. ” Frank O’Connor considers this to be “the real voice of the Irish middle class” (O’Connor, 161). Throughout “Ivy Day in the Committee Room,” we are introduced to a cast of characters who have been out shaking hands and kissing babies.

They sit around and slowly warm themselves back to life by the small fire and sipping on stout. The discuss politics and life, each other, and the anniversary of the tragic loss Charles Stewart Parnell. The story ends with the reading of a poem written in memory of Parnell, which declares him the “Uncrowned King,” and concludes “The day that brings us Freedom’s reign. / And on that day may Erin well / Pledge in the cup she lifts to Joy / One grief – the memory of Parnell” (Joyce, 116).

Through the words and verses of Yeats and Joyce and all the writers of the Irish Literary Renaissance, the memories of the brave have survived. The purpose of the their writing was to kindle the patriotic flame of the Irish and work towards a united Ireland. In the troubles of today, the memory of the sacrifices of yesterday are still strong within the culture and traditions of the Irish. Someday, their dream and the dream of so many who have gone before them will be recognized and achieved.

Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald

Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald is known as one of the most important American writers of his time. He wrote about the troubling time period in which he lived known as the Jazz Age. During this era people were either rich or dreamt of great wealth. Fitzgerald fell into the trap of wanting to be wealthy, and suffered great personal anguish because of these driving forces. I have chosen to write a term paper on F. Scott Fitzgerald. The goal of this presentation is to show F. Scott Fitzgerald’s life through his defeats and triumphs and how these situations affected his life as a writer.

Fitzgerald’s life started in the Midwestern part of the United States. On September 24, 1896, he was born in St. Paul, Minnesota. F. Scott Fitzgerald was of Irish heritage on both sides and was distantly related to Francis Scott Key, for whom he is named, and to Maryland aristocracy. His parents, Edward Fitzgerald of the Glen Mary Farm near Rockville, Maryland and Mary McQuillan of St. Paul wed February 13, 1890 in Washington, D. C. Fitzgerald’ s maternal grandfather was a very successful wholesale merchant.

His grandfather’s early death and his father’s inability to keep a job, forced the amily to be extremely dependent on the wealth of his grandfather’s estate. Fitzgerald attended the St. Paul Academy as a child. In 1911 he entered the Newman School in Hackensack, NJ. Growing up with a father who was out of work and who relied on his wife’s inheritance gave Fitzgerald a mixed feeling of guilt and shame and yet he felt love for both his parents. These inner conflicts in his early life could have contributed to his inability to manage his finances, along with his constant obsession of gaining extreme wealth.

Fitzgerald later went to Princeton University, where writing and ootball were his main interests. It was there that he met friends Edmund Wilson and John Peale Bishop. Fitzgerald was too small to play football so he joined a fraternity called the triangle club, the second most prestigious cliche on campus, football being first. After Princeton, Fitzgerald was quoted as saying to a friend I want to be the greatest writer who ever lived don’t you (Bruccoli, 1981). In 1917, Fitzgerald joined the army and prepared to fight in World War I.

It was soon after his mobilization that he sold his first story to the Smart Set. This was the beginning of Fitzgerald’s passion for writing, and t this time Fitzgerald also met his future wife Zelda while serving in the army. Unable to make sufficient money to win the love of Zelda and not being sent away to war encouraged Fitzgerald to go back to Minnesota to start on another book. This book was barely published, but it persuaded Zelda to marry him. So on the third of April of 1920 in St. Patrick’s Cathedral New York City they were married.

Fitzgerald’s first novel, This Side of Paradise sold 20,000 copies in one week. Fitzgerald was excited about the money he could make with his writings and this started Fitzgerald’s habit of writing a series of short tories after each novel. Then Fitzgerald began experimenting with his writing talent. Fitzgerald wrote his first and only play in November 1923 called The Vegetable or from President to Postman it flopped leaving Fitzgerald broken hearted and unmotivated. At this time the Fitzgerald’s toured Europe and began their history of drinking and destroying their lives.

In July, 1922, Fitzgerald wrote a note to a friend saying I want to see where I stand. I want to write something new something extraordinary and beautiful and simple and intricately patterned (Bruccoli, 1981). After many ttempts at writing a masterpiece, on April 11, 1925, Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby was released. The Fitzgeralds continued to roam Europe with daughter Scottie. Fitzgerald was unable to manage his finances and was constantly in debt. He was always living beyond his means and borrowing money from his next unwritten story.

During this period of Fitzgerald’s life he was relying on short stories as the main and only income. It has been figured by Matt Bruccoli that during Fitzgerald’s life span he made around $386,382 an average of $21,466. In 1930, Zelda had her first nervous breakdown. She was nstitutionalized as Scott tried very hard to write his next novel. Much of her time was spent at Johns Hopkins University. Fitzgerald spent much time writing Tender is the Night. Tender is the Night is based mostly upon Zelda’s schizophrenia and her fifteen months in a Swedish sanitarium.

This book has its characters showing symbolism of the pain that Fitzgerald rendered while taking care of Zelda. Ernest Hemingway and Fitzgerald were great friends throughout each others lives. Each wrote about each other in a symbolistic manner. It is said that Hemingway wrote about how Zelda’s insanity caused Fitzgerald to lose sight f his writing. Fitzgerald moved to Hollywood in 1937 to work on movie scripts. There he wrote his Pat Hobby stories and began work on The Last Tycoon.

During this time, he was also seeing Sheilah Graham, a Hollywood gossip columnist. Fitzgerald suffered a heart attack at Graham’s apartment and died on December 21, 1940. She was the only other women Fitzgerald had ever been with. At this time Fitzgerald had completed less than half of The Last Tycoon. It was later published on October 1941. Fitzgerald was buried at Rockville Union Cemetery in Rockville, Maryland. This poem written by Fitzgerald was found after his death nd perhaps best describes Fitzgerald’s unsettling life.

It reads as follows: “Your books were in your desk I guess and some unfinished Chaos in your head Was dumped to nothing by the great janitress of destinies” (Bruccoli, 1984). Eight years after the death of Fitzgerald Zelda died in a fire. Fitzgerald’s life was filled with ups and downs but mostly downs. He was a struggling writer that was at the peak of his career in life before he knew how to handle success. He made a masterpiece from his struggles and problems. Fitzgerald’s life was spent trying to accomplish two things; being art of the high society and writing a book that would make him famous.

He accomplished one for the ability to do the other. It destroyed him to see his wife losing her mind for the sake of his writing, but he couldn’t stand the pain he felt when he failed. It was an obsession to improve his masterpiece, The Great Gatsby , and when could not go beyond it, he felt like a failure. Fitzgerald died trying to resurrect his name from the has beens, and put it at the top where it once was. As one of his quotes reads So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past (Grolier Encyclopedia, 1993).

Showing his failed attempts to reach back into the past made him into someone who felt he had no control upon his destiny, because it could never be as successful as his past. He did know that his work would have a permanent claim upon the American Literary World. Fitzgerald’s life mirrored his novels. His live was filled love and tragedy. He pursued his dreams, and in real life, often lived those dreams. He longed to capture his youth and its purity. He produced thousands of short stories, often times to support their frivolous lifestyles as well as to tell heir stories.

Many scholars have critiqued his work and their desire to interpret Fitzgerald’s work line the shelves of libraries. The Great Gatsby is a Great American Classic in which hundreds of thousands of copies are sold each year to high school and college students every where. Much of his work has been translated into 35 languages. It’s ironic that more of Fitzgerald’s books are sold every year than were sold during his lifetime. Sometimes it takes more than a lifetime to reach your goals and Fitzgerald found a way to accomplish his goals without living forever.

Kate Chopin: A Controversial Feminist

Kate Chopin was one of the greatest and earliest feminist writers in history, whose works have inspired some and drawn much criticism from others. Chopin, through her writings, had shown her struggle for freedom and individuality. Katherine (O’Flaherty) Chopin was born February 8, 1851 to a wealthy Irish Catholic Family in St. Louis, Missouri (“Kate Chopin” 1). Her father, Thomas O’Flaherty, was a founder of the Pacific Railroad, who unfortunately died when a train fell off a collapsed bridge on its inaugural trip in 1855.

Only a few years later, Kate’s older brother George was captured by Union soldiers during the Civil War in 1863. He then died in captivity from typhoid fever. The loss of both of Kate’s male role models created the powerful relationships she had with her mother, grandmother, and great-grandmother. Eliza Faris O’Flaherty, Kate’s mother, was a member of a French-Creole community and an active participant in that community. After her husband’s death, Eliza became more religious and closer to her daughter. Kate had also developed strong ties with her great-grandmother, who taught her how to speak French and play the piano.

Kate received most of her education in St. Louis at the St. Louis Academy of the Sacred Heart (2). Soon after her father and brother’s deaths, Kate’s great-grandmother had also passed away. Kate took the loss very badly and absorbed herself in literature. After her graduation in 1868, Kate spent the next few years living a privileged lifestyle in the St. Louis high society. She enjoyed life as an independent woman and was criticized for walking unaccompanied through the city and for her smoking habit. Kate met Oscar Chopin, a Louisiana cotton factor, in the late 1880’s.

After a yearlong engagement she finally married him on June 9, 1870. When Oscar’s cotton factoring business failed in 1879, he decided to move up north to his family’s plantations. It was there that Kate became introduced to the Creole community that became an important focus of her writing. In 1882, Oscar contracted swamp fever and died a year later from complications of the disease. He left Kate with six children. Kate had five boys and a girl: Jean, Oscar, George, Frederick, Felix, and Lelia. After Oscar’s death, Kate took her family to St. Louis and moved in with her mother.

A year later, Kate’s mother also died, causing Kate to seek comfort in a local family physician, Frederick Kolbenheyer. It was he who suggested that Kate take up writing as a way of expressing herself and her frustration with life. Kate’s writing career began when she published her first poem, “If It Might Be,” in 1889. She also published her first two short stories that same year, “Wiser Than a God,” and, “A Point at Issue. ” In 1890, Kate published her first novel, At Fault (3). The book depicted a young woman who discovered that her fianc had divorced his first wife because she was an alcoholic.

After struggling with her morals and trying to figure out what to do, she told him to marry his ex-wife because it was the right thing to do. He surprisingly accepted her suggestion and remarried his wife who then continued her alcoholic endeavors. She suffered an accident because of her drinking and the husband and the woman were finally able to continue their relationship without any interference or consequences. At Fault received mixed reviews, and was criticized for dealing too much with female alcoholism and marriage problems. Later in January of 1893, Chopin published one of her most famous short stories, “Desiree’s Baby.

This story was later included in Bayou Folk, a collection of twenty-three short stories and sketches published in 1894. The stories included in this collection depicted Louisiana life. Upon its publication, critics praised her portrayal of bayou life and its addressing of unfaithfulness and race issues (3). Chopin next produced a twenty-one short story collection called, A Night in Acadie, published in 1897. This collection showed her interest in passion, sexuality and marriage, and also her growing concern for the discrimination against women.

After A Night in Acadie’s publication, Kate was working on another collection, A Vocation and a Voice. Publishers who felt that the collection dealt too strongly with love, sex, and marriage rejected this collection. It was then that she decided to write what was to become her masterpiece, The Awakening. The Awakening was published in 1899. In The Awakening, Chopin accomplished the largest exploration of feminine consciousness (Magill 91). The Awakening, a realist novel, focused on the role of women through the eyes of Edna Pontellier, the protagonist (“Kate Chopin” 4).

While on a summer vacation without her husband, Edna met and fell in love with a younger man named Robert LeBrun. When Edna returned to her life in New Orleans at the end of the summer, she realized that she was no longer happy with her life and marriage. As the novel unfolded, Edna began to withdraw from her husband and continued to think about Robert. Thinking she had no chance with Robert, she decided to have a purely sexual affair with a man named Alycee Arobin. She still loved Robert, however, and after she returned to New Orleans a few years later, they resumed their affair.

Only hours after they declared their love for each other, Edna was called away to visit a sick friend. When she returned, Robert had left her a note that said, “goodbye, because I love you. ” Edna, devastated by Robert’s rejection and that of many other men in her life, went back to her old vacation spot, where she removed all her clothing and drowned herself. The critic’s response to The Awakening was tremendously negative; some critics said that it was pure pornography and that Kate was an immoral woman. Others attacked the theme, saying it was stale and distasteful (“Kate Chopin” 4).

Kate was even denied membership in several art clubs; any many believed this criticism caused her to give up writing altogether. Many professional criticisms were written about this book. And even today there is still some controversy over the meaning of this novel. In a criticism written by George Spangler, he questioned the suicidal conclusion of The Awakening, saying that it undermined the good portrayal of Edna Pontellier, therefore making the novel not nearly as much a masterpiece as it should have been (250). He saw Edna as a strong-willed character, who put her family aside to find sexual fulfillment elsewhere.

He saw the fact that she swam to her death as completely out of character (254). In another criticism, Kenneth Rosen focused on the ambiguity of the novel. He called the novel an American myth, defining a myth to present “simply that which is universally complex and which rarely lends itself to resolution” (198). The most important symbol of ambiguity, Rosen explained, was that of the sea. He described the sea as representing both life and death: her “awakening” and her demise. He saw the question in the novel of how an American woman’s life was related to her struggle for freedom and individuality.

In yet another criticism by Margaret Mitsutani, she pointed to signs of narcissism in the character of Edna in The Awakening (3). She, as well as many other critics, had taken the position that Edna committed suicide as an alternative to giving up her physical passion to her devotion to art. Mitsutani viewed Edna’s suicide “as much as an act of self-preservation as self-destruction” (12). She also included in her criticisms what many others have written, the fact that Chopin wrote about women’s rights and their status in the society of the time.

Lastly, in Priscilla Leder’s book, she talked about the conflict of cultures in The Awakening. Priscilla asserted that Edna’s character was an American who believed in the individual’s rights and ability to determine their own destiny while the cultures they encountered were habitual and naturally driven (97). Even though Edna was initially welcomed by her new society and attracted to the freedom of sexual expression, she ended up feeling her identity threatened by lack of individuality and the lack of opportunity for change.

Leder mentioned that what was different about Edna besides her femininity, was that her true identity was not discovered at the beginning of the story. Eventually as she awakened to her true self, she could not accept either culture and swam to her death, described by Leder as, ”submerging…in the biological reality she has rejected” (104). After a fifteen year literary career marked by success, plagued by scorn and failure, two novels and over one hundred short stories, Kate Chopin died on August 22, 1904 from a cerebral hemorrhage (“Kate Chopin” 2).

She was fifty-three at the time of her death. Kate Chopin’s stories, although controversial, are still widely read today. She was a source of inspiration for many feminist literary critics. She started the trend that many future feminist writers will follow. Her works, no matter how praised or condemned, will always be a reminder of the struggle for women’s rights and liberties. Her life can still be told by her stories and it is by those stories that she is immortalized, and a symbol of freedom for women forever.

One Of The Most Prolific Writers Of His Time

One of the most prolific writers of his time, H. G. ( Herbert George) Wells was able to do it all. He was universal, and could write from many different sides. He was one of the most versitile writers, as he could write like a novelist, as in the The History of Mr. Polly. He could also write short stories, like The Star, or The Door In The Wall. He was also considered to be a visionary and a dreamer, as shown throughout A Modern Utopia, and Men Like Gods. What Wells was most famous for was his ability to be a scientific romancer.

His novels, The Time Machine, The War of The Worlds, and The Invisible Man, were what he became most widely known for. All his writings, in the different genere’s they were written from, truly prove he was one of the most versitile writers that ever lived. The date was September 21, 1866, and the place was 47 (now renumbered 172) High Street, Bromley, Kent, a suburb of London.. His father, Joseph Wells, and his mother, Sarah, had been married in 1853 and they had four children. An elder sister, Fanny, had died at the age of 9 two years before H. G. was born.

After he was born, his family was worried that he may also die like his sister Fanny, being that he was a sort of “weakling” and struggled to not get sick most of the time. His father was a shopkeeper and a professional cricketer, and his mother served from time to time as a housekeeper at the nearby estate of Uppark. His father’s business failed and the family never made it to middle-class status, so Wells was apprenticed like his brothers to a draper, spending the years between 1880 and 1883 inWindsor and Southsea as a drapeist.

In 1883 Wells became a teacher/pupil at Midhurst Grammar Scool. He obtained a scholarship to the Normal School of Science in London and studied there biology under T. H. Huxley. However, his interest faltered and in 1887 he left without a degree. He taught in private schools for four years, not taking his B. S. degree until 1890. Next year he settled in London, married his cousin Isabel and continued his career as a teacher in a correspondence college. From 1893 Wells became a full-time writer.

After some years Wells left Isabel for one of his brightest students, Amy Catherine, whom he married in 1895. Wells began to write fantasy fiction because he wanted to make money, and to get on with his writing career. He decided to write in this genere because he thought, and was right, that there was a large amount of people looking for spine chilling stories and the unexplained. Also, Wells knew of some of the early tales of the unexplained and far fetched: Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, and The Last Man, and also works of Edgar Allan Poe, all which he enjoyed profousely.

Wells made his debut with The Time Machine, where the Time Traveler lands in the year 802701 and finds two people: the Eloi, weak and little, happy during the day, scared at night, who li….. ve above ground, and the Morlocks, apelike and carnivorous creatures that live below ground. Much of the realism of the story was achieved by carefully studied technical details. The Time Machine was a great success, and is the first of hundred’s of writings Well’s produced. The Island Of Doctor Moreau (1896) is the most horrifying of Wells’s fantasies and one of the best written.

The doctor is seeking to make animals half human by means of vivisectional surgery, the transplatation of organs, and the pain involved is very vividly described. Doctor Moreau suceede’s in making some of his man-animals talk and even read, but they tend to revert to the beast, so Moreau continues to try to get all the animal out, and make a creature of his own. Moreau is then killed by his creatures, which continue to come to their demise, and finally all die off. When the H. M. S. Scorpion visits the island, there is nothing alive there except for a few “white moths, some hogs and rabbits and some rather peculiar rats.

In the same year as his gorey fantasy The Island Of Doctor Moreau, he also published the light and cheerful novel The Wheels of Chance: A holiday Adventure. The Wheels Of Chance: A Holiday Adventure tells about a draper’s assistant (Wells was a drapers apprentice when he was younger, which is why it is believed he used a draper’s assistant as the occupation of the man) who sets off on a cycling holiday and comes to the rescue of a maiden in distress. This book wasn’t nearly as much as a success as The Island Of Doctor Moreau, but it shows the flexibility contained in his writings and thoughts.

The year after H. G. Wells wrote The Wheels of Chance, he returned to the fantastic and unrealistic genre with The Invisible Man. It is about a man with a bandaged face, who wears dark blue glasses and has a false nose. The man becomes frusturated and starts a life of crime and violence. He then gets into an ordeal with the police, and runs away from the town, and that is the end. Wells’s next novel, The War Of The Worlds, which appeared in 1898, is probably his most famous work. It is about Martians, arriving from their planet in ten cylinders at twenty-four-hour intervals, and they devastate the whole country, especially London.

The Martians in his novel look like brain, floating in a brown liquid with nerves, that instead of eating, suck blood from other creatures. They use spiderlike engines to fight, and have the weapons to completely smother cities. The rest of the story tells about how the humans were powerless against the Martians, and how the Martians are able to take over whatever they want. In 1901 Wells wrote The First Men On The Moon. This was nothing like The War Of The Worlds, even though they both dealt with space.

East of Eden John Steinbeck

John Steinbeck was born in Californias Salinas Valley in 1902. He grew up there, about 25 miles from the Pacific coast and this was the setting for many of his books. Steinbeck went to Stanford University in San Francisco in 1919 to study literature. He left, however, in 1925 without a degree. After college he moved to New York where he worked as a journalists. His works include Cup of Gold (1929), The Pastures of Heaven (1932), To God Unknown (1933), The Long Valley (1938), The Tortilla Flat (1935), Of Mice and Men (1937), The Grapes of Wrath (1939), and The Forgotten Village (1941).

In East of Eden, Steinbeck revolves round the theme of good and evil many times calling upon the Biblical story of Cain and Abel. Another book that dealt with a similar theme was Wuthering Heights where Heathcliff is much like Cathy in their ideas of revenge and hatred. Summary The book begins by describing Samuel and his family living in Salinas Valley. Samuel was a very creative man who invented many things. Even though any one of his inventions could have carried him to fortune, he remained a poor farmer because the fact was that even though he was a creative inventor, he was a bad business man.

Sam was known around his area to be wise and people came to im for advice. He had a wife and nine kids. After describing Samuel and his family, Steinbeck jumps to a family living on a farm in Connecticut. The father of the family, Cyrus Trask, was an army veteran. His wife died after his first child whom he named Adam. Cyrus married again and had another son, one year younger than Adam, named Charles. The boys grew up close to each other. On one of Cyrus birthdays, Adam gave his father a stray puppy while Charles gave him an expensive Swiss knife.

Cyrus never used the knife but was always played with the dog. Charles grew very bitter at Adam for this. Adam, at eighteen, was sent into the calvary by his father. 10 years later, Cyrus had died and Adam returned home to live with Charles. After discussing the Trask family, Steinbeck jumps again and moves to the Ames family. The Ames had one daughter who was very beautiful named Cathy. Through her beauty, she learned to manipulate people. Cathy made an elaborate plan to kill her parents and does so one day by locking them in the house while burning to down.

The townspeople believe Cathy to be death also. After burning her parents, Cathy left to work as a prostitute for Mr. Edwards. Mr. Edwards fell in ove with her but eventually found out about her past. He took Cathy to her old town to play a little psychological warfare, same as she had done to him. At Cathys old town he beat her nearly to death but left her on the ground bleeding. Cathy crawled to the Trask house. The police question her about her beating but she claimed remember nothing. Adam fell in love with her and married her, not knowing she was pregnant with Charles child.

Adam and Cathy move to Salinas Valley where they bought a large farm and got a Chinese housekeeper named Lee.. Adam needed to build a well for his farm and was introduced by some of he residents to Samuel Ames. Later, when Cathy was in labor, Samuel was sent for to deliver the baby which turned out to be fraternal twins, both boys. Soon after Cathy was well, she pulled a gun on Adam and shot him in the shoulder. She left to work in a whore house owned by a lady named Fay. After Adam was found wounded by Lee, the police questioned him but he said that he accidentally shot himself.

The police didnt believe him because he was in the Calvary for ten years. Eventually, they figured out through some help by Samuel and other neighbors that it was Cathy who tried to kill him. They found Cathy working n Fays whore house but decide not to tell Adam, who eventually found out anyway. Adam grew very depressed after Cathy left him. He neglected his children who was cared for by Lee. Samuel found out that the children were one year old and still not named so he went to visit Adam to knock some sense into him. At Adams house, Samuel, Lee and Adam begin talking about names and people in the Bible.

They start talking about the Story of Cain and Abel. Adam named his kids Caleb and Aaron. Caleb (who is known as Cal) and Aaron (who changed his name to Aron) grew up taught by Adam that their mother was dead. Cathy, after she went to the whore ouse, changed her name to Kate. Kate killed Fay buy giving her poisoned tea. Fay thought she died through food poisoning and willed everything to Kate. Kate then owned the whore house. Adam and his family (including Lee) moved to an apartment in the city. Adam fell in love with a girl named Abra and became very involved with the church.

Cal found out that his mother was alive and the owner of the whore house and visited her to see if it was true. Adam bought an ice company and lost much of his money in a venture to send cabbage from California to New York. Aron skipped a grade of high school and went to Stanford one year arly. Adam was so proud of him that he bought him a pocket watch. Cal felt sorry for his father who lost his money in the cabbage venture and decided to make it up to him by making money in the bean industry and giving the profit to his father. One thanksgiving, when Aron was visiting from Stanford, Cal presented his gift of $15,000 to his father.

Adam grew upset and rejected the money saying that the pride that Aron gave his was better than the money. Cal wept and took the money to his room where he burned it. Cal was bitter at Aron and decided to get revenge on him by taking Aron to see his mother. Aron was so shocked when he saw his mother working as a prostitute he joined the army telling his family later in a letter. Aron died in the military and Cal felt that he was guilty of murdering him. Adam was so distraught by Arons death that he went into shock and died. But just before he died, Cal asked for his forgiveness.

Adam only mutters “Timshel. ” Plot The plot was excellent. Everything in the story ran out from the nature of the characters. Nothing was too derived but ran smoothly from even to event. For example, Cathy evil nature brought her to killing her parents, attempting to make Mr.. Edwards go mad, attempting to kill Adam, and killing Fay. Adams gullible/innocent nature made him fall in love with the evil Cathy, and kept him from telling the police that it was Cathy that tried to kill him. Arons innocent/holy nature sent him into shock when he found out that his own mother was a prostitute.

There was a lot of conflict and tension, enough to keep me reading. The events are believable in that time period but could also be something that would happen today in Downtown LA. Also, it was very interesting to follow the references of Cain and Abel throughout the story. For example, Adams accepted ift of the puppy and Charles rejected gift of the knife, just like Abels accepted gift and Cains rejected one. The Charles beat his brother like Cain killed his (note the A in Abel and in Adam, and also the C in Charles and in Cain). The same thing happens in the following generation with Arons accepted gift and Cals rejected one.

Then Cal kills Aron (note again the A and the C). The ending was pretty good but I felt that Steinbeck took a shortcut by not really resolving anything but killing most of the main characters. However, his ending with Timshel got me wondering about our own sin and our own evil nature. Also, Cals nature was an interesting point for discussion on the nature or nurture question. Was Cal manipulative because of genes from Cathy? or was he manipulative by growing up jealous of Aron? Characters Steinbecks characters were all fully developed and could have made for an interesting story by themselves.

I felt that I really knew the Trask household including Adam, his kids, Cathy and Lee. I grew opinions of the characters and I saw myself in Lees place. Cathy was a freaky person. She had no conscious and was just a cold blooded killer. I cringed and her every description. Adam was a fool. He was too gullible falling in love with Cathy when everyone else saw that there was something wrong with her. I liked Samuel (more than cause hes me). He was a very nice person and went to help his neighbors. Like Lee said, he sees what is and not what he expects. Lee was another great character.

I thought it was interesting that he spoke like a Chinese immigrant when actually he was born in America and even went to college here. The way he took care of the kids went Adam was depressed was very honest and the way he searched after the true meaning of the story of Cain and Abel was amazing. All of Steinbecks characters brought strong emotions from me. Adam Trask: Son of Cyrus Trask and brother of Charles. He was an army veteran and married Cathy Ames who nearly killed him. Aron Trask: Son of Adam Trask. He was very devoted to the church and had a holiness around him.

Still, he lived in a fantasy world believing everything to be holy, even his mother. His fantasy world was shattered at his discovery of his mother in the whore house. Cal Trask: Son of Adam Trask and brother of Aron Trask. Cal had some of the manipulative nature of his mother but unlike her, he felt guilty went he hurt people, so much o that he asked his father for forgiveness from indirectly killing his brother. Cathy Ames: Freak. Killed both her parents, killed her close friend Fay, attempted to kill Adam her husband, and attempted to kill Mr..

Edwards. He had no sense of good. She had no conscience or guilt… until the end when he went to church just to see her son whom she abandoned many years ago. Samuel Hamilton: All around nice guy. He was the father of nine kids and had a creative mind. He knocked Adam out of his self-pity after Cathy left him. Lee: Adams Chinese housekeeper. This guy brought about most of the humor in the book from the way people treated him. People called him “Chink” or “Ching Chong” and talked to him as if he didn’t speak English when in fact he was fluent in it.

He raised Adams kids practically by himself for the first year. Setting The setting was very realistic. Probably because Steinbeck actually grew up in Salinas valley where much of this book takes place. But like I said before, the setting wasnt very important because much of the things that happened could have happened today in LA. Style I enjoyed Steinbecks style. Difficult words rarely came out and his sentences were always too the point. They were never too long or flowery which made for fast reading. Also, Steinbeck did a good job of bringing out the inner qualities of his characters.

His use of Timshel wasnt very clear but did cause a lot of thought. Theme Steinbecks theme was the most basic, rudimentary theme of all. A theme that was talked about since creation. Good and evil. His use of Cain and Abel and the word Timshel brought about ideas of sin. Cathy in this book could be seen as soaked with evil. No good. But good did seem to penetrate through her cold heart near the end of the book. Is man responsible for his actions or not? This was a question Lee pondered and pondered. He fought for the answer which was Timshel.

The correct translation was not thou must which is a command from God, or thou shalt which would imply that you didnt have to worry about sin, you would eventually conquer it, but it was thou mayest. You are responsible for your action. If you want to be good you can and if you want to be evil you can. Conclusion This small group of characters was a microcosm of the real world. There discussion of Cain and Abel was part of a much larger question, a yearning for the truth. It was a discussion of Heaven and Hell, right and wrong, truth and lie. This group of people represented good, the bad, and the gullible.

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Ralph Waldo Emerson certainly took his place in the history of American Literature. He lived in a time when romanticism was becoming a way of thinking and beginning to bloom in America, the time period known as The Romantic Age. Romantic thinking stressed on human imagination and emotion rather than on basic facts and reason. Ralph Waldo Emerson not only provided plenty of that, but he also nourished it and inspired many other writers of that time. “His influence can be found in the works of Henry David Thoreau, Herman Melville, Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson, Henry James, and Robert Frost.

No doubt, Ralph Waldo Emerson was an astute and intellectual man who influenced American Literature and has rightly received the credit that he deserves from historians. He has been depicted as a leading figure in American thought and literature, or at least ranks up there with the very best. There is so much more to Ralph Waldo Emerson when we consider the personal hardships that he had to endure during the course of his life and when we see the type of man that he becomes. He certainly was a man of inspiration who knew how to express himself by writing the best of poems and philosophical ideas with inspiration.

To get an idea of how Ralph Waldo Emerson might have become such an inspiration to the people, some background on his life is essential. Can you imagine living a life with all your loved ones passing away one by one? A persons life could collapse into severe depression, it could lose all hope and meaning. They could build a morbid outlook on life. Ralph Waldo Emerson suffered these things. He was born on May 25, 1803 and entered into a new world, a new nation just beginning. Just about eight years later, his father would no longer be with him, as William Emerson died in 1811.

The Emerson family was left to a life marked by poverty. Ralph’s mother, Ruth, was left as a widow having to take care of five sons. However, Ralph’s life seemed to carry on smoothly. He would end up attending Harvard College and pursue a job of teaching full time. While teaching as a junior pastor of Boston’s Second Church, his life gained more meaning when he married Ellen Louisa Tucker. Journal entries and love letters he wrote at that time expressed lots of feelings and emotions that he had. But after two short years of marriage, Ellen died of tuberculosis.

Suddenly, the one true person he had in his life was gone. Life was losing it’s meaning, and Ralph Waldo Emerson was in need of some answers. This dark period drove him to question his beliefs. Emerson resigned from the Second Church and quit his profession as a pastor in search for vital truth and hope. But his father and wife were not the only deaths that he had to deal with. His strength and endurance would be put to the test much further with a perennial line of loved ones dying. His brother Edward, died in 1834, Charles in 1836, and his son Waldo (from his second wife Lydia Jackson) in 1842.

After such a traumatic life, you might expect that Emerson, like any other person, would collapse into severe depression, and lose meaning to his life. But Emerson was different. He found the answers within himself and rebounded into a mature man. After surviving a mentally hard life, Ralph Waldo Emerson seemed to gain more discernment toward life. Wisdom is gained through experience. By 1835, Emerson’s rare and extravagant spirit was ready to be unleashed. All his deep feelings, emotions, and thoughts fabricated truth the way he arrived at truth, within himself.

To believe your own thought, to believe that what is true for you in your private heart is true for all men- that is genius. Speak your latent conviction and it shall be the universal sense; for always the inmost becomes the outmost-and our first thought is rendered back to us by the trumpets of the last judgment. ” Emerson fully believed this and supported it by taking part in a new philosophical movement called Transcendentalism. In 1836, his first boot, Nature, was published. Nature expressed the main points of Transcendentalism.

With this, Ralph Waldo Emerson started the Transcendental Club the same year. This club published a magazine called “The Dial”, fully promulgating philosophy, literature, and Emerson’s truth fearlessly. He was starting to gain recognition. The young were opening their minds, and the old were impressed. Harvard was so impressed of him that they asked him to give several addresses. In 1837, he gave a well-known address called “The American Scholar” in which he outlined his philosophy of humanism. A year later, he gave another address, called “The Divinity School Address.

This argued about Christianity at that time for being too traditional and ritualistic in its ways. These methods didn’t fill the people’s spiritual need. Emerson showed his liking under a new religion founded by nature. Truly, by the crowds that he drew, Emerson refreshed the minds, of people who were thirsting for some truth. And who better to provide this than Emerson himself, who, through many distresses, searched within himself and became a man with life again. This man, of inspiration, full of truth, goodness, and beauty became a part of classic American literature.

His expressions were absorbed into some of the most exceptional essays, poems, and philosophical ideas ever created. His famous essays are “History,” “Art,” “The Poet,” and the famous “Self-Reliance. ” He gathered his essays into two volumes. The first was released in 1841, and the second was released in 1844. Poems however, also made Emerson’s reputation as an erudite man. His poems were enjoyable as well as thought provoking to many. “Each and All,” was a poem that supported his beliefs. “The Rhodora,” as well as “The Humble Bee,” and “The Snow Storm,” touched on the greatness of nature.

Emerson also expressed himself through poems such as “Uriel,” “The Problem,” “The Sphinx,” and the well-known “Days. ” Many of these works of Emerson have taken their place in the history of American literature. In Emerson’s poem “Days” the line “marching single in an endless file. ” Emerson is giving personification to Days, the same with the line “And the Day turned and departed silently. ” At the end of the poem in the lines “I, too late under her solemn fillet saw the scorn. ” Emerson means that he is sorry for letting so many Days slip away.

In Emerson’s poem “Give All to Love” Emerson tells people to follow love in the line “Follow it utterly” Emerson implies that love is a God and that it is only meant for the good. He also says that love can fix anything in the line “Leave all to love” In the end of the poem Emerson says that when a love goes away a new and true love will come. In Emerson’s poem “The Snow Storm” Emerson is talking about the wonder of nature, The Snow Storm. In the first line Emerson says “Announced by all the trumpets in the sky.

Emerson is referring to the rolling in of the clouds. Emerson talks about how people sit around fires and shovel snow away. In the end Emerson says that a snow storm is like an architect covering all the hills. Thus, we now see what truly a great man Emerson was. We gain a deep respect for him when we consider the hardships that he had to face, how he endured those problems, and the minds that he opened and touched by his wonderful works. In conclusion, we can truly say that Emerson is well deserving of the credit he has received from historians.

Robert Frost, the greatest American poet

Robert Frost, perhaps the greatest American poet of the twentieth century, has brought himself great recognition. Many critics have tried to find a faulty side to his writing, but they have had a difficult time because his writing “romanticizes the rural simplicity that he loved while probing into the mysteries of the universe (Estep 2). ” Three areas of criticism covered are: a speaker’s decision in choosing, a poem broken down into three sections, and Frost’s use of metaphors and style in his writing.

Born in San Francisco, but raised in New England, many of Robert Frost’s poems are representations of his experiences in the northeastern parts of America. He was unsuccessful in college never earning his degree, and for several years he supported his family by tending to a farm his grandfather bought for him. In his spare time, Frost would read and write anything and everything. Discouraged by his unsuccessful life as a poet, he packed up his bags and moved to England.

He continued writing and published his first two books of poetry, which would gain him the recognition in America he had been in search of (ExpLit 1). One of Frost’s most famous poems is “The Road Not Taken. ” This poem is about someone who comes to a fork in a path. One path is well beaten and treaded, while the other is less traveled and more difficult. Is the traveler happy with the decision he has made to take the road less traveled? Many critics think he may have had second thoughts.

Magill’s Survey of American Literature states that there are many contradictions throughout the poem, “He seems to contradict his own judgment. The poet appears to imply that the decision is based on evidence that is, or comes close to being an allusion” (Magill 64). The tone of the stanza and the title of the poem suggest that the traveler may be regretting his choice because by making a choice to do one thing you have to give up the opportunity to do another (Magill 74). “I kept the first for another day!

I shall be telling this with a sigh. ” Discovering Authors Modules agrees with other critics. “Is he truly happy with his choice? ” The traveler doesn’t ever directly say he was happy with his choice, so is he satisfied? In the poem it states, “and that has made all the difference,” but has it made all the difference in a positive way (DAM 2). “Frost also probes one of the great mysteries of life: the ability to choose and the consequences of choosing” (DAM 2). The Literary Cafe also has similar ideas on the poem.

After the traveler has chosen which path to follow, he still yearns to travel both paths, saying that he’ll “keep the first for another day. ” But, then he realizes that there is no return to the other path and that the final decision has been made. At the end of the poem the traveler sighs, but is he sighing because he is satisfied with his decision or because he may regret something about choosing the path that he did (LitCaf 1). Another famous poem by Robert Frost is “Birches. ” It is a poem about the way the branches on a birch tree bend in the winter.

Many critics think the poem is divided into three basic parts. “An Interpretation of Frost’s Birches” thinks the three parts are the scientific explanation of the appearance of the birches, Frost’s boyhood fantasy about their appearance, and his present day interpretation of their appearance. The first section is of the natural ways a branch would bend and crack because of weather. “Loaded with ice a sunny winter morning after a rain. ” The second is more of how the branches would bend because of a little boy swinging on them. “By riding them down over and over again until he took the stiffness out of them.

Then in the third section Frost expresses how the tree reaches toward heaven and brings back memories of his childhood. “And climb back branches up a snow-white trunk Toward heaven. ” Magill has also noticed the three sections but in a slightly different format, saying, “It can be separated into three almost equal parts: the observation and description of trees bent by winter storms, the recollection of techniques of birch swinging, and the grown man’s dream, energized by his awareness of claims of both “earth” and heaven” (Magill 69). Magill also notices the many comparisons in “Birches.

There is that of childhood and manhood, black and white colors of the branches, and maturity and early experience. Discovering Authors Modules wasn’t quite as direct as other sources, but they have the same idea. “The speaker in ‘Birches’ wonders whether a bent birch branch was cause by a child at play or by natural elements and metaphorically links tree-climbing with aspirations or heaven (Magill 72). This poem is broken down easily into the three sections and Frost uses a creative approach to compare the branches on a birch tree to a man remembering his boyhood experiences (Magill 74).

Frost’s poems have been criticized as a whole because they are all so similar in his style of writing. His use of imagery and metaphors along with stanza and meters is what makes his writing so unique and remarkable. His writing is able to represent things so much larger that the actual words can represent that sometimes critics dont even see the purpose. His poem “The Road Not Taken isn’t but just four stanzas long, but what it represents is enough to make someone rethink the kind of lifestyle they are leading and to take the road “less traveled by.

Lawrence Thompson, Frost’s biographer, states “No themes are more universal and attractive than those which try to offer affirmative resolutions for the conflicts dramatized in his life and his poetry. ” In Frost’s poem “Departmental” he writes of how people treat death and the dead by comparing us to something so small as ants carrying off one of their dead. This comparison shows the reader how that even if death is so common, it should still be treated with respect and dignity (Turpin and McCann 317).

Frost’s poetic technique derives from the most basic factors in literature, the factors that characterize the first great literary age of European culture, drama, and metaphor, and beyond that, it has shown remarkable results in practice (APMRF 2). ” One poem by Robert Frost, “Fire and Ice,” compares how fire and ice both have the ability to destroy the world and should therefore be treated as equals. This comparison can relate to so many everyday events it is unimaginable. Discovering Authors Modules noticed Frost’s use of metaphor in “Birches”.

The speaker metaphorically links tree-climbing with aspirations for heaven (DAM 2). “And climb black branches up a snow-white trunk Toward heaven. ” Frost is without a doubt one of the greatest poets of the twentieth century. His goal in life he once said was to write “a few poems it will be hard to get rid of” (Winnick 1). It can be said that he probably surpassed his goal. Robert Frost’s life has affected his poetry and his poetry has also affected his life and the lives of many others who have come to enjoy his fine writing.

Emily Dickinson, One Of The Most Well Known Poets Of Her Time

Emily Dickinson is one of the most well known poets of her time. Though her life was outwardly uneventful, what went on inside her house behind closed doors is unbelievable. After her father died she met Reverend Charles Wadsworth. She soon came to regard him as one of her most trusted friends, and she created in his image the “lover” whom she was never to know except in her imagination. It is also said that it was around 1812 when he was removed to San Fransico that she began her withdrawal from society. During this time she began to write many of her poems.

She wrote mainly in private, guarding all of her poems from all but a few select friends. She did not write for fame, but instead as a way of expressing her feelings. In her lifetime only six of her poems were even printed; none of which had her consent. It was not until her death of Brights Disease in May of 1862, that many of her poems were even read (Chelsea House of Library Criticism 2837). Thus proving that the analysis on Emily Dickinson’s poetry is some of the most emotionally felt works of the nineteenth century.

Miss Dickinson is often compared with other poets and writers, but “like Shakespeare, Miss Dickinson is without opinions” (Tate 86). “Her verses and technical license often seem mysterious and can confuse critics, but after all is said, it is realized that like most poets Miss Dickinson is no more mysterious than a banker. It is said that Miss Dickinson’s life was starved and unfulfilled and yet all pity is misdirected. She lived one of the richest and deepest lives ever on this continent.

It was her own conscious choice to deliberately withdraw from society into her upstairs room…” (Tate 83). She kept to “only a few select friends and the storm, wind, wild March sky, sunsets, dawns, birds, bees, and butterflies were sufficient companionship for Miss Dickinson” (Loomis 79). She dealt with a lot both physically and psychologically and in the end she still came out on the top. So as Allen Tate best said it “in her own historical setting Miss Dickinson is nevertheless remarkable and special” (82).

Thomas Higginson said that “the main quality of her poems is that of extraordinary grasp and insight, uttered with an uneven vigor, which was all her own” (78). The works and phrases she uses shows that she was unconcerned with the fact that no one else could understand her poetry, but instead, she was satisfied by using mere words in order to fit her own ear (Higginson 78). Miss Dickinson’s poetry was strictly confidential and written without the purpose of publication and merely as a way of expressing her own mind (Bloom 2838).

Art forms were totally unknown to her, and nature was always viewed not in a cosmic way but in its smallest and most intimate forms” (Whicher 87). Allen Tate describes her biggest influence to be nature itself, and though she could not deal with the problems of society, she had such an attitude toward life that she was able to see into this character of nature more deeply than any other (84). Miss Dickinson’s poetry style contains “flashes of wholly original and profound insight into nature and life” (Chelsea House of Library Criticism 2841).

At first impression her tiny lyrics appear to be no more than the jottings of a half-idiotic school-girl instead of grave musings of a full grown, fully educated woman” (Monro 81). Miss Dickinson often writes out of habit allowing her poems to not require a point of view, but instead, they require for some of the deepest understanding, which allows her style to emerge even when she has nothing to say (Tate 86-87). Some consider her works to be the most original of her time, written with an unusual amount of emotion and often referred to as “…poetry torn up by its roots with rain, dew and earth still clinging to them” (Higginson 78).

To others she was considered to be “intellectually blind, partially dead, and mostly dumb to the art of poetry” (Monro 81). It was best stated by Allen Tate when he wrote, “she can not reason at all; she can only see” (84). Although her poems were written with deep intensity, it seems that her favorite themes were thunderstorms, sunsets, and snow, and yet at the same time they were all somehow related to some angle of her house or garden (Whicher 87). There also remained a deep sense of mystery and a desire to know the why of things (Chelsea House of Library Criticism 2841).

Harold Bloom said, “her best poetry is not concerned with the causes but with the qualities of pain” (19), which allows her to deal with the feelings “that the God of her fathers, when she most wished to lean on Him, was disconcertingly not there” (Whicher 87). Throughout her poetry there runs a current of sadness with just a touch of sparkling humor (Chelsea House of Library Criticism 2845) issuing her poems “a tension between the abstraction and sensation in which the two elements may be distinguished logically but not really” (Tate 84).

Her symbol of nature was death, and her only weapon against death was her faith (Tate 84). She realizes that it is when a man’s faith runs dry that he must refresh his soul with the sanity, which lies only in nature (Whicher 87). “Miss Dickinson possessed an extremely unconventional and grotesque fancy. Blake’s mysticism and Emerson’s mannerism held a very strong influence on her style” (Chelsea House of Library Criticism 2841). She wrote for no one except herself and often about death, burial and the unknown life beyond, leaving every ground open for legitimate study (Todd 78).

Miss Dickinson lived much of her life alone and rarely even left her father’s house. “She dwelt in seclusion, socially, physically, and psychologically” (Monro 81). It wasn’t because she was an invalid, rather, “Miss Dickinson became a hermit by deliberate and conscious choice” (Tate 83). “She had tried society and found it lacking” (Todd 78). Allen Tate writes, “if it were necessary to describe her seclusion with disappointment in love there would remain the problem between what her seclusion produced and how it was viewed” (Tate 83).

Her most vivid symbol would be nature, and this is where she allows so many of her deepest feelings to run free. Nature allows Miss Dickinson to be herself and to find herself. This is her only connection to her God, and it is in nature that she finds her strengths. She believes that there is a God, but where he is, she does not know. The only thing she feels sure about is the fact that she is going to die, and when she does, her soul will live on in some way. Her seclusion is a main factor because she wishes to separate herself from the outside, creating in her a more simple heart.

She believes that once a person is alone from the world they are separated from the corruption. Miss Dickinson made this choice to deal with her own depression in this way. Miss Dickinson may have been very psychologically disturbed, but the impact she has left on our society is amazing. No other poet could compare with the deep emotion that is so carefully placed in her works. She has amazed many critics with her forms and she will continue to do so as long as people will take the time to not only read her poems in their heads but also with their minds, hearts, and souls.

American author, Langston Hughes

As a talented American author, Langston Hughes captured and integrated the realities and demands of Africa America in his work by utilizing the beauty, dignity, and heritage of blacks in America in the 1920s. Hughes was reared for a time by his grandmother in Kansas after his parents divorce. Influenced by the poetry of Paul Laurence Dunbar and Carl Sandburg, he began writing creatively while still a boy. Not only did Hughes suffer from poverty but also from restrictions that came with living in a segregated community.

While he attended an integrated school, he was not permitted to play team sports or join the Boy Scouts. Even his favorite movie theater put a sign that read No Colored Admitted. In spite of these obstacles, Hughes developed a natural sense of self-confidence and hope. His grandmother always lived as a free woman and was insistent about standing up for the right of all people to be free. Under her influence, Hughes learned to endure the hardships of prejudice without surrendering his dignity or pride. (Berry 7) My father hated Negroes, Hughes wrote, I think he hated himself, too, for being a Negro.

Hughes wanted to attend Colombia University and needed his fathers financial aid. His father refused because he wanted Hughes to study engineering. Seeing his sons determination, he finally agreed to help pay his tuition. University officials were surprised to discover Hughes was black. He was discriminated against from dormitories to the student newspaper. Angered by the racism he unexpectedly encountered, Hughes began to explore New York, which brought about the most important stage in his development as a writer. Even though his father was racist, Hughes never was.

He always sought to speak to all Americans, especially on the larger issues of social, economic, and political justice. He did not hide the fact that he lived with racism, but he talked of his strength, and the strength of many other blacks, to stand tall and believe in a better future. (Berry 12) The Harlem Renaissance was a cultural and psychological watershed. It was an era in which black people were perceived as having finally liberated themselves from a past fraught with self-doubt to an unprecedented optimism.

It gave African Americans a novel pride in all things black and a cultural confidence that stretched beyond the borders of Harlem to other black communities in the Western world. The Harlem Renaissance was a provocative response to the new era: an aesthetic response that transcends time to celebrate identity, creativity, the past, and the present. (Rummel 33) Hughes accepted his vocation to explain and illuminate the Negro condition in America. His personal credo, The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain, became the credo of a generation of African-American poets.

In it Hughes argued against surrendering racial pride to the hope of acceptance of whites. The urge among some black artists to be as little Negro and as much American as possible, wrote Hughes, was a mountain standing in the way of any true Negro art. Hughes poetry drew from traditional sources and individual voices; his experiments reflected an attempt to capture the myriad of colors known as black. He defined a black beauty in which he interpreted and recorded the lives of the common black folk. To Hughes, even when an ordinary person sang, danced, or worked; they were likely to be making beauty.

He truly believed that these people were producing art and culture all the time, almost as if they were rainbows that had to be captured before they vanished. His interest in portraying the lives of average people angered black leaders who believed that black writers should emphasize the best qualities of blacks so white leaders would obtain a favorable impression. (Chow 1) When he took a job as a seaman aboard an old ocean liner, Hughes marveled at the vitality and diversity of African tribal culture, but he also saw how the continent was exploited and poverty-stricken by the European colonial powers.

Hughes time in Africa was inspirational, resulting in several poems condemning white colonialism or celebrating black unity and beauty. His racial pride made his poetry popular among many Africans. (Berry 21) When he traveled to Paris, Hughes developed a love for jazz. His passion for jazz affected his approach to poetry. His skillful mixture of jazz influences in his work earned him a reputation as a jazz poet. Jazz to him was one of the most intrinsic expressions of Negro life in America. Publishing his poems in The Crisis and The Opportunity, Hughes became a key figure in the Harlem Renaissance. (Rummel 54-55)

The versatility of Hughes was apparent in his capacity to create every literary genre-poetry, fiction, drama, essay, and history. Through his writings, Hughes enhances our love of humanity, our vision of the just society with a spiritual transcendence, and broadens the horizons of joy and hope. His poetry served as an inspiration and a mentor for the younger black writers who came of age in the 1960s. (Poets 1) My seeking has been to explain and illuminate the Negro condition in America and obliquely that of all humankind. When Langston Hughes wrote this statement, he was explaining what he tried to do over the course of his career.

He created a body of work-poetry, fiction, journalism, essays, plays, and song lyrics-that reflected on the black experience and informed white Americans about racial issues. While condemning racism and the inequities it created for blacks and other minorities, Hughes called for co-operation among all races. He crossed color barriers to gain widespread popularity. His personal compassion, social awareness, and literary talent made him one of the dominant voices in American literature and perhaps the single most influential black poet. (Berry 5)

Edgar Allan Poe Essay

Poe, Edgar Allan, known as a poet and critic but most famous as the first master of the short-story form, especially tales of the mysterious and macabre. The literary merits of Poe’s writings have been debated since his death, but his works have remained popular and many major American and European writers have professed their artistic debt to him. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, Poe was orphaned in his early childhood and was raised by John Allan, a successful businessman of Richmond, Virginia.

Taken by the Allan family to England at the ge of six, Poe was placed in a private school. Upon returning to the United States in 1820, he continued to study in private schools. He attended the University of Virginia for a year, but in 1827 his foster father, displeased by the young man’s drinking and gambling, refused to pay his debts and forced him to work as a clerk. Poe, disliking his new duties intensely, quit the job, thus estranging Allan, and went to Boston. There his first book, Tamerlane and Other Poems (1827), was published anonymously.

Shortly afterward Poe enlisted in the U. S. Army and served a two-year term. In 1829 his second volume of verse, Al Aaraaf, was published, and he effected a reconciliation with Allan, who secured him an appointment to the U. S. Military Academy. After only a few months at the academy Poe was dismissed for neglect of duty, and his foster father disowned him permanently. Poe’s third book, Poems, appeared in 1831, and the following year he moved to Baltimore, where he lived with his aunt and her 11-year-old daughter, Virginia Clemm.

The following year his tale A MS. Found in a Bottle on a contest sponsored by the Baltimore Saturday Visitor. From 1835 to 1837 Poe was an editor of the Southern Literary Messenger. In 1836 he married his young cousin. Throughout the next decade, much of which was marred by his wife’s long illness, Poe worked as an editor for various periodicals in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and in New York City. In 1847 Virginia died and Poe himself became ill; his disastrous addiction to liquor and his alleged use of drugs, recorded by contemporaries, may have contributed to his early death.

Margaret Atwood – president of the writers Union of Canada

Canada has had Its fair share of great authors like Farley Mowat, Steven King,Stanley Burke, and many more. But one Author that stands out from the rest is a woman who is not afraid to speak her mind. A feminise by the name of Margaret Atwood who has written poems, novels, short stories, childrens books, and television scripts. Atwood was also the president of the writers Union of Canada. Most would say that Atwood is the greatest Canadian writer of all time. Margaret Atwood was born in Ottawa, Ontario, on November 18, 1939. Because her father was a forest entomologist, Atwood spent most of her childhood living in the Canadian wilderness.

During the eight months of each year that her father did insect research in the forest, the Atwood family lived in “a cabin with a wood stove and several kerosene lanterns. There were bears and wolves and moose and loons” (qtd. in “Author Profile”). Because she live in the forest eight months of the year Atwood would entertain herself with books. They became her only means for entertainment and escape. “I read them all, even when they weren’t supposed to be for children” (qtd. in “Author Profile”). One of her favorite books as a child was Grimm’s Fairy Tales, “the unexpurgated ersion the one with the red hot shoes. During this childhood of reading, Atwood also began to write. By the age of six, Atwood was writing “poems, morality plays, comic books, and an unfinished novel about an ant” (qtd. in “Author Profile”). Ten years later, Atwood decided that she only wanted to write. She wanted “to live a double life; to go places I haven’t been; to examine life on earth; to come to know people in ways, and at depths, that are otherwise impossible; to be surprised… to give back something of what [I have] received” (qtd. in “Author Profile”). Two years after this life-altering decision, Atwood entered Victoria College at the University of Toronto.

She received her bachelor’s degree from Victoria College in 1961, and then went on to receive her Master’s degree from Radcliffe College in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Atwood also received education from Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, during 1962-63 and 1965-67. In all Atwood has twelve honorary degrees from Universities and Collages across North America. In 1964 Atwood published her first piece of writing Entailed The Circle Game which she won the 1966 Governor Generals Award for. From there on she published about fifty poetry books and hundreds of poems.

One Entitled November. The sheep hangs upside down from the rope, a long fruit covered with wool and rotting. It waits for the dead wagon to harvest it. Mournful November this is the imabe you invent for me, the dead sheep came out of your head, a legacy:(O. B. of C. V,pg350) poems like this one are what Atwood would say was an experience she has had as a young women growing up in the forest those eight month of the year. Atwood written many poetry books from which she won many rewards. But her greatest accomplishments are the many novels and short stories she had written.

From the first novel that was published in 1969 entitled The Edible Woman to one of her latest books entitled Alias Grace which was published in 1996. In October of 1996, Publisher’s Weekly released a book review on the Atwood novel Alias Grace. In this article, the reviewer remarks that “Atwood has drawn a compelling portrait of what might have been” (“Alias Grace” 1). The reviewer goes on to say that Atwood “has written a typical Victorian novel, leisurely in exposition, copiously detailed and crowded with subtly drawn haracters who speak the embroidered, pietistic language of the time” (“Alias Grace” 1).

Atwood has also written many childrens books like Princess Prunella and the Purple Peanut which was also published in 1996 and when reviewed, described Atwood’s jump to children’s literature as “a break from serious fiction to cut loose with this deliciously silly romp” (“Princess Prunella” 1). Other than writing, Atwood has also had many Occupations with many prestige Collages and Universitys. For example, recently she was employed as a lecturer of English at the University of British Columbia at Vancouver.

Atwood also instructed English at Sir George Williams University in Montreal and was an assistant professor of English at York University in Toronto. Atwood was also a Writer-In-Residence at the University of Toronto and the M. F. A. Honorary Chair at the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa. She has also held the position of Berg Chair at New York University and was the Writer-In-Residence at both Macquarie University at Australia and Trinity University at San Antonio, Texas. From May, 1981 to May, 1982, Atwood was president of the Writers’ Union of Canada and from 1984-1986, she was president of International P.

E. N. in Canada (English speaking). Atwood life has been a writers dream, and a reality to her she has accomplished so much in her life that she couldnt be able to remember all the awards that she has won for her literature. Through out her life she is surrounded by and that what makes her a talented writer and what makes her a popular writer and known through out the world. In short, Atwood seems to please most critics and readers. Her way of weaving words and creating worlds fascinates her audience and leaves the reader in awe and that what makes her the greatest Canadian Author to ever live.

Ernest Hemingway, a major American novelist

Ernest Hemingway was a major American novelist and short story writer whose principal themes were violence, machismo, and the nature of what is called now ‘male bonding. ‘; His renowned style for his firmly non-intellectual fiction is characterized by understatement and terse dialogue (Riley 231). Hemingway had a life that included him running away several times. Hemingway had many jobs before becoming a novelist and short story writer. He also had many influences, from his father’s suicide to painters that influenced his writings.

Ernest Hemingway, an American novelist and short story writer, whose style is characterized by crispness, childish dialogue and emotional understatement that has made him a major novelist and short story writer (Riley 231). Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois on July, 21 1899 to his mother Grace Hall and his father Clarence Edmonds Hemingway (Rood 187). Even though he was born into a upper-middle class family, he single handedly revised the Byronic stereotype of the artist-adventurer (Lesniak 20).

Hemingway’s childhood was rarely mentioned, other then that he tried to run away from ome several times when he was still in high school (Lesniak 23). After Hemingway graduated from Oak Park High School, he went to work, in 1917, as a reporter at the Kansas City Star. In 1918 he enlisted as an ambulance driver for the Red Cross in Italy. In 1920 he starts working as a reporter and a foreign correspondent for Toronto. After being an ambulance driver in Italy in World War I, he converted to Catholicism and he often referred to himself for the rest of his life as ‘a rotten Catholic’; (Lesnaik 20).

Hemingway married four times during his life, each time to a Midwestern American girl. First he married Hadley Richardson on September 3, 1921. On May 10, 1927 he married Pauline Pfeiffer. On November 21, 1940 he married Martha Gellhorn. Finally on March 14, 1946 he married Mary Walsh. He regarded the end of a marriage as a personal defeat (Rood 187). Hemingway had many kinds of figures. He was a craftsman dedicated to the art of letters who rarely wavered in his adherence to the highest standards of artistic probity.

He also significantly influenced twentieth century writing on all levels through his pronouncements and the principles of professionalism which he introduced and lived. Hemingway was also a night-club roisterer, a slick and chromatically unreal advertisement in the rotogravures, unfairly ‘good copy’; for the gossip columnists, public brawler and braggart, and the ‘batter’d. wreck’d old man’; who appeared to Seymour Betsky and Leslie Fielder as an ‘unsure schoolboy,’; desperately uncertain and frail (Lesniak 19).

Hemingway was awarded many awards, they included the Pulitzer prize for his novel ‘The Old Man and the Sea’; in 1953, the Noble Prize in 1954 and the American Academy of Arts and Letters Award of Merit in 1954 (Rood 187). On July 2, 1961, Hemingway was found dead with self inflicted wounds at his home in Ketchum, Idaho (Rood 188). A great lose for all literature lovers and admirers. Hemingway had many kinds of writing style, from his style compared to Cezanne painting style to that of his style having short and simple sentences.

Sheldon Norman described these characteristics of Hemingway’s writing tyle: ‘first, short and simple sentence structure, with heavy use of parallelism, which convey the effect of control, terseness, and blunt honesty; second, purged diction which above all eschews the use of bookish, latinate, or abstract words and thus achieves the effect of being heard or spoken or transcribed from reality rather then appearing as a contract of the imagination; and third, skillful use of repetition and a kind of verbal counterpoint, which operate either by pairing or juxtaposing opposites, or else by running the same word or phrase through a series of shifting meanings and inflections Lesniak 192).

Ernest believed that if he could see himself clear and whole, his vision might be useful to others who also lived in his world. However, in order to project those metaphors cleanly, he had to subject the total techniques of his writings to the natural rhythms of his own personality (Rovit 165).

Hemingway loved to play with words, toy with them, make puns and savor sounds, juggle a rhyme or utter a snappy piece of slang. Words came alive for him not just on the pages of books, but also in his conversations. He tried to find new and original ways of saying things. English is the one subject that never was difficult for him (Ferrell 35). Hemingway decided that he would write one story about each thing he knew about. He was doing this all the time he was writing and it was and severe discipline he said (Lesniak 192). People compare his writing style to that of Cezanne’s painting style. A Cezanne like simplicity of scene is built up with the touches of a master and the great effects are achieved with a sublime economy.

At these moments, style and substance are of one piece, each growing from the other, and one cannot imagine that life could exist except as describe (Lesniak 193) Hemingway’s work is still too fresh and close to people to be snugly categorized in literary history, but people think that they have demonstrated a configuration of very probable shapes and designs which future Hemingway’s criticism and scholarship is likely to extend, refurbish, and correct (Rovit 163). Hemingway like to use metaphors in his writings. Typically he will use the metaphors of games, sports, bullfights, and wars to describe his views on life. Baseball, football, horseracing, hunting and fishing provided him with his consistent metaphors for expression (Lesniak 31,32).

The metaphor of violent games provided Hemingway with a structure in which he could cast his aesthetic – present again and again, his portraits of the artist, as a hunter, fisherman, matador, soldier, prizefighter, and gambler (Lesniak 32). Hemingway had many influences and things that influenced him. Some of Hemingway’s literary influences included Ring Lardner, Sherwood Anderson, Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein (Lesniak 192). But he took some of Stein’s style and used it in his writings.

He took what was a ‘colloquial – in appearance – American style,’; full of repeated words, prepositional phrases and present participles, in which he wrote his early published stories in this style (Lesniak 192). When learning about his father’s suicide, Hemingway was influenced more. While he was writing the second draft of A Farewell to Arms, he learned of his father’s suicide.

This fact would influence the interior drama of his fiction. It is pointed out after the publication of A Farewell to Arms, Hemingway’s fictional output noticeably slows down (Lesniak 70). The volume is also noticeable for its savage concern with homosexuality and castration, and it is surely remarkable that none of the stories has a love interest. (Lesniak 70). In conclusion, Hemingway was a major novelist and short story writer of his time. By having the influences, like his father’s suicide, painters and violence. His writing approaches were his ways of approaching his identity of discovering himself in the projected metaphors of his experiences (Lesniak 165).

An American Writer: William Faulkner

William Faulkner is viewed by many as America’s greatest writer of prose fiction. He was born in New Albany, Mississippi, where he lived a life filled with good times as well as bad. However, despite bad times he would become known as a poet, a short story writer, and finally one of the greatest contemporary novelists of his time. William Faulkner’s accomplishments resulted not only from his love and devotion to writing, but also from family, friends, and certain uncontrollable events. William Faulkner’s life is an astonishing accomplishment; however, it is crucial to explore his life prior to his fixated writing career (Mack 1794-1798).

In 1905, Faulkner entered the first grade at the tender age of eight, and immediately showed signs of talent. He not only drew an explicitly detailed drawing of a locomotive, but he soon became an honor-roll student. Throughout his early education, he would work conscientiously at reading, spelling, writing, and arithmetic. However, he especially enjoyed drawing. When Faulkner got promoted to the third grade, skipping the second grade, he was asked by his teacher what he wanted to be when he grew up. He replied, “I want to be a writer just like my great granddaddy”(Minter 18).

Faulkner took interest in poetry around 1910, but no one in Oxford, Mississippi, could tell him hat to do with his poems. Faulkner, who was very talkative, would always entertain Estelle Oldham by telling her vividly imaginary stories. Eventually, Faulkner grew very fond of Estelle. She became the sole inspirer and recipient of Faulkner’s earlier poems. Not long after Faulkner began seeing Estelle regularly, he met a man named Phil Stone who was dating one of Estelle’s friends, Katrina. Katrina had told Stone about Faulkner and his poetry.

So one afternoon, Stone went to Faulkner’s house to get to know him better, and during his visit he received several written verses from Faulkner’s poetry. Stone not only became a very close friend of Faulkner’s, but also a mentor to the young writer at the beginning of his career. Stone immediately gave the potential poet encouragement, advice, and models for his study of literature (Minter 29). As Faulkner grew older he began to lose interest in his schoolwork and turned his attention to athletics, such as football and baseball, which caused his grades to start to fall. Eventually, he quit both athletics and school altogether.

In 1919, his first literary work was acknowledged and published. The poem is a forty-line verse with a French title that acknowledges the influence of the French Symbolists. “From Mallarme he took the title of his first published poem; from Verlaine’s ‘Le Faune’ he took the central device of The Marble Faun”(Minter 36). “The Marble Faun brings Pastoral art and modern aestheticism into a conjunction that not only exposes the weaknesses of pastoral poetry, particularly its artificiality, but also establishes the pertinence of those weaknesses to our understanding of modern aestheticism”(Minter 36).

Faulkner enrolled at the University of Mississippi, and did not let his academic years distract him from writing more poems. The Mississippian, the student paper, published “Landing in Luck. ” The short story, nine pages in length were created directly from his direct experience in the Royal Air Force flight training in 1916. After awhile he began to get tired of school once again. He started cutting classes and finally stopped going. In the summer of 1921, Faulkner decided to take a trip to New York to receive some professional instruction from editors and critics, because Stone was busy with his academic studies.

Faulkner stayed in New York and shared an incredibly small apartment with a man named Stark Young (Minter 35-40). During Faulkner’s stay in New York, Stone became worried about him and his financial troubles. So Stone immediately went to work on behalf of his friend and became the Assistant District Attorney. “Within a few months, his restlessness had taken him back to Oxford and the most improbable job he would ever hold”(Minter 42). Stone pulled some strings and got Faulkner appointed to the job of postmaster at the university post office. Even as postmaster, Faulkner still found time to write.

When Faulkner finished the typescript for Soldier’s Pay, he it sent to a publisher who gave him two hundred dollars in advanced pay. He used the money to pay for his trip to Europe. While in Paris, Faulkner began to work on the novel Elmer. Unfortunately, it was never completed, but it still exists today in several versions. After spending some time in France Faulkner decided to return home (Minter 46-50). Upon returning to New York, he immediately began his next novel Mosquitoes, which was published a year later. In September of 1927, Faulkner finished yet another novel entitled Flags in the Dust.

Once this novel was sent to the publisher, it was cut down to 110,000 words and the title was replaced as Sartoris. Within the same month, Faulkner began The Sound and The Fury, which would later become his greatest novel (Minter 72). He completed the final edition of the novel while in New York in October 1928 (Millgate 26). “In the summer of 1929 Faulkner was married. Estelle Oldham Franklin had divorced her husband and returned to Oxford with the two children of the marriage, Malcolm and Victoria (known as Cho Cho)” (Millgate 28).

Faulkner got a job working at the university power plant. “In October 1930, about four months after Faulkner and his wife had moved into Rowanoak, As I Lay Dying was published”(Millgate 29). None of his novels where bringing in very much income, and he had a new family to think about. He had to write something that would bring some income. Sanctuary, his sixth novel, was published in 1931. This novel brought him “financial success”(Volpe 11). “Faulkner’s first major purchase was an old mansion, one of the finest in Oxford”(Volpe 11).

Faulkner settled down in Oxford, while he raised his family. He would only go to Hollywood and work on different scripts whenever he was in need of some money. “The Faulkners lost their first child soon after its birth; their second child, also a girl, they named Jill”(Volpe 12). From the early 1930’s to the early 1940’s Faulkner spent a lot of his time writing. Before the end of 1942, he published seven novels, two collections of short stories, and a book of poems (Volpe 12). Light in August and Absalom, Absalom! were written in this time period.

These two novels rank among the greatest novels in contemporary literature. Faulkner was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950 (Volpe 12). As Faulkner was coming to the end of his life, he spoke to the cadets at West Point. In his speech he read from his last novel called “The Reivers, which became, with in a few days of publication, a national best seller”(Volpe 13). Shortly there after, on July 6, 1962, the great author died of a heart attack. Faulkner was known for his realistic novels and true-to-life short stores.

From 1926 to 1962, Faulkner published nineteen novels and more than seventy- five short stories. Most of the novels and a good many of the short stories are about the people living in a fictional county in the northern regions of Mississippi called Yoknapatawpha County. The main town in the county is a small town called Jefferson (Volpe 13). “Yoknapatawpha County covers an area of 2,400 square acres and contains, according to Faulkner’s count, 6,298 whites and 9,313 Negroes”(Volpe 15). In all of Faulkner’s works about the people of this county, he actually identifies around six hundred of them by name.

Faulkner uses character and character personalities multiple times in several novels and short stories. For example, “the Negro companion of the aristocratic white boy is named Ringo in The Unvanquished and Alex Sanders in Intruder in the Dust, but their characters are almost identical”(Volpe 16-17). “Faulkner is too complex a writer to explain in terms of a single idea, much of his work can be understood by recognizing that at the center of the fiction is one crucial experience: the transition of a boy to manhood”(Volpe 17).

Faulkner often unified his stories by writing about the same families (Volpe 30). His novels and short stories are supposed to not only tell a story, but also convey messages about the society of that time period (Volpe 31-32). Faulkner’s greatness as an artist is due to a great extent to what might be called his stereoscopic vision, his ability to deal with the specific and the universal simultaneously, to make the real symbolic without sacrificing reality. He is unquestionably the greatest of the American regional writers.

His fiction is as Southern as bourbon whiskey (Volpe 28). Faulkner used the people of Yoknapatawpha County to play roles in several of his writings. His southern upbringing also played a major role in his work. Faulkner’s short story “Barn Burning” is a sad story because it very clearly shows the classical struggle between the privileged and the underprivileged classes in the southern culture. Time after time emotions of despair resurface from the characters in the story. The main characters have a poor economic status, and very little hope of improving their condition.

Being a sharecropper, Ab Snopes and his family have to share half or two-thirds of the harvest with the landowner, and also out of their share they have to pay for the necessities of life. As a result of this status, Ab and his family know from the start what the future will hold. They will continue to work hard for the landlord, while barely surviving themselves. There is no hope for advancement throughout the story. Sarty, his brother and the twin sisters have no access to education, and they must spend their time working in the fields or at home performing family duties.

The Snopes family manages to survive and find work. However, the work offers little benefit other than the chance for survival. They are always moving from place to place due to seasons and crop rotation. In order to secure work, they have to reserve land with different landowners. Ab’s emotional instability is a predominant factor that contributes to his weird behavior throughout the story (Mack 1798-1812) The family has moved a dozen times from farm to farm, and at times they are forced to leave their agreement with the landlord due to Ab’s unacceptable behavior.

His irrational behavior is transformed into a rebellion. Ab smears the landowner’s carpet with horse manure and then sues the landowner for charging him too much for the damage. These acts symbolize frustration with the system and a radical approach to rebel against it. Knowing that punishment could not be avoided when committing such acts, Ab’s actions take on a more dramatic meaning. It is as if he is trying to convey a message. He is aware of the economic injustice and he feels must respond. He chooses to respond even at the risk of him and his family being prosecuted.

Ab’s constant rebellion is displayed by a rough, sour character and is brought out when he burns down his landlord’s barn. He feels despair and loss, and inflicts damage to whomever he happens to be working for at the time. Although the story centers on the feelings and thoughts of Ab’s youngest son Sarty, the economic situation of Sarty’s entire family plays a vital role in justifying his father’s behavior (Mack 1798-1812) Sarty’s main problem is his loyalty to his family. This directly collides with his disappointment and suppressed dislike of his own father.

He tends to hide his feelings by denying the facts. The story’s emotional turns are clearly defined by Sarty’s thoughts and Ab’s actions. Sarty’s dilemma and Ab’s frustrations continually grab the reader, serving up a series of emotions. Given the circumstances of the story, is Ab’s barn burning justified? Should Sarty tell the landlord that Ab was responsible for burning down the barn? Burning a barn or any other act of vandalism is definitely not condoned (Mack 1798-1812). Faulkner’s use of the townspeople in Yoknapatawpha County is also emphasized in A Rose for Emily.

This is another short story of Faulkner’s in which the death of Miss Emily brings together the entire population of Jefferson. Jefferson is the main town in Faulkner’s fictional county. Faulkner uses a great deal of symbolism in this story. Miss Emily was raised in the period before the Civil War in the south. An unnamed narrator, who seems to be the voice of the whole town, calls attention to key moments in her life, including the death of her father and her brief relationship with a man from the north named Homer Barron. The story basically addresses the symbolic changes in the south after the Civil War.

Miss Emily’s house symbolizes neglect in the new times in the town of Jefferson. Beginning with Miss Emily Grierson’s funeral, throughout the story Faulkner foreshadows the ending and suspenseful events in Miss Emily’s life. The continuing symbolism and Faulkner’s descriptions of the decaying house coincide with Miss Emily’s physical and emotional decay. As an example, the house is in an area of town that was once a prominent neighborhood that has now deteriorated. Originally the house was a big white house with large balconies, and the yard was decorated with beautiful flowers.

But now the people of the town think that the house has become an embarrassment to the town. This happened through a lack of attention. The house has deteriorated from a beautiful estate to an ugly shack. Similarly, Miss Emily has also become an eyesore in various ways. She is described as a “fallen monument” to suggest her former beauty and her later ugliness (Faulkner 119-130). Her lover for a brief time, Homer, described himself as a man who cannot be tied down and is always on the move. This leaves Miss Emily in a terrible position.

As the story comes to a close, Emily seems to prove Homer wrong. Miss Emily poisons poor old Homer. After killing him she puts him in one of the upstairs bedrooms. When Miss Emily dies the townspeople, who were anxious to see what was in miss Emily’s house found a real nice surprise when they went snooping around in her house. They found the dead body of poor Homer lying on the bed in one of the bedrooms. The town ladies continue to show sympathy towards Emily, although she never hears of it verbally. She is well aware of the distant whispers that begin when her presence is near.

Some of the major contributing factors to Emily’s behavior are gossip and whisper. These may have been the causes for her behavior. The theme of Faulkner’s story is simple. Miss Emily cannot accept the fact that times are changing and society is growing and changing with the times. As times change, she isolates herself from the rest of the town, using her butler to run her errands so she does not have to talk much. The setting of the story is very important because it defines Miss Emily’s tight grasp on the old southern ways and unchanging behavior.

Just as the house seems to reject progress and updating, so does Miss Emily, until both of them become decaying symbols of their dying generation. Through descriptions of the house and the resemblance of the descriptions of Miss Emily, “A Rose for Emily” emphasizes that beauty and elegance can become distorted through negligence and a lack of love and affection. As the house deteriorates for forty years until it becomes ugly and unappealing, Miss Emily’s physical appearance and emotional well-being decays in the same way (Faulkner 119-130).

The southern culture in all of Faulkner’s works bring out a comedic aspect in the stories, and the continuous usage of the same characters in various stories allows for Faulkner to enter twine his stories to where they are all dealing with the people of Yoknapatawpha County in the northern regions of Mississippi. “In Faulkner’s world men and women are measured by the breadth of their compassion or the quality of their endurance. Although there are villains, few wholly negative characters appear, and the Heroes tend to be larger than life” (Mack 1796).

Ernest Hemmingway, A Masculine Writer Of Immense Emotion

Ernest Hemmingway is a masculine writer of immense emotion. He writes off of his life experiences and his feelings towards different subjects. Ernest Hemingway’s themes are virile on the surface, but when analyzed, one will find them to be romantic and sentimental. As one will find through the reading of Hemingway’s works he is a very masculine writer. Says one critic: “Hemingway fans have long made reference to the “Hemingway Hero’s”, or the “macho men” which seem to dominate most of the author’s semi-autobiographical works”(essortment1).

Brian Dennis writes: “Hemingway’s themes show part of his life. He was a man who delights in fishing, in hunting, in horseplay, and was a man filled with what used to be called animal spirits”(dennis02). Michael Reynolds states: “From 1921 to 1938 it has been the same story, love and pity and pride and loneliness concealed in a brief reportage of cruel facts”(reynolds369). Another expert explained that: “The glorification of the dangerous life of hunting and fishing is keeping Hemingway from deserving people, from writing about the life of his times”(jackson72).

As for Hemingway himself he calls himself a man’s man. Michael Reynolds stated that: “The method is to effete for Mr. Hemingway, who cannot develop themes for his work without first sailing for Cape Town of chartering a fishing smack or hiring a guide to the caribou country. Hemingway stated: “Writers should work alone. They should see each other only when their work is done, and not too often then. Otherwise they become like writers in New York. All angleworms in a bottle, trying to derive knowledge and nourishment from their own contact and from the bottle”(reynolds371).

In the face of so much advise, Hemingway continued to write only about what he knows, only as he sees it, only when he wants to, that is a quality that Hemingway posses that few other writers have”(waldhorn03). “The source of his material and spring to his imagination was his own life. Issues of intellect, history, myth, and society were beside the point. It is what his eyes say and heart felt that he cured into fiction”(fenton91). Says Charles Fenton about Hemingway.

To examine the extent of the masculinity of Hemingway’s themes, one must first get to know what some critics say about the themes of some of his stories. Speaking of “The Sun Also Rises” editors of a website dedicated to this book explained: “No amount of analysis can convey the quality of “The Sun Also Rises”. It is truly a gripping story, told in a lean hard athletic narrative. Mr. Hemingway shows uncanny skill at implementing his own masculine beliefs and values into a theme of immense emotion”(essortment2).

Seeing through the masculinity in the story Justin Day writes: “Mr. Hemingway has such a hold on his values that he makes an absorbing, beautifully and tenderly absurd, heartbreaking narrative of it, when on the surface, it seems as if it is going to be one of his infamous “Man Stories”(day3). Speaking of “A Farewell to Arms” which is a highly reviewed Hemingway story, Arthur Waldhorn writes that: “The chief result is of enamel luster imparted to the story as a whole, not precisely and iridescence, but a white light, rather, that pales and flashes, but never warms.

Which is Hemingway’s way of thinking, it is apparent that he has soft spots in his work and in his thoughts, but he refuses to let them show”(Waldhorn2). Reviewing the same story Jeff Marx states that “a Victorian telling the story of Henry and Catherine would have waxed sentimental; he would have sought the tears of his reader. And he would surely himself shed tears as he wrote”(jackson73). Many believe that Hemingway wrote about fictional characters that had the life that Ernest Hemingway himself tried to lead.

Brian Dennis speaking of the story “To Have and Have Not” states: “Henry was a big bruiser of a man, hard as they come, happily married by reason of a strong physical attachment, and was the father of two girls”(dennis14). As stated before many critics believe that Hemingway’s themes are sentimental and somewhat romantic. For example Michael Reynolds writes: “Hemingway has tremendous personality. It is not the usual kind of personality in literature, not D. H.

Lawrence’s or Chekhov’s, or Max Beerbohm’s; it isn’t inflammatory or pervasive or repellant; indeed it is a personality in retreat, almost in hiding; an implied personality just as Hemingway’s sense of values is an implied sense of values(reynolds373). Hemingway seems to be a romantic man with a masculine way of thinking. One feels that he learns about people by listening to them, not by talking to them. In the end he probably learns more that way(jackson73).

But he remains in a subtle sense, a stranger among his themes and characters”(fenton76). Alfred Aronowitz does not think that it is very difficult to find that Hemingway’s themes are romantic. He states “Everybody, more or less, knows that at the bottom Hemingway is a romantic and a sentimentalist, it is not a new discovery yet it remains an interesting one to discuss” (aronowitz41). “It has given him the physical sensations of direct action, rude contact, swift pace.

It has given him something to be downright, and if necessary, harsh about without exposing himself as inhumane; it has given him somebody else’s code to interpret so that he need not formulate (which is a much harder job) a code of his own; it has given him, perhaps, the right to despise. Which in turn, provides us with a false understanding of Mr. Hemingway” (aronowitz41). Alfred Aronowitz continued on to say. Hemingway’s themes explain his lifestyle, or the lifestyle that he made apparent to the public eye.

No writer can go on and on writing about the same things when they are merely things that he observed, overheard, or impaled with his intelligence quite like Hemingway”(jackson74). Says Jeff Marx. It is said that the themes that Ernest Hemingway had in his stories were things that just popped in his mind through a day of being alone or a day of hunting (fenton82). One can then come to the conclusion that Hemingway was a dreamer and not too much in tune with the reality that was his life, as such the themes in his stories proved this (fenton83).

Alfred Aronowitz believed that Ernest Hemingway’s way of thinking provided themes for Hemingway’s stories. “Hemingway seemed to always have a contrasting theme in his stories. When Hemingway was at a down time in life, he would write about a hero, also when Hemingway was seemingly on cloud nine, he would write about murder”(Aronowitz43). After over 50 years of analysis, there are still thousands of opinions and hypothesis on why Hemingway wrote about what he did. But there are a few things that are agreed upon.

Ernest Hemmingway was came off as a man’s man (reynolds371). It is a fact that most of his stories consisted of predominantly masculine themes. Whether it is a world war hero or an everyday macho man, Hemmingway seems to have always been a writer that reached out to a male audience (fenton89). Through research one will also find Hemingway’s themes to be somewhat romantic and sentimental (aronowitz41). All of these facts concerning Hemingway go for not if one does not get the writer to know for oneself. He is truly a brilliant and thoughtful writer (fenton88).

Nathaniel Hawthorne, One Of The Most Substantial Writers Of His Time

Nathaniel Hawthorne is considered to be one of the most substantial writers of his time. His most famous novel, The Scarlet Letter truly originated Hawthorn’s version of romantic writing. It was this novel that also originated Hawthorne’s fame. Most of his works deal with or have some relation to Puritan times. The reason for the familiarity in his works is due to the fact that it seems to be influenced by his own Puritan ancestry. It was not until late in Hawthorne’s life that he received recognition.

To do this Hawthorne had to change his name and found his own stlye of writing that pertained to his life experiances. His romantic style might have been too modern for the times, but eventually he was understood. Hawthorne was known for his ability to create such a compelling story in just a few pages. Within these few pages, flows an elaborate and complex story. These stories flow so steadily and with such complexity that Hawthorne seems to create his own romantic style. He does this by incooperateing many different situations that keep the reader intuned to the story.

In many of his short stories there seems to be a character that is infatuated with a person or an object. The reason for Hawthorne creating stories like this could stem from his own experience with infactuation. Hawthorne was a very lonley person. He lived by himself for a long time until he married later in life. In the story, the main characters usually seem to spend a lot of time with or thinking about the objects of their infatuation. In these stories, the character goes through a series of psychological issues dealing with his infatuation.

An example of the psychological issues pertaining to infatuation is portrayed in Rappaccini’s Daughter. This work deals with a young man named Giovanni who is so blind by love that he becomes susceptible to deception. He is instantly mystified and enchanted by the beauty of Beatrice. She was a girl from the Italian village called Padua. Her father had once been a professor at the University of Padua, where Giovanni attended. Giovanni meets a professor named Baglioni who is very jealous of Rappaccini.

Giovanni is so love stricken that he is tricked by Baglioni and, poisons his love Beatrice. It is this style of writing that makes the stories seem romantic. The intensely, moral and psychological issues are the ingredients in a recipe that culminates romantic work. In another work by Hawthorne called, The Birthmark Aylmers devotion to science and his love for perfection, is a result of his downfall. His wife Georgiana was born with a large birthmark on her face. This birthmark seemed to be her only flaw but it was enough to drive Aylmer insane.

Aylmer is so in love with the idea of perfection that he winds up killing his wife. He kills her by trying to move her imperfection (the birthmark) from her face. The reason for her death is explained in a critical way. This birthmark was said to be where God had placed his hand on her. Once this birthmark was removed then God’s hand was gone and she died. Aylmer seems to be so infatuated with the idea of perfection that he does not consider the consequences of his actions. He was more concerned with the appearance of perfection in his wife then for her health.

Due to Aylmer’s actions he could be considered a person containing serious psychological issues. When doing this act he seems to be under a spell, mystified, and determined. This is also a prime example of Hawthorne’s definition of romance because it pertains to people dealing with their infactuation that in turn create tragedy. Hawthorne’s works could not be regarded as realistic because the things that are portrayed in these stories are like things seen in fairy tales. These occurrences could not actually happen in real life. He opens your mind to the pages of his works.

By creating fairy tale like stories he manages to expand your mind and make, you think about your own trials and tribulations. Often Hawthorne makes his villains very smart and witty. Although some of these work at first, seem to be based on reality when read in depth you realize that they are facetious. If these stories were regarded as reality then they would not have the same effects on the readers. A reader from Hawthorne’s time would not reflect on his work as much as a contemporary reader might. Sometimes we find that the stories that are the best are the ones that make you use your imagination.

For example, a movie called the Blair Witch Project, which contains some imagery, but majority of the scariness of the movie comes from your imagination. This is the same thing that Hawthorne accomplishes in his works. Hawthorne’s works have that ability to flow and progress with many different moral and psychological issues. He establishes an infatuation of some sort in most of his works. That stems from his actual dealings in life. His exuberantly detailed stories create a romantic style of writing that is only conducive to Nathaniel Hawthorne.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman Biography Of Writer

Charlotte Perkins Gilman was born in Hartford, Connecticut on July 3, 1860. From the day of her birth, she was a woman ahead of her time. In 1890, she wrote The Yellow Wallpaper a story about a woman who was oppressed by her husband and her illness. This, Gilman’s most famous work, was written from her own experience in life. In 1884, Charlotte Perkins married Charles Walter Stetson and had one daughter. Following the birth of her daughter, she was greatly depressed and took a therapeutic 3 month trip to California.

Dr. Silas Weir Mitchell was consulted in 1884 by Mr. Stetson to treat his wife for what was then called hysteria. Dr. Mitchell’s treatment involved complete isolation and the removal of anything that might cause “mental stimulation,” and so Charlotte spend her 3 months isolated in a room in a large country estate, estranged from her daughter and husband. Following her divorce from her husband in 1894, Charlotte Perkins Stetson became a committed social activist and feminist. Later, in 1900, she married her first cousin, George Houghton Gilman. It is believed that this was a marriage of convenience, allowing

Charlotte to concentrate on her writings by not being in a marriage that involved love and duty, but mutual respect. Charlotte Perkins Gilman wrote primarily of the suppression of women. She experienced as a child many restrictions imposed by her mother, estrangement from her father because of her parents divorce at a young age, and the disappointment with not having the freedom to grow as a person while married to Stetson. She wrote of what she knew and experienced. In The Yellow Wallpaper, the narrator is a woman who has been diagnosed with a “temporary nervous depression.

Because of her condition, she is restricted by her doctor and her husband from all types of intellectual stimulation. Just like Gilman, the narrator is sent to a large, old country estate for 3 months in the summer to rest and relax, forbidden to write. Throughout the story, she is inside a room with yellow wallpaper. Just as women must do, she had given up on staying in a sunny room downstairs when her husband had dismissed her plea with so much as consideration. She sees patterns in the paper that look like bars and behind the pattern she sees women. The front pattern does move–and no wonder!

The woman behind shakes it! Sometimes I think there are a great many women behind, and sometimes only one, and she crawls around fast, and her crawling shakes it all over. Then in the very bright spots she keeps still, and in the very shady spots she just takes hold of the bars and shakes them hard. And she is trying to climb through that pattern–it strangles so; I think that is why it has so many heads. (299) In these women, the narrator is seeing herself, but she does not yet know it. The bars are society, the women behind the bars are women like Gilman trying o break free and be strong and independent.

Society and men are keeping these women down and strangling them. In the “very bright spots,” the woman keeps still, and in the darker places she is trying hard to escape. This represents the narrator’s position by that time, when she had to be limited to the house’s duties and she was not allowed to develop herself as an equal as men did. The narrator finds her solace in her imagination, seeing people out in the garden, and wanting to write. She is writing this narrative while her husband is at work, and her sister-in-law is busy cleaning the ouse.

However, the males in the narrator’s life and in Gilman’s life try to suppress this behavior, ultimately driving the female insane instead of helping her. The males in the story as well as in Gilman’s life see removing all intellectual and emotional stimulation as a cure to the female’s illness. The narrator disliked the wallpaper so much because she, in a sense, saw herself reflected in the shape and pattern, woman struggling to get out and be free. As a result, the wallpaper’s images and silhouettes are a “mind’s game” of the narrator interior feelings.

The time she spent alone in her room, was the perfect opportunity for her to develop her ideas and thoughts. She discovered that no one would understand her feelings if she said something. Her husband would never be able to comprehend that he was domineering and creating her condition instead of helping her. The woman in the wallpaper is a symbolism of the narrator’s battle against her feelings and her reality. “Then I peeled off all the paper I could reach standing on the floor. It sticks horribly and the pattern just enjoys it! (302) Pulling off the paper is freeing the oman inside, the woman inside of her that longs to be free and strong, and the woman in the paper.

“I’ve got out at last, in spite of you and Janey. And I’ve pulled off most of the paper, so you can’t put me back! ” (302) She is free. Charlotte Perkins Gilman beat her madness by leaving her self-destruction behind. Being a powerful woman, divorcing in a time when it was unheard of. The narrator was free, she freed herself, just as Gilman did. The Yellow Wallpaper “was not intended to drive people crazy, but to save people from being driven crazy, and it worked. ” (Gilman)

Who is Edgar Allan Poe

He was a 19th century American writer born to Elizabeth (betty) Arnold Hopkins and David Poe. (Internet source) Poe was an well-educated individual. He would attend a private school in London and then an academy in Richmond. Later being accepted to the University of Virginia, this however would not work out for him. He then would travel to Boston for work in which there would be none. Defeated he enlisted in the Army and soon regret the decision. Once out he would again try a military career, he was accepted to the U. S Military Academy.

Encyclopedia Britannica) This time he immediately regretting the decision. After his expulsion he entered a contest sponsored by the Baltimore Saturday Visitor. His story MS. Found in a Bottle was considered to be the one of the worlds first science fiction stories, he won both the $50 prize and acclaim for its 24-year-old author. (Internet source) He would then work at several different editorials, none of which really worked out for him. His dream though would be to own a magazine or paper of his own. He would come close twice but never succeed in keeping them alive due to his different habits.

What made Edgar Allen Poe? Through his lifetime many different misfortunes and disasters would strike him. All of these would shape him and his writing to what we now associate as the father of modern diabolic fiction. (Internet source) The first of the tragedies to plague him would be the abandonment by his father. He would grow never knowing who his real father was. His father had left his family when Edgar was only an infant. The next misfortune would be the death of his mother when he was three. There was yet another factor that would shape him throughout his lifetime.

He would also come how from his studies in England to find that his sweetheart from childhood was engaged. This caused him to write his first serious poem Tamerlane out of heartbreak. His luck with women throughout his lifetime would be rather in the bottom end of the barrel. He would eventually marry Virginia Clemm, his thirteen-old cousin. He would later lose her to tuberculosis and stop writing for a while, only to concentrate on Ulalume to express his mourn. He would try to remarry on two different occasions the first was ruined by rumor the second by his drinking habit.

How his habits effected his writing? Poes writing would be greatly influenced by the habits. The greatest of these that would eventually end his life would be his love for the drink. This would cost him many opportunities in life where he would waste away some of the greatest chances he had to be successful. His gambling debt of $2,000 (a small fortune in that day) and drinking would get him kicked out of the University of Virginia. He would also suffer a nervous breakdown on two different occasions. The first of which would come when he was trying to get out of the Army after enlisting.

Another great opportunity that he ruined due to drinking was getting kicked out of the U. S Military Academy. To him it was not, he drank on purpose to get court marshaled out of the academy. A little while after he would start to experiment with opium. Then his drinking struck again he was dismissed from the South Liberty Messenger for repeated womanizing and drinking problems. This would not be the last time by far that something like this would happen. His job at Grahams Magazine would end up being the same old story.

It would even cost him his dream of owning his very own newspaper. The Broadway Journal would fold four months after he had resumed drinking again. He would then try again to own his own newspaper now titled The Stylus. This adventure would end up in a nervous breakdown and even several attempts at suicide. Then eventually the inevitable occurred he killed himself one night in Baltimore after drinking to heavily. The truth, one of Americas greatest writer was dead at the age of forty. (Internet source) It seems as if the more problems an artist has the better his works are.

The pain that Poe had to suffer was probably his best creative tool. That is probably why all his poems and stories are so dark and dreary. He really had two main types of tales the Grotesque and the Arabesque. The Grotesque was his humorous piece and the Arabesque was his horror stories. Some would argue that at times he was slightly romantic (with a satanic sort of twist). None the less his poems, stories, and tales all fell into different varieties. He was said to be the father of all diabolic fiction and the writer of the first science fiction story.

The different categories that his writings fell into were Romanticism, Gothicism, symbolism Decadence, and Surrealism. All in all what ever it was that sparked his creativity it worked. Whatever it was from his drinking problem to his lack of a family, he was one of the most creative writers in the nineteenth century. If it was not of that fateful day in Baltimore Oct. 7, 1849 where he went out with some friends, we would not have lost one of the greatest and most remembered American writers. As it was Edgar Allen Poe died at that age of forty in Baltimore.

Henry David Thoreau And Transcendatalism

Henry David Thoreau harbored many anarchist thoughts toward the American government of the decades before the Civil War, which he collected and wrote about in the essay, Civil Disobedience, which, in fact was originally called Resistance to Civil Government, giving the essay a powerful message that would not only reflect Thoreau’s own views toward the Mexican war, but also give the essay a powerful anti-slavery message, as well as affect the whole idea of Civil Rights, as well as shape the leaders of Civil Rights. In examining the essay, Civil Disobedience, we must also immerse ourselves into the reasoning of the essay.

Henry David Thoreau lived a quiet life in a small cabin he had built in Walden. Thoreau thought paying his taxes was wrong in principal, Thoreau declares that he cannot associate with the American government, because it is a slave’s government (BECK Index). Thoreau jails himself after being asked about taxes by the Constable of Concord, Sam Staples, a friend of Thoreau. Thoreau refuses to pay the tax, and is only released after some family member pays the tax for him. Thoreau is infuriated that someone would pay his tax for him after he would not (About. com). Thoreau refuses to pay taxes due to their use in the

Mexican War. As Thoreau declares Mexican war, the work of comparatively a few individuals using the standing government as their tool. Thoreau, gives ‘civil Disobedience’ its urgency… as a result of the leadership of imperialists like President James Polk and Southern planters who were determined to add new land to their cotton culture, was making war on Mexico and would take away half its’ territory (Smith, 60). The action of the government is more like that of a monarchy to Thoreau. Witness the present Mexican war, the work of comparatively few individuals, (Thoreau, 1). Thoreau speaks by the basic

Transcendentalist though of self-reliance. Thoreau also, questions the personal morality involved in the Mexican war (Hildebidle, 69). In Civil Disobedience, we can see the stark contrasts between the attitude of the state and Toreau’s own views. Thoreau explains why slavery is a moral evil. Thoreau only disagreed with the principle behind slavery, he knew no Negroes, had never experienced the slightest social oppression, but was a radical individualist (Smith, 62). Thoreau was a staunch supporter of John Brown, and went as far as to honor his death at Harper’s Ferry. Thoreau influenced many eaders of later Civil Rights movements.

Thoreau’s essay is a noble ringing reiteration of the highest religious individualism as a self-evident social principle (Emerson, 5) The essay also had a power with great minds who were looking to break free of oppressive governments. It has been well documented that King and Gandhi were both affected by the essay in threir quest for civil equality, for Gandhi, as a young leader of the oppressed Indians in South Africa, was looking for a political strategy by which to resist a totally oppressive government. (Hildebidle, 74) Civil Disobedience gives each reader a essage about speaking out about what you believe in.

For Thoreau, the problem is simply of putting the highest possible value on the individual rather than on the state, (Salt, 174). Again, Thoreau light s the fire in the reader, to think of what is good for himself or herself. John F. Kennedy said in his inauguration speech, Ask not what you country can do for you, but what you can do for your country. This thought expresses many values a person may have towards an action, taking place. Thoreau has this to say about the government, It does not keep the country free. It does not settle the West. It does not educate.

Ernest Hemingway – one of the greatest writers of the century

Ernest Hemingway was one of the greatest writers of the century. He was born at the close of the old century but was able to see the Disorders of the new century. Hemingway was marvelous in bringing about his pictorial effects for his readers even in his drunken state. Hemingway was skilled in the way he presented the real and concrete to be the first essentials in his writing. He put life back on the page so that we could see the grim reality of the truth. Hemingways style brought minute details to the surface so that the readers would understand his meanings. In the stories that I have chosen the critics have analyzed the story.

In this paper I intend to prove that Ernest Hemingways writing in Soldiers Home and Hills Like White Elephants influenced American writing styles through Symbols, Themes and writing techniques. In several of Hemingways short stories, he uses one or more animals as symbols around which the story revolves. As central symbols, Hemingways animals are the manifestations of the psychological states and emotional desire of the main characters in the stories. He uses the symbols to enable the reader to comprehend the often not stated psychological forces that motivates them.

Hemingways use of symbolism is a contribution to the richness of his characters. It provides the reader with a vehicle through which they can associate. Without them the stories would lose much of their color and clarity. In the short story Soldiers Home, Majorie Smelstor said the title of this story suggests a familiar American landmark and symbol, The soldiers home, a place for retired military to live and relive their war experiences In this tale, however, the soldiers home is neither a haven for ex-soldiers nor an environment for reminiscing (MaGill 2170).

Another symbol is the lies that Kerb lives with every day. Marjorie Smelstor said For the townspeople do not want to hear the truth about the atrocities of battle, preferring, instead, lies about the heroics of war (MaGill 2170). Marjorie Smelstor said In the end of the story Mrs. Kerbs reasserts her maternal role, reminding her son that she held him next to her heart when he was a tiny baby, Reducing kerbs to the juvenile lie: I know, mummy Ill try and be a good boy for you (MaGill 2171). The other story that I have chosen is Hills Like White Elephants it has many different symbols that relate to peoples lives.

Hal Hollady said The name of the girl (Jig) is a symbolic name. It is a name of a lively dance. The name implies that she may change her mind about the abortion [at any time] (MaGill 1020). This story does not come out and tell you what is going on between the man and the woman. The symbols relate to what is happening. One of the important symbols is the bamboo bead curtain [that hangs] across the doorway of the station bar room (Gilmor 47 ). The curtain[according to the critics] represents the mans desire to maintain the status quo in their relationship.

The curtain represents their emotional separation as well, for they regard it differently as they do the more familiar symbol of the hills (Organ 11). Hills refer to the shape of the belly of a pregnant woman, and white elephant is an idiom that refers to useless or unwanted things (Organ 11). Making more specific symbol of the bead curtain, Elliot thinks that when jig takes hold of the two strains of beads they represent the rosary beads and her also being a catholic. When Jig plays with the beads the man thinks that she is playing with a childs toy, thus the curtain may symbolize the unborn child.

The abortion is not merely a perfectly natural or simple operation to her, it is a symbolic act. Jig thinks this will cut her off irrevocably from what is good and alive in the world (MaGill 1019). [Towards the end of the story] the landscape takes on a powerful [picture]. It describes where the couple waits for the train. The country is brown and dry. The girl feels that the dry is a representation to herself as the barren. On the other side of the tracks the fields are green with several trees (MaGill 1020). In these two stories Hemingway demonstrates how he uses the symbols to display the emotion of the characters.

Hemingways themes are the main plots of the stories that sometimes uneventful. It is not what does happen but what is not said that is important. In the Soldiers Home The detached objective voice in this story is characteristic of Hemingways work and serves to maintain a constant tension between narration and subject matter (Wilson 205 ). One of the stories central concern is described by a term that was once fashionable the generation gap (Wilson 205). The gap is more like a chasm that separates the ex-marine from the towns people (MaGill 2171).

Before the war, the conventional values of Kerbs hometown had been, for the most part, American values (MaGill 2171). When the main character kerb came home from the war he is changed but the townspeople are not. The conflict is between challenger and challenged. The tension between Americans moving into the modern world and Americans protecting Victorians values (MaGill 2173 ). It just happened that after World War 1. The soldiers were among the chief challengers. Kerbs return from the war changed by his experiences, but the local citizenry is exactly what they were before the war, sure of themselves and their values (Magill 2173).

Like Kerbs of Soldiers Home he will later retract his denial of love [but] is not truthful in his retraction (Magill 2173). In the main themes of Hills like white Elephant the story is mostly dialog and has very little action. The critics describe this story like A game of chess. Hemingways story deals with the sterility and vacuity of the modern world (Halladay 1019). [This is] a masterfully compressed story of a couples discussion concerning a mans proposal that the[ girl jig], summits to an abortion (Wilson 205).

Hemingways characters seem to live in a world without God, traditions or values. He is quite literal minded, quite pragmatic, quite unemotional: an admirable fellow by modern patriarchal standards. The woman, on the other hand, is unreasonable enough to imagine that hills look like white elephants. There might be some virtue to having a child who would surely be like a white elephant, a sacred beast in some cultures, but in America or Europe, something that is more trouble than it is worth (MaGill 1020). The man well situated in his life and does not want to be bothered with more responsibility.

The boredom of the man and desperation of the girl reveal the emptiness of the postwar generation and the critical necessity of taking responsibility for the quality of ones life (MaGill 1020). The girl jig, tries to talk to him about it but does not get the response she wants so she ends up not wanting to talk at all. Marjorie Smelstor said She is tugging at the Americans sympathy strings and playing him like a fiddle (Gagne 2). In this story Jig is a tragic figure seemingly driven into a barren and empty existence by her love for this man.

Hemingways brief and seemingly objective story is a powerful condemnation of the aimlessness, hypocrisy, moral and spiritual poverty of the modern world (MaGill 1021). In the end the couple presumably board the train; she has the abortion; and their relationship continues its downward drift into a barren emptiness. Hemingway was a unique individual as a writer. He influenced many writers with the technique of his writing style. Young said [Hemingways] relationship between [his stories and] his own life is an immediate and intricate one (Marowski, Stine 5).

Some stories appear to report details of actual experience as faithfully as he might have entered them in his diary. Young said, In others the ploy of his imagination has transformed experiences into a new and different reality (Marowski, Stine 5). This style is what made Hemingway different from the other writers. Paul Rosenfeld said, In the story Soldiers Home this is one of Hemingways form half left in limbo of the stencil. The happy relief to this and other stories that he left incomplete pieces (Guton 211).

Hemingways narrative technique, sentence structure, dialogue, and the use of several symbolism are imagery strategies that create a marriage between form and content in the story. Horce P. Jones points out that Hemingway makes a couple of errs in the story (Monteiro 50). First it’s clear that both errs were deliberate on Hemingways part. It serves as suttle but telling tail to establish the cool detached irony he evidently wanted for [Soldiers Home](Horce 50). It [is] unlikely that the editors missed Hemingways err with the discrepancy of dates and months (Monteiro 50). One] err is when [Hemingway writes that] Soldier Kerbs returns home years later after the war was over. Kerbs missed out on the town celebrating the return of the soldiers. The other err Hemingway wrote was that Kerbs was a soldier who had enlisted in the marines in 1917, but the story refers to Kerbs as a soldier. To refer to a marine in these terms is anathema (Monteiro 51). The editor felt this was how Hemingway wanted the story to be with the errs so he left it the way it was. Marjorie Smelstor said The sentence structure was suited to the message of restraint of the famous Hemingway code of grace under pressure (Gagne 2171).

The context in which the details are presented makes this apparent. It guides the reader to clearly ironic tone [this] controls [the readers] interpretation of [the] facts as presented (Monteiro 50). In style and technique of Hills Like White Elephants is a quintessential early Hemingway story, the use of the language of speech as the basis for the story, the insistence on the presentation rather than contrary the condensation and the intensity are all basic elements of his theory of fiction (MaGill 198).

Hemingways technique plays an important role in this story. The use of clear and economical style to reveal a relationship which is troubled and complex is ironic (MaGill 198). The story is carefully written. Through out the reader will understand the relationship between the American and the girl. The language is simple and even colloquial, this expresses feelings (Gagne 3). The story starts out with Spanish as the language so you would think of the setting of Mexico or Spain. Hemingway uses the language so it would not be a mistake or inconceivable (Gagne 3).

In using this technique he is able to keep you in suspense of the story, but also have you understand his way of writing. Hemingway [uses a single word, anise to] reveal his greatness as a writer to the unerring details conveyed. [The word anise] portrays the conflict and strain in communication between the girl and the [American] as they discuss whether or not to abort the embryo ( Passey 32). Anise is a cleansing drink. It has a seed that aids in expelling gas from the alimentary canal to relieve colic.

Colic is a paroxysm of abdominal pain localized in a hollow organ. The American orders this drink for him and the girl. This clearly shows you that the conflict and lack of communication between the two of them (Passey 33). The answer is still unresolved and the girl must choose between the man and the baby. At the end of the story the reader is not sure of the girl’s decision. Hemingway left the end of the story unresolved. In his life time Ernest Hemingway enjoyed tremendous success as a writer.

His ability to describe a story in detail was his best talent. On the two stories, Ernest showed his unique ability of story telling. Hemingway was very clever in using Symbols to bring his characters to life. Hemingway wrote many of war stories but was never a soldier. He just had the talent of looking at life and writing it down in a symbolic way. Most all the critics come up with the conclusion that Hemingway was truly talented. He influenced other American writers with his style, symbols, themes and technique.

John Steinbeck – A famous novelist

A novelist is someone who writes novels, or writes a fancy work of fiction which often has a complicated plot, many major and minor characters, a significant theme, and several varied settings. A novelist will use literary devices such as characterization, tone, symbolism, imagery, and figurative language. John Steinbeck, an American novelist, uses many literary devices such as metaphors, similes, imagery, and figurative language along with excellent descriptive words to develop his characters and vividly describe their surroundings.

His masterly of these and other techniques, in my opinion, is why John Steinbeck’s novels, like The Grape’s of Wrath and Of Mice and Men, have survived the test of time. John’s writing style was developed from the experiences in his life; this may be why he is so interesting to read, because John has had an interesting life. John Steinbeck was born on February 27, 1902 in the Salinas Fertile Valley, California. His father, John Ernst Steinbeck, was a simple farmer and the treasurer of Monterey County, California.

His mother, Olive Hamilton Steinbeck, was a school teacher and she was the one person who was responsible for introducing him to the wonderful world of famous literature. She also read and taught him Shakespeare and other famous writers. John Steinbeck had two younger sisters, Ester and Elizabeth. John grew up in Salinas on a farm and was surrounded by animals and other forms of nature, this is the main reason that John had such a love of all forms of nature and wildlife. He graduated from Salinas High School in 1919 and then went to Standford University in 1920.

At Standford he published “The Standford Spectatorm,” his first short story. During a break from Standford, John got a job on Spreckel’s Ranch near Salinas. While he worked there, he was able to observe firsthand the lives of “bindle stiffs” and “ranch bosses”. These observations would later on become the characters in Of Mice and Men. John eventually dropped out of Standford University and began his career as a full-time writer. In 1930, Steinbeck meet Ed Ricketts, who soon is to be his life-long friend. Also that year, he married his sweetheart, Ms. Carol Henning.

He then moved to Pacific Grove to find a publisher for A God Unknown. He failed to find a publisher but that did not stop him and he began writing stories for Pastures of Heaven. While writing this short story, he met another man that also became his friend for live by the name of Joseph Campbell. Joseph was a Jungian and a mythologist. He also was the person responsible for getting Steinbeck’s Pastures of Heaven published later that year. In 1933, Joseph also helped publish To a God Unknown and The Red Pony Stories. 1934 was an extremely tragic year for Mr.

Steinbeck, the year began good when his story, “The Murder”, appeared in O. Henry Prize Stories. Later that year, John was dealt a tremendous blow when his mother died. John was so upset that he did not write anything for another year. Then when he began to recover and start writing again, his father died in 1936. At that time, John Steinbeck was about half way through writing Of Mice and Men. Again because of John’s despair, he was not able to finish this book right away. But finally he was able to finish it in 1937, and it was published and became his first best seller.

In 1939, Steinbeck’s had his favorite year, John was elected to The National Institute of Arts and Letters. He also published his Pulitzer Prize winning novel The Grapes of Wraith. The year of 1944 had many ups and downs for John Steinbeck. A wonderful event was the birth of his first son on the second of August. John had to fight to have his name removed from the credits of Lifeboat because he believed he did not believe in racism and he believed it was involved and promoted in the film. In 1962, Steinbeck was honored again with the award of The Nobel Prize in literature.

John Steinbeck’s use of Charicterization and Imagery can easily be show through his best selling novel Of Mice and Men. The book Of Mice and Men is about loneliness and the need for companionship. Steinbeck has said that he wrote this novel along with most of his other novels, to challenge his readers sense of values and morals and also to increase there awareness of the horrible things that people are capable of doing. The title of the book was taken from a poem that was written by Robert Burns that goes like this: “But, Mousie, thou art no thy lane

In proving foresight may be vain: The best laid schemes of mice and men Gang aft agley, And leave us nought but grief and pain For promised joy. ” In the novel, George Milton travels with his companion Lennie Smalles. George Milton was a small serious man who always looked after his traveling companion Lennie Smalls. Lennie Smalls was a large, mentally handicapped man who was George’s loyal follower and friend. Lennie’s uncontrollable impulses and ignorance continually got him into trouble and eventually cause his downfall.

John vividly describes these two main characters, in a perfect example of characterization, on page two of his novel. The quote goes as follows: “Both wore black, shapeless hats and both carried tight blanket roles thrown over there shoulder. The first man was small and quick, dark of face, with restless eyes and sharp strong features…. Behind him walked his opposite a huge man, shapeless face, with large pale eyes, with wide sloping shoulders, and he walked heavily, dragging his feet a little, the way a bear drags his paws. ” This illustration reveals just how well Steinbeck describes his characters.

With the descriptions and literary devices, such as metaphors and similes, the characters seem to come to life for the reader. John’s vivid descriptions of nature really help the reader see the surroundings in his novels. The following quote starts of the book Of Mice and Men and contains some of the most descriptive language, and imagery in the hole book. “A few miles south of the soledad, the Salinas River drops in close to the hillside bank and runs deep and green. The water is warm too: for it has slipped twinkling in the yellow sands before reaching the narrow pool.

On one side the golden foothill slopes curve up to the strong and rocky Gabilan Mountains but on the valley side the water is lined with trees – willows fresh and green with every spring, carrying in there lower leafs the debris of the withers flooding: and sycamores with mottled, white recombered limbs and branches that are over the pool. ” This and other examples in Of Mice and Men show just how well John Steinbeck describes the settings that are in his novels. Many other writers have analyzed John’s work. Most writers would have to agree with me on my opinion of his writing technique. One of these writers writes:

Nathaniel Hawthorne

Nathaniel Hawthorne is considered to be one of the most substantial writers of his time. His most famous novel, The Scarlet Letter truly originated Hawthorn’s version of romantic writing. It was this novel that also originated Hawthorne’s fame. Most of his works deal with or have some relation to Puritan times. The reason for the familiarity in his works is due to the fact that it seems to be influenced by his own Puritan ancestry. It was not until late in Hawthorne’s life that he received recognition.

To do this Hawthorne had to change his name and found his own stlye of writing that pertained to his life experiances. His romantic style might have been too modern for the times, but eventually he was understood. Hawthorne was known for his ability to create such a compelling story in just a few pages. Within these few pages, flows an elaborate and complex story. These stories flow so steadily and with such complexity that Hawthorne seems to create his own romantic style. He does this by incooperateing many different situations that keep the reader intuned to the story.

In many of his short stories there seems to be a character that is infatuated with a person or an object. The reason for Hawthorne creating stories like this could stem from his own experience with infactuation. Hawthorne was a very lonley person. He lived by himself for a long time until he married later in life. In the story, the main characters usually seem to spend a lot of time with or thinking about the objects of their infatuation. In these stories, the character goes through a series of psychological issues dealing with his infatuation.

An example of the psychological issues pertaining to infatuation is portrayed in Rappaccini’s Daughter. This work deals with a young man named Giovanni who is so blind by love that he becomes susceptible to deception. He is instantly mystified and enchanted by the beauty of Beatrice. She was a girl from the Italian village called Padua. Her father had once been a professor at the University of Padua, where Giovanni attended. Giovanni meets a professor named Baglioni who is very jealous of Rappaccini.

Giovanni is so love stricken that he is tricked by Baglioni and, poisons his love Beatrice. It is this style of writing that makes the stories seem romantic. The intensely, moral and psychological issues are the ingredients in a recipe that culminates romantic work. In another work by Hawthorne called, The Birthmark Aylmers devotion to science and his love for perfection, is a result of his downfall. His wife Georgiana was born with a large birthmark on her face. This birthmark seemed to be her only flaw but it was enough to drive Aylmer insane.

Aylmer is so in love with the idea of perfection that he winds up killing his wife. He kills her by trying to move her imperfection (the birthmark) from her face. The reason for her death is explained in a critical way. This birthmark was said to be where God had placed his hand on her. Once this birthmark was removed then God’s hand was gone and she died. Aylmer seems to be so infatuated with the idea of perfection that he does not consider the consequences of his actions. He was more concerned with the appearance of perfection in his wife then for her health.

Due to Aylmer’s actions he could be considered a person containing serious psychological issues. When doing this act he seems to be under a spell, mystified, and determined. This is also a prime example of Hawthorne’s definition of romance because it pertains to people dealing with their infactuation that in turn create tragedy. Hawthorne’s works could not be regarded as realistic because the things that are portrayed in these stories are like things seen in fairy tales. These occurrences could not actually happen in real life. He opens your mind to the pages of his works.

By creating fairy tale like stories he manages to expand your mind and make, you think about your own trials and tribulations. Often Hawthorne makes his villains very smart and witty. Although some of these work at first, seem to be based on reality when read in depth you realize that they are facetious. If these stories were regarded as reality then they would not have the same effects on the readers. A reader from Hawthorne’s time would not reflect on his work as much as a contemporary reader might. Sometimes we find that the stories that are the best are the ones that make you use your imagination.

For example, a movie called the Blair Witch Project, which contains some imagery, but majority of the scariness of the movie comes from your imagination. This is the same thing that Hawthorne accomplishes in his works. Hawthorne’s works have that ability to flow and progress with many different moral and psychological issues. He establishes an infatuation of some sort in most of his works. That stems from his actual dealings in life. His exuberantly detailed stories create a romantic style of writing that is only conducive to Nathaniel Hawthorne.

Foreshadowing and Flashback Two Writing Techniques That Make Fitzgerald A Great Writer

Foreshadowing and Flashback Two Writing Techniques That Make Fitzgerald A Great Writer by Jonathan Werne ” ‘Suppose you met somebody just as careless as yourself. ‘ ‘I hope I never will,’ she [Jordan] answered. ‘I hate careless people. That’s why I like you. ‘ ” (Fitzgerald, pg. 63) Jordan is explaining to Nick how she is able to drive badly as long as everyone else drives carefully. This quote represents the writing technique of foreshadowing, which is being used in one of its finest form. Fitzgerald is foreshadowing to chapter seven where Daisy kills Myrtle Wilson because of her reckless driving.

Fitzgerald uses foreshadowing to strengthen the plot of his book. In chapter nine, Nick begins to recall the past and relive his old memories. His must relieve his lingering thoughts of the past. During the chapter, Nick uses a flashback to tell about Gatsby’s funeral for the readers to know what happen the day Gatsby was shot. Flashback in The Great Gatsby also helps to give the reader background information about the characters. In The Great Gatsby, the structure of the novel is influenced by foreshadowing and flashback.

Fitzgerald utilizes foreshadowing to the best of its ability to help organize the novel. “Luckily the clock took this moment to tilt dangerously at the pressure of his head, whereupon he turned and caught it with trembling fingers and set it back in place. ‘I’m sorry about the clock,’ he said. ‘It’s an old clock,’ I told him idiotically. ” (Fitzgerald, pg. 92) This quote is the first use of foreshadowing which is in chapter five. It pertains to all of the trouble Gatsby causes as he tries to win Daisy back. The past is represented by the clock and how Gatsby wants to repeat it with Daisy.

Eble, pg. 963) This quote foreshadows to the end of the novel when Nick is left to tell the story of the dreamer whose dreams were corrupted. (Eble, pg. 963) “they smashed up things and creatures and then retreated back into their money or their vast carelessness or whatever it was that kept them together, and let other people clean up the mess they had made. ” (Fitzgerald, pg. 188) In chapter six, Fitzgerald focuses on the first moment of disillusionment which Gatsby has. (Magill, pg. 90) ”

‘Can’t repeat the past? ‘ he cried incredulously. ‘Why of course you can! ‘ ” (Fitzgerald, pg. 6) This quote is clearly foreshadowing almost the entire book. It foreshadows Gatsby’s attempts to woe Daisy for Tom and tries to make things the way they were before he left for the army . It also alludes to the fact that he must be rich and powerful to do that. Overall, it shows that he destroys himself trying to get Daisy back from Tom Buchanan. In the beginning of chapter eight Fitzgerald foreshadows the death of Gatsby. “I couldn’t sleep all night; a fog-horn was groaning incessantly on the Sound, and I tossed half sick between grotesque reality and savage frightening dreams.

I heard a taxi go up Gatsby’s drive and immediately I jumped out of bed and began to dress- I felt that I had something to tell him, something to warn him about and morning would be too late. ” (Fitzgerald, pg. 154) This quote definitely foreshadows the death of Gatsby. Fitzgerald also foreshadows Wilson’s involvement when his wife died. ” ‘He murdered her. ‘ ‘It was an accident, George. ‘ Wilson shook his head. His eyes narrowed and his mouth widened slightly with the ghost of superior ‘Hm! ‘ ” (Fitzgerald, pg. 6) This quote clearly tells the readers that George is not going to let the person who he thinks killed his wife get away with it. Foreshadowing is sparingly displayed though out the novel and especially in the last chapters. Flashback is used quite often in The Great Gatsby. Jordan begins to remember when she met Gatsby with Daisy for the first time and how they were in love. “One October day in nineteen- seventeen…..

The largest of the banners and the largest of the lawns belonged to Daisy Fay’s house. She was just eighteen…. His name was Jay Gatsby and I didn’t lay eyes on him again for over four years. Fitzgerald, pg. 80) As the reader can clearly see, Jordan begins to narrate about the first and last time that she saw Gatsby with Daisy which was four years ago. In chapter eight, Nick flashes back to the night of Myrtle’s death and begins to tell the story of what went on after her death. “Now I want to go back a little and tell what happened at the garage after we left there the night before. ” (Fitzgerald, pg. 163) Nick tells the reader about how Wilson thought he had figured out who had killed his wife. Nick follows step by step as he walks all the way to Tom Buchanan’s.

Nick then describes Wilson killing Gatsby in the pool and then Wilson killing himself. In chapter nine, another flashback is told by Nick. Nick recalls the night of Gatsby’s death, and the next day, when all the policemen were at Gatsby’s house. “After two years I remember the rest of that day, and that night and the next day, only as an endless drill of police and photographers and newspaper men in and out of Gatsby’s front door. ” (Fitzgerald, pg. 171) Nick then proceeds into another flashback where he is trying to get people to come to Gatsby’s funeral. During this flashback Nick finally meets Gatsby’s father, Mr.

Gatz, who came to his son’s funeral. “Next morning I sent the butler to New York with a letter to Wolfshiem which asked for information and urged him to come out on the next train. [for Gatsby’s funeral]… When the butler brought back Wolfshiem’s answer I began to have a feeling of defiance….. The third day that a telegram signed Henry C. Gatz arrived from a town in Minnesota… It was Gatsby’s father. ” (Fitzgerald, pg. 175) In the last sentence of the novel the reader realizes the story is being told as seen through the eyes of a Dutch sailor which transports the reader into the past.

Magill, pg. 91) “Boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past. ” (Fitzgerald, pg. 189) As one can see, the book came to life through the use of flashback and foreshadowing. These two main ingredients in this novel made it possible for the reader to be able to understand Gatsby the way Fitzgerald does. It also helps one to understand Gatsby’s relentless pursuit of the American dream. These two elements of the novel were weaved into a great book that was read and adored by millions of readers and school students.

Samuel Langhorne Clemens

Pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens (1835-1910), American writer and humorist, whose best work is characterized by broad, often irreverent humor or biting social satire. Twain’s writing is also known for realism of place and language, memorable characters, and hatred of hypocrisy and oppression. Born in Florida, Missouri, Clemens moved with his family to Hannibal, Missouri, a port on the Mississippi River, when he was four years old. In 1851 he began setting type for and contributing sketches to his brother Orion’s Hannibal Journal.

Later, Clemens was a steamboat pilot on the Mississippi River until the American Civil War (1861-1865). In 1862 he became a reporter on the Territorial Enterprise in Virginia City, Nevada, and in 1863 he began signing his articles with the pseudonym Mark Twain, a Mississippi River phrase meaning “two fathoms deep. ” In 1865 Twain published “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” and within months the author and the story had become national sensations. Much of Twain’s best work was written in the 1870s and 1880s.

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) celebrates boyhood in a town on the Mississippi River; The Prince and the Pauper (1882), a children’s book, focuses on switched identities in Tudor England; and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court (1889) satirizes oppression in feudal England (see Feudalism). One of Twain’s most significant works of the 1890s and 1900s is Pudd’nhead Wilson (1894), a novel set in the South before the Civil War that criticizes racism by focusing on mistaken racial identities. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884), the sequel to Tom Sawyer, is considered Twain’s masterpiece.

The book is the story of the title character, known as Huck, a boy who flees his father by rafting down the Mississippi River with a runaway slave, Jim. Huckleberry Finn is especially noted for its authentic language. Twain’s skill in capturing the rhythms of life along the Mississippi River before the Civil War helps make the book one of the masterpieces of American literature. Twain’s work was inspired by the unconventional West, and the popularity of his work marked the end of the domination of American literature by New England writers.

He portrayed uniquely American subjects in a humorous and colloquial, yet poetic, language. His success in creating this plain but evocative language precipitated the end of American reverence for British and European culture and for the more formal language associated with those traditions. His adherence to American themes, settings, and language set him apart from many other novelists of the day and had a powerful effect on such later American writers as Ernest Hemingway and William Faulkner.

One of the greatest gifts you can get as a writer

“One of the greatest gifts you can get as a writer is to be born into an unhappy family,” Conroy once said (Starr 3). Pat Conroy received this gift from Don and Peg Conroy on October 26, 1945 in Atlanta, Georgia. His writings are reflections of this life he received so long ago. He was born into a traditional Catholic family. His father was a Marine Corps fighter pilot, and his mother was a socially eager house wife (Disc. Auth. 1-2). Pat was the first of seven children and 6 miscarriages. Family life was so bad that his sister once said, “The miscarriages were the lucky ones.

Pat says he served in the Marine Corps since the day he was born (Burns 5). His harsh fathers job required the family to move constantly. Conroy has moved 23 times in his life (Castro 2). He changed school 11 times in 12 years (bdd 1). They finally settled in Beaufort, South Carolina. Pat finished high school there in 1963(Disc. Auth. 1). He attended the Citadel on a basketball scholarship (Castro 2). While there, he became the literary editor for the school magazine (Disc. Auth. 1). He also became captain and MVP of the basketball team (Bdd 1). While he was attending the Citadel, he learned many important lessons of life (Burns 5).

Pat Conroy gained a lot of inspiration for his writing while attending college. His first book, The Boo, was published in 1970. It is based on a relationship with Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Nugent Courvoise, Assistant Commandant of Cadets, nicknamed Boo (Burns 1). It was a kind account of the Citadel (Disc. Auth. 2). Conroy once said The Boo was his longest letter to the world. In 1980, Conroy decided to write another book with influence from his alma mater. The Lords of Discipline was a story about the Carolina Military Institute, primarily based on The Citadel.

It took the reader behind the doors of the barracks and showed what no one outside ever knew before (Disc. Auth. 2). It was extremely controversial and even caused him to lose his ring. The Lords of Discipline is the only book banned from the campus. The vulgar language in the book may offend some readers (Pumphrey 1). It was nominated for the Robert Kennedy Book Award in 1981. It was made into a movie in 1983 (Disc. Auth. 3). After Conroy graduated The Citadel in 1967, he started teaching English at various local high schools. In 1969, he was hired at a small school off the coast teaching underprivileged black children.

The Water is Wide is the story of his battles with illiteracy and the school board (Burns 1). It also tells about his graduation from college and being filled with liberalism and a desire to erase racism in the South. When he began writing the book he saw it as a chance to show his disapproval of the South Carolina school system. He told an interviewer, “When I began to write the first chapters I was blazing. What concerned me most was denouncing the people who had brought me down. But when I began to cool off I realized I had played a major part in my own downfall. Locher 114) He was fired when he was accused of unorthodox teaching (Burns 1). The book was published in 1972. He stayed in the local community saying, “I do not want to be accused of nailing people to the wall in the book and then fleeing” (Locher 114) The Water is Wide won the Ansfield-Wolf Award by the Cleveland Foundation in 1972. It was also made into the movie Conrack in 1974 (Disc. Auth. 3). The Great Santini was Conroys first true novel. It was published in 1976. It was truly an auto-biography of Conroys life as the son of a fighter pilot who brought his military training home to his wife and kids.

In the story, the eldest son struggles to free himself from his abusive fathers ruthlessness (Disc. Auth. 1-2). This book started Conroys career as a writer. Conroys father was not happy of the perception of him in the book, but apparently cooled down because of his appearance at a book signing where he signed as “The Great Santini”. Peg Conroy left her husband the day after his retirement parade (Burns 1-3). She presented The Great Santini at the divorce hearing. It was made into a movie in 1979 (Disc. Auth. 3). Pat Conroys most well known book, Prince of Tides, was published in 1986.

It is a story about unemployed English teacher, who is traveling from South Carolina to New York City, where his sister has suffered from a nervous breakdown (Disc. Auth. 2). The exact same circumstances occurred in his own life. The strange thing is, in the book the character leaves his sisters Jewish psychiatrist for his southern wife, but in real life it was the exact opposite (Budman 1). Conroys latest novel, Beach Music, took longer to write than any other book he has ever written. Nan Talese, his editor, made him cut out several hundred pages, and even chapters (Klein 2). The book has a lot to do with his daughter, Sussanah.

She recently left him with her mother. Conroy desperately wants her to come back, or even see him. He says he did the worst thing he could do as a father by getting “a little bit famous. ” He has written over 100 letters, including a love letter in the book. Leah in Beach Music is based on her (Castro 1). Jack McCall is a travel writer, who goes to Rome after his wifes suicide, but returns to take care of his mother who is dying of leukemia. Peg Conroy died of leukemia in 1984 (Castro 1). In her deathbed, she said, “Son, I find it hard to relax while Im dying, knowing youre going to write down every damn word I say” (Starr 1).

His brother, Tom Conroy, also jumped from an 18-story apartment building, possibly the wife in the book (Castro 1-2). Pat said that his brothers death was probably a relief to him. He reveals that he got his passion to begin writing from Thomas Wolfe in this excerpt from Beach Music: “Taking out Look Homeward, Angel, I read the magnificent first page and remembered when I had been a sixteen-year-old boy and those same words had set me ablaze. ” (Starr 4) As with any other author, there are people who criticize Pat Conroy. Brigette Weeks says that all of his books seem to be the same thing. She says that all of his books are auto-biographical.

She thinks that Conroy is a simple storyteller with his “feet set firmly on the native earth. ” According to Weeks, he is a master of grotesque intensity. His words create a world of passion. He sometimes tends to stray off course. Prince of Tides is monstrously long, but a pleasure to read. It established him as a novelist (Votteler 44-45). Gail Godwin says that Conroy fiction has two obsessions: abusive fathers and the South. These two things cannot separate from one another. Godwin shares Weeks opinion on the alikeness of his books. Godwin says Conroy is excessive in some aspects, but his ambition is admirable (Votteler 45).

Lamar York thinks The Boo was a primitive beginning for his writing (Votteler 47). The Beach Music plot is too similar to Prince of Tides. Every problem in Prince of Tides format is magnified in this book . Too much time is wasted on telling about the Holocaust in Beach Music. The book spends 11 pages in a convent, 17 pages fighting Cossacks, and 27 enduring Nazis (Budman 1). In conclusion, Pat Conroy has no specific genre. It could be classified under auto-biographical; or fiction (Burns 5). Conroy mixes fiction and biography, with suspense and intrigue, and comes out with a book that, no matter how many flaws it has, you can not put down.

One of the greatest gifts you can get as a writer is to be born into an unhappy family,” Conroy once said (Starr 3). Pat Conroy received this gift from Don and Peg Conroy on October 26, 1945 in Atlanta, Georgia. His writings are reflections of this life he received so long ago. He was born into a traditional Catholic family. His father was a Marine Corps fighter pilot, and his mother was a socially eager house wife (Disc. Auth. 1-2). Pat was the first of seven children and 6 miscarriages. Family life was so bad that his sister once said, “The miscarriages were the lucky ones.

Pat says he served in the Marine Corps since the day he was born (Burns 5). His harsh fathers job required the family to move constantly. Conroy has moved 23 times in his life (Castro 2). He changed school 11 times in 12 years (bdd 1). They finally settled in Beaufort, South Carolina. Pat finished high school there in 1963(Disc. Auth. 1). He attended the Citadel on a basketball scholarship (Castro 2). While there, he became the literary editor for the school magazine (Disc. Auth. 1). He also became captain and MVP of the basketball team (Bdd 1). While he was attending the Citadel, he learned many important lessons of life (Burns 5).

Jack London, as a writer

Jack London, as a writer, used Darwinian determinism, Nietzschean theories or race and adventure in his writings. Jack London was born in San Francisco and abandoned shortly after birth by his father, London took the name of his step-father. Because of his familys poor financial condition, London was forced to leave school at the age of fourteen and find work. He labored for several years as a cannery worker, a longshoreman and as a nocturnal scavenger of San Francisco Bay, becoming the self-styled “Prince of the Oyster Pirates. In his spare time, he attempted to further his education by reading the works of Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Rudyard Kipling, Friedrich Nietzche, and others. He joined the Klondike gold rush or 1898, returning to San Francisco penniless, but with a wealth of memories which provided the raw material for his first stories. Jack London fought his way up out of the factories and waterfront dives of West Oakland to become the highest paid, most popular novelist and short story writer of his day.

He wrote passionately and prolifically about the great questions of life and death, the struggle to survive with dignity and integrity, and he wove the elemental ideas into stories of high adventure based on his own writing appealed not to the few, but to millions of people all around the world. Along with his books and stories, however, Jack London was widely known for his personal exploits. He was a celebrity, a colorful and controversial personality who was often in the news.

Generally fun-loving and playful, he could also be combative, and was quick to side with the underdog against injustice or oppression of any kind. He was a fiery and eloquent public speaker, and much sought after as a lecturer on socialism and other economic and political topics. Despite his avowed socialism, most people considered him a living symbol of rugged individualism, a man whose fabulous success was due not to special favor of any kind, but to a combination of unusual mental ability and immense vitality.

Many people have noticed Darwinism determinism appear frequently in literary criticism of London’s works and historical analysis of his life. Darwinism is the theory referring to biologist Charles Darwin’s beliefs that the origin of species is a result of variation due to a genetic mutation from the parents, with individuals who are best adapted to survive chosen through the process of natural selection. Survival requires cooperation, which is why socialists of London’s day accepted Darwinian science as proof of the superiority of their politics.

Determinism is the principle that all information and events embody natural laws. A key component of naturalist writing. London, being a naturalist, used the wide variety of readings and experiences the fed his imagination to produced the two seemingly contradictory world views found in his work. Adventure tales, such as White Fang and The Sea Wolf, reflect the doctrines of rugged individualism and of amoral ubermensch (superman), which London had learned from reading Darwin.

Darwin had his greatest influence on London through the writings of Herbert Spencer. Darwin, in On the Origin of Species, wrote “the expression often used by Mr. Herbert Spencer of the ‘Survival of the Fittest’ is more accurate than ‘Struggle for Existence’, and is sometimes equally convenient. ” London reasserted much the same idea in White Fang(Philosophy Darwin). Jack London also learned from the readings of Friedrich Nietzsche.

London used the term Nietzscheism which is the adherence to the doctrine of Friedrich Nietzsche which stresses the “will to power” as the primary motivating impetus of society and the individual. Note the character of Wolf Larsen in The Sea-Wolf. One of Jack London’s favorite books was Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathusa. In this book, Nietzsche expounded his theory of the “beyond – man” or “superman. ” The “superman” was perfect in both mind and body. He was unmatched in strength and intelligence. He was also not encumbered by religious or social mores.

It was the idea of the “superman” that Jack London would incorporate into many of his novels and short stories. For Jack London there were two types of “supermen. ” London wrote, “I have been more stimulated by Nietzsche than by any other writer in the world. ” London considered himself an admirer of Nietzsche, but also an “intellectual enemy. ” London regarded both Martin Eden and The Sea Wolf as indictments against the selfish individualism of the “superman” theory. This is not to say that London disregarded the “superman” outright.

Concerning his novel Burning Daylight, London wrote: “Read my Burning Daylight, in which I show a successful superman who at the end of his triumph and career, throws his thirty million dollars to the winds in order to win to a greater thing, namely love. ” London would have considered himself a “socialist superman,” similar to the description above. This type of “superman,” which includes a concern for others, was influenced by London’s interest in socialism(Philosophy Nietzsche). Londons heroes feel the tingle of life, that electric thrill with which man goes forth to combat, perchance even to pay lifes penalty.

The greatest lovers of life are those who hazard it most freely, who most open-breasted brave its dangers; not those who hoard, to spend it moment by moment like precious grains of gold, but those who gamble, staking their whole upon the turn of a card The stories of Jack London stimulate in us of America our best virtues, which, because he stimulates also our worst vices-our thoughtless, reckless, inconsequential energy, our love of a blind conflict, our man and institution-baiting, our love of change, our caprice, our so-called reform and progressiveness.