George Washington, President of the United States

On April 30, 1789, George Washington, standing on the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York, took his oath of office as the first President of the United States. “As the first of every thing, in our situation will serve to establish a Precedent,” he wrote James Madison, “it is devoutly wished on my part, that these precedents may be fixed on true principles. ” Born in 1732 into a Virginia planter family, he learned the morals, manners, and body of knowledge requisite for an 18th century Virginia gentleman. He pursued two intertwined interests: military arts and western expansion.

At 16 he helped survey Shenandoah lands for Thomas, Lord Fairfax. Commissioned a lieutenant colonel in 1754, he fought the first skirmishes of what grew into the French and Indian War. The next year, as an aide to Gen. Edward Braddock, he escaped injury although four bullets ripped his coat and two horses were shot from under him. From 1759 to the outbreak of the American Revolution, Washington managed his lands around Mount Vernon and served in the Virginia House of Burgesses. Married to a widow, Martha Dandridge Custis, he devoted himself to a busy and happy life.

But like his fellow planters, Washington felt himself exploited by British merchants and hampered by British regulations. As the quarrel with the mother country grew acute, he moderately but firmly voiced his resistance to the restrictions. When the Second Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia in May 1775, Washington, one of the Virginia delegates, was elected Commander in Chief of the Continental Army. On July 3, 1775, at Cambridge, Massachusetts, he took command of his ill-trained troops and embarked upon a war that was to last six grueling years. He realized early that the best strategy was to harass the British.

He reported to Congress, “we should on all Occasions avoid a general Action, or put anything to the Risque, unless compelled by a necessity, into which we ought never to be drawn. ” Ensuing battles saw him fall back slowly, then strike unexpectedly. Finally in 1781 with the aid of French allies–he forced the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. Washington longed to retire to his fields at Mount Vernon. But he soon realized that the Nation under its Articles of Confederation was not functioning well, so he became a prime mover in the steps leading to the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia in 1787.

When the new Constitution was ratified, the Electoral College unanimously elected Washington President He did not infringe upon the policy making powers that he felt the Constitution gave Congress. But the determination of foreign policy became preponderantly a Presidential concern. When the French Revolution led to a major war between France and England, Washington refused to accept entirely the recommendations of either his Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, who was pro-French, or his Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, who was pro-British.

Rather, he insisted upon a neutral course until the United States could grow stronger. To his disappointment, two parties were developing by the end of his first term. Wearied of politics, feeling old, he retired at the end of his second. In his Farewell Address, he urged his countrymen to forswear excessive party spirit and geographical distinctions. In foreign affairs, he warned against long-term alliances. Washington enjoyed less than three years of retirement at Mount Vernon, for he died of a throat infection December 14, 1799. For months the Nation mourned him.

The Nomination of Andrew Jackson to the “Presidents Hall of Fame”

Like any hall of fame, its inductees are the best in whatever they do, from baseball or football to something like being President. If you are a member of any hall of fame (including the one for the Presidents), it means that you have done something special or have a certain quality about yourself that makes you worthy to be in a hall of fame. My nominee for the Presidents hall of Fame is our seventh President of the United States, Andrew Jackson. I’ll go over his presidency, focusing on both the highs and the lows of his two terms in office, from 1829-1837.

The issues that I’ll focus on are states’ rights, ullification, the tariff, the spoils system, Indian removal and banking policies; these controversies brought forth strong rivalry over his years of president. He was known for his iron will and fiery personality, and strong use of the powers of his office that made his years of presidency to be known as the “Age of Jackson. ” Andrew Jackson was born on March 15, 1767, in a settlement on the border of North and South Carolina. He was orphaned at age 14. After studying law and becoming a member of the Bar in North Carolina later he moved to Nashville Tennessee.

Their he became a member of a powerful political faction led by William Blount. He was married in 1791 to Rachel Donelson Robards, and later remarried to him due to a legal mistake in her prior divorce in 1794. Jackson served as delegate to Tenn. in the 1796 Constitutional convention and a congressman for a year (from 1796-97). He was elected senator in 1797, but financial problems forced him to resign and return to Tennessee in less than a year. Later he served as a Tennessee superior court judge for six years starting in 1798.

In 1804 he retired from the bench and moved to Nashville and devoted time to business ventures and his plantation. At this ime his political career looked over. In 1814 Jackson was a Major General in the Tennessee Militia, here he was ordered to march against the Creek Indians (who were pro-British in the war of 1812). His goal was achieved at Horseshoe Bend in March of 1814. Eventually he forced All Indians from the area. His victory’s impressed some people in Washington and Jackson was put in command of the defense of New Orleans.

This show of American strength made Americans feel proud after a war filled with military defeats. Jackson was given the nickname “Old Hickory”, and was treated as a national hero. In 1817 he was ordered against the Seminole Indians. He pushed them back into Spanish Florida and executed two British subjects. Jackson instead that his actions were with approval of the Monroe administration. His actions helped to acquire the Florida territory, and he became a provisional governor of Florida that same year. In 1822 the Tennessee Legislature nominated him for president and the following year he was elected the U. S. senate.

He also nearly won the presidential campaign of 1824 however as a result of the “corrupt bargain” with Henry Clay. Over the next four years the current administration built a strong olitical machine with nationalistic policies and a lack of concern of states rights. In 1828 through a campaign filled with mud slinging on both sides, Andrew Jackson became the seventh President to the United States. Instead of the normal cabinet made up by the president, he relied more on an informal group of newspaper writers and northern politicians who had worked for his election.

I believe that this made him more in contact with the people of the United States, more in contact with the public opinion and feelings toward national issues President Jackson developed the system of “rotation in office. This was used to protect the American people from a development of a long-standing political group by removing long-term office holders. His enemies accused him of corruption of civil service for political reasons. However, I think that it was used to insure loyalty of the people in his administration. States rights played an important part in Jackson’s policy’s as president.

In the case of the Cherokee Indians vs. The State of Georgia, two Supreme Court decisions in 1831 and 1832 upholding the rights of the Cherokee nation over the State of Georgia who had wanted to destroy Cherokee jurisdiction n it’s land because gold had been found on it, and the state seeing the Indians as tenants on state land decided to “kick them out”. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Georgia had no jurisdiction to interfere with the rights of the Cherokee and removal of them would violate treaties between them and the U. S. Government. However, Jackson, not liking these decisions was reported of saying “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.

It seems to me like a slap in Justice Marshall’s face, that Jackson was and always will be an Indian fighter. I think he just liked pushing around the Indians because he new hat whatever resistance they had was no match for the U. S. army. To emphasize his po int, in 1838 (one year after Jackson left office), a unite of federal troops rounded up the 15,000 Cherokee who resisted relocation and remained in Georgia and during the cold and rain of winter forced them to march to their lands in the west, this was known as the “Trail of Tears” since about 25% of the people died in route of either disease, starvation, and exposure to the cold.

Even though Jackson wasn’t in office at the time and is not a part of his presidency, his effluence still existed through his predecessor, Martin Van Burin. The question of the tariff was a major controversy in the United States around the years of his Presidency and his strong support for a unified nation oven states rights would hold the country together in this national crisis. Jackson had promised the south a reduction in duties to levels established in 1828, which were acceptable to southerners as opposed to the higher rates since then.

In 1832 his administration only sliced away a little bit of the duties, not close to what the south expected he would do. In retaliation of this insulting lack of concern of the South’s voice in government, South Carolina cting on the doctrine of Nullification which stated that the union was made up of the states and that the states had the right to null or void a law if they didn’t agree with it, declared the federal tariff laws of 1828 and 1832 invalid and prohibited collection of tariff’s after February first of 1833.

Jackson’s response to this came on his Nullification Proclamation on December 10, 1832. He declared his intent to enforce the law and was willing to seek and agreement in a lowering of tariff’s. In 1833 congress passed a compromise bill which set a new tariff, when the other southern states accepted the new tariff the threat f S. Carolina breaking away form the union was brought to a “happy” end. The Second Bank of the United States was not made into an issue of his election in 1828 by Jackson.

However he decided the bank, which is not a government bank, but chartered by it in 1826, had failed to provide a stable currency, and had favored the Northern states, and few loans were granted to the southern and western areas because they were a larger risk and the bank didn’t see it in it’s interest to make such a gamble with it’s money. And in his mind the bank was in violation on the Constitution. Even though the bank’s charter asn’t due to expire until 1836, Jackson’s political enemies pushed a bill through congress granting the banks re-charter, Jackson vetoed the bill. The “Bank” issue was a major item in his re-election in 1832.

In his second term Jackson decided to remove federal deposits from the bank into “pet banks” which virtually took away the power Nicholas Biddle’s power as president of the Second National Bank, which left him and anti-Jackson people very upset with what they called the abuse of his powers. The increase in loans from the state chartered caused a land boom and gave the federal government a surplus which it split up amongst the states), the increase in loans brought on the use of paper currency that was issued by the state banks, Jackson prohibited the use of paper money to by federal land or pay federal debts.

This demand for coins called specie led to many bank failures in the Panic of 1837. I don’t think he knew what he got himself into when he did this, and could of handled the situation a little better, but not all the blame should fall on his shoulders, because it wasn’t his fault the private state-chartered banks issued the paper money when they didn’t have the specie to back it up. Jackson’s foreign policy showed a strong interest in making the French to pay long-overdue spoliation claims and reopening the British West Indian Trade.

Even thought he personally agreed with the rebellion of Texas against Mexico. He didn’t recognize the Lone Star republic until the day before he left office in 1837, and left the problem of Texas annexation to Martin Van Buren. Even though Jackson switched support form his successor Martin Van Buren to James K. Polk (probably due to Van Burins failed economic policy). Jackson was a powerful voice in the Democratic party even after retired. He died on June 8, 1845 on his plantation, the Hermitage, in Nashville Tennessee. Andrew Jackson was the first “peoples president.

This comes from his youth in a frontier territory and his “people qualities” which helped him to be more touch with the people of the United States, and therefore the people of the United States took a more active role in the Government. He even went so far as to call himself the elected representative of all American people. I think that Jackson’s strengthening of the powers of the presidency are the biggest influence to this day. He used the power of the veto 12 times (more times than ll of his successors combined).

And his use of the powers of removal and of executive orders made a standard for a modern American Presidency. I only wish that their was a candidate like that running for election in ’96. The closest to someone like Jackson would of probably been Colin Powel, unfortunately he decided not to run. When you gave this project, I though Jackson was a mean tempered Indian fighter who found his way to office because he took over Florida and de fended New Orleans Successfully. But I grew to learn that he was really a great president and did a lot for the presidency of the United States of America.

Theodore Roosdevelt: 26th President of the United States (1901-1909)

Theodore Roosevelt was an energetic and dynamic leader who gave the nation a square deal. During his presidency to a position of internatio nal leadership. Roosevelt belonged to an aristocratic New York family. He attended Harvard Univerity. Theodore Roosevelt fought in the Spanish-American war with the Rough Riders at the battle of San Juan Hill. He had served as police commissiores of New York, assistant secretary of the navy, governor of New York, and vice president of the United States.

When president McKinley was assassinated on September 14, 1901, Theodore Roosevelt became, at the time, the youngest (43 ears) president in hist ory. The president saw himself as a man of the middle who would meditate the struggle between capital and labor. He said that business must be protected against itself and he tended to favor regulatory commissions that provided nonpartisan supervisi on by experts of business practices. As president he succeeded in getting additional authority over the railroads for the interstate commerce commission.

He was also instrumental in the passage of the meat inspection act and the pure food and drug act. Ro attitude toward the poor and owards the labor movement was that of an enlightened conservative. He supported many labor demands such as shorter hours for women and children, employers’ liability laws and limitations on the use of injunctions against workers in labor disputes. In reform, Roosevelt wanted gradual change. He moved in the direction of the reformers and ended up as the candidate of the progressive party in the Bull Moose presidential campaingn in 1912.

He had broken with the Repub lican party. In 1907 immigration reached its all-time high 1,285,000 in one year. Theodore Roosevelt said, “There can be no divided allegiance here. Any man who says he is an American, but something else also, isn’t an American at all. We have ro om but for on language here and that is the English language, for we intend to see that the crucible turns our people out as Americans, of American nationality; we have room for but one soul loyalty, and that is loyalty to the American people. ” Ro l ed the United States into continous armed interventions in the caribbean.

In 1906 an insurrection in Cuba caused the United States to intervene in its affairs. The American government withdrew its power when ordr was restored. In the Philippines c ivil government was put into operation, and a communications cable was laid across the Pacific. Roosevelt intervened in the war betwwen Russia and Japan. He invited the Russian and Japanese governments to send peace commissioners to America where a peace treaty was sighned in 1905. The following year the president was awarded the nobel peace prize. People had wanted a canal connectiong the Atlantic and Pacific for hundreds of years.

A French company, which went bankrupt, had started the pro ject. The company sold the panamanian rights to build the canal to the United States government. Colombia, whose territory included Panama, didn’t agree to the terms offered by the Uninted States. Ro did not think much of he of Latin Americans to begin with. He called he colombians “foolish and homicidal corruptionits. ” The Roosevelt administration supported a revolt by the Panamanians against Colombia. The new country of Panama signed a canal treaty favorable to the United States in 1903. The Pana ma canal was completed August 15, 1914.

The Presidency of Andrew Jackson

In this paper I’ll go over his presidency, focusing on both the highs and the lows of his two terms in office, from 1829-1837. The issues that I’ll focus on are states’ rights, the tariff, the spoils system, Indian removal and banking policies; these controversies brought forth strong rivalry over his years of president. He was known for his iron will and severe personality, and strong use of the powers of his office that made his years of presidency to be known as the “Age of Jackson.

Jackson served as delegate to Tennessee in the 1796 Constitutional convention and a congressman for a year (from 1796-97). He was elected senator in 1797, but financial problems forced him to resign and return to Tennessee in less than a year. Later he served as a Tennessee superior court judge for six years starting in 1798. In 1804 he retired from the bench and moved to Nashville and devoted time to business ventures and his plantation.

In 1814 Jackson was a Major General in the Tennessee Militia, here he was ordered to march against the Creek Indians, who were pro-British in the war of 1812. Eventually he forced all Indians out of the area. His victory’s impressed some people in Washington and Jackson was put in command of the defense of New Orleans. This show of American strength made Americans feel proud after a war filled with military defeats. Jackson was given the nickname “Old Hickory”, and was treated as a national hero.

In 1822 the Tennessee Legislature nominated him for president and the following year he was elected the U. S. senate. He also nearly won the presidential campaign of 1824. However as a result of the “corrupt bargain” with Henry Clay, he ended up losing. In 1828 Andrew Jackson became the seventh President to the United States. Instead of the normal cabinet made up by the president, he relied more on an informal group of newspaper writers and northern politicians who had worked for his election.

I believe that this made him more in contact with the people of the United States, and with the public opinion and feelings toward national issues. President Jackson developed the system of “rotation in office. ” This was used to protect the American people from a development of a old political group by removing long-term office holders. His enemies accused him of corruption of civil service for political reasons. However, I think that it was used to insure loyalty of the people in his administration. States rights played an important part in Jackson’s policy’s as president.

In the case of the Cherokee Indians vs. The State of Georgia, two Supreme Court decisions in 1831 and 1832 upholding the rights of the Cherokee nation over the State of Georgia who had wanted to destroy Cherokee jurisdiction on it’s land because gold had been found on it, and the state seeing the Indians as enants on state land decided to kick them out. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Georgia had no jurisdiction to interfere with the rights of the Cherokee and removal of them would violate treaties between them and the U. S. Government.

However, Jackson, not liking these decisions. Jackson was and always will be an Indian fighter. I think he just liked pushing around the Indians because he knew that whatever resistance they had was no match for the U. S. army. The question of the tariff was a major controversy in the United States around the years of Jackson’s Presidency and his strong upport for a unified nation over states rights would hold the country together in this national crisis. The Second Bank of the United States was not made into an issue of his election in 1828.

However he decided the bank, which is not a government bank, but chartered by it in 1826, had failed to provide a stable currency, and had favored the Northern states, and few loans were granted to the southern and western areas because they were a larger risk and the bank didn’t see it in it’s interest to make such a gamble with it’s money. And in his mind the bank was in violation on the Constitution. Even though the bank’s charter wasn’t due to expire until 1836, Jackson’s political enemies pushed a bill through congress granting the banks re-charter, Jackson vetoed the bill. The “Bank” issue was a major item in his re-election in 1832.

In his second term Jackson decided to remove federal deposits from the bank into “pet banks” which virtually took away Nicholas Biddle’s power as president of the Second National Bank, which left him and anti-Jackson people very upset with what they called the abuse of his powers. The increase in loans from the state chartered caused a land boom and gave the federal government a surplus, which was split up amongst the states, the increase in loans brought on the use of paper currency that was issued by the state banks, Jackson prohibited the use of paper money to by federal land or pay federal debts.

This demand for coins called specie led to many bank failures in the Panic of 1837. I don’t think he knew what he got himself into when he did this, and could of handled the situation a little better, but not all the blame should fall on his shoulders, ecause it wasn’t his fault the private state-chartered banks issued the paper money when they didn’t have the specie to back it up. Jackson’s foreign policy showed a strong interest in making the French to pay long-overdue spoliation claims and reopening the British West Indian Trade.

Even thought he personally agreed with the rebellion of Texas against Mexico. He didn’t recognize the Lone Star republic until the day before he left office in 1837, and left the problem of Texas takeover to Martin Van Buren. Jackson was a powerful voice in the Democratic party even after retired. He died on June 8, 1845 on his plantation, the Hermitage, in Nashville Tennessee.

Andrew Jackson was the first “peoples president. This comes from his youth in a frontier territory and his “people qualities” which helped him to be more touch with the people of the United States, and therefore the people of the United States took a more active role in the Government. He even went so far as to call himself the elected representative of all American people. I think that Jackson’s strengthening of the powers of the presidency are the iggest influence to this day.

He used the power of the veto 12 times (more times than all of his successors combined). I only wish that their was a candidate like that running for election in ’04. When you gave this project, I though Jackson was a mean tempered Indian fighter who trashed the White House and found his way to office because he took over Florida and defended New Orleans Successfully. But I grew to learn that he was really a great president and did a lot for the presidency of the United States of America.

President Ronald Regan

Throughout the history of our great United States of America we have seen many presidents some great and some insignificant, some impacting the nation in a positive way, others negatively, and some, seemly accomplishing very little in their four year term as president. Ronald Regan was a popular president, a former Hollywood actor he was reelected to a second term in 1985. President Regan was the oldest man elected president. He was the first President to appoint a woman to the Supreme Court, Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day OConnor.

Ronald Regan once said, What I’d really like to do is go down in history as the President who made Americans believe in themselves again. I see President Ronald Regan as a great president. According to the constitution of the United States, it is required the president must preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States. The President is duly responsible for the execution of laws; he has the ability to grant pardons and reprieves in criminal cases. As the Commander in Chief of the military, the president must also repel against foreign invasion.

Former President Ronald Reagan was born in Tampico, Ill. , on a Monday February 6th 1911 and is living today, in his homeland state of California. President Reagan was the first Hollywood actor to be elected President. He was a sports announcer for WOC, a radio station in Iowa when that job led him to acting he later served in the U. S. Army. Being a Republican leader Ronald Reagan led a campaign aimed to restore The great confident roar of American progress and growth and optimism.

Reagan focused his campaign on the poor economic policies of President Carter. And then President Cater called Reagan “trigger-happy” and said he would lead the country to a war. Elected in 1981 as our 49th President, he served a full two terms in the Presidency stepping down in 1989. On President Ronald Reagans inauguration day, Jan. 20, 1981, 52 American hostages who had been held by the revolutionary government of Iran for 444 days were released. Reagans inaugural address had a strong impact on our country with many promises to change the nation.

The opening paragraph of the address are my favorite portions because he very graciously thanks the past president, while giving insight as to what is wrong with the economy as well as the nation with terrific solutions to these problems. Sadly, 69 days after Regan took office, an assassination attempt put the president in the hospital. After a quick recovery President Regan began to rally legist ration to stimulate the economic growth, curb inflation, increase employment and strengthen national defense.

And change an economy that was suffering from very high inflation. The president cut taxes and government expenditures. Regan ordered Naval escorts in the Persian Gulf War. Reagans main domestic policy was known as “Reaganomics. This was a series of tax cuts and laws passed by legist ration that would boast the economy. He also created an innovative program known as the Regan Revolution, which he hoped would reinvigorate the American people. Allowing them, to once again rely on their government.

Reagans view on foreign policy was one of Peace Through Strength. During both of his terms he increased defense spending by 35% while improving relations with the Soviet Union. Regan declared war on terrorism, sending bombers to Libya after evidence came forward of an attack on American solders in West Berlin. Regan achieved much in the talks with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in Geneva. Including a treaty Regan never actually led our country into war, but he did get us out of the cold war with military invasions as well as peace talks.

The American political scandal of 1985 and 1986 was known as the Iran-Contra Affair because high-ranking members in Reagans administration arranged the secret sale of our arms to Iran in a violation of existing U. S. laws. All profits ($30 million) were then provided to the Nicaraguan right wing contra guerillas to use against Sandinista government also violating U. S. laws. No evidence was even concluded that Reagan had broken the law, every person views Regan differently, some loved him, some hated him, and some love to hate our former president.

President Regan was a good president in my mind; because he tried to do what he felt was best for our country. He did raise the spirit of the country and began the truce in the cold war with the Soviet Union. Regan would handle todays war on terrorism, just as he did in his Presidency forcibly. As a popular president he would have the support of all Americans, much like the patriotism of today. I believe he would have captured and killed Osama Bin Laden and his people by this time because he is one of the few American Presidents who took serious action.

The President George Walker Bush

Politics have been the family business for more than one family in the United States. The familiar family of several generations is the Kennedy family who remains in the political spotlight for fifty-three years and running. As Elizabeth Dole attempts to gain the Republican nomination for the 2000 presidential race she hopes to continue the forty-nine year Dole family streak. Coming close to twenty-five years in politics Bill Clinton prepares to turn the scepter over to Hillary Clinton as she prepares for a possible seat in the United States Senate. Perhaps the most interesting dynasties are those carried on by father-son teams.

Both John Adams and John Quincy Adams were United States Presidents. It also appears as though former President George Bush may be able to watch one of his two Governor sons take the presidential oath in the near future. His namesake child, the current governor of Texas, has recently announced his bid for the Republican nomination on the 2000 ballot. However, even if he makes it past the primaries it will take more than a “brand name” to win this election. According to the June 21, 1999 issue of Newsweek 65% of voters they polled still knew nothing or little of George W. Bush.

When looking at a possible future President of the United Sates of America it is not uncommon to start with their past and work forward to see their progress and failures. George W. Bush attended a preparatory school at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. Like many young men he was interested in sports and he selected to the men’s basketball team at Phillips Academy. Envied by his peers the young man was chosen to be part of a team that was exclusive to the best. However young George sat on the bench that year and only played one game.

The next year he opted not to try out for football and instead became the head cheerleader. He made many friends at this elite school considered to be the toughest in the country at that time. He successfully finished and the following year attended Yale. During George’s time at Yale he barely seemed to notice his father had been elected to Congress (1966). George, “W” as many refer to him, was not interested in any of the political organizations at the University. George W. Bush seemed to be more concerned with social matters than political matters.

He knew stories about most people that would pass him by on the campus and was a fan of his school’s sports teams. In the late 1960’s he joined a fraternity of Delta Kappa Epsilon, a fraternity for sportsmen and those who loved to watch them. They were called Dekes. This brings about a controversy that Bush himself may have been involved in overseeing harmful hazing rituals such as branding. Both Bush and other members of the fraternity have denied these rumors. Most members say the branding was a scare tactic that never actually happened. What did happen?

A close friend of Bush’s at the time stated, “…there was a lot of watching sports, girls, and beer drinking (Duffy). ” This is also where Bush had his first encounter with the law. Bush stated, “ We had a little too much Christmas cheer and for some reason we really thought we needed that wreath (Duffy). ” George and some of the other members of the Dekes were charged with theft as a misdemeanor and the misdemeanor was later dropped. During Bush’s junior year at Yale he surprised his family by announcing his engagement to a young woman from Rice University named Cathryn Wolfman.

They engagement did not last long after George decided that he was too young to settle down. While attending a Princeton, Yale’s rival, versus Yale football game in which Yale won, George encountered his second encounter with the law. As friends were leaving the game they turned around to see young George standing in the middle of the goal posts as he and his friends tore them down on the Princeton field. The mayor of Princeton, New Jersey told the young men as punishment to leave Princeton and never return and he has not to this day.

After graduating Yale George moved to Houston to live at the ritzy Chteaux Dijon, a popular place for late baby bloomers to live in the 1970’s. Not only was he changing girlfriends rapidly he was also changing jobs frequently. When he joined the Air National Guard in Texas he was criticized by many that he was allowed to override the long waiting list. The young man denied receiving any special favors from the Guard because of his father’s status. George worked in for an agriculture company at this time and then left calling the work dull and boring.

He then worked for a group that mentored young minority athletes but also left that job not being fulfilled. After applying for University of Texas Law School and being denied he applied to Harvard School of Business. George W. Bush graduated from Harvard with his Masters in Business in 1975. After Harvard George returned to Midland, Texas where he grew up. There he thought that he would try his hand at the oil business. He had no experience in this field yet he insisted on jumping into to it without working his way up the ranks. At the same time he started the oil firm he married a young lady by the mane of Laura Welch, a quiet librarian.

Laura and her new husband spent much of their honeymoon on the campaign trail. In Midland George thought that he might run for Congress and in the 1977 race he went up against Kent Hance. He won much support in the Midland area but Hance took a huge lead in Lubbock and won the 1977 election. That wasn’t the only misfortune he experienced during that period in his life. The gas prices were plummeting causing the price of oil to be forced down. Many people in the Midland area were losing jobs and very few oil companies could survive on their own. In 1982 George W. Bush sold 10% of his oil firm to a Panamanian investor.

As prices began to fall further Bush began drinking heavier and more steadily. In 1984 he merged the rest of his company with Spectrum 7. Even after Bush took 25% pay cut the oil prices continued on a downward spiral. Now Spectrum’s best offer was to be bought by an energy company by the name of Harken. In return Bush received $320,000 in stock and was retained as a consultant at a salary of $80,000 a year, $5,000 more than what he was previously earning (Pooley 36). He also convinced Harken to employ most of his former employees and he found jobs for the employees that were not taken on by Harken.

Other changes were also taking place in his life. After a joint 40th birthday party in Colorado Bush woke up with a hangover severe enough to cause him to quite drinking cold turkey. He also had twin daughters, Jenna and Barbara, to take care of. Now that he had money and no day job he was free to think on an offer that had been made to him several months before the Harken deal. In 1985 Lee Atwater spoke to George Bush about helping run his father’s (the Vice President of the United States from 1984-1988) presidential campaign. In 1987 Bush packed up his family in Midland and moved to Washington, D. C. to help his father.

The younger George spent countless hours defending his father from harsh journalist, unfaithful staff, and critics. He acted as a surrogate speaker on behalf of his father around the country. All of his hard work on the campaign not only helped his father win the 1988 presidential election; it also brought him in to the political spotlight as a serious man for the first time. After the elections Bush and his family returned to Dallas, Texas. After being in Dallas for a few years he received a hot tip that the Texas Rangers Baseball team was for sale.

Quickly Bush rounded up a group of investors and purchased a portion of the team and was made a manager. The money he used to buy the team he borrowed from a Midland bank where he was a director using his Harken stock as collateral. His initial $500,000 investment grew to $606,000 and his final return was over $15 million (Pooley 36). He was finally in the spotlight as a politician, a businessman, a sportsman, a family man, and as a down home man. He attended all 80 Ranger home games. He would often stay hours after the game to sign autographs and he did wonders for the stadium.

He and his partners renovated The BallPark in Arlington with bond money. His public relations were rising but things in Dallas were not going as smooth as in Arlington. When Bush sold all 212,140 of his Harken stocks in June of 1990 he received $848,569, more the 2 the original value (Pooley 41). Less than two months later Harken made the quarterly report and they stated that the company lost more than $23 million dollars. Bush says he did not know that Harken was going to announce the loss yet he was still criticized by many who said that as a director he should have know.

He compounded the problem by not filing a SEC form. After a SEC investigation he was cleared of all charges. One month later Bush resigned from Harken and declared for Governor. George took a leave of absence from the Rangers to spend time campaigning for Governor. He traveled the state as a well-known man separate from his father, at least in personality. George’s social circle drew him crowds of the elite oil and businessmen to the down home baseball fans throughout Texas. George also gained a tart sense of humor when his sister died in 1953 of leukemia.

His mother said that since more was expected from George, the oldest son, he diverted their attention by wisecracks and nicknames, a trait that he carries with him to this day. According to the June 1999 issue of Texas Monthly that may also of helped people relax and relate to him as a man and not just a politician while on his campaign trail. After George won the Governor election to Ann Hutchinson he put all of his Rangers assets in to a blind trust and did not sell the team until 1998.

In 1998 he received over $14. illion dollars for his share of the team. As a second term Governor of Texas George W. Bush has had a well-kept record. Although the governor of Texas has very little power he and legislation passed the largest tax cut in the states history. He has won praises from teachers by allowing for large teacher pay raises. Crime rate is down and although he did not back a hate-crimes bill the President Clinton urged him to sign his inclusive rhetoric and multicultural appointments have please the Hispanic and African American communities.

His pulling together of political factions saying it is better to work together than to work alone has impressed many leaders of both major parties. Bush is quoted in Time magazine saying, “I’m proud to be a compassionate conservative. I welcome this label, and on this ground, will make my stand (Duffy). ” According to the Washington Post’s Governors Guide strong families, local control, individual responsibility, and limited responsibility are principles guiding Governor Bush’s major initiatives. He continually states the importance of family and education in society.

He says that education is his number one priority. He believes for our society to become compassionate and responsible we must first teach children to read and comprehend. According to this page he says, “Government is necessary, but not necessarily government. ” His staff knows that any proposal brought before him must encourage personal responsibility, local control, and fiscal responsibility. He has encouraged a voluntary clean up program for companies and individuals to participate in that has brought back $170 million dollars in property and has created 3,000 jobs.

Since his first term 115 older companies have reduced emissions by 100,000 each year. To make Texas a safer place he has aided in passing anti-stalking laws and no sex offender is allowed to live in Texas without registering first with local authorities. He has declared a zero tolerance for violent crimes on school grounds. If any youth is found in violation of a violent of sexually orientated law he or she must be reported to the teachers of that school and he or she pose a threat they may be placed in alternative education programs.

He supports the legal drinking age of 21 and has implemented one of the nations toughest anti-youth-smoking laws. He believes in the death penalty for those who have committed “horrible” crimes. He also believes that Texas prisons are a place of work and punishment. All prisoners in Texas work either building houses for the needy, farming for food banks, making road signs, Braille books, government furniture, or laundry detergent.

He also supports welfare reform, creating jobs and not dependency for those in need, yet his 1997 legislation passed a bill not allowing government to interfere with private charity help for these people. Now Governor Bush will be able to make his stand on a national level. On June 12, 1999 Governor Bush announced he would run for the Republican nomination for President of the United States. He already has the backing of 15 Republican Governors. Even Kent Hance who beat him in the 1977 congressional elections has contributed money (Hance switched parties in 1985).

Although Bush has a long way to go until the elections he is already miles ahead of the other Republicans and Democrats (Vice President Al Gore and former Senator Bill Brady) hoping to earn the nomination for his or her party. In the Republican race for presidential nomination he faces Elizabeth Dole, Dan Quayle, Steven Forbes, and John McCain. In a Time/CNN poll 55% of those polled would vote for Bush, and 42% for Al Gore, however George Bush has the Republican nominee vote 40% ahead of the runner-up, Elizabeth Dole, who has 14% of the vote according to the Time/CNN poll.

Governor Bush still has a long time before the 2000 election, if he is chosen as the GOP nomination. He has matured a lot form his past and has impressed enough people in high places to earn the most money in the shortest amount of time ever in an United States presidential campaign according to June 30,1999 edition of the Corpus Christi Caller Times. According to the Caller Times Bush has earned $20 million in just four months (Van Natta A-12).

Fortunate for Bush he has made a connection with many Americans and not including those who know nothing about him most like him…they just don’t know why. For Bush supporters it is not the “name brand” that they believe will win him the Presidency, it is the values and policies he stands for. Right now the Republican Party’s worst nightmare is that if it is the name and if the name wares off their “school house built of straw will weaken and blow down. ” With the aide of family, Texas governor’s office veterans, and his fathers old aides, he hopes to prove them wrong before February.

John F. Kennedy – the 35th president of the United States

John F. Kennedy was the 35th president of the United States (1961-1963). He was the youngest person ever to be elected president. Also, He was the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20the century. He served in World War II on PT boat. He also helped to solve the Cuban Missile Crisis and started Peace of Corps to help 3rd world countries better them selves. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president. Therefore, his achievements were limited. He was shot in the head and died within an hour.

Kennedy was born on May 29,1917 in Brookline, Massachusetts. He was the second of nine children of Joseph Patrick Kennedy and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. “The other children in the family were Joseph, Rosemary, Kathleen, Eunice, Patricia, Robert, Jean, and Edward. “(Encarta’ 95). “The Kennedys were an active family. With 11 people in the house, someone was always busy. The children took swimming, sailing, and tennis lessons. “(Potts, Steve – 7). The Kennedy family had long been active in politics. His brothers Robert and Edward Kennedy also entered politics.

Kennedy’s both grand fathers had been active in politics. His father was a self-made millionaire. He served as first chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission and as U. S. ambassador to Great Britain during the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Kennedy’s family called him jack. He and his older brother Joe were strong rivals. Jack was quiet and often shy, but held his owns in fights with Joe. “The boys enjoyed playing touch football. “(The World Book Encyclopedia, 261). His childhood was full of sports, fun and activity.

This all ended when he grew up old enough to leave for school. Kennedy attended elementary schools in Brookline and Riverdale. “In 1930, when he was 13 years old, his father sent him to the Canterbury School in New Milford, Conn. ” (The World Book Encyclopedia, 261). One year later, he transferred to Choate Academy in Wallingford, Coon. He graduated from Choate in 1935 at the age of 18. He was promised a trip to London as a graduation gift but he became ill with jaundice and would have to go to the hospital. He spent the rest of the summer trying to recover.

He was not entirely well when he started Princeton, several weeks later in the fall of 1935. The jaundice returned and he had to drop out of school. Before the next school year began, he told his father he wanted to go to Harvard. He entered Harvard University in 1936. There he majored in government and international relations. At Harvard, he tried to explain in his senior thesis why Britain had not been ready for war. Kennedy began to send his paper to publishers, and it was accepted on his second try. Wilfrid Funk published it under the title Why England Slept. It became a bestseller.

He became a literary sensation. “In the spring of 1941, both John and Joe, Jr. decided to enroll in the armed service. ” (Reevs, Thomas C. , 37)Joe was accepted but John was turned down. He hoped to fight in the WWII but he was rejected by the U. S. Army because of his back trouble and history of illness. He reapplied after five months program of special exercise and was accepted into the Navy as a desk clerk in Washington. He was disgusted and applied for a transfer. Kennedy was sent to Naval Officers Training School at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, in 1941.

Later he was sent for additional training at the Motor Torpedo Boat Center at Melville, Rhode Island. In late April 1943, he was put in command of a PT 109 in the Solomon Islands in the South Pacific. Kennedy saw action in the form of night patrols and participated in enemy bombings. “On August 1, 1943, during a routine night patrol, a Japanese destroyer collided in the darkness with Kennedy’s craft and the PT 109 was sunk. ” (Falkolf, Lucille – 7). Kennedy heroically swam back and forth rescuing his wounded crew. Two were killed in the crash.

The injury once again aggravated his back. Still, Kennedy pushed on swimming from island to island in the South Pacific hoping for a patrol to come by. Kennedy had no idea he had been in the water for eight hours. Finally, an island was spotted that could provided cover from Japanse planes. Kennedy realized that he and the crew must move on. He gathered the crew to move to another island in search of food. Kennedy swam for the next four days along a water route that he knew American ships used. Kennedy was now desperate enough to seek help from natives on a Japanese controlled island.

He persuaded the natives to deliver a message written on the back of a coconut shell to allied forces. “The coconut fell into the hands of allied scouts and a patrol was sent. “(Encarta’ 95) Kennedy and his crew were finally rescued. “For his courage, endurance, and excellent leadership, Kennedy received the U. S. Navy and Marine Corps medal, awarded for heroism not involving conflict with the enemy. “(Encarta’ 95). John soon contracted malaria. He became ill. Then, he returned to the United States for medical. During recovery, Kennedy knew that his brother Joe, Jr. had been killed in action.

Kennedy put his feelings onto paper and a second book was published for the family and close friends. ” (Reevs, Thomas C. , 11). He called it “As We Remember Joe. ” Kennedy’s father had assumed that Joe, Jr. would go into politics. Both of his grandfathers had been active in politics. Now, Kennedy was the oldest Kennedy of his generation. His first chance in politics came when Congressman James Curley from the 11th District of Massachusetts decided to retire. It was his first Congressional seat by a margin of more than two to one. He was placed on the front page of the New York Times and in Time Magazine.

He was often mistaken in Congress as a Senate page or an elevator operator. Later he ran against nine other candidates. He won the primary with 42 percent of the votes. He served three terms in the House of Representatives, during the Democratic Administrations of President harry S. Truman. He supported legislation that would serve the interests of his constituents. He also joined with Republicans in criticizing the Truman administration’s handling of China. Kennedy easily won reelection to Congress in 1948 and 1950. “In 1952 he decided to run against incumbent Republican Senator henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.

Because Kennedy was little know outside his congressional district. ” (Encarta’ 95). He began his campaign two years before the election and met thousands of people throughout Massachusetts. The entire Kennedy family took part in the campaign. Kennedy defeated Lodge by 70, 000 votes. Kennedy married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier on September 12, 1953, at St. Mary’s Catholic Church in Newport, Rhode Island. He had three children. One daughter and two sons. Kennedy’s youngest son died in less than 48 hours after his birth. Kennedy underwent a spinal-disk operation in less than a year after his marriage.

Soon after that, a second back operation was performed. He wrote “Profiles in Courage” during this time. A book of essays on American politicians who risked their careers fighting for just but unpopular causes. It was published in 1956. This book received the Pulitzer Prize in 1957. Many people had known little about Kennedy came to admire him because of the success of “Profiles in Courage. ” In 1957, Kennedy became a member of the powerful Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and he later won a place on the Senate Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor Management Field.

His brother Robert served as chief counsel in the same Committee. In 1958, he spent many of his weekends campaigning for reelection in Massachusetts. “His Margin of victory, 874, 000 votes, was the largest ever recorded in a Massachusetts senatorial contest. ” (Encarta’ 95). Kennedy now began speaking out on foreign affairs. He was a severe critic of France’s refusal to make concessions to its colony, Algeria. He advocated Algerian independence. Kennedy wanted the 1960 Democratic presidential nomination. He began working for it and faced several major obstacles.

Many party leaders considered him too young and too inexperienced for the presidency. Many also doubted that a Roman Catholic could win a national election in a country that was mostly Protestant. Kennedy won most of the larger states in the northeastern United States. “The election drew a record 69 million voters to the polls, but Kennedy won by only 113, 000 votes. “(Encarta’ 95). He won49. 7 percent of the popular vote, and Nixon won 49. 6 percent. Kennedy received 303 electoral votes to Nixon’s 219. Kennedy was inaugurated on January 20, 1961.

In his inaugural address he emphasized America’s revolutionary heritage. “The same… beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe,” Kennedy said. “Let the word go forth from this time and place to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans-born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage-and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.

The words of his address were, “Ask not what your country can do for you- ask what you can do for your country. “(The World Book Encyclopedia, 268). “During Kennedy’s first year in office, the Congress of the United States passed a major housing bill, a law increasing the minimum wage, and a bill granting federal aid to the country’s economically depressed areas. “(Schlesinger, Arthur Meier-17). Kennedy also oversaw a bill creating the Peace Corps. After his initial success with Congress, Kennedy found it increasingly difficult to get his programs enacted into law.

Although the Democrats held a majority in both legislative houses, Southern Democrats joined with conservative Republicans to stop legislation they dislike. With one bill, however, Congress dedicated more than $1 billion to finance sending a man to the moon. The major American legal and moral conflict during Kennedy’s three years in office was in the area of civil rights for black citizens. Although “Kennedy was in no way responsible for the growth of the civil rights movement, he attempted to aid the cause by enforcing existing laws.

He also asked Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would guarantee blacks the rights to vote, to attend public school, to have equal access to jobs, and to have access to public accommodations. “(Schlesinger, Arthur Meier-59). “In the late 1950s and early 1960s the government of Cuba under fidel Castro became increasingly hostile to the United States. When Castro began to proclaim his belief in Communism, many Cubans fled to the United States. ” (Encarta’ 95). In 1961 a secret project begun during the previous administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower culminated.

Under the training of the Central Intelligence Agency, more than 1000 Cuban exiles invaded Cuba at a place called the Bahia de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs). “In Cuba both the bay of pigs occurred, in which U. S. supported rebels revolted in a poorly laid out plan of events that fell out beneath them, and the Cuban Missile Crisis in which the Soviet Republic were building missile silos in Cuba, 100 miles away from Florida. “(Encarta’ 95). The Space Race was in full force with both Russia and the U. S. in competition to reach the moon during this time. The Cuban Missile Crisis was the world’s largest approach to nuclear war.

In 1960 Khrushchev decided to supply Cuba with nuclear missiles that would put the eastern United States within range of nuclear missile attack. In 1962 U. S. spy planes flying over Cuba spotted the first missile. Kennedy demanded that the USSR remove the weapons. United troops prepared to invade Cuba, but after a few tense days Khrushchev promised not to invade Cuba. The United States signed a limited nuclear test ban treaty with Britain and the USSR, outlawing nuclear explosions in the atmosphere or underwater, but allowing them underground. “John F. Kennedy was shot to death by an assassin on Nov. . 1963, as he rode through the streets of Dallas, Texas. ” (The World Book Encyclopedia, 266).

Two shots were fired in rapid succession. One bullet passed through the president’s neck and struck Governor Connally in the back. The other bullet struck the president in the head. His car sped to Parkland Hospital but doctors couldn’t save his life. He was pronounced dead at 1:00 p. m. Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated him. Oswald was charged with the murder and arrested that afternoon. Two days after, Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby shot Oswald while being moved from the city to the county jail.

Millions of television viewers saw Ruby kill Oswald, who was under police guard. On November 24, the body of President Kennedy was carried on a horse-drawn carriage from the White House to the Rotunda of the Capitol. Thousands of people filed past the coffin of the president. The state funeral of President Kennedy was watched on television by millions around the World. He was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Kennedy was the first President to be born in the twentieth century and was very much a man of his time.

He was restless, seeking, with a thirst of knowledge, and he had a feeling of deep commitment, not only to the people of the United States, but to the people of the world. Many of the causes he fought for exist today because of what he did for the rights of minorities, the poor, the very old and the very young. He never took anything for granted and worked for everything he owned. Perhaps Kennedy summed up his life best in his own inaugural speech: “Ask not what your country can do for you, but ask what you can do for your country. “(The World Book Encyclopedia, 268). He was a very loved and respected president and will truly be missed.

The president Andrew Johnson

Impeachment, in the United States and Great Britain proceeding by a legislature for the removal of office of a public official charged with misconduct in office. Impeachment compromises both the act of formulating the accusation and the resulting trial of charges; it is frequently but mistakenly taken to mean removal from office of an accused official. An impeachment trial may result in an acquittal or in a verdict of guilty. The U. S. Constitution, in Article 1, Section 3 , provides for the impeachment of public federal officials and gives precise directions for conducting impeachment.

The House of Representatives initiates impeachment proceedings by resolution and appoints a number of its members to act as managers in prosecute the impeachment before the Senate, which serves as a court to try the official. The vice president, who presides over the Senate, also presides at impeachment trials, except in the case of an impeachment of the president. A two-thirds majority vote of the senators present at an impeachment trial is necessary to secure a conviction. The first president to be impeached was Andrew Johnson.

The 17th president, Johnson became president at a critical time in American history. He succeeded Abraham Lincoln when Lincoln was assassinated in April 1865, only a few days after the Civil War ended. In addition to these trying times, Johnson also had trouble cooperating with other political leaders while proceeding to accomplish his goals. Johnson was born in 1808 to Jacob and Mary Mcdonough Johnson in Raleigh, North Carolina. In 1827 ,Johnson opened a tailor shop in a small frame building. Soon after opening that shop Johnson married Eliza McCardle.

She was intelligent and had some schooling. With the help of his wife Johnson improved his reading and learned writing and arithmetic. In 1829 Johnson ram uccessfully for alderman on a platform that appealed to Greenvilles working class. In 1834 he was elected mayor of Greenville. Johnson then served in the Tennessee House of Rep. from 1835 to 1837 and from 1839 to 1843, when he was elected to the state senate. In 1843, Johnson became a member of the U. S. House of Representatives, the lower chamber of congress where he served until 1853.

In Congress he was a champion of the poor . He felt a kinship with the working people and small farmers, and disliked people of wealth or privilege. In June 1864 the Republicans met in Baltimore, Maryland, and renominated Lincoln. To eward the Southerners who had remained loyal to the Union, Johnson was nominated to be vice president, since Johnson was a War Democrat. In November the Lincoln -Johnson was elected. Lincoln was assasinated only six weeks after Johnson was sworn in as vice president.

Angry at the assassination Johnson was at first inclined to be vindictive in his treatment of the Confederate leaders, who also represented the privileged class that he hated. His attitude towards the Confederacy won him the approval of the militant wing of the Republican Party (Radical Republicans). However , to the surprise of the Radicals, Johnson soon dropped these unitive activities for more constructive tasks. He began with the Johnsonian Reconstruction which was at first accepted with the readmission of the Southern States.

Then the Radicals were outraged at this refusal to admit that the Southern states were traitors. A long battle between the president and Congress began. The Radicals passed a bill to enlarge the scope of the Freedmens Bureau, which Congress had established in March 1865 to help the freed slaves. Johnson vetoed the bill. In July a second bill was enacted over his veto. The Radicals were already angered with the president this just enraged them even more. The Tenure of Office Act was passed in 1867.

This act forbade the president from removing federal office holders including Cabinet members, without the consent of the Senate. The other acts were vetoed by Johnson, but were passed over his veto. Congress now seemed all-powerful since the majority was Republican. The Tenure of Office Act angered Johnson , and even more were the acts that followed. The Secretary of War Stanton had been cooperating with the Radicals from the beginning of Johnsons presidency. In August 1867, while Congress was adjouned, Johnson suspended Stanton and named General Ulysses S. Grant to the post.

In January 1868 the Senate refused to accept Stantons suspension. When Grant stepped out in favor of Stanton, the president again dismissed Stanton and appointed General Lorenzo Thomas as Secretary of War. Congress seized on the Stanton affair to remove Johnson from the presidency. On Febuary 24,1868, a resolution of impeachment was passed by the House of Representatives, and a committee was appointed to report the articles of impeachment against the president. The committee consisted of seven Radicals, including Thaddeus Stevens, all of whom had voted for the impeachment resolution.

By March 4 the committee had prepared 11 articles of impeachment, and on March 5 Chief Justice Chase began presiding over the impeachment trial of President Johnson before the Senate. Of the 11 articles of impeachment, 10 were related to Johnsons violation of the Tenure of Office Act. The president did not want to personally participate in trial. He left his defense to lawyers, who easily proved that the presidents purpose in removing Stanton had been to test the constitutionality of the Tenure of Office Act. Johnsons lawyers argued that the act did not pertain to Stanton, since he ad been appointed by Lincoln, not by Johnson.

The act applied to Cabinet officers, but only for the term of office of the president who had appointed them. On May 16 and May 26,1868,the Senate voted on three articles of impeachment. The Radicals had been pressing hard for a solid Republican vote, which would have given them more than two-thirds majority required for conviction. Surprisingly seven Republicans joined 12 Democrats in voting against conviction. The final count of 35 to 19 was one vote short of the two-thirds majority needed for a conviction. Johnson was acquitted.

Andrew Jackson – the authors words, was “mild, polite, polished, benevolent, and democratic”

Andrew Jackson, in the authors words, was “mild, polite, polished, benevolent, and democratic. ” It would not be in anyones favor to question the validity of the his words, but to understand them with unrestrained faith in those words will help to insure complete insight into the book. Moreover, this book stresses the immortal fact that Jacksons private life had as much irony and agony as his political/outside life did. With those factors understood, Jacksons life and the times he lived in, will become clear to all.

The important point to understand about most things in this world is the nature of their origins, Andrew Jackson is no different. Born with no idea as to what his father looks like, Andrew Jackson Jr. , third son from Elizabeth and Andrew Jackson Sr. , will be raised at the home of Elizabeths sister and brother-in-law, the Crawfords in the state of South Carolina. Andrew Jackson Sr. descended from a long line Ulster families that were thrown out of Ireland, seeking refuge in the United States, made their home in South Carolina.

Jackson Sr. ying suddenly before his sons birth, left Andrew to grow up without a male parental figure. Living in the Crawfords gave young Andrew little rewards; he was given very little schooling of basic reading, writing, and figuring. So, how, in fact, does a man that receives less education than the average American at that time, not to mention the likes of John Adams or Thomas Jefferson, be, in the many historians minds, greater than Adams or Jefferson? The long answer to that question will start when “Andy” as the young, and slim Jackson is called, attains to the age of 13.

The year was 1780, British troops had taken South Carolina, Andys oldest brother had joined the American regiment fighting in their home town, but died due to heat exhaustion in battle. At the sight of his deceased brother Hugh, Jackson joins the army as a mounted messenger. After the fighting halted, both Andrew Jackson and his brother Robert (who had also joined the American army by now) went back home to the Crawfords. Even though official battles had been temporarily stopped, the “civil war” raged on as Patriots fought Tories in the towns of South Carolina, catching young Andrew Jackson in the midst of the fight.

In one bloody encounter, Jackson and his brother were taken prisoner by British dragoons. A British officer ordered Andrew to clean his boots. The boy refused, claiming his right as a prisoner of war not to be treated like a servant. The furious officer whipped out his sword and slashed at the boys head. Luckily for Jackson, his stealth saved him from certain death, but leaving him with scars on his left hand and head which he carried with him his whole life, along with a hatred for the British.

Thrown into prison camp, Elizabeth Jackson would not let her sons rot in British cells, and making deals for exchange of prisoners, got her sons in the trade. Alas, Robert died during the trip home, and Elizabeth was barely able to save Andrew. Being the courageous woman that she was, Elizabeth Jackson made a journey to Charlestown Harbor, where she intended to help American soldiers sick in British prison ships, but while nursing the plague-ridden men, she caught cholera herself and died. Andrew Jacksons response, “I felt utterly alone”, was all that needed to conclude his feelings about events at that time.

The following years after that, until he ventured into politics, included going from city to city in South Carolina seeking the horse-race and drinking his heart out. Uncontrolled and unrestrained by anyone or anything besides money, Andrew would come to see and do almost everything imaginable at that time in the United States. He had also gone into various professions, from teaching to law. It was at law where he began his rise to politics. On the road to becoming a lawyer, Jacksons first stop was be apprentice to Spruce MaCay, in North Carolina.

But simply being apprentice wasnt enough, Jackson left MaCay after two years, and when he finally got admitted to the state bar, he began drifting about the local courts, taking a case here and there. It wasnt until an old friend made him the public prosecutor of the new Western District of North Carolina that he got his first major break as a lawyer. Now in his twenties, Jackson finally gains wealth and becomes a indispensable lawyer to the speculators in Nashville, N. Carolina. It was also during this time, that Andrew Jackson takes a wife.

He had an intimate relationship with the landladys daughter Rachel that he lived with during his time in Nashville but could not move in on her because she was married. Her husband left her, and by the fall of 1790, rumor had spread that he was ready for divorce. Andrew and Rachel then got married, but this event became an issue because of the fact that Rachels husbands divorce was only a rumor, where, in later years, in the great game of politics, the issue would be brought up over and over again that Andrew Jackson committed ungentlemen-like bigamy. Marriage had brought Jackson a few miles ahead in the road through politics.

Being the very influential family that Rachel Donelson was from, she helped provide Jackson with enough political and economic boost to become one of the richest men on the Western Frontier. Due to his vast holdings, and his leadership on this new state called “Tennessee”, Andrew Jackson landed a seat in the U. S. Senate. Showing very little political ambition, and not accomplishing a whole lot, Jackson soon resigns his seat. It was after his senate resigning that Jackson would become major general of the militia of Tennessee and where his great accomplishments in the battle field start.

During the War of 1812, General Jackson, with his troop of 2,500 men, was to march to Natchez, at the tip of the Mississippi, to prepare strikes on either Pensacola, Mobile, or New Orleans. But unfortunately the War Department in Congress recalled his troops, and along the hardship-filled way back (through Indian territory, without pay, transportation, or medicine) to Nashville, Jackson received the nickname that would cling to him forever-Old Hickory-because of his willingness to walk alongside his troops in support, comforted the sick, encouraged the weary, and doled out rations.

Shortly after he had received the Old Hickory name came Jacksons greatest victory courtesy of the battle of New Orleans which ended the War of 1812. The time was following Napoleon Bonapartes defeat in France, Great Britain had now assembled a troop of 14,000 men to attack the U. S. in three directions: top from Lake Champlain, Chesapeake Bay in the middle, and New Orleans in the south. The Lake Champlain and Chesapeake Bay campaigns were easy victories for Britain, but the most important battle rested in New Orleans, even with their victories, the tide can turn with a win by General Jackson in New Orleans against the British.

Recruiting two regiments of African Americans, dastardly employing pirates, it is still known as a miracle today that he pulls off this great win considering that the odds of 7:3 against the Americans which make this battle even more memorable. “New Years Day, 1815, General Edward Pakenham of Great Britain commands his (7,000) troops to begin a heavy bombardment of the American positions. In two hours of steady fire, the British were outgunned; they failed to breach the American line. Pakenham then came up with an unworkable plan.

He would hurl all his power straight ahead through the Americans well-prepared fortifications. It meant committing thousands of his redcoats to a frontal assault in the hop that their superior numbers would shatter the American resistance. Fighting starts at dawn on the eighth of January, the files of soldiers made two direct attacks in the face of deadly rifle and artillery fire. All the Americans had to do was shoot them down as them came. The British broke completely and fled the field. ”

Some years after that great victory in Orleans, once he regains his health in his Hermitage, Jackson enters politics in the form of assuming the newest state (Florida) to enter the Unions governorship. And after a few years of that, at the age of 55, but, “looking 65”, he is once again elected into the U. S. Senate. The interesting event that occurs during his third stint on the Senate is that now, the idea of Andrew Jackson as the next president of the United States has suddenly crept into everyones mind. The stage was now set for the greatest election the world has known in that time.

Jacksons candidacy had come from state legislatures due to the collapse of the party caucus system. Backed by one of the best politician in the U. S. at that time (William B. Lewis) and one of the wealthiest men (John Overton), his campaign was destined to be a success. His opponents were John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts, who was the Secretary of State; Henry Clay of Kentucky, majority leader of the House of Representatives; Secretary of War from South Carolina, John C. Calhoun, and William Crawford of Georgia, the Secretary of the Treasury.

Due to lack of support for himself, and the apparent overwhelming support for Jackson, Calhoun withdrew from the race and joined Andrew Jacksons forces as the vice-presidential candidate. As the campaign went on, Jacksons men had to sway voters by saying one thing in one state, while his men in another state would contradict that same statement, making him seem like a vote-monger in the eyes of many people and to which his opponents used as a weapon against him. But, alas, Jackson was not to be denied votes since he stood so firmly on the issue of slavery.

Defending slavery caused him to finish with the most popular votes overall, but did not get enough votes to win the electoral college. Upon which case, the irony of this election started. It so happened that Henry Clay wound up as the last of the candidates to have a chance at the presidency, and since Jackson, Adams, and Crawford now needed to win by vote in the House of Representatives, Clay, being Speaker of the House, struck a deal with his least hated person out of the three, which was Adams. So therefore, Adams getting the support of the leader of the House, wins the election of 1824, much to the dismay of Jackson.

At this point in time, angry Old Hickory makes plans to usurp and defeat Adams in 1828 following the possible “corrupt bargain” that was struck between Clay and Adams. Andrew Jackson and his followers now formed the Democratic Party. With men such as Martin Van Buren and John C. Calhoun campaigning and propagandizing on his behalf, he found Campaign 28 to be an easy victory, despite vast accusations about his personal life from opponents that led to the saddest day in Andrew Jacksons life when Rachel, reacting to pamphlets about her alleged affair with Andrew, and other assorted gossip, grows ill and dies.

This event shocked and made Jackson utter the words, “I feel utterly alone” once again in his life: but he strives on, being the Old Hickory that he is, and inaugurates as the 7th President of the United States of America. One of the most memorable items during Jacksons terms was his “Kitchen Cabinet”, which consisted of Francis P. Blair, Amos Kendall, Isaac Hill and William Lewis; all of whom are newspaper editors with the exception of Lewis. The four men would assist in close matters with Jackson, who does not really trust the competence of his Congressional Cabinet.

These mens ideas helped shape Jacksons administrative policy, but in no way did they dictate what Jackson said or did, because he was “master in his own White House”. That label would soon come to bestow upon him the honor of being one of the most “king-like” presidents in history, due to his over-excessive use of the veto power. Andrew Jacksons greatest battle in the political ground also resulted in his re-election when he started his War against the Bank (of the United States).

The Banks story begins with Alexander Hamilton, who made Congress pass the Banks charter in 1791, it was meant to stabilize the governments finances and establish its credit. Partly private, partly government-financed and -controlled, it became the cornerstone of the American economy by providing a safe place to deposit the governments funds, lend the government money when needed, regulate state banks lending, issue bank notes, and collect taxes. The Banks charter had ended in 1811, but in 1816, President Madison rechartered the Bank for twenty years.

By the Panic of 1819, when (land) speculative fever pushed people to the brink of bankruptcy and failure, state and local banks also arrived at that point because they made loans that they did not have equal amounts in gold or silver to back up. Distrust everywhere, by mostly everyone in the system of the Bank had arrived at an all time high. But a resurgence by the bank in the 1820s, led by its young, handsome, and energetic president, Nicholas Biddle, allowed it to survive. Biddle continues to do well until the early 1830s, when he tries to recharter the bank. He tried to appeal to Jackson for recharter.

It is interesting to see that what fueled Jacksons anger towards the Bank of the United States was his own misfortune at the hands of it: during a time where he had planned to open a merchandise store, but a land-speculating deal gone awry, mainly because of Bank of the United State bank notes, forced him to forfeit his plans on the merchandise store, and left him in poverty for a time. And so with that hatred, Jackson makes this great fight against the bank, charging that the bank was the beneficiary of special privilege, granted a monopoly of the governments business by charter.

That monopoly worked for the aristocrats, and hurt the common man. Not only was the bank evil, but it was also unconstitutional. With that said, President Jackson rallied the people behind him in the stand on the Bank of the U. S. So in the election of 1832, Henry Clay, the opponent of Jackson, supports the Banks recharter, and therefore loses the election. With his last breadth at a time of his greatest power, Clay gathers enough votes in Congress to pass a recharter of the Bank; but Jackson vetoes it, and that ended the life of the first Bank of the United States.

With that beening his greatest use of the veto power, President Andrew Jackson becomes “King Andrew I” that so many people portrayed him to be. In the totally contradicting statement, he cannot be that because him and his followers started the democratic party, which was essentially the party for the people! Ending, it is interesting to see how his early childhood and wife shaped him, from being juvenile teenager, to the Old Hickory millions have come to praise. Knowledge/Insights The new knowledge that Ive gained from this book complements the ones Ive received reading Hofstadter.

Where Hofstadter tells me mainly of the political side into the life of Jackson, this book gave me feelings and emotions towards Jacksons life. In a sense, Hofstadter has a touch of “coldness” about his works, whereas the author of this book gives Andrew Jackson a heart. Also, I see the great detail implemented in this book, or lack thereof from our text books which causes me to wonder about the quality of our textbooks, and that maybe I should always read a biography of a character in American History every time someone famous is mentioned in the textbooks.

My insight into this book is that as most biographies go, this one is truly exemplary. Not only does it tell of one of the most interesting men that ever graced this earth, it tells it in a melodramatic way, from the unparalleled reactions of Jacksons shooting of Charles Dickinson to Jackson hopeless mourning over the corpse of his dead wife, as he “(hopes) vainly for signs of returning life(in her)”. Jacksons pure energy, raw emotion, as shown in the Battle of new Orleans, where even sick, he can give orders to win the battle, is truly mind-boggling.

Also, being the first ever “self-made” man and president, he is truly a character that seems almost fictional in the way he can transcend from one thing to another. His survival at the hands of several duels, and to live to the incredible age of 78 with several bullets lodged in his chest from duels, truly shows how incredible a man Jackson had been. The statement that he was “born poor and died rich” fits Andrew Jackson perfectly. My most important insight into this book is that if you take away the politics and egotistical displays of power, and make the Battle of New Orleans the focus, Jackson would make a great hero for young kids.

Also, if you strip away his machinations with battle and fighting, you could make Jackson to be the true self-made man that Abraham Lincoln is, in the rise to politics. Relationship Between Book & 19th Century American History This books intricate relation to developments of the 19th century include the rights and questions of slavery, the American Frontier and its ideals of the “self-made” man, and questions about the rights of Indians to their lands. Regarding the slavery issue, the book tells clearly of Andrew Jacksons dealings as a “average” slave holding.

By “average”, I mean that he would probably not do anymore or less to hurt or command his slaves around than anyone else would in other plantations. To that end, what he cannot possibly condone was runaways; he would pay extra for slave catchers to have the runaways lashed in the effort to teach obedience. Andrew Jackson is a very commanding and forceful person by nature, and when slaves step out of line, he had the right to punish them, so he feels no sorrow for either peoples-black or red-only contempt.

In one time, during a raid on a Negro Fort before Florida had joined the Union, Jackson and his soldier massacred free blacks, just because of the “slave-holders desire to enslave or kill blacks enjoying their lives in freedom. ” Slave trading contributed to those ideas that regarded him as the first “self-made” man/president. Abraham Lincoln mightve been the best example of a “self-made” man, but Andrew Jackson was the forefather of that ideology. Having born into poverty, and struggled most of his life through poverty, he climbed the first step in the ladder of success by knowing that the step was in the practice of law.

After some years of practice, it paid off, eventually leading to his marriage into aristocracy to Rachel Donelson. Out of all three of these relationships into 19th century American History, Andrew Jacksons thoughts and acts towards the Native Americans is the most intensified subject. In this field, Jackson typified the “white man that would cheat the Indian out of land he did not own in the first place! ” President Jacksons greatest action towards Indian removal came in the form of the Trail of Tears.

This started in the state of Georgia, where the Cherokee nation was “catching” up to the white man, and as a measure of defense or out of fear, as Calhoun states, “The whole trouble with the Cherokees, , was precisely their progress in civilization. ” Jackson, whom sometime ago made treaties and talked of peace with the “5 civilized tribes” of the Southeast, is now driving the Cherokees out of land that the “white, middle-classed” man wants. And so, with the Indian Removal Act of 1830, the Cherokee Indian population was forced to move from Georgia into what is now Oklahoma, losing about 1/4th of the total population along the way.

Merits and Assessment My assessment as to the merit of this book is that it is one of great moral and intellectual integrity. It cannot stress more on the moral side as it unbiasly tells the reader the whole truth about Andrew Jacksons love life, family life, war life, and political life. This book is intellectually stimulating, making you feel the urge to somehow, some way, relive the life of Jackson, but you know that is not possible, so you go and reread the book again. Andrew Jackson and His America clearly depicts emotions, and even though there is no open dialogue, you get a sense of what the characters feel during trying times.

To What Extent Was Jacksonian Democracy Democratic

During the administration of Andrew Jackson, the United States was a nation of change both politically and socially. American society was a society of opportunity. Americans felt that, given a chance, they could make a better life for themselves. This was the era of the common people, the era of democracy. Andrew Jackson appealed to the American people because he stood for values many regarded with favor. However democratic Jackson may seem, he was more tyrant-like than any of his predecessors.

His major offerings to the nation included majority rule and a popular presidency, however offered no benefits to women, African Americans, nor Native Americans. Jacksonian Democracy was in no way democratic. Before Jackson’s time, voters expected public officials to use their own best judgment in electing. Under Jacksonian Democracy, the people came to believe that officials should act according to the demands of the people. To make government respond more directly to the popular will, state and local governments began to fill some positions such as judges, constables, and public surveyors by election rather than appointment.

The terms of office were also shortened so that popular opinion had a more direct effect on the actions of elected officials. Thus, the government under Jackson became the people’s government, although he retained a tight grasp, using his veto often. As new voters made demands on government, they learned the power of political organization. National issues became as much topics of conversation as local issues had always been. As national parties built stronger state and local ties, they began to rely upon a growing number of “professional politicians. ” These changes helped to initiate the spoils system.

This practice of appointing people to government positions based on party loyalty and party service was not an entirely new development, but Jackson was the first to oust large numbers of government employees in order to appoint his followers to office. He argued that there should be a rotation in office. Some believed that the spoils system set a poor precedent. Jackson amplified presidential power by using the veto more than all previous presidents. On the “Women’s Rights” issue, Jacksonian Democracy did nothing to further the female cause. Only in sparse states were women allowed to control property, and nowhere were they allowed to vote.

There were few schools for women and they were assumed subordinate to men. Whereas some women in some states made some strides under Jackson’s rule, Native Americans and African Americans did not. Jacksonian Democracy had nothing to offer these two minorities. Most Americans believed that the area between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains, “The Great American Desert,” would provide a permanent Native American reservation. Jackson often spoke about protecting the Native Americans from fraud and of how humane the government’s removal policy was, but the policy as carried out was cruel.

In Georgia, the Cherokee Indians had developed a lifestyle that included schools, mills, and turnpikes. In the 1820’s, under pressure from the state to give up their lands, they wrote a constitution, hired lawyers, and sued in the Supreme Court. Chief Justice John Marshall upheld the rights of the Cherokee against Georgia. However, Jackson refused to carry out the decision that ordered Georgia to return Cherokee lands. He is quoted as to have said, “Marshall has made his opinion, now let him enforce it. ” When the Cherokee resisted the governments “generous” offer of lands farther west, Jackson sent in the army.

Forced from their homes to what is now Arkansas and Oklahoma, 4,000 Native Americans died of starvation, disease, or exposure on the march that the Cherokee called the “Trail of Tears. ” This is in no way democratic, but it seems very much like despotism. By 1840, the government had moved the entire Indian population still living east of the Mississippi to reservations. Although most citizens supported Jackson’s Native American removals, a few leaders, like Henry Clay, said that Jackson’s attitude stained the nation’s honor. Religious denominations, especially Methodists and Quakers, also denounced the harsh treatment of Native Americans.

The inhumane and despicable treatment of the Native Americans who turned to the government for help were only further spurned by that same government. There are many documents supporting the belief that Jacksonian Democracy was hardly democratic, including Alexis de Tocqueville’s Democracy in America, the South Carolinian Legislature’s “Address to the People of The United States,” Jackson’s own message vetoing the recharter of the Bank of the United States, and Edward Everett’s speech before congress regarding the inhumane removal policies of the United States.

All of these documents, as has been aforementioned above, show that Jacksonian democracy was in not democratic. His veto of the recharter of the bank of the United States was only denying the people of an efficient way to fund their living government and to keep their delegates incomes on record. It is apparent that Jackson had a problem with this. Maybe he did not want his spending to be monitored. He says, “It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes. Perhaps “King Andrew I” was not especially wealthy, but he did have power.

With this power he undermined the people and our nation to further his own selfish privileges. He should have followed his own advice. Jackson’s own vice-president, John C. Calhoun, proposed the Nullification issue. It seems that distrust of Jackson’s motives reached up into the lofty tiers of the government. Calhoun wanted to reassert the states rights over Jackson’s maniacal regime out of fear that “King Andrew I” might become a tyrant.

The legislature of Calhoun’s own South Carolina stated this desire quite clearly in the following quote. “We hold, then, that on their separation from the Crown of Great Britain, the several colonies became free and independent States, each enjoying the separate and independent right of self-government . . . ” Andrew Jackson even went against the decisions of the Supreme Court, thus violating the rock on which our government was built, the Constitution. He completely disregarded Marshall’s decree and sent the army in to force the Indians from their native homes in Georgia.

This disgusting display of the broad sword of government is a disgrace to our nation’s legacy. Tocqueville, a foreigner, came to the United States to study American prison reform, but was so disgusted with the way our society was and how our government functioned under Jackson that he changed the focus of his study to an analysis of democracy. He saw democracy by our example as “far from accomplishing all it projects with skill” and that “Democracy does not give people the most skillful government. Jackson’s example of democracy was horrible.

Jacksonian Democracy seems to be a zeugma, two contrasting things put together to make a comparison. Andrew Jackson never had any intention of broadening our democracy, only to make his ends meet. Through the way he treated Native Americans, African Americans, women, and many other minority groups, Jackson showed his ignorance in fulfilling one of the most pressing tasks of the president, to represent the people. To no extent was Jacksonian Democracy democratic.

President Woodrow Wilson

President Woodrow Wilson regarded himself as the personal representative of the people. “No one but the President,” he said, “seems to be expected … to look out for the general interests of the country”(Internet 1). He developed a program of progressive reform and asserted international leadership in building a new world order. In 1917 he proclaimed American’s entrance into World War I a crusade to make the world “safe for democracy. ” Wilson had seen the difficulties of war. He was born in Virginia in 1856.

The son of a Presbyterian minister who during the Civil War as a pastor in Augusta, Georgia, and during Reconstruction a professor in the charred city of Columbia, South Carolina. After graduation from Princeton (then the College of New Jersey) and the University of Virginia Law School, Wilson earned his doctorate at Johns Hopkins University and entered upon an academic career. In 1885 he married Ellen Louise Axson. Wilson advanced rapidly as a conservative young professor of political science and became president of Princeton in 1902. His growing national reputation led some conservative Democrats to consider him Presidential material.

First they persuaded him to run or Governor of New Jersey in 1910. In that campaign he asserted his independence of the conservatives and of the machine that had nominated him, endorsing a progressive platform, which he pursued as governor. He was nominated for President at the 1912 Democratic Convention and campaigned on a program called the New Freedom, which stressed individualism and states’ rights. In the three-way election he received only 42 percent of the popular vote but an overwhelming electoral vote. Wilson dealt with Congress very effectively in his presidency. On April 2,1917, he asked Congress for a declaration of war on

Germany. Massive American effort slowly tipped the balance in favor of the Allies. Wilson went before Congress in January 1918, to pronounce American war aims through a a series of ideas he had known as the Fourteen Points, this would establish a general association of nations indubitably guaranteeing political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. After the Germans signed the Armistice in November 1918, Wilson went to Paris to try to build an enduring peace. He later presented to the Senate the Versailles Treaty, containing the Covenant of the League of Nations.

The Versailles Treaty was seven votes shy of being ratifid by the senate. The President, against the warnings of his doctors, had made a national tour to mobilize public sentiment for the treaty. President Wilson had aswell have many interventions in countries such as: New Mexico, Mexico, Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua Exhausted, he suffered a stroke and nearly died. Tenderly nursed by his second wife, Edith Bolling Galt, he lived until 1924. The League of Nations was a former international organization that was formed after WORLD WAR I to promote international peace and security.

The League of Nations was provided int he use of the Fourteen Points. The basis of the League, the Covenant, was written into the Treaty of Versailles and other peace treaties and provided for an assembly, a council, and a secretariat. A system of colonial mandates was also set up. The U. S. , which failed to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, never became a member. Based in Geneva, the League proved useful in settling minor international disputes, but was unable to stop aggression by major powers, Japan’s occupation of Manchuria (1931), Italy’s conquest of Ethiopia (1935-36), and Germany’s eizure of Austria (1938).

It collapsed early in World War II and dissolved itself in 1946. The League established the first pattern of permanent international organization and served as a model for its successor, the UNITED NATIONS. The Treaty of Versailles, signed on 1871 at the end of the Franco-Prussian War by Bismarck. France was forced to give up most of Alsace and Lorraine, pay a large indemnity, and accept a German army of occupation. The Versailles Treaty of 1919 is the most famous of the treaties because it was the chief one ending World War I.

The Big Four negotiating it were President WIlson, Premier Clemenceau, Prime Minister Llyod George, and Premier Oralndo. The treaty called for the creation of the League of Nations. It forced on Germany the burden of reperations and placed limits on German armed forces. It restored Alsace and Lorraine to France, gave Prussian Poland and most of West Prussia to Poland, made Danzig a free city, put Germany’s colonies under the League of Nations, placed the Saar under French administration, called for plebiscites in various territories newly freed from the Central Powers, mand called for the emilitarization of the Rhineland.

American opposition to the League of Nations resulted in the refusal of the U. S. Senate to ratify the treaty. In 1935, Adolf Hitler unilaterally abrogated most of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty of Paris was one of the most important treaties signed at or near Paris. The Treaty of 1763 was signed by Great Britain, France, and Spain. Together with the Treaty of Hubertusburg it ended the Seven Years War. “France lost Canada to Britain, Cuba and the Philippines were restored to Spain, and India in effect passed to Britain”(Internet 2).

From this treaty dated the colonial and maritime supremacy of Britain. In the Treaty of 1783 Great Britain formally acknowledged the independence of the Thirteen Colonies as the U. S. The treaty also fixed the boundaries of the new nation. In addition, the warring European powers-Britain against France and Spain, with the Dutch as armed neutrals-effected a large-scale peace settlement. Spain reacquired the Floridas and Minorca from Britain, and Britain relinquished its restrictions on the French port of Dunkirk. Otherwise, the territorial dispositions of the 1763 Treaty of Paris were reaffirmed.

The Treaty of 1814 was concluded between France on the one hand and Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia on the other after the first abdication of NApoleon I. Its provisions never went into effect owing to the return of Napoleon from Elba and the resumption of the war. The Treaty of 1815 was signed after Napoleon’s final surrender. Many provisions of the treaty of 1814 and the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna remained binding. France was reduced to its 1790 borders and was forced to pay 700 million francs in reparations plus the costs of an army of occupation for five years. After World

War I severeal treaties were signed (1919-20) in or near Paris, the most important of which was the Treaty of Versailles After World War II separate treaties were signed (1947) by the Allies at or near Paris with Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Finland. Woodrow Wilson had interventions with New Mexico. President Wilson had two fronts to worry about; Mexico and Europe. Below his country, the Mexican Revolution was in full swing. Wilson had made his moves in accordance to what he had felt was best for his country and its people. The same went for Europe. He was doing all he could do by just keeping the United States out of the war.

However, in relation to Europe and the World War, Wilson knew that the United States was not going to be able to stay out of the war forever. After all, the Germans were taking a greater toll on the merchant ships in the Atlantic. To truely see the situation, one must look back at the election of 1916. Presidents don’t win elections by telling the people what they don’t want to hear. Wilson was up for re-election that year. He had been campaigning on the platform of peace. His opponent, Charles Hughes, had favored teh idea of the United States getting involved into World War I. Wilson used every political tactic he knew to bring Hughes down.

Hughes was called the “war candidate”(Biography of Woodrow Wilson). Later, Wilson would even use the slogan “Wilson and Peace with Honor, or Hughes with Roosevelt and War? (Internet 1)” So Wilson did what he had to do in order to stay in office. By 1916, Wilson began to realize where his country stood in relation to those that were fighting. He had been paying attention to the press to see the results of the events that were unfolding. In particular, the Battle of the Somme struck President Wilson with deep concern. At this battle, the British were on the offensive against the Germans.

The British command called for a five day assualt with heavy cannon. After the shelling, the soldiers were expected to simply walk over claim the land. The offensive failed and as a result, the British suffered casualties near 70,000 in just a few days time. At that time, the United States military personel numbered less than 150,000. The United States, at that rate, would have only been able to last for a few days if they entered the war. This brings us to the main point of this article; Wilson had to et his armed forces up in numbers without breaking his campaign promise to his people. How was Wilson suppossed to do this?

The answer was Pancho Villa. Pancho Villa was a very predictable man. After the events down in Agua Prieta, Villa was on a one course action, death to all Americans. Villa made his first move in January of 1916. Engineers from El Paso were on their way to open up a mine down in Mexico. They had been given assurances that there was nothing to fear. While enroute by way of rail, the engineers were stopped and pulled off the train. All were put down on their knees and shot in the back of the head. Villa had begun to deliver his promise to the Americans. Wilson was aware of this. All he had to do was to wait for the right moment.

Wilson’s chance came in early March of 1916. Sometime around the 6th of March, U. S. intelligence began to send reports to Washington that Villa and his men had been seen along the border near Columbus. These reports would continue up until the 9th of March when Villa finally made his attack. Although history plays the attack as a suprise, events leading up to the attack suggest that the U. S. government knew of Villa’s location and intentions. Just prior to the attack, Lieutenant George Patton, who was being stationed at Columbus, was ordered, along with the remaining officers, to leave for a polo match near Deming, New Mexico.

Patton would later remark in his diary that he had never played the sport before. Also, when the attack did occur, the press made a big deal about the machine guns being still in their storage cases. Had Columbus known of Villa’s location, it would have been likely that the machine guns would probably had been readied. Throughout his presidency, Wilson showed a pattern of bullying and deception, and great desire o involve the American people in wars that they had no desire to get into. The first example is Mexico.

Wilson had an intense personal hatred of Mexico’s President, General Victotiano Huerta, because he had suppressed a left-wing revolution. This hatred led Wilson to try to provoke a war with Mexico. He got his chance when a small number of Americans where arrested in Mexican port of Tampico. Knowing that Wilson was looking for an exuse for war, Huerta immediately ordered the release of the Americans, and personally apologized to them for the incident. But Wilson would not let the situation end at that. He emanded more apologies, and even worse demanded that some of the Mexicans involved salute the American flag!

Imagine if you were a soldier in the American Army and were ordered by a foreign leader to salute a foreign flag. Of course the Mexicans refused, so Wilson got his chance to start a war, and launched a surprise attack on the barely defended Mexican city of Vera Cruz. Fortunately for the youth of both countries, Huerta was not as eager for war as Wilson. So he got several Latin American governments to intercede. Wilson demanded that any peace be on the condition of Huerta stepping down as president of Mexico.

Abraham Lincoln Essay

Abraham Lincoln once said, “I claim not to have controlled events, but confess plainly that events have controlled me” (“Letter to Albert G. Hodges” 281 as qtd. in R. J. Norton 1). In accordance with his quote, when President Lincoln issued the unprecedented Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, Lincoln freed slaves in the Southern states, but he and his actions were being controlled by Civil War. The Civil War was fought between 1861 and 1865 between the Northern states, or the Union, and the Southern states, or the Confederacy.

On September 22, 1862, in the midst of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln put forth a Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation (Tackach 45). The document stated that after January 1, 1863, slaves belonging to all Southern states that were still in rebellion would be free (Tackach 45). However, the Emancipation Proclamation had no immediate effect; slavery was not legally prohibited until the Thirteenth Amendment was added to the Constitution in 1865, about three years after the Emancipation Proclamation was decreed (Tackach 9-10). If the Emancipation Proclamation did not completely abolish slavery, what was the point of the document?

Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation was not actually written for the purpose of freeing any slaves. Rather, it was a war tactic to militarily weaken the South, add soldiers to the Union cause, and please abolitionist Northerners. From the start of the Civil War, Lincoln clarified that the goal of the war was not “‘to put down slavery, but to put the flag back,'” and he refused to declare the war as a war over slavery (Brodie 155 as qtd. in Klingaman 75-76). In a letter to Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune, in August 1862, Lincoln wrote: “My paramount object in this struggle is not either to save or destroy slavery.

If I could save the Union without freeing [any] slave I would do it” (Selected Speeches 343 as qtd. in Tackach 44). Lincoln also refused to declare that slavery was the Civil War’s main focus because many Whites in the North and in the much-valued Border States would not agree with a war to free slaves since they believed Blacks were inferior to Whites (Wheeler 225-226). The political and military advantages of the Border States made Lincoln reluctant to proclaim the Civil War to be a war about slavery (Wheeler 225-226).

Even Jefferson Davis, president of the enemy Confederacy, disagreed with a war about slavery (Wheeler 226). Then why did President Lincoln, in the midst of a war he claimed was not about slavery, issue the Emancipation Proclamation? The Emancipation Proclamation itself answers the question, stating that Lincoln was freeing the Southerners’ slaves, “upon military necessity” (“The Emancipation Proclamation” as qtd. in Klingaman 232). Lincoln freed Southern slaves, “as a fit and necessary war measure for suppressing rebellion” (“The Emancipation Proclamation” as qtd. Klingaman 231).

President Lincoln took advantage of his position as Commander-in-Chief of the United States, as well as his ability to act without Congress’ consent, and issued the Emancipation Proclamation for military reasons (Heinrichs 15). Lincoln knew that the proclamation would prove to be a useful tool of defense during the fierce Civil War. It can only be concluded that Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation for somewhat selfish reasons, as to increase the North’s chances of victory in the Civil War.

By issuing a document that freed slaves, the North could undoubtedly gain foreign allies, and at the same time deprive the South of their foreign support. Great Britain was supportive of the South’s secession from the Union because Britain relied on the South’s cotton (Tackach 43). Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts claimed to Lincoln that since Great Britain was anti-slavery, if Lincoln would change the Civil War’s main focus to slavery, the abolitionist North would gain Britain’s support (Tackach 43).

By issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, Lincoln changed the Civil War’s focal point from secession to slavery, transferring Great Britain’s support from the Confederacy to the Union (Tackach 43). In fact, the original reason why Jefferson Davis did not want the war to revolve around slavery was to prevent loss of support from foreign governments (Wheeler 226). In addition, should the Southern slaves be freed, the South would lose certain advantages that slavery presented them with. Some slave owners forced their slaves to aid the Southern war cause by working for the Confederate army (Tackach 45).

Also, slaves tended to their owners’ plantations, allowing the owners to enlist in the Confederate army without having to worry about their land’s upkeep (Tackach 43). Should the Emancipation Proclamation be issued, the Confederate army would lose beneficial slave labor, resulting in the loss of many soldiers, since many plantation owners would be forced to return home to maintain their land (Tackach 43, 45). Furthermore, the Emancipation Proclamation stated that the United States government would take no action against freed slaves exercising their freedom (Tackach 45).

Northerners believed that freed slaves would rise up, rebel and therefore weaken the South with this additional method (Wheeler 227). In most wars, the overall sum of troops has a considerable impact on the war’s outcome. In the Civil War, Lincoln utilized the newly freed slaves and gained a military advantage by allowing them to enlist in the Union army (Tackach 47). Lincoln referred to Blacks fighting for the Union as “‘the great available and yet unavailed of force for restoring the Union'” (“Letter to Governor Andrew Johnson” as qtd. Norton et al 288).

Altogether, 185,000 Blacks fought for the Union army, about ten percent of the total sum of Union troops throughout the Civil War (Tackach 54, Wheeler 255). Over 37,000 former slaves died fighting for the Union army (Heinrichs 28). The amount of enlisted Blacks undoubtedly helped secure the North’s victory in the Civil War. Eventually, Jefferson Davis allowed Blacks to fight in the Confederate army (Wheeler 224-225). But with no records of Blacks’ combat, Davis’ decision to use Black troops came too late (Wheeler 257, 224-225).

The South’s lack of Black soldiers and ultimate defeat reflect how advantageous and strategic Black soldiers were in the Civil War. Military advantage was not the only matter persuading Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation; Northerners’ pleas for abolition also influenced Lincoln’s decision to free Southern slaves. In the beginning of the Civil War, Northerners did not actively oppose slavery (Klingaman 21-22). But as the war progressed, more and more Northerners began to believe that abolition of slavery went along with defeat of the South (Klingaman 81).

One reason for the change of heart was the impact of eyewitness accounts of slavery’s brutality (Article: “Emancipation Proclamation” 1). During the Civil War, many Union soldiers situated in the South witnessed the horrors of slavery and informed their families of the cruelty they had seen (Article: “Emancipation Proclamation” 1). Due to these eyewitness accounts, Northerners sympathized with slaves, leading to increased favor of abolition (Article: “Emancipation Proclamation” 1). By January 1862, about half the Union soldiers wanted slavery to be obliterated (Klingaman 92).

Many Northerners agreed with Massachusetts clergyman Thomas W. Higginson’s quote that stated, “‘the idea of conquering rebellion without destroying slavery is only to be equaled by the idea of storming hell without disturbing the personal comfort of the devil'” (Hunt 159 as qtd. in Klingaman 81). A common statement among Northerners, voiced by an Iowan citizen, proclaimed, “‘I believe that slavery (the worst of all curses) was the sole cause of this Rebellion, and until this cause is removed and slavery abolished, the rebellion will continue to exist'” (McPherson 118 as qtd. Klingaman 92).

Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation to silence such pleas for abolition from Northerners, and because “abolitionist sentiment in the Northpushed Lincoln to consider abolishing slavery” (“Writing” 1). Lincoln’s dishonest intentions for the Emancipation Proclamation to help the North militarily, and not to eradicate slavery from the United States, were hinted through weaknesses in the actual Emancipation Proclamation.

First of all, the Emancipation Proclamation stated that only those slaves in the Southern states, and not all slaves in the United States, would be freed on January 1, 1863 (Tackach 9-10). Secondly, the Emancipation Proclamation could only legally apply under certain circumstances. The North would have to win the Civil War; should the South win the war and become its own nation, the Emancipation Proclamation would have no legal effect whatsoever (Tackach 9-10). In addition, the Emancipation Proclamation could only become a United States law through an amendment to the Constitution (Tackach 9-10).

The wording of the Emancipation Proclamation also displays Lincoln’s halfhearted feelings toward freeing Southerners’ slaves: The Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation deemed Southern slaves “forever free,” but in the actual Emancipation Proclamation, Lincoln changed the wording to “free” (Klingaman 228). The Emancipation Proclamation was not even immediately effective in those areas where it did apply: Some Texan slaves did not hear of their freedom until two years after the Emancipation Proclamation had been issued (Heinrichs 24-25). When Lincoln was signing the Emancipation Proclamation, his hand was shaking uncontrollably (Klingaman 227).

Perhaps Lincoln was aware and nervous that he was wrongly freeing slaves for military reasons, and not for the sake of their freedom. Also, Lincoln decreed the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862 only to see how the public would react to such a document (Wheeler 227). If Lincoln was issuing the proclamation for the welfare of slaves, he should not have cared about public opinion. The Emancipation Proclamation achieved very little for the slaves themselves. Lincoln’s Act seemed like both an act of desperation and a selfish document.

The reason why the Lincoln did not free Northern slaves through the Emancipation Proclamation was because Lincoln felt he could gain the upper hand militarily in the Civil War without having to free all United States slaves. Lincoln only freed the Southern slaves since those slaves alone would present Lincoln with enough military advantage to boost the Union’s chances of winning the Civil War. The Emancipation Proclamation wrongly convinced slaves that Lincoln truly cared about their freedom. Lincoln only acted out of concern for his Union, his war, and his place in history.

President John Fitzgerald Kennedy

From the end of the French and Indian War, there was a sense of unity brewing among the colonies. The colonies had to unite in order to overcome a common foe as expressed in the Albany Plan of Union that called a combined effort of defense throughout the colonies. However, even after the French and Indian War the colonies united once again to face an opponent that could not physically be shot down (A).

The tremendous hole that was left in the pocketbooks of Britains be treasury because of the French and Indian wars as well as previous wars caused a change in the economic policy for the colonies in the form of taxing and the enforcement of pre-existing laws. The collective taxing once again pitted the colonists against a common enemy. By the eve of the Revolution, the colonies knew what they were doing, and had defined their identity as no longer British or Englishmen but as Americans.

Even by 1750, the colonists were already a distinct breed of people. Most were of mixed European background. Whether the colonists defined themselves as Americans at this point does not matter. They were a separate type of people who could be found in no other country (H). Yet, this alone would not be strong enough to define them as Americans just yet. The French and Indian War, though, was a major point in colonial unity. After the French and Indian War, colonists began to think of themselves as Americans rather than British or English.

The heavy debt caused by the French and Indian War and other wars left the British only one option: to tax the colonies. To defeat this, the colonies had to unite. For one colony or one town acting alone would have little or no effect and would result only in defeat and even harsher regulations. After the Stamp act was defeated, the colonies fully realized that their only chance of withstanding British attempts to tax them was to come together.

Despite the collective boycotts of all colonies on British goods, the first real test of the colonial unity came when the Townshend acts were declared. In addition to placing new taxes on tea, glass and paper, it also issued writs of assistance (general licenses to search property). More importantly, however, was the suspension of New Yorks assembly for colonial defiance of the Quartering acts. The colonies did not protest the taxes under the Townshend program because they were indirect taxes paid by merchants, but they did stand up for the closing of the colonial assembly of New York.

The suspension of the colonial assembly of New York had no direct influence on the other colonies, but they showed their unity by still rising up against the Townshend program. Parliament itself was beginning to realize the differences between England and the colonies. Edmund Burke realized that America hardly resembled the towns of England, and that the nature of the colonies forbid them from being blended into the empire of England (B).

England could not let the colonies go after they had fought so many wars to gain them, and they could not just not tax them, thus, making revolution inevitable, but not yet fully seen by both sides. The eve of the revolution marked a distinct integration of the colonies. All North America was now firmly united to defend their liberties against every power on Earth that may attempt to take them away (C). Those in the colonies were either for the colonies actions, or against it. They were united together as patriots or loyalists (D).

The patriots were willing to become self-sufficient. They were willing to donate large amounts of food and goods to other colonies (G). Before the fighting broke out at Lexington and Concord on May 19th, 1775, the colonies were indeed ready to become a self-sufficient body. They had defined themselves as Americans. While they may have been somewhat apprehensive (E) about the conflicts at first, they quickly began to thrust full steam at the British threat. Before the eve of revolution, the colonies had already began to assert themselves as Americans and define their unity.

Colin Powell

Everywhere he goes, Colin Powell is besieged. Bicycle messengers in spandex tights stop him on the streets of Washington and urge him to run for President. Waiters at restaurants advise the retired general to aim for the White House. CEOs quietly pledge money should Powell decide to run. Political operatives of both parties would like to ignore Powell–but can’t. “I don’t think about it a lot,” claims a senior White House official, before admitting, “If Powell does run, he will be a significant player.” Another in the White House is more fatalistic: “If he runs, we’re dead.” Says William Lacy, Bob Dole’s top strategist: “If he jumped in the race today, he would be the principal competitor for us.”

Everywhere he goes, Colin Powell is applauded. In the hall in San Diego where the Republican Party will nominate its presidential candidate about a year from now, the crowd is instantly on its feet as his presence is announced and he bounds down to the podium. He speaks for 50 minutes, without notes, taking the crowd through the cold war, through Korea, Vietnam, the fall of the Berlin Wall, Operation Desert Storm and the occupation of Haiti. Powell, 58, tells moving tales of his upbringing in Harlem and the South Bronx, of sitting in the Hall of St. Catherine in the Kremlin, where he heard Gorbachev declare that the cold war was over. And when Powell has delivered his set speech, the inevitable question rises from the floor: “When are you going to announce that you’re running for President?”

The rapt audience carefully weighs the well-rehearsed answer, word by word.

“Thank you very, very much. And I’m very, very flattered. I’m honored and humbled. It’s a question I receive regularly, and I don’t know what I’m going to do with my life after my book is finished. The book is out this fall, and then I’ll have to make some choices.
“I tell people that I’m not a professional politician. I was truly a soldier.”

Another wave of applause washes over him.

“Even after working two years in the West Wing, there isn’t a single one of my White House friends from those days who could tell you today whether they think I’m a Republican or a Democrat. That was part of the code I lived with. Now I’m no longer protected by my uniform. As I go around the country, I’m trying to develop a political philosophy, just to be a good citizen, not necessarily to run for office. “I want to keep the option of elective office open because I think I should do that. Why close off possibilities? I want to be of some service to the nation in the future. I just don’t know if it will be an appointed office, charitable work, educational work…

“I don’t find a passion for politics. I don’t find that I have that calling for politics. But I want to keep the option open … So the only thing I could say in answer to your question is, ‘I don’t know if I’ll ever announce. Just watch this space. I’ll be around somewhere in public life.'”

Clinton, Dole and millions of American voters are watching the Colin Powell space. More than half the country says it wants an independent candidate for President to break up the duopoly enjoyed by the two parties. And in a TIME/CNN poll, nearly a third of the voters say they would vote for Powell in a three-way race against Clinton and Dole, putting the retired general in a virtual dead heat with the candidates of the two major parties.

Moreover, the poll shows that if Powell were the Republican nominee, he would edge Clinton by a few percentage points. In the Republican field, Powell is preferred by 22 percent of G.O.P.-leaning voters, second to Dole’s 43 percent and well ahead of Pat Buchanan and Phil Gramm, each of whom attract only 6 percent. If Powell were Dole’s vice-presidential choice, their ticket would beat Clinton and Al Gore, while a face-off between just Clinton and Dole shows Clinton ahead.

There are four reasons why Powell could emerge as a major figure in the 1996 race:
Powell himself, by disposition, inclination and personal history, is perhaps the ideal candidate to seize the large ideological center of American politics.
Public discontent with the two-party system has been growing over the decades, and the voters who refuse to label themselves Republicans or Democrats outnumber either party’s loyalists.

The 1996 contest is quickly shaping up as a race between a wounded Democratic incumbent and a Republican who is a two-time presidential loser of advancing years and whose record is scrambling to get in synch with the right-wing fervor of his party.

Unhappiness with these options could yield a search for a new candidate.

Perhaps most important, Powell, while he has not decided whether to run, is methodically positioning himself to make his own run for the office either as a Republican or independent, or to be the vice-presidential nominee on the Republican ticket.
No man in modern American political history has ever had a better chance to become President of the U.S. on his own terms, and thus to redefine the public debate in a profound and lasting way. At the same time, no man with such an advantage has seemed less driven to seize the opportunity. This reluctance, in the jujitsu of American politics, is a huge plus for the time being. As the campaign heats up, it will start to become a big negative. A dithering Powell would become the Hamlet of the 1996 race, a kind of Mario Cuomo with medals. It’s not nice to fool with the political affections of the American people. Powell will soon have to say yes or no. Even if he runs as an independent, which would allow him to skip the primary races early next year, he cannot stay on the sidelines much longer and still build the kind of war chest and organization necessary for this campaign.

There is nothing easy about becoming President.

Powell’s appeal makes it less daunting. What exactly lies at its root? Why does nearly everyone who has worked with him sing his praises? Why is his reputation in the cynical, self-aggrandizing world of Washington nearly without blemish? “I’m sure he has faults,” says Charles Duncan, a former Secretary of Energy, who worked with Powell in the Carter Administration, “but I couldn’t point to one.” Some associates have seen Powell as thin-skinned in the past, but they say he monitors his flaws carefully and is quickly “self-correcting.”

Military figures often carry an intrinsic appeal as tough, decisive leaders, and Powell starts with that quality. He advanced rapidly inside the Army, was the youngest Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and got huge credit for his organization of Desert Storm. But his appeal overflows the confines of the armed services. On a photo of Powell and Ronald Reagan going over a document together, Reagan wrote, “If you say so, I know it’s all right.” At a press conference following the mission to Haiti, Powell stole the show from former

President Jimmy Carter, Senator Sam Nunn and President Clinton.

His performance in public is superb. Gerald Ford, who even as President never had such bearing, calls Powell “the best public speaker in America.” In many recent speeches, Powell has taken his audience with him into Buckingham Palace as he received his honorary knighthood from Queen Elizabeth in a way that makes him seem like a regular guy but also reminds people of how much he has accomplished. In San Diego in early June, he had the audience laughing at the little indignities he suffers now that the full power and glory of being Chairman of the Joint Chiefs is no longer his. He tells them he can’t get his wife Alma to make him lunch and says, “One of the saddest figures in all Christendom is the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, once removed, driving around with a baseball cap pulled over his eyes, making his strategic choice as to whether it’s going to be McDonald’s or Taco Bell.”

“He has that rapport good politicians have with people,” says Paul Wolfowitz, former Under Secretary of Defense. “A lot of them go through the motions very well and convince people that they care. Then there are the gifted ones who are really connecting. He does that, and I think it’s related to the fact that there are things he cares deeply about. There is an intensely human quality about Powell that I think is exceptional.”

The personal story of Colin Powell is exemplary. Born in Harlem and raised in the South Bronx, he grew up in a solid and supportive family, worked hard to move up (although not so hard in college, getting only average grades) and succeeded mostly despite his race but sometimes because of it. The Powell success story is reassuring to those Americans who want to believe that although racism persists, the system is not so corrupted by it as to prevent talented minorities from succeeding.

Powell plays to that emotion in his speeches, talking unselfconsciously about race. “How did I deal with racism?” he asked rhetorically at a speech in San Antonio, Texas. “I beat it. I said, ‘I am not going to carry this burden of racism. I’m going to destroy your stereotype. I’m proud to be black. You carry this burden of racism, because I’m not going to.'” He seems to be aware of the peculiar advantages of his race. In 1972, when he was plucked from a successful but still obscure career to become a White House Fellow, he remarked with knowing irony to a friend, “I was lucky to be born black.”

His race also gives Powell license to recognize and even joke about the ethnic differences in America in the face of both tiresome political correctness and simmering racial hatred. In his San Diego speech he parodied a pompous white military officer speaking in empty and orotund phrases. Then he mimicked a black sergeant talking about the coming war in the Persian Gulf: “We gonna kick butt and go home.” Describing an encounter with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin at his White House treaty signing with Yasser Arafat, Powell put on a New York Jewish accent. And he even worked around the edges of gay sensibilities. “Arafat … is so taken with the moment that he starts to pull me toward him and hug me and give me a two-cheek kiss. But I can only stand so much new world order…” The audience laughed with him.

Powell’s views on specific political issues are not fully articulated, and most Americans see him largely in policy-neutral terms. Thus he is something of an empty ideological vessel into which voters pour their own beliefs. But in the scores of speeches he has given since his retirement as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, the message he has crafted is a brilliantly balanced mix of conservative values and a somewhat liberal view of the proper role of government.

His most powerful theme has been the importance of family, of America as a big national family, and of reconciliation among warring forces abroad and hostile groups at home. He repeatedly tells the story of a young African-American soldier being interviewed just before going into battle in Kuwait. The soldier was asked whether he was afraid. “He said,” Powell relates proudly, “‘I am not afraid. And the reason I’m not afraid is that I’m with my family.’ He looked over his shoulder at the other youngsters in his unit. They were white and black and yellow and every color of the American mosaic. ‘That’s my family. We take care of one another.'”

Powell leads toward his larger point: “If we can build a spirit of family into the heart of an 18-year-old black private, send him 8,000 miles away from home, join hundreds of similar teams and have them believe that, can there be any question in your mind or in your heart that we have the capacity as a nation to instill that same sense of family, and all it entails, in every workplace, in every community, in every school, in every home back here in America?”

He draws the contrast between his message and that of other politicians. “There’s a lot of shouting and screaming going on in our political system. But we have to keep our lives on certain fundamental principles, and one of those is that America is a family … We’ve got to start remembering that no member of our family should be satisfied if any member of our American family is suffering or in need and we can do something about it.

“We’ve got to teach our youngsters what a family means, what giving to your community means, what raising good children means. We’ve got to restore a sense of shame to our society. Nothing seems to shame us or outrage us anymore. We look at our television sets and see all kinds of trash, and we allow it to come into our homes. We’re not ashamed of it anymore.” But just how, either as candidate or President, he would bring about such results he doesn’t say.

Powell carries a basic set of old-fashioned, conservative social values–he is against sending women into combat, and fought against letting gays serve openly in the military. But he is adding specific and fairly centrist views on other hot-button issues. He is basically pro-choice, against the proposed flag-burning amendment and a supporter of Medicare, which helped him care for both his parents in their final years. On affirmative action he makes a nuanced distinction. While he is against programs that give advantages to people who no longer need them, he supports programs that recognize that “racism has been unfortunately an ingrained part of our society for a couple of hundred years.”

Unlike politicians with long and detailed records, Powell has not had to vote yes or no, not had to enunciate positions in sufficient detail to stand up to real scrutiny and tough debate. He thus runs the risk of seeming naive and unknowing when the public debate sharpens.
Yet the details of his positions may be less decisive than the overall presence he projects. Says Democratic pollster Peter Hart: “Voting for a legislator, we say, ‘I’ve got problems with him on this or that issue.’ But voting for a President, we say, ‘What kind of a leader will this person be? Do I trust this person? Does he have the toughness to govern?'”

In other words, does he have the force of will to propel himself into the main arena of national politics and the steeliness to be a good President? Even though Powell spent his life as a warrior, he never looked for fights. His success was as a bureaucrat, and a very careful one at that. “Powell is not an innovator,” says a four-star general who served with him. “He is a wonderful man, but he is a solid, dependable, reliable tinkerer at the margins.”

Many critics cite Powell’s reluctance to go to war against Iraq and his agreement to end the war before Saddam Hussein and his army were wiped out. As Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, Powell had the chance to fundamentally reshape the armed forces for its post–cold war role. Instead he produced a timid and unimaginative plan that trimmed but did not reform the military. Yet he is a skillful facilitator and is seen as “an honest broker who can get things done.” This does not make him a general in the mold of Eisenhower. But even the four-star general who calls Powell a tinkerer concludes that “I would vote for him if he runs.”

But before voters can pass judgment on those issues, the immediate question is, How can Powell enter the presidential race?

The current dynamic of two-party politics in America has forced candidates for both the Republican and the Democratic nominations to play heavily to their core constituencies, which are, respectively, more conservative and more liberal than the electorate at large. These are the activists who vote most reliably in the primaries. Bob Dole, for example, veers increasingly rightward to bolster his support among the Christian right. Bill Clinton, despite his recent decision to back a balanced budget, has worked hard to please leftish groups like labor, the National Organization for Women and environmentalists to make sure he would not be challenged from the left for the nomination. But the tension between attempting to be a general-election centrist and a primary-campaigning liberal has added to Clinton’s image as chronic waffler. A similar tension will also make Dole try to retreat from his recent rightward tilt if he is nominated and has to campaign against Clinton.

The pull of the more activist wings of each party has left both parties incapable of finding and holding the political center. At one point George Bush had a 91 percent approval rating, but he still lost the presidency. Bill Clinton became President without a majority in 1992, and then his party suffered historic losses in the 1994 elections. The Republicans in Congress, only 7 and a half months after their landslide victory, are now supported by only 34 percent of the public on their handling of budget issues in the TIME/CNN poll. Observes Powell: “The American people are channel surfing. And you’re going to channel surf in ’96, ’98, 2000, until you find something you like.”

While political experts have been predicting a profound political realignment to replace the New Deal consensus that lasted two generations, what exists today is closer to a dealignment, with shifting allegiances and only loose party identification. It is in that context that a Powell candidacy could be most powerful.

Many of the centrist Democrats who backed Clinton in 1992, and whose ideas and policies let him escape the lethal tag of “liberal” in that campaign, are disappointed with Clinton’s failure to lead in that direction. The President, however, is not likely to be challenged from within his own party, leaving some centrists hoping for another candidate.

Meanwhile, many Republicans can’t stomach the extent to which the agenda of the Christian right has become the agenda of the Republican Party. Thus some of Powell’s friends and supporters argue that he should run as a Republican. Although the best G.O.P. operatives have already signed on with other candidates who have raised tens of millions of dollars, Dole has not caught fire, and many Republicans who back him publicly are “for Dole for now,” in the words of one Powell booster. New Hampshire permits independents–more than 30 percent of the electorate–to vote in the G.O.P. primary, and Powell could draw enough of them to upset calculations of victory based on likely Republican voters.

Other states, including Georgia, Texas, Massachusetts, Tennessee, Illinois, Michigan and Ohio, have primaries where non-Republicans can vote, and to Powell backers, his strong showing in those states will convince party faithful that he in some ways is just like Ike: not conservative enough for their tastes but powerful enough to beat Bill Clinton. This scenario has two weaknesses. First, most Republicans think they can beat Bill Clinton without Colin Powell and could turn on Powell like a virus. Second, to give up his happily settled life to contest the G.O.P. nomination, Powell will have to see Dole’s juggernaut falter–and falter by autumn if Powell is to have enough time to organize.

At the least, Powell enthusiasts say, the general could easily come second in a bunch of primaries and assemble enough delegates to be a bargaining force at the convention. But that would probably get him the vice-presidential nomination, and he may well get that without doing anything.

The Dole campaign has discussed the vice presidency with Powell’s friends. A Dole-Powell ticket could be bad news for Bill Clinton, because of the general’s popularity and because Powell would probably attract significant numbers of black votes in crucial states where Clinton will need to win. Powell would be the perfect vice-presidential candidate for any Republican nominee. The trouble is that he would be only that: Vice President. And Powell himself has doubts about taking that job.

Perhaps the more plausible route to a Powell presidency would be through an independent candidacy, running right in the middle of the American ideological spectrum, without the taint of party politics, as a military leader with his own ideas and with a government of national reconciliation composed of talented people from both parties.

This course obviously has some allure for Powell and his friends. He dismisses much of the Democratic Party’s politics as brain dead and thinks the Republican right is too extreme on many social issues. The experience of Ross Perot in 1992 is not lost on them either. That so flawed a candidate as Perot could get on the ballot in 50 states and gather 19 percent of the national vote, having quit the race once when he was nearly tied with Bush and Clinton, is seen as proof that an independent race is not just a fantasy.

But not easy either. Perot spent more than $60 million of his own money on his race for the presidency. He had tens of thousands of volunteers collecting more than 1.5 million signatures across the land. Powell’s friends assert blandly that “money would be no problem.” One former Pentagon official who now works in corporate America boasts, “I could raise $50 million in one month just from the CEOs I know.” Says another supporter: “There’d be stories about people sending in nickels, dimes and quarters just to help out, but you’ll get all the big money you want to get.” If Powell ran as a genuine independent, he would not receive federal campaign funds and would thus have to raise tens of millions of dollars to compete evenly with the major-party nominees.

Building an organization would be even harder than raising the money. Yet the Perot experience is an instruction manual. Perot said he’d run if drafted, which kicked off a huge volunteer effort that he did not join until later. Despite a recent decision not to create a formal political party, Perot’s United We Stand America is still very active. Other Perot alumni have split off who would find a Powell candidacy appealing and would lend expertise and manpower. And the experience of less impressive independent candidates suggests that ballot access is not an insurmountable problem. George Wallace in 1968 and John Anderson in 1980 bolted from their parties late in the game and managed to be on every state’s ballot. Lenora Fulani did the same in 1988, running on the utterly obscure New Alliance ticket.

There are already several “Draft Powell” organizations in the field, operating without his blessing or his opposition. But their level of intensity does not put one in mind of Desert Storm. There are two committees registered with the Federal Election Commission, one based in California and one in suburban Washington. Andrew DiMarco, a California lawyer, calls his outfit the Draft Committee for Colin Powell’s Army. So far he’s collected 13,400 signatures urging Powell to run, but his drive is going into low gear until Powell gives some clearer sign of his intentions. The other committee is the Exploratory Draft Colin Powell for President Committee, led by a group of black Republicans. They have sent a letter to Powell urging him to run, appointed regional and state coordinators and printed bumper stickers and buttons, and they vow to collect 20,000 signatures per state by the end of the summer.

Both these groups are predominantly Republican, as is a third organization run by Charles Kelly, a retired Washington banker and former minor official in the Eisenhower Administration. His main effort is to talk to business friends about giving money to a Powell campaign, to preach the Powell gospel to influential Republicans and to organize a shadow national committee. None of this is big league enough to represent a real political force, but that’s not surprising given that they have no real candidate to support–yet.

Powell is treating the presidential option with the same methodical attention he has given most endeavors. He is thinking long and hard about his options and about the likely consequences of his actions, meeting with a pair of close friends, former Reagan White House chief of staff Kenneth Duberstein and former Assistant Secretary of Defense Richard Armitage. They had their last skull session on May 24, when Powell provided a tasty take-out lunch from Chicken-Out, a step up from the greasy grocery-chain fare he had served at their previous meeting. With each public outing on the lecture circuit, he fills in more blanks in his agenda of political positions. And while his book, to be published in September and for which he reportedly received a $6 million advance, was originally planned to end with his retirement as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, he has added a new last chapter about his views on the major issues of the day.

He is also preparing for his book tour, which will begin in mid-September and will take him to 20 cities across the nation. The first event in that launch will be a television interview with Barbara Walters. For that appearance, Powell went to Jamaica to get some TV footage of the land his parents left to come to America. When the book tour and its attendant publicity are over in late October, Powell will no longer be a blank political slate. And at that moment, he will read the polls again to see whether the fuller picture of Colin Powell has diminished or enhanced his political attractiveness.

Will he then roll the dice? He is certainly not saying now. Neither is anyone close to him. Powell and his friends agree that one important vote will come from Alma, the general’s wife of 32 years. What is her verdict? “Alma’s not opining,” says a Powell friend. “But her name isn’t Sherman.” If elected, she will serve.

And Powell himself? His reluctance is deep and his indecision is real. He is flattered by the attention and not unaware of the role a black candidate–and a black President–could play in America. But he does not feel compelled to run either as a role model for African Americans or to demonstrate to whites that blacks can make good leaders.

The core of the problem for Colin Powell is that no matter which course his candidacy would take, either as a Republican–challenging the party’s titular leaders and current front runner–or as an independent, the very act of his running would disrupt the settled pattern of American politics.

Intellectually, Powell can argue both the positive and negative aspects of such disruption. A black President could become a major healer of the racial divisions that plague this country. A true centrist could form a governing coalition that could bring stability and end the “channel surfing” that has marked recent elections. A strong leader elected largely on his own terms, without obligations to interest groups, could define a new course for America, at home and abroad, for the next generation.

On the other hand, a Powell candidacy could finish off the staggering Democratic Party. As either a Republican nominee or an independent candidate, he would attract a substantial number of black votes taking away the most reliable core of the party’s electoral support and vacuuming up votes Clinton needs if he is to win in 1996.

And how could a nonparty President actually govern? It is likely both parties in Congress would be plenty angry with President Powell for having broken up their games. Would there be a proliferation of parties, turning American democracy into a version of Italy’s fractured, shifting coalition style? Friends counter that Powell could form a bipartisan government of national reconciliation. But he has known many Third World coup leaders who say they have taken power to achieve national reconciliation.

Powell, by his own admission, has always been a supremely cautious calculator of risks and rewards. He succeeded as a political general by knowing where the boundaries were, knowing what was possible and what was not. There is nothing in the life of Colin Powell to suggest he would be the man to toss a grenade into the entrenched positions of American politics. On the other hand, Powell has bounded up the career ladder two and three steps at a time. He is a very determined man.

Meanwhile, he is thinking, calculating, weighing his choices.

President Abraham Lincoln

Many people remember President Abraham Lincoln as being a very gifted orator as well as a dignified leader of our country. Through his many speeches and writings, Abraham Lincoln captivated American minds and gained millions of followers. In Lincoln’s “Perpetuation speech,” given before the Young Men’s Lyceum of Springfield, Illinois, in 1838, Lincoln himself stated that our country was in great danger.

He speaks of people such as Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar and Napoleon and then asks, “Is it unreasonable to expect , that some man possessed of the loftiest genius, coupled with ambition sufficient to push it to its utmost stretch, will at some time, spring up among us? ” (Grafton, page 7). In this, he shares his fear that some man with great ambition and power could exist in this country who is not satisfied with just the power of the presidency and strive for more than that. I believe that Lincoln had the power to be one of those people.

When Lincoln’s orations and writings are carefully analyzed, one can see how he used his wit and intelligence to manipulate the American people. With his intelligence and immense popularity, Lincoln could have easily been one of the men that he spoke of. He used his gift as an orator to get ahead and that, I believe, made him a threat to American society. Abraham Lincoln was a very popular man among the American people. He was there for the country through the Civil War, whether good or bad times. In the North he was the great emancipationist. Lincoln was loved by many, and he could have used this to his advantage.

One reason that he was so loved was because he had the ability to draw people’s attention with his speeches. After his assassination and the reaction of the American people, the fact that he was so loved was a surprise to some people in Washington. There was a three week funeral procession where Lincoln’s body was taken to the big cities by a special train so that the people could mourn him. “Democrat Charles Mason of Iowa thought the whole affair a political trick, like the ‘crafty skill of Mark Antony in displaying to the Roman people the bloody mantle of Caesar’,” (Donald, page 5).

This analogy was made as an argument between political parties, but I think that it just shows how important Lincoln really was, being compared to the great Julius Caesar. It is widely believed that popular Presidents of our country have been able to do many things, undisputed. “Our great Presidents have joyously played the political piano by ear, making up the melody as they went, ” (Donald, page 18). This can be seen as a threat. Some presidents, Lincoln specifically, could use their power to do whatever they wanted. This power can be used to different degrees.

A modern day example of the Presidential misuse of power is the Bill Clinton scandal. Lincoln, in the people’s eyes, was known as “Honest Abe,” and was trusted not to use his power to his advantage, although he very easily could have. Lincoln had the ambition and the talent to be a very powerful man. Abraham Lincoln was a great orator as well. Lincoln had a talent for expression and he was by nature a literary artist. He was greater than an orator. He had a gift with his pen, and that was the tool that he used to gain tremendous support from the people.

He spoke to people, just throughout his daily activities, and one can see that he had very great confidence in himself and wanted to spread his ideals out into the American public. “In 1838 he carried his enthusiasm with him on his visits to the office of the county clerk. ‘He would come into the clerk’s office where I and some young men were writing and staying,’ the unnamed friend recalled,’ and would bring the Bible with him; would read a chapter and argue against it, ‘ ” (Current {The Lincoln… }, page 58).

This shows how Lincoln liked to spread his ideals. It also shows how Lincoln is trying to undermine the most cherished and followed book of more than half of the Americans. He must have thought very highly of his opinions to be arguing against the most important book of the American people. Lincoln argues his rights as president and makes excuses for his actions, and he was very good at it. During the Civil War, it was argued that Lincoln, as President, was not allowed under the Constitution to suspend the Writ of Habeaus Corpus, which he did during that time.

Or if, as has happened, the executive should suspend the writ, without ruinous waste of time, in instances as arresting innocent persons might occur, as are always likely to occur in such cases; and then a clamor could be raised in regard to this, which might be, at least, of some service to the insurgent cause,” (Current {The Political… }, page 251). Lincoln could have been impeached for his actions during the Civil War. Through this statement, he is trying to justify his actions, although they were unconstitutional.

As the President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln should be protecting the Constitution. However, he makes an exception for himself, and he tries to justify it later through his speeches. When looking at many of his speeches, one can see how Lincoln subtly drops hints about the extent of his power and he manipulates the people through his words. In Lincoln’s “Perpetuation Speech”, Lincoln’s tells of his idea of the “political religion”. He wants the laws to be followed religiously.

He states, “Let reverence for the laws be breathed by every American mother, to the lisping babe, that prattles on her lap – let it be taught in schools, in seminaries, and in colleges; let it be written in primers, spelling books, and in Almanacs; – let it be preached from the pulpit, proclaimed in legislative halls, and enforced in the courts of justice,” (Grafton, page 5). This statement, when first looked at, just seems to be reiterating the point that Lincoln believes that the political religion should be taught and practiced all over.

However, after careful examination, one can see that there is a part to that phrase that doesn’t quite fit. Lincoln uses two out of the three branches of government, the legislative and the judicial. In the place where the executive branch would be expected to fit, he says “pulpit”. This analogy that Lincoln subtly slips into this speech shows his opinion of the superiority of the executive branch of the government. In the end of that speech Lincoln refers to something religious again.

He talks about how at that point in time old pillars that the country had been standing on were crumbling and they needed to be replaced by the “Rock of Reason”. He believed that he was the one who could replace what the founding fathers had set up. “The gates of hell shall not prevail against it,” (Grafton, page 8). This is a reference to the Bible. In Matthew 16:18, Jesus was telling Peter that his teachings would be the foundation for the church. In this he is referring to his political religion and compares himself to Jesus Christ, a very powerful and respected man in our history.

The fact that Lincoln’s immense confidence in himself allows him to compare himself to such a legend is frightening. If he can compare himself to Jesus Christ, he must believe that he has the power to do whatever he wants with our country. Also, by comparing himself to Jesus, he is trying to gain the people’s trust and dedication. The people worship Jesus, and Lincoln would like the same kind of support for himself. Also in his “Perpetuation Speech,” Lincoln slips another small thing in there. He speaks about an African American (actually mulatto) man named McIntosh, a slave that had escaped.

When he first tells his story, he sounds sympathetic towards the man. He describes the scene of his death as “tragic,” and he makes us think that he feels bad for the guy, who, “was seized in the street, dragged to the suburbs of the city, chained to a tree, and actually burned to death; and all within a single hour from the time he had been a freeman, attending to his own business, and at peace with the world,” (Grafton, page 3). He seems to feel sorry for the man that escaped his servitude only to be dragged back and killed. Later in his speech, he refers to McIntosh again, but his view about the man seems to be different.

He was talking about gambling and he says that it would be a step in the right direction if they were to be just swept right off of the planet. He believes that good men would actually be profited from this. Then he states, “Similar to, is the correct reasoning, in regard to the burning of the negro at St. Louis………. As to him alone, it was as well the way it was, as it could otherwise have been,” (Grafton, pages 3-4). When he mentions McIntosh this time he doesn’t go right out and announce his name. At a quick glance, it almost seems as if he is talking about a totally different person.

Lincoln changes the words around. At first, when he has the peoples’ attention, he tactfully describes the incident and refers to McIntosh respectfully as a mulatto. Later he calls him a negro. He subtly slips this part in and not many people would normally catch it. This was just a way for Lincoln to get his real feelings out. He gains the people’s support who are anti-slavery when making the first statement, and the people’s support who are pro-slavery with the second one. It is hard to catch the fact that he is really talking about the same person.

This is just another example of how Lincoln manipulates the people to gain more supporters. In Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address in 1863, he quotes the Declaration of Independence, but he changes the words around very slightly for the times to fit his own purposes. “Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal,” (Grafton, page 103). Lincoln introduces the idea that our founding fathers brought forth a new nation. The word “nation” in this phrase is being used purposely at that time.

During the Civil War the South did not think of themselves as part of the nation, but Lincoln would not recognize them as having seceded from the United States and being a separate nation, thus, using the word nation when referring to all of the states being bound together still. He also talks about the fact that we were, “dedicated to the proposition,” when in the real document, it said that those truths were to be held, “self-evident”. This is in a way trying to undermine the founders by saying that they had an idea to make everyone equal, but it would have never worked.

This reflected the situation that they were now in, with the Civil War. It was something that the founding fathers had the chance to take care of long ago, but were never able to. Now Lincoln faced the same problem and was better equipped with the times to handle it. In the days of the drafting of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, the idea of abolishing slavery was thought to be impossible because of the situation. There were too many people in those days whose lives were dependent on slavery. Through Lincoln’s speech, he makes it seem as if all that the country needed was someone who could make things happen.

This person would be himself. He does not mention the fact that the times had changed. He makes himself look better than the founding fathers with his change in the wording of the Declaration of Independence. This speech was given in front of 15,000 to 20,000 people. This was a very large audience and a huge opportunity for Lincoln to gain even more support. Lincoln uses many tactics in his speeches to get ahead, for his own personal uses. In his Second Inaugural Address, Lincoln uses the Bible for his own personal means.

He refers to God and to the Bible and prayers an awful lot in this speech. . . with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive to finish the work we are in” (Grafton, pages 107-108). By doing this, he is trying to justify his actions and gain supporters. I examining this speech, it does not sound like it is meant for an inaugural address. Lincoln sounds as if he should be standing up in front of a congregation. Many people look up to their pastor for spiritual guidance. A pastor is respected and loved by the members of his congregation, just as Lincoln would like to be respected and loved by the people of the United States.

By structuring his speech like this, Lincoln creates a different type of atmosphere that many people would feel comfortable in. He befriends the people and gets himself a little closer to them. Lincoln uses his power of manipulation yet another time in his “Temperance Speech”. He is saying that the tactics in this movement are unjust, or their means to an end are unjust and therefore the whole movement is wrong. Lincoln, however, when giving this speech doesn’t come right out and say that he believes that they are wrong.

In this way he gains more supporters by befriending them and not telling them straight out that they are wrong. At that point in time, Lincoln needed those votes. However, he got them by dishonest means. That really doesn’t sound like the “Honest Abe” that all of the people knew and trusted. I believe that President Abraham Lincoln was a man with a lot of power. Lincoln was a very dangerous speaker. He could have easily used this power and his ability as an orator to become one of those men that are not satisfied with just the presidency and could have tried to have more.

I believe that for this reason, Lincoln was a threat to our society. However, the people did not realize this because he had them so entranced by his wonderful speeches and writings. At a normal glance, it looks as if there is nothing hidden in those speeches. When they are looked at a little more closely though, one can see how Lincoln used his immense talent to trick the people into supporting him. Through his beautifully crafted orations, Abraham Lincoln gained many followers.

President John F. Kennedy

There is something about John F. Kennedy. Could it be his charisma and charm that still entrances America? Maybe it is his elevated status as a pop culture icon that bedazzles most American citizens. It might be the martyr status he attained through his tragic assassination that makes American culture revere him as a President. Whatever the reason is that defines John F. Kennedy as probably one of the most beloved Presidents in American History; one assumption by many is that it has nothing to do with his political legacy. Many respected historians will tell you that he has an insubstantial political legacy.

Using the body of legislation that was passed during his short time in office as evidence, historians say that significant legislation was lacking. More than likely they will remark about his emphasis on rhetoric and his deficient action. On the other hand, many historians and writers contend his political legacy reverberates to this very day. They claim that through his mastery of that novel medium of his day, Television, his inclusion of culture into the office of President, and most of all his idealism, echoes in todays political atmosphere.

In total, the latter argument is actually tronger. Although JFK does lack substantial legislation that would bolster a claim to a significant political legacy, in other ways John F. Kennedy has such an intense political legacy that to this very day the Presidency of the United States cannot escape it. In respect to truly monumental legislation, John F. Kennedy does lack and therefore the people who say he does not have a true political legacy have a point. These critics believe a true political legacy is in what the President has accomplished legislatively in the White House.

With Kennedy, they state he was more talk than action. They do concede it was not truly do to his lack of initiative. He did have many proposals, but because he was dealing with a Congress that was very strong and composed of a Southern Democrats/Republican majority, he had a hard time. (Kilpatrick, 51) So proposals like federal aid to education, the creation of a Department of Urban Affairs, and Medicare were shot down. (Kilpatrick, 53). To drum up support for them, Kennedy had to convince the public and gain their support. Thats where Kennedys famous rhetoric comes in.

The talk may have later led the American public to support the mentioned roposals in the Johnson years, but in JFKs years they did nothing but make his critics say he was a lot of talk and no action. Yet John F. Kennedy did have some significant legislation passed through Congress, and even got accomplishments done around Congress back. One achievement is when John F. Kennedy formed the Peace Corps. (Sorensen, 256) Another was the giving of federal support to the arts, which was done through executive orders. (Kilpatrick, 54) Economically, his tax cut resonates in the policy of former President Reagan.

In fact, when tallying the recommendations Kennedy sent to the 87th Congress, of the 107 he sent 73 were enacted into law, with measures dealing with water pollution, mental health care, hospital construction, mental retardation, drug safety and medical schools. (Manchester, 227) In total, his biggest achievement was not in what was accomplished, but what was proposed. The critics might believe that passed legislation is the only indicator of political legacy, but in reality what is proposed can have profound effects.

His proposals on Medicare and programs like it might have lead to nothing in his term, but they did come to fruition in later Presidencies. Truthfully, one cannot say a man does not have a political legacy if he had proposed ideas, but they had not been passed, since those proposals can deeply influence later Congresses and Presidents through their ideas and insight into problems. One way President Kennedy has a true political legacy is in his use of Television in his campaign for in the Presidential Election of 1960. Back when Kennedy ran, it was an underutilized tool.

Kennedy brought out its potential. Through television, he was able to present himself to vast audiences that he could never have reached. Kennedy exploited the television ebate, first used in that election. Kennedy had poise, while also looking tanned and well rested, while his opponent, Richard Nixon, was sick and looked dreadful. Afterwards, during his presidency Kennedy effectively utilized the new medium to his advantage. He was the contemporary man, as he was called by Adlai Stevenson after Kennedys death. This was portrayed through TV in his vitality and youth. Schlesinger, 12)

It was said by William Manchester, Newspapermen and television commentators reported the progress of the new administration almost breathlessly. The televised news conferences were immensely popular. Remembering his first debate with Nixon, Jack became the first President to recognize and exploit the possibilities of TV. (Manchester, 135) His family became a center of public interest. Everyone wanted to know the name of his daughters horse or his sons latest escapade.

The television turned the presidential family into a mini soap opera, changing the way the Presidency would be looked at after it. Manchester, 250) This usage of television is seen today, from round the clock coverage of the president on television, to the media firestorm that surrounded President Clinton during the Lewinsky scandal. President Clinton is a byproduct of this usage of TV. He is a telegenic person who has used his mastery of the medium effectively to convince voters to vote for him. He also says that his idol President is John F. Kennedy. Throughout most of Americas history, the President had to appeal to the commoner to be elected.

That usually meant appearing commoner then the ordinary person. However, John. F. Kennedy did not hide his love of the high-life. He broke the mold and invited the creme de la creme to the White House, and entertained them with artists, poets, scientists, musicians, and scholars. The guests would eat gourmet ood, and then maybe see a ballet troupe perform, or perhaps they saw a Shakespeare company stage a play. Whatever it was, JFK broke new political ground, changing the perception of a President from a commoner to an intellectual. (Manchester, 156).

John F. Kennedy was a man of idealism, and his idealism changed the political landscape. He held that problems are man-made, and can be therefore solved by man. (Kennedy, 2) He was man who believed things of excellence could be achieved, no matter how hard they are to attain. (Sorenson, 256) Kennedy believed that it was the role of the President to gnite hope for decency, equality, reason and peace. (Sorenson, 257) In a speech at American University in 1963, President Kennedy said: What kind a peace do we seek? Not a Pax Americana enforced on he world by American weapons of war.

Not the peace of the grave or the security of a slave. I am talking about genuine peace, the kind of peace that makes life on earth worth living, the kind that enables men and nations to grow and to hope and to build a better life for their children not merely peace for Americans but peace for all men and women not merely peace in our time but peace for all time. Kennedy, 1) This kind of idealistic world vision that Kennedy was known for inspired millions, with him growing a loyal following of the younger generation of the time.

He told his fellow Americans to reexamine their attitudes towards peace and freedom. (Kennedy, 6) In fact, he was the one who inspired the youth of the 1960s to actually participate in the government and the world. He gave them an outlet, the Peace Corps, and gave them inspiration to change the world for the better, and therefore gained their votes. As Arthur Schlesinger Jr. said, He voiced the disquietude of the postwar generation . . (Schlesinger, 13). By using the youth to his political advantage, he ignited a chain of events that reverberates to this day.

It was the first generation that had grown up in an age when American innocence had died. (Schlesinger, 12) This volatile mixture of loss of innocence, youth and idealism lead to the SDS, Black Panthers, The Weatherman, Flower Power and other organizations or beliefs that had idealistic views. This is a true political legacy, because by him inciting the youth of the 60s to do better and . . . Ask what you can do for your country. Led this country down the path of the urbulent 60s, changing the dynamics of the countrys youth culture irreparably.

However valid the point of JFKs critics in reference to Kennedys flimsy legislation record, Kennedy does have a political legacy that is irrefutable. The idealism he gave to the youth of America, his mastery of the media, and his infusion of culture into the White House have left its mark politically in such a way that Presidents, Senators and congressmen can in no way escape it. John F. Kennedy does have a political legacy, and it is one that politicians must embrace or they will not be taken seriously by Americans.

Richard Milhous Nixon

Richard Milhous Nixon, 37th president of the United States (1969-1972), was born on January 9, 1913 in Yorba Linda, California. Nixon was one of the most controversial politicians of the twentieth century. He built his political career on the communist scare of the late forties and early fifties, but as president he achieved dtente with the Soviet Union and opened relations with the People’s Republic of China. His administration occurred during the domestic upheavals brought on by the civil rights movement and the Vietnam War.

He was re-elected in 1972 by an overwhelming margin, but less than two years later he was forced to become the first man to resign the presidency amid the scandal and shame of Watergate. He staged a difficult political comeback in 1968, after purportedly retiring from politics, and by the end of his life, he had shed some of the scourge of Watergate and was once again a respected elder statesman, largely because of his record on foreign policy. He died on February 22, 1994. His writings include three autobiographical works, Six Crises (1962), RN: the Memoirs of Richard Nixon (1978), and In the Arena (1990).

Early Political Career Nixon came from a southern-California Quaker family, where hard work and integrity were deeply-rooted and heavily emphasized. Always a good student, he was invited by Harvard and Yale to apply for scholarships, but his older brother’s illness and the Depression made his presence close to home necessary, and he was attended nearby Whittier College, where he graduated second in his class in 1934. He went on to law school at Duke University, where his seriousness and determination won him the nickname “Gloomy Gus.

He graduated third in his class and applied for jobs with both large Northeastern law firms and the FBI His applications were all rejected, however, and he was forced to go home to southern California, where his mother helped get him a job at a friend’s local law firm. At the outbreak of World War Two, Nixon went to work briefly for the tire-rationing section the Office of Price Administration in Washington, DC, and eight months later, he joined the Navy and was sent to the Pacific as a supply officer.

He was popular with his men, and such an accomplished poker player that he was able to send enough of his comrades-in-arms’ money back home to help fund his first political campaign. Shortly after returning from the war, Nixon entered politics, answering a Republican party call in the newspaper for someone to run against the five-term Democratic Congressman, Jerry Voorhis. Nixon seemed the perfect man for the job, and he was welcomed generously by the California Republican party, who considered him “salable merchandise. ”

The style of Nixon’s first campaign set the tone for the early part of his political career, where he achieved national renown as a fierce anti-Communist. He accused Congressman Voorhis of being a communist, and even went so far as to have campaign workers make anonymous calls to voters stating that as a fact and advising that a vote for Nixon was therefore the best move. This sort of straightforward communist-baiting was new at the time, and fear of the Soviet Union, who appeared to be spreading its influence throughout Asia (China fell to Mao Tse-tsung’s communist forces in 1949), made it a particularly persuasive tactic.

Of course I knew Jerry Voorhis wasn’t a communist,” Nixon later said, “but I had to win. ” Nixon defeated Voorhis with sixty percent of the vote, and upon taking his seat in Congress, he became the junior member of the infamous House Committee on un-American Activities. Nixon’s dogged pursuit of Alger Hiss, a former adviser to Franklin Roosevelt and one of the organizers of the United Nations, brought him national exposure.

Hiss had been accused of being a communist and of transmitting secret State Department documents to the Soviets, and though many believed him innocent, Nixon fiercely pushed the case forward, eventually getting Hiss convicted of perjury and jailed. At the age of thirty-five, Nixon was a national figure, and he rode this fame to an easy victory in his senate race against three-term Congresswoman Helen Gahagan Douglas in 1950, once again adopting a communist-baiting campaign strategy. He accused Ms. Douglas, who opposed the activities of the House un-American Activities Committee, of being “pink right down to her underwear.

In return, Douglas dubbed Nixon with his long-time nickname, “Tricky Dick. ” Nixon was only in the US Senate for a year-and-a-half when, in 1952, the Republican national convention selected him to be General Dwight D. Eisenhower’s running mate. Much of Nixon’s success and notoriety up to that point had been built on the political and personal ruination of his honest Democratic foes, and Nixon was expected to do much of the dirty work of campaigning, leaving Eisenhower to take the “high road,” remaining pure and untarnished by messy politicking.

Nixon performed his task admirably, casting doubt on the abilities and patriotism of his and Eisenhower’s Democratic opponent, Adlai Stevenson. Nixon himself had to face close scrutiny during the campaign, and when the New York Post announced that he had received secret campaign contributions from wealthy sources, he was nearly pushed off the ticket. Instead of giving up, Nixon went on national, prime-time television and appealed directly to the voters. He delivered what has come to be known as the “Checkers Speech,” fully exposing his financial situation and revealing that he was not a wealthy man.

The speech was an unprecedented success, and thousands of telegrams of support were received by the Republican National Committee. Nixon remained on the ticket and became vice-president when Eisenhower overwhelming defeated Stevenson. When Eisenhower decided to run again in 1956, Nixon’s presence on the ticket was not assured; however, Nixon pressured the president into making a decision, refused Eisenhower’s offer of a cabinet position, and the Republican ticket once again contained Richard Milhous Nixon as the vice-presidential candidate.

In the second campaign, Nixon moved away from his muck-raking, communist-baiting techniques, and the press began speaking of a “New Nixon. ” Because of Eisenhower’s apparent support, Nixon was considered by many the Republican heir-apparent, and he became more active in his second term. Eisenhower sent him on tours of South America, where his motorcade was spat upon and attacked, and the Soviet Union, where Nixon challenged Nikita Kruschev to an impromptu debate, known as the “Kitchen Debates. ”

Nixon was unanimously nominated at the Republican convention in 1960, and only fourteen years after first running for office, he was one election away from the presidency. Many were confident of Nixon’s ability to win the election easily, being a prominent, national figure running against the young, inexperienced John F. Kennedy, who was little known nationally and had a reputation as a playboy inside Washington circles. Kennedy, however, took advantage of modern campaigning techniques, which employed the television more than personal contact, and he was given a big push by the first-ever televised presidential debates.

The healthy, attractive, charming Kennedy came off as strong, confident, and in control, while Nixon, who refused to wear make-up, looked haggard, almost ghost-like. The election was one of the closest in history, with Kennedy winning by only 100,000 votes nationwide. Some of the most crucial votes came in Cook County, Illinois, which was controlled by party boss Richard Daley, and many suspected election fraud, but Nixon refused to demand a recount, stating that it would be political suicide if he lost.

Nixon ran for governor of California in 1962, but he had never been a locally active politician and his years in Washington had made him out of touch with the situation in California. He lost soundly to incumbent Pat Brown. In a press conference shortly after the results were announced, Nixon berated the media for giving him a hard time since the Hiss case, urged greater fairness in political coverage, and claimed that this would be his last press conference. “You don’t have Nixon to kick around anymore,” he said.

He took a job as a Wall Street lawyer, but soon tired of private life and took to the campaign trail in 1966, stumping successfully for Republican congressional candidates and bringing himself once again into the heart of Republican party affairs. After a grueling four-continent tour during which he familiarized himself with foreign affairs, the dogged Nixon was back in the electoral arena again, running for president a second time in 1968. Nixon avoided the tricky issue of the Vietnam War, stating only that he would find an “honorable end” to the war.

He let the Democrats, badly split over the war, tear themselves apart, further setting himself apart by running on a “Law and Order” campaign that blamed America’s most visible, divisive problems on the liberal Democrats. Nixon’s appeal to the “forgotten Americans,” who felt themselves ignored in the upheavals of the sixties, brought him a close victory over Hubert Humphrey. Presidency Upon election, Nixon pledged that he would bring America together, but his margin of victory had been slim and based mostly on white, middle-class, hawkish, and patriotic voters.

As president, he concentrated mostly on foreign affairs, hoping to bring about a generation of peace and a new world order. Chief of Staff H. R. Haldeman and John Erhlichman, a top campaign official and one of Nixon’s closest advisors, handled much of domestic policy and shielded Nixon from many of the irksome daily details of the administration, leaving Nixon free to concentrate on foreign policy. Nixon often by-passed the Defense and State Departments, instead working closely with National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, a former Harvard professor and newcomer to official foreign policy circles.

The Vietnam War, which had destroyed Nixon’s predecessor, was the major obstacle to the new president’s designs. Even before his inauguration, Nixon had Kissinger engage in secret peace talks with North Vietnam, hoping to speed American withdrawal from Vietnam. Early in his term, Nixon announced a gradual replacement of American fighting forces with South Vietnamese, planning to have all American troops out of Vietnam by the end of 1970.

However, Nixon did not want to be the first president to lose a war, and he could not be satisfied with a simple withdrawal from Vietnam, being convinced, as were many Americans, that abandoning South Vietnam to the communists would invite further communist aggression in the region. Nixon had to face a vigorous anti-war movement, and he appealed to the “silent majority,” another version of his “forgotten Americans,” who he felt supported his foreign policy. He pledged not to back down, and in early 1970 escalated the war, authorizing bombings on North Vietnam and attacks on Cambodia.

After his reelection, Nixon once again ordered an escalation in the bombings, which Alexander Haig, Kissinger’s deputy, described as “brutalizing” the north. Two weeks after the bombings began, Nixon announced that peace negotiations were soon to resume, and by January 28, 1973, a cease fire was established that allowed the US to remove its reaming 23,700 troops and end its twelve-year military involvement in Vietnam. Domestically, Nixon adhered to a standard Republican spending-cut program, cutting back and opposing federal welfare services and proposing antibusing legislation.

He also implemented the New Economic Policy, which called for a 10 percent tax on many imports, repeal of certain excise taxes, tax breaks for industries undertaking new investment, and a ninety-day freeze on wages, prices, and dividends designed to halt inflation. These policies were initially successful, causing American exports to become cheaper and improving the balance of trade, but when the wage and price commissions began to give way to pressures from both labor and business interests, inflation accelerated again, inaugurating a decade-long rise in the cost of living that negatively impacted many segments of American society.

But Nixon is best remembered for his foreign policy achievements, despite his failure to bring a speedy, or even “honorable,” end to the Vietnam War, and Kissinger’s inability to end the Middle East tensions that were brought on by Israel’s victory over Arab countries in the Six-Day War of 1967. Perhaps this notoriety is based on the fact that Nixon was one of the few presidents in American history who practiced foreign policy by design, setting certain goals and moving steadily, if sometimes secretly and ruthlessly, toward them, instead of merely reacting to the conditions of world affairs as had many chief executives in the past.

He repudiated his anti-Communist past and became the first US president to visit the Soviet Union when he traveled to Moscow in May of 1972. He sought peace with the opposing super-power and initiated negotiations with the Soviet Union to limit nuclear weapons, which resulted in the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT).

At the same time, he was making secret contact with the other great communist nation, the People’s Republic of China, which he visited publicly in February, 1972, thus opening official diplomatic relations with China for the first time since the communist takeover in 1949. Despite the finally-peaceful outcome of the Vietnam situation, and his diplomatic accomplishments, Nixon’s vicious, unrelenting policies and his blatant scoffing of the anti-war movement had ignited serious domestic upheavals, including the shooting of fifteen students at a Kent State anti-war demonstration.

The visible public dissatisfaction with the president, which could be seen outside the White House from 1970 on, exacerbated Nixon’s famous insecurity and brought out what some of his aide’s called Nixon’s “dark side. ” The paranoia that resulted led Nixon to form the Special Investigations Unit, known as the “plumbers,” an outfit illegally equipped by the CIA and sent on missions to embarrass and discredit potential Democratic opponents.

He also formed the Committee to RE-elect the President (CREEP), which collected $60 million, much in violation of existing campaign laws, and disbursed funds for “dirty tricks” which included tapping the phone of the chairman of the Democratic National Committee. Nixon needed little of this help to secure re-election in 1972, as he faced a badly divided Democratic party headed by a self-righteous and indecisive George McGovern. Nixon won the election with 60. ercent of the vote, but a host of revelations in 1973 undermined Nixon’s presidency and finally brought him to resign. The involvement of the CIA, supposedly under Nixon’s direction, in a military coup that overthrew Chile’s Salvador Allende, the Western Hemisphere’s first popularly-elected Marxist, was exposed, and Vice-President Agnew was forced to resign when it was revealed that he had cheated on his income taxes and had taken more than $100,000 in payoffs from contractors between 1966 and 1972.

The IRS also disclosed that Nixon himself owed more than $400,000 in back taxes and penalties, and critics pointed out that the Nixon administration had raised subsidies to milk producers, who then donated over a half-million dollars to the Republican party. The final blow came when Nixon’s involvement in the plumbers’ Watergate burglary was revealed by investigative reporters. Nixon’s involvement was documented on audio tapes of White House conversations, which Nixon refused to turn over to investigators.

Nixon cited “executive privilege” and national security as reasons for keeping the tapes, but his appeal to the Supreme Court was rejected. A few days later, the House Judiciary Committee voted to impeach the president on three counts. Nixon finally released the incriminating tapes, and over the next few days both Republican and Democratic Senators, enough to get a conviction, indicated that they would vote against the president if articles of impeachment were offered by the House. On August 9, 1974, before the House could vote to impeach him, Nixon resigned the presidency, the first incumbent ever to do so.

A Presidential Election

Every four years there is a presidential election. The elections are important to most Americans because it can change the future for many generations. There are many who run for this very important position, those who run get into to parties of those who will take office with them. There are third parties, and some very unusual parties, but it usually is narrowed down to Democratic and Republican. This year the two candidates are: George W. Bush for Republican and Al Gore for the Democratic Party. I have already turned eighteen and I am able to vote but I chose to wait a few until I feel I am mature enough to vote.

If I were to vote, I would probably vote for Al Gore. I feel that he is qualified and should be president because he is the vice-president for Bill Clinton who is currently president. I agree with most of his issues concerning Drugs, Education and Juvenile crime, Gun Control, Civil and Gay Rights. The Clinton-Gore team has already started with spending more money on addressing the issues of drugs, for advertising and education and the drug use has supposedly gone down, this also addresses, that Gore would be able to pick up where Clinton left off.

Gore also has plans for drug treatments for every addict who wants one. Gore also wants more involvement form the communities, which I believe would make a difference. Mandatory weekly drug testing for state prisoners and parolees, this can ensure that the convicts are staying drug free which can help clean up communities. Gore believes that after-school programs cut down on drug use. I agree with this, because I am in school and that can help some kids keep busy, and off the streets. I think this also would mean that he would not cut any programs but help promote the schools, and the future generations.

An important issue that I absolutely agree with is a tax break for college graduates. I am about to go to college and already have a brother in college. Gore has plans for making the saving and borrowing process of college easier, tax breaks, student loans, grants, and a National Tuition Savings program to send college hopefuls to college. Gore has many plans to help improve schools in general and make them safer. Gore wants plans to hire more teachers, improve classrooms, and help failing schools, test teachers, he agrees with the union for vouchers, salary, and class sizes.

As a student, I agree that t there are lack of teachers and classrooms. This can lead to failing schools and it may be too hard to turn them around and make them better. I also feel that teachers should get more pay because they are training the future of America, they help kids get through life and prepare them to go out and do good. I certainly think they should be paid more because of all the schooling they go through just to teach. I think they should paid just as much as the professional athletes, doctors, and lawyers. Gore wants to transform the educational system within four years, which I think is a good goal.

Gore also has a five point plan to have high school exit exams, which I think are important because some people get away with graduating and not know how to read or deal with everyday problems. The focus should be on character, discipline and safety. Some of the problems with this are to start by making secondary schools for juveniles who bring guns to school. I feel that gun control is very important and that everything can be worked out to benefit everyone. The focus should be on gun safety, and not on hunters and sportsmen, who already know how to handle guns.

Homeowners and sportsmen should not have to suffer and should not be restricted. I feel that the guns should be kept out of wrong hands. Gore also plans on having mandatory background checks and child safety locks. He also passed the toughest gun control for the next thirty years. He wants plans for a state-run photo gun licensing. I feel that gun control is a touchy subject for some people due to the diversity among them, There those who useit for assault and those who use them to protect their families and sportsmen.

I think gun control as well as other weapon control is important for overall crime prevention. Civil Rights is an important issue for many people across the United States. The civil rights have evolved and Gore hopes for it to evolve more. Clinton has plans under way to help racial profiling. Gore wants to ban it under executive order, and investigate racial profiling on the federal level. Gore also recognises disparities in sentencing African Americans. He also has plans for women and their small businesses. Gore also want to eliminate the do not ask, do not tell system in the army.

I think anybody should be able to serve to protect his or her country. He wants to stop discrimination and supports Vermonts civil union law. He does not feel that they should be allowed to get married. I do not agree with some of his issues including this one. I feel that gay people can do what they want because its their own business and not ours. They uld do what ever makes them happy they are human and deserve to have the same rights as everyone else. Everyone should be entitled to their own ways and opinions especially when it comes to their personal life.

I feel these are some of the issues that would directly affect me, or those that are close to me. I do not really agree with everything that Gore has to offer. I have not read about any that are appealing to me, so I feel that I should not vote. I do not see the point in voting if I cant agree with the majority of what the candidate has to offer. Other issues that I don t agree with is abortion I feel it should be pro-choice regardless of the situation. Overall, I feel he is qualified mostly because hes currently vice- president. I think that may be an issue, which may persuade most people, for voting for him.

The speech delivered by President Bill Clinton

This is the speech delivered by President Bill Clinton at the annual White House prayer breakfast on Friday, September 11, 1998, to an audience of more than 100 ministers, priests and other religious leaders. First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton was also in attendance. The speech, written in long hand by the president, was delivered at the beginning of a day of tremendous political and personal turmoil surrounding the publication of the first report to Congress by Independent Counsel Ken Starr.

The Starr Report, published on the Internet about 2 p. m. Friday, laid the grounds for possible impeachment of the president, accusing Clinton of perjury, obstruction of justice and other offenses in connection with his sexual affair with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky.

If the President did in fact write this address himself, I am very impressed with his communication skills. Repeatedly throughout the speech, Clinton appeals to the forgiving nature of all those listening. Within the first few opening sentences, the President manages to gain sympathy by saying that he was up rather late thinking and praying about what he ought to say.

Through a combination of this and stating that he himself wrote the speech, he has already gained support form his audience which can set the tone for how they will react to the remainder of what he has to say. President Clinton then continues his attempt to put himself on the same ground as the American public. He says that he has hit the rock bottom truth of where I am and where we all are. Again, such a statement allows the assumption that he himself is honest and true, just like we all are. Clinton takes great care to mention the American public and how he is continually making efforts to lead the country.

This covers himself for any later accusations that he is overly concerned with his own problems, and not with those of the nation. In the speech, the President mentions the word repent four times, forgiveness three times, and eludes to his own sin more times than could be counted. All three ideas lend further to the sympathy issue. Which it seems, was Clintons primary intention. I thought that the passage used form the book Gates of Repentance was very appropriate for the situation. It was also good that the President referred to more than one religion.

He mentions prayers to God and forgiveness received from the Catholic clergy, and then continues the religious theme by directly quoting from a Jewish, Yom Kippur liturgy. Again, Clinton was careful to relate himself to the common person, careful not to exclude or connect himself to only one group. Throughout the entire speech, he uses simple, every-day language that can be easily understood by the most educated scholar to the average member of society. Again, this allows more room to reach the people, regardless of class or religion.

In his closing statements, the President asks for assistance and forgiveness. In my opinion, it was an excellent end to a very powerful speech. If his purpose was to gain national support and change any negative feelings that the public had toward him, I feel that his goal was achieved. The years of political exposure that Bill Clinton has been subject to probably effected his ability to write such a speech. Regardless of his experience, the President is a natural at the powerful act of persuasion.

The Nomination of Andrew Jackson to the “Presidents Hall of Fame”

Like any hall of fame, its inductees are the best in whatever they do, from baseball or football to something like being President. If you are a member of any hall of fame (including the one for the Presidents), it means that you have done something special or have a certain quality about yourself that makes you worthy to be in a hall of fame. My nominee for the Presidents hall of Fame is our seventh President of the United States, Andrew Jackson. I’ll go over his presidency, focusing on both the highs and the lows of his two terms in office, from 1829-1837.

The issues that I’ll focus on are states’ rights, ullification, the tariff, the spoils system, Indian removal and banking policies; these controversies brought forth strong rivalry over his years of president. He was known for his iron will and fiery personality, and strong use of the powers of his office that made his years of presidency to be known as the “Age of Jackson. ” Andrew Jackson was born on March 15, 1767, in a settlement on the border of North and South Carolina. He was orphaned at age 14. After studying law and becoming a member of the Bar in North Carolina later he moved to Nashville Tennessee.

Their he became a member of a powerful political faction led by William Blount. He was married in 1791 to Rachel Donelson Robards, and later remarried to him due to a legal mistake in her prior divorce in 1794. Jackson served as delegate to Tenn. in the 1796 Constitutional convention and a congressman for a year (from 1796-97). He was elected senator in 1797, but financial problems forced him to resign and return to Tennessee in less than a year. Later he served as a Tennessee superior court judge for six years starting in 1798.

In 1804 he retired from the bench and moved to Nashville and devoted time to business ventures and his plantation. At this ime his political career looked over. In 1814 Jackson was a Major General in the Tennessee Militia, here he was ordered to march against the Creek Indians (who were pro-British in the war of 1812). His goal was achieved at Horseshoe Bend in March of 1814. Eventually he forced All Indians from the area. His victory’s impressed some people in Washington and Jackson was put in command of the defense of New Orleans.

This show of American strength made Americans feel proud after a war filled with military defeats. Jackson was given the nickname “Old Hickory”, and was treated as a national hero. In 1817 he was ordered against the Seminole Indians. He pushed them back into Spanish Florida and executed two British subjects. Jackson instead that his actions were with approval of the Monroe administration. His actions helped to acquire the Florida territory, and he became a provisional governor of Florida that same year.

In 1822 the Tennessee Legislature nominated him for president and the following year he was elected the U. S. senate. He also nearly won the presidential campaign of 1824 however as a result of the “corrupt bargain” with Henry Clay. Over the next four years the current administration built a strong olitical machine with nationalistic policies and a lack of concern of states rights. In 1828 through a campaign filled with mud slinging on both sides, Andrew Jackson became the seventh President to the United States. Instead of the normal cabinet made up by the president, he relied more on an informal group of newspaper writers and northern politicians who had worked for his election.

I believe that this made him more in contact with the people of the United States, more in contact with the public opinion and feelings toward national issues President Jackson developed the system of “rotation in office. This was used to protect the American people from a development of a long-standing political group by removing long-term office holders. His enemies accused him of corruption of civil service for political reasons. However, I think that it was used to insure loyalty of the people in his administration. States rights played an important part in Jackson’s policy’s as president.

In the case of the Cherokee Indians vs. The State of Georgia, two Supreme Court decisions in 1831 and 1832 upholding the rights of the Cherokee nation over the State of Georgia who had wanted to destroy Cherokee jurisdiction n it’s land because gold had been found on it, and the state seeing the Indians as tenants on state land decided to “kick them out”. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Georgia had no jurisdiction to interfere with the rights of the Cherokee and removal of them would violate treaties between them and the U. S. Government. However, Jackson, not liking these decisions was reported of saying “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.

It seems to me like a slap in Justice Marshall’s face, that Jackson was and always will be an Indian fighter. I think he just liked pushing around the Indians because he new hat whatever resistance they had was no match for the U. S. army. To emphasize his po int, in 1838 (one year after Jackson left office), a unite of federal troops rounded up the 15,000 Cherokee who resisted relocation and remained in Georgia and during the cold and rain of winter forced them to march to their lands in the west, this was known as the “Trail of Tears” since about 25% of the people died in route of either disease, starvation, and exposure to the cold.

Even though Jackson wasn’t in office at the time and is not a part of his presidency, his effluence still existed through his predecessor, Martin Van Burin. The question of the tariff was a major controversy in the United States around the years of his Presidency and his strong support for a unified nation oven states rights would hold the country together in this national crisis. Jackson had promised the south a reduction in duties to levels established in 1828, which were acceptable to southerners as opposed to the higher rates since then.

In 1832 his administration only sliced away a little bit of the duties, not close to what the south expected he would do. In retaliation of this insulting lack of concern of the South’s voice in government, South Carolina cting on the doctrine of Nullification which stated that the union was made up of the states and that the states had the right to null or void a law if they didn’t agree with it, declared the federal tariff laws of 1828 and 1832 invalid and prohibited collection of tariff’s after February first of 1833.

Jackson’s response to this came on his Nullification Proclamation on December 10, 1832. He declared his intent to enforce the law and was willing to seek and agreement in a lowering of tariff’s. In 1833 congress passed a compromise bill which set a new tariff, when the other southern states accepted the new tariff the threat f S. Carolina breaking away form the union was brought to a “happy” end. The Second Bank of the United States was not made into an issue of his election in 1828 by Jackson.

However he decided the bank, which is not a government bank, but chartered by it in 1826, had failed to provide a stable currency, and had favored the Northern states, and few loans were granted to the southern and western areas because they were a larger risk and the bank didn’t see it in it’s interest to make such a gamble with it’s money. And in his mind the bank was in violation on the Constitution. Even though the bank’s charter asn’t due to expire until 1836, Jackson’s political enemies pushed a bill through congress granting the banks re-charter, Jackson vetoed the bill. The “Bank” issue was a major item in his re-election in 1832.

In his second term Jackson decided to remove federal deposits from the bank into “pet banks” which virtually took away the power Nicholas Biddle’s power as president of the Second National Bank, which left him and anti-Jackson people very upset with what they called the abuse of his powers. The increase in loans from the state chartered caused a land boom and gave the federal government a surplus which it split up amongst the states), the increase in loans brought on the use of paper currency that was issued by the state banks, Jackson prohibited the use of paper money to by federal land or pay federal debts.

This demand for coins called specie led to many bank failures in the Panic of 1837. I don’t think he knew what he got himself into when he did this, and could of handled the situation a little better, but not all the blame should fall on his shoulders, because it wasn’t his fault the private state-chartered banks issued the paper money when they didn’t have the specie to back it up. Jackson’s foreign policy showed a strong interest in making the French to pay long-overdue spoliation claims and reopening the British West Indian Trade.

Even thought he personally agreed with the rebellion of Texas against Mexico. He didn’t recognize the Lone Star republic until the day before he left office in 1837, and left the problem of Texas annexation to Martin Van Buren. Even though Jackson switched support form his successor Martin Van Buren to James K. Polk (probably due to Van Burins failed economic policy). Jackson was a powerful voice in the Democratic party even after retired. He died on June 8, 1845 on his plantation, the Hermitage, in Nashville Tennessee. Andrew Jackson was the first “peoples president.

This comes from his youth in a frontier territory and his “people qualities” which helped him to be more touch with the people of the United States, and therefore the people of the United States took a more active role in the Government. He even went so far as to call himself the elected representative of all American people. I think that Jackson’s strengthening of the powers of the presidency are the biggest influence to this day. He used the power of the veto 12 times (more times than ll of his successors combined).

And his use of the powers of removal and of executive orders made a standard for a modern American Presidency. I only wish that their was a candidate like that running for election in ’96. The closest to someone like Jackson would of probably been Colin Powel, unfortunately he decided not to run. When you gave this project, I though Jackson was a mean tempered Indian fighter who found his way to office because he took over Florida and de fended New Orleans Successfully. But I grew to learn that he was really a great president and did a lot for the presidency of the United States of America.

John F. Kennedy – A thousand days

John F. Kennedy was destined to be president of the United States. He would rather mold history than let history mold itself. John Kennedy was born in Brookline, MA in 1917. His mother was Irish and his father was a graduate of Harvard University and had entered the business world. After their arrival as immigrants, John’s grandparents entered politics. John had attended four different schools before attending Harvard. He first attended Dexter School in Brookline where he played football. He was then enrolled at the Riverdale Country Day School in Bronxville, NY because his father had moved for business reason.

He had also attended the Canterbury School in New Milford, MA and then he spent his secondary school years at Choate in Wallingford, CT. As a student, Kennedy was average. He had potential of a great intellect and had a capacity to learn but he failed to apply himself. Therefore, he was happy as a B student. In 1946, JFK started down the road mapped out for him by his father. Since Kennedy was more of a scholar than a politician, it wasn’t easy when he ran for Congress from Massachusetts’ 11th district. Since his family was well known, he fit right in. He served in the House of Representatives for six years.

Then in 1952, he ran for the Senate against Henry Cabot Lodge. He won and then began to capture the eyes of men in the Democratic Party. In 1956 he decided to run as the Democratic Vice Presidential nominee, but he lost to the Senator of Tennessee. His effort, however, earned him national prominence, exactly what he wanted. In 1960 he won the Democratic Presidential Contest. From that time on JFK had developed into one of the most effective speakers in the history of the presidency. While a junior member of the Senate in 1952, Kennedy me Jacquelin Lee Bouvier, who was working as a photographer for the Washington Times Herald.

On September 12, 1953, they married in Hyannis Port on Cape Cod. Although Kennedy was not born a politician, he learned the trade fast. His quest for presidency started in 1959. His campaign was a very exhausting experience for him. He had planned early on that he would “cover everything, do everything and see everyone. ” The highlight of the 1960 Presidential Campaign was the series of four television debates between Kennedy and his opponent, Richard M. Nixon. Even off screen, Kennedy had a way of turning the debates to his advantage. When the ratings were in, Kennedy had clearly passed up his opponent by a considerable margin.

Many experts believe that his appearance on television was the key factor in winning most of the votes. They said that Nixon came off poorly and even looked poorly. When all the speeches were over, Kennedy returned to Boston to cast his vote at the West End Branch Library. Within a few hours it was clear that Kennedy had been elected to do one of the most demanding jobs in the world. John Kennedy had two children, Caroline and John Jr. Mrs. Kennedy tried very hard to keep them out of the spotlight because she was afraid that it would have an adverse effect on their development. John Jr. loved to hang out in his father’s office.

John always found time to spend with his family. It was very rare that he didn’t unless there was a very hectic issue he had to deal with as president. While the children were cared for much of the time by Maud Shaw, their private nurse, Mrs. Kennedy would take over whenever time allowed. More than anything else, the children of John Kennedy served to personalize and humanize the man. Scenes of the president playing with his children, carrying their teddy bears, listening to their problems and caring for their needs were deeply moving scenes. And when he died, Caroline and John were not yet old enough to understand.

Someday they will and they, more than anyone, will be able to remember the human side of the man who worked so long and hard for his country. Maybe Caroline summed it up when she once said, “That’s not the president, that’s my daddy. ” Jackie Kennedy was the daughter of a New York banker, John Bouvier and Mrs. Hugh D. Auchincloss of Georgetown. Following a liberal arts education in American schools, Jackie went to Paris to study at the Sorbonne. Just after meeting John Kennedy when she was a freshman senator, she took a job as a photographer and reporter with a Washington Newspaper.

She interviewed and wrote about many of the leading political figures. As husband and wife, John and Jackie were very compatible. Each nurtured a deep appreciation and trust of the other and each held the other’s view of life in deep respect. But as John’s political career rose, she had begun to realize that she wanted the quiet life she had always dreamed of. Above all, she wanted privacy, for herself and for her children. She knew that as the presidency grew her dream would become farther away. As a one-time journalist she understood all this, yet she couldn’t stop it completely without hurting her husband’s career.

Because of this she adjusted. She protected her children from the prying cameras of the professionals and the tourists as much as possible. November 22, 1963 started out promisingly under Texas skies. Air Force 1, the presidential jet, landed at Dallas’ Love Field at 11:37 a. m. The President was touring the Lone Star State for political reasons. JFK got off the plane, got into his limo and was on his way to a luncheon at the Trade Mart and was lead by cops. Many teenage girls were holding signs wanting to shake the president’s hand. At this point he had less than 15 minutes to live.

While going by the Texas Book Depository Building he had less than a minute to live. Within the next minute, three explosions could be heard and John F. Kennedy fell wounded into his wife’s arms. The Texas Governor, John Connally, who was with Kennedy, was seriously wounded. Then the presidential limo rushed Kennedy three miles to the Parkland Hospital. A team of doctors tried to bring back his life but it had already vanished. Police and secret service agents rushed toward the Texas Book Depository, believing that the shots had been fired from there. People were showing their great sympathy to Jackie who lay by her husband’s side.

Kennedy was dead instantly. Many countries like France, England, Germany, Ireland, and Italy, which had all been visited by Kennedy, the people wept. On Monday, November 25, 1963, John F. Kennedy was laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery, with full military honors, and with many of the world’s leaders in attendance. His widow stood by, courageous to the end, and he would have admired that, for as brother, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, noted afterward, courage was the virtue that John F. Kennedy admired most. And courage was clearly the stuff that John F. Kennedy was made of.

Ronald Reagan: Domestic And Foreign Affairs

I have decided to write my research paper on the topic of Ronald Reagan’s Domestic and Foreign Affairs. The reason that I choose this topic was because I have always been personally interested in Ronald Reagan’s time in office and the national crisis he had to deal with. Reagan was awesome when it came to foreign policy because he knew how to negotiate with foreign leaders and their countries to get what he wanted. There were several instances during his time in office that he had the chance to use his ability to get the country out of danger. Domestic Affairs is another part of Reagan’s presidency that was very important.

He was able to take the country, which seemed to be in an economic slump and turn their economic status around. The economic growth of the United States is still holding true today. There is only one question that I wanted to answer with this paper. Was Ronald Reagan an effective leader when it came to domestic and foreign affairs? Domestic Affairs From the day that Ronald Reagan was elected President of the United States, in November 1980, he had a huge task ahead of him, to develop an economic plan or policy to implement into the national economy.

President Reagan felt that he needed to base his economic program on the basis of supply side economics (Encyclopedia Britannica, Britannica. com, 2000). This theory is a very complex idea that President Reagan developed himself, so many people gave it the name of Reaganomics (Encyclopedia American, gi. grolier. com , 2000). The theory of Reaganomics called for a significant reduction in all forms of taxes and an adequate cutback on governmental spending so there will be more money in the hands of the American citizens.

The main goal of the supply side economic theory is to give a boost to the United States economy, which would cause the economy to expand. This economic expansion and boost would occur through citizens who would spend the extra tax money on products and services in their geographical region or who would invest money into businesses in their area. The only problem for the government using this theory would be the initial revenues that the government would lose from the tax cuts.

In theory the economic growth would eventually increase taxable incomes, this increase in taxable incomes should cause the governmental revenues to grow in the long run. With the idea of Reaganomics in mind President Reagan persuaded Congress to pass the Economic Recovery Tax Act, which is the first major step in his plan. This Tax Act called for a 25 percent tax cut that was implemented over a three-year period (David Mervin, 1990, 133-7). The only problem with this tax cut is the fact that it mainly benefited the upper – income taxpayers and large corporations.

The reason that these groups were targeted is because there is more of a chance that they will invest their money in business programs that will promote economic growth. After this tax cut took effect the American people in the lower – income tax brackets were not pleased with the results. They seemed to be faced with an increase in their tax rates even though most of them were in the income categories below the national average. On the other end of the spectrum the people that were in the upper tax brackets were experiencing significant tax cuts.

The largest tax break that the upper class experienced was about 6 percent. The second part of Reagan’s plan was to cut government spending on a variety of different programs. I have listed some of the most significant and recognizable programs: job training, college loans, medical programs, child daycare centers, and nursing homes (Encyclopedia Britannica, Britannica. com, 2000). The main reason that Reagan targeted these programs was because he felt that they made individuals more dependent on governmental support and in turn was weakening the structure of American families.

President Reagan, after long speeches and deliberations, persuaded congress to lift some of the many regulations that were placed on industries. The main objective of this deregulation was to help the industries save money as well as time when it came to complying and meeting the government’s regulations. To go along with this deregulation President Reagan also lifted environmental and safety standards. His reason for lifting these regulations was due to the time and expense that the industries spent complying with these regulations caused hardships for the American businesses.

All these actions seemed to reverse the growing trend of more governmental legislation and regulatory bodies designed to help protect and improve the quality of the environment. Reagan then appointed Anne Burford, a woman who opposes many regulations on air quality and the disposal of toxic waste, to be the head of the EPA (Encyclopedia Britannica, Britannica. com, 2000). The initial EPA stands for Environmental Protection Agency. Reagan also had many people on his administrative staff that believed in little fewer government regulation so the businesses will be able to flourish with will in-turn help the economy.

After all Reagan’s policy and plans over tax cuts, deregulation, and relaxing of the governments regulations on environment and safety standards were implemented the economy flourished. This time of economic growth started a growth in the stock market that lasted through the decade. The main reason for the stock market explosion was the fact that many investors realized that they could make money by investing it into high-risk businesses. This investment was not allowed under the old government regulations. The stock market surge was intensified by billion dollar mergers and company takeovers (Encyclopedia Britannica, Britannica. com, 2000).

As a result of the Reagan Era many Americans prospered, especially the upper class, who benefited the most from the tax cuts. Critics charged the tax cuts and the fruits of economic growth benefited mainly the wealthy, and that the gap between rich and poor grown wider (Encyclopedia Britannica, Britannica. com, 2000). Iran Contra Affair The last two years of Ronald Reagan’s presidency were spent dealing with the Iran Contra Affair. The Iran Contra Affair was an American political scandal, that took place in 1985 and 1986, where high-ranking officials in President Reagan’s administration made secret arrangements for the sale of arms to Iran.

Encyclopedia American, gi. grolier. com , 2000) This sale of guns and supplies directly violated United States policy and law. This scandal, in the public’s eye, turned attention to the effectiveness of Reagan’s leadership style and severely damaged his reputation. The profits earned from the illegal sale of arms went directly to the Nicaraguan right-wing guerrillas to help purchase supplies and arms to use in the battle they were fighting against the leftist Sandinista government (Encyclopedia American, gi. grolier. com , 2000).

The action of supplying the Nicaraguan guerrillas with funds is also a direct violation of U. S. policy. This policy came about in 1979 and 1980 as a result of the Iranian hostage crisis. The U. S. Congress labeled Iran as a terrorist country and then outlawed all sales of arms and supplies to any Iranian governmental agency. The main person behind these sales was Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North. He was a military aide to the National Security Council. Lieutenant Colonel North did not come up with the plans himself; the Israeli government aided him in his efforts. The sale of these weapons was initially expected to improve the relationship between the United States and Iran.

North thought that his improved relationship with Iran would increase the chances of rescuing the American hostages that were initially held in Lebanon by Iranian terrorists. Lieutenant North was very sneaky when it came to setting up a system for providing the needed support to the contras, with the use of their own ships, airplanes, airfields and secret bank accounts in their own name. In late November 1986, a Lebanese magazine and an American Newspaper printed that the United States government had sold weapons to Iran in hopes it would help gain Iranian support in releasing the U. S. hostages in Lebanon by Iran friendly Lebanese terrorists.

After the leak of this secret information, the U. S. Attorney General, Edwin Meese, admitted that millions of dollars from these sales had been sent directly to the contras in Nicaragua (George C Edwards III and Stephan J. Wayne, 1999, 160). These actions were in direct violation of the Boland Amendment. Congress passed this Amendment in 1984 to prevent the U. S. government or any U. S. military agency from directly or indirectly aiding Iran in any way (David Mervin, 1990, 156-7).

This particular incident was detrimental to Ronald Reagan and his administration because they took a strong public stand against governments that helped support terrorism and had been urging other governments not to deal with nations that supported terrorists. As this scandal continued to emerge the U. S. government started a series of congressional and legal investigations. As these investigations continued President Reagan denied any knowledge of the diversion of funds to the Contras, along with the claim that it did not involve negotiations over hostages in Lebanon.

Reagan claimed that the weapons deal with Iran was an attempt to open a dialogue with modern elements in the Iranian Government. In February 1987 a special group of investigators, headed by a former U. S. Senator John Tower, issued a report attacking President Reagan and his advisers for their lack of control over the National Security Councils actions. This committee was called the Towner Commission (Encyclopedia Britannica, Britannica. com, 2000). This committee collected more than 300,000 documents, conducted 500 investigations and depositions, and listened to 28 witnesses in 40 days of public hearings.

In November 1987 the Towner Commission reported that President Reagan took the ultimate responsibility for the administrations actions but they found no evidence that he knew of the diversions of funds to the contras. An independent prosecutor, Lawrence Walsh, published a report on the investigation of the Iran Contra Affair. Walsh’s findings showed that there was absolutely no evidence that President Reagan had broke the law in any way, but he did conclude that Reagan may have participated in or knew about a cover up operation that took place.

Involvement in the Middle East During Presidents Reagan’s time in office, he dealt with a lot of problems in the Middle East. Several of these times Reagan had to send troops to the aid of the people. In the early 1980’s a conflict broke out between a Muslim group and the Christian government. In 1982 Reagan sent U. S. marines to the Middle East in hopes to help improve the strength of the Christian government. In late 1983 a bomb exploded at the Beirut headquarters that killed around 250 marines and other American servicemen (Lou Cannon, 1991, 389-93).

After this incident President Reagan withdrew American troops from Lebanon, which left their government in a bad situation. The bombing that took place at the Beirut headquarters outraged the American citizens and this sparked a strong reaction against any terrorists in the U. S. , especially the Middle East based groups. In 1986 several American soldiers were killed in a bombing that took place in a West German dance club. After the extensive investigation the United States concluded that Libya was responsible for the bombing and other terrorists activities that were taking place in that area during the same time.

President Reagan and his administration decided to take action by bombing several Libyan cities on April 15, 1986. They figured if they did not take action the terrorist attacks would not stop. In 1987 the Kuwaiti government requested the United States naval presence so they could insure that its shipping activities during this time of war would be safe. The American government had a direct interest in the shipping of natural resources because several billions of dollars of oil are shipped out of Kuwait to the United States every year. The Reagan administrations main goal with this involvement was to help prevent Iran from defeating Iraq.

They feared that the defeat of Iraq would demolish the U. S. influence in that area of the world. Conclusion Ronald Reagan spent a very successful eight years in the white house. He was faced with several national crises and he handled them with a calm and cool attitude. As we learned in class every U. S. President has special powers that only he can exercise and some of the include; Commander in Chief, Treaty making power, Judicial appointment power, and Chief Administrator. He had to exercise a few of these special powers when it came down to him dealing directly with foreign affairs and policy.

Chief Administrator and the judicial appointment powers are used in Domestic Affairs. The other major way that this paper is related to class is the fact that Ronald Reagan was the 40th president in United States history. This class, the books, and the lectures all dealt with the American Presidents and how they handled their time in office. Ronald Reagan had a very high approval rate from the American public. He handled his time in office and the issues that came up while he was in office with great success. He is definitely one of the Greatest American Presidents in history.

Third President of the United States of America

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) was the third president of the United States and a creator of the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson was a philosopher, politician, scientist, architect, inventor, musician, and writer. Thomas Jefferson was also one of the smartest leaders in history. His father was named Peter Jefferson, a very rich Farmer from Virginia. Thomas’s Mother, Jane Randolph Jefferson, was part of the Randolph family. The Randolph Family was a big part of Virginia history, and also very rich also.

Peter and Jane Jefferson moved to Goochland county, because Peter had just gotten 400 acres of land there. Thomas Jefferson was born in the log cabin in which the family lived. Thomas Jefferson was the third child out of four brother and six sisters. Two years after Thomas was born, William Randolph, a cousin of Mrs. Jefferson and a close friend of the family, died. His will requested that Peter Jefferson move to his estate, take care of the house and land, and make sure Randolph’s four children get educated. The Jefferson’s remained at Randolph’s estate for seven years.

The estate was called Shadwell. Thomas Jefferson was quite the little intelligent boy. At age nine, Thomas Jefferson Started Latin, Greek, and French Studies at a boarding school. Thomas liked to Horse back ride, Canoe, Hunt, and fish. When Thomas was fourteen years old, his father passed away. Thomas Jefferson was the oldest son, so Thomas had to take care of the family. Jefferson was a tall, slender boy with sandy reddish hair and fair skin that freckled and sunburned easily. A serious student, Thomas also enjoyed the lighter aspects of the education of a Virginia gentleman.

Jefferson learned to dance and play the violin. Weekends and holidays Thomas spent either at Shadwell entertaining guests or at his After two years at William and Mary (A College in Virginia’s capital city), Jefferson left to study law. Thomas still studied French, Italian, and English history and literature. In 1767, Jefferson was chosen to the practice of law in Virginia. Jefferson’s main source of income was his land. That’s because most lawyers didn’t make enough On New Year’s Day, 1772, Jefferson married Martha Wayles Skelton, a 24-year-old widow.

Patty (That’s Jefferson called her) shared her husband’s love of music and played the harpsichord and piano. The marriage was happy, except Mrs. Jefferson’s ill health. Of their six children, only two, both of them girls, lived to maturity. Martha Jefferson died in 1782. The death of his wife had a profound effect on Jefferson and probably influenced his return to politics, which Thomas Jefferson had considered leaving. On June 21, 1775, Jefferson took his seat in Congress. The following summer, Jefferson sat in Congress as an elected delegate, not as an alternate.

It was at this session that Thomas Jefferson wrote his most famous document, the Declaration of On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was formally adopted. The connections with America with Great Britain were broken. Within a few days the declaration was being read to people throughout the colonies, and it was received with Jefferson managed to spend considerable time with his family. Thomas took up building projects at Monticello and continued to develop his land. Jefferson was a philosopher a architect, and an inventor.

Thomas invented the dumbwaiter, a swivel chair, a lamp-heater, and an improved plow. In May, 1784, Congress appointed Jefferson a diplomat. Jefferson was to go to France. There Thomas Jefferson was to help the other ministers, Benjamin Franklin and John Adams, in arranging commercial treaties with various European countries. When Franklin retired in 1785, Jefferson replaced him as the U. S. diplomatic representative to One of Jefferson’s most important functions in France was to report home how “the vaunted scene of Europe … struck a savage of the mountains of America. ” Thomas Jefferson was not well impressed.

Thomas Jefferson urged his friend, Congressman James Monroe, to come and see for himself what France was like. It wasn’t as bad as they thought, but they did not have land like America did. The Bill of Rights was one of the biggest documents to ever be written. Based on Jefferson’s suggestions, James Madison proposed a Bill of Rights, consisting of the first ten amendments, which was added to the Constitution in 1791. Jefferson toured much of Europe, taking note of its architecture and studying its scientific achievements. However, Thomas Jefferson longed to return to the United States, and permission finally came in September, 1789.

When Jefferson returned to the United States, President Washington asked him to become Secretary of State. Although Jefferson wanted to return to American life, Thomas Jefferson accepted the president’s request. Jefferson became Vice-president when Thomas Jefferson was 54 years old. Thomas Jefferson was the Vice-president under President Adams, Even though they did not agree on all subjects. The Republicans nominated Jefferson for president in 1800. For Vice-president they nominated Aaron Burr. President Adams was the Federalist candidate. There was a tie in the electoral vote.

This caused one of the weirdest crises in American history. The electors, in voting for Jefferson or Burr, had not specified whether their vote was for President or Vice-president. Therefore, despite his being his party’s Vice-presidential candidate, Burr had as many votes for the office of President as The Constitution provides that in case no candidate in a presidential election wins a majority of the electoral votes, the election must go to the House of Representatives, in which each state has one vote. To win, Jefferson or Burr had to have the support of a majority of the 16 states.

To further complicate matters, this was a lame-duck Congress, meaning that many of its members had been defeated in the recent election and were in office only because their terms had not expired. Congress was dominated by Federalists who had to choose between two Republican candidates. From February 11, when the voting began, to February 16, neither Jefferson nor Burr could win the required nine states. Because Jefferson disliked Burr even more than Thomas Jefferson did Jefferson, Hamilton favored Jefferson, but most Federalists abhorred Jefferson.

The crisis was resolved when a group of Federalists, led by James A. Bayard of Delaware, came to the realization that if an orderly transfer of government power was to be achieved, the majority party must have its choice as President. Therefore, on February 17 the deadlock was broken. On the 36th ballot, Jefferson won the support of ten states and was elected President. Burr, who had the support of only four states, As a result of this election, the 12th Amendment was added to the Constitution. This amendment specified that electors were to name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-president.

Jefferson was inaugurated on March 4, 1801, the first President to be inaugurated in Washington, D. C. Jefferson was accompanied by a small crowd of people and a company of artillery. The outgoing president, John Adams, considered Jefferson a dangerous radical and did not attend the inauguration. Jefferson’s inaugural address, one of a small number of truly memorable addresses by Presidents of the United States, attempted to dispel the notion held by many onservatives that democracy would lead to mob rule and anarchy. “The will of the majority in all cases is to prevail,” Jefferson said.

However, “the minority possess their equal rights which equal law must protect, and to violate would be oppression. ” Jefferson sought also to unite the country. “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists,” Thomas Jefferson proclaimed. Furthermore, his program was moderate enough to win the support In January, 1803, half a year before the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson proposed his idea to Congress. In order to conceal its expansionist aims from England, France, and Spain, Thomas Jefferson suggested that the journey be presented as a “literary pursuit. ” Congress gave its approval.

Jefferson chose his secretary, Meriwether Lewis, to lead the expedition, and Lewis selected William Clark, a frontiersman, as his Partner. Jefferson instructed them to observe and note down the physical features, terrain, soil, climate, and wildlife of the land and the language and customs of its inhabitants. In 1806 Lewis and Clark returned with their valuable journals. They had successfully breached the mountain barrier of the West, built a fort on the Pacific Ocean at the mouth of the Columbia River, nd mapped and explored much of the American Northwest.

Moreover, they had secured the friendship of a number of Native American peoples and given the United States a claim At the age of 65, Jefferson was at last free to return to his beloved mountaintop estate in Virginia. Thomas Jefferson devoted much of his energy to repairing and rebuilding his estate, but Thomas Jefferson yet found time to design houses for his friends. Thomas Jefferson furnished Monticello with rare and beautiful objects and with his own remarkable inventions, so that the estate was much talked about and frequently visited.

Thomas Jefferson also worked to advance agricultural science, and Thomas Jefferson filled his account books with observations of all kinds. Jefferson’s leisure time was spent in reading. Ancient history especially interested him, but Thomas Jefferson also continued his study of philosophy, religion, and law. In 1815 Thomas Jefferson sold his 6500-volume collection to the federal government as the nucleus of the restored Library of Congress, which was being built up again after its destruction in the British burning of Washington in the War of 1812. However, immediately afterward, Jefferson set about buying a new collection.

Political differences had long ago broken up the friendship between Jefferson and John Adams. Now, a mutual friend, Dr. Benjamin Rush, brought about a reconciliation. Jefferson and Adams began a lively correspondence that touched on many subjects. “I cannot write volumes on a single sheet,” Adams wrote plaintively, “but these letters of Jefferson and his friend Adams, both of whom had played such great parts in the winning of independence, died on Independence Day, July 4, 1826. Jefferson left detailed instructions for his burial in the graveyard of his estate. A simple monument was to mark his resting place.

Thomas Jefferson specified that the monument was to be made of coarse stone so that “no one might be tempted hereafter to destroy it for the value of the materials. ” Thomas Jefferson wrote his own epitaph: Author of the Declaration of American Of the Statute of Virginia for Religious And Father of the University of Virginia These achievements were to be inscribed on the monument, and “not a word more … because by these, as testimonials that I have lived, I wish most to be Jefferson’s wishes were carried out, but vandals later overturned and broke the stone. A careful reproduction now marks Jefferson’s grave.

Thomas Jefferson the third president of the United States of America

Thomas Jefferson is one of the most profound and important figures in American History. Thomas Jefferson was the third president of the United States of America, a diplomat, statesman, architect, scientist, and philosopher. No leader in this period of American History was as articulate, wise, or aware of the problems and consequences of a free society as Thomas Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, at Shadwell, a tobacco plantation in Virginia. His father, Peter Jefferson, was an extremely smart man, not to mention a self-made success, all despite the fact he was formally uneducated.

His mother, Jane Randolph was a member of one of the most distinguished families in Virginia. Peter Jefferson died when Thomas was 14, leaving him many valuable properties and lands. As a result of being formally uneducated himself he demanded his son Thomas be schooled. He studied with Reverend Mr. Maury, a classical scholar, for two years, and in 1760 he attended William and Mary College. After graduating from William and Mary in 1762, Jefferson studied law for five years under George Wythe. In January of 1772, he married Martha Wayles Skelton and made himself a home in Monticello to raise a family.

When he and Martha moved to Monticello, only a small one room building was completed for them to stay Jefferson was thirty years old when he first began his political career. He was elected to the Virginia House of Burgess in 1769, where his first action was an unsuccessful bill allowing owners to free their slaves. The continuing problem in British-Colonial relations overshadowed routine action of legislature. In 1774, the first of the Intolerable Acts closed the port of Boston until Massachusetts paid for the Boston Tea Party, of the preceding year.

Jefferson and other younger members of the Virginia Assembly ordained a day of fasting and prayer to demonstrate their sympathy with Massachusetts. As a result, Virginias Royal Governor Dunmore once again dissolved the assembly (Koch and Peden 20). The members met and planned to call together an inter-colonial congress.. Jefferson began writing resolutions which were more radical and better written than those from other counties and colonies. Although his resolutions were considered too revolutionary, and not adopted, they were printed and widely circulated.

Because of these resolutions all important writing assignments were entrusted When Jefferson arrived in Philadelphia in June, 1775, as a Virginia delegate to the Second Continental Congress, he already possessed, as John Adams remarked, a reputation for literature, science, and a happy talent of When he retired in 1776, he was appointed to a five-man committee, including Benjamin Franklin and John Adams, which was given the most momentous assignment ever given in the history of America: the drafting of a formal declaration of independence from Great Britain (Daugherty 109).

Jefferson was responsible for preparing the draft. The document, was finally pproved by Congress on July 4, 1776. Cut and occasionally altered by Adams or Franklin, or the Congress itself, the declaration is almost completely Jeffersons, and is the triumph and culmination of his early career. At this time, had he wanted to be a political leader, he could have easily attained a position in government. Instead, he chose to return to Monticello and give his public service to Virginia. Returning to the Virginia House of Delegates in October 1776, Jefferson set to work on reforming the laws of Virginia.

He also proposed a rational plan of statewide education nd attempted to write religious toleration into the laws of Virginia by separating Church and State by writing the Bill for Establishing Religious In June of 1779, Jefferson was elected Governor of Virginia. He continued his career as a public executive, confident of his abilities, of the respect, and the affection of his common wealth. However, he took up his duties at a time when the British were raiding Virginia. General George Washington did not have resources available to send to Virginia.

Jefferson, during one of the raids, narrowly escaped capture at the hands of the British Troops, and the legislatures were forced to flee from their new capital city of Richmond. Jefferson, as head of state, was singled out for criticism and abuse. At the end of his second term, he announced his retirement. General Washingtons approval of Jeffersons actions as Governor made in contrast to the charges of betraying his duty, made by certain members in legislature. After Washingtons approval, the legislature passed a resolution officially clearing Jefferson of all charges (Smith 134, 135).

Jefferson returned home to Monticello in 1781, and buried himself in writing about Virginia. The pages of text turned into a manuscript later known as the Notes of Virginia. This book went into great detail about the beauty of external nature as in its clarification of moral, political, and social issues, was read by scientist of two continents for years to come (Smith 142). His wife, ill since the birth of their last daughter, died in September 1782. In sorrow for his wife, Jefferson decided to turn down numerous appointments.

In June 1783, he was elected as a delegate to the Confederation Congress where he headed important committees and drafted many reports and official papers. He preferred the necessity of stronger international commercial relations, and in 1784, wrote instructions for ministers negotiating commercial treaties with European nations. In May 1784, he was appointed Minister Plenipotentiary of the united States to assist Benjamin Franklin and John Adams, both of whom had preceded him to Europe to arrange commercial agreements (Koch and Peden 24).

He traveled throughout Europe and every place he went, he was not only an American diplomat, but a student of the useful sciences. He took notes on making wine, cheese, planting and harvesting crops, and raising livestock. He sent home to America information on the different cultures, the actual seeds of a variety of grasses not native to America, olive plants, and Italian rice. He remained in Paris until late 1789 (Smith 170). When he got back from Europe President Washington asked Jefferson to be Secretary of State. Jefferson accepted the post and found himself disagreeing with the Seceratary of Treasury, Alexander Hamilton.

Jefferson thought that all of Hamiltons acts were dominated by one purpose: to establish government by and for a privileged few. Jefferson repeatedly thought of retiring from the abinet position in which he was constantly arguing against Hamilton, the power-hungry man in the capitol. After negotiating the countrys foreign problems, Jefferson once again retired to Monticello. During retirement, Jefferson supervised the farming of his many lands and designed a plow which revolutionized agriculture; he tended library like a garden. e changed the architectural plans for Monticello, and supervised the construction.

After three rather active years of retirement, Jefferson accepted the Republican Partys nomination in 1796 for president. He lost by three votes, which nder the prevailing system meant he was elected Vice President and the Federalist, John Adams, was elected president. The Federalist Administration turned upon its political opponents by passing the Alien Act, to deport foreign radicals, liberal propagandists, and agitators, also the Sedition Act, to hold the press.

The Sedition Act gave the Administration the power to fine, imprison, and prosecute any opposing writer, so therefore the Republicans were kept quiet in the remaining years of Adams Administration (Randall 523, 528). In 1800, Jefferson and Aaron Burr ran for office. The electoral vote, n contrast to the popular vote, resulted in a tie between Jefferson and Burr. The Federalist threatened Jefferson to bargain with them or they would elect Burr. Jefferson, however, stood firm and made no promises, until the Federalists gave up.

As president, Jeffersons first project was to remove the bias which had recently infected America. His policy of general reconciliation and reform, and his success in freeing the victims of the Alien and Sedition laws were generally supported by a favorable Congress (Randall 549). His popularity during his first term was greater than at any time during is career. In this term he was confronted with the most important problem of his career. Spain transferred to France its rights to the port of new Orleans, and the section of land controlling the province of Louisiana.

Louisiana in the strong hands of the French rather than the weak hands of Spain placed an almost overwhelming obstacle in the path of American growth and prosperity. It was extremely important that America control the Louisiana territory, either through peaceful negotiation or by war. When French dictator Napoleon, suddenly offered to sell for fifteen million dollars, ot only the port of New Orleans, but also the entire piece of French owned land from the Mississippi to the Rockies, Jefferson was faced with the problem of taking the offer or wait for a Constitutional amendment authorizing such an act.

After much thinking, Jefferson authorized the purchase (Smith 266). Therefore his first term ended in a blaze of glory. The people, happy with the good fortune of their nation, almost unanimously sent Jefferson back for a second term. Busy as he was during these years, Jefferson had found time to follow his favorite intellectual pursuits. He had ot only aided in establishing a National Library, but had made many valuable additions to his own private collection. His second term was full of difficulties.

To avoid war, Jefferson promoted the Non-Intercourse Act of 1806 and the Embargo of 1807. The Embargo was heavily criticized and had not been effective. To make matters worse, the domestic front was full of defections and desertions. When his term expired on march 3, 1809, he was thrilled to be leaving politics and returned to Monticello (McLaughlin 376). Jeffersons daughter Martha said that in retirement her father never bandoned a friend or principle. he and John Adams, their earlier political differences reconciled, wrote many letters.

Jefferson frequently complained about the time consumed in maintaining his ever increasing friendship, but could not resist an intellectual challenge, or turn down an appeal for his opinion, advice, or help. He continued to discuss with quick thinking and a brilliant clarity such divers subjects as anthropology and political theory, religion, and zoology (Koch and Peden 40). Jeffersons major concern during his last years was education and educational philosophy. He considered knowledge not only as a means to an end, but an end in itself. He felt education was the key to life as it was to happiness.

He reopened his campaign for a system of general education in Virginia. Through his efforts, the University of Virginia, the first American University to be free of official church connection, was established and was Jeffersons daily concern during his last seven years (Koch and Peden 39). He sent out an agent to select the faculty, he chose books for the library, drew up the curriculum, designed the buildings, and supervised their construction. The University finally opened in 1825, the winter before his death. Despite his preoccupation with the University, he continued to pursue a multitude of other tasks.

In his eightieth year, for example, he wrote on politics, sending President Monroe long expositions later known to the world in Monroes version as the Monroe Doctrine (Daugherty 326). Among all his interests, there was one flaw on his time and thought which caused Jefferson endless embarrassment. His finances, always shaky, finally collapsed. Jefferson had frequently advanced money to friends who ared much more for possessions than he, and occasionally had been forced to make good on their notes when they found it impossible to do so.

He spent money lavishly on his libraries and the arts, on Monticello, and on his childrens education. His passion for architecture cost him a small fortune. At the final stage of his financial distress, Jefferson petitioned the Virginia legislature to grant him permission to dispose of Monticello and its farms by lottery. The almost immediate response of private citizens, in New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, on hearing this news was to donate a sum of ver sixteen thousand dollars to aid the leader who had devoted his industry and resourcefulness to all America for half of a century (Smith 304).

On July 4, 1826, Jefferson died at Monticello. He was buried on the hillside beside his wife. He had written the script for his headstone himself: Author of the Declaration of American Independence of the Statute of Virginia for religious freedom and father of the University of Virginia. With absolute brilliance and an unbelievable sense of what was best for the American people Thomas Jefferson established himself as one of the best and most contributive leaders in American history.

George Bush Biography

The votes were in; the election was over. On the 20th of January 1989, Republican George Herbert Walker Bush became the forty-first president of the United States. After serving two previous terms as Ronald Reagan’s Vice President, he defeated Governor of Massachusetts Michael S. Dukakis to earn his new title. Bush had become President at a time when many Americans were uncertain about their country’s future. The federal government was intensely in debt due to prior years of budget deficits.

Imported foods were more valuable then exports which questioned the United State’s economic standing. Foreign policy was also a topic well discussed by Americans. Bush seemed to be doing a good job with it all and in the midst of his presidency a second term seemed to be a sure thing for him. However, the 1992 election marked the end of his reign; he lost by a great margin to democrat William J. Clinton who may I add was later impeached! George Bush was born on June 12, 1924, in Milton, Massachusetts to Prescott Sheldon Bush and Dorothy Walker Bush.

Prescott Bush worked in an investing firm, but ended up moving his family to Connecticut where he later on developed a strong interest in politics which led to his position as Senator of Connecticut. Bush had three brothers and one sister who were all brought up strictly and well-mannered. He attended private Greenwich Day School and exclusive Phillips Academy where he was indeed popular. Along with his good grades, Bush was president of the senior class, captain of the baseball and soccer teams, and also played varsity basketball.

After graduating prep school in 1942, his original plans of attending Yale University had been delayed due to the U. S. interest in World War II. He enlisted in the U. S. National Reserve where he received flight training and became the Navy’s youngest pilot. In 1942, he flew the U. S. S. San Jacinto in the Pacific Ocean where he took part in dangerous fighting. His plane was shot down, but luckily, unlike his two crew members, he was rescued by the U. S. S. Finback, a U. S. submarine.

Bush was recognized for his brave, heroic efforts by receiving the Distinguished Flying Cross, and after recovery served at the Oceana Naval Air Station until the end of the war in August of 1945. Shortly before the end of the war, George Bush married Barbara Pierce, a lady he once met at a Christmas dance. His marriage did not stop him from furthering his education though; George had entered Yale in the fall of 1945. There he was captain of the baseball team, a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, and elected to participate in Skull and Bones which was one of Yale’s secret societies.

Bush graduated in 1948 with a bachelor’s degree in economics. At this time Bush’s father was still involved in the banking business and he wanted to recruit his son. George however passed up the opportunity by moving to Texas and going into the oil business where he indeed “struck it rich”. His father had become senator in 1952 and that is when politics started to interest Bush as well. In 1962, he was elected chairman of the Republican Party of Harris County, which lies mostly in Houston, Texas.

In 1964, he was the Republican candidate for the U. S. senate, but was defeated by Democrat Ralph Yarborough. Two years later, Bush ran and won a seat in the U. S. House of Representatives, which he had for two terms. In 1970 however, President Nixon encouraged him to try the Senate again which he did. Unfortunately he was defeated by Democrat Lloyd Bentsen. After Bush’s loss in the senate election, President Nixon appointed him as the U. S. ambassador to the UN. When Nixon was re-elected in 1972, he then bumped up Bush to being the chairman of the Republican National Committee.

A year later, the Watergate Scandal incident took place which lead to Nixon’s resignation in 1974. Gerald R. Ford took over the presidency and eventually supported Bush’s choice of becoming the head of the United States Liaison Office in Beijing. A year later he came back to Washington to serve as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency, as per Nixon’s request. When President Jimmy Carter was elected to office, Bush resigned his position in the CIA. The 1980 Presidential election was now three years away and George Bush had intentions of entering the race.

In the nominating process, his opponent Ronald Reagan seemed to have an advantage which in due time caused Bush to drop out. Reagan then invited Bush to be his Vice Presidential candidate which worked out well after they defeated Jimmy Carter and Walter Mondale. On March 30, 1981, Reagan was shot in an attempted assassination and Bush won public respect due to the smooth ways he handled public duties during the Presidents recovery. The duo was then re-elected by a landslide for yet another term together. George Bush now felt once again he should run for presidency.

Joining him for Vice-President was Dan Quayle, Senator of Indiana. The two destroyed Michael Dukakis and Lloyd Bentsen in the race by receiving 426 of the 538 electoral votes. As President, Bush faced a dramatically changing world, as the Cold War ended after 40 bitter years, the Communist empire broke up, and the Berlin Wall fell. The Soviet Union ceased to exist; and reformist President Mikhail Gorbachev, whom Bush had supported, resigned.

While Bush hailed the march of democracy, he insisted on restraint in U. S. licy toward the group of new nations. In other areas of foreign policy, President Bush sent American troops into Panama to overthrow the corrupt regime of General Manuel Noriega, who was threatening the security of the canal and the Americans living there. Noriega was brought to the United States for trial as a drug trafficker. But, Bush’s greatest test came when Iraqi President Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, then threatened to move into Saudi Arabia.

Vowing to free Kuwait, Bush rallied the United Nations, the U. S. eople, and Congress and sent 425,000 American troops. They were joined by 118,000 troops from allied nations. After weeks of air and missile bombardment, the 100-hour land battle dubbed Desert Storm routed Iraq’s million-man army. Despite unprecedented popularity from this military and diplomatic triumph, Bush was unable to withstand discontent at home from a faltering economy, rising violence in inner cities, and continued high deficit spending. In 1992 he lost his bid for reelection to Democrat William Clinton.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy, president of the United States

John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected president. He was also the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president. Therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented war. Young people especially liked him. No other president was so popular. He brought to the presidency an awareness of the cultural and historical traditions of the United States.

Because Kennedy expressed the values of 20th-century America, his presidency was important beyond its political achievements. John Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts. He was the second of nine children. Kennedy announced his candidacy early in 1960. By the time the Democratic National Convention opened in July, he had won seven primary victories. His most important had been in West Virginia, where he proved that a Roman Catholic could win in a predominantly Protestant state. When the convention opened, it appeared that Kennedy’s only serious challenge for the nomination would come from the Senate majority leader, Lyndon B.

Johnson of Texas. However, Johnson was strong only among Southern delegates. Kennedy won the nomination on the first ballot and then persuaded Johnson to become his running mate. Two weeks later the Republicans nominated Vice President Richard Nixon for president and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. , who was ambassador to the United Nations and whom Kennedy had defeated for the Senate in 1952, for vice president. In the fast-paced campaign that followed, Kennedy made stops in 46 states and 273 cities and towns, while Nixon visited every state and 170 urban areas.

Another important element of the campaign was the support Kennedy received from blacks in important Northern states, especially Illinois and Pennsylvania. They supported him in part because he and Robert Kennedy had tried to get the release of the civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. King, who had been jailed for taking part in a civil rights demonstration in Georgia, was released soon afterward. The election drew a record 69 million voters to the polls, but Kennedy won by only 113,000 votes. Kennedy was inaugurated on January 20, 1961.

In his inaugural address he emphasized America’s revolutionary heritage. 2″The same … beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe,” Kennedy said. 3″Let the word go forth from this time and place to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans-born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage-and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.

Kennedy challenged Americans to assume the burden of “defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. ” The words of his address were, 4″Ask not what your country can do for you-ask what you can do for your country. ” Kennedy sought with considerable success to attract brilliant young people to government service. His hope was to bring new ideas and new methods into the executive branch. As a result many of his advisers were teachers and scholars. Among them were McGeorge Bundy and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. , both graduates of Harvard.

Kennedy’s most influential adviser was Theodore C. Sorenson, a member of Kennedy’s staff since his days in the Senate. Sorenson wrote many of Kennedy’s speeches and exerted a strong influence on Kennedy’s development as a political liberal, 5 a person who believes that the government should directly help people to overcome poverty or social discrimination. The president and Mrs. Kennedy attempted to make the White House the cultural center of the nation. Writers, artists, poets, scientists, and musicians were frequent dinner guests.

On one occasion the Kennedy’s held a reception for all the American winners of the Nobel Prize, people who made outstanding contributions to their field during the past year. At the party the president suggested that more talent and genius was at the White House that night than there had been since Thomas Jefferson had last dined there alone. At a meeting with the leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Nikita Khrushchev, Kennedy asked the name of a medal Khrushchev was wearing.

When the premier identified it as the Lenin Peace Medal, Kennedy remarked, 6″I hope you keep it. ” On another occasion he told a group of Republican business leaders, 7″It would be premature to ask for your support in the next election and inaccurate to thank you for it in the past. ” Even in great crises, Kennedy retained his sense of humor. Kennedy’s first year in office brought him considerable success in enacting new legislation. Congress passed a major housing bill, a law increasing the minimum wage, and a bill granting federal aid to economically depressed areas of the United States.

The most original piece of legislation Kennedy put through Congress was the bill creating the Peace Corps, an agency that trained American volunteers to perform social and humanitarian service overseas. The program’s goal was to promote world peace and friendship with developing nations. The idea of American volunteers helping people in foreign lands touched the idealism of many citizens. Within two years, Peace Corps volunteers were working in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, living with the people and working on education, public health, and agricultural projects.

However, after his initial success with Congress, Kennedy found it increasingly difficult to get his programs enacted into law. Although the Democrats held a majority in both houses, Southern Democrats joined with conservative Republicans to stop legislation they disliked. The Medicare bill, a bill to make medical care for the aged a national benefit, was defeated. A civil rights bill and a bill to cut taxes were debated, and compromises were agreed to, but even the compromises were delayed. A bill to create a Cabinet-level Department of Urban Affairs was soundly defeated, partly because Kennedy wanted the economist Robert C.

Weaver, a black man, to be the new secretary. Southern Congressmen united with representatives from mostly rural areas to defeat the bill. Kennedy did win approval of a bill to lower tariffs and thus allow more competitive American trade abroad. Congress also authorized the purchase of $100 million in United Nations bonds, and the money enabled the international organization to survive a financial crisis. Further, Congress appropriated more than $1 billion to finance sending a man to the moon by 1970 which was accomplished in 1969.

The major American legal and moral conflict during Kennedy’s three years in office was in the area of civil rights. Black agitation against discrimination had become widespread and well organized. Although Kennedy was in no way responsible for the growth of the civil rights movement, he attempted to aid the black cause by enforcing existing laws. Kennedy particularly wanted to end discrimination in federally financed projects or in companies that were doing business with the government. In September 1962 Governor Ross R. Barnett of Mississippi ignored a court order and prevented James H.

Meredith, a black man, from enrolling at the state university. On the night of September 29, even as the president went on national television to appeal to the people of Mississippi to obey the law, rioting began on the campus. After 15 hours of rioting and two deaths, Kennedy sent in troops to restore order. Meredith was admitted to the university, and troops and federal marshals remained on the campus to insure his safety. In June 1963, when Governor George C. Wallace of Alabama prevented two blacks from enrolling at the University of Alabama, Kennedy federalized the Alabama National Guard to enforce the law.

The students were enrolled at the university. Three months later, Kennedy again used the National Guard to prevent Wallace from interfering with integration in the public schools of Birmingham, Tuskegee, and Mobile. Kennedy also asked Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would guarantee blacks the right to vote, to attend public school, to have equal access to jobs, and to have access to public accommodations. Kennedy told the American people, 8″Now the time has come for this nation to fulfill its promises … act, to make a commitment it has not fully made in this century to the proposition that race has no place in American life or law. ”

Public opinion polls showed that Kennedy was losing popularity because of his advocacy of civil rights. Privately, he began to assume that the South would oppose him in the next election, but he continued to speak out against segregation, the practice of separating people of different races. To a group of students in Nashville, Tennessee, he said, 9 “No one can deny the complexity of the problem involved in assuring all of our citizens their full rights as Americans.

But no one can gainsay the fact that the determination to secure those rights is in the highest tradition of American freedom. ” In 1959, after several attempts, a revolution led by Fidel Castro finally overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar. During the next two years, Castro was to become increasingly hostile to the United States. The new regime’s agricultural reform laws provoked U. S. companies that operated sugar plantations. Companies that were not controlled by Cuban stockholders were not allowed to operate plantations, and sugar production was de-emphasized in favor of food crops.

In 1960 the Castro government nationalized, or took over ownership of, an estimated $1 billion in properties owned by U. S. companies and citizens, and the Eisenhower administration imposed a trade embargo. When Castro began to proclaim his belief in Communism, Cuba became part of the Cold War, or struggle between the United States and its allies and the nations led by the USSR that involved intense economic and diplomatic battles but not direct military conflict. Many Cubans fled to the United States.

During the Eisenhower administration the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had begun to train Cuban exiles secretly for an invasion of Cuba. When Kennedy became president, he approved the invasion. In April 1961 more than 1000 Cuban exiles made an amphibious landing in Cuba at a place called the Bay of Pigs. Their plan was to move inland and join with anti-Castro forces to stage a revolt simultaneously, but instead Castro’s forces were there to meet the invaders. The revolt in the interior did not happen, and air support, promised by the CIA, never came.

The exiles were defeated and the survivors were taken prisoner. On December 25, 1962, 1113 prisoners were released in exchange for food and medical supplies valued at a total of approximately $53 million. Most other Latin American countries had the same bad social, economic, and political conditions that had led to Castro’s success in Cuba. Many of these nations seemed ripe for a revolution that could easily be exploited by the Communists. Upon taking office, President Kennedy looked for a program that would accelerate change in Latin America by strengthening democratic institutions.

In March 1961 he introduced the Alliance for Progress, and in August it was established by the charter of Punte del Este. The Alliance for Progress was to be a Latin American version of the Marshall Plan, the United States plan to fund a cooperative, long-term program to rebuild Europe following World War II. All Latin American nations except Cuba joined the Alliance for Progress, pledging 10″to bring our people accelerated economic progress and broader social justice within the framework of personal dignity and individual liberty. ” The United States promised $20 billion for the first ten years.

The Alliance for Progress and President Kennedy’s particular concern for democratic institutions brought the United States renewed popularity in Latin America. On June 3, 1961, in Vienna, Austria, Kennedy and Khrushchev met and reviewed relationships between the United States and the USSR, as well as other questions of interest to the two states. Two incidents contributed to hostility at the meeting. The first was the shooting down of a U. S. spy plane in Soviet air space, and the second was the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in early 1961.

The results of the conference made it clear that Khrushchev had construed Kennedy’s failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion as a sign of weakness. No agreements were reached on any important issues. In fact, the Soviet premier made it clear that the Soviet Union intended to pursue an even more aggressive policy toward the United States. Kennedy’s last words to Khrushchev in Vienna were, 11″It’s going to be a cold winter. ” He reported to the American people that the Soviet premier was a “tough-minded” leader who did not understand the intentions of the United States.

The leaders had spent a “very sober two days. ” In August 1961, to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West, the Communists ordered a wall built on the border between East and West Berlin. West Berlin had been under the control of the United States, France, and Britain since the end of World War II, although the city lay deep inside East Germany, a state that was an ally of the USSR. Kennedy and other Western leaders protested, but the wall was built. Kennedy had already asked for more military spending and had called up reserve troops for duty in Europe.

When East German soldiers began blocking the Allied route through East Germany into Berlin, Kennedy sent a force of 1500 soldiers marching along the route into West Berlin. The troops went uncontested. Communist interference stopped, allowing Allied forces travel to and from Berlin . Amongst other problems President Kennedy faced, none was more serious than this one. The Cuban Missile Crisis was perhaps the world’s closest approach to nuclear war. In 1960 Soviet Premier Khrushchev decided to supply Cuba with nuclear missiles that would put the eastern United States within range of nuclear missile attack.

Khrushchev, when asked, denied that any missiles were being supplied to Cuba, but in the summer of 1962 U. S. spy planes flying over Cuba photographed Soviet-managed construction work and spotted the first missile on October 14. For seven days President Kennedy consulted secretly with advisers, discussing the possible responses while in public his administration carried on as though nothing was wrong. Finally, on October 22, Kennedy told the nation about the discovery of the missiles, demanded that the Soviet Union remove the weapons, and declared the waters around Cuba a quarantine zone.

Kennedy called upon Khrushchev 12″to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations” and warned that an attack from Cuba on any nation in the western hemisphere would be considered an attack by the USSR on the United States itself. At the same time, United States troops were sent to Florida to prepare for invading Cuba, and air units were alerted. American vessels blockaded Cuba with orders to search all suspicious-looking Soviet ships and to turn back any that carried offensive weapons.

For several tense days Soviet vessels en route to Cuba avoided the quarantine zone, while Khrushchev and Kennedy discussed the issue through diplomatic channels. Khrushchev, realizing his weak military position, sent a message on October 26 in which he agreed to Kennedy’s demands to remove all missiles. The following day, before the United States had responded to the first note, Khrushchev sent another, trying to negotiate other terms. Kennedy decided to respond to the first message, and on October 28, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle and remove the weapons from Cuba and offered the United States on-site inspection.

In return Kennedy secretly promised not to invade Cuba and to remove older missiles from Turkey. Kennedy called off the blockade but Cuba, angry at Soviet submission, refused to permit the promised inspection. However, U. S. spy planes revealed that the missile bases were being dismantled. Nuclear war had been avoided. This was perhaps Kennedy’s greatest moment as president. Many felt that both World War I and World War II had begun because of weak responses to acts of aggression, and Kennedy may have prevented World War III by displaying courage and strength.

On November 22, 1963, President and Mrs. Kennedy were in Dallas, Texas, trying to win support in a state that Kennedy had barely carried in 1960. As the motorcade approached an underpass, two shots were fired in rapid succession. One bullet passed through the president’s neck and struck Governor Connally in the back. The other bullet struck the president in the head. Kennedy fell forward, and his car sped to Parkland Hospital. At 1:00 PM, he was pronounced dead. He had never regained consciousness.

Less than two hours after the shooting, aboard the presidential plane at the Dallas airport, Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th president of the United States. That afternoon, Lee Harvey Oswald, who was employed in the warehouse, was arrested in a Dallas movie theater and charged with the murder. On November 24 the body of President Kennedy was carried on a horse-drawn carriage from the White House to the Rotunda of the Capitol. Hundreds of thousands of people filed past the coffin of the slain president. The grave was marked by an eternal flame lighted by his wife and brothers.

Richard Milhous Nixon, 37th president of the United States

Richard Milhous Nixon, 37th president of the United States, was born January 9, 1913 in Yorba Linda, California. Nixon was one of the most controversial politicians. He used the communist scare of the late forties and early fifties to catapult his career, but as president he eased tension with the Soviet Union and opened relations with Red China. He was president during the civil rights movement and the Vietnam War. Nixon came from a southern-California Quaker family, where hard work was emphasized.

A terrific student, he was invited by Harvard and Yale to apply for scholarships, but his older brother’s illness and the Depression forced him to stay near home. He attended Whittier College, where he graduated second in his class in 1934. He went on to law school at Duke University. He graduated third in his class, and applied for jobs with both large Northeastern law firms and the FBI. His applications were all rejected, however, his mother helped get him a job at a friend’s local law firm.

At the outbreak of WWII, Nixon went to work for the tire rationing section the Office of Price Administration in Washington, DC. Eight months later, he joined the Navy and was sent to the Pacific as a supply officer. He was popular with his men, and such an accomplished poker player that he was able to send enough of his comrades money back home to help fund his first political campaign. After returning from the war, Nixon entered politics, answering a Republican party call in the newspaper for someone to run against the five-term Democratic Congressman, Jerry Voorhis.

Nixon seemed the perfect man for the job, and he was welcomed generously by the California Republican party. The style of Nixon’s first campaign set the tone for the early part of his political career, where he achieved fame as a devout anti-Communist. He accused Congressman Voorhis of being a communist. This sort of straightforward communist-bashing was new at the time. Nixon defeated Voorhis with sixty percent of the vote. Nixon later said “Of course I knew Jerry Voorhis wasn’t a communist, but I had to win. ”

Nixon became the junior member of the House Committee on un-American Activities. Nixon’s pursuit of Alger Hiss, a former adviser to Franklin Roosevelt, gave him national exposure. Hiss had been accused of being a communist and of transmitting secret State Department documents to the Soviets. Hiss was convicted and jailed. At the age of thirty-five, Nixon was a national figure, and he used this fame to an easy victory in his senate race against three-term Congresswoman Helen Gahagan Douglas in 1950, once again adopting a communist-bashing campaign.

He accused Ms. Douglas, who opposed the un-American Activities Committee, of being “pink right down to her underwear. ” In return, Douglas gave Nixon with his nickname, “Tricky Dick. ” Nixon was in the US Senate for a year-and-a-half when the Republican national convention selected him to be General Dwight D. Eisenhower’s running mate. Much of Nixon’s success had been built on the political destroying of his Democratic foes, and Nixon was expected to do much of the dirty work of campaigning.

Nixon performed his task admirably, casting doubt on the abilities and patriotism of his and Eisenhower’s Democratic opponent, Adlai Stevenson. Nixon himself had to deal with scrutiny during the campaign. The New York Post announced that he had received secret campaign contributions, he was nearly off the ticket. Instead of giving up, Nixon went on national television and appealed to the voters. He delivered the “Checkers Speech,” showing his financial situation and saying that he was not a wealthy man. The only contribution he claimed to have kept was a dog named Checkers.

The speech was a success. Nixon remained on the ticket and became vice-president when Eisenhower defeated Stevenson. When Eisenhower was to run again in 1956, he was not sure he wanted Nixon with him. Nixon pressured the president into making a decision, refused Eisenhower’s offer of a cabinet position, and the Republican ticket once again had Richard Milhous Nixon as the vice-presidential candidate. In the second campaign, Nixon moved away from his muck-raking, communist-bashing techniques, and the press began speaking of a “New Nixon.

Because of Eisenhower’s apparent support, Nixon was considered by many the Republican heir, and he became more active in his second term. Eisenhower sent him to South America, where his motorcade was spat upon and attacked, and the Soviet Union, where Nixon challenged Nikita Kruschev to a debate in a kitchen. Nixon was unanimously nominated at the Republican convention in 1960, and only fourteen years after first running for office, he was one election away from the presidency.

Many were confident of Nixon’s ability to win the election easily, being a national figure running against the young, inexperienced John F. Kennedy. Kennedy took advantage of modern campaigning techniques, which employed the television more than personal contact, and he was given a big push by the first-ever televised presidential debates. The attractive, charming Kennedy came off as strong, confident, and in control, while Nixon, who refused to wear make-up, looked haggard, almost ghost-like.

The election was down to the wire, with Kennedy winning by only 100,000 votes nationwide. Some of the most crucial votes came in Cook County, Illinois, which was controlled by party boss Richard Daley, and many suspected election fraud, but Nixon refused to demand a recount, stating that it would be political suicide if he lost. Nixon ran for governor of California in 1962, but he had never been a locally active politician and his years in Washington had made him out of touch California. He lost to incumbent Pat Brown.

In a press conference shortly after Nixon claimed that this would be his last press conference. He stated, “You don’t have Nixon to kick around anymore. ” He took a job as a Wall Street lawyer, but soon tired of private life and took to the campaign trail in 1966, stumping successfully for Republican congressional candidates and bringing himself once again into the heart of Republican party affairs. After a world tour during, he familiarized himself with foreign affairs, Nixon was back in the electoral arena again, running for president a second time in 1968.

Nixon avoided the tricky issue of the Vietnam War, stating that he would find an “honorable end” to the war. Democrats, split over the war, tear themselves apart, further setting himself apart by running on a “Law and Order” campaign that blamed America’s most visible, problems on the liberal Democrats. Nixon’s appeal to the “forgotten Americans,” who felt ignored in the upheavals of the sixties, brought him victory over Hubert Humphrey. Nixon pledged that he would bring America together, but his margin of victory had been slim and based on white, middle-class voters.

As president, he concentrated on foreign affairs, hoping to bring about a generation of peace and a new world order. Chief of Staff H. R. Haldeman and John Erhlichman, Nixon’s closest advisor, handled much of domestic policy, leaving Nixon to concentrate on foreign policy. Nixon often by-passed the Defense and State Departments, instead working closely with National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, a former Harvard professor and newcomer to official foreign policy. The Vietnam War was the major obstacle to the new president.

Even before his inauguration, Nixon had Kissinger spoke in secret with North Vietnam, hoping a speedy American withdrawal from Vietnam. Nixon announced replacement of American forces with South Vietnamese,planning to have all American troops out of Vietnam by the end of 1970. Nixon did not want to be the first opposition: an anti-war movement, and he appealed to the “silent majority,” another version of his “forgotten Americans,” who he felt supported his foreign policy. He pledged not to back down, and in early 1970 escalated the war, authorizing bombings on North Vietnam and attacks on Cambodia.

After his reelection, Nixon again ordered an increase in the bombings. Two weeks after the bombings began, Nixon announced that peace negotiations were soon to resume, and by January 28,1973, a cease fire was established that allowed the removal of remaining 23,700 troops Nixon used price cutting policies. These policies were initially successful, causing exports to become cheaper, when the wage and price commissions began to give way to pressures from both labor and business interests, inflation rose, causing a decade-long rise in the cost of living.

Nixon is remembered for his foreign policy achievements, despite his failure to bring an “honorable” end to the Vietnam War, and Kissinger’s inability to end the Middle East tensions that were brought on by Israel’s victory over Arab countries in the Six-Day War of 1967. Perhaps this notoriety is based on the fact that Nixon was one of the few presidents in American history who practiced foreign policy by design, setting certain goals and moving on. He became the first US president to visit the Soviet Union. He traveled to Moscow in May of 1972.

He sought peace with Russia and negotiated with the Soviet Union to limit nuclear weapons, which resulted in the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT). At the same time, he was making secret contact with the People’s Republic of China, which he visited publicly in February, 1972, opening official diplomatic relations with China for the first time since the communist takeover in 1949. Despite the final peaceful outcome of the Vietnam situation, and his accomplishments overseas, Nixon’s blatant scoffing of the anti-war movement had ignited domestic upheavals, including the shooting of fifteen students at a Kent State anti-war demonstration.

The public dissatisfaction with the president brought out Nixon’s insecurity and his “dark side. ” This led Nixon to form the Special Investigations Unit, known as the “plumbers,” an outfit illegally equipped by the CIA. They were sent on missions to discredit Democratic opponents. He also made the Committee to Reelect the President (CREEP), which collected $60 million, violating campaign laws, and funded tapping the phone of the chairman of the Democratic National Committee. Nixon did not need this help to get reelected in 1972, as he faced a split Democratic party. Nixon won the election with 60. 7 percent of the vote.

A bunch of revelations in 1973 hurt Nixon’s presidency and brought him to resign. The involvement of the CIA, under Nixon’s direction, in a military effort that overthrew Chile’s Salvador Allende. Vice-President Agnew was forced to resign when it was revealed that he had cheated on his income taxes and had taken more than $100,000 in payoffs from contractors between 1966 and 1972. The IRS also said that Nixon owed more than $400,000 in back taxes, and critics pointed out that Nixon’s administration had raised subsidies to milk producers, who donated over a half-million dollars to the Republican party.

The final blow came when Nixon’s involvement in the plumbers’ Watergate burglary was revealed by investigative reporters. Nixon’s involvement was documented on audio tapes of White House conversations, which Nixon refused to turn over to investigators. Nixon cited “executive privilege” and national security as reasons for keeping the tapes, but his appeal to the Supreme Court was rejected. Days later, the House Judiciary Committee voted to impeach the president on three counts.

Nixon finally released the incriminating tapes, and over the next few days both Republican and Democratic Senators, enough to get a conviction, indicated that they would vote against the president if articles of impeachment were offered by the House. On August 9, 1974, before the House could vote to impeach him, Nixon resigned the presidency, the first incumbent ever to do so. After taking office Ford granted Nixon a pardon for any crimes he might have committed as president. Nixon never went to jail, some of his aides did. After resigning the presidency, Nixon wanted to be looked upon as an elder statesman.

He wrote five books on US foreign policy: The Real War (1980), Real Peace (1983), No More Vietnams (1985), 1999: Victory without War (1988), Seize the Moment (1992), and Beyond Peace (1994). By the 1990s, much of the scandal had been forgotten, and Nixon was once again hailed as a genius of foreign policy and jokingly considered a possible Republican presidential candidate. T-shirts and bumper stickers appeared bearing the motto “He’s tan, he’s rested, and he’s ready: Nixon in ’92. ” Richard Milhous Nixon died of severe stroke April 22, 1994, at age 81, but I suggest to you: today, if Nixon were living he might be president.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States

John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected president. He was also the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president. Therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented war. Young people especially liked him. No other president was so popular. He brought to the presidency an awareness of the cultural and historical traditions of the United States.

Because Kennedy expressed the values of 20th-century America, his presidency was important beyond its political achievements. John Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts. He was the second of nine children. Kennedy announced his candidacy early in 1960. By the time the Democratic National Convention opened in July, he had won seven primary victories. His most important had been in West Virginia, where he proved that a Roman Catholic could win in a predominantly Protestant state. When the convention opened, it appeared that Kennedy’s only serious challenge for the nomination would come from the Senate majority leader, Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas.

However, Johnson was strong only among Southern delegates. Kennedy won the nomination on the first ballot and then persuaded Johnson to become his running mate. Two weeks later the Republicans nominated Vice President Richard Nixon for president and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. , who was ambassador to the United Nations and whom Kennedy had defeated for the Senate in 1952, for vice president. In the fast-paced campaign that followed, Kennedy made stops in 46 states and 273 cities and towns, while Nixon visited every state and 170 urban areas.

Another important element of the campaign was the support Kennedy received from blacks in important Northern states, especially Illinois and Pennsylvania. They supported him in part because he and Robert Kennedy had tried to get the release of the civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. King, who had been jailed for taking part in a civil rights demonstration in Georgia, was released soon afterward. The election drew a record 69 million voters to the polls, but Kennedy won by only 113,000 votes. Kennedy was inaugurated on January 20, 1961.

In his inaugural address he emphasized America’s revolutionary heritage. 2″The same … beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe,” Kennedy said. 3″Let the word go forth from this time and place to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans-born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage-and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.

Kennedy challenged Americans to assume the burden of “defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. ” The words of his address were, “Ask not what your country can do for you-ask what you can do for your country. ” Kennedy sought with considerable success to attract brilliant young people to government service. His hope was to bring new ideas and new methods into the executive branch. As a result many of his advisers were teachers and scholars. Among them were McGeorge Bundy and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. , both graduates of Harvard.

Kennedy’s most influential adviser was Theodore C. Sorenson, a member of Kennedy’s staff since his days in the Senate. Sorenson wrote many of Kennedy’s speeches and exerted a strong influence on Kennedy’s development as a political liberal, 5 a person who believes that the government should directly help people to overcome poverty or social discrimination. The president and Mrs. Kennedy attempted to make the White House the cultural center of the nation. Writers, artists, poets, scientists, and musicians were frequent dinner guests.

On one occasion the Kennedy’s held a reception for all the American winners of the Nobel Prize, people who made outstanding contributions to their field during the past year. At the party the president suggested that more talent and genius was at the White House that night than there had been since Thomas Jefferson had last dined there alone. At a meeting with the leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Nikita Khrushchev, Kennedy asked the name of a medal Khrushchev was wearing.

When the premier identified it as the Lenin Peace Medal, Kennedy remarked, 6″I hope you keep it. ” On another occasion he told a group of Republican business leaders, 7″It would be premature to ask for your support in the next election and inaccurate to thank you for it in the past. ” Even in great crises, Kennedy retained his sense of humor. Kennedy’s first year in office brought him considerable success in enacting new legislation. Congress passed a major housing bill, a law increasing the minimum wage, and a bill granting federal aid to economically depressed areas of the United States.

The most original piece of legislation Kennedy put through Congress was the bill creating the Peace Corps, an agency that trained American volunteers to perform social and humanitarian service overseas. The program’s goal was to promote world peace and friendship with developing nations. The idea of American volunteers helping people in foreign lands touched the idealism of many citizens. Within two years, Peace Corps volunteers were working in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, living with the people and working on education, public health, and agricultural projects.

However, after his initial success with Congress, Kennedy found it increasingly difficult to get his programs enacted into law. Although the Democrats held a majority in both houses, Southern Democrats joined with conservative Republicans to stop legislation they disliked. The Medicare bill, a bill to make medical care for the aged a national benefit, was defeated. A civil rights bill and a bill to cut taxes were debated, and compromises were agreed to, but even the compromises were delayed. A bill to create a Cabinet-level Department of Urban Affairs was soundly defeated, partly because Kennedy wanted the economist Robert C.

Weaver, a black man, to be the new secretary. Southern Congressmen united with representatives from mostly rural areas to defeat the bill. Kennedy did win approval of a bill to lower tariffs and thus allow more competitive American trade abroad. Congress also authorized the purchase of $100 million in United Nations bonds, and the money enabled the international organization to survive a financial crisis. Further, Congress appropriated more than $1 billion to finance sending a man to the moon by 1970 which was accomplished in 1969.

The major American legal and moral conflict during Kennedy’s three years in office was in the area of civil rights. Black agitation against discrimination had become widespread and well organized. Although Kennedy was in no way responsible for the growth of the civil rights movement, he attempted to aid the black cause by enforcing existing laws. Kennedy particularly wanted to end discrimination in federally financed projects or in companies that were doing business with the government.

In September 1962 Governor Ross R. Barnett of Mississippi ignored a court order and prevented James H. Meredith, a black man, from enrolling at the state university. On the night of September 29, even as the president went on national television to appeal to the people of Mississippi to obey the law, rioting began on the campus. After 15 hours of rioting and two deaths, Kennedy sent in troops to restore order. Meredith was admitted to the university, and troops and federal marshals remained on the campus to insure his safety. In June 1963, when Governor George C. Wallace of Alabama prevented two blacks from enrolling at the University of Alabama, Kennedy federalized the Alabama National Guard to enforce the law.

The students were enrolled at the university. Three months later, Kennedy again used the National Guard to prevent Wallace from interfering with integration in the public schools of Birmingham, Tuskegee, and Mobile. Kennedy also asked Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would guarantee blacks the right to vote, to attend public school, to have equal access to jobs, and to have access to public accommodations. Kennedy told the American people, 8″Now the time has come for this nation to fulfill its promises … act, to make a commitment it has not fully made in this century to the proposition that race has no place in American life or law. ”

Public opinion polls showed that Kennedy was losing popularity because of his advocacy of civil rights. Privately, he began to assume that the South would oppose him in the next election, but he continued to speak out against segregation, the practice of separating people of different races. To a group of students in Nashville, Tennessee, he said, 9 “No one can deny the complexity of the problem involved in assuring all of our citizens their full rights as Americans.

But no one can gainsay the fact that the determination to secure those rights is in the highest tradition of American freedom. ” In 1959, after several attempts, a revolution led by Fidel Castro finally overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar. During the next two years, Castro was to become increasingly hostile to the United States. The new regime’s agricultural reform laws provoked U. S. companies that operated sugar plantations. Companies that were not controlled by Cuban stockholders were not allowed to operate plantations, and sugar production was de-emphasized in favor of food crops.

In 1960 the Castro government nationalized, or took over ownership of, an estimated $1 billion in properties owned by U. S. companies and citizens, and the Eisenhower administration imposed a trade embargo. When Castro began to proclaim his belief in Communism, Cuba became part of the Cold War, or struggle between the United States and its allies and the nations led by the USSR that involved intense economic and diplomatic battles but not direct military conflict. Many Cubans fled to the United States.

During the Eisenhower administration the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had begun to train Cuban exiles secretly for an invasion of Cuba. When Kennedy became president, he approved the invasion. In April 1961 more than 1000 Cuban exiles made an amphibious landing in Cuba at a place called the Bay of Pigs. Their plan was to move inland and join with anti-Castro forces to stage a revolt simultaneously, but instead Castro’s forces were there to meet the invaders. The revolt in the interior did not happen, and air support, promised by the CIA, never came.

The exiles were defeated and the survivors were taken prisoner. On December 25, 1962, 1113 prisoners were released in exchange for food and medical supplies valued at a total of approximately $53 million. Most other Latin American countries had the same bad social, economic, and political conditions that had led to Castro’s success in Cuba. Many of these nations seemed ripe for a revolution that could easily be exploited by the Communists. Upon taking office, President Kennedy looked for a program that would accelerate change in Latin America by strengthening democratic institutions.

In March 1961 he introduced the Alliance for Progress, and in August it was established by the charter of Punte del Este. The Alliance for Progress was to be a Latin American version of the Marshall Plan, the United States plan to fund a cooperative, long-term program to rebuild Europe following World War II. All Latin American nations except Cuba joined the Alliance for Progress, pledging 10″to bring our people accelerated economic progress and broader social justice within the framework of personal dignity and individual liberty. ” The United States promised $20 billion for the first ten years.

The Alliance for Progress and President Kennedy’s particular concern for democratic institutions brought the United States renewed popularity in Latin America. On June 3, 1961, in Vienna, Austria, Kennedy and Khrushchev met and reviewed relationships between the United States and the USSR, as well as other questions of interest to the two states. Two incidents contributed to hostility at the meeting. The first was the shooting down of a U. S. spy plane in Soviet air space, and the second was the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in early 1961.

The results of the conference made it clear that Khrushchev had construed Kennedy’s failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion as a sign of weakness. No agreements were reached on any important issues. In fact, the Soviet premier made it clear that the Soviet Union intended to pursue an even more aggressive policy toward the United States. Kennedy’s last words to Khrushchev in Vienna were, 11″It’s going to be a cold winter. ” He reported to the American people that the Soviet premier was a “tough-minded” leader who did not understand the intentions of the United States.

The leaders had spent a “very sober two days. ” In August 1961, to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West, the Communists ordered a wall built on the border between East and West Berlin. West Berlin had been under the control of the United States, France, and Britain since the end of World War II, although the city lay deep inside East Germany, a state that was an ally of the USSR. Kennedy and other Western leaders protested, but the wall was built. Kennedy had already asked for more military spending and had called up reserve troops for duty in Europe.

When East German soldiers began blocking the Allied route through East Germany into Berlin, Kennedy sent a force of 1500 soldiers marching along the route into West Berlin. The troops went uncontested. Communist interference stopped, allowing Allied forces travel to and from Berlin . Amongst other problems President Kennedy faced, none was more serious than this one. The Cuban Missile Crisis was perhaps the world’s closest approach to nuclear war. In 1960 Soviet Premier Khrushchev decided to supply Cuba with nuclear missiles that would put the eastern United States within range of nuclear missile attack.

Khrushchev, when asked, denied that any missiles were being supplied to Cuba, but in the summer of 1962 U. S. spy planes flying over Cuba photographed Soviet-managed construction work and spotted the first missile on October 14. For seven days President Kennedy consulted secretly with advisers, discussing the possible responses while in public his administration carried on as though nothing was wrong. Finally, on October 22, Kennedy told the nation about the discovery of the missiles, demanded that the Soviet Union remove the weapons, and declared the waters around Cuba a quarantine zone.

Kennedy called upon Khrushchev 12″to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations” and warned that an attack from Cuba on any nation in the western hemisphere would be considered an attack by the USSR on the United States itself. At the same time, United States troops were sent to Florida to prepare for invading Cuba, and air units were alerted. American vessels blockaded Cuba with orders to search all suspicious-looking Soviet ships and to turn back any that carried offensive weapons.

For several tense days Soviet vessels en route to Cuba avoided the quarantine zone, while Khrushchev and Kennedy discussed the issue through diplomatic channels. Khrushchev, realizing his weak military position, sent a message on October 26 in which he agreed to Kennedy’s demands to remove all missiles. The following day, before the United States had responded to the first note, Khrushchev sent another, trying to negotiate other terms. Kennedy decided to respond to the first message, and on October 28, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle and remove the weapons from Cuba and offered the United States on-site inspection.

In return Kennedy secretly promised not to invade Cuba and to remove older missiles from Turkey. Kennedy called off the blockade but Cuba, angry at Soviet submission, refused to permit the promised inspection. However, U. S. spy planes revealed that the missile bases were being dismantled. Nuclear war had been avoided. This was perhaps Kennedy’s greatest moment as president. Many felt that both World War I and World War II had begun because of weak responses to acts of aggression, and Kennedy may have prevented World War III by displaying courage and strength.

On November 22, 1963, President and Mrs. Kennedy were in Dallas, Texas, trying to win support in a state that Kennedy had barely carried in 1960. As the motorcade approached an underpass, two shots were fired in rapid succession. One bullet passed through the president’s neck and struck Governor Connally in the back. The other bullet struck the president in the head. Kennedy fell forward, and his car sped to Parkland Hospital. At 1:00 PM, he was pronounced dead. He had never regained consciousness.

Less than two hours after the shooting, aboard the presidential plane at the Dallas airport, Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th president of the United States. That afternoon, Lee Harvey Oswald, who was employed in the warehouse, was arrested in a Dallas movie theater and charged with the murder. On November 24 the body of President Kennedy was carried on a horse-drawn carriage from the White House to the Rotunda of the Capitol. Hundreds of thousands of people filed past the coffin of the slain president. The grave was marked by an eternal flame lighted by his wife and brothers.

George W. Bush: First Son

“First Son: George W. Bush and the Bush Family Dynasty” by Bill Minutaglio, details the history and upbringing of this year’s Republican candidate and gives insight as to the impact his family heritage has had on him as a person, and who and what has influenced him as a politician. The biography is mostly nonjudgmental towards George W. Bush, but does paint an image of him and his family that is exactly what he has been trying to deny throughout his whole political life: he was born with a silver spoon in his mouth, and has led a largely unremarkable life that has left him unqualified as a candidate for President of the United States.

George W. ’s grandfather Prescott Bush was the first Bush to attend Yale. George W. saw him as a living legacy of the family’s success. While at Yale, he was a golfer, football player, and baseball player, and a member of the glee club. He served in Word War I as well, as an army captain assigned to a field artillery unit in France. By 1921, Prescott had married Dorothy Walker and they settled in Greenwich, Connecticut where they raised five children, among them George W. ’s father. Prescott’s second son, George Herbert Walker Bush, attended the finest prep school in the country, Philips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts.

He would graduate and then immediately enlist in the Navy, where he became a fighter pilot and was rewarded with the Distinguished Flying Cross after being shot down by Japanese anti-aircraft fire and being rescued by an American submarine. Once returning home, he followed in his father’s footsteps and enrolled in Yale. While there he majored in economics, was a captain of the baseball team, and was also chapter president of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. George and Barbara Bush married in January of 1945 and they moved into a small house in New Haven, Connecticut.

George Walker Bush was born a little over a year later on July 6, 1946. George W. ’s father continued his studies at Yale after his son was born, and would graduate two years later in the spring of 1948. The day after graduation, the elder Bush set off for West Texas and a job at the International Derrick and Equipment Company in Odessa, Texas; his wife and son arrived two weeks later. Odessa was a blue-collar town, where pipe-layers and roughnecks lived. Odessa’s white-collar sister city was Midland, where the oil deals were made, and the company headquarters were established.

More importantly, this is where George H. W. aspired to be. But for now the couple moved into a small apartment in Odessa, where instead of dealing with oilmen they had to deal with another couple with whom they shared their bathroom. The family temporarily moved to California in 1949, but returned to the Texas after a year. But they did not move back to Odessa; instead they moved into a small wooden bungalow in Midland. It was while living here that Bush and John Overbey began to consider the possibility of starting their own oil company, and by 1950 the Bush-Overbey Oil Development Company, Inc. , was a reality.

The company did business buying and selling oil-drilling royalty rights in the Permian Basin. Big George directed the local chamber of commerce, helped draw up the papers for the Midland Commercial Bank and Trust Company, sat in on planning sessions for the YMCA, was on the local cancer board, and also taught George W. ’s Sunday school class at the First Presbyterian Church, where the Bush family attended weekly. At the church, he eventually became a church deacon and church elder. The entire time he was involved with these activities, he was also gathering people to convert to the Republican Party.

He was involved in countless activities, and was home less and less as time wore on. In February of 1953, George W. ’s brother Jeb was born, and it was at this time that their parents realized that something was not right with their sister Robin. She was soon diagnosed with leukemia, and died in October later that year. George W. Bush recalls this time as his first vivid memory of his childhood. After their daughter’s death, Barbara’s position as the disciplinarian became clearer. George H. W. Bush had mellowed even more and would not become upset toward his sons; he would simply seem disappointed in them.

By the late 50’s and early 60’s, the Texas oil boom was finally slowing down, but George H. W. Bush and his new multimillion-dollar drilling company Zapata were ahead of the trend. They were already positioned to move offshore along the Gulf Coast and then around the world. The elder Bush was constantly commuting back and forth to Houston, and soon it was necessary for the Bush family to move to Houston. In 1959, George W. began a two-year tenure at the Kinkaid school, considered to be one of the most exclusive private schools in Texas.

At the suggestion of his parents he then transferred to Philips Academy at Andover, an alma mater of his father. While in his first year at Andover, Bush played both junior varsity baseball and basketball, and by his second year had realized he was not going to live up to his father’s athletic prowess at the school. He decided instead that his legacy at Andover was going to be something completely different from his father’s. He was good at bringing diverse groups together, more of a figurehead.

Other students attending Andover at the same time stated that George W. s in the popular crowd, but unlike them he had no outstanding characteristic to make him popular. He simply was. After graduating from Andover, George W. was off to Yale. At the same time his father decided to enter politics, running for a senate seat in Texas. 18 year old George W. traveled along on the campaign trail with his father getting his first real look at Texas, and his first real look at politics from the inside. George W. was very enthusiastic in support of his father, and had his father’s confidence in all that he did. George H. W. s expected to win the Senate race, but he lost instead as his opponent pushed the stereotype of Bush not being a “true” Texan.

The younger Bush was heartbroken, but did not make a single mention of the loss upon his return to Yale. The elder Bush would run for office again before his son graduated from Yale, and on his second attempt he was successful. While at Yale Bush majored in history and did not exactly excel in his studies, but he also never really expected to. Instead, he thrived on the people and the environment, social situations and knowing what was going on.

He was popular at Yale the same way he was at Andover, seemingly able to attract people with his magnetism. And foreshadowing one of his innate abilities he would often use in the future, he was able to avoid situations that were complicated or ambiguous, any circumstance that could turn into difficult issues. Police picked up Bush twice during his college years, but nothing ever came of either incident. Both George W. and Jeb described their father as “a beacon,” but George W. was the first son and the namesake and it was unspoken knowledge that he would be the one to emulate their father.

The elder Bush encouraged his son to follow in his footsteps and his family and close friends saw George W. doing exactly that. He participated in intramural sports, but not varsity sports as his father had. He eventually became president of the DKE house and joined the Skull & Bones Society, both former activities that his father had also been in. By the end of his years at Yale Bush was not relishing the rest of his time there; instead he was aching to be free of the campus, and what he called it’s “intellectual arrogance. ”

Upon graduation in 1968, George W. ved to Houston and joined the 147th Fighter Group in the Texas Air National Guard. It was well known that most recruits joining this unit would most likely not be sent to Vietnam. This period of his life would later draw great scrutiny as to whether or not he was able to pull strings to be selected and avoid being sent to Vietnam. Evidence is given that Bush passed a rigorous battery of tests, and was clearly qualified to fly, though there was some dispute as whether he was vaulted past other candidates on a waiting list to join this squadron.

Bush gained respect among his fellow pilots for his flying ability, but also for his humor, intelligence, quickness of wit, and of course just as at Andover and Yale, his ability to entertain an audience. Upon his completion of pilot training in midsummer of 1970, George W. pondered over what to do next. He applied to the University of Texas law school, was turned down, and decided to continue on active duty for a little while longer. By 1971 George was hired as an all-purpose assistant to executives by Bob Gow, a former employee under his father at Zapata.

Gow was a partial owner and founder of Stratford, a company that ran large scale farming operations throughout the south. Bush referred to this position as a “stupid coat and tie job,” and was constantly looking for other opportunities. He conferred with other employees about the value of his family name, how he could possibly use it to get ahead, to prosper as his father and grandfather had. He briefly considered running for a seat in the Texas House or Senate in District 15, but wisely decided it was too early.

An opportunity arose soon enough as in 1972 there was an important Senate race evolving in Alabama, and Bush was hired by the GOP as a paid political director for Red Blount’s campaign. It was a great learning experience for the young Bush, campaigning in a state that was not yet ready to accept the Republican Party. Blount was crushed in the election but that was not the significant part of the experience for George W. ; he gained much insight into anti-Washington bias, the conservative Christian world, big government, and big taxes.

In the fall of the next year, George W. quested an honorable discharge from the Texas Air National Guard and enrolled in Harvard business school. He was not sure exactly what he wanted to accomplish in his time there; his family hoped it would drive discipline and sense into the 27-year old. They thought he was still much too young to consider running for office, especially considering he had yet to hold a job for longer than a year. While there he avoided political involvement on campus, even as his father was becoming a more prominent figure in the White House.

The summer following his graduation in 1975 George W. ft the Northeast to return to his roots: the Midland-Odessa region. He promptly began looking up favors and old friends and soon formed his own company, “Bush Oil,” developing oil leads and passing them on at a price. In 1977, with Democratic Representative George Mahon from the 19th Congressional District abdicating, Bush saw the political opportunity he had been waiting for. With the entire Bush-Walker clan backing him financially, George W, announced his candidacy in July, and was seen by some as the best chance for the GOP in that district in decades.

During this campaign period, he met his wife Laura Welch, and they were married in less than three months. Bush won the Republican nomination, fending off accusations of being a carpetbagger from the Northeast using him name for political gain, of having been born with a silver spoon in his mouth, and never having worked a day in his life. These same accusations of being an outsider were his downfall a few months later in 1978, as he lost the election to Kent Hance. Bush took the loss as a learning experience, and resolved to spend more time and money in the hundreds of small towns littered across Texas to get his message out.

Throughout the 1980’s, as George H. W. Bush served Ronald Reagan as Vice President, George W. was networking throughout Texas and participating in numerous activities that would strengthen his political resume. He continued his involvement in the oil business, starting the Bush Exploration Company and overseeing its merger with Spectrum 7 oil. He also served as his father’s right hand man, always checking on the loyalties of his father’s people, making sure none were swaying in their loyalty to the Bush Family.

During his father’s 1988 campaign and subsequent presidency, George W. rved as a senior advisor, and was responsible for conveying his father’s displeasure with anyone in the media or campaign. He was also his father’s main link to the Christian Right; serving to waylay their fears of not being heard, and strengthen his father’s conservative image to the skeptical Right. Once his father was removed from office, George W. saw the time as being perfect for a run at the governorship of Texas. His opponent would be the formidable Ann Richards, who was a nationally known political figure.

For once, George W. would be able to use his heritage to his advantage; he seemed to be more of a true Texan than did Richards. Bush ran on a simple platform of four issues: tort reform, crime, education, and welfare reform. His tactics were to stick to these four issues, and “hammer on them, hammer on them, hammer on them. ” He was able to fend off accusations of having a phantom campaign, not having any real initiatives, and of illegal activities in his oil dealings.

In the final count George W. Bush became only the second Republican Governor of Texas since Reconstruction, winning by over 335,000 votes, the widest margin in 20 years. By 1996 George W. ’s was among those mentioned as a possible running mate for Bob Dole, but he realized he would need more than one term as an elected Texas official first. It was in 1998 that he seriously began looking into the possibilities of running for president in the 2000 election. He began raising funds, taking polls to gauge the public’s view of his possible candidacy, but still would not publicly admit any presidential aspirations.

By crushing opponent Garry Mauro in the 1998 governor’s race, he solidified his base for a run at the presidency. He soon began gathering backers and declared himself a candidate for 2000 presidential race, as all his close friends had been sure he would. I found “First Son: George W. Bush and the Bush Family Dynasty” to be a very informative writing about this year’s Republican candidate. It did not go into any controversial issues about Bush’s past, instead treating it much as Bush himself did, by saying he had done irresponsible things when he was younger but that those days were long in the past.

With Bush’s drunk driving charge coming out recently, I was surprised that Ann Richards had told her campaign to find evidence of Bush getting a DUI, but did not find any. Also, he does not rely on the rumors of George W. ’s cocaine use and instead only hints at what might have went on as opposed to assuming the worst. Minutaglio spends a large portion of the book describing how being part of a “political dynasty” affected almost every political action he took throughout his life.

It doesn’t charge that he deliberately used his family name to avoid the Vietnam draft or to obtain special favors, but instead that he simply took what was given to him. I found it interesting that Bush saw his family name as a liablility. It is mentioned as a factor in almost every important decision he made in his life, starting in college and continuing through his run at the presidency. He pointedly kept his father away from his campaigns as much as possible, fearing the accusations of riding on his father’s coat tails.

The book drives home George W. ’s strengths and weaknesses by pointedly remarking on them throughout different situations. He has had to work hard on his public speaking and his temperament. His family members were shocked by the changes that he made in order to be a better politician. He realized the things he needed to do in order to have a successful political career, and he was determined to succeed. Perhaps the most important item I learned about George W. is that he realizes he is not the smartest, most knowledgeable, perfect candidate.

He instead realizes his faults and lets more knowledgeable people instruct him in the areas in which he needs help. He despised politics throughout much of his own life, and he is dealing with people who have lived and breathed politics their whole life. He prefers to be viewed as a regular guy, a businessman, not someone who had everything handed to him throughout his whole life. He believes that what is best for private business is also what’s best for the country, and I couldn’t agree with this view more. That is the impression that I get from this book, and also the impression that I get from seeing Bush speak.

I am a Bush supporter, and this book did nothing to sway me away from that stance but did give me a solid overview of his life and past experiences in a mostly partisan view. I do believe he will be a respectable and also exceptional president. He has been involved with politics all his life, but I do not believe he has a “Washington” type attitude. He knows his own limits, and will surround himself with skilled people, and will be able to organize and lead these people the way he has done throughout his life, as illustrated by Bill Minutaglio in “First Son: George W. Bush and the Bush Family Dynasty. ”

Franklin Delano Roosevelt the 32nd President of United States

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who lived from 1882 to 1945, was the 32nd President of United States (Electric Library). Roosevelt became the president in March 1933 at the depth of the Great Depression, was re-elected for an unprecedented three more terms, and died in office in April 1945. He died less than a month before the surrender of Germany in World War II (Electric Library). Despite an attack of poliomyelitis, which paralyzed his legs in 1921, he was a charismatic optimist whose confidence helped sustain the American people during the strain if economic crisis and World War (Britannica, Vol. , Page 998).

The legendary president was born on Jan 30, 1882, at the family estate in Hyde Park (White House Webpage). Young Franklin had a secure and idyllic childhood. Franklins most lasting educational experience was at Groton School in Massachusetts (Electric Library). At Groton, Franklin revealed that he could adapt himself readily to different circumstances. Even when he went to Harvard, the experience was only relatively impressive (White House Webpage). While at Harvard, Franklin fell in love with Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, his fifth cousin once removed (White House Webpage).

Eleanor and Franklin move easily among the upper classes in New York and Campobello. Eleanor, however, was often unhappy, because during much of her married life, she had to live near Franklins widowed and domineering mother. During World War I, she was staggered to discover that Franklin was having an affair with her social secretary, a pretty young lady name Lucy Mercer. Despite these tensions, Eleanor remained a helpful mate throughout the 40 years of her marriage to Franklin (Britannica Vol. 26, Page 998). The Democratic Organization in such a duchess country needed a candidate for the New York Senate in 1910 (White House Webpage).

Party leader recognized that although Roosevelt had no political experience, he had assets as candidate, such as the wealth to finance the campaign, the best known political name in the United States, and his father had once been a Democrat. He showed great skills by making himself agreeable to votes and having willingness to listen to the advice of political veterans. Perhaps his greatest asset in the campaign was the Republican Party, which was badly split in 1910. For all the reasons, Roosevelt won impressively in the usually Republican district. Roosevelt made an immediate impact in the legislative session of 1911.

His motives were idealistic. Reflecting TRs faith in progressivism and in honest government, he distrusted the bossism of Tammany Hall; which was New York Citys powerful political machine. In 1912, Roosevelt defied Tammany again, this time by supporting Gov. Woodrow Wilson for the Democratic presidential nomination (This paragraph is citied mainly from The White House Webpage). Later on, he was re-elected to the state senate. Josephus Daniels, Wilsons Secretary of Navy, had offered the successful young legislator a position as Assistant Secretary of Navy.

As Assistant Secretary during 1913 to 1920, Franklin Roosevelt maintained support of many people who also honored TR. During this period, Roosevelt learned the wisdom of political compromise (Life; 1942). The qualities of vitality and charm made him a popular choice for the Democratic vice-presidential nomination in 1920. Running with James M. Cox, they are defeated decisively by the Republican candidates, Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge, in November. With the Republicans ahead in the game, Roosevelt had little choice but to return to his private life (Top  of paragraph from Britannica Vol. , Page 998).

He formed a law firm in New York City and became Vice President of Fidelity and Deposit Company of Maryland. His primary interests remained in the political field. In 1928, Roosevelt helped Alfred Smith to obtain the presidential nomination (White House Webpage). In the mean time, Smith urgently needed a strong gubernatorial candidate for the democratic ticket in New York, therefore, pressuring Roosevelt into running. Roosevelt had successfully bridged the urban-rural gap in the Democratic Party and had beaten his opponent for office (EXEGY).

In 1931, when the Depression was at its peak, Roosevelt became the first Governor to set up an effective state relief administration. He was re-elected in 1930 with 750,000 votes, the largest margin in state history. While Roosevelt was governor of New York, the Great Depression tightened its grip on the country. Roosevelt has developed lots of new idea that led him to the presidential nomination. Most party leader applauded the Roosevelt-Garner ticket, which closed the heretofore-fatal gulf between the urban-Eastern and rural-Southern-western wings of the party (Paragraph from Britannica Vol. 26, Page 999).

During the Fall Campaign against President Hoover, Roosevelt suggested a few parts for The New Deal. He supported spending for relief and public works. He favored some plan, but he was indefinite to curb the agricultural overproduction that was depressing the farm prices. He spoke for conservation, public power, old-age pensions and unemployment insurance, as well as repeal of Prohibition and regulation of the stock exchange (EXEGY). For most Americans, including the vast majority of progressives, Roosevelt seemed the only visible alternative to Hoover, who many people blamed unfairly for the Depression.

In Chicago during 1932, Roosevelt, who was in the Democratic Party, had succeeded the appointment to become President. He campaigned energetically calling for government intervention in the economy to provide relief, recovery and reform (Electric Library). His activist approach and personal charm helped to defeat Hoover in November 1932 (Electric Library). The Depression worsened in the months preceding Roosevelt’s inauguration, March 4, 1933. Factory closings, farm foreclosures, and bank failures increased, while unemployment soared.

Roosevelt faced the greatest by undertaking immediate actions to initiate his New Deal. He did this by temporarily closing up the banks (Cited from lecture of Mr. Branch). Then he worked with a special session of Congress during the first “100 days” to pass recovery legislation which set up alphabet agencies such as AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Administration) to support farm prices and the CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps) to employ young men. Other agencies assisted business and labor, insured bank deposits, regulated the stock market, subsidized home and farm mortgage payments, and aided the unemployed.

These measures revived confidence in the economy (Britannica Vol. 26, Page 999). Another fuss of New Deal legislation followed in 1935 including the establishment of the Works Projects Administration (WPA) which provided jobs not only for laborers but also artists, writers, musicians, and authors (Electric Library). The Social Security Act provided unemployment compensation and a program of old-age and survivors’ benefits. Roosevelt easily defeated Alfred M. Landon in 1936 and went on to defeat Wendell Willkie in 1940 and Thomas E. Dewey in 1944 (Electric Library).

Therefore, he became the only American president to serve more than two terms. After his overwhelming victory in 1936, Roosevelt took on the critics of the New Deal, namely, the Supreme Court which had declared various legislation unconstitutional, and members of his own party (Britannica Vol. 26, Page 999). By 1939 Roosevelt was concentrating increasingly on foreign affairs with the outbreak of war in Europe (EXEGY). New Deal reform legislation diminished, and the ills of the Depression would not fully abate until the nation mobilized for war (White House Webpage).

When Hitler attacked Poland in September 1939 (Britannica Vol. 12, Page 758), Roosevelt stated that, although the nation was neutral, he did not expect America to remain inactive in the face of Nazi aggression. Accordingly, he tried to make American aid available to Britain, France, and China and to obtain an amendment of the Neutrality Acts which brought about such assistance difficult (Electric Library). He also took measures to build up the armed forces in the face of isolationist opposition.

With the fall of France in 1940, the American mood and Roosevelt’s policy changed dramatically. Congress determined a draft for military service and Roosevelt signed a “lend-lease” bill in March 1941 to enable the nation to provide aid to nations at war with Germany and Italy (EXEGY). The Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941, followed four days later by Germany’s and Italy’s declarations of war against the United States, brought the nation irrevocably into the war. Roosevelt became the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, a role he actively carried out.

He worked with and through his military advisers, overriding them when necessary. He also took an active role in choosing the principal field commanders and in making decisions regarding wartime strategy (Entire paragraph cited from Electric Library). He moved to create a “grand alliance” against the Axis powers through “The Declaration of the United Nations”, January 1, 1942, in which all nations fighting the Axis agreed not to make a separate peace and pledged themselves to a peace-keeping organization (now the United Nations) on victory (Britannica Vol. , Page 758).

Roosevelt gave priority to the Western European Front and had General George Marshall, Chief of Staff, plan a holding operation in the Pacific and organize an expeditionary force for an invasion of Europe. The D-Day landings on the Normandy beaches in France, June 6, 1944, were followed by the allied invasion of Germany six months later (Britannica Vol. 12, Page 759). By April 1945 victory in Europe was certain. The unending stress and strain of the war literally wore Roosevelt out.

By early 1944 a full medical examination disclosed serious heart and circulatory problems. Although his physicians placed him on a strict regime of diet and medication, the pressures of war and domestic politics weighed heavily on him. During a vacation at Warm Springs, Georgia, on April 12, 1945 he suffered a massive stroke and 2  hours later without regaining consciousness. He was 63 years old. His death came on the eve of complete military victory in Europe and within months of victory over Japan in the Pacific.

President Roosevelt was buried in the Rose Garden of his estate at Hyde Park, New York (Entire paragraph cited from Electric Library). The reactions toward President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, first of all, are that he had been a mighty, fitting, and enormously accepted president for more than 12 years. He had led the American population through the Great Depression, World War II, and had created innumerable opportunities for those who are jobless as well as homeless.

From the information that has been reached out, a vast number of people conceive him as a astounding president, but from the information told by a senior citizen is that,  history had shown the mistakes that Roosevelt had created. Even though President Franklin Roosevelt had really made some mistake during his presidency, such as not collaborating with the Jews in Europe and various other controversies such as the immigration to America, he was unbelievably marvelous to the wider majority of the population.

What many people believe is that what he had done is moreover important for the American people, by virtue of the opportunities that he had fabricated and gave to the nation. For example, the The New Deal of 1935 had revived thousands of American lives from starving death. President Franklin also led the U. S. through World War II and constructed the United States to become the world power enabling it to compete with other foreign powers such as the Soviet Union. Over all, There is almost no doubt that President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was among the finest President of the United States.

John F. Kennedy: Was His Assassination Inevitable

A popular misconception is that President John F. Kennedy’s assassination was an isolated event perpetrated by one man. This could not be farther from the truth. Instead, it was the result of a complex combination of domestic and foreign events. When President Kennedy was in office, he had to deal with many issues, ranging from business and finance to crime-fighting and war issues. Perhaps it is not as important to decide who it was that killed him, but why. President Kennedy’s decisions and courses of action were not popular with everybody, and thus it is not surprising that his assassination was inevitable.

The people who might have wanted John F. Kennedy dead can be classified into the following groups: Russians, Cubans, Mobsters (Organized Crime/Mafia), Special Agents (CIA), G-men (J. Edgar Hoover’s FBI), Rednecks and Oilmen (Right-wing Extremists), and the MIC (Military Industrial Complex). Each group had its own motives for killing John F. Kennedy. Many of these groups that wanted JFK dead are very closely intertwined, so in order to understand each group, they will each be analyzed seperately. In order to better understand the relationship between JFK, the Cubans and Russians, several important events must be mentioned and discussed.

Two of the most important foreign affairs in Kennedy’s presidency were the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis. During Eisenhower’s administration, Cuba was torn apart by revolution. The Cuban dictator, Batista, was an extremely corrupt man. While he was enjoying a luxurious life, the people of Cuba were in poverty. Thus it was not surprising when a rebellion, led by a man named Fidel Castro, took place. Batista, knowing that the majority of Cuba wanted him out, chose to flea rather than be caught and face execution. Once Batista was out of the way, Cuba was Castro’s for the taking.

One of the first actions Castro took while in charge of Cuba was to close down all casinos. The people running them were either imprisoned or deported. Exploitation of Cuban workers by American was unacceptable to Castro, and he took immediate action against this. He believed American capitalists were taking advantage of the Cubans. Angered by this aggressive attitude toward American “interests”, the United States government established a trade embargo, hoping the Cuban people would overthrow Castro and reinstate a more “American friendly” leader.

With a starving population on one side, and a broken economy on the other, Castro turned to Russia for help. Since Russia did not own any land or power in the US/Cuban region, Castro offered the Russians a chance to extend their sphere of influence. An opportunity which was not refused. Of course, the American government did not accept this situation readily. A plan to train and arm Cuban exiles who would return to Cuba to overthrow Castro was contrived. This secret operation was viewed as far less dangerous than a direct invasion by American troops.

As the election of 1960 approached, the CIA had already made plans to overthrow Castro with the Cuban exiles. However, to the surprise of just about everyone, a young John F. Kennedy defeated favorite Richard Nixon by the slimmest of margins. Nonetheless, the invasion had to go on. The plan was to bomb Cuba’s airfields to prevent the Cuban military from killing the invading exiles. However, two things went wrong in the invasion. First, the CIA underestimated the Cuban army, and second, the airstrips were not all taken out, allowing the Cuban airforce to retaliate.

Upon hearing news of this, the CIA told Kennedy that in order to succeed the US must provide air coverage for the exiles. Kennedy refused however, believing it would be foolish to provoke a crisis with the Soviets just in order to aid the exiles. Due to this, the exiles were given no chance and were quickly demolished, and the invasion had failed. Now that Castro knew the United States’ intentions, he knew he was in immediate danger. Once again, he turned to Russia for aid. Castro realized the only way to assert his safety was to defend himself, and what he did was a very strategic move.

He asked Russia to send nuclear missiles to Cuba, saying to the US that any more attempted invasions of Cuba would exact their price. For years now, the US was sending nuclear missiles to friendly countries around Russia in order to halt any Russian expansionism, and the Russians were more than eager to return the favor. This led to what is now known as the Cuban Missile Crisis. On October 16, 1962 Kennedy called his closest advisors to the White House. The CIA had verified that nuclear missiles were indeed present in Cuba, Kennedy had to react fast.

He eventually decided to launch a naval blockade to prevent any further missiles from entering Cuba. Though threatened by Russian Prime-Minister Nikita Khruschev Kennedy would not let this disturb him, and he did not stop the naval blockade. The Russian ships eventually returned home, with nuclear war being narrowly averted. However, one must consider what kind of relationship Kennedy had with both Castro and the Russians after the crisis. Could the Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile crisis made the Russians and or Cubans mad enough to kill Kennedy? As was mentioned before, many of the groups that might have wanted JFK dead are closely related.

The CIA, the Military Industrial Complex, and maybe even the FBI were all involved in the situation in Cuba, and might of had their own reasons for wanting Kennedy dead. “I will smash the CIA into a thousand pieces”, said Kennedy after the disaster at the Bay of Pigs. The President soon commissioned a report to see why the Cuban invasion had failed. The results of the report were quite disturbing. It turned out that the CIA had intentionally lied to Kennedy even though they were fully aware the invasion was predestined to fail. However, they did not tell him this so he could be pressured into providing air cover at the last minute.

Kennedy later learned that the CIA had a secret plot to kill Castro, a plot which he would have vehemently opposed. Kennedy realized how powerful the CIA could be, that they could lie to him as they please, and could plot assassinations, while he remained completely ignorant. Kennedy was not going to take this lightly. He fired the Director of the CIA, Allen Dulles. Kennedy saw the CIA not only as corrupt, but as a threat to the freedom of America, and to democracy everywhere. A threat too powerful to exist in a democracy such as the United States’.

One of Kennedy’s first courses of action to restrain the CIA was to sign the NASM 55 (National Security Action Memorandum), which would relieve the CIA of it’s role as presidential advisor, and NSAM 57, which said any proposed paramilitary operation in its early staged must be presented in front of the Strategic Resources Group for initial consideration, and than approval by the president, if necessary. Then, the SRG will give out the responsibilities for planning, coordination, execution of the Task Force, the department or individual best qualified to carry forward the operation, and will choose supporting responsibilities.

Any large paramilitary operation which needs a vast number of military personnel, military equipment, or a high level of military experience is the primary responsibility of the Department of Defense with the CIA in a supporting role. With these two documents, Kennedy had effectively restricted the CIA. Would it be a surprise then, if the CIA, in an effort to get rid of Kennedy and replace him with a more favorable president, assassinated him? Another group that quite possible wanted JFK dead was the Military Industrial Complex. Just exactly what is the MIC? It is the supplier of every plane, gun, bullet and uniform.

Just about every organization that supplies or is hired by the government to build weapons. The relationship between the government and the MIC is a very important one, and this relationship is important in understanding if the MIC wanted Kennedy dead or not. When it comes to the economy within the MIC, war is the equivalent of winning the lottery. An aggressive president who does not hesitate to go into war is the ideal choice for the MIC. The MIC thrives on war, seeing it as “business”, every time a weapon has to be replaced the MIC gets richer, and the taxpayer gets poorer.

The MIC couldn’t care less about Americans dying in war as long as the cash is flowing. Military troops can be sent anywhere at anytime in the event of war. In order to foresee a coming war, every inch on earth is now being monitored by satellites, submarines, and radar. This machinery needs regular maintenance, repair, and replacement. Every time this happens, the money goes into the MIC’s pockets. World War II was a great example of how war boosts the economy, and how quickly the US can get out of a depression. Similarly, the ongoing situation in Vietnam was a great opportunity for the MIC to fatten its wallets.

When Kennedy took the presidency, the situation in Vietnam had not yet escalated into an all out war. It was Kennedy’s firm belief that Vietnam should not the United States’ concern, and troops should be recalled back immediately. Kennedy did not see Vietnam is a danger to democracy in America. He did not share the notion that Vietnam was a “holy crusade” against the “evil empire. ” He therefore made preparations to withdraw troops, and end the conflict. To hurry up the process, Kennedy sent trainers to South Vietnam to train the Vietnamese so they could protect themselves after the US had left.

By signing NSAM 263, Kennedy asserted he wanted one thousand troops out of Vietnam by Christmas of 1963, and wanted the conflict ended by 1965. Many researchers believe this was the final straw for the MIC, if he were to now withdraw from Vietnam, their profits would be damaged substantially. It is important to note the actual amount of money the MIC had to gain if troops did stay in Vietnam. Estimated figures ranged in billions, even trillions of dollars. To have Kennedy re-elected in the election of 1964 would be disastrous the MIC.

Would it sound ludicrous at all if the MIC killed Kennedy if the gain was over a trillion dollars, and the possible loss equal to that? Another government-related group that may have wanted JFK dead was the Federal Bureau of Investigations, led by J. Edgar Hoover. The FBI was a group so powerful, it put the Secret Service to shame. If by some misfortune Kennedy were to die, the president would become Lyndon B. Johnson, one of Hoover’s best friends. If indeed he did die, the combined power of the president and the Director of the FBI would have been more than enough to fabricate an investigation into Kennedy’s assassination.

While there is no definitive proof that the FBI conspired to kill Kennedy, it would have been real easy for them to get away with it if they did commit the crime. This, coupled with Hoover’s and Johnson’s well-known hate for the Kennedys, causes most researchers today to consider the FBI as prime suspects. As if President Kennedy didn’t have enough foreign enemies, or enemies from his own government, he also had many domestic enemies. Two of the biggest were the big businessmen and the “rednecks”. Both of these groups were intimidated by the Kennedy administration.

Kennedy tried to find a middle road between black and white radicals. His human-rights activities earned him the hatred of all racists. And as for big business, he angered them by obliging steel manufacturers to reverse price increases, as well as introducing a tax-reform legislation that would end unfair tax practices and would abolish the profitable oil reduction allowance. International bankers were quite angered when, in the summer of 1963 Kennedy, had the Treasury Department print an excess of $4 billion in “United States Notes,” thus bypassing the powerful Federal Reserve System.

It may be noteworthy that Lyndon B. Johnson was a strong ally of Texas oilmen who despised Kennedy, and that it was rumored that Kennedy was about to drop Johnson from the 1964 election ticket. Could big businessmen along with Lyndon B. Johnson and friend J. Edgar Hoover, who also might have wanted Kennedy dead, plotted to kill Kennedy? The last major group that would have wanted JFK out of the way was the notorious Mafia. Since its origin, it has had a heinous reputation in the United States. John F. Kennedy’s brother, Robert, was working as Attorney General to prosecute the Mafia, thus earning him and his brother a unpleasant reputation with them.

Many crime bosses in the United States threatened the Kennedys at one point or another. The Mafia and US intelligence, as discovered by the Kennedy’s, had a few connections dating back all the way to World War II. While the Federal Bureau of Investigations didn’t really hunt down the Mafia, the CIA actually collaborated with the Mafia on more than one occasion. Certain sources even claim that there were contacts between JFK and Sam Giancana, a Mafia boss, during Kennedy’s campaign for the presidency in 1960, which led to Kennedy to winning the presidency (though the veracity of these sources leaves something to be desired).

However if this is true, the Mafia would definitely consider JFK and his brother going after them as a double-cross, and this would have been a more than strong enough motive for the them to kill Kennedy. It is important to note that the Mafia felt that no person was above them, that nobody is immune from their power. If the Mafia wanted Kennedy dead, and had a motive, is it that unlikely that they did it? The events that would have happened if Kennedy was not to be assassinated were extremely vital.

Kennedy was going to remove a thousand soldiers from Vietnam by 1963, and was committed to withdraw all troops by 1965, when Lyndon B. Johnson took office, neither happened. He was going to smash the CIA into a thousand pieces, and replace J. Edgar Hoover as Director of the FBI, this didn’t happen. He may have been going to drop Lyndon B. Johnson from the presidential ticket in 1964. Had he not been assassinated Johnson would have never become president. When Johnson took over, he signed NSAM 273, considered to be the opening of the Vietnam war. The commitment meant the MIC would continue to make money, and lots of it.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States

John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected president. He was also the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president. Therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented war. Young people especially liked him. No other president was so popular. He brought to the presidency an awareness of the cultural and historical traditions of the United States.

Because Kennedy expressed the values of 20th-century America, his presidency was important beyond its political achievements. John Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts. He was the second of nine children. Kennedy announced his candidacy early in 1960. By the time the Democratic National Convention opened in July, he had won seven primary victories. His most important had been in West Virginia, where he proved that a Roman Catholic could win in a predominantly Protestant state. When the convention opened, it appeared that Kennedy’s only serious challenge for the nomination would come from the Senate majority eader, Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas.

However, Johnson was strong only among Southern delegates. Kennedy won the nomination on the first ballot and then persuaded Johnson to become his running mate. Two weeks later the Republicans nominated Vice President Richard Nixon for president and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. , who was ambassador to the United Nations and whom Kennedy had defeated for the Senate in 1952, for vice president. In the fast-paced campaign that followed, Kennedy made stops in 46 states and 273 cities and towns, while Nixon visited every state and 170 urban areas.

Another important element of the campaign was the support Kennedy received from blacks in important Northern states, especially Illinois and Pennsylvania. They supported him in part because he and Robert Kennedy had tried to get the release of the civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. King, who had been jailed for taking part in a civil rights demonstration in Georgia, was released soon afterward. The election drew a record 69 million voters to the polls, but Kennedy won by only 113,000 votes.

Kennedy was inaugurated on January 20, 1961. In his inaugural address he emphasized America’s revolutionary eritage. “The same … beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe,” Kennedy said. 3″Let the word go forth from this time and place to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans—born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage—and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed and to which we are committed today at home and around the world. ”

Kennedy challenged Americans to assume the burden of “defending reedom in its hour of maximum danger. The words of his address were, 4″Ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country. ” Kennedy sought with considerable success to attract brilliant young people to government service. His hope was to bring new ideas and new methods into the executive branch.

As a result many of his advisers were teachers and scholars. Among them were McGeorge Bundy and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. , both graduates of Harvard. Kennedy’s most influential adviser was Theodore C. Sorenson, a member of Kennedy’s staff since his days in the Senate.

Sorenson wrote many of Kennedy’s peeches and exerted a strong influence on Kennedy’s development as a political liberal, 5 a person who believes that the government should directly help people to overcome poverty or social discrimination. The president and Mrs. Kennedy attempted to make the White House the cultural center of the nation. Writers, artists, poets, scientists, and musicians were frequent dinner guests. On one occasion the Kennedy’s held a reception for all the American winners of the Nobel Prize, people who made outstanding contributions to their field during the past year.

At the party the president suggested that more talent nd genius was at the White House that night than there had been since Thomas Jefferson had last dined there alone. At a meeting with the leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Nikita Khrushchev, Kennedy asked the name of a medal Khrushchev was wearing. When the premier identified it as the Lenin Peace Medal, Kennedy remarked, 6″I hope you keep it. ” On another occasion he told a group of Republican business leaders,

7″It would be premature to ask for your support in the next election and inaccurate to thank you for it in the past. Even in great crises, Kennedy retained his sense of humor. Kennedy’s first year in office brought him considerable success in enacting new legislation. Congress passed a major housing bill, a law increasing the minimum wage, and a bill granting federal aid to economically depressed areas of the United States. The most original piece of legislation Kennedy put through Congress was the bill creating the Peace Corps, an agency that trained American volunteers to perform social and humanitarian service overseas. The program’s goal was to promote world peace and friendship with developing nations.

The idea of American volunteers helping people in foreign ands touched the idealism of many citizens. Within two years, Peace Corps volunteers were working in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, living with the people and working on education, public health, and agricultural projects. However, after his initial success with Congress, Kennedy found it increasingly difficult to get his programs enacted into law. Although the Democrats held a majority in both houses, Southern Democrats joined with conservative Republicans to stop legislation they disliked.

The Medicare bill, a bill to make medical care for the aged a national benefit, was defeated. A civil rights bill and a bill to ut taxes were debated, and compromises were agreed to, but even the compromises were delayed. A bill to create a Cabinet-level Department of Urban Affairs was soundly defeated, partly because Kennedy wanted the economist Robert C. Weaver, a black man, to be the new secretary. Southern Congressmen united with representatives from mostly rural areas to defeat the bill. Kennedy did win approval of a bill to lower tariffs and thus allow more competitive American trade abroad.

Congress also authorized the purchase of $100 million in United Nations bonds, and the money enabled the international organization to survive a financial crisis. Further, Congress appropriated more than $1 billion to finance sending a man to the moon by 1970 which was accomplished in 1969. The major American legal and moral conflict during Kennedy’s three years in office was in the area of civil rights. Black agitation against discrimination had become widespread and well organized. Although Kennedy was in no way responsible for the growth of the civil rights movement, he attempted to aid the black cause by enforcing existing laws.

Kennedy particularly wanted to end discrimination in federally financed projects or in companies that were doing business with the government. In September 1962 Governor Ross R. Barnett of Mississippi ignored a court order and prevented James H. Meredith, a black man, from enrolling at the state university. On the night of September 29, even as the president went on national television to appeal to the people of Mississippi to obey the law, rioting began on the campus. After 15 hours of rioting and two deaths, Kennedy sent in troops to restore order.

Meredith was admitted to the university, and troops and federal marshals remained on the campus to insure his safety. In June 1963, when Governor George C. Wallace of Alabama prevented two lacks from enrolling at the University of Alabama, Kennedy federalized the Alabama National Guard to enforce the law. The students were enrolled at the university. Three months later, Kennedy again used the National Guard to prevent Wallace from interfering with integration in the public schools of Birmingham, Tuskegee, and Mobile.

Kennedy also asked Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would guarantee blacks the right to vote, to attend public school, to have equal access to jobs, and to have access to public accommodations. Kennedy told the American people, 8″Now the time has come for this ation to fulfill its promises … to act, to make a commitment it has not fully made in this century to the proposition that race has no place in American life or law. ” Public opinion polls showed that Kennedy was losing popularity because of his advocacy of civil rights.

Privately, he began to assume that the South would oppose him in the next election, but he continued to speak out against segregation, the practice of separating people of different races. To a group of students in Nashville, Tennessee, he said, 9 “No one can deny the complexity of the problem involved in assuring all of our citizens their full rights as Americans. But no one can gainsay the fact that the determination to secure those rights is in the highest tradition of American freedom. ” In 1959, after several attempts, a revolution led by Fidel Castro finally overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar.

During the next two years, Castro was to become increasingly hostile to the United States. The new regime’s agricultural reform laws provoked U. S. companies that operated sugar plantations. Companies that were not controlled by Cuban stockholders were not allowed to operate plantations, and sugar production was de-emphasized in favor of food crops. In 1960 the Castro government nationalized, or took over ownership of, an estimated $1 billion in properties owned by U. S. companies and citizens, and the Eisenhower administration imposed a trade embargo.

When Castro began to proclaim his belief in Communism, Cuba became part of the Cold War, or struggle between the United States and its allies and the nations led by the USSR that involved intense economic and diplomatic battles but not direct military conflict. Many Cubans fled to the United States. During the Eisenhower administration the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had begun to train Cuban exiles secretly for an invasion of Cuba. When Kennedy became president, he approved the invasion. In April 1961 more than 1000 Cuban exiles made an amphibious landing in Cuba at a place called the Bay of Pigs.

Their plan was to move inland and join with anti-Castro forces to stage a revolt simultaneously, but instead Castro’s forces were there to meet the invaders. The revolt in the interior did not happen, and air support, promised by the CIA, never came. The exiles were defeated and the survivors were taken prisoner. On December 25, 1962, 1113 prisoners were released in exchange for food and medical supplies valued at a total of approximately $53 million. Most other Latin American countries had the same bad social, economic, and political conditions that had led to Castro’s success in Cuba.

Many of these nations seemed ripe for a revolution that could easily be exploited by the Communists. Upon taking office, President Kennedy looked for a program that would accelerate change in Latin America by strengthening democratic institutions. In March 1961 he introduced the Alliance for Progress, and in August it was established by the charter of Punte del Este. The Alliance for Progress was to be a Latin American version of the Marshall Plan, the United States plan to fund cooperative, long-term program to rebuild Europe following World War II.

All Latin American nations except Cuba joined the Alliance for Progress, pledging 10″to bring our people accelerated economic progress and broader social justice within the framework of personal dignity and individual liberty. ” The United States promised $20 billion for the first ten years. The Alliance for Progress and President Kennedy’s particular concern for democratic institutions brought the United States renewed popularity in Latin America. On June 3, 1961, in Vienna, Austria, Kennedy and Khrushchev met and eviewed relationships between the United States and the USSR, as well as other questions of interest to the two states.

Two incidents contributed to hostility at the meeting. The first was the shooting down of a U. S. spy plane in Soviet air space, and the second was the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in early 1961. The results of the conference made it clear that Khrushchev had construed Kennedy’s failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion as a sign of weakness. No agreements were reached on any important issues. In fact, the Soviet premier made it clear that the Soviet Union intended to pursue an even ore aggressive policy toward the United States. Kennedy’s last words to Khrushchev in Vienna were, 11

“It’s going to be a cold winter. He reported to the American people that the Soviet premier was a”tough-minded” leader who did not understand the intentions of the United States. The leaders had spent a “very sober two days. ” In August 1961, to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West, the Communists ordered a wall built on the border between East and West Berlin. West Berlin had been under the control of the United States, France, and Britain since the end of World War II, although the city ay deep inside East Germany, a state that was an ally of the USSR. Kennedy and other Western leaders protested, but the wall was built.

Kennedy had already asked for more military spending and had called up reserve troops for duty in Europe. When East German soldiers began blocking the Allied route through East Germany into Berlin, Kennedy sent a force of 1500 soldiers marching along the route into West Berlin. The troops went uncontested. Communist interference stopped, allowing Allied forces travel to and from Berlin. Amongst other problems President Kennedy faced, none was more serious than this one. The Cuban Missile Crisis was perhaps the world’s closest approach to nuclear war.

In 1960 Soviet Premier Khrushchev decided to supply Cuba with nuclear missiles that would put the eastern United States within range of nuclear missile attack. Khrushchev, when asked, denied that any missiles were being supplied to Cuba, but in the summer of 1962 U. S. spy planes flying over Cuba photographed Soviet-managed construction work and spotted the first missile on October 14. For seven days President Kennedy consulted secretly with advisers, discussing the possible responses while in public his administration arried on as though nothing was wrong.

Finally, on October 22, Kennedy told the nation about the discovery of the missiles, demanded that the Soviet Union remove the weapons, and declared the waters around Cuba a quarantine zone. Kennedy called upon Khrushchev 12″to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations” and warned that an attack from Cuba on any nation in the western hemisphere would be considered an attack by the USSR on the United States itself. At the same time, United States troops were sent to Florida to prepare or invading Cuba, and air units were alerted.

American vessels blockaded Cuba with orders to search all suspicious-looking Soviet ships and to turn back any that carried offensive weapons. For several tense days Soviet vessels en route to Cuba avoided the quarantine zone, while Khrushchev and Kennedy discussed the issue through diplomatic channels. Khrushchev, realizing his weak military position, sent a message on October 26 in which he agreed to Kennedy’s demands to remove all missiles. The following day, before the United States had responded to the first note, Khrushchev sent another, rying to negotiate other terms.

Kennedy decided to respond to the first message, and on October 28, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle and remove the weapons from Cuba and offered the United States on-site inspection. In return Kennedy secretly promised not to invade Cuba and to remove older missiles from Turkey. Kennedy called off the blockade but Cuba, angry at Soviet submission, refused to permit the promised inspection. However, U. S. spy planes revealed that the missile bases were being dismantled. Nuclear war had been avoided. This was perhaps Kennedy’s greatest moment as president. Many felt that both World War

I and World War II had begun because of weak responses to acts of aggression, and Kennedy may have prevented World War III by displaying courage and strength. On November 22, 1963, President and Mrs. Kennedy were in Dallas, Texas, trying to win support in a state that Kennedy had barely carried in 1960. As the motorcade approached an underpass, two shots were fired in rapid succession. One bullet passed through the president’s neck and struck Governor Connally in the back. The other bullet struck the president in the head. Kennedy fell forward, and his car sped to Parkland Hospital. At 1:00 PM, he was pronounced dead.

He ad never regained consciousness. Less than two hours after the shooting, aboard the presidential plane at the Dallas airport, Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th president of the United States. That afternoon, Lee Harvey Oswald, who was employed in the warehouse, was arrested in a Dallas movie theater and charged with the murder. On November 24 the body of President Kennedy was carried on a horse-drawn carriage from the White House to the Rotunda of the Capitol. Hundreds of thousands of people filed past the coffin of the slain president. The grave was marked by an eternal flame lighted by his wife and brothers.

A Time to Step Down

When the President of the United States is sworn into office on his inaugural day in January, he is sworn to faithfully execute the supreme laws of the land, our constitution. We elect a new President every four years to run our nation, represent the country, and uphold the constitution of the United States. The President of the United States is the most powerful man in the world and therefore we place trust in him. When the people find out that their elected President lies to them, a bond is broken. That bond is impossible to replace and therefore the president must be impeached or resign.

In 1974 the Nation witnessed its first president to resign from office. Due to the mounting evidence of President Nixon role in the 1973 Watergate scandal, (burglars broke in to the National Democratic Headquarters. ) Richard Nixon resigned from office, his resignation August 8th due to proof on the following charges including obstruction of justice, abuse of presidential power, and the refusal to obey house subpoenas. Did Richard Nixon resign because he knew that he lost the faith of the Republican Party and most important of all, American people?

The American people felt that they were lied to, because of the President denying all charges brought against him. Nixon did the right thing by stepping down and letting the country move on. Richard Nixon saved himself the embarrassment of impeachment hearings and the country more humiliation. Today, once again, a new scandal has broken out in the White House and that is the Monica Lewinsky affair. The story broke out on January 7th and the public was shocked. Many people did not know what to believe because of the nature of the incident.

The incident was to be blown into something that was to embarrass a nation for years to come undoubtedly. President Clinton denied having an affair with Ms. Lewinsky for seven months. When asked once if he had an affair, Clinton responded “I did not have sexual relations with that woman. ” He fooled everyone, he lied to the world, lied to his own country. President Clinton lied to our faces. Clinton did not just lie to our faces but also lied under oath about his relations with Ms. Lewinsky. In my opinion he is not to be trusted anymore and he needs to resign immediately.

Alone with the lying under oath offense, Clinton also faces other charges including some of those similar to that of the Watergate scandal including obstruction of justice, tampering with witnesses, and abuse of power. This is the man who also took oath an on the Bible to execute these laws with the help of God and all he has done is embarrass the nation and himself. The President has lost his integrity by doing something so stupid that causes everyone to wonder if he has lied about something so petty, what else has he lied about?

Why should we go on and trust Bill Clinton? What reason due we have to keep that man in office if he has lied to our faces? The President needs to step down and let the country move on to 21st century with a clear moral conscious that we have seemed to have lost in this incident. If he does not step down, we need to impeach the president to convey a message: in the United States you will be punished for your crimes no matter who you are. The bottom line is that if you commit a crime in any sort you must face the consequences.

President Thomas Jefferson 1801 – 1809

Thomas Jefferson came into presidency with the intentions of limiting the size and power of the central government. His success and failures in accomplishing this goal were many. Thomas Jefferson was Americas third president in reign from 1801 1809, once tying in the presidential race with Aaron Burr, where the decision was made by the House of Representatives to choose Jefferson whom they thought was less dangerous than Burr. As president he was the first to be inaugurated in Washington which was a city he had helped to plan. President Jefferson’s inauguration was probably the start of the changes in government.

It has been said that his particular taking of office had lead to the simplest speech stating that “essential principals” would guide his administration and would support all states with “equal and exact justice to all”. And the actual changes of administration were the most peaceful of all, nothing like those previously. Jeffersons accomplishments were most greatly seen by the ability to simplify the Republican government in the new capital by cutting back the unnecessary branches and less useful positions while replacing Federalists with Republicans.

And by the year 1808, Republicans held almost all the government offices. At the same time Jefferson fought to keep the size of the government from continuously growing. President Jefferson work diligently with congress to change the Alien Acts to have a more relaxed naturalization for only requiring five years of residency achieve United States citizenship, instead of the previous fourteen years. While president Jefferson achieved credit for making the Federal governments priorities foreign affairs, and leaving local matters for the state and local governments to tend with.

Jeffersons beliefs in local self government created differences between himself and Alexander Hamilton which created the Federalists (Hamilton followers) and the Democrat Republicans (Jefferson followers). President Jefferson was instrumental in the Louisiana Purchase, which secured an area extending from Canada to the Gulf and the Mississippi to the Rockies, for fifteen million dollars. This purchase also led to the planning and organization of the Lewis and Clark expedition.

However, the argument over whether or not Florida was included in the Louisiana Purchase caused many sarcastic attacks on Thomas Jefferson from members of congress. Although, shortly before leaving office President Jefferson was forced to yield on certain acts that he had implemented, such as the Non-importation Act of 1806 and the Embargo Act of 1807. This was brought on by rebellious attitudes of the people during the attacks on neutral shipping of the U. S. by Britain and France. However, President Jefferson was able to lift many restrictions on American commerce, and at the same time improve relations between America and France.

Also, President Jefferson was the author of the statue for religious freedom, which separated the church from the state, and advocated the abolishment of slavery. President Jeffersons Vision Plan was constantly under scrutiny due to the progressiveness of industrial wealth, which caused for more and more and to be available. This need for land was a merely a notion to provide social equality and prevent over crowding in the cities. This would enable citizens to spread out and possible keep peace.

The number of accomplishments by President Jefferson are so numerous, he was very instrumental in directing the Nation for the future. Most importantly he authored the Declaration of Independence. Through writing this document Thomas Jefferson was able to provide documentation of announcing that all states were now free, and independent states having full power and control, to wage or enact in war, peace, and any other acts which independent states have the right to. Consequently, President Jefferson also achieved the improvement of agriculture methods so Americans could grow and trade their agricultural products.

President Jefferson was also the founder for the cause for education, which lead him to be the founder of the University of Virginia at Charleston, Virginia. So few men have left such a great impression in their time or the ages that came after them as Thomas Jefferson did. After forty years of continuous service to his country, by coincidence Thomas Jefferson died on July 4, 1826, fifty years after the Declaration of Independence was adopted, as well as his political rival John Adams whom also died the very same day.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States

John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th president of the United States. He was the youngest president ever to be elected, the first Roman Catholic president, and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Although, he didn’t get the chance to live out his term and possible another one, he impacted the entire world. No other president was so popular, especially with the young people. John F. Kennedy was born May 29th, 1917, child of Joseph P. and Rose Kennedy.

John had eight brothers and sisters: Joseph P. Jr. (1915), Rosemary (1918), Kathleen (1920), Eunice (1921), Patricia (1924), Robert F. 925), Jean (1928) and Edward M. (1932). All of the children were born in Brookline, Massachusetts. They were all very competitive due to their parents. The only thing that was important to them was winning. John grew up in the nineteen twenties and thirties at his birth place of Brookline, Massachusetts. John had once stated, “life is unfair,”1 yet for him the statement was definitely not true. His childhood consisted of many things. Coming from a wealthy family let him have the freedom to do what most kids couldn’t.

That still didn’t keep him from behaving like other kids. He and his brothers and isters all participated in things such as sailboat races, tennis matches, or even just a simple game of touch football. All family members were always encouraged to get involved with government issues. Small talk wasn’t allowed at the Kennedy dinner table2. They discussed world and national issues. The impact of these discussions wouldn’t be seen until later. Joseph and Rose were trying to prepare their sons for public life and prepare their daughters for marriages to distinguished young men.

In 1937, the Kennedy family moved to Great Britain so that John’s father could become the American ambassador there for three ears. John stayed in the United States for an education at Harvard University. John was a very good student at Harvard, yet he didn’t make the high grades that his brother had. So, John joined two clubs and spent most of his time working on a newspaper published at Harvard, “Crimson”3. When he had finished his school term his father decided to let him tour Europe. When he was there he started to become interested in wars and politics, after noticing Hitler’s actions.

John went back there the following summer and saw how Hitler never gave up and continued to strengthen his army. He knew of the war that was soon oming. The United States had sided with Great Britain, so he knew he would have to go into the war. So, he went to enter the Air Corps, but was turned away because of his back problems. Instead he went for the position on naval officer and passes the health analysis. He was assigned to the intelligence division, he thought it was very boring. Shortly after Pearl Harbor was attacked, John was sent for motor torpedo (PT boat) training4.

Officer Kennedy soon became Lieutenant Kennedy. In Tulagi, John was assigned to a dirty old looking boat that had already been through nine months of combat. John experienced his first eal combat when his boat was attacked by a Japanese fighter plane. Only two men were injured that time. They continued to stay there until one night when a full size Japanese ship came full speed at Kennedy’s boat. The boat was demolished and the Japanese thought that all of the men had been killed. All of the men were forced to swim to Plum Pudding Island , three and one half miles away, with Kennedy leading them.

After his triumph he was promoted to Full Lieutenant and was awarded the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for saving his crew. He also received a Purple Heart for the severe back injury he suffered from the ollision. After that, he took command of another PT boat and took part in many more missions. For John one particularly bad thing happened in this war, his brother died. Which impacted his life so greatly. The family had expected his brother Joe to run for public office. Now that he was gone, John was now the eldest son and it was now his responsibility. In 1946, he had the chance to run for Congress.

Though he was still weak from his war injuries, he campaigned aggressively. He won that election that November, he was only 295. He served three terms as a Democratic Congressman, from 1947 until1953. In 1952 he ran for U. S. senate against Henry Cabot Lodge. He won that election and less than a year later he enhanced his appeal to the people. He married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier on September 12, 1953. He was a very popular and successful Senator. He had almost become Stevenson’s vice presidential running mate in 1956. His speech on concession brought him into over 40 million homes in America.

He quickly became one of the most famous political figures in the country. Already his campaign for 1960 nomination had begun. Kennedy had to make extreme efforts toward this campaign. People were saying that no Roman Catholic man could ever become president. His mission was to prove them wrong. The press loved him, he and his wife appeared on magazine covers, photographers followed them everywhere. He had to do a number of speeches and appearances. So, to transport him and his staff around the country, his father bought him a forty passenger Convair aircraft6.

In January 1960, Kennedy formally announced his presidential candidacy. His rivals were Senators Hubert H. Humphrey of Minnesota and Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas. Kennedy knocked Humphrey out of the way and was still battling the rumors f a catholic president. He dealt with that by winning the primary in West Virginia, which is primarily Protestant. He was nominated on the first ballot, and chose Johnson as his running mate. Kennedy narrowly won the general election against Nixon. He was inaugurated on January 20, 1961. At the inauguration is where he made his famous speech.

The speech was about America’s revolutionary heritage. Which is when he made this famous quote,” Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country. “7 Kennedy’s first year in office brought him considerable success. Congress passed a bill ncreasing minimum wage, and Congress passed his bill to create the Peace Corps. Which was an agency to perform social and humanitarian services overseas. The program’s goal was to create peace and friendship with nations. Within two years the Peace Corps were working in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.

Kennedy ran into some problems after the conservative Republicans joined with the Southern Democrats to stop legislation they didn’t like. A Medicare bill, a civil rights bill, and a bill to create a Cabinet-level Department of Urban Affairs were all defeated8. Kennedy didn’t lose all of his approval because he get some of his ills passed. Congress passed a bill to lower tariffs, authorized a purchase of over $100 million in United Nations bonds, and Congress appropriated more than $1 billion dollars to send a man to the moon.

Kennedy began to lose popularity after he started forcing universities in the south to accept black students. People thought that he was limiting their rights as citizens. He continued to speak out against segregation and lost even more populairty. In 1959, after several attempts, a revolution led by Fidel Castro finally overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar. During the next two years Castro became ery hostile towards the United States. After some problems with $1 billion dollars in properties and companies owned by the U. S. Castro began to proclaim his belief in Communism.

Cuba then became part of the cold war. Kennedy approved an invasion of Cuba by CIA trained Cuban exiles. In April 1961, more then 1000 exiles landed in Cuba at a place called Bay of Pigs. Their plan was to move inland and join with anti-Castro forces to stage a revolt. Castro’s forces were there to meet the invaders, and the revolt didn’t happen. The CIA promised air support, but that never came. The exiles were taken as prisoners. The prisoners were released in exchange for food and medical supplies valued at $53 million.

In March 1961, Kennedy introduced the Alliance for Progress, which would strengthen democratic institution in the Latin American nation to prevent them from doing what Cuba did. In August in was established by the charter of Punte del Este. This would be a Latin American version of the Marshall Plan. All Latin American nations except Cuba joined , pledging ” to bring our people accelerated economic progress and broader social justice within the framework of personal dignity and individual liberty. 9 This brought the U. S popularity in Latin America.

On June 3, 1961, in Vienna, Autstria, Kennedy and Khrushchev met and reviewed the relationship between the U. S and the U. S. S. R. . There was a lot of hostility, considering that there was a shooting down of a U. S spy plane in Soviet air space. The Bay of Pigs invasion created hostility too. NO agreements were reached on any important issues. The Soviet premier actually made it clear that the policies toward the Untied States would be even more strict. In August 1961, the Communists ordered that there be a wall put up between East and West Berlin. West Germany was under the control of the US, France and Britain.

Those countries protested the wall, but since East Germany was Communist, it was done anyway. Allied forced weren’t even allowed to travel through Berlin. This was the beginning of the Cuban Missile Crisis. This was the closest the world’s ever been to nuclear war. Khrushchev decided to supply Cuba with nuclear missiles that would be in range of the Eastern United States. He denied it when asked if he was supplying Cuba with missiles, but in the summer or 1962 there a US spy plane photographed a construction site managed by the Soviets and then spotted a missile on October 14th.

For seven days Kennedy met with advisors on how to handle and respond to this, while the administration carried on as if nothing was wrong. On October 22nd, Kennedy told the nation about the missiles, demanded that the USSR remove the missiles and declared the water around Cuba a quarantine zone. Kennedy warned the USSR that if Cuba attacked the US it would be considered an attack on the US by USSR itself. Troops were sent to Florida to prepare for invading Cuba and air units were alerted. American vessels blockaded any Soviet ships that looked suspicious and earched them.

For several days Soviet ships avoided the quarantine zone while Kennedy and Khrushchev discussed this. On October 26th Khrushchev agreed to remove all of the missiles. Before the US could respond to that note, Krushchev sent another trying to negotiate other terms. The USSR removed and dismantled all of the mistled and offered the US an on-site inspection. Kennedy promised not to invade Cuba and to remove missiles from Turkey. Cuba, angry at the Soviet submission refused the promised inspection. US spy planes revealed that the missile bases were being dismantled.

Kennedy was a hero, he had avoided nuclear war and possibly World War III. As a result of him displaying courage and strength. On November 22, 1963, President and Mrs. Kennedy were in Dallas, Texas. They were trying to win support from the state that Kennedy had barely carried in 1960. AS the motorcade approached an underpass, two shots were fired in rapid succession. One bullet passed through Kennedy’s neck and struck Governor Connally in the back. The other bullet hit the president in the head. His car sped to Parkland Hospital. At 1:00PM he was pronounced dead, he had ever regained consciousness.

Less then 2 hours after the shooting, on the residential plane, Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th president of the United States. That afternoon, Lee Harvey Oswald, who was employed in the warehouse, was arrested in a movie theatre and charged with murder. On November 24 the body of President Kennedy was carried on a horse drawn carriage from the White House to the Rotunda of the Capitol. 10 Hundreds of thousands of people filed passed the coffin of the president. The grave was marked by an eternal flame that was lit by his wife and his brothers.

John F. Kennedy Assassination

On November 22, 1963, American history changed forever. That day the presidential motorcade of President John F. Kennedy traveled down Elm Street in Dallas, Texas. As the limousine went down past The Texas School Book Depository shots were fired. These shots, said to have been fired by Lee Harvey Oswald, struck President Kennedy and Governor Connally. The wounds to President Kennedy were fatal. This event will never be forgotten by the American people.

This event and the proceeding Warren Commission investigation will be causes of arguments in this country for a long time to come. With the uncertainty of this event, it seems that everyone has their own opinion on what actually happened. These opinions range from believing the official report of the Warren Commission, to believing that the Russians assassinated Kennedy. Despite all of the other theories, the most believable theory is that the federal government was involved in the assassination of the President.

The federal government involvement in the Kennedy assassination can be seen through the quick findings that Oswald acted alone in the assassination, through CIA and FBI actions after the assassination, and through the actions of President Johnson following the assassination of President Kennedy. There are many other theories about the assassination of President Kennedy. One of these is the Lone Gunman theory give by the Warren Commission. This stated: The shots which killed President Kennedy and wounded Governor Connally were fired from the sixth floor window at the southeast corner of the Texas School

Book Depository. This is due to the conclusion that the bullets were fired from above and behind the Presidential limousine, and witnesses reported seeing a rifle being fired from that window. (Callahan 30-32) This statement, although the official report, is questionable. This theory makes it so that one man would have to fire all of the rounds. Callahan states “Kennedy was reported to have been shot with a 6. 5 Mannlicher-Caracano rifle which takes a minimum of 2. 3 seconds to load while no more than 1. econds elapsed between rounds,”(32).

That fact makes this theory impossible to be true, especially with that particular gun. So this evidence shows that there is no way that Lee Harvey Oswald could have acted alone from the Book Depository. Another theory is the Friendly Fire theory. This theory given By Bonar Menninger suggested “Kennedy was shot by Secret Service agent George Hickey who accidentally discharged his AR-15 in the direction of Kennedy after being startled by the first two shots of Oswald,”(251).

This theory is based on the research of ballistics expert Howard Donahue, who firmly believes that by the way the head of President Kennedy was positioned, the fatal bullet must have traveled at a trajectory equal to the grade of the street (Callahan 40). This theory does not make any sense for two reasons. First, the bullets supposedly came from a Mannlicher-Caracano rifle. The weapon that Hickey was carrying was an AR-15, not the type said to have killed Kennedy. Also, it seems odd that a secret service agent would have his gun aimed at the person that he was protecting.

It would seem more likely that someone in the crowed would have been shot if a secret service agent accidentally discharged his weapon. This theory has never been backed up, because neither Hickey nor the Secret Service would comment on this alleged incident. So it is seen that many of the main theories about the assassination have major holes in them. This leads one to believe that they were not told the truth about what actually happened in the assassination. There is only one group that has the power to cause the cover up of this event.

This group is who performed the investigation, the federal government. So through holes in assassination theories it is shown that the federal government had to have been involved, or else the American people would know what really happened on that day in DallaThe Warren Commission was in charge of investigating the assassination of the President. This commission was named after its head, Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren. The group spent From March to June of 1964 sorting through the huge and contradictory body of evidence collected by J. Edgar Hoover’s FBI (Callahan 29).

In just three months they came up with their conclusion of the assassination. This seems like it was very quick with all of the evidence that the commission had to go through. This would make one think that they did not look at every possibility for the assassination. Thus they must have been hiding something. As time went on people began to feel that the government was not telling them everything that happened concerning the Kennedy assassination. CIA concerns about this were revealed in a now declassified memo released April 1, 1967.

The memo stated “In most cases the critics have speculated as to the existence of some kind of conspiracy, and often implied that the commission itself was involved. “(Callahan 65). So it is shown people were starting to doubt what the government told them about the Kennedy situation. Callahan stated: The memo presumably came about due to increasing challenge to the Warren Commission report shown in a public opinion poll at the time which stated 46% of the American public did not feel that Oswald acted alone (65). This started to worry the CIA that the people were not believing what the government told them.

This was also shown in the CIA memo. It said: The people felt the government especially the CIA was directly involved because they contributed information to the investigation and because Oswald was alleged to have worked for the Central Intelligence Agency (Callahan 66). The agency would now turn its attention to trying to discredit any of their involvement. Why would the CIA have been so worried if they were not involved in the Kennedy assassination? The truth is they would not have, so they must have had something to do with the President’s murder.

The subject of Cuban involvement in the assassination was not really even considered during the Warren Commission investigation. Callahan stated “Even when the commission would bring this topic up, Allen Dulles, former director of The Central Intelligence agency, would try to get the investigation of the committee away from the subject of Cuba,”(128). The actions of Dulles leads one to think that the CIA was involved in something with Cuba. The way Dulles skirted around the topic of Cuba could be read to different ways according to Callahan: the first was that he feared the international repercussions.

While the other was sinister, saying the CIA stayed silent about Cuba because the evidence showed that some of the CIA agents helped procure the assassins from Cuba who shot President Kennedy(128). If the second of these two ways to see this were true, it would be easy to see why the Dulles would be trying to avoid the subject of Cuban involvement in the assassination. The former head of the CIA was trying to hide American involvement in the incident. If truth of this were ever to get out there would be chaos in the government due to the number of officials who must have been involved.

The involvement of the CIA and the FBI in the incident can be seen further in the commission’s proceedings. This is shown in the Warren Commission not even talking to William Harvey or Maurice Bishop, who were thought to both have information on CIA assassination programs, were not even questioned by or even mentioned by the Commission (Callahan 129). The fact that these two men were not even brought up must have shown that the two of them knew something that the CIA did not want let out. This could be that they knew who really killed President Kennedy.

About the failure to question the two, Callahan remarked “This makes it impossible to claim beyond a reasonable doubt that the FBI and CIA were not involved in the Kennedy Assassination,”(129). One would figure that if the agencies had nothing to hide, they would have let these two men testify for the commission. This too shows government involvement in the Assassination. The most incriminating account of the Central Intelligence Agency’s involvement came from a former CIA hitman. This man was named Hugh Higgins. He was one of the agency’s top assassins.

As an agent he was called by the name Hugh Howell and personally killed thirty-seven people while he was taking orders directly from the Kennedys (Sloan 175-176). Higgins told Sloan this about Kennedy’ Assassination: Between seven to ten shots were fired by four different assassins, but Lee Harvey Oswald never fired a single round. Two of the shooters were CIA contracted agents. Two were actually picked up by the Cops and released, and another one flew out of Dallas untouched (177). It is real disturbing that not only did the government apparently have its head killed, but the police had the real assassins and let them go free.

In the interview Higgins went on to talk about the wounds to President Kennedy during the autopsy which he claimed to have witnessed. Higgins recalled “There was an entry wound in Kennedy’s left temple which could not have possibly come from behind Kennedy,” he continued “This was the bullet that blew off the right side of Kennedy’s skull,”(Sloan 183-184). This evidence shows that the findings of the Warren Commission was false, and there would have to have been at least one other gunman on the other side of the motorcade. One would wonder how the commission could miss this in their investigation.

In their investigation of the “sniper’s nest” the FBI reported information that has some problems. Sloan stated: The FBI found shell casings in the so called sniper’s nest aligned in a neatly spaced pattern. Lucien Pierce, an experienced hunter, familiar with the type of rifle Oswald supposedly used would throw the casings out in all directions not in a neat row like the investigators had been claiming. (34) This fact makes it appear to as though the FBI had planted the evidence in the sniper’s nest. The FBI was in effect using Oswald as a scapegoat.

This would make it appear that there is a conspiracy being covered up by the government. That would be the only plausible explanation for why the shell casings were found in the reported fashion. The condition of this evidence further shows the guilt of the federal government in this assassination. There were many officials in the government who stood to benefit from Kennedy being assassinated. Two of the most prominent were Vice-president Lyndon Johnson and director of the FBI, J. Edgar Hoover. For Johnson the benefit was obvious, becoming President.

For Hoover the benefit was not being forced from his job as the director of the FBI. President Kennedy did not like Hoover and was going to force him to retire. North remarked “In February of 1961 Hoover confronted Kennedy trying to intimidate him so he could keep his job. Kennedy was determined to retire him(Hoover) by January 1, 1965,”(71). So it is seen Hoover knew he was going to lose his job if Kennedy was in power. “In May of 1964 President Johnson removed the mandatory retirement age for director of the FBI,”(North 560). This made it so Hoover could then keep his job.

This coincidentally happened just six months after Kennedy was killed. This makes it seem as though Johnson and Hoover were somehow involved in the assassination of Kennedy. Also, almost immediately after Kennedy was killed the U. S. reversed its policy on Vietnam (Prouty 145). Prouty said “Kennedy was withdrawing a thousand advisors from Vietnam. After he took power Johnson escalated the conflict into the major foreign policy issue of the coming decade,”(145). This also shows that people in government who wanted to stay in Vietnam would also benefit from the assassination.

These are some of the reasons that the government may have killed Kennedy. In Conclusion, there is a lot of evidence that points to the government being involved in the assassination. Although there may seem to be holes in this theory, this seems to be the best theory for the assassination. This is because there seems to be less room to question the evidence in this theory. Unlike many other theories this one seems to be better supported by the evidence of the assassination. So it is shown that this is the best explanation for what really happened in the Kennedy assassination.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States

His Life and Legacy On November 22, 1963, while being driven through the streets of Dallas, Texas, in his open car, President John F. Kennedy was shot dead, allegedly by the lone gunman, Lee Harvey Oswald. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th President of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected President, the first Roman Catholic and the first to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as President therefore his achievements were limited.

Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented he United States from entering into another world war. The world had not only lost a common man, but a great leader of men. From his heroic actions in World War II to his presidency, making the decisions to avert possible nuclear conflict with world superpowers, greatness can be seen. Kennedy also found the time to author several best-selling novels from his experiences. His symbolic figure represented all the charm, vigor and optimism of youth as he led a nation into a new era of prosperity.

From his birth into the powerful and influential Kennedy clan, much was to be expected of him. Kennedy was born on May 29,1917 in Brookline, Massachusetts. His father, Joe, Sr. , was a successful businessman with many political connections. Appointed by President Roosevelt, Joe, Sr. , was given the chair of the Securities and Exchange Commission and later the prestigious position of United States ambassador to Great Britain (Anderson 98). His mother, Rose, was a loving housewife and took young John on frequent trips around historic Boston learning about American Revolutionary history.

Both parents impressed on their children that their country had been good to the Kennedys. Performing some service for the country must return whatever benefits the family received from the country they were told. (Anderson 12). The Kennedy clan included Joe, Jr. , Bobby, Ted and their sisters, Eunice, Jean, Patricia, Rosemary, and Kathleen. Joe, Jr. , was a significant figure in young John’s life as he was the figure for most of John’s admiration. His older brother was much bigger and stronger than John and took it upon himself to be John’s coach and protector. John’s childhood was full of sports, fun and activity.

This all ended when John grew old enough to leave for school. At the age of thirteen, John left ome to attend an away school for the first time. Canterbury School, a boarding school in New Milford, Connecticut and Choate Preparatory in Wallingford, Connecticut completed his elementary education (“JFK” 98). John graduated in 1934 and was promised a trip to London as a graduation gift. Soon after, John became ill with jaundice and would have to go to the hospital. He spent the rest of the summer trying to recover. He was not entirely well when he started Princeton, several weeks later in the fall of 1935.

Around Christmas the jaundice returned and John had to drop out of school. Before the next school ear began, he told his father he wanted to go to Harvard (“JFK” 98). On campus, young people took interest in politics, social changes, and events in Europe. The United States was pulling out of the Great Depression. Hitler’s Nazi Germany followed aggressive territorial expansion in Europe. It was at this time that John first became aware of the vast social and economic differences in the United States. In June 1940, John graduated cum laude (with praise or distinction) from Harvard. His thesis earned a magna cum laude (great praise) ( “JFK” 98).

After graduation, John began to send his paper to ublishers, and it was accepted on his second try. Wilfrid Funk published it under the title Why England Slept. It became a bestseller. John, at twenty-five, became a literary sensation. In the spring of 1941, both John and Joe, Jr. , decided to enroll in the armed services. Joe was accepted as a naval air cadet but John was turned down by both the army and navy because of his back trouble and history of illness (“JFK” 98). After months of training and conditioning, John reapplied and on September 19, John was accepted into the navy as a desk clerk in Washington.

He was disgusted and applied for a transfer. In June 1941, Kennedy was sent to Naval Officers Training School at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois and then for additional training at the Motor Torpedo Boat Center at Melville, Rhode Island. In late April 1943, Lieutenant John F. Kennedy was put in command of a PT 109, a fast, light, attack craft in the Solomon Islands in the South Pacific. Kennedy saw action in the form of night patrols and participated in enemy bombings. On August 1, 1943, during a routine night patrol, a Japanese destroyer collided in the darkness with Kennedy’s craft and the PT 109 was sunk.

Through superhuman effort, the injured Kennedy heroically swam back and forth rescuing his wounded crew. Two were killed in the crash. The injury had once again aggravated his back. Still, Kennedy pushed on swimming from island to island in the South Pacific hoping for a patrol to come by. The lieutenant had no idea he had been in the water for eight hours. Finally, an island was spotted that could have provided cover from Japanese planes. With no edible plants or water, Kennedy realized that he and the crew must move on. The next day, he once again attempted to search for rescue.

After treading water for hours, the lieutenant was forced to admit no atrol boats were coming. He turned back for the island but was swept away by a powerful current. Kennedy collapsed on an island and slept. He recovered enough energy to return to the island and gathered the crew to move to another island in search of food. JFK was now desperate enough to seek help from natives on a Japanese controlled island. After making contact with the natives, Kennedy persuaded the natives to deliver a message written on the back of a coconut shell to allied forces. The coconut fell into the hands of allied scouts and a patrol was sent.

The coconut would appear again on the desk of an American President (Anderson 35). The crew of the PT 109 was given a hero’s welcome when they returned to base, but Kennedy would have none of it. He refused home leave and was given another boat. In constant pain from the back injury, JFK soon contracted malaria, became very ill, and lost twenty-five pounds. He was forced to give up command and was sent home to Chelsea Naval Hospital near Hyannis Port.

The lieutenant received the Purple Heart, the Navy and Marine Corps Medal, and a citation from Admiral W. F. Halsey. John’s back failed to recover was an operation was performed on his spine in the summer of 1944. During recovery, Kennedy received word that his brother Joe, Jr. had been killed in action. Joe had been eligible for home leave, but had volunteered for a special bombing mission. The bombs had detonated early and Joe and his copilot were caught in the explosion. Kennedy put his feelings onto paper and a second book was published for the family and close friends.

He called it As We Remember Joe. The family- particularly JFK’s father- had assumed that Joe, Jr. ould carry on the family tradition and go into politics. Both of his grandfathers had been active in politics (Anderson 41). Now, suddenly, JFK was the oldest Kennedy of his generation. Kennedy’s first chance in politics came when Congressman James Curley from the 11th District of Massachusetts decided to retire in 1946 (Gadney 42). JFK won his first Congressional seat by a margin of more than two to one. At the age if twenty-nine, JFK was placed on the front page of the New York Times and in Time Magazine. He was often mistaken in Congress as a Senate page or an elevator operator.

It was during this time period in which Kennedy met and fell in love with Jacqueline Bouvier. “Jackie”, as she was known, came rom a wealthy Catholic background as prestigious as the Kennedys. She attended Vassar College and the Sorbonne in Paris, France. She spoke French, Italian, and Spanish fluently. They were wed on September 12,1953, at St. Mary’s Catholic Church in Newport, Rhode Island. All seemed well, yet after three two-year terms as a Congressman, Kennedy became frustrated with House rules and customs and decided to run for Senate. In 1952, Kennedy ran for Senate against Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge.

Fifteen years older than Kennedy, Lodge was the incumbent of two terms in the Senate. JFK prevailed in the victory but was soon tricken with Addison’s disease during his first year in the Senate and had to operate on a fifty-fifty chance for survival procedure (Gadney 52). While recovering, Kennedy wrote Profiles in Courage, a bestseller on examples of moral courage in the lives of eight senators who risked their careers for a great cause or a belief. Kennedy returned to Senate and participated in the powerful Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He was also chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Labor.

JFK believed strongly in education, equal job opportunity, and the civil rights movement. His biggest success came in the form f his Labor Reform Bill, which passed by a margin of 90 to 1 in Senate debate. Kennedy’s first child, Caroline, was born during this time. Due to his enormous success in Congress, the Democratic Party nominated him for the presidential ticket in 1960. Lyndon Johnson was chosen as the running mate with Kennedy to secure and build upon the democratic bases in the southern states while the Kennedys sought out the younger voters, the factory workers, and the liberals (Gadney 61).

During the Kennedy Administration, a great deal of events was going on. Jackie had given birth to JFK, Jr. , while all over the south, the civil rights ovement was going in full force with incidents breaking out. Specific attention gathered around a black air force veteran, James Meredith, applied for admission to the University of Mississippi. In Cuba both the Bay of Pigs occurred, in which U. S. supported rebels revolted in a poorly laid out plan of events that fell out beneath them, and the Cuban Missile Crisis in which the Soviet Republic were building missile silos in Cuba, 100 miles away from Florida.

The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly in the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and his advisors. The fall out from he invasion caused a rise in tension between the two great superpowers and ironically 34 years after the event, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel Castro, is still in power. The Space Race was in full force with both Russia and the U. S. in competition to reach the moon. U. S. involvement in Vietnam was in the latter stages with plans to withdraw after the 1964 election.

On a trip to Dallas to stir up support for the re-election, the President’s autos were coming down Elm Street when three shots rang out. The first projectile entered at the base of Kennedy’s neck and exited through the back of his head. The second bullet hit Texas Governor John Connally. Seconds later there was another shot and the back of the president’s head was torn away. The “assassin” Lee Harvey Oswald with a mail-order rifle, fired from the Texas School Book Depository (Warren 5). He then promptly and calmly exited the building approximately three minutes after the first shot was fired.

He was picked up later at a Texas movie theatre with little resistance. Oswald had recently applied for a passport to Communist Russia, which led to a series of private meetings between Oswald and the Russian Government (Warren 614). Oswald protested his innocence. President Johnson set up what quickly became known as the Warren Commission headed by Chief Justice Warren to find the motive behind the assassination; The Commission finds the lone, depressed, mentally unstable, anti-social nut kills an American president.

On the Morning of November 22, 1963 at approximately 12:25 the presidential motorcade turned right from Houston St. on to Elm St. Their speed was approximately 11 miles per hour. President Kennedy had ordered the Secret Service to ride on the car boards on the car behind him. He made this decision so that the public would be able to see him better and how that he trusted the public. At exactly 12:30 while Kennedy waved to the crowd a shot fired out. He was hit in his neck, a shot that was fired approximately five seconds after the first struck him in his head and tore a piece of his skull off.

Governor Connally who rode in the same car in front of the president sustained wounds on his back, right side of his chest, right wrist and left thigh. Orders were then given for the limousine to speed up to the hospital. President Kennedy was pronounced dead at approximately 1:00 pm. Now the question remained. What were the reasons for the president’s assassination? The assassination plot could have been organized by one of many factions, such as the Cubans or the Russians, the Mob, someone upset with his civil rights policies, or maybe an inside job by a special agency.

The plot was a deep and complex issue that involved many factions. More theories were offered when Oswald’s ties to the CIA and his ties to Russian special agencies were exposed. Around October 1959, Oswald applied for Russian citizenship. While in Russia he went to the U. S. Embassy in Moscow where he denounced the United States, Praised the Soviet Union, and stated that he wanted to renounce his U. S. itizenship. He also made another very dramatic announcement: he stated that he had offered to give the Soviets radar secrets that he had learned in the Marines.

He told them ominously that he “might know something of special interest,” an obvious reference to the U-2 spy plane which he had observed while in the service (Melanson 13). It was later noted that Oswald was working under an operative program for the CIA and was a double agent against the KGB. After his assignment was completed he was given $435 by the state department to get home. Whatever Oswald’s reason for pulling one of the triggers against President Kennedy, it certainly involved a political agenda behind it. Other theories have evolved over time such as the Grassy Knoll theory.

Witnesses say that a man in black was present and fired simultaneously with Oswald and doubled considerable connections and plotted revenge. On Nov. 24, 1963 as Oswald was being escorted from the city jail, nightclub owner Jack Ruby shot Oswald with a single shot from a Colt . 38 revolver. Ruby was arrested and stood trial in Dallas. He was found guilty and was sentenced to hang. He died in jail of cancer, on January 3,1968. Kennedy was the first President to be born in the twentieth century and as very much a man of his time.

He was restless, seeking, with a thirst of knowledge, and he had a feeling of deep commitment, not only to the people of the United States, but also to the peoples of the world. Many of the causes he fought for exist today because of what he did for the rights of minorities, the poor, the very old and the very young. He never took anything for granted and worked for everything he owned. Perhaps Kennedy summed up his life best in his own inaugural speech: “Ask not what your country can do for you, but ask what you can do for your country. “

President Franklin Roosevelt

The world has known many great leaders, especially in the post-Civil War era. Winston Churchill, Martin Luther King, Jr. , and Harry Truman all rank with the most prominent leaders of all time. However, in my opinion President Franklin Roosevelt made the most difference out of anybody in this century. He began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had succumbed to in 1929. Without him ending the Depression, who knows where this country could have gone? His social reforms gave most people a new perspective on government.

Government was not only expected to protect the people from foreign invaders and affairs, but to protect against poverty and joblessness in ones own country as well. He not only changed the country for the better of everyone, he also made substantial gains on what a president could do for his country. His accomplishments as president will never be duplicated. Public opinion was so overwhelmingly for him that he was elected to office four times, which most likely will never be duplicated again. His reign in office came at, by the far and away, the most difficult time in American history.

Not only did he accept the challenges at hand, he rose to the occasion and took this country to another level. Roosevelt was born on January 30 near New York City. He graduated from Harvard in 1904 and attended Law School. Although he didn’t get his law degree, he was admitted to the New York bar in 1907. He was elected to the New York senate in 1910 and was appointed by Woodrow Wilson as assistant secretary of the navy, a post he held during World War I. Roosevelt ran for vice-president in 1920 and lost. In 1921, he was stricken with polio, which left his legs paralyzed.

Twice he was elected Governor of New York and in 1932, he defeated Herbert Hoover for President. After taking office, Roosevelt immediately took drastic action to respond to the Great Depression. He promoted labor laws the benefited unions and Social Security. Re-elected for unprecedented third and fourth terms in 1940 and 1944, Roosevelt was the American leader through almost all of World War II. He died of a cerebral hemorrhage in Georgia on April 12, 1945, shortly before the end of the war. Roosevelt went all out in 1931 in order to prepare for the election of 1932.

He took some chances, but they ended up paying off in the end. Never attempted before, he started a nationwide radio address, outlining a program to meet the economic problems of the nation. He coined the term “forgotten man” to mean all of those who had been hard hit by the evils of the depression. These radio addresses were the start to what he called the “fireside chats”. Without TV to occupy most peoples time, most American families who had gathered around a radio listened to these “fireside chats”. Roosevelts competition was fairly tough the first time he ran for office.

Not only did he barely win the election, he also had trouble winning the nomination for his own party. He was up against John Nance Garner (who would be his Vice Presidential running mate), Newton D. Baker, Alfred E. Smith. For three ballots, Roosevelt held a large lead, but lacked the two-thirds margin necessary for victory. He was desperately going to need some help to win this one. His campaign manager then promised John Garner the vice presidential nomination, which he grudgingly accepted. Although John didnt want to be vice president, he figured Vice President is better than no President at all.

Due to this deal, Roosevelt took the presidential nomination on the fourth ballot. Roosevelt made a dashing introduction at the Chicago convention by being the first nominee to ever write an acceptance speech. It was his first in a long line of great, powerful speeches to come. The last line in his speech, “I pledge to you, I pledge to myself, to a new deal for the American people”, fired the audience up. During the November campaign against Hoover, Roosevelt talked about a few parts of his “New Deal”. He spoke of relief and public works money. He wanted to develop a plan to cut agricultural overproduction.

However, Roosevelt was quite vague about other plans. He mentioned little about his plans for industrial recovery or labor laws. He talked very little of foreign policy during the campaign. Many believe that he was simply trying to home in on the problems that the American public saw most prominent at the time, which would obviously win him votes. But when it came to election day, Roosevelt seemed like the only viable alternative to Herbert Hoover, who many blamed for the Great Depression. Given this fact Roosevelt could have said just about anything and won the presidency that year.

Experts on the subject thought that it was all the administrations leading up to Hoover that doomed the country before him, but public perception was against him. Most Americans stuck to their opinion despite the facts. Roosevelt won with 22,821,857 votes compared to Hoover’s 15,761,841. He also won the electoral 472 to 59. The voters had sent large majorities of Democrats to both houses as well, which helped Roosevelt to accomplish more by pushing through more bills, which his own party supported. As expected, a landslide won Roosevelts second election.

The public was quite impressed with his accomplishments in his previous term. He received 27,751,491 popular votes and carried 46 states with 523 electoral votes. His opponent only received 16,679,491 popular votes to go with 8 electoral. This reflected the nation’s confidence in Roosevelt, more than his opponents own faults and flaws. The nation, under Roosevelt had come a long way, but still had a long way to go. He didnt deny this fact, stating in his inauguration address, “I see one-third of a nation ill-housed, ill-clad, and ill-nourished”. He knew he had his work cut out for him. Roosevelt ran again in 1940.

The Republicans based their campaign on the tradition that no President had ever gone for a third term in succession. To counter this, Roosevelt put the spotlight on his administration’s achievements. Because of the risky situation abroad, many felt that Roosevelt’s expertise was needed in case war broke out. The election results were closer this time. Roosevelt received 27,243,466 popular votes and 449 electoral votes, compared to Wilkie who received 22,334,413 popular votes and 82 electoral votes. This was a milestone for him, winning for the third time in a row, something that most likely will never be achieved again.

When it was time for Roosevelt’s third term to end, he initially said he wanted to retire. However, he later declared that he felt it was his duty to serve if his country called on him. Much of this feeling was based on the idea that it would be a bad thing for the country to change leadership in the middle of the war. Many of the president’s advisors felt he would not live through a fourth term. Because of his condition, the Vice President nomination for the 1944 election became very important. Harry Truman of Missouri was chosen to fill the spot. Again the Republicans argument was term length.

No President should serve for 16 years, they declared. The opposing argument by the Democrats was that no country should “change horses in mid-stream”. Roosevelt drove around the streets of New York City in a rainstorm and then made a speech to show that his health was not a major issue. Roosevelt received 25,602,505 votes and 432 electoral votes and his Republican opponent received 22,013,372 popular votes and 99 electoral votes. By the time Roosevelt was inaugurated on March 4, 1933, the economic situation was desperate. Between 13 and 15 million Americans were unemployed. Thousands lived in cardboard shacks called “hoovervilles”.

Even more were standing in bread lines hoping to get a few crumbs for their family. Panic-stricken people hoping to rescue their deposits had forced 38 states to close their banks. The Depression hit all levels of the social scale. In one of his addresses, he pushed confidence with his statement, “the only thing we have to fear, is fear itself”. He pushed his presidential power to the limit. He made the bold request to Congress to allow him “broad executive power to wage a war against the emergency, as great as the power that would be given to me if we were invaded by a foreign foe.

Because of the Depression, there were “runs” to the bank that people were making to pull their deposits out in return for paper cash and gold. Many banks were not fit to handle this rush. Roosevelt declared a “bank holiday” that began on March 6, 1933 and lasted for four days. All banks in the nation were closed until the Department of Treasury could examine each one’s fiscal situation. Those that were determined to be in sound financial condition were allowed to reopen. Those banks that had been badly operated were not allowed to reopen. During the FDR administration, 5,504 banks had closed and deposits of nearly $3. illion dollars were lost.

Shortly after the President restored confidence in the banks, what is now known as the “100 days” began on March 9 and ended on June 16, 1933. The President at once began to submit recovery and reform laws for congressional approval. Congress passed nearly all the important bills that he requested, most of them by large majorities. The fact that there was a Democratic party majority in both houses helped speed things along. What emerged from these 100 days was a 3-fold focus, RELIEF-RECOVERY-REFORM. One of the relief actions was known as the Emergency Relief Act.

This established the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) and he pushed an appropriation of $500 million to be spent immediately for quick relief. The Reforestation Act of 1933 killed two birds with one stone. First, it helped stop and repair some of the environmental damage that had occurred as a result of the industrial revolution. More importantly, however, it created the Civilian Conservation Corps, which eventually employed more than 2 1/2 million men at various camps. Projects included reforestation, road construction, soil erosion and flood control as well as national park development.

The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) was designed to raise crop prices and raise the standard of living for American farmers. Production was cut to increase demand, therefore raising the price. Also, various subsides were set up to add to the farmers income. It also gave the president the power to inflate the currency by devaluating its gold content or the free coinage of silver and issue about $3 billion in paper currency. The National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), another recovery measure, was designed to balance the interests of business and labor and consumers/workers and to reduce unemployment.

This act set codes of anti-trust laws and fair competition, as well as setting a new standard still existing today- minimum wage. NIRA also established the Public Works Administration (PWA), which supervised the building of roads and public buildings at a cost of $3. 3 billion to Uncle Sam. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was the first agency to work much like a private enterprise. The goal of the TVA was to reform one of the poorest parts of the country, the Tennessee River Valley.

The TVA was responsible for the construction and management of power plants, dams, electricity, flood control systems and the development of navigation systems. The Federal Securities Act required the government to register and approve all issues of stocks and bonds. This act also created the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), which regulates exchanges and transactions of securities. Other reforms included the HomeOwners Refinancing Act, which established mortgage money for homeowners to refinance and the Banking Act of 1933, which created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

It was empowered to guarantee individual bank deposits up to $5000. After the initial 100 days, reform continued throughout the first part of the Roosevelt Administration. FDR was also empowered to fix the values of the dollar by weighing its value in gold. He later set the price of gold at $35 per ounce, which in turn stabilized markets. The Silver Purchase Act followed, allowing the government to have not only gold in the Treasury, but silver as well- valued at 1/3 the price of gold. In Roosevelt’s Annual Address to Congress on January 4, 1935, he outlined phase two of the New Deal.

The federal government would withdraw from the direct relief, leaving it up to state and local governments. A program of social reforms would also be included in the second half of the New Deal. This would include social security for the aged, unemployed and ill, as well as slum clearance and better housing. One of the first acts of the New Deal, Phase II was the Emergency Relief Act. By Executive Order, Roosevelt created three new relief agencies in 1935. The first would be the Work Progress Administration (WPA), which would spend $11 billion on temporary construction jobs.

This increased the national purchasing power. Another part of the Emergency Relief Act was the Resettlement Administration (RA). Its goals were to improve the condition of farm families not already benefiting from AAA, prevent waste by unprofitable farming operations or improper land use and projects such as flood control and reforestation. Another aid to the farmer was the Rural Electrification Administration (REA). Its goals were to provide electricity to isolated areas where private utility companies did not see it profitable to run lines and set up service. The year of 1935 brought with it numerous reform efforts.

These were the final efforts of the New Deal before the nation geared up for war. A Revenue Act of 1935 capped off the New Deal with a tax on the rich and a tax break on the middle class. One of the most important and lasting effects of the Roosevelt Administration was his into push for the Social Security Act of 1935. This was an innovative plan that was supposed to lead to a nation-wide retirement system. A tax was levied on the employee, which was met dollar for dollar by the employer. This tax went into a special fund operated by the Social Security Administration.

Later in life, when a person reached retirement, they could draw the money out of this account that they had placed in for the last few decades. The Supreme Court was fairly conservative, and attempted to shoot holes in many of Roosevelt’s New Deal Programs. It felt that Roosevelt had taken his legislative presidential power to recommend legislation too far, and that Congress was equally responsible for allowing him to usurp the powers for reasons of what Roosevelt claimed was a “national emergency”. FDR was infuriated at the actions of the Court.

He thought of them as nine old men who were living in days gone by– far too conservative to see the economic and social needs of today. He soon began to plan retribution. Two days after inviting the Justices to a formal social function at the White House, he called upon his staff to write up the Judicial Reform Act of 1937. Essentially, this document alleged that the Judicial Branch of the federal government was overwhelmed. The Act described a desperate situation in which reform and recovery issues were not flowing through government on a timely basis–simply because the Supreme Court was backed up.

His answer to solve the dilemma was to use his executive power of appointment and place more Justices on the Court. Another section of the Act suggested that at age 70 (most of the Justices were above this age), each Justice would be supplemented with an additional Justice. This meant up to 15 Supreme Court Justices serving at one time. Roosevelt hoped to load the Court with social liberal Democrats who would not oppose his New Deal Programs. This became known as his “Court Packing Scheme”. After a long period of embarrassing debate, the Senate rejected Roosevelt’s proposal.

This, in turn, caused Roosevelt to reject the Senate. Roosevelt used his diplomatic and military powers in the later part of his Administration nearly as much as he used his executive and legislative powers in the first half. When the Great Depression hit in the 1930’s, America became even more concerned with its own problems. However, seeing the importance of a global view and seeing the possible impact of World War II, Roosevelt directed the country toward nations abroad. Roosevelt described his foreign policy as that of a good neighbor.

The phrase came to be used to describe the US attitude toward the countries of Latin America. Under the policy, the United States took a stronger lead in promoting good will among these nations. Roosevelt was the first to sign reciprocal trade agreements with the Latin American countries, including Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti and Nicaragua. In 1935, the US signed treaties of non-aggression and conciliation with six Latin American nations. This desire to spread ties across the Western Hemispheres led to reciprocal trade agreements with Canada.

Roosevelt also used personal diplomacy by taking trips to various Latin American nations. In July 1934, he became the first American president to visit South American in his trip to Columbia. In 1936, he attended the Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace, in Buenos Aires. Roosevelt used his diplomatic power of recognition to resume trading between the Soviet Union and the US. The recognition was given to the Soviet government in November of 1933. This was the first attempt at civil relations since the Russian Revolution in 1917.

In 1933, for the first time in 16 years, the two nations exchanged representatives. In 1937, Japan, at war with China, attacked a US river gunboat, the USS Panay, on the Yangtze River, killing two US citizens. This event infuriated the American public as well as the Roosevelt Administration. However, the US protested the Japanese action rather than demanding action taken against them. Roosevelt used his diplomatic power and refused to recognize the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo in Northern China until there was an official apology.

Shortly after Roosevelt’s statement, Japan made an official apology to the US and offends to pay for the damages in full. It is without question that FDR is one of the greatest leaders ever to grave the face of this earth. From his powerful, motivational speeches, to the fact that he was the leader of the most powerful nation in the world for 16 years, the facts are perfectly clear. Franklin Delano Roosevelt is well-deserving as being selected as the “Outstanding Individual of the Twentieth Century”.

The Assassination Of John F. Kennedy

In January of 1960, a young man by the name of John F. Kennedy was sworn in to uphold the office of President of the United States of America. He was assassinated on November 22, 1963, when he was only 46 years old. There is lots of speculation about the way he died. Here are just a few questions concerning his death. Who or how many people were involved in President John F. Kennedy’s assassination? This is a question that has baffled many people for 33 years. Some of the main questions are: Was Lee Harvey Oswald the lone assassin? This question may never be answered.

Is there a possibility that there could have been another rifleman? What is the minimum time to get three shots off with the Mannlicher Carcano bolt action rifle? Why did Jack Ruby shoot Oswald? Was he trying to protect himself or show loyalty to his President? Did Fidel Castro have President Kennedy assassinated? Were the CIA and FBI involved? What about the “mob”; did they have any logical reason to kill the President? What is the story on the “superbullet”? How can one assassin shoot three shots at a man in a limousine going 11. 2 mph under five seconds?

Among the most crucial questions to be considered in determining the identity of the President’s assassin are the number of shots fired in the course of the assassination, the time elapsed between shots, and the location of the site or sites where the shots were fired. A great deal of evidence rides on these questions: the number of wounds, the path of the bullets causing each wound, the position of the rifle believed to have fired the recovered bullet and its fragments, the position and number of empty cartridge cases believed to have been fired, and visual observations by bystanders.

In addition, a mass of evidence has been collected from the people that witnessed the shooting. I will try to explain or figure out what went on during the 22 of November in 1963. There are many theories on the assassination of JFK. The first theory is that Robert Kennedy, the brother of John and also the attorney general at this time dated a known mobsters’ girlfriend, and Robert also tried to get one of the biggest court cases in the history of the U. S. put upon the mob. In order to get back at him, they killed his brother. Later, they killed him when he was going to run for President.

There is some more evidence that the mob was involved when Jack Ruby killed Lee Oswald. He shot him at close range with a . 38 caliber pistol. This is a typical mob killing; close up and with a small caliber pistol. Jack Ruby was a nightclub owner. It is believed that Ruby had connections with the mob. People say that this theory had “mob” written all over it. When the so-called “mob” killed the President, they got him in crossfire. First they formed a triangle, one in the book depository, one behind the picket fence, and one on the monument.

This forms a triangle, which supports this theory called trianglism. The next theory is unlikely to happen. It is the “superbullet” theory. This theory is trying to convince us that one single bullet did all of the damage. This is virtually impossible. The bullet would have to hit President Kennedy in the neck and then hit Connaly through the back, chest, wrist, and thigh, then re-enter Kennedy’s head on top. See what I meanimpossible. Some people believed that this happened. Governor Connaly said that he is certain that the first shot hit Kennedy and him at the same time.

This theory is impossible according to the Zapruder film. The film shows a definite delay between the wounding of the two mena delay too short for the Carcano rifle to be shot twice by one man, and too long to leave the “superbullet” theory with credibility. Some people think that Fidel Castro had President Kennedy shot. (Posner 122-148) Motive, yes he had motive. In October 1962 Kennedy faced the most serious international crisis of his administration. Aerial photographs proved that Soviet missile bases were being built in Cub.

Declaring this buildup a threat to the nations of the Western Hemisphere, Kennedy warned that any attack by Cuba would be regarded as an attack by the Soviets and the United States would retaliate against the Soviet Union. He also imposed quarantine on ships bringing offensive weapons to Cuba. Negotiations were carried on between the President and Khrushchev. By the end of November, the missiles had been shipped back to the Soviet Union, the United States had lifted the quarantine, and the month-long crisis had abated. It was the Cuban Missile Crisis.

The Cuban Missile Crisis was when Castro had missiles pointed at the U. S. Kennedy did not like this, so he made Castro disengage them. Of course Castro didn’t like Kennedy after this, so he had him shot. But who did the shooting? True, Oswald was the one that put the lethal shot in the President. Could there have been someone else? I think so. I have good reason for this. There were 3 shots. It is impossible to get 3 well-aimed shots off in less than five seconds, because it has been proven to take 2. 5 seconds for one shot.

Less than 2. econds elapsed between the first and second, or the second and third shots. This is evidence that there had to be a second gunman. This does not support the theory of the lone gunman and shows that there could be a possible conspiracy. Where was he shooting from? Acoustic scientists have found in a picture what they think is a head peeking over the picket fence behind the grassy knoll. Ed Hoffman, a deaf mute, saw someone shoot from behind the fence. After the shots were fired, Mr. Hoffman saw the man hand a gun to a person dressed in a railroad uniform.

When he went to get the police, one policeman waved his gun at him, and told him to get out of the way, so he left. There is suspicion that this is the so-called second gunman. The next theory is a theory concerning what the second gunman was shooting at. Could it have been possible for the second gunman to be shooting at Lee Harvey Oswald? It involved Fidel Castro or anyone that plotted to kill the President. Whoever wanted the President dead had Lee Oswald shoot Kennedy. Then after Oswald shot, there was a man behind the picket fence on the grassy knoll.

Acoustic scientists found what they think is a mans head looking over the fence from the grassy knoll. They were trying to kill Oswald so he couldn’t talk. This is a likely theory. They never recovered the bullet that was shot from the front of the motorcade, if there is one. There is evidence that a bullet was fired from the front. When the first shot was fired, Kennedy’s head went violently backwards. This means the bullet had to strike him from the front. When you look at the videotape, it appears as if the bullet strikes him form the front.

Either the bullet did not hit anything, or it passed through the neck then vanished because it was never recovered. This could mean a possible second gunman. Some people think that the CIA was involved. They were mad at President Kennedy because he said that he wanted to “scatter the CIA into a thousand pieces and scatter them into the wind. ” They had another reason to kill Kennedy. It was called the invasion of the “Bay of Pigs” on April 18, 1961. This is where the CIA tried to overthrow Castro by themselves. They landed on the shore and were defeated.

Kennedy had told them that the U. S. would have no part in this invasion. Although he had ships just off the shore, they wouldn’t help. The CIA blamed the defeat on the President for not helping them. Many Americans blamed Kennedy for not helping them. In the spring of 1961, the Bay of Pigs, near Havana, Cuba, was invaded by opponents of Cuba’s Communist premier, Fidel Castro. The rebels were defeated quickly. The invasion had been aided by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Kennedy was criticized by some for having approved the CIA’s support of the invasion.

Others blamed him for the operation’s failure. The plan was partially done when President Eisenhower was President. (North 86) They did not do the killing, but I would say that they had something to do with it. The Zapruder film was shot by a dressmaker named Abraham Zapruder, who was a spectator at Dealy Plaza in Dallas, Texas watching the presidential motorcade that fatal November day. This film was shot with a 8mm movie camera that filmed 18. 3 frames per second. Zapruder was located on a concrete platform extending from the grassy knoll. He was with his secretary at the time of the shooting.

The Zapruder film implies that the first shot was fired before frame 204. A large oak tree blocked the assassins view between frames 166-210. People think that the President was shot before frame 204 because his wife turned sharply toward him at 204. This cannot be proven for a fact because the camera had no sound. The Zapruder film implies that there is indeed a second gunman, according to the evidence and reaction of Jacqueline Kennedy at frame 204. (Accessories 5) The Zapruder film wasn’t the only photographed evidence taken during the assassination of the President.

There are also pictures taken and eyewitnesses that saw things most people don’t know about. A woman took a picture of what they think is Lee Oswald on the first floor of the book depository watching the motorcade. Police say that they are mistaken. They think it is someone else. They have photographed Jack Ruby at the Dealy Plaza who denies ever being near the place on November 22. Below is a chart showing the positions of Abraham Zapruder, Lee Harvey Oswald, the original route of the motorcade, and the time frames of the Zapruder film: There is also another theory.

This theory is about a man and what he saw from the overpass. This man claims that he saw someone shoot from the monument on the grassy knoll. Did he see what he thought he saw? He may have heard shooting and looked up and saw something get out from behind the monument. They could have been taking cover. The Warren Commission is an investigative report on the assassination of John Kennedy. The commission was made up of 7 people.

They were Chief Justice Earl Warren, Senators Richard B. Russell of Georgia and John Sherman Cooper of Kentucky, Representatives Hale Boggs of Louisiana, Gerald Ford of Michigan, Allen W. Dulles and John J. McCloy. Lee Rankin was the general counsel. They had a soul purpose, and that was to find out what happened on that tragic day in November. The report was published on September 24, 1964. The commission found that the shots that killed President Kennedy and wounded Governor Connaly were fired by Lee Harvey Oswald. There was no evidence at the time that either Oswald or Jack Ruby were part of any conspiracy, domestic or foreign, to assassinate President Kennedy. No direct or indirect relationship between Oswald and Ruby had been uncovered.

On the basis of the evidence before it, the commission concluded that Oswald acted alone. (Scott 47) Despite the findings of the commission, conspiracy theories persisted for decades. The commission stated that Lee Harvey Oswald was the lone shooter. They denied ever hearing or thinking that there could have been a second gunman, even thought there is evidence that there was someone on the grassy knoll behind the picket fence. They looked for an easy way out and ignored some valuable evidence, says Jim Garrison. What about the Zapruders film?

Can they just ignore that? There is also proof that there was another shooter because of the rapidness of the shots. Its impossible for one man to shoot 3 shots in under 5 seconds with that type of bolt action rifle that was used. This rifle was a model C2766 Mannlicher Carcano Italian rifle. Sharpshooter set up targets at the range where the President was shot, and they could not shoot stationary targets, let alone moving ones with the same accuracy and speed that Oswald supposedly shot. They said that this model was not a very accurate one.

There are also two pictures of Oswald and his Mannlicher Carcano and his pistol. A man named Jim Mars proved that the pictures are fake because of the size of Oswald’s head. In both pictures, Oswald was standing beside his house with these two guns. In the second picture, Oswald is standing farther away from the house than in the first, but his head is still the same size. His head should be bigger in the second picture than it is in the first picture. In the second picture, his head is slightly tilted and a little bit of the shadow from under his nose is gone.

The theory that American people read about is the theory that Lee Oswald shot Kennedy from the Texas School Book Depository. There is valuable information that this theory is true. Many witnesses say that the shot sounded as if it was up above them on the sixth floor of the Book Depository, and that he was shot with the Mannlicher Carcano bolt-action rifle. They are lead to believe that there were only three shots, which could possibly be true. Under any circumstances, it was not as simple as it sounds. All of these books base their evidence on the Warren Commission.

Nobody looks beyond the Warren Commission. They take it for the truth, and therefore believe it. For all they know, it could be a cover-up for the CIA. My opinion is one that I have thought over many times. I think that the CIA was mad at President Kennedy for not helping them out at the Bay of Pigs, so they managed to convince Oswald that they would give him lots of money to kill the President. When they hired Oswald, they had one of their own men on the grassy knoll to shoot Oswald after he shot President Kennedy, then the CIA’s man would kill Kennedy.

This supports the theory of why the people heard a shot over the fence at the grassy knoll. Another things that supports my theory is that they never found the third bullet. When the man behind the fence did not do his job, they sent Jack Ruby to finish what they started. They had to quiet Oswald or he was going to talk and tell who was really behind it. Who was really behind it? This is a question that the world will never know the real answer to. This concludes my theory on how President John F. Kennedy was assassinated.

Andrew Jackson Biography

The year was 1824. The election of this year was very unusual because of the number of candidates running for president. One of the candidates was Andrew Jackson, or Old Hickory as they called him, a general that had won the Battle of New Orleans(which was a battle not needed) in the War of 1812. Jackson became a hero after this war, and it would bring him all the way to the presidency. Another one of the candidates was John Quincy Adams. The son of John Adams, the second president of the United States, Adams was a excellent debator from New England.

He was the only candidate from the NorthEast. The two other candidates were William Crawford and Henry Clay. Crawford, the secretary of the Treasury during the presidential term of James Monroe, seemed desperate for votes. Martin Van Buren, a political influence from New York, supported Crawford. James Madison, the fourth president of the United States, actually made Crawford the candidate of the fading Virginia Dynasty which h! ad controlled the presidency for twenty-four years thanks mostly in part to a working agreement with New York.

I think Van Buren supported Crawford because of the respect that he had for this fading dynasty. In May of 1824, a Cumberland planter, Alfred Bach, visiting Washington, sent John Overton a disturbing account of Jacksons prospects. I think his strength is {giving} out… Crd is undoubtedly the strongest man. Daniel Webster surveyed the field with satisfaction. Jacksons interest is evidently on the wane. When all the votes were in, Jackson received the popular vote, but he didnt have the majority needed in the electoral college to become president. The vote then was in the hands of the House of Representatives.

Jackson had ninety-nine votes, Adams with eighty-four, Crawford with forty-one, and Clay with thirty-seven. Jackson only needed two more votes to become president. This statement was in The New York Statesman, a journal not unfriendly to Adams. It predicted that he would get three on the first ballot-Ohio, Kentucky, and Missouri. Clays most distinguished supporter in the west, Thomas Hart Benton, who had private reasons to hate Jackson, promptly announced! that as Missouri preferred Jackson to Adams he was for Jackson. Benton didnt have the casting of Missouris vote, however.

That would be the duty of John Scott, the states sole representative. When Scott declared that nothing could induce him to vote for Adams, hasty observers, of whom there were many, counted the twelfth state for Jackson. After this vote, only one more remained for Old Hickory. It seemed within easy reach. Kentucky indicated that it would support Jackson. The same was expected with Ohio. Henry Randolph Storrs, a clay man from Utica, exclaimed that the only way Adams could get New York was through the support of the Crawford people. And let them do it if they dare. Clay knew that he couldnt win.

It was between Jackson and Adams, and Jackson was on the verge of gaining the presidency. The only way Adams could win was to get votes from either Crawford of Clay. The Jacksonians didnt suspect this, however. Clay seemed to be leaning away from Jackson. Clay declined to follow his friend and lieutenant, Benton, into the Jackson camp. He was going to vote for Adams. In fact, Clay never intended to vote for Jackson. He had met with Adams when he first got to the capital. Jackson was outraged by this decision because it gave Adams the necessary majority in the House.

Therefore John Quincy Adams was the sixth president of the United States. Clay was offered the Secretary of State job by Adams, which he graciously accepted. Jackson called this confidential interview a corrupt bargain and he vowed to do everything that he can to win the presidency in 1828. When the election of 1828 came around, the presidential candidates sunk to a new low. Adams and Clay took massive shots at Rachel Jackson, the wife of Old Hickory. When all the votes were tallied, Jackson came out on top again. Only this time, he had the necessary majority in the electoral college.

Jackson had little to celebrate, however. His wife, Rachel, died a couple days before his inauguration. One of her last remarks were, I had rather be a door-keeper in the house of God than to live in that palace. Jackson blamed her death on both his political enemies and himself. A couple of days before General J arrived, Daniel Webster wrote this famous letter to his friends: General Jackson will be here abt. 15. of Feb. – Nobody knows what he will do. Many letters are sent to him; he answers none of them.

His friends here pretend to be very knowing; but…. Great efforts are being made to put him up to a general sweep as to all offices; springing from great doubts whether he is disposed to do it. Nobody is authorized to say whether he intends to retire after one term…. Who will form the cabinet is as well known at Boston as at Washington…. My opinion is that when he comes he will bring a breeze with him. Which way it will blow I cannot tell. When Andrew Jackson reached Washington in 1929, he seemed incapable of carrying the burdens of being president. He suffered from tuberculosis and when his wife died, he felt he had little to live for.

Many thought that he would never survive the first term. Jackson supporters swarmed their way into Washington because they believed that Jackson would make a clean sweep of all federal officials appointed by Adams. Old Hickory used the spoils system to replace only about a sixth of federal office holders during his years in the White House. Jackson started his first term with a social problem called the Affair of Mrs. Eaton. It involved John Eaton, the secretary of war, and a married daughter of the owner of a Washington boardinghouse where Eaton resided.

When the girls husband died at sea(some said he killed himself because of her affair with Eaton), Jackson urged him to marry the girl as quickly as possible to silence the scandalmongers. Eaton married her two months before Jackson took office. But after Eaton was appointed secretary of war, many society leaders began snubbing Mrs. Eaton. Because the wives of most of Eatons Cabinet members refused to receive Mrs. Eaton, Jackson called a special meeting within his Cabinet. Old Hickory said that any of the wives who didnt respect Mrs. Eaton would pay the price with the resignation of their husbands jobs.

The Cabinet members said that they could not control their wives and they refused to resign. Mrs. Eaton was sent to Tennessee, which made many wives happy. In 1832, Jackson was seeking re-election. I think that its amazing how Jackson got through the first term with all of his problems. The opponent was Henry Clay. Jackson was still not over the corrupt bargain and the death of his wife. Clay urged Congress to pass a bill that would re-charter the bank. Jackson, as expected, vetoed the bill. Clay could not get enough support to override it. When the votes were counted in this election, Jackson crushed Clay.

I mean he just crushed him with an electoral vote of 219 to 49. After the election, South Carolinas legislature voted to nullify federal tariff laws and prepared to secede from the Union if federal tariffs were collected after February 1, 1833. When Jackson heard this, he prepared for civil war. In December 1832, Jackson issued a Proclamation on Nullification warning that disunion by armed force is treason. Calhoun resigned as Vice President to take the seat of senator of South Carolina. Jackson threatened to hang Calhoun if South Carolina, went through with its threat.

South Carolina backed down after Jacksons threat. A Force bill was passed after this uprising, and this bill gave the president the authority to use troops to collect federal taxes. South Carolina got a cut in its tariffs, so everybody got something. Ironically, the crisis ended on Jacksons sixty-sixth birthday, which gave Jackson a special birthday present. Jackson began his second term with a powerful inauguration speech that almost ended the thought of secession from the United States. Early in this term, Jackson made it clear that he wanted to get rid of the monster.

This monster, was the Bank of the United States. His first step to his great plan was to transfer federal funds from the Bank of US, to state banks. Jackson didnt have full support from his Cabinet, however. William Duane, his secretary of treasury, refused to carry out Jacksons plan. Old Hickory removed Duane and appointed Roger Taney to his spot. Taney, not stupid like Duane, didnt dare challenge Jackson and carried out all of the transfers federal deposits to state banks. Nicholas Biddle, the head of the Bank of the US, retaliated by recalling loans and tightening up credit.

The American economy slowed up dramatically because of this. The Senate voted to censure Jackson for his actions. The House of Representatives, however, overwhelmingly passed resolu! tions supporting Old Hickory. Clay, head Of the Senate, wouldnt give up, though. He criticized Jackson for appointing Taney, whom he thought of as incompetent. This criticism quickly passed, however. The greatest crisis in foreign relations came with France in 1835-6 over demands by Jackson that payments be made for damages of American ships. Jackson immediately prepared for military action.

The French didnt want another war, so they paid Jackson four past due installments and everything was honki dory. There is one thing about Andrew Jackson that I didnt like. His record with Indian Affairs. He didnt honor the treaties that he had signed with them. He forced them to move west of the Mississippi into what is now Oklahoma. If treaties are signed, dont people have to honor them? In 1836, word came that Texas was an independent country, and Sam Houston had a major role in this event. Houston, an old buddy of Jackson, lured Santa Anna, the Mexican president, to San Jacinto where he defeated him.

Santa Anna let Texas secede from Mexico at the time, but you could see that he was not happy about it and that he wouldnt let them get away with it. Because of this, Texas wanted to join the United States. Jackson hesitated with his decision because of the growing northern opposition to the extension of slavery. But, on his last day in office, he recognized Texas independence, setting the stage for future annexation. Jackson gladly handed over his seat to his hand picked successor, Martin Van Buren. Andrew Jackson was a very controversial president. He used the presidential veto more than anybody ever has.

Even after his presidency, Jackson still had an influence in Washington. For example, he played an important role in secret negotiations with Sam Houston to achieve the annexation of Texas. When Van Buren came out against the annexation, he said that Van Buren should be dumped as president. He then helped his friend James Polk win the presidency. So, as you can see, Jackson still had a major influence even after he retired. All of this ended in his bed on July 24, 1862. His last words were: I hope to see you all in heaven, both white and black, both white and black.

A Neo-Aristotelian Analysis of Ronald Reagans: The Challenger Disaster

While seated in the Oval Office of the White house, January 28, 1986 President Ronald Reagan delivers his speech The Challenger Disaster; hours after the space shuttle The Challenger explodes while in take off. Thousands witnessed this horrifying event live in person and on television. This mission was very unique allowing the first civilian to ever be allowed in space during a mission. She was aboard The Challenger as an observer in the NASA Teacher in Space Program. Ironically, nineteen years before this disaster, three astronauts were tragically lost in an accident on the ground.

President Reagan remembers those astronauts that were lost not only the day of the disaster, but also those who were lost nineteen years before. He conducts this speech not only to mourn the death of The Challenger astronauts, but for the families and those who were impacted from this event. He especially calls out to the schoolchildren of America who were watching this event live as the shuttle took off. As the President of the United States, Reagan earned the nickname “The Great Communicator” due to his ability to convey his beliefs concerning economic and domestic policies to the public.

This speech is just one example of how well Reagan spoke to the American public on a personal level and profoundly influenced the nations confidence in itself after this tragic event. Reagan used his speaking ability to explain the important policies of his administration. Speaking directly to the American people as a “citizen-president,” Reagan delivered addresses that conveyed his views of national security, the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), economic policies, and the nation’s war on drugs.

Delivered with sincerity uncharacteristic of the stereotypical politician (http://reagan. webteamone. com). The Challenger Disaster is just another example of Reagans profound speaking abilities. This speech has meaning, excites emotions and reaches out to all, which makes it a great speech. Although Reagan chooses to ignore his administrations responsibility in The Challenger disaster, he concentrates instead on reassurance of the nation which makes this speech uplifting to the American people. Invention

To do a rhetorical analysis of this speech we would follow the Neo-Aristotelian approach. The Neo-Aristotelian approach consists of five canons which are invention, organization, style, memory and delivery. First I will start off with Invention. According to Foss the critics concern in applying the canon of invention is with the speakers major ideas, line of argument, or content (29). Invention is divided into two categories: external proofs and internal proofs. External proofs include sources used by the author but does not create, including testimony of eyewitnesses (Foss 29).

I will focus on the internal proofs of this speech, which are logos or logical argument; ethos, the appeal of the speakers character and pathos, emotional appeal. In the speech of The Challenger Disaster Reagan does not necessarily present an argument, but rather a speech to console and find meaning. He starts the speech by recognizing the terrible accident that happened nineteen years ago and relates it to The Challenger disaster. The events are factual and therefore are logical to be included in the opening of this speech.

To begin the speech by referring to another tragic incident of this kind was very effective and draws some attention from The Challenger disaster. He also acknowledges that although this type of event has occurred before, the nation did move on and overcame the pain of the event. Reagans opening in my opinion captures the audience and prepares the audience for a brighter tomorrow without being disrespectful to the families of those who were lost in the disaster. Another positive statement he makes is no one is mourning this event by themselves, he says we mourn their loss as a nation together.

This brings people together to share the pain not individuality, but a nation as a whole. The second form of internal proof is ethos, which we call today, speaker credibility. This deals with the effect or appeal of the speakers character (Foss 29). Ethos is determined by three characteristics: moral character or integrity, intelligence and good will. As stated before Reagan was known as the great communicator. Reagan was not afraid to speak his mind about controversial issues. He was not afraid to speak on school prayer and abortion, though his aides warned him it hurt him in the polls.

He cared about the polls but refused to let them silence him (http://reagan. webteamone. com). This proved that Reagan stood up for what he believed showed the American people his moral character. In doing all this, in taking the actions he took at home and abroad, in using words and conviction and character to fight, he produced the biggest, most successful and most meaningful presidency since Franklin Roosevelt’s(Reagan 2001). Reagan stood up for America and fought for what the people wanted.

He was intelligent and the American people thought and spoke very highly of him and his years in the oval office. When Reagan lost, he gave a valiant speech to his followers in which he spoke of the cause and signaled that he’d be back ( Reagan 2001). Not only did Reagan profess moral character and intelligence he gained rapport with the American people. The last internal proof is pathos. Pathos concerns appeals designed to generate emotions in the audience (Foss 29). Pathos strives to discover what emotions were generated by the outcome of the speech.

From the very beginning Reagan generates emotions for those who lost their lives in the space shuttle incident that had happened nineteen years before The Challenger Disaster. I feel emotions are generated in the conclusion of the speech. Reagan says that while the Challenger crew died, they achieved their aspirations in the service of their country and they were able to explore the universe. They were presented with a challenge and they met it with joy. Organization The second Neo-Aristotelian method is organization or the arrangement of the speech.

Foss states the critics task here is to determine the general arrangement adopted for the rhetoric (30). The organization of this speech is very simplistic. From the beginning Reagan states the purpose of the speech and captures the audiences attention. He gives proper respect to those who were lost in the incident by addressing their names and recognizes the families of the seven. He brings our attention to the schoolchildren who might have been watching the disaster via television in their classrooms.

He does this to bring awareness to teachers and parents of the impact of this on the children who may not understand the realism of this event. As President of the United States he immediately assumes the credibility of his position. This speech is arranged in a topical manner, identifying the problem and reassuring the nation that the problem was not without justification. Style The next canon I want to address is that of style. The canon of style deals with the language used by the rhetor (Foss 30).

Reagan chooses to pursue a personal approach in this speech rather than a technical analysis of just what happened and why. His choice of a personal approach in my opinion reaches out to the nation on a personal level and not just the president addressing the nation after a horrible disaster. He chooses his words carefully not to disrespect the families of the seven. And perhaps we’ve forgotten the courage it took for the crew of the shuttle; but they, the Challenger Seven, were aware of the dangers, but overcame them and did their jobs brilliantly.

He focuses not on the negative aspects of this disaster, but tries to focus on the positive aspects. Saying they were aware of the dangers, but they died doing what they loved and did it brilliantly. In his conclusion, he once again restates his main point that the Challenger crew were not only valued, but were pursuing their life long dreams. Memory While memory is not an important aspect in this rhetorical analysis, Reagan does not appear to be reading off cue cards, but to have memorized this speech. The last line of Reagan speech leaves us with a hope that the nation will recover and everything will be alright.

We will never forget them, nor the last time we saw them, this morning, as they prepared for the journey and waved goodbye and ‘slipped the surly bonds of earth’ to ‘touch the face of God. Delivery Reagans delivery is one of the most important aspects of this speech and, indeed, most of his speeches. According to Foss; the canon of delivery is concerned with the speakers manner of presentation (31). In a recent pole Ronald Reagan, along with Abraham Lincoln and John F. Kennedy, was identified as one of the greatest presidents.

Reagan became president not because of his family background, but because of his speaking skills and actions. He rose to the most powerful position in the world and held that position with dignity. The challenger speech was no doubt written very quickly and very informally on scraps of paper hours after this disaster. Reagan puts his thoughts together into a profound speech that reassures the nation. We have the good fortune to have been given an inside peek into Reagans speech writing habits by the man himself in his recent publication of Reagan, In His Own Hand (Reagan 2001).

Although his administration could have been linked to this disaster, Reagan was able to use his skills as a speaker to take an even firmer grasp on American hearts. In conclusion, through Reagans organization of the speech, delivery method, style and strong speaking skills, he makes this a memorable speech which will always be remembered by those who watched horrible explosion of The Challenger. Reagans goal to reassure the nation of a better, safer tomorrow was met in his delivery of this speech. He effectively addresses the families of the seven, the school children and the nation in a respectable way.

George W. Bush

Politics have been the family business for more than one family in the United States. The familiar family of several generations is the Kennedy family who remains in the political spotlight for fifty-three years and running. As Elizabeth Dole attempts to gain the Republican nomination for the 2000 presidential race she hopes to continue the forty-nine year Dole family streak. Coming close to twenty-five years in politics Bill Clinton prepares to turn the scepter over to Hillary Clinton as she prepares for a possible seat in the United States Senate. Perhaps the most interesting dynasties are those carried on by father-son teams.

Both John Adams and John Quincy Adams were United States Presidents. It also appears as though former President George Bush may be able to watch one of his two Governor sons take the presidential oath in the near future. His namesake child, the current governor of Texas, has recently announced his bid for the Republican nomination on the 2000 ballot. However, even if he makes it past the primaries it will take more than a “brand name” to win this election.

According to the June 21, 1999 issue of Newsweek 65% of voters they polled still knew nothing or little of George W. Bush. When looking at a possible future President of the United Sates of America it is not uncommon to start with their past and work forward to see their progress and failures. George W. Bush attended a preparatory school at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. Like many young men he was interested in sports and he selected to the men’s basketball team at Phillips Academy. Envied by his peers the young man was chosen to be part of a team that was exclusive to the best. However young George sat on the bench that year and only played one game.

The next year he opted not to try out for football and instead became the head cheerleader. He made many friends at this elite school considered to be the toughest in the country at that time. He successfully finished and the following year attended Yale. During George’s time at Yale he barely seemed to notice his father had been elected to Congress (1966). George, “W” as many refer to him, was not interested in any of the political organizations at the University. George W. Bush seemed to be more concerned with social matters than political matters.

He knew stories about most people that would pass him by on the campus and was a fan of his school’s sports teams. In the late 1960’s he joined a fraternity of Delta Kappa Epsilon, a fraternity for sportsmen and those who loved to watch them. They were called Dekes. This brings about a controversy that Bush himself may have been involved in overseeing harmful hazing rituals such as branding. Both Bush and other members of the fraternity have denied these rumors. Most members say the branding was a scare tactic that never actually happened. What did happen?

A close friend of Bush’s at the time stated, “…there was a lot of watching sports, girls, and beer drinking (Duffy). ” This is also where Bush had his first encounter with the law. Bush stated, “ We had a little too much Christmas cheer and for some reason we really thought we needed that wreath (Duffy). ” George and some of the other members of the Dekes were charged with theft as a misdemeanor and the misdemeanor was later dropped. During Bush’s junior year at Yale he surprised his family by announcing his engagement to a young woman from Rice University named Cathryn Wolfman.

They engagement did not last long after George decided that he was too young to settle down. While attending a Princeton, Yale’s rival, versus Yale football game in which Yale won, George encountered his second encounter with the law. As friends were leaving the game they turned around to see young George standing in the middle of the goal posts as he and his friends tore them down on the Princeton field. The mayor of Princeton, New Jersey told the young men as punishment to leave Princeton and never return and he has not to this day.

After graduating Yale George moved to Houston to live at the ritzy Chteaux Dijon, a popular place for late baby bloomers to live in the 1970’s. Not only was he changing girlfriends rapidly he was also changing jobs frequently. When he joined the Air National Guard in Texas he was criticized by many that he was allowed to override the long waiting list. The young man denied receiving any special favors from the Guard because of his father’s status. George worked in for an agriculture company at this time and then left calling the work dull and boring.

He then worked for a group that mentored young minority athletes but also left that job not being fulfilled. After applying for University of Texas Law School and being denied he applied to Harvard School of Business. George W. Bush graduated from Harvard with his Masters in Business in 1975. After Harvard George returned to Midland, Texas where he grew up. There he thought that he would try his hand at the oil business. He had no experience in this field yet he insisted on jumping into to it without working his way up the ranks. At the same time he started the oil firm he married a young lady by the mane of Laura Welch, a quiet librarian.

Laura and her new husband spent much of their honeymoon on the campaign trail. In Midland George thought that he might run for Congress and in the 1977 race he went up against Kent Hance. He won much support in the Midland area but Hance took a huge lead in Lubbock and won the 1977 election. That wasn’t the only misfortune he experienced during that period in his life. The gas prices were plummeting causing the price of oil to be forced down. Many people in the Midland area were losing jobs and very few oil companies could survive on their own. In 1982 George W. Bush sold 10% of his oil firm to a Panamanian investor.

As prices began to fall further Bush began drinking heavier and more steadily. In 1984 he merged the rest of his company with Spectrum 7. Even after Bush took 25% pay cut the oil prices continued on a downward spiral. Now Spectrum’s best offer was to be bought by an energy company by the name of Harken. In return Bush received $320,000 in stock and was retained as a consultant at a salary of $80,000 a year, $5,000 more than what he was previously earning (Pooley 36). He also convinced Harken to employ most of his former employees and he found jobs for the employees that were not taken on by Harken.

Other changes were also taking place in his life. After a joint 40th birthday party in Colorado Bush woke up with a hangover severe enough to cause him to quite drinking cold turkey. He also had twin daughters, Jenna and Barbara, to take care of. Now that he had money and no day job he was free to think on an offer that had been made to him several months before the Harken deal. In 1985 Lee Atwater spoke to George Bush about helping run his father’s (the Vice President of the United States from 1984-1988) presidential campaign. In 1987 Bush packed up his family in Midland and moved to Washington, D.

C. to help his father. The younger George spent countless hours defending his father from harsh journalist, unfaithful staff, and critics. He acted as a surrogate speaker on behalf of his father around the country. All of his hard work on the campaign not only helped his father win the 1988 presidential election; it also brought him in to the political spotlight as a serious man for the first time. After the elections Bush and his family returned to Dallas, Texas. After being in Dallas for a few years he received a hot tip that the Texas Rangers Baseball team was for sale.

Quickly Bush rounded up a group of investors and purchased a portion of the team and was made a manager. The money he used to buy the team he borrowed from a Midland bank where he was a director using his Harken stock as collateral. His initial $500,000 investment grew to $606,000 and his final return was over $15 million (Pooley 36). He was finally in the spotlight as a politician, a businessman, a sportsman, a family man, and as a down home man. He attended all 80 Ranger home games. He would often stay hours after the game to sign autographs and he did wonders for the stadium.

He and his partners renovated The BallPark in Arlington with bond money. His public relations were rising but things in Dallas were not going as smooth as in Arlington. When Bush sold all 212,140 of his Harken stocks in June of 1990 he received $848,569, more the 2 the original value (Pooley 41). Less than two months later Harken made the quarterly report and they stated that the company lost more than $23 million dollars. Bush says he did not know that Harken was going to announce the loss yet he was still criticized by many who said that as a director he should have know.

He compounded the problem by not filing a SEC form. After a SEC investigation he was cleared of all charges. One month later Bush resigned from Harken and declared for Governor. George took a leave of absence from the Rangers to spend time campaigning for Governor. He traveled the state as a well-known man separate from his father, at least in personality. George’s social circle drew him crowds of the elite oil and businessmen to the down home baseball fans throughout Texas. George also gained a tart sense of humor when his sister died in 1953 of leukemia.

His mother said that since more was expected from George, the oldest son, he diverted their attention by wisecracks and nicknames, a trait that he carries with him to this day. According to the June 1999 issue of Texas Monthly that may also of helped people relax and relate to him as a man and not just a politician while on his campaign trail. After George won the Governor election to Ann Hutchinson he put all of his Rangers assets in to a blind trust and did not sell the team until 1998.

In 1998 he received over $14. illion dollars for his share of the team. As a second term Governor of Texas George W. Bush has had a well-kept record. Although the governor of Texas has very little power he and legislation passed the largest tax cut in the states history. He has won praises from teachers by allowing for large teacher pay raises. Crime rate is down and although he did not back a hate-crimes bill the President Clinton urged him to sign his inclusive rhetoric and multicultural appointments have please the Hispanic and African American communities.

His pulling together of political factions saying it is better to work together than to work alone has impressed many leaders of both major parties. Bush is quoted in Time magazine saying, “I’m proud to be a compassionate conservative. I welcome this label, and on this ground, will make my stand (Duffy). ” According to the Washington Post’s Governors Guide strong families, local control, individual responsibility, and limited responsibility are principles guiding Governor Bush’s major initiatives. He continually states the importance of family and education in society.

He says that education is his number one priority. He believes for our society to become compassionate and responsible we must first teach children to read and comprehend. According to this page he says, “Government is necessary, but not necessarily government. ” His staff knows that any proposal brought before him must encourage personal responsibility, local control, and fiscal responsibility. He has encouraged a voluntary clean up program for companies and individuals to participate in that has brought back $170 million dollars in property and has created 3,000 jobs (Gov.

George). Since his first term 115 older companies have reduced emissions by 100,000 each year. To make Texas a safer place he has aided in passing anti-stalking laws and no sex offender is allowed to live in Texas without registering first with local authorities. He has declared a zero tolerance for violent crimes on school grounds. If any youth is found in violation of a violent of sexually orientated law he or she must be reported to the teachers of that school and he or she pose a threat they may be placed in alternative education programs.

He supports the legal drinking age of 21 and has implemented one of the nations toughest anti-youth-smoking laws. He believes in the death penalty for those who have committed “horrible” crimes. He also believes that Texas prisons are a place of work and punishment. All prisoners in Texas work either building houses for the needy, farming for food banks, making road signs, Braille books, government furniture, or laundry detergent.

He also supports welfare reform, creating jobs and not dependency for those in need, yet his 1997 legislation passed a bill not allowing government to interfere with private charity help for these people. Now Governor Bush will be able to make his stand on a national level. On June 12, 1999 Governor Bush announced he would run for the Republican nomination for President of the United States. He already has the backing of 15 Republican Governors. Even Kent Hance who beat him in the 1977 congressional elections has contributed money (Hance switched parties in 1985).

Although Bush has a long way to go until the elections he is already miles ahead of the other Republicans and Democrats (Vice President Al Gore and former Senator Bill Brady) hoping to earn the nomination for his or her party. In the Republican race for presidential nomination he faces Elizabeth Dole, Dan Quayle, Steven Forbes, and John McCain. In a Time/CNN poll 55% of those polled would vote for Bush, and 42% for Al Gore, however George Bush has the Republican nominee vote 40% ahead of the runner-up, Elizabeth Dole, who has 14% of the vote according to the Time/CNN poll.

Governor Bush still has a long time before the 2000 election, if he is chosen as the GOP nomination. He has matured a lot form his past and has impressed enough people in high places to earn the most money in the shortest amount of time ever in an United States presidential campaign according to June 30,1999 edition of the Corpus Christi Caller Times. According to the Caller Times Bush has earned $20 million in just four months (Van Natta A-12).

Fortunate for Bush he has made a connection with many Americans and not including those who know nothing about him most like him…they just don’t know why. For Bush supporters it is not the “name brand” that they believe will win him the Presidency, it is the values and policies he stands for. Right now the Republican Party’s worst nightmare is that if it is the name and if the name wares off their “school house built of straw will weaken and blow down. ” With the aide of family, Texas governor’s office veterans, and his fathers old aides, he hopes to prove them wrong before February.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy or JFK

John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected president. He was also the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president. Therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented war. Young people especially liked him. No other president was so popular. He brought to the presidency an awareness of the cultural and historical traditions of the United States.

Because Kennedy expressed the values of 20th-century America, his presidency was important beyond its political achievements. John Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts. He was the second of nine children. Kennedy announced his candidacy early in 1960. By the time the Democratic National Convention opened in July, he had won seven primary victories. His most important had been in West Virginia, where he proved that a Roman Catholic could win in a predominantly Protestant state.

When the convention opened, it appeared that Kennedy’s only serious challenge for the nomination would come from the Senate majority leader, Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas. However, Johnson was strong only among Southern delegates. Kennedy won the nomination on the first ballot and then persuaded Johnson to become his running mate. Two weeks later the Republicans nominated Vice President Richard Nixon for president and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. , who was ambassador to the United Nations and whom Kennedy had defeated for the Senate in 1952, for vice president. In the fast-paced campaign that followed, Kennedy made stops in 46 states and 273 cities and towns, while Nixon visited every state and 170 urban areas.

Another important element of the campaign was the support Kennedy received from blacks in important Northern states, especially Illinois and Pennsylvania. They supported him in part because he and Robert Kennedy had tried to get the release of the civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. King, who had been jailed for taking part in a civil rights demonstration in Georgia, was released soon afterward. The election drew a record 69 million voters to the polls, but Kennedy won by only 113,000 votes. Kennedy was inaugurated on January 20, 1961.

In his inaugural address he emphasized America’s revolutionary heritage. 2″The same … beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe,” Kennedy said. 3″Let the word go forth from this time and place to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans-born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage-and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.

Kennedy challenged Americans to assume the burden of “defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. ” The words of his address were, 4″Ask not what your country can do for you-ask what you can do for your country. ” Kennedy sought with considerable success to attract brilliant young people to government service. His hope was to bring new ideas and new methods into the executive branch. As a result many of his advisers were teachers and scholars. Among them were McGeorge Bundy and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. , both graduates of Harvard.

Kennedy’s most influential adviser was Theodore C. Sorenson, a member of Kennedy’s staff since his days in the Senate. Sorenson wrote many of Kennedy’s speeches and exerted a strong influence on Kennedy’s development as a political liberal, 5 a person who believes that the government should directly help people to overcome poverty or social discrimination. The president and Mrs. Kennedy attempted to make the White House the cultural center of the nation. Writers, artists, poets, scientists, and musicians were frequent dinner guests.

On one occasion the Kennedy’s held a reception for all the American winners of the Nobel Prize, people who made outstanding contributions to their field during the past year. At the party the president suggested that more talent and genius was at the White House that night than there had been since Thomas Jefferson had last dined there alone. At a meeting with the leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Nikita Khrushchev, Kennedy asked the name of a medal Khrushchev was wearing.

When the premier identified it as the Lenin Peace Medal, Kennedy remarked, 6″I hope you keep it. ” On another occasion he told a group of Republican business leaders, 7″It would be premature to ask for your support in the next election and inaccurate to thank you for it in the past. ” Even in great crises, Kennedy retained his sense of humor. Kennedy’s first year in office brought him considerable success in enacting new legislation. Congress passed a major housing bill, a law increasing the minimum wage, and a bill granting federal aid to economically depressed areas of the United States.

The most original piece of legislation Kennedy put through Congress was the bill creating the Peace Corps, an agency that trained American volunteers to perform social and humanitarian service overseas. The program’s goal was to promote world peace and friendship with developing nations. The idea of American volunteers helping people in foreign lands touched the idealism of many citizens. Within two years, Peace Corps volunteers were working in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, living with the people and working on education, public health, and agricultural projects.

However, after his initial success with Congress, Kennedy found it increasingly difficult to get his programs enacted into law. Although the Democrats held a majority in both houses, Southern Democrats joined with conservative Republicans to stop legislation they disliked. The Medicare bill, a bill to make medical care for the aged a national benefit, was defeated. A civil rights bill and a bill to cut taxes were debated, and compromises were agreed to, but even the compromises were delayed. A bill to create a Cabinet-level Department of Urban Affairs was soundly defeated, partly because Kennedy wanted the economist Robert C.

Weaver, a black man, to be the new secretary. Southern Congressmen united with representatives from mostly rural areas to defeat the bill. Kennedy did win approval of a bill to lower tariffs and thus allow more competitive American trade abroad. Congress also authorized the purchase of $100 million in United Nations bonds, and the money enabled the international organization to survive a financial crisis. Further, Congress appropriated more than $1 billion to finance sending a man to the moon by 1970 which was accomplished in 1969.

The major American legal and moral conflict during Kennedy’s three years in office was in the area of civil rights. Black agitation against discrimination had become widespread and well organized. Although Kennedy was in no way responsible for the growth of the civil rights movement, he attempted to aid the black cause by enforcing existing laws. Kennedy particularly wanted to end discrimination in federally financed projects or in companies that were doing business with the government.

In September 1962 Governor Ross R. Barnett of Mississippi ignored a court order and prevented James H. Meredith, a black man, from enrolling at the state university. On the night of September 29, even as the president went on national television to appeal to the people of Mississippi to obey the law, rioting began on the campus. After 15 hours of rioting and two deaths, Kennedy sent in troops to restore order. Meredith was admitted to the university, and troops and federal marshals remained on the campus to insure his safety. In June 1963, when Governor George C. Wallace of Alabama prevented two blacks from enrolling at the University of Alabama, Kennedy federalized the Alabama National Guard to enforce the law.

The students were enrolled at the university. Three months later, Kennedy again used the National Guard to prevent Wallace from interfering with integration in the public schools of Birmingham, Tuskegee, and Mobile. Kennedy also asked Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would guarantee blacks the right to vote, to attend public school, to have equal access to jobs, and to have access to public accommodations. Kennedy told the American people, 8″Now the time has come for this nation to fulfill its promises … act, to make a commitment it has not fully made in this century to the proposition that race has no place in American life or law. ”

Public opinion polls showed that Kennedy was losing popularity because of his advocacy of civil rights. Privately, he began to assume that the South would oppose him in the next election, but he continued to speak out against segregation, the practice of separating people of different races. To a group of students in Nashville, Tennessee, he said, 9 “No one can deny the complexity of the problem involved in assuring all of our citizens their full rights as Americans.

But no one can gainsay the fact that the determination to secure those rights is in the highest tradition of American freedom. ” In 1959, after several attempts, a revolution led by Fidel Castro finally overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar. During the next two years, Castro was to become increasingly hostile to the United States. The new regime’s agricultural reform laws provoked U. S. companies that operated sugar plantations. Companies that were not controlled by Cuban stockholders were not allowed to operate plantations, and sugar production was de-emphasized in favor of food crops.

In 1960 the Castro government nationalized, or took over ownership of, an estimated $1 billion in properties owned by U. S. companies and citizens, and the Eisenhower administration imposed a trade embargo. When Castro began to proclaim his belief in Communism, Cuba became part of the Cold War, or struggle between the United States and its allies and the nations led by the USSR that involved intense economic and diplomatic battles but not direct military conflict. Many Cubans fled to the United States.

During the Eisenhower administration the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had begun to train Cuban exiles secretly for an invasion of Cuba. When Kennedy became president, he approved the invasion. In April 1961 more than 1000 Cuban exiles made an amphibious landing in Cuba at a place called the Bay of Pigs. Their plan was to move inland and join with anti-Castro forces to stage a revolt simultaneously, but instead Castro’s forces were there to meet the invaders. The revolt in the interior did not happen, and air support, promised by the CIA, never came.

The exiles were defeated and the survivors were taken prisoner. On December 25, 1962, 1113 prisoners were released in exchange for food and medical supplies valued at a total of approximately $53 million. Most other Latin American countries had the same bad social, economic, and political conditions that had led to Castro’s success in Cuba. Many of these nations seemed ripe for a revolution that could easily be exploited by the Communists. Upon taking office, President Kennedy looked for a program that would accelerate change in Latin America by strengthening democratic institutions.

In March 1961 he introduced the Alliance for Progress, and in August it was established by the charter of Punte del Este. The Alliance for Progress was to be a Latin American version of the Marshall Plan, the United States plan to fund a cooperative, long-term program to rebuild Europe following World War II. All Latin American nations except Cuba joined the Alliance for Progress, pledging 10″to bring our people accelerated economic progress and broader social justice within the framework of personal dignity and individual liberty. ” The United States promised $20 billion for the first ten years.

The Alliance for Progress and President Kennedy’s particular concern for democratic institutions brought the United States renewed popularity in Latin America. On June 3, 1961, in Vienna, Austria, Kennedy and Khrushchev met and reviewed relationships between the United States and the USSR, as well as other questions of interest to the two states. Two incidents contributed to hostility at the meeting. The first was the shooting down of a U. S. spy plane in Soviet air space, and the second was the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in early 1961.

The results of the conference made it clear that Khrushchev had construed Kennedy’s failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion as a sign of weakness. No agreements were reached on any important issues. In fact, the Soviet premier made it clear that the Soviet Union intended to pursue an even more aggressive policy toward the United States. Kennedy’s last words to Khrushchev in Vienna were, 11″It’s going to be a cold winter. ” He reported to the American people that the Soviet premier was a “tough-minded” leader who did not understand the intentions of the United States.

The leaders had spent a “very sober two days. ” In August 1961, to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West, the Communists ordered a wall built on the border between East and West Berlin. West Berlin had been under the control of the United States, France, and Britain since the end of World War II, although the city lay deep inside East Germany, a state that was an ally of the USSR. Kennedy and other Western leaders protested, but the wall was built. Kennedy had already asked for more military spending and had called up reserve troops for duty in Europe.

When East German soldiers began blocking the Allied route through East Germany into Berlin, Kennedy sent a force of 1500 soldiers marching along the route into West Berlin. The troops went uncontested. Communist interference stopped, allowing Allied forces travel to and from Berlin . Amongst other problems President Kennedy faced, none was more serious than this one. The Cuban Missile Crisis was perhaps the world’s closest approach to nuclear war. In 1960 Soviet Premier Khrushchev decided to supply Cuba with nuclear missiles that would put the eastern United States within range of nuclear missile attack.

Khrushchev, when asked, denied that any missiles were being supplied to Cuba, but in the summer of 1962 U. S. spy planes flying over Cuba photographed Soviet-managed construction work and spotted the first missile on October 14. For seven days President Kennedy consulted secretly with advisers, discussing the possible responses while in public his administration carried on as though nothing was wrong. Finally, on October 22, Kennedy told the nation about the discovery of the missiles, demanded that the Soviet Union remove the weapons, and declared the waters around Cuba a quarantine zone.

Kennedy called upon Khrushchev 12″to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations” and warned that an attack from Cuba on any nation in the western hemisphere would be considered an attack by the USSR on the United States itself. At the same time, United States troops were sent to Florida to prepare for invading Cuba, and air units were alerted. American vessels blockaded Cuba with orders to search all suspicious-looking Soviet ships and to turn back any that carried offensive weapons.

For several tense days Soviet vessels en route to Cuba avoided the quarantine zone, while Khrushchev and Kennedy discussed the issue through diplomatic channels. Khrushchev, realizing his weak military position, sent a message on October 26 in which he agreed to Kennedy’s demands to remove all missiles. The following day, before the United States had responded to the first note, Khrushchev sent another, trying to negotiate other terms. Kennedy decided to respond to the first message, and on October 28, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle and remove the weapons from Cuba and offered the United States on-site inspection.

In return Kennedy secretly promised not to invade Cuba and to remove older missiles from Turkey. Kennedy called off the blockade but Cuba, angry at Soviet submission, refused to permit the promised inspection. However, U. S. spy planes revealed that the missile bases were being dismantled. Nuclear war had been avoided. This was perhaps Kennedy’s greatest moment as president. Many felt that both World War I and World War II had begun because of weak responses to acts of aggression, and Kennedy may have prevented World War III by displaying courage and strength.

On November 22, 1963, President and Mrs. Kennedy were in Dallas, Texas, trying to win support in a state that Kennedy had barely carried in 1960. As the motorcade approached an underpass, two shots were fired in rapid succession. One bullet passed through the president’s neck and struck Governor Connally in the back. The other bullet struck the president in the head. Kennedy fell forward, and his car sped to Parkland Hospital. At 1:00 PM, he was pronounced dead. He had never regained consciousness.

Less than two hours after the shooting, aboard the presidential plane at the Dallas airport, Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th president of the United States. That afternoon, Lee Harvey Oswald, who was employed in the warehouse, was arrested in a Dallas movie theater and charged with the murder. On November 24 the body of President Kennedy was carried on a horse-drawn carriage from the White House to the Rotunda of the Capitol. Hundreds of thousands of people filed past the coffin of the slain president. The grave was marked by an eternal flame lighted by his wife and brothers.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the 32nd President of the United States of America

Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd President of the United States of America. Roosevelt served longer than any other President did in office. (1933-1945) Franklin was in office for four terms as President. Roosevelt held office during two of the greatest crises in the United States history. These two obstacles are the greatest and most crucial events that our nation has ever faced. First came the Great Depression, which was a stepping stone in Roosevelt’s path to the Presidency of the United States. Then came one of the biggest events in the history of the world, which was World War 2.

Roosevelt was born at his home, in Hyde Park, New York on January 30, 1882 to James Roosevelt and Sara Delano Roosevelt at 8:45 p. m. He had weighed 10 pounds at birth. It was a difficult delivery, which nearly killed Roosevelt’s mother and himself. When he came out he was unconscious at the time and only the mouth to mouth resuscitation continued to keep him alive. Franklin was named after a great-uncle. Roosevelt lived in Hyde Park in his younger years. During the summers he was taken on trips to Europe with his parents. Also spent time on Campobello Island in New Brunswick. Franklin grew up as a protected child.

When a child he was with his parents very frequently. He wore dresses until he was 5 years old. Then there was clad in kilts, then finally at 8 years old he began to wear pants. At the age of 8 he finally was able to take his first unsupervised bath. When he was four he was given his first pony, then when he was 11 he was given his own hunting rifle. At the young age of sixteen he was given a 21′ sailboat. You could say he lived an ok childhood. In 1887 his father took Roosevelt to the While House where he meet Grover Cleveland. President Cleveland said to Roosevelt “My little man, I am making a strange wish for you.

It is that you. It is that your may never be president of the United States. ” Roosevelt had a great interest in natural history and was a very involved bird watcher. He loved the outdoors. He had always been outside playing with his servants or a few children that lived in the near area. He had become an expert swimmer and a very good sailor. Franklin Made models of ships and had other Hopis like reading and swimming. He had not much contact with children his age. He played with cooks, servants and other adults. He was a lot to himself. In any case he lived a good child-hood.

Roosevelt’s mother supervised his education until he was 14. He had French and German speaking tutors. Which he had become conversant in both languages. Also he developed interest in these languages and become a descent reader. Roosevelt loved to read he loved books about the sea. He read to himself a lot since he was by himself most of the time. He than began to gain interest in stamp collecting which he had maintained his whole life. Roosevelt went on to further education in 1896. He had been sent to a private school to help wealthy children prepare for Ivy League collage.

In 1896 his parents choose to send him to Groton in Massatushits. He was an above average student; he was in the top 75 – 80 percentile. In extracurricular activities he sang soprano in the choir. He also set a school record in the high kick. He played seventh-string football, boxed as a lightweight. He managed the baseball team. As a member of the Groton Missionary Society, he directed a summer camp for disadvantaged youth. He won the Latin Prize. His final report card read “He has been a thoroughly faithful scholar and a most satisfactory member of this throughout his course.

Governor Theodore Roosevelt spoke at his graduation from Groton in June of 1900. Then he went off to one of the best and well respected schools in America. Roosevelt had chosen Harvard College. He had inroad in 1899. This was one year before his father had past on. Roosevelt was an average sudden. Consisting of B’s and C’s. Class bored Roosevelt; he went to class regularly though. Which all of the other boys did not go or went then escaped out during class. Roosevelt later after college related his education at Harvard as an electric lamp with out a chord.

Extracurricular activities consisted of captain of the third crew of the Newell Boating Club. He was also secretary of the Glee Club, Librarian of Alpha Delta Phi and the Hasty Pudding Club. Also Franklin held a permanent chairman of the class committee, and a member of the Harvard Union Library committee. He had failed to make the football team and the prestigious Porcellian Club. Last but not least was Roosevelt’s favorite thing to do in collage, which was Editor-in-chief of the Harvard Crimson. This was his favorite thing to do at collage it had prepared him in public speaking and in preparing for speeches.

In 1903 he had had enough credits to graduate but he had decided to stay and be editor-in-chief of the newspaper. This is why he graduated in 1904 instead of 1903. Roosevelt had received his Bachelor’s degree in 1903. He majored in history and government with English and public speaking minors. Following his education at Harvard Franklin had started another education process at Columbia University. He enrolled in the Columbia Law school in 1904. He had continued to be an average student. He had dropped out before completing his bar exam in 1907. He never graduated from law school.

Even though he did not graduate and get his law degree he was emitted to the bar and joined a law firm of Carter, Ledyard, and Milborn in New York City He had never voted, he considered himself as a Demarcate. Still in 1904 he had voted for his cousin which was a Republican. Franklin D. Roosevelt at the age of 23 married Eleanor Roosevelt, which was at the age of 20. She was his fifth cousin removed. The date of marriage was on March 17, 1905, which was when he was attending Columbia University.

The weeding took place at the townhouse of the bride’s Aunt Mrs. E. Livingston Ludlow on East 76th street in New York City. Eleanor was born on October 11, 1884 the daughter of Elliott Roosevelt, which was the younger brother of Theodore Roosevelt. Franklin proposed in November1903: Eleanor said yes. Franklin’s mother opposed of the weeding. Mrs. Roosevelt took her soon on a cruise in 1904 hoping that it will bring them apart. Of course it did not work Roosevelt came back loving as ever. The weeding date was set up so Theodore Roosevelt could give the Bride away at the weeding. The Reverend was Dr. Endicott Peabody, Franklin’s headmaster at Groton.

Roosevelt had a daughter and he had four sons to live to a mature age. Another child died at a very tender age. His daughter was named Anna Eleanor Roosevelt after her mother. She was born in New York City in 1906. She had attended Cornell University in 1925. In 1936 she had become the private secretary to her father. Which she had stead at until and his death in 1945. Franklin’s first son was born in 1907 and also was born in New York City. He had attended Harvard University in 1926. Which he did not graduate from. During World War 2 he served as a Marines. He was a captain then he had become a colonel.

Elliott Roosevelt was born in New York City in 1910 and Graduated from Groton in 1929. During WW2 he served in the Army Air Corps rising from a captain to a brigadier general. Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr. was born on Campobello Island in 1914. He had graduated from Harvard in 1937 and also graduated from University of Virginia law school in 1940. John Asponwall Roosevelt the youngest of the children was born in Washington D. C. and graduated from Harvard University in 1938. Roosevelt entered the political world in 1910. This is when he had become candidate for the New York Senate.

He was only 28 years of age. Even though he was at a young age he had worked hard and fought for what he had believed in and it paid off he was elected at the age of 28 in 1911. He had won in the New York Senate with a fairly large victory. He was the second Demarcate to represent his district after the emergence of the Republican Party in 1856. Franklin Roosevelt became very popular in the senate in New York with his tenacious speeches and his unusually ideas. He was reelected in the Senate in 1912. While he was there he had supported women’s suffrage and local option Prohibition.

Following the reelection Roosevelt had the opportunity to become the assistant Sectary of the United Sates Navy. So he had took this position in 1913. This was once a position of his distant cousin Theodore Roosevelt. He had held this position for seven years. He was a great leader he had taken tours of Europe and had control of crucial parts of WW1. This had taught him how to be a leader and to improve his relations in international political rounds. He was well respected and took his job seriously.

He had resigned to accept the Democratic vice presidential nomination on the ticket with Governor James M. Cox in 1920. As before he had run long and hard and he should that he had perseverance. He had established himself as a hard worker. He should off his speech making abilities. In this campaign he had shown his support for the League of Nations. In a landslide he had lost to Harding. At least he put in a lot of effort in trying to gain some public interests. He had nothing to worry; he was still under the age of forty. Roosevelt was stricken by some in August 1921. The doctors did not know what it was. In many efforts they presumed it was Polio. He had been hit hard he had lost the use of his legs and became very ill.

Eleanor stayed at his side for days and months. She had tented to all of his needs. In great agony the disease left him unable to walk. He had over exerted himself by swimming and hiking. Roosevelt seemed to reach the top of his political career. When becoming more active and had more strength Roosevelt tried to reverse the effect of Polio. To help him with strength building Roosevelt had bought a resort in Warm Springs. This resort had swimming and water related activities. Swimming had given Roosevelt a charge so to say or an energy boost. Franklin spent a lot of his time there for the first few months of the recovery.

This helped a lot but Polo had taken the use of Roosevelt’s legs away from him. At age 39 Franklin Roosevelt could not walk for the rest of his life. Roosevelt had been happy through out this whole ordeal. Through the worst he was amazingly cheerful. This was a surprise to many. People would think you would be angry, not Roosevelt, he had been even more kind then he was before said Eleanor. He spent most of his working hours in a wheelchair. He was able to walk with leg braces and canes, usually with help. Roosevelt helped fellow politicians with their campaign efforts. Ex-governor Smith urged on Roosevelt to get back in the political world.

He had wanted Roosevelt to run for governor of New York. Against wishes from Eleanor and Franklin’s mother Roosevelt decided to run. Smith had just resigned as governor of New York to run for the president of the US. Roosevelt was elected narrowly as governor of the state of New York in 1928. He had defeated the state attorney general Albert Ottinger. Again in 1930 Roosevelt had won the Governor position but this time he was reelected with an enormous advantage. His candidate was U. S. Attorney Charles H. Tuttle. This had exhausted Roosevelt he had spent a couple of weeks in Warm Springs after the victory.

In 1932 the leading candidate for the presidential nomination was the one and only Franklin D. Roosevelt. His right hand man was John Nance Garner of Texas. When he was elected as the nominee he had announced his plan to start a program called the New Deal. This spread word all over the country. The demarcates blamed the republicans for the crises that was gong on at that moment, which was the Great Depression. He had plenty of hard campaigning. He had campaigned as hard as ever he felt young again doing all of this, but it was very tiring. All of the campaigning finally paid off on March 4, 1933 Franklin D.

Roosevelt had become the 32nd President of the United States of America. In Roosevelt’s first inaugural address he had said “This great Nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper. So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself-nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance. In every dark hour of our national life a leadership of frankness and vigor has met with that understanding and support of the people themselves, which is essential to victory.

I am convinced that you will again give that support to leadership in these critical days. ” This was one of the most famous speeches that will be remembered for a long time to come. Roosevelt was different then any other President. Roosevelt brought great confidence both to himself and also to the people of America. This happened right when the Great Depression started. Roosevelt brought to the people a plan called the New Deal. This had brought new hope for everyone. It even worked it started to work. As soon as WW1 ended there was plenty more jobs for all of the Americans.

They were making bombs and plans and all sorts of other war related instruments. Roosevelt had stated to bring this country around he had supplied the country with jobs. This made it easy for him to denominated for the Democratic nomination for the Presidency. So in 1936 he was reelected over Hoover in an unsurprising manner. H was president for the second straight term, which was still a block in his great achievement in his four terms. His plain was working brining more and more jobs to people around the country. Roosevelt started something that would help Americans for years to come.

This great idea was social security, which was a plan to help Americans at the later years of their life after they have paid taxes for many years. There was some tension in Europe, which at the time they did not know it would be the worst war that the earth had ever seen. Roosevelt was keeping it cool and he had not had got involved. Once again it was easy to overcome his opponent which was Wendell Willkie. Of course once again he won with out any worries. This was a hard year this is when the war had started which was WW2. This was the event that gave everyone in America a job.

Mass assembly lines sprang up all over America. In a little town in New Mexico sprang up a project that would change the face of the earth. Roosevelt had not wanted to get involved in the war. He was just getting smart and did not want to get caught with his pants down. Then Japan bombed Pearl Harbor and of course he had announced that he was going to get in the war here it is ” Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 – a date which will live in infamy – the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.

The United States was at peace with that nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with the government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States and his colleagues delivered to the Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. While this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack.

It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time, the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace. The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. Very many American lives have been lost. In addition, American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.

Yesterday, the Japanese government also launched an attack against Malaya. Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong. Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam. Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands. Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island. This morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island. Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the pacific area. The facts of yesterday speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation.

As commander in chief of the Army and Navy, I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense. Always will we remember the character of the onslaught against us. No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory. I believe I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost, but will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again. Hostilities exist.

There is no blinking at the fact that that our people, our territory and our interests are in grave danger. With confidence in our armed forces – with the unbounding determination of our people – we will gain the inevitable triumph – so help us God. I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, Dec. 7, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese Empire. This was the speech that every American was worried about it was heard all over the nation. It had become a world war were we ready? Yes we were as soon as we came in the war had began to die down.

It boosted all of the ratings for the future four term President. Which is the only time that had happened and it will be the only time. He had been at warm springs a lot to since the war had worn him out. With all of the traveling it had worsened his condition. As this was happening the Atomic Bomb was being tested. And was almost ready to go. Also the country was booming it was economically was in one of the best shape of it’s existence. In 1944 he was reelected as President for the forth term. The war was going good Europe was being surrounded and beginning to surrender.

On April 12, 1945 at 1:00pm in Warm Springs Georgia Franklin D. Roosevelt had placed his hand on his temple and had said he had a terrible headache and then he collapsed at his desk where he was doing some office work. That was the last words out of his mouth. Voted 3 of greatest Presidents in the e history of the U. S. At 3:35pm Franklin D. Roosevelt had died as one of the best Presidents in our history. He was placed at death at his home in Hyde Park, New York. After his death he did not witness the first atomic bombs hit Japan that ended the War which he worked so hard on.

Roosevelt was praised all around the world for bringing America through the toughest situation that anyone has ever faced. So he was made a role model for years to come. I can never forget the famous quote “you have nothing to fear but fear itself. ” As the 32nd President he had left a great legacy that no one will ever be able to match it. He will be greatly missed. It will never be overlooked what he did so there is monuments all over the country for him. All we have to do is to remember the quotes that he had gave us. Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Thomas Jefferson, A Private Letter

In the thick of party conflict in 1800, Thomas Jefferson wrote in a private letter, I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man. This powerful advocate of liberty was born in 1743 in Albermarle County, Virginia, inheriting from his father, a planter and surveyor, some 5,000 acres of land, and from his mother, a Randolph, high social standing. He studied at the College of William and Mary, then read law. In 1772 he married Martha Wayles Skelton, a widow, and took her to live in his partly constructed mountaintop home, Monticello.

Freckled and sandy-haired, rather tall and awkward, Jefferson was eloquent as a correspondent, but he was no public speaker. In the Virginia House of Burgesses and the Continental Congress, he contributed his pen rather than his voice to the patriot cause. As the silent member of the Congress, Jefferson, at 33, drafted the Declaration of Independence. In years following he labored to make its words a reality in Virginia. Most notably, he wrote a bill establishing religious freedom, enacted in 1786. Jefferson succeeded Benjamin Franklin as minister to France in 1785.

His sympathy for the French Revolution led him into conflict with Alexander Hamilton when Jefferson was Secretary of State in President Washington’s Cabinet. He resigned in 1793. Sharp political conflict developed, and two separate parties, the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans, began to form. Jefferson gradually assumed leadership of the Republicans, who sympathized with the revolutionary cause in France. Attacking Federalist policies, he opposed a strong centralized Government and championed the rights of states.

As a reluctant candidate for President in 1796, Jefferson came within three votes of election. Through a flaw in the Constitution, he became Vice President, although an opponent of President Adams. In 1800 the defect caused a more serious problem. Republican electors, attempting to name both a President and a Vice President from their own party, cast a tie vote between Jefferson and Aaron Burr. The House of Representatives settled the tie. Hamilton, disliking both Jefferson and Burr, nevertheless urged Jefferson’s election.

When Jefferson assumed the Presidency, the crisis in France had passed. He slashed Army and Navy expenditures, cut the budget, eliminated the tax on whiskey so unpopular in the West, yet reduced the national debt by a third. He also sent a naval squadron to fight the Barbary pirates, who were harassing American commerce in the Mediterranean. Further, although the Constitution made no provision for the acquisition of new land, Jefferson suppressed his qualms over constitutionality when he had the opportunity to acquire the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon in 1803.

During Jefferson’s second term, he was increasingly preoccupied with keeping the Nation from involvement in the Napoleonic wars, though both England and France interfered with the neutral rights of American merchantmen. Jefferson’s attempted solution, an embargo upon American shipping, worked badly and was unpopular. Jefferson retired to Monticello to ponder such projects as his grand designs for the University of Virginia. A French nobleman observed that he had placed his house and his mind on an elevated situation, from which he might contemplate the universe.