The ideal of love of the Christian-Byzantine world

If today, when the history of Christianity is already two thousand years old, we ask ourselves the question, what is its main contribution to human culture, then, almost without thinking, we can answer: the ideal of all-embracing love as the basis of human existence. Christianity immediately recognized itself as the carrier of a fundamentally new, … Read more

Philosophical love

Only in love and through love does a man become a man. Without love, he is an inferior being, devoid of real life and depth and unable to either act effectively or adequately understand others and himself. And if a person is a central object of philosophy, then the theme of human love, taken in … Read more

Use of Modeling in different branches of human knowledge and activities

Modeling in biology. The method of modeling in biology is a means to establish all the deeper and complex relationships between biological theory and experience. In the last century, an experimental method in biology began to run into certain boundaries, and it turned out that a whole series of studies was impossible without modeling. If … Read more

Philosophical aspects of modeling as a method of knowing the world

INTRODUCTION The growing interest of philosophy and methodology of knowledge to the topic of modeling was due to the value that the modeling method received in modern science, and especially in such sections as physics, chemistry, biology, cybernetics, not to mention many technical sciences. However, modeling as a specific means and form of scientific knowledge … Read more

Modern philosophy

Modern science admits the possibility of the emergence and coexistence of many worlds, similar to our Metagalaxy and called Vnemetagalactic objects. Their complex relationships form a multi-tiered Universe – the material world with its infinite variety of forms and types of matter. And not all of these worlds can have the variety of types of … Read more

The Concept and Essence of Consciousness

Consciousness is the highest form of reflection of objective reality peculiar only to man, the way he relates to the world and to himself, which is the unity of mental processes that are actively involved in human understanding of the objective world and his own being and is not determined directly by his bodily organization … Read more

The Problem of Mind: Traditions of Decision

Modernity makes relevant a number of fundamental problems associated with the fate of civilization on our planet. These include the problem of the mind (in a broad sense), i.e. reasonable attitude to social and natural reality and to the activities of people. The problem of reason includes a complex of such problems as the problem … Read more

The problem of truth. Aristotle, Kant

The purpose of this work is to study one of the fundamental problems in philosophy, reflected in the work of almost any philosopher. The problem of the truth of knowledge, the criteria of truth has long been interested in prominent minds. Without a solution to the problem for itself, not a single field of knowledge … Read more

Background of the emergence and stages of development of science

Introduction Science in its modern sense is a fundamentally new factor in the history of mankind, which arose in the depths of the modern European civilization in the XVI – XVII centuries. She appeared not from scratch. The German philosopher K. Jaspers talks about two stages of the formation of science. Stage I: “the formation … Read more

Dialectics of Quantitative and Quality changes

DIALECTICS OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITY CHANGES Even in ancient times, the Greek philosophers drew attention to the fact that insignificant, for the time being, the remaining imperceptible changes of this or that object, accumulating, can lead to changes that are very noticeable. For example, a decrease in the number of grains of sand in a … Read more

Dialectic oppositions. Law of unity and struggle against oppositions

DIALECTIC OPPOSITIONS The generalization of everyday life observations, experimental facts obtained in various sciences, as well as socio-historical practice, showed that the phenomena of reality are polar in nature, that in any of them one can find opposites. In mathematics, plus and minus, exponentiation and root extraction, differentiation and integration; in physics, positive and negative … Read more

Methods of scientific knowledge

The concept of method and methodology. Classification of methods of scientific knowledge. The concept method (from the Greek word “method” – the path to something) means a set of techniques and operations of practical and theoretical learning of reality. The method equips a person with a system of principles, requirements, rules, guided by which he … Read more

The stages of the process of knowledge. Forms of sensual and rational knowledge

The process of cognition includes obtaining information through the senses (sensory cognition), processing of this information by thinking (rational cognition) and material development of cognizable fragments of reality (social practice). There is a close connection between knowledge and practice, in the course of which materialization (objectification) of people’s creative aspirations takes place, the transformation of … Read more

Scientific knowledge and its features

Modern science is developing at a very fast pace, currently the amount of scientific knowledge doubles every 10-15 years. About 90% of all scientists who ever lived on Earth are our contemporaries. For some 300 years, namely this is the age of modern science, mankind has made such a huge leap, which our ancestors didn’t … Read more

Thinking, its types and formation

General concept of thinking Objects and phenomena of reality have such properties and relations that can be known directly, with the help of sensations and perceptions (colors, sounds, forms, placement and movement of bodies in the visible space), and such properties and relations that can be known only indirectly and through generalization i.e. through thinking. … Read more


Worldview is a necessary component of human consciousness, cognition. This is not just one of its elements among many others, but their complex interaction. Diverse “blocks” of knowledge, beliefs, thoughts, feelings, moods, aspirations, hopes, connecting in a world view, appear as a more or less holistic understanding of the people of the world and themselves. … Read more

Matter and its basic properties

Philosophy of the concept of “matter” “Matter” is one of the most fundamental concepts of philosophy. However, in different philosophical systems its content is understood in different ways. For idealistic philosophy, for example, it is characteristic that it either completely rejects the existence of matter or denies its objectivity. Thus, the eminent ancient Greek philosopher … Read more

History of human intelligence

INTRODUCTION The history of human society is not only and not so much a chain of historical events as a history of the development of the human essence, the “essential human forces”. One of the most important components of this process is the development of the human intellect. Being the second, along with the ability … Read more

The history of nature and the history of mankind

The history of human society in a certain sense is a picture of its changing interaction with nature. Nature is first of all a universe, which embraces everything, including our knowledge and practical activity, the whole Universe, and in this sense it is close to the concept of matter, we can say that nature is … Read more

Art and science: allies or rivals?

1. Introduction In our century of rapid development of science and technology, all-encompassing media, it would seem difficult to surprise us with something new. And the new every day inexorably and noisy invades our lives. And yet the world is infinitely richer and more diverse than all the latest discoveries in science, technology, culture and … Read more

Intellectual and expert systems

In the natural science of the first half of our century, physics was the leading direction. Since the 1950s, along with physics, chemistry, and biology, cybernetics began to exert increasing importance and influence on the development of science and the whole way of our life. Cybernetics is becoming the most important factor of the scientific … Read more

Tasks and methods of the theory of knowledge

Three different sciences are engaged in the study of knowledge: the theory of knowledge (or gnoseology), the psychology of knowledge and logic. And this is not surprising: knowledge is a very complex subject, and in different sciences not all the content of this subject is examined, but only this or that side of it. The … Read more

Living heritage

Iconography appeared in Russia in the 10th century, after in 988 Russia adopted a new religion from Byzantium – Christianity. By this time, in Byzantium itself, iconography had finally turned into a strictly legal, recognized canonical image system. Worship icon became an integral part of Christian doctrine and worship. Thus, Russia received the icon as … Read more

Descartes and Bacon on the methods of knowledge

Cognition Cognition is the highest form of reflection of objective reality. Cognition does not exist separately from the cognitive activity of individuals, but the latter can only be known to the extent that they master the collectively developed, objectified system of knowledge that is passed on from one generation to another. There are various levels … Read more

The coming world order

At present, in developed countries with a stable economy and a stable political system, as well as developing countries, there has been a heightened interest in planning the development of the main areas of activity of both individual countries and their groups (different combinations of federative and confederative arrangements). This is due to the ever-deepening … Read more

Is a single European or world civilization possible?

In order to find out whether a single world or European civilization is possible, it is necessary, first, to compare the three most important concepts in human life: civilization, formation, and culture. The concept of civilization is closely associated with the concept of culture, not only in a negative sense but also in a positive … Read more

The impact of science on man

INTRODUCTION To the question: “What does science give to a man?” – many people will answer: “It equips people with knowledge, new means of practical domination over the world and thus increases their self-confidence”. This statement seems indisputable, but, like any truism, it expresses the core of the matter and is therefore inadequate. The impact … Read more

The relationship of mathematics and philosophy

Subjects: Mathematics, Arithmetic, Geometry. Keywords: mathematical inheritance, question of the relationship of mathematics, mathematical documents, knowledge of all secrets, mathematical knowledge of the Egyptians, number of workers, philosophical analysis, main figures. INTRODUCTION The question of the relationship of mathematics and philosophy was first asked a long time ago. Aristotle, Bacon, Leonardo da Vinci – many great minds … Read more

Being as the meaning of existence

The question of understanding being and relationship with consciousness determines the solution of the fundamental question of philosophy. For consideration of this question let us turn to the history of the development of philosophy.

Being is a philosophical category denoting reality, which exists objectively, independently of man’s consciousness, will and emotions. The problem of interpreting life and its relationship with consciousness is at the center of the philosophical worldview.

Being for a person something external, predestined, being imposes certain restrictions on his activity, makes him measure his actions with him. However, being is the source and condition of all forms of human activity. Being represents not only the framework, boundaries of activity, but also the object of human creativity, constantly changing being, the sphere of possibilities, which man in his activity turns into reality.

The interpretation of being has undergone a complex development. Its common feature is the confrontation of the materialist and idealistic approaches. The first one interprets the foundations of being as material, the second – as ideal.

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Hamlet Madness Analysis

Shakespeare entered the new 17th century as a mature and famous artist. Began the last decade of his work. The artist expresses with great force the thoughts and moods of the progressive people of his time, he creates a cycle of his great tragedies.

Shakespeare borrowed Hamlet’s external plot from Belfort (Tragic History), in turn, borrowed it from Saxon Grammar.

Shakespeare brings the action of the tragedy into the past, a number of signs clearly indicate that the tragedy should have been perceived as a story about the past, even if it was close. Why does Hamlet live and act in an outdated Shakespeare atmosphere? The deep answer to this is given by Hegel in Aesthetics.

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Shakespeare’s Sonnet 130 Analysis Essay

sonnet 130

The Shakespearean sonnet affords two additional rhyme endings (a-g, 7 in all) so that each rhyme is heard only once. This enlarges the range of rhyme sounds and words the poet can use and allows the poet to combine the sonnet lines in rhetorically more complex ways.

Sonnet 130 is the only Shakespearean sonnet which models a form of poetry called the blazon, popular in the 16th century used to describe heraldry. It presents a detailed summary of all of the main features and colors of an illustration. A typical blazon of a person would start with the hair and work downward, focusing on eyes, ears, lips, neck, bosom and so on.

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Essay on Great Expectations by Charles Dickens Summary

Essay on Great Expectations by Charles Dickens

I am disgusted with my calling and with my life”, the ambition with which he so fervidly wishes to learn to read under Matthew Pocket, and to become “a gentleman” overtaking what he previously refers to as “a good-natured companionship” with Joe and a description of Biddy, just a few paragraphs previous to his outburst, as “so clever”. However, by the end of the novel, Pip’s idealism has been replaced to an extent with a grounded compassion for life, and a partial realisation that it is not a crime to say “I work pretty hard for a sufficient living, and therefore- Yes, I do well”- however like much of the sparse praise afforded to Pip by his adult self in the novel, it stems from painful and foolish experience and ideas, and the negative influence of “Great Expectations”.

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Thomas Hardy The Convergence of the Twain Analysis

Thomas Hardy The Convergence of the Twain Essay
Thomas Hardy The Convergence of the Twain Analysis
Essay Subjects: Poetry, Shows and Events.

Keywords: Hardy’s poems, impersonality of Hardy, Convergence of the Twain, present tense, heavy use of caesurae, Hardy’s confessional work, current situation of The Titanic

The form and structure of “The Convergence of the Twain” are very much unlike many of Hardy’s poems, a possible response to the scale of his commitment to writing publically or perhaps simply an exploration of form to try and convey his own views, slightly antithetical in themselves, on the disaster. The poem is divided into eleven heroic triplets, self-containing the stanzas with the rhyme scheme, and leaving the poem in an isometric form- possibly highlighting the impersonality of Hardy’s view on the events.

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