What Are Proto-Oncogenes?

Proto-oncogenes Proto-oncogenes are genes that help cells grow frequently. When a proto-oncogene mutates or there are too many copies of it, it becomes a “bad” gene that can become permanently turned on or activated when it is not supposed to be. This creates the cell to grow out of control, which can lead to cancer. … Read more

The Human Reprodcutive System

Female reproductive system There are several organs and tissues that make up the female reproductive system, these include that ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, mammary glands and breasts. They are also involved in producing and transporting gametes and in the production of sex hormones. The female reproductive system is also responsible for fertilizing the … Read more

Fog Beetle: Full Characteristic

INTRODUCTION Many creatures that live in the desert rely on some sort of special adaptations, and fog beetles have one of the weirdest ways of finding water. The Namib desert where these beetles live, is located on the South-West coast of Africa (21°07?S 14°33?E) This is one of the most arid areas of the world, … Read more

What is an emulsifier?

An emulsifier is a substance that stabilizes an emulsion. They make it possible to mix two oil and water-base components together. An emulsion is a combination of two liquids that would not normally mix. Emulsifiers are the chemicals that cause emulsions to happen. They also make it easier to create a stable, smooth emulsion. A … Read more

Atomic Spectrometry procedure as viewed by a laboratory test

Lab Discussion Experiment 14: Atomic Spectroscopy In this experiment students have the opportunity to notice and acknowledge how the process of spectrometry actually works and they can also observe how different substances emit different colors due to the specific wavelength that is emitted. The objectives of this experiment were accomplished through the initial spectroscope calibration … Read more

Superconductors: Their History And Uses In Factories

SUPERCONDUCTIVITY The definition of superconductivity. Superconductivity is a phenomenon displayed by certain conductors that show no resistance to the flow of electric current. Conductors are materials in which the electron current goes through. There are 4 different kinds of conductors. Insulators, like glass or wood, have a very high resistance while semi-conductors, such as silicon, … Read more

Personal Statement (Neuroscience)

I am Niyati Pandya, a biotechnologist fascinated by the world of neurons and synapses. For me, science has always been a pursuit to a new world, unfathomable and unimaginable, yet visible and lucid the minute one is conscious about it. And this ability to become aware of one’s surroundings is attributed to a delicate coordination … Read more

Mission to Colonize Mars

Mankind has always reached for the “stars” and the moon and its now Mars. The stars are exploding balls of gas like the sun and cannot be landed on. Man went to the moon in 1969, and from that mission has learned how to live in space for a short time successfully. Colonizing Mars is … Read more

Mitosis and meiosis reproduction in eukaryotic cells

Mitosis and meiosis are two different forms of reproduction in eukaryotic cells. These two processes are similar in some aspects while different in others. Both result in the creation of new cells, but through different methods. Mitosis is a type of asexual reproduction, while meiosis is a type of sexual reproduction. These two processes are … Read more


D. Micah Hester’s book End-of-Life Care and Pragmatic Decision Making: A Bioethical Perspective is a reviving examination of good issues encompassing look after the withering utilizing what he calls a profoundly experimental logic vigorously obliged to William James. For Hester, radical observation acknowledges as genuine any experience, and in this way necessitates all experience be … Read more

What is blood’s composition?

All humans have blood, but what is blood? What is blood’s composition? What is blood’s purpose? How is blood produced? How does the blood circulatory system work? What are the types of blood? Do all animals have blood? Is blood always red? This report will tackle these questions and provide a scientific answer to each. … Read more

The apoplastic pathway

The apoplastic pathway or also knowned as a non-living pathways provides a direction toward the vascular stele through free spaces and cell walls of the epidermis and cortex. In addition,the apoplastic route allows direct access to the xylem and phloem along the margins of secondary roots. Secondary roots formed from the pericycle, a cell layer … Read more

An Examination Of The 1,2-Diphenyl-1,2-Ethanediol Synthesis Through The Reduction Of Benzoin In Sodium Borohydride

To carry out the sodium borohydride reduction, 1.0g benzoin previously synthesized was combined in a 125mL Erlenmeyer flask with 15mL 100% ethanol and 250mg sodium borohydride. The flask was stirred on a magnetic stir plate for 15min. After 15 minutes, a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis was performed to check for reaction completeness. The TLC developing … Read more

Candle Making Basics

The use of candles for light and heat is known to have existed in ancient times. The remains of candles have been found in the caves of France. It is believed that cavemen used them while painting and etching on the walls. It is believed those candles where made out of animal fat. The Egyptians … Read more

Physics in figure skating

“You have to do the opposite of what people expect. How else will you surprise them?”-Victor from the Japanese Anime Yuri on Ice. As the quote depicts sometimes to learn and enjoy something more you have to do the unexpected. This chance to explore one of my favorite sports through physics and connect to even … Read more

What is Sonography?

Sonography is beginning to be an important but great source of technology in the medical field. “Sonography is a diagnostic medical procedure that uses high frequency sound waves to produce dynamic visual images of organs, tissues, or blood flow in the body (Society of Diagnostic Medical Sonography).” Sonographers use ultrasounds to monitor many things in … Read more

How accurate are IQ tests?

The precision of an IQ test, or of any estimating instrument so far as that is concerned, comprises of two fundamental fixings: unwavering quality and legitimacy. The unwavering quality of a test is the consistency and security with which it quantifies. In the event that a measuring tape is a solid measure of length, at … Read more

What Is Hydroponic Growing?

What is Hydroponic growing? The hydroponics is a division of hydro culture, the developing of plants in ground less medium, or a water based condition. Hydroponic developing uses mineral supplement answers for feed the plants in water, without soil. We would now be able to develop practically any plant at for all intents and compelling … Read more

Subjective well being

Subjective well-being (SWB) has been defined as a person cognitive and affective evaluations of his or her life’ (Diener, Lucas, & Oshi, 2002). The cognitive component refers to what one individual thinks about his or her life satisfaction in universal terms (life as a whole) and in domain terms (in particular areas of life such … Read more

Cells and Mechanical Force

It is the cells in tissues that are responsible to mechanical forces. It is now well recognized that mechanical forces play a fundamental role in the regulation of cell functions, including gene induction, protein synthesis, cell proliferation, migration, death, and differentiation, which are essential to maintain tissue homeostasis and functions such as in muscle, bone, … Read more

Bowlby’s Theory

Bowlby’s theory is an evolutionary theory because he believes attachment is a behavioural system that has evolved because of its survival and reproductive value. Caregiving is adaptive because species have adapted over many years to enhance survival of the offspring so they can later reproduce. Bowlby’s theory is made up of many different ideas. According … Read more

What Is Electrochemistry?

Electrochemistry is the study of chemical processes that result in electron movement. Redox reactions are reactions which include changes to the oxidation states of elements. Oxidation is the process when a substance loses electrons, and reduction is the process when a substance gains electrons. The substance that is oxidized is referred to as the reducing … Read more

Volumetric analysis: What is it?

Volumetric analysis is a measureable and analytical method used widely. This particular method involves measuring the amount of volume in a solution whereby the concentration is known and then applied to determine the concentration of the substance. This means that the measuring of the volume of a second substance which combines with the first known … Read more

Niels Bohr’s biography

Niels Bohr was a man who was born in Copenhagen in the year 1885, on the 7th of October. Niels Henrik David Bohr was already in the clear to be a strong influence to the scientific community. Bohr was raised in an educated family, where his parents his parents had him always studying and working … Read more

Single-nucleotide polymorphism

First and foremost Single nucleotide polymorphisms, frequently called SNPs or pronounced “ snips”, is a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide as A, T, C or G in the genome differs between members of a biological species or paired chromosomes in a human. The less common base must have a frequency of SNPs … Read more

Computer Viruses

The Anna Kournikova worm Anna Kournikova (named by its author as “Vbs.OnTheFly Created By OnTheFly”) was a computer worm written by a 20-year-old Dutch student named Jan de Wit who called himself ‘OnTheFly’ on February 11, 2001. It was designed to trick email users into opening a mail message purportedly containing a picture of the … Read more

The distinctive features of eukaryotic cells

There are different cells, but there are 2 cells that you have to focus on: the plant’s cell and animal’s cell. We can compare and contrast the 2 cells. So first you got the plant cells. They are eukaryotic cells of eukaryotic organism. These distinctive features include the following: A cell wall composed of cellulose … Read more


The drainage pattern of an area depends upon following factors Geological time period of drainage basin. Nature, structure and type of rocks. Slope and topography of that area. Rainfall, amount of flow and periodicity of flow of water. TYPES OF DRAINAGE PATTERN Dendritic the term dendritic originiates fromgreek word dendrites (pertaining like a tree). In … Read more

What is Boric Acid?

Boric Acid (H3B03), also referred to as Acidum Boricum, Boracic Acid, or Orthoboric Acid, is a natural product made from Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Boron. It is offered as a fine powder or as a clear or white crystalline solid, much like table salt. It’s got a relatively greasy texture and is odourless and without taste. … Read more

Polymers (Paints)

The term “polymer” is composed of two words, (polus, meaning “many, much”) and (meros, meaning “parts”), and refers to a molecule whose structure is composed of multiple repeating units, from which originates a characteristic of high relative molecular mass. The units that make up these polymers are known as polymer. Polymerization is of two types: … Read more

Albert Einstein Biography

Albert Einstein was born March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Wurttemberg, Germany. and died April 18, 1955 at University Medical Center at Princeton from an abdominal aortic aneurysm. He grew up in a jewish family with his dad, brother and mom. Albert was a lowly patent clerk who went out by himself to test all the … Read more

The Negative Effect of Chasing the Dream of Colonizing Mars

There is no necessity in colonizing Mars because we still have to make Earth problems superior. Mars is the fourth planet, an inhabitable planet that has no atmosphere, and its average distance to Earth is 225 million kilometers away from Earth. The fact remains that Mars is inhabitable will be a problem colonizing. A trip … Read more


In pregnant woman there are many physiological changes during pregnancy, which are entirely normal, including changes in different trimesters and changes in different systems like cardiovascular, metabolic, renal, hematologic, and respiratory changes. The progesterone and estrogens levels rise continually during pregnancy, and they suppress the hypothalamic axis and therefore also the menstrual cycle. Endocrine system … Read more

The mysterious archaeans

What are archaeans? Archaea were discovered in the early 1970s. Similar to bacteria they are single-celled prokaryotes. Archaeans DNA structure places it in a separate kingdom. There is still much about archaeans that are not known. What we do know is that most of them can survive in highly extreme environments and are known as … Read more