Lifetime perspective is human development that is determined by factors like genetics, socioeconomic status and the life of a person and how people do understand different aspects of life. In addition, lifetime is the period that ranges from conception to death. Several things that influence human development are socioeconomic, sex, heredity, nutritional and the hormones in the body. Socioeconomic as a factor is linked with children especially vary in their body sizes. Families with better nutrition, facilities and exercises are better off to those from families at lower level.
Ages is connected to the physical growth of both male and female, physical growth in girls if faster than that of boy. Heredity affects in that the transmission of different characteristics from parents. They include height, body structure, intelligence and color. Question 2 Cross-sectional- is a research study, which involves taking a group of samples in a continuum or set in order to determine research variables is influenced by development. Its advantage is that a research can be completed within a very short period.
On the other hand, longitudinal approach is a research study that involves studying a sample from the population to see the effects over a long period length of time according to Newman, B and Newman, P (2012). Question 3 To begin with, Cross-sequential approach-it is the combination of both the longitudinal and the cross-sectional approaches. By use of cross-sectional approach, there is a study many different groups over a long period. This method is used to in order to observe the changes between groups over a long period. Question 4 Genotype is the genetic makeup of an organism.
It deals with the genes that cause a particular organism to have that phenotype while phenotype is that detectable expression of the genotype. It deals with the outward appearance of an organism for example the color as suggested by Malcolm and Goodship (2001). There are different factors that affect gene expression which include the genomic imprinting, codominance, sex limit experience and penetrance and expressivity. Question 5 Teratogen is the study of embryos development abnormality and causes of congenital malformations.
The abnormality is present at birth but not recognized at the time until later in life. The effects of teratogen are severe in children. It causes deficit in learning and memory, they also causes poor communication and socialization skills. Some also like mercury leads to abnormality and premature birth. Question 6 Scientists have now tracked the brain development from childhood. The study offered the understanding and the intellectual ability and maturity of children at various ages. The study shows that different parts of brain grows at different times.
It shows that there are spurt growths and periods. The study shows that in the development process. It starts with the cells that produces nervous system after fertilization, which then forms the neural tube. The cerebrum cells begins to divide at about six weeks after birth. They are formed rapidly. After that, there is formation of dendrites which continuous to grow. The challenge in that is that it is not possible to be determined by the genetic program. The brain continuous to produce neurons that are afterwards lost.
The effect of its loss is that it starts the cortical thickness. Question 7 and 8 The biological changes that occurs during puberty includes the release of the hormones by the pituitary gland which comes a year before body changes in height and in boys the breaking of the voice. There is also an increase in their sexuality, which in men is experienced in the increase of the testes and the scrotum, which is also accompanied, with the growth of pubic hair. In girls, there is elevation of the breasts, the maturation of the vagina and the uterus.
Question 9 Nature is the evolutionary factors that shaped the genetics that have been inherited from the ancestors of parents its example is the family genetics where one develops their intelligence while nurture is those things that have influenced people since they were conceived. Its example is the same intelligence that one possess but is being affected by how is being nurtured. In it, we have the example when one eat the food that contains lead. This develops irreversible brain damage. Question 10 These is characterized with the behavior changes that relates to the environment and its influences to the aging person.
The theory is based with the saying that as people grows old; there is a change in their behavior, change in their social interactions and the activities they engage in. Disengagement theory The theory shows that the aging people are altered in their behavior and the relationship between them and the members of the society is severe. Through the theory, it says that the aging are involved less with life than when they were young adults (Panno, 2004). Activity theory This theory keep emphasize on the importance of the ongoing social activities. It suggests that the aging’s concepts are related to the roles that is held by the same person.