Anti-pornography groups

The causes of the deterioration of society are attributed to many parts of human nature. Actions, feelings, and events have all been blamed for the rise in crime and violence. None of these, however, have created as much controversy as pornography. Anti-pornography groups have tried to make all forms of this entertainment illegal. These activists blame pornography for the increase in sexual violence, the degradation of women, and a blockade to the first amendment. Truly a multi-media event, pornography can be seen in magazines, theaters, television programming, bars, clubs, telephone numbers, and the Internet.

The term pornography is derived from the Greek word prone, which means whore, and graphing, which means, to write. So, literally, pornography translates to the writings of harlots or depictions of acts of prostitutes. The broad field of pornography is divided into two fields, hard-core and soft core. The difference between the two is that in hard-core porn, genital manipulation and penetration are visible (Media and Gender Monitor). Hard-core pornography can only be bought in specialty, adult only stores. Other ways that this can be seen is through pay-per view and the Internet.

Late night movies on ShowTime and other premium cable channels are good examples of soft-core pornography. These movies often show nudity and sexual situations. However, these shows never show the act of intercourse explicitly (Media and Gender Monitor). Magazines like Playboy and Penthouse are not exactly true pornography because there is no sex involved at all. Magazines, like these, are characterized as exotica (McElroy). Even though hard-core pornography is harder to get than soft-core, many moral conservatives and radical feminists choose to blur the distinction. Most even include erotica in as pornography.

This causes problems because these activist groups are trying to ban everything pornographic. For example, conservatives and feminists are trying to link the increase in sexual violence with pornography. The increase in violence has never even been proven in relation to hard-core pornography. Most of the groups that conduct experiments in attempt to prove this theory must find no conclusive evidence. Both the pro-censorship Meese Commission Report and Metropolitan Toronto Task Force on Violence Against Women have admitted that none of the research has been consistent linking violence to pornography (McElroy).

Obviously, if hard-core porn does not even evoke violence, imagining violence stemming from the harmless pictures in magazines, which are often tastefully done, is absurd. Also, pornography is considered violent because women are coerced into [sexual acts] (McElroy). However, the accounts of actual rape and abuse that occur as a direct result of porn are very few in regard to the amount of women in the industry. As mentioned earlier, the films and pictures themselves are not conducive to sexual violence either.

Women in abusive consensual relationships or women often report the violence that is documented within the industry from abusive childhoods (Media and Gender Monitor). In reality, an experiment conducted by Dr. Suzanne Ageton showed that membership in a delinquent peer group accounted for three-quarters of sexual aggression. Comparison of sex crimes by nation is interesting as well. Japan, whose pornography is extremely violent and unrestricted, has only 2. 4 rapes per 100,000 people. On the other hand, the United States boasts a whopping 34. 5 rapes per 100,000 (Feminism).

Anti-pornography advocates have made accusations concerning the degradation of women. Pro-sex feminists, however, vehemently deny this. These women feel that pornography liberates women to express themselves in roles that society has dubbed taboo. Wendy McElroy, author of the book XXX: A Womans Right to Pornography, writes, Pro-sex feminists retain a consistent interpretation of the principle a womans body, a womans right and insist that every peaceful choice a woman makes with her own body must be accorded full legal protection, if not respect (McElroy).

The president of the ACLU also defends the right to pornography with respect to womens rights. Not only is she the ACLUs president, but also Nadine Strossen has written a book entitled Defending Pornography. Some sex industry workers affirm their occupational choice in explicitly feminist terms, stressing that they find it empowering as well as enjoyable (Strossen 186). The one idea that all these pro-sex activists believe in is that porn benefits women, both politically and personally. The pro-sex defense of pornography includes three tiers (McElroy). Porn can be very educational.

Many women pass through adulthood never knowing how to pleasure themselves completely. In this way, pornography steps in as an extension of the proverbial birds and bees speech. Watching videos lets women safely experience sexual situations that may be otherwise dangerous. Polls show that the number one sexual fantasy of women is one that includes being taken, or more blatantly, rape (Cosmopolitan). Naturally, a woman cannot go out and look to fulfill such a fantasy safely. Pornography allows these feelings and urges to be released in a controlled atmosphere (McElroy).

The third level of sexual benefits of porn says, Pornography provides a sexual outlet for those who for whatever reason have no sexual partner. Perhaps they are away form home, recently widowed, or isolated because of infirmity (McElroy). Now that pornography has become closer to mainstream entertainment, many new genres and videos are being made with the intentions of woman audiences. Studies have shown that at least half of all sales and rentals of pornographic materials are purchased by either women who are alone or women who are with a significant other (Feminism).

Yet another argument about the degradation of women entails that women are exploited and victimized. All supporters of pornography simply challenge these nay Sayers to find a career where women are not exploited. The only way to change this problem is through severe advancements in our culture itself (Feminism). Perhaps the most controversial part of the degradation argument ties in with interpretation and freedom of speech problems. Who is to say what is degrading to a woman?

What is degrading to a conservative catholic woman will be completely different than what a rebellious teen of the millenium may find offensive. Pro-sex activists claim that porn does not degrade women; sexism is what degrades women. Again, to rid society of sexism is a task, which is not to be completed in the foreseeable future (Feminism). The final point that is a main argument of pornography defenders is the right upheld by the First Amendment of the Constitution. Freedom of speech, press, and media covers all pornographic material.

There is no way to restrict some speech, but not too much speech or wrong speech (Strossen). The proposed solution offered by advocates of pornography is, If you do not like to see it, do not look at it (Media and gender Monitor). Pornography is already restricted in many ways in attempt to placate the moral conservatives and the radical feminists. The youngest legal age to purchase and possess pornographic material is eighteen years old. All stores that sell videos and magazines are required to check identifications when selling this material.

All adult stores do not even admit minors to enter. On satellite and cable television, pornographic shows are only available through an optional pay-per-view service. Topless bars and strip joints, obviously, are not allowed to admit anyone who is underage in to see the shows. Most recently, pornography on the Internet is becoming heavily restricted. Many web sites have conceived clever plans that make Internet users prove appropriate age in order to view objectionable material (Media and Gender Monitor).

In light of the arguments made in defense of pornography, this specific type of erotic entertainment must remain legal. If the government curtails to the wishes of the anti-pornography groups, other protesters concerning other causes may use pornography as a precedent for their own case. By mistakenly banning porn, the government may open a Pandoras Box of censorship. Who would have guessed that something as human and natural as sexual feelings and expressions would be harder to agree on as say a real controversy such as abortion?

Pornography On The Internet

It started by way of messengers and scribes, evolved through the presentation of newspapers and radio, brought us together with television, and now serves us world-wide by the ever-popular Internet. It is the mass media, and even from the beginning it has contributed greatly in ways that both enlighten and enrich society, and ways that deteriorate and corrupt it. It is not a surprise to learn, then, that the mass media is the most powerful source of information we have, and nothing else in todays world influences public perception quite as heavily.

Unfortunately, most of what is broadcast in the news today is something that society as a whole sees as negative or damaging. But the news on television is not the only type of media taking the criticism of society. Other forms of mass media, specifically movies and television programs containing pornography and violence have been heavily criticized. The question here is; are these images of pornography resulting in increased violence against women. There is no concrete evidence supporting this theory. Research by Baron (1990) shows that gender equality is greater where pornography is more prevalent, answering the question for us.

The key here is that the mass media does not cause undesirable social behavior and in actuality, the media people should not be labeled as the bad guys. They simply use their power in the most constructive ways possible in order to promote their ratings and popularity. One way to do that is to concentrate on what sells: sex, violence and disaster. Having said this, why is it then, that many in society still believe otherwise? Why do they continue to believe that pornography is evil and is a major cause for violence against women, specifically rape?

There are many reasons for this misinterpretation and through the following few points, an attempt will be made to show that pornography has very little to almost no connections to violence against women. In order to demonstrate this, it must be made evident that pornography is not evil and does not cause undesirable social behavior by displaying nude women in sexually explicit circumstances. Thus, it is important to indicate that women are not treated only as sexual objects through the media. This is done in an attempt to quash any traces of evil in pornography.

For thousands of years, sex itself has been considered evil and revolting. This is exactly why the concealment of the sex organs and teaching feelings of shame toward human sexuality is so common worldwide (Christensen 1990:4). These same feelings of shame are the chief reasons that sex is considered a personal and private matter. Contrary to the beliefs of many, the mass media did not create these settings; society creates this image. In some societies, women have no reservations with regard to living their entire lives completely naked, while in other societies, females cover themselves from head to toe, only revealing their eyes.

The sex industry is easily topping $20 billion per year. Because of this, the media has been bombarded with criticism, overwhelmingly from the female community, pertaining to the amount of sexually explicit material that is published in magazines and that appears on television. A common argument against pornography is that the media portrays women as being nothing more than sexual playthings and objects to satisfy male sexual desires. The media once again, is not to be held responsible for creating this image. These views are products of society.

It would be crazy to assume that women in this society are treated as sexual objects only because the media releases or broadcasts pornographic material. To say that pictures featuring nudity, etc. are making objects out of women is foolish. One should consider females who pin-up posters of male rock stars or children who collect hockey or baseball cards. Society, however, does not say that objects are being made out of these rock stars and sports heroes; pictures of clothed people are no less objects than pictures of naked people.

It is also said that the media reduces women to a collection of body parts through pornography (Christensen 1990:74). But why then are their no complaints of advertisements in magazines displaying only ears, for example, or a nose, or feet? The reason is a simple one; society considers certain body parts to be shameful or disgusting and once again, the media can be let off the hook. Realistically, the only way to prevent women from being seen as sex objects is for society to stop feeling as though sex is a bad topic.

Its natural. To say that women are not sexual beings would be misleading because both men and women are very much sexual (Christensen 1990:42). Similarly, to say that women are singled out in the media is fallacious due to the many examples of media where men are seen catering to the needs of women; something known as chivralic sexism (Christensen 1990:42). Take, for instance, a recent television ad portraying young men groveling at the feet of supermodel Cindy Crawford, almost begging to be the one to cater to her needs.

There were no men lined up yelling about this sexist ad, and this is precisely why male stereotyping in the media often goes unnoticed. Although it is obvious that pornography is largely a male interest, a noted increase in female interest would certainly cause an increase in the amount of pornographic material geared for women. So, are men who are exposed to pornography likely to commit violent acts, such as rape against women, more so than men who are not exposed to pornography?

It is tempting to believe that media influences males and over-stimulates them through pornography to the point that they become aggressive towards females. But this is completely baseless just as pornography arouses or stimulates, it also satisfies. The American Commission on Obscenity and Pornography performed a study in which several college students were asked to spend one and a half hours in an isolated room with a large volume of pornographic media, as well as a large volume of non-explicit media such as Readers Digest (Howitt, Cumberbatch 1975:80).

The study was conducted over a three-week period over which time it was discovered that the males involved in the experiment began to lose interest, or become desensitized to the erotic media nearing the end of the experiment, even if new material was added. Out of 70,587 criminal cases filed in 93 federal districts during the 1996 fiscal year, only six of them involved obscenity violations. To address the argument that males are pushed over the brink into committing rape because of pornography, one may point to the evidence above; to cover the female body would theoretically only increase male sexual desires.

Four more separate experiments were conducted of which the above was one. Three other experiments came to the conclusions that pornography does not cause violence against women and reported that the number of sex offenders that had been exposed to pornographic material were smaller in number than the amount of sex-offenders that had not been exposed to pornography (Christensen 1990:130). These results can be offered as evidence against the theory that males become over-stimulated and thus dangerous when exposed to pornography.

Other experiments conducted in the early 1980s by the Williams Committee in England, reported that as the availability and abundance of sexually explicit material increased, the number of violent sex crimes such as rape did not increase, but in fact decreased in many areas (Christensen 1990:128-129). Also, a study conducted by Kimberly Davies of the Journal of Sex Research, found that amounts of exposure to X-rated videos had no significant effect of mens feelings of violence toward women (Davies:1997).

So what is it about pornography that women and anti-pornography organizations do not like? Violence! One of the greatest myths about pornography is that it contains an excess of violence against women inevitably resulting in real-life violence against women. However, the total amount of violence in sex-related movies was found to be approximately 6% in a study by T. Palys in the early 1980s in Vancouver, Canada. Even this material was almost entirely composed of verbal threats and spanking (Christensen 1990:59).

In addition to the above, studies in Ohio also found that the amount of violence in G-Rated movies was a staggering two times more than in X-Rated movies. In fact, major films such as Die Hard With A Vengeance and Terminator 2, contain extreme violence 85-90% of which is directed solely at men. There are, however, exceptions. Slasher movies contain much more violence towards women, possibly due to the desensitization to violence in other genres of films. Because women are involved, violence against them could create a true sense of horror.

However, this does not suggest that men should go into society and rape a woman any more than it suggests that men should go out and kill other men. Needless to say, no sane individual would wish for this violence to become a real-life conception. Similarly, sex also excites people and because these two elements offer the most thrills in movies, they are often combined. It should be pointed out that women, and not just men, also enjoy these thrills based on numerous studies.

When discussing pornography, it is scarcely noted that men are not the only ones who enjoy fantasizing about sex. Women also enjoy pondering sex; just not through pornography. In fact, most of these fantasies involve some degree of violence or force and are largely driven by the romance novels discussed earlier. Actual laboratory experiments (Hawkins, Zimring 1988:103) have shown that when groups of women were shown erotic scenes involving rape, their reactions to the scenes were as or even more stimulating than less violent consensual lovemaking scenes.

This is not to say that all women want to be raped, far from it. This is to say that if women can fantasize about rape but not wish to experience it, then men, too, can fantasize about rape and not wish to commit it. Some women have even said that rape is the fault of women who dress provocatively; they ask for it. According to this, if pornography is banned, then an attempt should be made to force women to cover their skin and wear clothing that completely hides the shapes of their bodies so as not to provoke rape.

Absurd. As members of society, we recognize the power of the mass media. We understand that public perception can be easily persuaded. But it should be clearly understood that pornography in the media alone couldnt persuade men to cause harm to women; it cannot cause men to do things that are socially unacceptable. After all, Websters Dictionary definition for pornography is the depiction of erotic behavior intended to cause sexual excitement. Webster never mentioned intended for sexual misconduct.

J.M Coetzee’s “The Harms of Pornography”

As the debate over pornography and its place in society grows hotter every day, several authors in particular shed a new light on the subject. Both their intuition and insight involving their beliefs can help the reader a great deal in seeing aspects of this debate that might have otherwise gone without the consideration that they so deserve. I believe that pornography is not only okay, but is allowing our country to take a step back and ask ourselves how far we are willing to go and what we are willing to sacrifice in order to preserve free speech and our rights to personal choice.

The argument over pornography is not merely the debate over right or wrong, but also involves the theory that its existence requires, or possibly even causes, an inequality between men and women. I ask you, how could something like pornography cause an in-equality between men and women when women are the major contributors to the industry? Who is going to watch a porn without women in it? Therefore, at least at first glance, it would seem that since women are actively contributing to the business of pornography maybe they should be criticized at least equally if not more so than the men who watch it.

According to author J. M. Coetzee and his article “The Harms of Pornography”, the real questions here are, “what is the difference between obscenity and pornography”, and even more importantly, “where do we draw the line between the two”? Coetzee brings up a good point here. A point on which the entire debate over pornography hinges. What is the defenition of “obscenity”? An excerpt from a speech by Mike Godwin, Online Counsel for the Electronic Frontier Foundation, gives a good definition of obscenity in his on-line article: “Fear of Freedom: The Backlash Against Free Speech on the ‘Net'”.

Everybody more or less knows something about what qualifies as obscene. You know it has something to do with “community standards,” right? And with appealing to the “prurient interest. ” A work has to be a patently offensive depiction of materials banned by state statute and appeal to the prurient interest to be obscene and it also has to meet one other requirement. It also has to lack serious literary, artistic, social, political or scientific value. That’s how something is classified as “obscene.

Godwin states that one of the criteria for decency or absence of bscenity is that something must contain social political or scientific value. Is it possible that pornography is an outlet for people that prevents ideas that start out as fantasies or desires from becoming real? If so, then it’s possible that the porn industry is doing us a bigger favor than we know. In an article written by Donna A. Demac, the history of censorship, obscenity, pornography and the rights of “the people” are conveyed with a decidedly liberal attitude.

Demac’s article gives an intelligent overview as to the actions of various political parties, groups and activists that have fought either for or gainst some of the issues regarding pornography, and his article can be effectively used to defend free speech. The most opinionated and conservative of the authors included is Catherine MacKinnon, who touches on the thought that there is a great deal of similarity between pornography and black slavery.

In her article “Pornography, Civil Rights and Speech” she states that “the harm of pornography does not lie in the fact that it is offensive but that, at least in developed societies, it is an industry that mass produces sexual intrusion, access to, possession and use of women by men for profit”. MacKinnon approaches pornography not from a “moral” standpoint, but strictly from the “political” point of view that says pornography is a threat to the gender equality of our nation. I say she is wrong and that not only is pornography okay, but in many cases could contribute to the health of our society.

I will quickly agree that pornography should be kept away from the eyes of our children, and that there is a proper time and place for it, but consider some of the acts that, providing that pornogrpahy was made illegal, would not only go under ground but might actually become real instead of acted out. Coetzee goes to great lengths to bring to light indescrepancies and unclarified ideas throughout MacKinnon’s article. One of Coetzee’s most prominent points is that the differences between “obscenity” and “pornography” go far beyond a difference in term based on either political or moral argument.

While at times Coetzee seems to generally disagree with or at least greatly challenge MacKinnon’s ideas, there are times at which the two authors trains of thought almost seem to coincide. One such issue would be that MacKinnon is not necessarily looking to hunt out all occurrences of pornography in today’s iterature and media, but to snuff out the commercial end of it. The end that makes billions based on women being “used” by men, and does nothing at all to improve their social standing in our society. But why must everything be used to bolster the social position of women?

It is this topic specifically that seems to have gone un-argued by Coetzee. Coetzee’s stand on this issue of pornography and obscenity as a part of today’s culture is never quite addressed may very well remain a mystery to the reader. From many of the author’s statements and criticism’s of MacKinnon, one ould gather that he takes a much more liberal stand and yet somehow successfully avoids pressing his opinions. He also does a wonderful job of highlighting some of the more minute intricacies related to MacKinnon’s writing which may have otherwise gone unnoticed.

If you read Demac’s article you may find that “Sex”, throughout history has been more than merely a method of procreation. In Demac’s article it is also stated that the editorial and news press at times found sexual content the only way to keep the political news interesting. Based on Demac’s article, sex has lways been sort of a “mystery” or something dark that nobody liked to talk about, and yet everybody was interested in. Maybe this is the reason that our society today has such a hard time talking to there children about sex and the prevention of such things as pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.

I am often amazed that people have such a hard time talking about sex and sex related topics when it rates second in priority among human drives. Second only to the drive to eat. Pornography is nothing new, in fact prostitution is sometimes called “the world’s oldest profession”. All that has changed is the degree in which it is used. People become numb to what once was erotic or dangerous and eventually want more. Demac’s article illustrates this extremely well as he gives a general overview of the history of pornography. His view is very helpful in seeing how pornography has progressed and where it is now, relative to where it has been.

Unfortunately as all of our authors have, in their own way stated, sex is not the real issue at hand here. The issue is “Obscenity”. Pornography in these writers eyes seems to be a mixture of sex which is completely natural and early every person enjoys at one time or another and obscenity which is the element that MacKinnon says “keeps sex interesting for men”. It seems that if things (sex and pornography) were less extravagantly portrayed on the television, print and even the radio, that less would be needed to fulfill one’s “appetite” for eroticism.

If there actually were some “line” that were drawn, unable to be crossed, would that given amount of “danger” be enough? I doubt it. The thing that keeps men (the major supporters of the pornography industry) so interested in women according to MacKinnon is the idea of having the power over a woman. It’s this power that breeds obscenity as men want more and more of this “power”. Sometimes it’s taken much to far, but where can you draw the line? When is too much too much?

Coetzee brings up a good point when he quotes Mackinnon: “In visual media, it takes a real person doing each act to make what you see; pornography models are real women to whom something real is being done”. Coetzee challenges this argument by asking the reader about violence in movies. He asks, “Are knife thrusts and gunshots not just as real? ” According to Coetzee, the acts of sex ortrayed on a television screen are happening to real people, yet one of the greatest attributes of sex, and one of the things that make it sacred are the feelings involved between the two people.

Therefore, if there are no feelings between the two actors, isn’t it merely acting? The models are being paid and have most likely been made aware of what will happen and therefore given their consent. What about the possibility that the problem not only lies in the hands of the men who watch these acts on a video tape, but the women who make them. Without the availability of women who were willing to produce this kind of aterial the pornography industry would come to a screeching halt. What’s there to watch without women?

Maybe it all comes down to; “If you’re not a part of the solution, you’re part of the problem”. The lines between right and wrong are often much more gray than black and white, which is most likely where most people live. No one can say to another what is right and wrong, or what should or shouldn’t be done, that decision has to be left to the individuals themselves. It’s this issue of pornography having an effect on women who aren’t even involved in the industry f making or even watching it. We as a nation and even a world stand to learn a lot from simply listening to ourselves.

We like to stand up and say what is right, and yet acting on it rarely happens. In order for our society to come to any sort of peace on this issue of pornography, it needs to be accepted that people need to be allowed to make decisions for themselves without the intervention of some government medium, but only as long as those decisions don’t effect or hinder the rights of others. Pornography is an immense opportunity for an experiment in freedom of speech and democracy. The largest scale experiment this world has ever seen.

It’s up to you and it’s up to me and it’s up to all of us to explore that opportunity, and it’s up to all of us not to lose it. I’m not yet a parent myself, and I may not be for some time, but I worry about my future children and pornography all the time. Here’s what I worry about. I worry that 10 or 15 or even 20 years from now she will come to me and say, “Daddy, where were you when they took freedom of the press and speech away from us? ” and I want to be able to say I was there — and I helped stop that from happening.

Pornography Debate Essay

Suppose one accepts MacKinnon and Dworkin’s suggested statutory definition of pornography. How does one who generally accepts MacKinnon and Dworkin’s views on the pervasively harmful effect of pornography, and who accepts a need for legal redress of the harms perpetrated by pornography, deal with pornographic material?

The ordinance proposed by MacKinnon and Dworkin would deal with such material by enacting legislation which gives people adversely affected by the works, which clearly fit their definition of pornography, a cause of action against the producers, vendors, exhibitors or distributors for trafficking”, or for an assault “directly caused by the specific work. I do not think liberals, or others for that matter, should have much problem with the clause dealing with assault, since a causal connection to specific works is demanded by it.

However, s. 3. (iii) which deals with trafficking would be very problematic for liberals and legal conservatives because it creates a cause of action for a person contrary to the traditional conception of a rights holder’s cause of action. This subsection reads: Any woman has a claim hereunder as a woman acting against the subordination of women. Any man, child or ranssexual who alleges injury by pornography in the way women are injured by it also has a claim. [emphasis added] My goal in this paper is to suggest that a slight modification to this subsection of the ordinance would make it very difficult for liberals and legal conservatives to object to it.

This modification would restrict the cause of action to the same persons as the other sections of the ordinance, namely, the particular victim of the specified injury. I shall argue that such a modification would largely cohere with the conception of harm already at work in Ontario law, would afford only a minor eduction in the potential efficacy of such legislation in curbing the harm of pornography, and would offer to empower the feminist camp which is behind such an ordinance with a mechanism for social and political change if a sufficiently organized feminist “vanguard” took hold of the opportunity to empower women.

Adrian Howe argues that the concept of social injury which may be suggested by the ordinance recognizes the differential harm felt by women from pornography. Howe suggests this social notion of harm may be a necessary feature of any successful law reform which is to address the huge social problem of male omination and female oppression. The liberal notion of an individuated human right fails to capture, for MacKinnon and Howe, “the specificity of the harm to women.

Thus, an ordinance which did not create a cause of action “for women as women” would fail to address the root of the social problem of which pornography is a manifestation. This conception of social harm, and thus subsection 3. 2(iii), may offend liberals or legal conservatives in two ways. First, the notion of non-individuated harm is antithetical to the liberal conception of a rights holder claiming a cause of action. Fundamental to a liberal conception of harm is the notion of the individual who is autonomous, separate and fundamentally worthy of respect.

Rawls and Kant exemplify this view in their analyses when they posit the undifferentiated self, free of any particular qualities save that of being an agent worthy of a fundamental, inviolable respect. This notion of the individual worthy of equal concern and respect in the eyes of the state permeates liberal conceptions of rights. It is also a fundamental, if not exclusive, tenet of the common law of torts: In tort litigation, the courts must decide whether to hift the loss suffered by one person, the plaintiff, to the shoulders of another person [emphasis added].

Clearly, on its face this conception of harm precludes the notion of a harm suffered collectively which cannot be delineated individually. While class actions are possible, and claims may be made on behalf of groups such as company shareholders, this is only by virtue of the fact that a legally recognized individual has suffered an identifiable particular harm. Thus, the conventional liberal notion of harm is radically distinct from that outlined by Howe and MacKinnon. Since on the iberal conception rights holders are autonomous, individual selves who are essentially distinct, harm to one is distinct from harm to another.

It may be that a liberal conception of a rights holder simply renders the concept of a social harm, and thus a cause of action “for women as women” incoherent. I do not wish to discuss whether it is possible to develop a complete liberal notion of social harm. It is sufficient to note that the notion of harm to rights holders inherent in the dominant liberal legal discourse appears to preclude a cause of action by any individual simply by virtue of their membership in an oppressed social lass.

The problem for feminism is that the offence of trafficking in pornography, if the cause of action were limited to individuals who allege a direct harm stemming from this trafficking, may seldom if ever deliver a remedy. Consider the immense burden for a successful action: She must first prove that the relevant materials are pornography. They must be sexually explicit and they must contain one or more of the features listed in the definition. Second, she must prove that the materials sexually subordinated her.

The materials have to be more than just offensive; this is not a law that orries about offending sensibilities, it is concerned with injuries to women. These injuries must be proven in court. Only then will the plaintiff be awarded damages or an injunction against the materials in question [emphasis added]. The harm which a particular woman suffers as a result of trafficking in pornography is not easily delineated. It is not the physical assault or forced viewing outlined in the other sections of the ordinance.

Nor is it (for MacKinnon/Cole proponents) a tangible physical harm in the “John hits Mary” sense: [P]ornography causes attitudes and behaviours of iolence and discrimination that define the treatment and status of half the population . [P]ornography institutionalizes the sexuality of male supremacy … Since the harm caused by pornography is a social, collective harm to women, conventional liberal notions of tortious harm are seemingly unable to capture its seriousness (no single woman appears to have been grievously harmed).

Thus, to limit the cause of action in the ordinance’s trafficking provision to particular, individual women might seem futile for feminists in that a traditional liberal court would be unable to make sense of he claims of harm involved. The situation may not be quite so bleak. It will be useful to examine the notion of a social harm, a harm which cannot be tied directly to one victim, in the areas of criminal and tort law. I suggest that Ontario courts already have the basis for a framework of social harm in the federal statutory provisions on hate literature, and in the principles which can be adopted from the Bhadauria case.

The Criminal Code in sections 318 and 319 prohibits the advocating or promoting of genocide and the incitement of hatred of identifiable groups respectively. It is noteworthy that identifiable group” is defined as “any section of the public distinguished by colour, race, religion or ethnic origin”, but does not include gender identification. These sections allow groups, rather than individuals, to seek redress for the dissemination of hateful or pro-genocidal material. Section 319 has been found to violate s. 2(b) of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, but to be justified under s. 1 of the Charter.

Thus, it is considered to be coherent in Canadian criminal law for a somewhat intangible social harm to have been suffered by a group through the publication of literature, and for a remedy to be appropriate. There are problems with this kind of legal protection from social harm if MacKinnon and Cole’s assumptions about the legal system are accepted. The sections may take effect only on the initiative of the Attorney General; it is this feature which led to charges against Ernst Zundel [for the publication of literature denying the holocaust and claiming the existence of a Zionist conspiracy] being laid by Jewish activist groups under s. 81 of the Code.

Thus, Cole’s claim that legal redress for the harm of pornography will not be effectively obtained through reliance on intervention by a male-dominated executive branch of overnment is supported by the failure of another identifiable victim group to have charges laid by the Attorney General in what appeared to many to be a clear case. In isolated cases like Keegstra, where children were the group to whom hateful information was being disseminated, the law recognizes social harms as actionable.

It is clear though that the pragmatic barriers to criminal prosecutions for the harm pornography causes to women, as opposed to society’s moral intolerance of the offensive content, are immense in a male dominated liberal society. What should not be lost in this pragmatic pessimism is the dequacy of the conceptual foundation of a social harm which arose in Keegstra. In this case, the social harm was seen not only to affect the “targets” of the information, in this case Jews, but to adversely affect “society at large”.

Furthermore, the type of harm caused to the target group is similar to that seen by feminists as suffered by women due to pornography: Disquiet caused by the existence of such material is not simply the product of its offensiveness, however, but stems from the very real harm which it causes. [E]motional damage caused by words may be of grave psychological and social consequence. They] can constitute a serious attack on persons belonging to a racial or religious group, and in this regard the Cohen Committee noted that these persons are humiliated and degraded (p. 214).

Referring then to a prominent liberal theorist, Dickson C. J. said: In my opinion, a response of humiliation and degradation from an individual targeted by hate propaganda is to be expected. A person’s sense of human dignity and belonging to the community at large is closely linked to the concern and respect accorded the groups to which he or she belongs (see Isaiah Berlin, “Two Concepts of Liberty”, in Four Essays on Liberty (1969), p. 118, at p. 155). Let us call the harm to a particular woman which is suffered as a result of trafficking in pornography a quasi-social harm.

It is distinguished from a social harm in that the victim conceived as a member of a victimized class, but any action to redress this harm is brought solely on her own behalf for the harm personally suffered. Unlike the actions in the criminal cases previously cited, claims here are not on behalf of a group or on behalf of society as a whole, but are on behalf of an individual who has suffered as a member of a class. The modified rdinance I propose seeks to redress quasi-social harms. One may question whether this (as distinct from addressing social harm) is a tenable legal proposition or not.

I suggest that it is, at least in Ontario, given our established legal categories and means of redress. The Ontario Human Rights Code provides an example of an attempt to redress quasi-social harms. It may be true that tort law is unable to address the “social injury that occurs at a personal level”, but this is exactly the kind of injury the human rights codes of the country have been enacted to redress. While couched in the terminology of individual human rights, the OHRC’s categories of protection indicate a necessary connection to the notion of a social harm.

The OHRC does not promise equality, equal treatment, equal respect etc. of every person, its grandiose preamble notwithezding. What it promises is that injurious discrimination to individuals due to membership in certain social categories will be redressed by damages or injunction. These social categories are those which are traditionally associated with social injury – race, ancestry, place of origin, colour, ethnic origin, citizenship, creed, sex, sexual orientation, age, marital or family status, or handicap. Notice that many categories are absent – foolhardiness, poverty, language group, education, etc.

What this indicates is that the OHRC does not address an equality right per se, but addresses social harm as a result of being eg. black, female, Croatian, gay, blind, 25 yr. old, unmarried, etc. The remedies under s. 40 of the OHRC are nearly identical to those in the modified ordinance – damages, including those for personal anguish, costs of the action, and injunction. The modified ordinance would thus be quite similar to the existing human rights legislation in Ontario in its recognition f social harm and its suggestion of remedies.

Where it would differ is in its refusal to supplant the power of the victim to pursue their own action in court, rather than deal with a commission (and its discretionary powers) or board of inquiry to investigate matters. Thus the modified ordinance would remain “women-initiated and women-driven. ” It would also differ from the OHRC in that it would clearly specify an as yet unrecognized particular method of inflicting harm: trafficking in pornography.

One well-known attempt to pursue a remedy for a quasi-social arm outside the administrative realm of the OHRC succeeded in the Ontario Court of Appeal, but failed at the Supreme Court of Canada. In Bhadauria, the plaintiff alleged that she had been discriminated against because of her race in applying for a teaching position, and brought an action on a common law tort basis of discrimination, and also cited a violation of the OHRC as giving a cause of action.

Wilson J. n the Court of Appeal held that it was open to the court to allow the expansion of the common law to include the tort of discrimination, and would have allowed the action to proceed. The question of whether the OHRC gave rise to an independent civil action was not entertained given this finding. Laskin CJ. in the Su….. preme Court of Canada said that the OHRC was meant to supplant the attempt to seek a remedy at common law, not to supplement it, and thus barred the action from proceeding either at common law or directly from an alleged breach of the OHRC since Bhadauria had not attempted to invoke the procedures of the OHRC for redress.

What is noteworthy from this case is that the question of whether this kind of harm was capable of judicial consideration was never at issue. For the Court of Appeal, the common law was fully capable of entertaining such a harm as a tort. For the Supreme Court, the OHRC was seen as the appropriate means of redressing such harm. What the examples from criminal and tort law demonstrate is that the notion of a quasi-social harm is tenable in our legal system, particularly if individuals are given a statutory right to pursue remedies for it.

Thus, the modified ordinance would simply indicate to the court a category of social harm which has not previously been specifically addressed, the harm to women from the propagation of pornography. The relative success at achieving remedies from OHRC provisions, as compared to the reluctance of the government to permit the exercise of the Criminal Code provisions, indicates that retaining a civil right of action for individuals will be the strategically better move for feminists insofar as they are seeking redress.

I shall leave discussion of whether this is a tenable feminist political strategy for dealing with pornography for a later part of the paper. It may be objected that the fact that our legal tradition is capable of making sense of the notion of a quasi-social harm, and hus could provide the judiciary with the conceptual tools to adjudicate on a modified version of the ordinance, does not imply that the modified ordinance and its conception of harm is acceptable in a liberal framework.

A liberal framework may demand individuated harms, and the fact that our existing legal framework can work outside that limitation simply demonstrates that liberalism is not at the root of our legal framework’s evolving notion of harm. Thus, the ordinance may still be seen by liberals as incoherent, or worse, to invoke an illegitimate conception of non-individuated rights and afford state enforced emedies for illegitimate purposes. This liberal argument may be theoretically tenable, and thus the “bleak” picture I painted may still apply insofar as we favour a liberal legal framework.

Furthermore, the powerful liberal arguments concerning freedom of speech may override the concern for the kind of harm contained in the ordinance. Perhaps because the alleged harm has not been demonstrably linked to the propagation of pornography, or is not a harm in the liberal sense, but an expression of a preference, a liberal framework could not permit the ordinance since it is an undue restriction n free expression. My response to this is twofold.

First, given that protection from harm is generally an acceptable justification for a restriction on liberty in a liberal framework, it is up to liberals to deliver a coherent rebuttal to MacKinnon et al. ‘s contention that pornography causes genuine physical and psychological harm to women, rather than just revulsion. To date I have not seen a liberal rebuttal which did not make the assumption that the root of the problem of pornography is simply moral offence, i. e. strongly held preferences against the propagation of pornography.

I find the feminist claims about harm to be very persuasive, and until they are addressed by liberals in terms of a rebuttal of the harm, rather than by reference to the moral disvalue of pornography, the onus should rest on them. Second, the ordinance is not an attempt to arrive at a coherent theoretical position on pornography, but is an attempt to solve a social problem through the mechanism of law. If the attempt of the existing legal system to redress such problems is illegitimate simply on abstract liberal grounds, it need not be a fundamental practical concern of feminists to convince liberals hat the ordinance is acceptable.

From the feminist strategic perspective, it is enough to show, as I am attempting, that some form of the ordinance coheres well with the existing legal tradition whether that tradition is fundamentally liberal or otherwise. The problem of theoretical legitimacy of the legal system as a whole need not be of particular concern for proponents of the ordinance; what is important is redressing the harms done to women by the political and legal means at hand.

Moreover, I am not convinced, given the comments of Dickson J. bove, that liberal theories are committed to abandoning the otion of harm and the means of redress which we see in the existing legal framework. Perhaps then only certain categories of liberalism would take objection with the notion of harm addressed in Keegstra or the OHRC. The second major problem with the ordinance for our traditional liberal legal framework is the identification of the source of the harm. The liberal conception of autonomous individuals requires a particular victim and a particular perpetrator.

MacKinnon and Cole extensively consider the notion of women as victims of a social harm, but give little consideration to the notion of the perpetrators of this harm eyond the simple definition of pornography. For them, it would seem that if we can identify pornography, we can identify the source of the harm. Clearly, identification of the perpetrators is required before an action for redress can be launched under the ordinance. Even though this is not a theoretical requirement of every system of redress for harm, it is both a theoretical and pragmatic requirement for launching a civil action.

The frameworks of criminal law, tort law and the OHRC all presume an identifiable perpetrator of a harm can be identified. Even if it were not a legal requirement for a etermination of entitlement to a remedy that one be capable of identifying the perpetrator, it would be rather pointless to launch an action for damages or injunction if there were no identifiable legal person from whom to collect or upon whom the injunction would act. The harm from pornography is not easily traced to a single source.

MacKinnon et al. o to great lengths to point out the complexity of the problem of pornography, that harm ensues not just because of what the content of pornography is, but because of how the messages of pornography contribute to the social fabric of male hegemony. Pornography institutionalizes the sexuality of male supremacy. ” If, as has been argued, pornography’s harm is intimately connected to social practices, then perhaps blame for this harm cannot be pinpointed to pornography alone, or any particular source of pornography.

It is beyond the scope of this paper to attempt an analysis of society which could offer insight into the distribution of responsibility for reparation of the harm of pornography across all members and institutions in society. Instead I shall attempt to offer insight into the smaller problem of distribution of responsibility among pornographers. Given the huge volume of pornography, in many cases it may be impossible to pinpoint the particular publishers, materials etc. hich led to the quasi- social harm against a plaintiff.

I suggest that a solution to the problem of perpetrator identity may be suggested by analysis of the California Supreme Court’s treatment of the problem in a product liability case. The excerpt from Linden above indicates that traditionally the perpetrator of a tort must be clearly, individually identified as the cause of the harm suffered by the plaintiff. This traditional concept of causation in tort law is ot sacrosanct.

In Sindell, an action launched by a victim of a harmful drug succeeded against a multitude of pharmaceutical companies even though no one company could be causally linked to the harm suffered by the particular victim. The plaintiff’s mother had consumed the drug DES during her pregnancy, and the plaintiff suffered birth defects as a result. Evidence of the particular supplier of this drug to her mother had long since vanished, but it was certain that some manufacturer out of a number producing it at the time of the pregnancy had promoted the drug without warning of the potential ide effects.

The California Supreme Court held that, in the absence of direct causal links to any particular supplier of the drug DES, the plaintiff could recover damages in proportion to the likelihood that any manufacturer was the one which provided the drug to her mother during pregnancy. This case has many obvious differences from a purported action for harm from trafficking in pornography.

It was certain that the plaintiff had suffered a tangible physical harm from the product; the only question was whether manufacturer A, B, C etc. ad been the perpetrator. What is interesting about the case for roponents of a modified ordinance is that if a woman could demonstrate to the court a harm from the propagation of pornography in general, this case would indicate that all pornographers or traffickers might be held liable in proportion to some measure of their market share. Of note is the fact that only “the producers of a subeztial share of the market, that is, over 50 per cent” needed to be sued to invoke this “market share” liability notion.

Thus, if a woman could demonstrate the relevant quasi-social harm from pornography, and name producers of at least 50% of the market share of the elevant material, she would meet the threshold for bringing an action. Of course, if a particular trafficker could show that theirs was not a harmful brand of pornography (or more accurately, was not harmful, and thus was not pornography), they would be immune from the action. One problem with this scheme is limiting the named defendants to those who produce an identifiable kind of pornography.

I am not confident that in all or even most cases a woman would be able to identify any particular kind of pornography as that which caused the harm she experienced. This is again due to the complex social nature of the harm, its ifficulty to pinpoint. There is a danger that an implausible or untenable number of publishers or traffickers of other sorts would be named in any given lawsuit. Furthermore, publishers might begin a “third party” frenzy in an attempt to draw in others to distribute the costs of the suit.

However, it seems plausible in at least some cases that a particular class of material could be identified as the cause of the harm, and since (as I shall soon argue) the importance to feminists of the ordinance is not just its success at compensating particular women, but its political and social effects, if some cases ucceed it will be a great victory. Thus, the problem of identification of a perpetrator is not insurmountable. There is at least some jurisprudence which would give judges the tools to offer redress where individual perpetrators cannot be identified.

In particular cases there may simply be single or multiple defendants, or there may be an identifiable class of defendant where the particular perpetrators are unknowable. In either case, the Ontario courts have available to them the conceptual tools to deal with the matter. The addition of the indeterminate perpetrators doctrine from he DES case would be a welcome addition to the judicial treatment of a modified ordinance, but successful actions would not depend on it.

It is not impossible to imagine the kind of material that would be claimed to be harmful – it would contain pictures or words where women in a sexual context are dehumanized, objectified, shown as enjoying pain, rape or humiliation, bruised, bleeding or hurt, etc. Once the identification of harmful material is accomplished, the publishers, distributors, etc. need to be identified and named.

Then the major problem for a woman to overcome as plaintiff under s. 3. iii) is to demonstrate that some genuine quasi-social harm to her came about from the propagation of pornography, although she was not assaulted or forced to view or participate in it. As the Ruth M. testimony indicates, this is not entirely implausible. To sum thus far, a modified version of the ordinance would give individual women a cause of action for quasi-social harms they have suffered as a result of trafficking in pornography. While the hate literature provisions of the criminal code suggest that our legal framework can deal with the notion of social harm, greater success can be expected if the modification is adopted.

This modification would bring the feminist notion of harm suggested by MacKinnon and her proponents within a legal framework not unlike some of the existing legal schema in Ontario which give civil remedies for quasi-social harms. The problem of specifying a perpetrator, while great, is not insurmountable given the doctrine in Sindell and the accepted notion of multiple defendants in civil suits. Finally, though the ordinance may at first seem unworkable (as any new legal doctrine does until it has had judicial treatment), there are genuine fact situations in which redress seems just and plausible.

I have mentioned feminist strategy in various contexts in this paper. Of course there is debate within feminist circles over the appropriate strategies for dealing with the problem of pornography. The ordinance, modified or not, will not satisfy every feminist. I think it would be a tenable proposition for MacKinnon and her proponents not only in its provision of a remedy for particular social harms suffered by individual women, but because it will serve to expose the harm of pornography to great public scrutiny, provided feminists devote subeztial political effort to particular cases.

MacKinnon et al. e concerned that the ordinance should be a mechanism for changing the power relations sustained by pornography. Since the harm of pornography is in a sense held collectively, is social, and since the modified ordinance restricts the cause of action to a single plaintiff on her own behalf as a woman, the modified ordinance has arguably created a law which is unlikely to be pursued. This is because the women most likely to succeed are the least likely to proceed – they either will not possess sufficient power in their situation of subjugation, or they will not recognize the harm since for them it is normalized, adopted, accepted.

Pornography, a term which varies from nation to nation

Pornography, a term which varies from nation to nation, from person to person, has , in many cases when it was regarded as a mysterious for a large number of chinese student , been critisized by many of the upper class in the daily modern societies-especially the parents who are strongly prone to turn against it. In my perspective, there are some effective way to render the children taboo it. First of all, as far as everyone know that media has a favorable impact upon the step of the social morality which is a assessment to evaluate a person is good or not.

Some one should take the advantage of the public media to broadcast the event that the blackmarket sell lots of discs about the blue movies to the innocent and pure students around some of the ivory tower. Meanwhile , those things are distractions of making students always think about them instead of the study. Furthermore , in terms of the same case we have been used on the administrstion of the government via the media , we could pay more attention on the way of the successful case.

Secondly, government , literally speaking, a machine which is served to the country, has the most poweful right to deal with the conflict. There is a strange phemomen that as if , in the cosumers day in china , government will strive to aresst most of the monger snaking around cosumers. Nonetheless, the strength of beating pirate and pornography industry can not last long-just a few days. And the aftermath is that they are ressuicate from the ruin of the inspection. So the government should make a continuous effort to it turn against the pornography and the pirate spreading around high schools.

Finally, maybe the most direct way is to chat with the children. If some one wants to solve the problem ,he or she should understand the essence of the problem. so we should ,first, understand the mind of the children. And then narrow the the gap of the Relationship between the parents and children, talking to them patiently and kindly as their friends. At this time ,the best moment to solve it, parents could educate them passionately and successfully. In conclusion, these factors would influnce the chance of success to put an end to the pornography.

Effects Of Pornography

Pornography Can Lead To Violence toward Women Domestic violence and sexual assaults on women continue to plague American culture. According to Ms. Magazine, a woman has a seven times greater chance of experiencing a sexual attack in the present time than in 1933. This statistic indicates major changes in male attitudes about sexual aggressiveness toward women. It seems that men have an increasingly lower esteem of women. Why do women experience abuse now more than ever? One may look to American culture to explain the continued oppression of women.

Sadly, aspects of our culture teach men to regard women as objects rather than human beings. For example pornography, a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States, exists primarily for the purpose of enjoyment by a male audience. The mass circulation of pornographic films and magazines provides cultural, ideological support for the increase in sexual attacks on women. The word pornography comes from the Greek root porne (which means harlot, prostitute or female captive) and graphos (which means description of).

True to the root meaning of the word, pornographic material depicts women as articles purchased or captured. Pornography dehumanizes women. The material often focuses only on certain body parts such as the breast or legs, suggesting that a woman does not exist as a whole person but rather she consists of many pieces that a man can pick and choose from. Some pornographic material more blatantly portrays women as enslaved objects, showing their bodies in chains and bondage, down on all fours for a conquering male figure or pretending to enjoy pain.

Even pornography that does not portray overtly abusive images remains hostile toward women. Depictions of sex between men and women more often than not fall into the dominant-passive model, where the women fall into the passive roll. Devoid of foreplay, tenderness, caring, love or romance, pornographys main interest remains to exploit the female body for the purpose of commercial entertainment, erotic stimulation and pleasure for the male viewer. Many pornographic magazines such as Hustler and Penthouse overflow with anti-female messages and women represent the victims in most slasher or horror type movies.

So many images of women enduring sexual assault, torture and degradation, brings about concern that the pairing of the male sexual stimulation caused by the material and images of violence toward women, may condition males to associate all sex with violence toward women. This association then, leads to sexual assaults and aggression toward women. We live in the most violent, advanced society in the world, with the highest rates of media violence of any nation. Furthermore, studies have shown that the states with the highest circulation of pornographic magazines had the highest rape rates, (Ms. Magazine).

This repeated exposure to material that exploits women will desensitize those who view the material. This leads to an inability to empathize with women who fall victim to violence and sexual attacks. This lack of empathy for victims of domestic violence and rape, fosters the view that women provoke or could possibly prevent attacks against them. This view holds that a woman causes her rape by asking for it. Porn movies often depict sex crimes against women where, at the end of the film, she admits to having wanted the act committed against her.

The tendency to blame the victim leads to a prolonging of the mental anguish caused by the violence and postpones the victims healing process. So much pornographic material flooding our magazines, airwaves (on cable) and bookstores as well as the growth in popularity of the Internet as a vessel to view and sell pornography has accelerated its availability to all time highs. Women can not ignore the abundance of pornographic material in our society with the misconception that it will eventually go away.

In the United States residents have the first amendment rights of freedom of speech and freedom of the press, therefore, many of those who oppose the porn industry feel powerless when it comes to fighting against it. But, the same right that protects the porn industry also protects anti-pornography campaigns, leaving women every right to fight for the protection of womens safety and equality. However, to suggest that should women call for the censorship of pornography may not solve the problem that it creates. Making pornography illegal would likely drive it underground making it totally unregulated, potentially more popular and profitable.

Rather than fighting for tougher obscenity laws, women should move to educate those around them about how pornography exploits women and can lead to rape and violence. The porn industry will likely remain abundant and profitable. However, women have to start somewhere if they want to change how pornography influences men. Attitudes about sex and violence can change if mothers raise young men to respect women and to recognize when material exploits women. Furthermore, girls should learn at a young age to respect their bodies and to avoid participating in the making of pornographic material as they mature.

Sex In The Net

A social and ethical essay task, designed to provide students with a Broader insight into both the Internet and computer ethics. Since the beginning of time, men and women have fantasised over naked bodies. Pornography has always been a part of life and yet it has never been so readily available as what it is now. Erotic stories, explicit pictures, XXX- rated films and modern day magazines, are all part of the stimulus material which is known as “pornography” or as it is legally put, “obscenity.

Is it ethically right for our children to be looking at this erotic material at such n early age? Do we have a twisted sense of morals if we support pornography? Or is it just a natural part of life that should be nurtured and encouraged? These questions and more are springing to peoples lips as we enter the technological age. The age of the Internet. Never before has pornography been so readily available. Through mail-order, at secret places around the schoolyard, or simply down at the local newsagent or video store, pornography can be purchased in any form or media.

I know children, some as young as ten years, who have an unlimited supply of pornography. They have been exposed to it from an early age and it has become an addiction like smoking or drinking. Part of the problem is that censorship laws are not enforced. Some newsagents will sell a twelve year old, pornography, (legal age of 18) but will not sell them a packet of cigarettes (legal age of 16 until June 1994). The obvious derivative from this statement, is that fines and punishments for selling pornography to underage persons, are not high enough. So why don’t we raise them?

The answer to this question can be found on the screen of every computer in the world. The Internet, or as one person put it, “The closest thing to true anarchy that has ever existed. ” How is one to censor the Internet when it is literally impossible? What is the use of placing fines for copying pornography when it is impossible to tell the age of the user. How can one even trace the user when there are twenty-five billion members and it is impossible to follow them all. How can we delete the pornography when a new batch arrives every day and it is impossible to stop it.

Another point which makes censorship difficult is the fact that censorship laws have only recently being required. In England for instance, censorship laws have, for hundreds of years, concentrated on heretic materials, where as now, they are finding that the only offence censorship is needed to prevent, is pornography. The US also want to put strict censorship on all obscene material, however the first amendment of their constitution states that, “their shall be no law abridging the freedom of speech or press,” and so they are finding it difficult to “step around,” the law.

It is obvious that people are putting an effort in to censor the pornography, however when it comes to censoring material which goes all over the orld, a balance must be found between the censorship laws of all the countries that are hooked into the net. Here a problem arises, because Denmark has no censorship of pornography, so obviously they are going to be somewhat annoyed if it is banned from the Internet since their laws state that it is perfectly legal. So an argument occurs.

How is the world to censor the Internet without causing discrepancies between the different countries? Indeed, some people say, “Why bother? ” So far, you have seen that there would be a great difficulty involved in censoring the Internet. So the other side of the argument, presented by the conomists and pornography fanatics, is that, why should we censor the Internet when perhaps it is not needed. There are many people in the world who will tell you that pornography is a harmless part of life. Artists will tell you that the naked body is a picture of beauty, grace and style.

Authorities in Denmark will say that pornography is a valued part of their society and psychologists will tell you that pornography reduces the rate of sexual abuse and rape. Indeed, the human body is a natural part of life in all of it’s forms, so why do we regard the naked body as been obscene. Is it not stated in the bible that wisdom told us to where clothes? And did it not also state that God did not want us to have wisdom? So can it not also be said, that God did not want us to wear clothes and so therefore, he was encouraging pornography?

This argument seems to demolish the religious fanatics who say that we will burn in hell for looking at obscene materials. After looking at both sides of the argument, it is obvious to see that some middle point must be reached between the two. Pornography on the Internet cannot be totally band and yet it cannot be accessed by any user as our ociety’s ethics are against children looking at pornography. A set of ethics or laws must be devised that will satisfy each and every country which is on the Internet.

It must be devised by a governing party such as the United Nations, or by a committee which has representatives from each country. My evaluation of the argument and my recommendations are as follows, Pornography which is stored on the Internet must be placed in an area which can be accessed only by a password, as well as identification which proves that the user is over eighteen. (eg A drivers license number. ) Pornography which is ound on public bulletin boards must be deleted immediately.

This is the responsibility of not only the governing committee, but also the user. Files which are identified as pornography are to be traced and any under eighteen users are to be fined accordingly. Viewers of pornography who are over eighteen are to remain strictly confidential. No personal data is to be released unless it is required for National Security ecetera. The above recommendations, if carried out on the Internet, would provide the world with a pornography-safe network, one that could be used by children and adults alike across the globe.

Pornography – Sex or Subordination

In the late Seventies, America became shocked and outraged by the rape, mutilation, and murder of over a dozen young, beautiful girls. The man who committed these murders, Ted Bundy, was later apprehended and executed. During his detention in various penitentiaries, he was mentally probed and prodded by psychologist and psychoanalysts hoping to discover the root of his violent actions and sexual frustrations. Many theories arose in attempts to explain the motivational factors behind his murderous escapades.

However, the strongest and most feasible of these theories came not from the psychologists, but from he man himself, as a teenager, my buddies and I would all sneak around and watch porn. As I grew older, I became more and more interested and involved in it, [pornography] became an obsession. I got so involved in it, I wanted to incorporate [porn] into my life, but I couldnt behave like that and maintain the success I had worked so hard for. I generated an alter-ego to fulfill my fantasies under-cover.

Pornography was a means of unlocking the evil I had burried inside myself (Leidholdt 47). Is it possible that pornography is acting as the key to unlocking the evil in more unstable minds? According to Edward Donnerstein, a leading researcher n the pornography field, the relationship between sexually violent images in the media and subsequent aggression and . . . callous attitudes towards women is much stonger statistically than the relationship between smoking and cancer (Itzin 22).

After considering the increase in rape and molestation, sexual harassment, and other sex crimes over the last few decades, and also the corresponding increase of business in the pornography industry, the link between violence and pornogrpahy needs considerable study and examination. Once the evidence you will encounter in this paper is evaluated and quantified, t will be hard not come away with the realization that habitual use of pornographic material promotes unrealistic and unattainable desires in men that can leac to violent behavior toward women.

In order to properly discuss pornography, and be able to link it to violence, we must first come to a basic and agreeable understanding of what the word pornography means. The term pornogrpahy originates from two greek words, porne, which means harlot, and graphein, which means to write (Websters 286). My belief is that the combination of the two words was originally meant to describe, in literature, the sexual escapades of women eemed to be whores. As time has passed, this definition of pornography has grown to include any and all obscene literature and pictures.

At the present date, the term is basically a blanket which covers all types of material such as explicit literature, photography, films, and video tapes with varying degrees of sexual content. For Catherine Itzins research purposes pornogrpahy has been divided into three categories: The sexually explicit and violent; the sexually explicit and nonviolent, but subordinating and dehumanizing; and the sexually explicit, nonviolent, and nonsubordinating that is based upon mutuality.

The sexually explicit and violent is graphic, showing penetration and ejaculation. Also, it shows the violent act toward a woman. The second example shows the graphic sexual act and climax, but not a violent act. This example shows the woman being dressed is a costume or being talked down to in order to reduce her to something not human; such as a body part or just something to have sex with, a body opening or an orifice. Not only does erotica show the entire graphic sexual act, it also depicts an attraction between two people.

Her research consistently shows that harmful effects are associated with the first two, ut that the third erotica, is harmless (22). These three categories basically exist as tools of discerning content. Although sometimes they overlap without a true distinction, as in when the film is graphic in the sexual act and also in violence, but shows the act as being a mutual activity between the people participating. In my view, to further divide pornography, it is possible to break it down into even simpler categories: soft and hard core pornography.

Hard core pornography is a combination of the sexually explicit and violent and the sexually explicit and nonviolent, but subordinating and dehumanizing categories, previously discussed. Soft core pornography is thought to be harmless and falls into the category known as erotica; which is the category based on mutuality. In hard core pornogrpahy, commonly rated XXX, you can see graphic depictions of violent sexual acts usually with a man or group of men, deriving sexual gratification from the degradation of a woman.

You can also see women participating in demoralizing sexual behavior among themselves for the gratification of men. In a triple-X movie all physical aspects are shown, such as extreme close-ups of genitalia, oral, vaginal, and anal penetration, and also ejaculation. Much of the time mphasis is put on the painful and humiliating experience of the woman, for the sole satisfaction of the male. Soft core pornography, or X-rated pornography, is less explicit in terms of what is shown and the sexual act is usually put in the light of mutual enjoyment for both the male and female parties(Cameron and Frazer 23).

Triple-X pornography is manufactured and sold legally in the United States. Deborah Cameron and Elizabeth Frazer point out that other forms of hard core pornography that have to be kept under wraps, made and sold illegally in underground black markets. These are ultraviolent, snuff, and hild pornography. Ultraviolent tapes or videos show the actual torture, rape, and sometime mutilation of a woman. Snuff films go even future to depict the actual death of a victim, and child pornography reveals the use of under-age or pre-pubescent children for sexual purposes (17-18).

These types of pornogrpahy cross over the boundaries of entertainment and are definitely hard core. Now that pornography has been defined in a fashion mirroring its content, it is now possible to touch upon the more complex ways a community, as a society , views or defines it. Some have said it is impossible for a group f individuals to form a concrete opinion as to what pornography means. A U. S. Supreme Court judge is quoted as saying, I cant define pornography, but I know it when I see it (Itzin 20).

This statement can be heard at community meetings in every state, city, and county across the nation. Community standards are hazy due to the fact that when asked what pornography is to them, most individuals cannot express or explain in words what pornography is, therefore creating confusion among themselves. Communities are left somewhat helpless in this matter since the federal courts passed legislation to keep pornography available to adults.

The courts assess that to ban or censor the material would be infringing on the publics First Amendment Right (Carol 28). Maureen OBrien quotes critics of a congressionally terminated bill, the Pornography Victims Compensation Act, as saying That if it had passed, it would have had severely chilling effects on the First Amendment, allowing victims of sexual crimes to file suit against producers and distributors of any work that was proven to have had caused the attack, such as graphic material in books, magazines, videos, films, and records (7).

People in a community debating over pornography often have different iews as to whether or not it should even be made available period, and some could even argue this point against the types of women used in pornography: A far greater variety of female types are shown as desirable in pornography than mainstream films and network television have ever recognized: fat women, flat women, hairy women, aggressive women, older women, you name it (Carol 25).

If we could all decide on just exactly what pornography is and what is acceptable, there wouldnt be so much debate over the issue of censoring it. The bounds of community standards have been stretched by mainstreaming movies, opening the way even further for he legalization of more explicit fare (Jenish 53). In most contemporary communities explicit sex that is without violent or dehumanizing acts is acceptable in American society today. These community standards have not been around very long.

When movies were first brought out, they were heavily restricted and not protected by the First Amendment, because films then were looked upon only as diversionary entertainment and business. Even though sexual images were highly monitored, the movie industry was hit so hard during the Great Depression that film-makers found themselves sneaking in as much sexual content as possible, ven then they saw that sex sells (Clark 1029).

Films were highly restricted throughout the 30s, 40s, and 50s by the industry, but once independent films of the 60s such as: Bonnie and Clyde and Whose afraid of Virginia Woolfe? Clark 1029-30), both with explicit language, sexual innuendo, and violence started out-performing the larger wholesome production companies, many of the barriers holding sex and violence back were torn down in the name of profit . Adult content was put into movies long ago, we have become more immune and cant expect it to get any better or to go away. Porn is here for good. Pornography is a multi-million dollar international industry, ultimately run by organized crime all over the world, and is produced by the respectable mainstream publishing business companies (Itzin 21).

Although the publishing companies are thought to be respectable, people generally stereotype buyers and users of pornographic material as dirty old men in trenchcoats, but most patrons of adult stores are well-educated people with disposable income (Jenish 52). Porno movies provide adults of both genders with activities they normally wouldnt get in everyday life, such as oral pleasures or different types of fetishes. Ultimately adult ntertainment is just a quick-fix for grown-ups, as junk-food would be for small children. Pornographys main purpose is to serve as masturbatory stimuli for males and to provide a sexual vent.

Although in the beginning, society saw it as perverted and sinful, it was still considered relatively harmless. Today there is one case studie, standing out from the rest, that tends to shatter this illusion. The study done my Monica D. Weisz and Christopher M. Earls used eighty-seven males . . . that were randomly shown one of four films, by researchers William Tooke and Martin Lalumiere: Deliverance, Straw Dogs, Die Hard II, nd Days of Thunder, for a study on how they would react to questions about sexual violence and offenders after watching.

In the four films there is sexual aggression against a male, sexual aggression against a female, physical aggression, and neutrality-no explicit scenes of physical or sexual aggression. Out of this study the males were more acceptable of interpersonal violence and rape myths and also more attracted to sexual aggression. These same males were less sympathetic to rape victims and were noted less likely to find a defendant guilty of rape (71). These four above mentioned movies are mainstreamed R-rated films.

If a mainstream movie can cause this kind of distortion of value and morality, then it should become evident that continuous viewing/use of pornographic films depicting violent sex and aggression could lead vulnerable persons into performing or participating in sexual violence against their partners or against a stranger. Bill Marshall, psychology professor at Queens University and director of a sexual behavior clinic in Kingston, interviewed one-hundred and twenty men, between the years 1980 and 1985, who had molested children or raped women.

In his conclusion he found that pornography ppeared to be a significant factor in the chain of events leading up to a deviant act in 25% of these cases (Nicols 60). The results of this study should prove that pornography obviously has a down side to it. According to Mark Nicols, a psychology professor at the University of Michigan, Neil Malamuth, concludes quite cautiously that some messages combined with other factors, including the viewers personality type, in pornography can lead to antisocial behavior and make individuals less sensitive to violence.

Dr. Marshall also quotes men in Nicols article as saying, that they looked at pornography ith the intent to masturbate, but then became aroused, and decided to go out and assault a woman or child. Men who are drawn into pornography and use it frequently, have also been proven to suggest more lenient prison terms for sex offenders (60). If this previous statement is true, should we reevaluate how many men serve on juries for these trials? Itzin gives possible support for these theories.

It can be found in the case of an ex-prostitute who had her pubic hair removed with a jackknife and was forced by her pimp to be filmed reenacting what they had seen in pornographic movies; she was sexually assaulted and forced o have intercourse with animals, generally dogs. Another such case is one of a woman who reports having metal clips attached to her breasts, being tied to a chair, and being raped and beaten continuously for twelve hours (22-24). The dehumanizing, degradation, and reduction of a womans body isnt just a result of viewed pornography, it is often inseminated into the production of a pornographic project.

During the making of Deep Throat, a 1970s pornographic film, Linda Marchiano (a. k. a. Linda Lovelace), was presented to the public as a liberated woman with an ever present and unfulfilled appetite for ellatio. What isnt known to the general public is that during the making of the movie, she was hypnotized to suppress the natural gagging reaction, was tortured when caught trying to escape, and also held at gun-point by her boss, who threatened her with death (Itzin 22).

Ms. Marchiano did escape and when her story was told, it was repeated by a number of women in the pornography business. According to DArcy Jenish many children are lured into the pornography industry by choosing first to model. These young teens egos are boosted when they are told [they have good bodies], and are asked if they work out?. More often than not, they are told to take off [their] shirts, and then asked Do you feel nervous? (36). These youngsters honestly dont know when too much is too much, and what they dont know could put them in serious danger.

Calvin Klein, once known for being a reputable clothing designer, is now known for his racy ads using teens. Some feel he crossed the line when he chose this type of advertising. Jenish observes that these advertisements featured an array of . . . teen-aged models dressed in loose jeans or hiked-up skirts, one showing bare breasts, others offering androgynous models kissing (36). If adults in positions of power act this ay, these youngsters cannot expect other adults to act any differently. Therefore they accept this type of behavior as normal.

Diana Russell claims that tactics like these are being used more often in advertising and television, which has led media watchdogs and anti-porn activists to believe that this sort of masked imitation of pornography tricks mainstream television viewers into having an everybodys doing it attitude about pornography. She also feels that this attitude subconsciously leads them into seeking pornography out (39). We need to show the younger generation that everyone is not doing it, and that it is ll right not to have sex if they feel pressured.

Another problem anti-pornography activists believe arises from regular viewing of pornography, is the acceptance of rape myths. Rape myth is a term pertaining to peoples views on rape, rapists, and sexual assaults, wherein it is assumed that the victim of a sexual crime is either partially or completely to blame (Allen 6). To help understand the rape myth a Rape Myth Acceptance Scale was established, which lists some of the most prominent beliefs that a person accepting the rape myth has. They are as follows:

1. A woman who goes to the home or apartment f a man on their first date implies that she is willing to have sex. . One reason that women falsely report a rape is that they frequently have a need to call attention to themselves. 3. Any healthy woman can successfully resist a rapist if she really wants to. 4. When women go around braless or wearing short skirts and tight tops, they are just asking for trouble. 5. In the majority or rapes, the victim is promiscuous or has a bad reputation. 6. If a girl engages in necking or petting and she lets things get out of hand, it is her own fault if her partner forces sex on her. 7. Women who get raped while hitchhiking get hat they deserve. 8. Many women have an unconscious wish to be raped, and may then [subconsciously] set up a situation in which they are likely to be attacked. 9. If a woman gets drunk at a party and has intercourse with a man shes just met there, she should be considered fair game to other males at the party who want to have sex with her too, whether she wants to or not (Burt 217).

Pauline Bart reports that studies held simultaneously at UCLA and St. Xavier College on students, demonstrate that pornography does positively reinforce the rape myth. Men and women were exposed to over four hours of exotic video (of varying types; i. . soft, hard core, etc. ) and then asked to answer a set of questions meant to gage their attitudes of sex crimes. All the men were proven to be more accepting to rape myths, and surprisingly, over half of the women were also (123). Once again, the women in these films were portrayed as insatiable and in need of constant fulfillment. After so much exposure to women in this light from films and books, it is generally taken for granted that women should emulate this type of behavior in real life(125). comment?

Of all the studies and examples from real life situations connecting pornography with violent behavior nd sexual aggressiveness, none are more concrete than the activities the Serbian military are part of every day now in the Bosnian war. Part of the ethnic cleansing process the Serbs are practicing in Bosnia involves the gang-raping of all Muslim and Croatian women. Andrea Dworkin states that it is mandatory for the Serbian soldiers to rape the wives and female children of Muslim men. Concentration camps are set up as brothels where women are ordered to satisfy the soldiers in the most painful and dehumanizing ways imaginable.

The women in these camps are taped with cam-corders and the videos are isplayed everywhere throughout the camps to lower the womans will and need to resist. Were do the soldiers get the inspiration to commit these crimes, from commercial pornography. Serbian troops are basically force-fed porn; it is present all through training and is made readily available to (even pushed upon) the soldiers. They are basically asked to watch and learn. After the seed is planted not much is needed to be done, because they are naturally instilled with the desire to repeat what they have seen, and are not concerned with the feelings of the women.

They have seen that some women have no feelings nd are meant to be used merely for sexual gratification (M2-M6). To add insult to injury, some of the tapes of these women being victimized have entered the black market, being sold internationally, possible infecting the minds of millions. Pornogrpahy has enamored itself as a large part of our modern society. It is seldom discussed and often hidden as a dirty secret, but porn still seems to play a major part in the shaping of our morals and behaviors.

Although some say pornography is relatively harmless, a considerable larger group seem to uphold the assumption the porn works in negative and disruptive ways on those ho view it and participate. Nearly all the research supports this assumption, so it is evident the the topic is in need of much more examination and debate. Even though the majority of modern society views pornography as objectionable and sometimes obscene, there are some that do not agree with the assumption that pornography is guilty of the defamation of women and their sexual roles.

Social observationalists, such as Mary White, at the University of Michigan often agree with her statement on the part women play in pornogrpahy which explains that since most pornographic material plays up o male fantasy, women are usually the aggressors, hence women are given a semblance of empowerment. Also, the majority of these women in the material are very attractive, therefore seen as the forms of beauty and desire, something to be respected and worked for (72). Although White may not realize it, this statement reinforced most of the arguments made in support of the notion that pornography is subordinating and degrading to women.

By saying that being sexually aggressive gives a woman empowerment, she limits a womans ability to reach empowerment to sexual activity alone, and by claiming that he use of attractive women in pornographic material lends to a view of women being desirable, she inadvertently excludes women that dont fit societys mold of the model physical female, (i. e. overweight, small breasted, short, etc. ). Most of the arguments similar to Whites follow the same line of reasoning, and are easily broken down in the same manner as hers.

In regards to pornogrpahy perpetuating violent acts toward women, pornography defenders claim that the use of pornographic material can act as a cathartic release, actual lessening the likelihood of males committing violent acts. The reasoning is that the pornogrpahy can ubstitute for sex and that the want to commit sexual crimes is acted out vicariously through the pornographic material (Whicclair 327). This argument, however, does not explain the crimes committed by serial killers like Ted Bundy and John Wayne Gacey, who regularly viewed pornography during the lengths of their times between murders and rapes (Scully 70).

By saying that pornogrpahy would reduce harm to women through cathartic effects, pornography defenders display a large lack in reasoning because through their argument the rise in the production of pornography would have led to a decrease in sexual rimes, but as has been shown previously, that simply is not true. Pornographers and pornography defenders proclaim that the link between pornography and violence is exaggerated and that the research linking pornography to sexual crimes is inconclusive.

They state that the fundamentals of sex crimes are found inherently in the individuals and that the sexual permissiveness of American society cannot be blamed on the increase of pornographys availability (Jacobson 79). David Adams, a co-founder and executive director of Emerge, a Boston counseling center for male batterers, states, that only a minority of his clients perhaps 10 to 20 percent) use hard-core pornography. He estimates that half may have substance abuse problems, and adds that alcohol seems more directly involved in abuse than pornography (Kaminer 115).

The statement made by Adams and the view that pornography does not contribute to the act of sex crimes is heavily outweighed, however, by the various studies connecting violence and pornography. Bill Marshalls observations on his patients and the examples of individual crimes originating from pornography, show this acclimation to be invalidated. Some also say that attacks on pornography merely eflect the majority of feminists disdain for men, cynically stating that people who fear pornography think of all men as potential abusers, whose violent impulses are bound to be sparked by pornography (114).

Researcher Catherin MacKinnon, says that pornography works as a behavioral conditioner, reinforcer, and stimulus, not as idea or advocacy (114). However, this idea is proven to be false by the use of pornography in and by the Serbian military. This example shows that pornography does advocate sex crimes and that ideas of sexual violence are able to be stemmed from the viewing of pornography. Pornography has become to most just another one of those cold, nasty facts of life that cannot be stopped, so some choose to ignore it.

This attitude has to change. After reviewing the abuse and subordination delegated to women as an almost indisputable result of the mass infiltration of pornography into modern society, it should be impossible for someone not to want to do something about it. What can be done is for those concerned to try to spread the word and educate others as much as possible to the dangers of this sort of material. If people knew the roots of some of their more violent behavior, it could e deminished, thus protecting the future and health of our communities.

From its inception, in most cases, pornography is a media that links sexual gratification and violence together. This fact can only lead a rational mind to the conclusion that a chain of events will begin, combining sex and violence further in the minds of those who watch pornography and will ensure an unhealthy attitude towards women and their sexual identities. Only through discussion and individual action can the perpetuation of the negative impacts of pornography be swept from the closets and dark corners of the American household.

Pornography in the Media

It started by way of messengers and scribes, evolved through the presentation of newspapers and radio, brought us together with television, and now serves us worldwide via the ever-popular Internet. It is the mass media, and even from the earliest days of its existence, it has contributed greatly in ways that both enlighten and enrich society, and ways that deteriorate and perplex it. It is not a surprise to learn, then, that the mass media is the most powerful source of information we have, and nothing else in todays world influences public perception quite as heavily.

Unfortunately, however, most of what is broadcast or transmitted in the news today is with reference to the chaotic condition of our planet, or something else that society as a whole sees as detrimental or damaging. But the news on television is not the only type of media taking the criticism of society. Other forms of mass media, specifically movies and television programs containing pornography and violence have been heavily criticized. The underlining concept to be debated here is that society is negatively influenced, specifically, by these images of pornography and the result is increased violence against women.

This assumption, and it is indeed only an assumption, is completely fallacious, however, as no concrete and completely conclusive evidence has ever been formulated in support of the theory. The key premise here is that the mass media does not cause undesirable social behavior and in actuality, the media people should not be dubbed as the bad guys. They simply use their power in the most constructive ways possible in order to promote their ratings and popularity. One way to do that is to concentrate on what sells: sex, violence and disaster.

Having said this, why is it then, that many in society still believe otherwise; why do they continue to believe that pornography is evil and is a major cause for violence against women, specifically rape? There are many reasons for this misinterpretation and through the following few points, an attempt will be made to show that pornography has very little to almost no correlation with violence against women (of course nothing is absolute in society). In order to demonstrate this, it must be made evident that pornography is not evil and does not cause undesirable social behavior by displaying nude women in sexually explicit circumstances.

Thus, it is important to indicate that women are not treated only as sexual objects through the media. This is done in an attempt to squash any traces of evil in pornography. Subsequently, a second point, that some may consider to be completely bizarre, can be addressed; that pornography actually reduces the amount of violence against women. For thousands of years, sex itself has been considered evil and revolting. This is exactly why the concealment of the sex organs and teaching feelings of shame toward human sexuality is so common worldwide.

These same feelings of shame are the chief reasons that sex is considered a personal and private matter. Contrary to the beliefs of many, the mass media did not create these settings; society creates this image. (Howitt). In some societies, women have no reservations with regard to living their entire lives completely naked, while in other societies, females cover themselves from head to toe, only revealing their eyes. The media has been bombarded with criticism, overwhelmingly from the female community, relative to the amount of sexually explicit material that is published in magazines and that appears on television and in the cinemas.

A common argument against pornography is that the media portrays women as being nothing more than sexual playthings and objects to satisfy male sexual desires. As before, the media once again, is not to be held responsible for creating this image; these views are products of society. It would be downright absurd to assume that women in this society are treated as sexual objects only because the media releases or broadcasts pornographic material. A magazine associated with make-up and skin care, for example, will quite obviously not be concentrating on much else.

Such a magazine would not display pictures of women who mountain-climb or women who water-ski; only images of make-up and text referring to skin care would be relevant. Clearly, society does not consider women to be beings whose only purpose in life is to worry about make-up and skin care; but why are the complaints only directed towards pornographic media then? The answer to this question may be more complicated, however, what remains obvious is that the media does not portray women as only being able to fill male sexual desires.

To say that pictures featuring nudity, etc, are making objects out of women is foolish. One should consider females who pin-up posters of male rock stars or children who collect hockey or baseball cards. Society, however, does not say that objects are being made out of these rock stars and sports heroes; pictures of clothed people are no fewer objects than pictures of naked people. (Strossen). Many complaints are also made to the effect that pornography only offers a one-dimensional view to life; that women are seen as nymphomaniacs who are hysterically addicted to sex.

It should be pointed out those events such as hockey games, boxing matches, horse races and operas all offer a one-dimensional view of life. One does not attend an opera hoping to see a horse race. The underlying problem here is that the above-mentioned events are socially acceptable; media displaying pornography is not. It is also said, that the media reduces women to a collection of body parts through pornography. (Melton). But why then are their no complaints of advertisements in magazines displaying only ears, for example, or a nose, or feet?

The reason is a simple one; society considers certain body parts to be shameful or disgusting and once again, the media can be let off the hook. Realistically, the only way to prevent women from being seen as sex objects is for them to be seen as other things as well; but to say that women are not sexual beings would be misleading because both men and women are very much sexual. Similarly, to say that women are singled out in the media is fallacious due to the many examples of media where men are seen catering to the needs of women; something known as chivalric sexism.

Take, for instance, a recent television ad portraying young men groveling at the feet of supermodel Cindy Crawford, almost begging to be the one to cater to her needs. There were no lineups of men aching to announce their displeasure with the sexist ad; and this is precisely why male stereotyping in the media often goes unnoticed. Similarly, it is pornography in the media that is noticed and shunned by anti-pornographic and censorship organizations because it seemingly singles out females for their bodies.

It should be well noted, however, that paperback romance novels, which make up an incredible 40% of total paperback sales, depicts males as sexual objects, performing what is called Sweet savagery (rape), just as pornography depicts females as sexual objects. But once again, this goes unnoticed. It is fundamentally important to realize that the media does not deliberately create images of hate or disagreement. They just influence the more appealing things in society (thus directly increasing their ratings).

Although it is obvious that pornography is largely a male interest, a noted increase in female interest would certainly cause an increase in the amount of pornographic material geared for women; this relates to the laws of the business world. Having discussed the untruthfulness of the claims against pornography and showing that pornography is not evil, it is now possible to consider the violence issue. Are men who are exposed to pornography likely to commit violent acts, such as rape against women, more so than men who are not exposed to pornography?

It is tempting to believe that media influences males and over stimulates them through pornography to the point that they become aggressive towards females. But this is completely baseless; just as pornography arouses or stimulates, it also satisfies. The American Commission on Obscenity and Pornography performed a study in which several college students were asked to spend one and a half hours in an isolated room with a large volume of pornographic media, as well as a large volume of non-explicit media such as Readers Digest.

The study was conducted over a three-week period over which time it was discovered that the males involved in the experiment began to lose interest, or become desensitized to the erotic media nearing the end of the experiment, even if new material was added. To address the argument that males are pushed over the brink into committing rape because of pornography, one may point to the evidence above; to cover the female body would theoretically only increase male sexual desires.

Four more separate experiments were conducted of which the above was one. Three other experiments came to the conclusions that pornography does not cause violence against women and reported that the number of sex offenders that had been exposed to pornographic material were smaller in number than the amount of sex-offenders that had not been exposed to pornography. These results can be offered as evidence against he claim that males become over stimulated and thus dangerous when exposed to pornography.

Other experiments conducted in the early 1980s by the Williams Committee in England, reported, that as the availability and abundance of sexually explicit material increased, the number of violent sex crimes such as rape did not increase, but in fact decreased in many areas. (Melton) So what is it about pornography that women and anti-pornography organizations do not like? Violence! One of the greatest myths about pornography is that it contains an excess of violence against women inevitably resulting in real-life violence against women.

Anti-pornography groups release propaganda that the media approves of violence against women through pornography. In actuality, however, the total amount of violence in sex-related movies was found to be approximately 6% in a study by T. Palys in the early 1980s in Vancouver, Canada. Even this material was almost entirely composed of verbal threats and spanking. In addition to the above, studies in Ohio also found that the amount of violence in G-Rated movies was a staggering two times more than in X-Rated movies.

In fact, major films such as Die Hard: With A Vengeance and Terminator 2, contain extreme violence 85-90% of which is directed solely at men. There are, however, exceptions; the slasher genre of movies contain much more violence towards women, possibly due to the desensitization to violence in other genres of films. Because women are involved, violence against them could create a true sense of horror. However, this does not suggest that men should go into society and rape a woman any more than it suggests that men should go out and kill other men.

Horror movie fans choose to watch these movies because they enjoy portrayed violence. Needless to say, no sane individual would wish for this violence to become a real-life conception. Similarly, sex also excites people and because these two elements offer the most thrills in movies, they are often combined. It should be pointed out that women, and not just men, also enjoy these thrills based on numerous studies. When discussing pornography, it is scarcely noted that men are not the only ones who enjoy fantasizing about sex. Women also enjoy pondering sex; just not through pornography.

In fact, most of these fantasies involve some degree of violence or force and are largely driven by the romance novels discussed earlier (once again supporting the evidence that romance novels prove to be the female equivalent to male-geared pornography). Recent reports published by Nancy Friday, show that the number of female fantasies involving rape far outweigh the number of male fantasies involving rape. What comes as a surprise to many is that in male fantasies, the woman rapes the man and conversely, in female fantasies, the man rapes (Sweet Savagery), the woman!

Fridays reports also provided some interesting reasoning for the female fantasies. Her reports find that females fantasize about rape to show that they are not acting in accordance with such sinful actions; to show that sex is being forced upon them. Any other feelings towards the fantasized rape would prove to be undesirable social behavior and amazingly, the media is not even involved! Actual laboratory experiments have shown that when groups of women were shown erotic scenes involving rape, their reactions to the scenes were as or even more stimulating than less violent consensual lovemaking scenes.

This is not to say that all women want to be raped; far from it. This is to say that if women can fantasize about rape but not wish to experience it, then men, too, can fantasize about rape and not wish to commit it. In addition to the many other accusations against pornography, many in society believe that there is definite connection between organized crime and pornography. Although this may be true, the idea is largely over-exaggerated. The reasoning behind this theory is very simple, yet very shallow.

Consider, that pornography is created by organizations and contains sexually explicit material that may be thought to be legally obscene in some areas. To make the connection, these anti-pornography organizations assume that the organizations (hence organized) that produce the legally obscene (hence crime) material are operating illegally. It is obvious why pornography is attractive to criminals; just as anything that is banned or is made illegal, there is always someone who will pay the high black-market price for it.

Having considered the issues at hand, it can be said that since there is no concrete evidence to support otherwise, pornography in the media does not cause undesirable social behavior. As mentioned before, sexually explicit movies and magazines do not just arouse, but also satisfy. It is an undisputed fact that feelings of love and happiness cancel out violent feelings and to say that pornography endorse violent feelings fails to make sense; if it did, why would men want to be exposed to it.

To suggest that pornography causes men to go over the edge and commit rape is as ludicrous as suggesting that pictures of food cause the hungry to steal more food. It has even been said by some women that rape is the fault of women who dress provocatively; they ask for it. According to this logic, in the event that pornography is banned, then an attempt should be made to force women to cover their skin and wear clothing that completely hides the shapes of their bodies so as not to provoke rape. Absurd. As members of society, we recognize the power of the mass media. We understand that public perception can be easily persuaded.

But it should be clearly understood that pornography in the media alone couldnt persuade men to cause harm to women; it cannot cause men to do things that are socially unacceptable. As was mentioned earlier, pornography only causes feelings of excitement and satisfaction and these feelings overpower those feelings of violence. For these reasons, it can be said that until a positive link can be found between pornography in the media and violence against women, it will remain that sexual violence such as rape is the result of sexual frustration, and not of sexual arousal.

Child Prostitution and Pornography

Sexual abuse of children has become a public concern only recently in the United States, young girls and boys have been used to satisfy adult sexual desires for most of our history. Castration of boys, fondling, forced genital or anal intercourse, and sale for prostitution were common through much of Western history. “It was not until the sixteenth century that laws were enacted in England to protect girls and boys under the age of ten from rape and sodomy. Knudsen,106)

In the nineteenth century, after the exposure of the “white slave” trade, in which young girls were sold or kidnapped and forced into prostitution, the concept of “age of consent” developed in England, defining the age at which a girl could consent to sexual intercourse initially at ten, then at twelve, and finally, in 1885, at sixteen. “(Knudson,106) Over the past ten years , the availability of literature on sexual assault has increased significantly.

However, clinical data are increasingly suggesting that boys may be at equal risk for sexual victimization, since they are the preffered targets of habitual pedophiles and victims of child sex rings. Law inforcement investigations have verified the pedophiles almost always collect child pornography or child erotica. Pedophiles do not merely view pornography: They save it. It represents their most cherished sexual fantasies.

They typically collect books, magazines, articles, newspapers, negatives, movies, slides, photographs, albums, drawings, audiotapes, personal letters, video tapes and equipment, diaries, clothing, sexual aids, souvenirs, toys, games, lists, paintings, ledgers, and photographic equipment. Better educated and more affluent pedophiles tend to have largewr collections. Pedophiles whose living or working arrangements give them a higher degree of privacy tend to have larger collections.

Because collections are accumulated over a period of time, older pedophiles tend to have larger collections. Pedophiles with the economic means are converting more and more to videotape systems. They are even converting their books, magazines, photographs, and movies to videotape. For less than $1,500, a pedophile can have his own video camera and two video recorders, which give him the capability to produce and duplicate child pornography and erotica with little fear of discovery. (Lanning,236-7)

There are four kinds of collectors: (a) closet, (b) isolated, (c) cottage, and (d) commercial. The closet collector keeps his collection a secret and is not actively involved in molesting children. Materials are usually purchased discreetly through commercial channels. The isolated collector is actively molesting children as well as collecting child pornography or erotica. Fear of discovery overrides his need for active validation and causes him to keep his activity a secret between only himself and his victims.

His collection may include pictures of his victims taken by him as well as material from other sources. The cottage collector shares his collection and sexual activity with other individuals. This is usually done primarily to validate his behavior, and money or profit is not a significant factor. Photographs, videotapes, and war stories are swapped and traded with other child molesters (and sometimes, unknowingly, with undercover investigators). The commercial collector recognizes the monetary value of his collection and sells his duplicates to other collectors.

Although profit is an important motive, these individuals are usually active sexual molesters themselves. (Lanning,237) Child pornography and child erotica are used for the sexual arousal and gratification of pedophiles. Some pedophiles only collect and fantasize about the material without acting out these fantasies, but in some cases the arousal fueled by the pornography is only an introduction to actual sexual activity with children. A second use of child pornography and erotica is to lower children’s control.

A child who is reluctant to engage in sexual activity with an adult or to pose for sexually explicit photos can sometimes be convinced by viewing other children having fun participating in the activity. A third major use of child pornography collections is black mail. Pedophiles use many techniques to black mail ; one of them is through photographs taken of the child. If the child threatens to tell his or her parents or the ploice, the existence of sexually explicit photographs can be an effective silencer.

A fourth use of child pornography and erotica is as a medium of exchange. Some pedophiles exchange photographs of children for access to or phone numbers of other children. Rather than paying cash for access to a child, the pedophile may exchange a small part (usually duplicates) of his collection). The younger the child and the more bizarre the acts, the greater the value of the pornography. The fifth use of the collected materials is profit. Some people involved in the sale and distribution of child pornography are not pedsophiles: they are profiteers.

Legal codes have included child sexual abuse through three different kinds of laws: sexual offense laws, incest prohibitions, and child protection laws. Sexual offense laws proscribe certain sexual activities, such as rape, attemted rape, oral or anal sex, fondling, indecent exposure, and exploitation, whether directed toward adults or children. (Knudson,108) Incest prohibitions are as old as human history and probably developed in reponse to social and economic consequences of inbreeding, reinforced by religious values and beliefs. (Knudson,108)

Child protection laws are of recent origin and are designed to protect children from all kinds of maltreatment by parents, custodians, or other adults. These are comprehensive statutes, which proscribe all forms of sexual activity directed toward children, as well as physical abuse and neglect. Sexual abuse is any act of a sexual nature upon or with a child, and may include forcible actions as well as those involving little or no contact. All three approaches assume that children are unable to consent or cannot prevent sexual activities with adults.

Limiting Childrens Access To Internet Pornography

Pornography is one of mankinds most revered, respected, and repulsed pastimes. Adults can use pornography to relieve stress, enhance their sex lives, or simply as a means of entertainment. One of the easiest and most popular ways of obtaining pornographic material is over the Internet. The only downside is that the Internet is accessible to children; therefore, pornography is accessible to children. While adults should have limitless access to Internet porn, minors should be kept away from this concubine. Usage of Internet pornography grows rapidly every day.

It can be accessed easily enough by anyone that wishes to see the material, has a modem, and some times a wishful intent. The material ranges from semi-nude photos to videos of men and women having sexual intercourse with farm animals. Porn is attainable by going to a site that advertises it, or by typing anything remotely perverted in your web browser. The problem with this is that most pornographic sites do not use adult verification systems. Even if they do, the material can still be sampled before users fully journey into the site.

This is where the problems lye; because of Internet pornographys popularity and the growth being so strong it is everywhere and has become hard to adequately control. It is probable to say that anyone who has been on the net long enough, regardless of age, will come across Internet pornography. Proprietors of Internet pornography are in business to make money, and will do anything to achieve this. They advertise their websites by a variety of ways, one of which is by buying space on a website. With this many problems arise, for anyone who visits these sites become unwilling subjects of Internet porn.

The Internet porn industry has little regards for the unknowing victim. Some advocates of decency have taken up the tremendous workload of taming Internet pornography. Their biggest reason is the endangerment of American children that use the Internet. Children can be endangered in many ways, one of which is being lured by a pedophile and possibly sexually assaulted. A pedophile is an adult with a psychosexual disorder where children stimulate sexual arousal. There is evidence that children who have been sexually victimized are more likely to be troubled adults.

Advocates worry about the safety of the American children and wish to eliminate this from happening. A recent example is People v. Barrows, 174 Misc. 2d 367, 664 N. Y. S. 2d 410 (1997): an adult, James Barrows, entered an AOL chat room and seduced what he thought was a thirteen year old girl, who in actuality was an officer of Kings County District Attorney. Barrows had transmitted pictures of under-aged children having sex, engaged in sexually explicit conversations and attempted to lure the child to engage in sexual acts. Barrows was one of the few pedophiles to be caught and brought to justice.

One proposal that was struck down from protecting children is the Communications Decency Act (CDA). Janet Reno, Attorney General of the United States, argued that the CDA was in violation of the U. S. Constitution and laws that would be enacted were clear and undefined. If made into law, the CDA could severely censor the Internet in ways that were never attempted before. It would filter out anything that is deemed obscene and pornographic. Those opposed to the CDA claim because of its ambiguity, the CDA could infringe on Americans Constitutional rights.

The CDA proposed that anyone sending material classified as obscene to a minor would be penalized and prosecuted under law. The question in debate is who and what would determine the classification of obscene. Even if the CDA was passed little that can be done to stop all transmitted obscene material. The Internet has experienced an extraordinary growth. The number of host computersthose that store information and relay communicationsincreased from about 300 in 1981 to approximately 9,400,000 by the time of the trial in 1996. Roughly 60% of these hosts are located in the United States.

About 40 million people used the Internet at the time of trial, a number that expected to mushroom to 200 million by 2000. How can it be possible to regulate all Internet transmissions with user numbers at 200 million? Another problem that arises is the fact that not all Internet sites can quantifiably prove that the user wishing to browse their domain is of legal age. An annoy-mailer can be used to hide the identity of the user. Some sites require the use of a credit card in order to view its contents, but credit card numbers are easy to obtain.

This limitation of proof is being minutely controlled by a number of sites dedicated to helping parents censor what their children see. This might possibly be the first step in what will protect the American children from viewing obscene material. One such site, Mcgruff. com, gives Internet safety tips for parents. It explains to tell children about the Internet, and how to let parents know if there are any materials or persons online that makes a child feel uncomfortable. In addition, never meet with anyone face to face from which they have met off the Internet.

Children should be taught about exploitation, pornography, hate literature, excessive violence and other issues that concern them. One way that this can be controlled by using software designed to block offensive materials. Net Nanny is one type of software that will censor any obscene materials. The program scans the web page for any text that is deemed offensive. After the program finds the site obscene, it will not let the user view the materials. Using such a type of program will protect children only if the site contains such text. Otherwise, the child will be able to view the adult materials.

One possibility, created and passed into law, is encoding the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http) and File Transfer Protocol (ftp) that would make Internet pornographic sites easier to be censored by software similar to Net Nanny. This would make it easier since the program will not only scan the page the entire site itself. Sites will be censored by a certain code that is relayed to the computer when the Internet navigator tries to enter the site. The computer will send a request and the site will send an answer, or a code that will trigger the software telling it that this is an adult site; thus, children cannot browse the site.

It would be a hard task to make every pornographic site adhere to the law; of all pornographic sites in existence, 70% are run from American locals. While many adults have and will use the Internet to achieve pornographic nirvana, children need to be kept out of its confines. Censoring can only be taken so far before someones Constitutional rights are infringed upon. The most practical and effective way to ensure your childs safety is to talk to them about the hazards of the internet and to monitor who and what they interact with while surfing the web.

Lolita: Movie Review

How did they ever make a movie out of Lolita? The tagline for Stanley Kubrick’s 1962 film version of Lolita said it all. Films and books “inspire, but may provoke”. They thrill but sometimes offend. And often the same artwork attracts both acclaim and condemnation. In modern times, censorship refers to the examination of media including books, periodicals, plays, motion pictures, and television and radio programs for the purpose of altering or suppressing parts thought to be offensive.

The offensive material may be considered immoral or obscene, heretical or blasphemous, seditious or treasonable, or injurious to the national security.” But should one medium be more censored than another? Films are visual creations, whereas novels incorporate the imagination. In the 1930’s, film industry executives formed a strict set of guidelines, the Production Code that governed movie content for twenty years. It stated that nudity and suggestive dances were prohibited.

Criminal activity could not be presented in a way that led viewers to sympathize with criminals. Murder scenes had to avoid inspiring imitation, and brutal killings could not be shown in detail. The sanctity of the marriage and the home had to be upheld. Adultery and illicit sex, although recognized as sometimes necessary to the plot, could not be explicit or justified and were not supposed to be presented as an attractive option.” So how did Kubrick film a movie based on a story with all of the above?

Movies are rated and restricted to certain viewers whereas books are not. The American Library Association’s guidelines state that “materials should not be excluded because of their origin, background, or views of those contributing to their creation…libraries should challenge censorship.” This compared to the $25,000 fines in the 1930’s for theatres that ran films without a PCA seal of approval. This means, libraries are able to carry any book they like, whereas theatres are restricted to which movies are allowed to be shown. The film versions of Lolita were censored more strictly than the book due to ratings that restricted viewers, they were edited, and because of the greater awareness of child abuse in the 1990s.

The 50s was a time when “the raciest sex manual available to the panting adolescent was ‘Love Without Fear’…and even Norman Mailer, in the ‘Naked and the Dead’ had to write ‘fug’ instead of you-know-what.” (Jong) Vladimir Nabakov had just finished writing Lolita in the spring of 1954 and immediately began looking for a publisher. It was first issued in 1955 in Paris after several American rejections.

Maurice Girodias of Olympia Press, “condemned by some as a porn king, praised by others as the ‘Lenin of the sexual revolution,’ took on the book when others were too afraid of censorship to try.” (Jong) Lolita was later banned by the French government for two years and retained by U.S. customs, but when it was brought to America three years later it became a “publishing phenomenon, eventually selling some 14 million copies.” (von Busack). Eventually Lolita became a rival for Ulysses as the masterpiece of the 20th Century. “Like most famous literary books, Lolita seduced the world for the wrong reasons. It was thought to be dirty…it won its first passionate proponents by being banned.” (Jong).

Lolita was called pornography by critics who hadn’t even read the book. During its time, Lolita was ” a genuinely new creation and genuinely new creations do not usually fare well…American Puritanism is more comfortable with sex when it stays in the gutter than when it rises to the level of art.” (Jong). But, it was read in all its unedited glory. There were no holes, and it was published just the way Nabakov had written it. The only censorship for novels is in the lack of publishing support. So, overall, the book version of Lolita fared far better than what was to come for its film counterparts.

Like the book, the movie is not especially sexy. Some of the most significant scenes from the book were left out of the 1962 film version because director, Stanley Kubrick feared a denial of a Seal of Approval from the Production Code. In the book, after being picked up from camp, Lolita asks her stepfather, Well, you havent kissed me yet have you? which is followed by Humbert and Los first real kiss, a kiss that, like her goodbye kiss before she left for camp, was induced by her. In Kubricks version, the dialogue of this scene mirrors the text, but the kiss is missing.

Its a small scene, but it should have had a bigger impact. It should be recognized that it was Lolita herself that flowed into Humberts arms and that it was she who pressed her mouth to mine so hard that I felt her big front teeth and shared in the peppermint taste of her saliva. But for those people in the audience who had not read the book, this was not made clear. Not surprisingly, the scene in which Lolita seduces Humbert for the first time at the Enchanted Hunters is reduced to a game, followed by nothing more than a fade out.

It can be argued that “the fact that Humbert and Lolita don’t really do it in this version, except in a fade out, is part of the film’s appeal.” (von Busack) Its classier and it keeps you guessing. But one can also argue that whats left to the imagination can oftentimes be worse than what actually happened. The power of an audiences imagination is in whats left unshown. By watching only this film, the audience does not realize that Lolita was just as much a seducer as a seduce.

A few lines of Lolitas such as I was a daisy-fresh girl, and look what youve done to me. I ought to call the police and tell them youve raped me. and the word is incest, were also left out, because of the implications of sex with not only a minor, but a relative minor. They had to be left out due to PCA regulations. You see, in the 1962 version, it is never truly let known that sex between the two had occurred. You know it happened, you know that it is the entire plot of the book and film, you know it because of all the controversy surrounding it, but its never really verbalized. None of the lines like, we made it up very gently were mentioned in the movie, nor was the fact that Humbert began to pay Lolita for her favors ever touched on.

Lolita can be bought in any book store. I got my copy at Barnes and Noble for $13.00. But when I went to check out Kubricks non rated film version at Blockbuster, the video rental equivalent to books Barnes and Noble, it wasnt there. Instead I had to call around, finally finding it at a smaller, more artsy video store around the corner from my house. This is a perfect example of censorship at its best. One can easily read the book in its explicit detail, but you must search for a copy of a film that lacks the nudity, the violence, and the illicit sex.

The 1990s brought another director, Adrian Lyne, a shot at turning the famous novel into a visual masterpiece. Lyne tackled the film beginning in 1996, but could not find an American distributor, just like Nabakov, and just like Kubrick before him. For his part Lyne believes the failure of Lolita to get U.S. distribution is based on fear. (Butler). The first American screening was finally shown for the first time two years later in Los Angeles. A couple of days before the screening, the press had reported that Lolita’s backers were discussing a straight-to-cable release of their $50 million product with Showtime.

It should be said, flat out, that Lyne’s Lolita is not a movie we need to be protected from. (Butler). So why all the fuss? Its the 90s, isnt it? Havent we been liberated from our past and arent we now strong backers for freedom of speech? The United States has always strongly pretended to back free speech, but when it comes down to it, there are still certain words you cant say on the radio or television, among other issues. So we finally got to read the book, we finally saw the first film version in the 60s, why should there be any problems with Lolita today? Because we now live in a time when six year olds are sent home from school for kissing their classmates.

It is the era of Jon Benet Ramsey and a greater awareness of child abuse. Many distributors have passed on this Lolita, using as a primary excuse the constitutionally dubious 1996 federal law that prohibits showing sexually suggestive acts with children. (Butler) This Child Pornography Act prohibits “any visual depiction, including any photograph, film, video image or picture” that is or even “appears to be of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct.” And Lynes version does in fact have scenes where, Lolita is seen naked in bed with Humbert scrambling to get the money he has just paid her. Yes, it is a body double, but as an audience, we dont know that.

There is no Body double : over 18 flashing across the screen. Their kisses are shown to be passionate. Lolita does stand at the top of the staircase, slowly and seductively unbuttoning her shirt. And there is the rocking chair scene where Lolita is visibly excited while sitting on Humberts lap. But this should all be OK because the people that see this film should be mature enough to distinguish the storyline from the sexuality. As mentioned earlier, the book, which oftentimes goes into more explicit detail is readily available to whomever. But movies have ratings, limiting their viewers.

In turn, a movie should be able to show whatever they want in accordance to what rating they wish to receive and who they wish their audience to be. Lolita received an R: for aberrant sexuality, a strong scene of violence, nudity and some language. Lyne wanted a mature audience, that of seventeen and older, to view his film. And as long as the scenes do not visually show the act of sex between a 14 year old girl and an older man, the other scenes leading up to that should not be purposely left out for those old enough to buy a ticket and mature enough to understand the plot.

Funny how Boogie Nights, a movie about the California porn industry, was released the same year, with the same rating, R, for strong sex scenes with explicit dialogue, nudity, drug use, language and violence and it was actually nominated for, and won, several prestigious awards. This, a film that features high school students, possibly under the age of 18, having sex with an older woman, who has become like a mother to them.

The laws regarding what can and cannot be shown in movies have changed since 1962 and they will continue to do so throughout time. Eventually, its possible that Lynes Lolita, which most closely resembles the novel, will be re-released in theatres without the controversy surrounding it. People will go in and watch the movie, and come out asking themselves what the fuss was all about for so long. They will realize for themselves that it should not be left up to movie distributors to decide what they can see.

Bibliography

Dirks, Tim. Lolita (1962). 1996.
<http://www.filmsite.org/loli.html>

Edmunds, Jeff. Lolita: Complex, often tricky and a hard sell. CNN. 9 April 1999.
<http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/books/1999/nabakov/lolita.sociological.essay/

Jong, Erica. Summer Reading; Time Has Been Kind To The Nymphet: Lolita 30 Years Later. NY Times. 5 June 1988.
<http://www.nytimes.com/books/07/07/20/reviews/16009.html

Rolo, Charles. Lolita, by Vladimir Nabakov. The Atlantic. 1958 September.
<http://www.theatlantic.com//unbound/classrev/lolita.htm

Schickel, Richard. Taking a Peek at Lolita. Time.
<http://www.time.com/magazine/articles/0,3266,22367,00.html

von Busack, Richard. Lingering Lolita. MetroActive Movies. 27 March 1997.
<http://www.metrocactive.com/papers/metro/03.27.97/lolita-9713.html

Sex Stops Selling When People Stop Buying

Anti-pornography protesters probably kick themselves in the butt when they realize the most successful way to make money on the Internet is through sex sites. . The New York Times reported that while other companies are cutting back on their pay-per-view information, adult Web sites are actually increasing output. Reports show an estimated $1 billion was made off of adult sites last year, and an estimated $3 billion will be made this year. Sad to reveal that nobody wants to pay for the overly-intellectual encyclopedia information provided by Britannica or read the dry and boring news of the Wall Street Journal.

Instead they’ll shovel out all their money to watch Bambi’s “special” bedtime story. Anti-porn protesters say that pornography dehumanizes women. They say, especially with the availability of the Internet, it does damage to children exposed to such information. They say pornography de-moralizes the world, changes sex to a profit industry and takes away from its true purpose as a symbol of love between two loving, committed people. In conclusion, the pornography is not really the problem.

The problem is a society that purchases the pornography. We live in a society with people who ban porn in the outside world, make fun of people who openly use it and then, within the secrecy of their homes, log onto www. sex. com. I don’t agree with pornography, but I know that it won’t go away easily. Even if it is against the law in the country, it will still survive — maybe even better than it does now. The only way to stop pornography is through the mindset of the people who use it, but until then America will continue to click away. .

Pornography – Sex or Subordination

In the late Seventies, America became shocked and outraged by the rape, mutilation, and murder of over a dozen young, beautiful girls. The man who committed these murders, Ted Bundy, was later apprehended and executed. During his detention in various penitentiaries, he was mentally probed and prodded by psychologist and psychoanalysts hoping to discover the root of his violent actions and sexual frustrations. Many theories arose in attempts to explain the motivational factors behind his murderous escapades.

However, the strongest and most feasible of these theories came not from the psychologists, but from he man himself, “as a teenager, my buddies and I would all sneak around and watch porn. As I grew older, I became more and more interested and involved in it, [pornography] became an obsession. I got so involved in it, I wanted to incorporate [porn] into my life, but I couldn’t behave like that and maintain the success I had worked so hard for.

I generated an alter-ego to fulfill my fantasies under-cover. Pornography was a means of unlocking the evil I had burried inside myself” (Leidholdt 47). Is it possible that pornography is acting as the key to unlocking the evil in more unstable minds? According to Edward Donnerstein, a leading researcher in the pornography field, “the relationship between sexually violent images in the media and subsequent aggression and . . callous attitudes towards women is much stonger statistically than the relationship between smoking and cancer” (Itzin 22). After considering the increase in rape and molestation, sexual harassment, and other sex crimes over the last few decades, and also the corresponding increase of business in the pornography industry, the link between violence and pornogrpahy needs considerable study and examination.

Once the evidence you ill encounter in this paper is evaluated and quantified, it will be hard not come away with the realization that habitual use of pornographic material promotes unrealistic and unattainable desires in men that can leac to violent In order to properly discuss pornography, and be able to link it to violence, we must first come to a basic and agreeable understanding of what the word pornography means. The term pornogrpahy originates from two greek words, porne, which means harlot, and graphein, which means to write (Webster’s 286).

My belief is that the combination of the two words was originally meant to escribe, in literature, the sexual escapades of women deemed to be whores. As time has passed, this definition of pornography has grown to include any and all obscene literature and pictures. At the present date, the term is basically a blanket which covers all types of material such as explicit literature, photography, films, and video tapes with varying degrees of sexual content.

For Catherine Itzin’s research purposes pornogrpahy has been divided into three categories: The sexually explicit and violent; the sexually explicit and nonviolent, but subordinating and dehumanizing; and the exually explicit, nonviolent, and nonsubordinating that is based upon mutuality. The sexually explicit and violent is graphic, showing penetration and ejaculation. Also, it shows the violent act toward a woman. The second example shows the graphic sexual act and climax, but not a violent act.

This example shows the woman being dressed is a costume or being ‘talked down’ to in order to reduce her to something not human; such as a body part or just something to have sex with, a body opening or an orifice. Not only does ‘erotica’ show the entire graphic sexual act, it also depicts an attraction between two people. Her research consistently shows that harmful effects are associated with the first two, but that the third ‘erotica’, is harmless (22). These three categories basically exist as tools of discerning content.

Although sometimes they overlap without a true distinction, as in when the film is graphic in the sexual act and also in violence, but shows the act as being a mutual activity between the people In my view, to further divide pornography, it is possible to break it down into even simpler categories: soft and hard core pornography. Hard core pornography is a combination of the sexually explicit and violent and the exually explicit and nonviolent, but subordinating and dehumanizing categories, previously discussed.

Soft core pornography is thought to be harmless and falls into the category known as ‘erotica’; which is the category based on mutuality. In hard core pornogrpahy, commonly rated XXX, you can see graphic depiction’s of violent sexual acts usually with a man or group of men, deriving sexual gratification from the degradation of a woman. You can also see women participating in demoralizing sexual behavior among themselves for the gratification of men.

In a triple-X movie all physical aspects are shown, uch as extreme close-ups of genitalia, oral, vaginal, and anal penetration, and also ejaculation. Much of the time emphasis is put on the painful and humiliating experience of the woman, for the sole satisfaction of the male. Soft core pornography, or X-rated pornography, is less explicit in terms of what is shown and the sexual act is usually put in the light of mutual enjoyment for both the male and female parties(Cameron and Frazer 23). Triple-X pornography is manufactured and sold legally in the United States.

Deborah Cameron and Elizabeth Frazer point out that other forms of hard core pornography that have to be ept under wraps, made and sold illegally in underground ‘black’ markets. These are ultraviolent, ‘snuff’, and child pornography. Ultraviolent tapes or videos show the actual torture, rape, and sometime mutilation of a woman. ‘Snuff’ films go even future to depict the actual death of a victim, and child pornography reveals the use of under-age or pre-pubescent children for sexual purposes (17-18).

These types of pornogrpahy cross over the boundaries of entertainment and are definitely hard core. Now that pornography has been defined in a fashion mirroring its content, it is now possible to touch upon he more complex ways a community, as a society , views or defines it. Some have said it is impossible for a group of individuals to form a concrete opinion as to what pornography means. A U. S. Supreme Court judge is quoted as saying, “I can’t define pornography, but I know it when I see it” (Itzin 20).

This statement can be heard at community meetings in every state, city, and county across the nation. Community standards are hazy due to the fact that when asked what pornography is to them, most individuals cannot express or explain in words what pornography is, therefore creating confusion among Communities are left somewhat helpless in this matter since the federal courts passed legislation to keep pornography available to adults.

The courts assess that to ban or censor the material would be infringing on the public’s First Amendment Right (Carol 28). Maureen O’Brien quotes critics of a congressionally terminated bill, the Pornography Victim’s Compensation Act, as saying “That if it had passed, it would have had severely chilling effects on the First Amendment, allowing victims of sexual crimes to file suit against producers and distributors of any work that was proven to have had caused’ the attack, such as graphic material in books, magazines, videos, films, and records” (7).

People in a community debating over pornography often have different views as to whether or not it should even be made available period, and some could even argue this point against the types of women used in pornography: “A far greater variety of female types are shown as desirable in pornography than mainstream films and network television have ever recognized: fat women, flat women, hairy women, aggressive women, older women, you name it” (Carol 25).

If we could all decide on just exactly what pornography is nd what is acceptable, there wouldn’t be so much debate The bounds of community standards have been stretched by mainstreaming movies, opening the way even further for the legalization of more explicit fare (Jenish 53). In most contemporary communities explicit sex that is without violent or dehumanizing acts is acceptable in American These community standards have not been around very long.

When movies were first brought out, they were heavily restricted and not protected by the First Amendment, because films then were looked upon only as diversionary entertainment and business. Even though sexual mages were highly monitored, the movie industry was hit so hard during the Great Depression that film-makers found themselves sneaking in as much sexual content as possible, even then they saw that ‘sex sells’ (Clark 1029).

Films were highly restricted throughout the 30’s, 40’s, and 50’s by the industry, but once independent films of the 60’s such as: “Bonnie and Clyde” and “Whose afraid of Virginia Woolfe? ” (Clark 1029-30), both with explicit language, sexual innuendo, and violence started out-performing the larger ‘wholesome’ production companies, many of the barriers holding sex and violence back were torn down in he name of profit . Adult content was put into movies long ago, we have become more immune and can’t expect it to get any better or to go away. Porn is here for good.

Pornography is a multi-million dollar international industry, ultimately run by organized crime all over the world, and is produced by the respectable mainstream publishing business companies (Itzin 21). Although the publishing companies are thought to be ‘respectable’, people generally stereotype buyers and users of pornographic material as ‘dirty old men in trenchcoats’, but most patrons of adult stores are well-educated people with disposable income (Jenish 52). Porno movies provide adults of both genders with activities they normally wouldn’t get in everyday life, such as oral pleasures or different types of fetishes.

Ultimately adult entertainment is just a quick-fix for grown-ups, as junk-food would be for small children. Pornography’s main purpose is to serve as masturbatory stimuli for males and to provide a sexual vent. Although in the beginning, society saw it as perverted and sinful, it was still considered relatively harmless. Today there is one case studie, standing out from the rest, that tends to shatter this illusion.

The study done my Monica D. Weisz and Christopher M. Earls used “eighty-seven males . . . hat were randomly shown one of four films”, by researchers William Tooke and Martin Lalumiere: “Deliverance, Straw Dogs, Die Hard II, and Days of Thunder”, for a study on how they would react to questions about sexual violence and offenders after watching. In the four films there is sexual aggression against a male, sexual aggression against a female, physical aggression, and neutrality-no explicit scenes of physical or sexual aggression. Out of this study the males were more acceptable of interpersonal violence and rape myths and also more attracted to sexual aggression.

These same males were less sympathetic to rape victims and were noted less likely to find a defendant guilty of rape (71). These four above mentioned movies are mainstreamed R-rated films. If a mainstream movie can cause this kind of distortion of value and morality, then it should become evident that continuous viewing/use of pornographic films depicting violent sex and aggression could lead vulnerable persons into performing or participating in sexual violence against their partners or against a stranger.

Bill Marshall, psychology professor at Queen’s University and director of a sexual behavior clinic in Kingston, interviewed one-hundred and twenty men, between the years 1980 and 1985, who had molested children or raped women. In his conclusion he found that pornography appeared to be a significant factor in the chain of events leading up to a deviant act in 25% of these cases (Nicols 60). The results of this study should prove that pornography obviously has a down side to it.

According to Mark Nicols, a psychology professor at the University of Michigan, Neil Malamuth, concludes quite cautiously that some messages combined with other factors, including the viewer’s personality type, in pornography an lead to antisocial behavior and make individuals less sensitive to violence. Dr. Marshall also quotes men in Nicols article as saying, “that they looked at pornography with the intent to masturbate, but then became aroused, and decided to go out and assault a woman or child.

Men who are drawn into pornography and use it frequently, have also been proven to suggest more lenient prison terms for sex offenders” (60). If this previous statement is true, should we reevaluate how many men serve on juries for Itzin gives possible support for these theories. It can be found in the case of an ex-prostitute who had her ubic hair removed with a jackknife and was forced by her pimp to be filmed reenacting what they had seen in pornographic movies; she was sexually assaulted and forced to have intercourse with animals, generally dogs.

Another such case is one of a woman who reports having metal clips attached to her breasts, being tied to a chair, and being raped and beaten continuously for twelve hours (22-24). The dehumanizing, degradation, and reduction of a woman’s body isn’t just a result of viewed pornography, it is often inseminated into the production of a pornographic project. During the making of “Deep Throat”, a 1970’s ornographic film, Linda Marchiano (a. k. a. Linda Lovelace), was presented to the public as a liberated woman with an ever present and unfulfilled appetite for fellatio.

What isn’t known to the general public is that during the making of the movie, she was hypnotized to suppress the natural gagging reaction, was tortured when caught trying to escape, and also held at gun-point by her boss, who threatened her with death (Itzin 22). Ms. Marchiano did escape and when her story was told, it was repeated by a number of women in the pornography business. According to D’Arcy Jenish many children are lured nto the pornography industry by choosing first to model.

These young teen’s egos are boosted when they are told “[they have good bodies]”, and are asked “if they work out? ”. More often than not, they are told “to take off [their] shirts”, and then asked “Do you feel nervous? ” (36). These youngsters honestly don’t know when too much is too much, and what they don’t know could put them in Calvin Klein, once known for being a reputable clothing designer, is now known for his racy ads using teens. Some feel he crossed the line when he chose this type of advertising. Jenish observes that these advertisements “featured an array of . teen-aged models dressed in loose jeans or hiked-up skirts, one showing bare breasts, others offering androgynous models kissing” (36).

If adults in positions of power act this way, these youngsters cannot expect other adults to act any differently. Therefore they accept this type of Diana Russell claims that tactics like these are being used more often in advertising and television, which has led media watchdogs and anti-porn activists to believe that this sort of masked imitation of pornography tricks mainstream television viewers into having an “everybody’s doing it” attitude about pornography.

She also feels that his attitude subconsciously leads them into seeking pornography out (39). We need to show the younger generation that everyone is not doing ‘it’, and that it is all right not to have sex if they feel pressured. Another problem anti-pornography activists believe arises from regular viewing of pornography, is the acceptance of “rape myths”. Rape myth is a term pertaining to people’s views on rape, rapists, and sexual assaults, wherein it is assumed that the victim of a sexual crime is either partially or completely to blame (Allen 6).

To help understand the rape myth a “Rape Myth Acceptance Scale” was established, which lists some of the ost prominent beliefs that a person accepting the rape 1. A woman who goes to the home or apartment of a man on their first date implies that 2. One reason that women falsely report a rape is that they frequently have a need to call attention to themselves. 3. Any healthy woman can successfully resist a rapist if she really wants to. 4.

When women go around braless or wearing short skirts and tight tops, they are just 5. In the majority or rapes, the victim is promiscuous or has a bad reputation. 6. If a girl engages in necking or petting and she lets things get out of hand, it is her own fault if her partner forces sex on her. . Women who get raped while hitchhiking get 8. Many women have an unconscious wish to be raped, and may then [subconsciously] set up a situation in which they are likely to be 9.

If a woman gets drunk at a party and has intercourse with a man she’s just met there, she should be considered “fair game” to other males at the party who want to have sex with her too, whether she wants to Pauline Bart reports that studies held simultaneously at UCLA and St. Xavier College on students, demonstrate that pornography does positively reinforce the rape myth. Men and women were exposed to over four hours of exotic ideo (of varying types; i. e. soft, hard core, etc. ) and then asked to answer a set of questions meant to gage their attitudes of sex crimes.

All the men were proven to be more accepting to rape myths, and surprisingly, over half of the women were also (123). Once again, the women in these films were portrayed as insatiable and in need of constant fulfillment. After so much exposure to women in this light from films and books, it is generally taken for granted that women should emulate this type of behavior in Of all the studies and examples from real life situations connecting pornography with violent behavior nd sexual aggressiveness, none are more concrete than the activities the Serbian military are part of every day now in the Bosnian war.

Part of the “ethnic cleansing” process the Serbs are practicing in Bosnia involves the gang-raping of all Muslim and Croatian women. Andrea Dworkin states that it is mandatory for the Serbian soldiers to rape the wives and female children of Muslim men. Concentration camps are set up as brothels where women are ordered to satisfy the soldiers in the most painful and dehumanizing ways imaginable. The women in these camps are taped with cam-corders and the videos are isplayed everywhere throughout the camps to lower the woman’s will and need to resist.

Were do the soldiers get the inspiration to commit these crimes, from commercial pornography. Serbian troops are basically force-fed porn; it is present all through training and is made readily available to (even pushed upon) the soldiers. They are basically asked to “watch and learn”. After the seed is planted not much is needed to be done, because they are naturally instilled with the desire to repeat what they have seen, and are not concerned with the feelings of the women.

They have seen that some women have no feelings nd are meant to be used merely for sexual gratification (M2-M6). To add insult to injury, some of the tapes of these women being victimized have entered the black market, being sold internationally, possible infecting the Pornogrpahy has enamored itself as a large part of our modern society. It is seldom discussed and often hidden as a dirty secret, but porn still seems to play a major part in the shaping of our morals and behaviors.

Although some say pornography is relatively harmless, a considerable larger group seem to uphold the assumption the porn works in negative and disruptive ways on those ho view it and participate. Nearly all the research supports this assumption, so it is evident the the topic is in need of much more examination and debate. Even though the majority of modern society views pornography as objectionable and sometimes obscene, there are some that do not agree with the assumption that pornography is guilty of the defamation of women and their sexual roles.

Social observationalists, such as Mary White, at the University of Michigan often agree with her statement on the part women play in pornogrpahy which explains that “since most pornographic material plays up o male fantasy, women are usually the aggressors, hence women are given a semblance of empowerment. Also, the majority of these women in the material are very attractive, therefore seen as the forms of beauty and desire, something to be respected and worked for” (72).

Although White may not realize it, this statement reinforced most of the arguments made in support of the notion that pornography is subordinating and degrading to women. By saying that being sexually aggressive gives a woman empowerment, she limits a woman’s ability to reach empowerment to sexual activity alone, and by claiming that he use of attractive women in pornographic material lends to a view of women being desirable, she inadvertently excludes women that don’t fit society’s mold of the model physical female, (i. . overweight, small breasted, short, etc. ). Most of the arguments similar to White’s follow the same line of reasoning, and are easily broken down in In regards to pornogrpahy perpetuating violent acts toward women, pornography defenders claim that the use of pornographic material can act as a cathartic release, actual lessening the likelihood of males committing violent acts.

The reasoning is that the pornogrpahy can ubstitute for sex and that the ‘want’ to commit sexual crimes is acted out vicariously through the pornographic material (Whicclair 327). This argument, however, does not explain the crimes committed by serial killers like Ted Bundy and John Wayne Gacey, who regularly viewed pornography during the lengths of their times between murders and rapes (Scully 70).

By saying that pornogrpahy would reduce harm to women through cathartic effects, pornography defenders display a large lack in reasoning because through their argument the rise in the production of pornography would have led to a decrease in sexual rimes, but as has been shown previously, that simply is Pornographers and pornography defenders proclaim that the link between pornography and violence is exaggerated and that the research linking pornography to sexual crimes is inconclusive.

They state that the fundamentals of sex crimes are found inherently in the individuals and that the sexual permissiveness of American society cannot be blamed on the increase of pornography’s availability (Jacobson 79). David Adams, a co-founder and executive director of Emerge, a Boston counseling center for male batterers, states, “that only a minority of his clients perhaps 10 to 20 percent) use hard-core pornography. He estimates that half may have substance abuse problems, and adds that alcohol seems more directly involved in abuse than pornography” (Kaminer 115).

The statement made by Adams and the view that pornography does not contribute to the act of sex crimes is heavily outweighed, however, by the various studies connecting violence and pornography. Bill Marshall’s observations on his patients and the examples of individual crimes originating from pornography, show this acclimation to be invalidated. Some also say that attacks on pornography merely eflect the majority of feminist’s disdain for men, cynically stating that people who fear pornography think of all men as potential abusers, whose violent impulses are bound to be sparked by pornography (114).

Researcher Catherin MacKinnon, says that “pornography works as a behavioral conditioner, reinforcer, and stimulus, not as idea or advocacy” (114). However, this idea is proven to be false by the use of pornography in and by the Serbian military. This example shows that pornography does advocate sex crimes and that ideas of sexual violence are able to be stemmed from the viewing of pornography. Pornography has become to most just another one of those cold, nasty facts of life that cannot be stopped, so some choose to ignore it. This attitude has to change.

After reviewing the abuse and subordination delegated to women as an almost indisputable result of the mass infiltration of pornography into modern society, it should be impossible for someone not to want to do something about it. What can be done is for those concerned to try to spread the word and educate others as much as possible to the dangers of this sort of material. If people knew the roots of some of their more violent behavior, it could e deminished, thus protecting the future and health of From its inception, in most cases, pornography is a media that links sexual gratification and violence together.

This fact can only lead a rational mind to the conclusion that a chain of events will begin, combining sex and violence further in the minds of those who watch pornography and will ensure an unhealthy attitude towards women and their sexual identities. Only through discussion and individual action can the perpetuation of the negative impacts of pornography be swept from the closets and dark corners of the American household.

Freedom of Bytes

In today’s era there exists a medium, which like never before is becoming a medium of communication and interaction between humans, namely the World Wide Web. This old but yet new medium is expanding and changing rapidly, thus making it close to impossible to control. The World Wide Web is offering more to society now than it ever has before, created by the army to keep up communications during crisis, it’s importance to the army has also transcended into regular society. The internet is offering commerce, entertainment, and most important easy and fast access to information about anything and everything possibly conceivable by humans.

Through the computer people are now literally a few mouse clicks away from buying anything from cars to toothbrushes, clicks away from entering a chatroom and conversing with fellow “Netizens”, and few clicks away from databases, essays, articles, and multimedia presentations on any entity whatsoever. For the same reasons that the World Wide Web is so valuable and popular, it is also bad and dangerous. You might be able to shop around for an airplane ticket and might decide to buy one over the internet, yet the minute you type in your credit card number you attract people in finding that number and using it without your consent.

You might be amazed at how easy and helpful sending e-mails is, yet it is also easy for someone to send you unsolicited information, which you might not be interested in and in some instances you might even have objections to it. Since the internet is so easy, accessible and essentially unregulated, it leaves room for many controversies about the web, including electronic commerce, credit card fraud, invasion of privacy and more. By far though the most controversial and talked about “problem” is pornography on the web.

Imagine the previous example of receiving unwanted e-mail imagine you suddenly get sent nude pictures of people and links which invite you to more of what they have already shown, take for example the fact that someone might use your credit card to subscribe to sites which offer pornography, and think about your son, daughter or even yourself being on a site about a music band you like and you accidentally click a link and before you now it you are being subjected to hard core pornography.

It just became apparent that pornography on the net not only encompasses controversies about pornography itself, but also all the other controversies and problems the internet already has. Sex has always been something which has intrigued people, and that is probably in essence how pornography became to be. As society developed in the 21st Century red-light districts flourished which centralized anything which had to do with sex in one geographic location.

As sex and pornography became a more and more pertinent issue, the supreme court ruled in 1976 that cities could use their zoning powers to keep out sex-oriented businesses, and that more or less was the end of red-light districts in America. Nowadays with the Internet coming along as a more widespread medium the issue of pornography resurfaces and along with it, it carries many other disputes. One of the main controversies about pornography on the web is if it should be permitted in first place, since it is morally wrong to some people, and because it allows adolescents to access pornography, both willingly and unwillingly.

Since there are no specific laws for the internet, a simple disclaimer is the only barrier between a user and X-rated material, in addition some pornographic sites have addresses which are similar to popular sites, such as www. whitehouse. gov (the real site) and www. whitehouse. com (the porn site), causing people to be lured to their sites through a simple misunderstanding or even a minute typing error. Before one can come to a consensus about what is right, there has to be found a way to enforce any laws, which would be written for the Internet.

This aspect is so critical, because otherwise any laws would be in vain. If for example the US government were to prohibit all material about flowers on the web, the law would be useless since someone in the US could access such content from Holland for example, therefore unless Holland agrees with the US on its internet laws there would be no way to enforce any laws regarding the world wide web. Once the ambiguities on how to enforce “Internet laws” have been cleared, the laws have to be written, thus in the case of pornography one has to come to a consensus about what is right and what to do.

It is this aspect which causes the headaches, because when it comes to the Internet all rules change, especially when it comes to pornography on the Internet. It is discussed in the L. A. Times, how laws are written for governments which are restricted to territory, whereas territory is not defined in Cyberspace and thus “Law” becomes “irrelevant” as Lawrence Lessig, a law professor ant the University of Chicago states, and governments become undefined (3).

The controversy about pornography on the web incorporates both moral and freedom-of-speech controversies, which are both very ambivalent since they deal with feelings. For instance someone who is against pornography in “real life” is bound to be against pornography on the web, on the other hand someone who might be an advocate of freedom of speech might be for pornography in real life, but against it on the web since his children are able to see it. Consequently a double standard is created which causes even more problems.

One party such as a leader of a anti-pornography group called Enough is Enough, say that pornography has to be banned on the internet because there is too great of a risk that children can be exposed to pornography “And once they have seen it, it can never be erased from their minds. ”(1). Others call it the “first free speech case of the 21st century” and think that by restricting pornography on the net “The future of the Internet is at stake…” as Jerry Berman, director of the Center for Democracy and Technology, states (1).

Maybe the issue shouldn’t be so black and white, maybe a compromise should be reached which neither permits nor prohibits pornography on the web, rather how access to pornography can be monitored and restricted. In that case the advocate of freedom of speech would be satisfied because it is not absolutely prohibited, and the moral advocate would be appeased because he doesn’t have to worry about people watching pornography unwillingly. A solution has to be found in which pornography can be restricted as long as the solution doesn’t “…walk over freedom of choice” and speech (3).

The Communications Decency Act, which called for a constraint on “indecent” material on the web. The CDA asked that companies only expose “indecent” material to people who are able to establish that they are 18 or older, by a credit card number for example. The CDA would have been a good solution, since it would regulate pornography just like tobacco and alcohol are confined to adults in the real world. It was declared unconstitutional though because “indecent” wasn’t defined well enough, and because it conflicted with the 1st Amendment.

The CDA is a prime example of the difficulties in passing legislature for pornography on the Internet. How one can achieve the goal of monitoring and restricting access to X-rated material on the web is a difficulty in it’s own, but it surely will cause less headaches and ambiguities than arguing about what is right and what is wrong will. And most important of all it will keep the focus on the problem and how to solve it rather than Russian roulette with human feelings.

Pornography – Free Sexual Expression

Pornography, an issue that was once fairly inert, has ceased to be inactive, as the argument has raged now for decades. Liberals, libertarians, and feminists have all accepted the idea that free sexual expression plays an important part in permitting a discourse that challenges traditional gender roles. The idea of liberalism that is most common in contemporary discussions is: the view that the liberal state should be neutral with regard to conceptions of the good and should neither promote nor restrict ways of life out of the belief that some are intrinsically superior or inferior to others.

At its most extreme, this conception of political authority would prohibit the state from subsidizing universities rather than pornography theaters. The issue of banning and seriously limiting the manners by which pornography is transferred through the Internet and its relevant media is one with which I am particularly familiar. Recently, (after the date of news article distributed in class), legislation was passed to stop such explicit materials from being posted overtly on the World Wide Web. Until that point, congress had been considering two distinctly different approaches to restrict kids’ access to questionable material on the Net.

The Communications Decency Act, and part of a larger telecommunications package created the idea of an Internet police force within the FCC to cruise the Infobahn in search of criminal behavior and material that violates decency statutes (the FCC has openly opposed this approach). Some of that is already being done by police agencies. I have seen news reports about the arresting of perverts who fostered on-line relationships with kids (undercover cops) and engaged in some dirty typing, sometimes even luring them out of the house to meet at a predetermined place.

But that is an extreme criminal case. The most prevalent forms of smut on the Internet are pictures and stories that are shielded by the First Amendment’s provision for freedom of speech. Just like the magazines and videos at adult bookstores, Internet pornography is legal unless challenged in court and found to be appealing to a “prurient interest” and undeserving of First Amendment protection. The sheer number of adult bookstores thriving in most communities can attest to the limited success pornography opponents have had in America’s courtrooms.

So how can we legitimately allow pornography to continue its lure on newsstands but not on private computer screens? Evidently, advocates of Internet regulation argue that the accessibility factor is completely different in this relatively new medium. We are aware that (1) censorship is counterproductive to the goals of the First Amendment but that (2) exposing minors to pornography is in violation of our obligation to protect them and the public. By allowing X-rated items to flourish on our streets and in local stores, we can see who is buying them.

Shop owners have the responsibility of stopping a youth from purchasing a “dirty” magazine but also the Constitutional right to display such items for sale to adults. Until recently, providers of pornography had no way to know who was looking at their material–just typing in that someone is over 21 years of age (or 18)–certainly is not proof enough. What the new laws seek to do, according to advocates, is not to ban pornography from the Internet; but instead to regulate it in the same fashion stores do: Make it available only to customers with credit cards.

Proof of age is now better enforced. Opponents claim that kids will now just be motivated to use fraudulent or stolen credit card numbers to view pornography from their PCs. Advocates argue back that they will not do so in any greater number than kids who steal pornography from newsstands, or convince others to purchase it for them. But then rings back the Constitutional argument: Most pornography was free on the World Wide Web; publishers were exercising First Amendment Rights, by requiring payment, the problem is not solved: Instead, genuine censorship is instituted.

Pornography designers are told that they have to charge money or at least go through the often-costly process of maintaining equipment and clearing credit cards. Our responsibility to protecting Constitutional Rights comes first and in this case, they may very well be violated. An interesting point to be made is that laws on pornography end at our nation’s shores. There is no recourse for objectionable material on the Internet that originates overseas. And the potential language barrier is of little consequence to a young American boy staring at a compromising photo of a geisha girl.

Some might argue that same boy could see it if he went to China anyway. Of course, the counter argument would emphasize that significant difference between traveling to China in “real life” and traveling there in cyber-space. Should the government censor our access to Internet material outside of this country? In doing so, a violation of our fundamental rights certainly would exist. Advocates of the legislation assert that we can’t just give up on protecting our children because other countries want to hurt them with pornographic images…

There are two reasons to wonder whether existing laws can govern cyberspace adequately: First, as the debate about pornography reveals, the Internet throws up the jurisdictional problems just mentioned. It is seamlessly global; whether a place on it is physically located in Atlanta or Amsterdam matters little to a “cyber nut,” who can “visit” either with just the click of a computer’s “mouse. ” What is legal in Amsterdam may not be legal in Atlanta. What is moral, ethical, and Constitutional in the United States may not be moral in Saudi Arabia.

The offensive citizen who sees the Net as a way to evade the moral rules of a prudish government (or, awkwardly, the dissident seeking to evade censorship by a dictator) could hardly hope for a more convenient way of doing so. But just because the Internet is so ungovernable and so borderless-does anyone group have the right to enforce strict codes and rules that are superiorly prudish compared to those of traditional society and in contradiction with our fundamental rights as U. S. citizens? Absolutely not. When dealing with the Internet, we are dealing with the world.

And in all reality, there is very little in this world that is universally deemed to be immoral or unethical besides perhaps malicious theft and murder/slaughter. Neither of those two moral and legal crimes is genuinely possible over the Internet anyway. The same rules of common courtesy and respect for another’s culture that exist in the “real world” must be honored over the Internet as well. In the United States, it is illegal to exchange child pornography and several other extreme sorts, so it should therefore be unethical and illegal to do so over the Internet.

But if Playboy pictures or naked women and Playgirl pictures of naked men are examples of free speech in our country, then again–we must accept them over the Internet. Both redundantly and conclusively, I assert that the real issue we must decide (and probably never will) is whether or not pornography itself is unconstitutional. And indeed, it is not. First Amendment protects it. Consequently, those same rights within the borders of this country should protect the Internet… It is for all of these reasons that simply banning the “transmission” of indecent material is such a bad idea.

By treating as identical widely different classes of information and exchange, it encroaches too far on freedom. Private communication between adults is almost always a matter for them alone and a protected one. In broadcasting, in contrast, there is a risk to the innocent bystander (your 12-year-old daughter, let us say, cruises the Net to find out why dinosaurs died out and stumbles instead across some horrifying sexual perversion). The Internet contains all these forms of communication, plus many in between. Laws that failed to discriminate between them would at best be unworkable, at worst a severe encroachment on our civil liberties.

The electronic Penthouse, for example, lists the countries where its content would be forbidden, and asks visitors from those countries not to look. Playboy “warns” electronic visitors that naked women are ahead. The on-line industry should perhaps enlarge such ideas, for example by making it easier for parents to control what children do on-line. The film and videogame industries already subject themselves to a ratings system. Commercial services, such as Prodigy and America Online, specifically define services that children are not supposed to enter without parental approval.

This is hardly a cure-all; since most parents need computer-literate offspring to guide them to the Internet, many children will circumvent such prohibitions. But it offers the same protections we have off of the Internet without violating our Constitutional rights. As I wrote, these children can probably get their hands on a “dirty” magazine anyway. Conclusively, in many other ways, cyberspace is a microcosm of the ordinary world, with all the same mingled potential for good or bad. It cannot, and should not, be wished away by over-hasty legislation with no firm Constitutional standpoint.

Controversial Pornography Essay

Show a number of different people a simple piece of paper consisting of nothing more than a red blotch of paint and ask them what they see. The responses will vary from objects such as a cherry, to more simply, just plain red paint. This is an indication of the individuality, or sum of qualities that characterize and distinguish an individual from all others, instilled in every human being. Just as facial features and hair color differ among individuals, similar distinctiveness is found among personalities and opinions.

Because of prominent variance in belief among many individuals, a number of topics and issues have become controversial in society today. Similar to the varied responses to the red splotch of paint, photographs, video tapes and paintings portraying nudity and sexual content receive a number of clashing opinions. There are artists who paint and photograph nudity and pornography who find the human body and sex portrayed in many forms to be beautiful. However, there are also many extremely conservative individuals who take offense to such “artwork” and find its contents appalling.

And those who enjoy the nudity and sexual content exhibited in pornographic materials should marvel and delight in its details. Those who do not should simply look away. In the words of Justice William O. Douglas, “no one is compelled to look” (Brownmiller 663). There is no concrete manner to define materials that are “obscene” or “offensive” because various images come to mind among individuals when words similar to these are used to describe pornography.

To classify a distasteful picture from a beautiful one comes down to a matter of opinion and taste. In previous instances, such as the Miller Case of 1973, the Court attempted to define which materials could be judged as lewd or indecent: The materials are obscene if they depict patently offensive, hard-core sexual conduct; lack serious scientific, literary, artistic, or political value; and appeal to the prurient interests of an average personas measured by contemporary community standards (Brownmiller 662).

In accordance with the opinions of Susan Brownmiller in her essay, “Lets Put Pornography Back in the Closet,” most would agree that description such as “patently offensive,” “prurient interest,” and “hard-core” are “indeed words to conjure with” (662). Elimination of pornography is not the key to social equality, partly since no one can define what porn is and because censorship is never a simple matter. First, the offense must be described. “And how does one define something so infinitely variable, so deeply personal, so uniquely individualized as the image, the word, and the fantasy that cause sexual arousal” (Strossen 4)?

Pornography cannot be recognized as easily as the Court involved with the Miller Case implied. “Contemporary community standards” do not exist in that individuals and families alike have strongly different ideals and ethics on issues such as sexual content, nudity and pornography. While some parents allow their children to view rated R movies containing sexual content and nudity, others restrict their children from attending sexual education classes in high school. Finding a median between two strongly differing standards similar to these would be rare.

Thus, to accept or reject, like or dislike pornography is a personal opinion that is often too divided to differentiate. Besides the difficulties of definition, there are varying degrees of intensity in the porn images themselves. One of the more prominent arguments against pornography is that “it represents the hatred of women, that pornographys intent is to humiliate, degrade and dehumanize the female body for the purpose of erotic stimulation and pleasure” (Brownmiller 663). Although in some instances women are portrayed as being stripped, ound, raped and tortured in pornographic scenes, not all pornography is this explicit and violent.

In any case, the intent of such scenes is not to “degrade and dehumanize” the entire female gender but to simply satisfy those individuals who enjoy poses and pictures containing such violent erotic content. Brownmiller argues that these images of violent pornography “have everything to do with the creation of a cultural climate in which a rapist feels he is merely giving in to normal urge and a woman is encouraged to believe that sexual masochism is healthy, liberated fun” (663).

Women such as Brownmiller who spend most of their time blaming rape on pornography should spend more of that time educating women on personal safety so they can protect and empower themselves. To attribute rape cases to sexual pictures is similar to blaming drunk driving accidents on alcohol. The individual who chose to drink and then drive is at fault, similar to the man who decided to continue with sex when a woman resisted. To depict pornographic scenes as the cause of rape and degrading of women is simply masking the actual grounds of such acts.

Holly Hughes states, if you argue that getting the Playboys out of the 7-Eleven is going to drive down the rape rate, then you also have to give credence to the religious rights claims that representation of gay and lesbian lives are going to cause homosexualityI dont see imagery whether its pornography, hate speech, or lesbian imagery- as causing a certain kind of behavior (43). Simply because one is a consumer of pornography does not mean they have to go out and do everything they see. Possibly pornography abets some sex crimes. But according to Ernest Van Den

Haag in his essay. “Learning to Live with Sex and Violence,” those disposed to sex crimes may also be inclined to consume pornography as an effect, not a cause, of their pre existing criminal disposition. More important, if there is a disposition to sex crimes, an almost infinite variety of things may trigger criminal action. A rapist does not need pornography. The sight of a woman, or even of an advertisement for lingerie may be enough” (59). However, for most people pornography is no more damaging, or habit forming, than coffee.

Simply because there is no way to eliminate stimuli, there is no reason to believe that pornography is indispensable to sex crimes or sufficiently at fault to justify controlling it. Despite complaints and criticisms from individuals and groups alike, producers will continue to create pornography and those individuals who enjoy it will continue to purchase it. Because of strong support from a number of people “the porn industry has become a mulitmillion dollar business” (Brownmiller 663). To attempt to do away completely with such a prosperous business would be virtually impossible.

The reality is that millions and millions of Americans consume various kinds of sexually explicit materials every month. Although their numbers are large, their rights are under attack in virtually every segment of society. But forming laws restricting pornography from viewers would be similar to restricting cigarettes from smokers. The outrage and protest would be uncontrollably extreme. And laws are only obeyed by people who believe in them. There are a lot of laws against drugs. Has it stopped anyone? Kyle Jorgensen, a man involved in the adult sex industry for seven years, as learned that he will never please everyone (Nichols 60).

He has been both praised and reviled. “Ive had women come in the door or write letters thanking me for saving their marriages,” he claims. “At the same time, I have letters from special interest groups condemning me for destroying the world” (Nichols 60). Ultimately, the assemblage of people who object to pornography must learn to turn their heads and look away. Those who do enjoy the content of pornography should continue to enjoy it without, however, imposing on those who choose not to subject themselves.

Pornography In The Media

It started by way of messengers and scribes, evolved through the presentation of newspapers and radio, brought us together with television, and now serves us world-wide via the ever-popular Internet. It is the mass media, and even from the earliest days of its existence, it has contributed greatly in ways that both enlighten and enrich society, and ways that deteriorate and perplex it. It is not a surprise to learn, then, that the mass media is the most powerful source of information we have, and nothing else in today’s world influences public perception quite as heavily.

Unfortunately, however, most of what is broadcast or transmitted in the news today is with reference to the chaotic condition of our planet, or something else that society as a whole sees as detrimental or damaging. But the news on television is not the only type of media taking the criticism of society. Other forms of mass media, specifically movies and television programs containing pornography and violence have been heavily criticized. The underlining concept to be debated here is that society is negatively influenced, specifically, by these images of pornography and the result is increased violence against women.

This assumption, and it is indeed only an assumption, is completely fallacious, however, as no concrete and completely conclusive evidence has ever been formulated in support of the theory. The key premise here is that the mass media does not cause undesirable social behaviour and in actuality, the media people should not be dubbed as the “bad guys’. They simply use their power in the most constructive ways possible in order to promote their ratings and popularity. e way to do that is to concentrate on what sells: sex, violence, and disaster.

Having said this, why is it then, that many in society still believe otherwise; why do they continue to believe that pornography is “evil” and is a major cause for violence against women, specifically rape? There are many reasons for this misinterpretation and through the following few points, an attempt will be made to show that pornography has very little to almost no correlation with violence against women (of course nothing is “absolute” in society).

In order to demonstrate this, it must be made evident that pornography is not “evil” and does not cause undesirable social behaviour by displaying nude women in sexually explicit circumstances. Thus, it is important to indicate that women are not treated only as sexual objects through the media. This is done in an attempt to quash any traces of “evil” in pornography. Subsequently, a second point, that some may consider to be completely bizarre, can be addressed; that pornography actually reduces the amount of violence against women.

For thousands of years, sex itself has been considered -evil’ and revolting. This is exactly why the concealment of the sex organs and teaching feelings of shame toward human sexuality is so common worldwide (Christensen 1990:4). These same feelings of shame are the chief reasons that sex is considered a personal and private matter. Contrary to the beliefs of many, the mass media did not create these settings; society creates this image.

In some societies, women have no reservations with regard to living their entire lives completely naked, while in other societies, females cover themselves from head to toe, only revealing their eyes. The media has been bombarded with criticism, overwhelmingly from the female community, relative to the amount of sexually explicit material that is published in magazines and that appears on television and in the cinemas. A common argument against pornography is that the media portrays women as being nothing more than sexual playthings and objects to satisfy male sexual desires.

As before, the media once again, is not to be held responsible for creating this image; these views are products of society. It would be downright absurd to assume that women in this society are treated as sexual objects only because the media releases or broadcasts pornographic material. A magazine associated with make-up and skin care, for example, will quite obviously not be concentrating on much else. Such a magazine would not display pictures of women who mountain-climb or women who water-ski; only images of make-up and text referring to skin care would be relevant.

Clearly, society does not consider women to be beings who’s only purpose in life is to worry about make-up and skin care; but why are the complaints only directed towards pornographic media then? The answer to this question may be more complicated, however, what remains obvious is that the media does not portray women as only being able to fill male sexual desires. To say that pictures featuring nudity, etc, are making objects out of women is foolish. one should consider females who pin-up posters of male rock stars or children who collect hockey or baseball cards.

Society, however, does not say that objects are being made out of these rock stars and sports heroes; pictures of clothed people are no less objects than pictures of naked people. Many complaints are also made to the effect that pornography only offers a one-dimensional view to life; that women are seen as nymphomaniacs who are hysterically addicted to sex. It should be pointed out that events such as hockey games, boxing matches, horse races and operas all offer a one-dimensional view of life. One does not attend an opera hoping to see a horse race.

The underlying problem here is that the above mentioned events are socially acceptable; media displaying pornography is not. It is also said that the media reduces women to a collection of body parts through pornography (Christensen 1990:74). But why then are their no complaints of advertisements in magazines displaying only ears, for example, or a nose, or feet? The reason is a simple one; society considers certain body parts to be “shameful” or disgusting and once again, the media can be “let off the hook.

Realistically, the only way to prevent women from being seen as sex objects is for them to be seen as other things as well; but to say that women are not sexual beings would be misleading because both men and women are very much sexual (Christensen 1990:42). Similarly, to say that women are singled out in the media is fallacious due to the many examples of media where men are seen catering to the needs of women; something known as chivralic sexism (Christensen 1990:42).

Take, for instance, a recent television ad portraying young men groveling at the feet of supermodel Cindy Crawford, almost begging to be the “one” to cater to her needs. There were no lineups of men aching to announce their displeasure with the sexist ad; and this is precisely why male stereotyping in the media often goes unnoticed. Similarly, it is pornography in the media that is noticed and shunned by anti-pornographic and censorship organizations because it seemingly singles out females for their bodies.

It should be well noted, however, that paperback romance novels, which make up an incredible 40% of total paperback sales (Gerbner 1988:15), depicts males as sexual objects, performing what is called “Sweet Savagery” (rape), just as pornography depicts females as sexual objects. But once again, this goes unnoticed. It is fundamentally important to realize that the media does not deliberately create images of hate or disagreement (Howitt, Cumberbatch 1975:80). They just influence the more appealing things in society (thus directly increasing their ratings).

Although it is obvious that pornography is largely a male interest, a noted increase in female interest would certainly cause an increase in the amount of pornographic material geared for women; this relates to the laws of the business world (Christensen 1990:50). Having discussed the untruthfulness of the claims against pornography and showing that pornography is not “evil’, it is now possible to consider the violence issue. Are men who are exposed to pornography likely to commit violent acts, such as rape against women, more so than men who are not exposed to pornography?

It is tempting to believe that media influences males and overstimulates them through pornography to the point that they become aggressive towards females. But this is completely baseless; just as pornography arouses or stimulates, it also satisfies. The American Commission on obscenity and Pornography performed a study in which several college students were asked to spend one and a half hours in an isolated room with a large volume of pornographic media, as well as a large volume of non-explicit media such as Reader’s Digest (Howitt, Cumberbatch 1975:80).

The study was conducted over a three week period over which time it was discovered that the males involved in the experiment began to lose interest, or become desensitized to the erotic media nearing the end of the experiment, even if new material was added. To address the argument that males are pushed over the “brink’ into committing rape because of pornography, one may point to the evidence above; to cover the female body would theoretically only increase male sexual desires.

Four more separate experiments were conducted of which the above was one. Three other experiments came to the conclusions that pornography does not cause violence against women and reported that the number of sex offenders that had been exposed to pornographic material were smaller in number than the amount of sex-offenders hat had not been exposed to pornography (Christensen 1990:130; Harmon, Check 1988:28-30). These results can be offered as evidence against the claim that males become over stimulated and thus dangerous when exposed to pornography.

Other experiments conducted in the early 1980s by the Williams Committee in England, reported that as the availability and abundance of sexually explicit material increased, the number of violent sex crimes such as rape did not increase, but in fact decreased in many areas (Christensen 1990:128-129). So what is it about pornography that women and anti-pornography organizations do not like? Violence! One of the greatest myths about pornography is that it contains an excess of violence against women inevitably resulting in real-life violence against women.

Anti-pornography groups release propaganda that the media approves of violence against women through pornography. In actuality, however, the total amount of violence in sex-related movies was found to be approximately 6% in a study by T. Palys in the early 1980s in Vancouver, Canada. Even this material was almost entirely composed of verbal threats and spanking (Christensen 1990:59).

In addition to the above, studies in Ohio also found that the amount of violence in ‘(V-Rated movies was a staggering two times more than in “X-Rated” movies. n fact, major films such as Die Hard: With A Vengeance and Terminator 2, contain extreme violence 85-90% of which is directed solely at men. There are, however, exceptions; the slasher genre of movies contain much more violence towards women, possibly due to the desensitization to violence in other genres of films. Because women are involved, violence against them could create a true sense of horror. However, this does not suggest that men should go into society and rape a woman any more than it suggests that men should go out and kill other men.

Horror movie fans choose to watch these movies because they enjoy portrayed violence. Needless to say, no sane individual would wish for this violence to become a real-life conception. Similarly, sex also excites people and because these two elements offer the most thrills in movies, they are often combined. It should be pointed out that women, and not just men, also enjoy these thrills based on numerous studies. When discussing pornography, it is scarcely noted that men are not the only ones who enjoy fantasizing about sex. Women also enjoy pondering sex; just not through pornography.

In fact, most of these fantasies involve some degree of violence or force and are largely driven by the romance novels discussed earlier (once again supporting the evidence that romance novels prove to be the female equivalent to male-geared pornography). Recent reports published by Nancy Friday, show that the number of female fantasies involving rape far outweigh the number of male fantasies involving rape. What comes as a surprise to many is that in male fantasies, the woman rapes the man and conversely, in female fantasies, the man rapes (“Sweet Savagery”), the woman! (Christensen 1990:66).

Friday’s reports also provided some interesting reasoning for the female fantasies. Her reports find that females fantasize about rape to show that they are not acting in accordance with such “sinful’ actions; to show that sex is being “forced” upon them. Any other feelings towards the fantasized rape would prove to be “undesirable social behavior” and amazingly, the media is not even involved! Actual laboratory experiments (Hawkins, Zimring 1988:103) have shown that when groups of women were shown erotic scenes involving rape, their reactions to the scenes were as or even more stimulating than less violent consensual lovemaking scenes.

This is not to say that all women want to be raped; far from it. This is to say that if women can fantasize about rape but not wish to experience it, then men, too, can fantasize about rape and not wish to commit it. In addition to the many other accusations against pornography, many in society believe that there is definite connection between organized crime and pornography. Although this may be true, the idea is largely over-exaggerated. The reasoning behind this theory is very simple, yet very shallow.

Consider, that pornography is created by organizations and contains sexually explicit material that may be thought to be legally obscene in some areas. To make the connection, these anti-pornography organizations assume that the organizations (hence organized) that produce the legally obscene (hence crime) material, are operating illegally. It is obvious why pornography is attractive to criminals; just as anything that is banned or is made illegal, there is always someone who will pay the high black-market price for it.

Having considered the issues at hand, it can be said that since there is no concrete evidence to support otherwise, pornography in the media does not cause undesirable social behaviour. As mentioned before, sexually explicit movies and magazines do not just arouse, but also satisfy. It is an undisputed fact that feelings of love and happiness cancel out violent feelings (Zillman, Connections Between Sex and Aggression) and to say that pornography endorse violent feelings fails to make sense; if it did, why would men want to be exposed to it.

To suggest. hat pornography causes men to “go over the edge” and commit rape is as ludicrous as suggesting that pictures of food cause the hungry to steal more food. It has even been said by some women that rape is the fault of women who dress provocatively; “they ask for it”. According to this logic, in the event that pornography is banned, then an attempt should be made to force women to cover their skin and wear clothing that completely hides the shapes of their bodies so as not to provoke rape. Absurd. As members of society, we recognize the power of the mass media. We understand that public perception can be easily persuaded.

But it should be clearly understood that pornography in the media alone cannot persuade men to cause harm to women; it cannot cause men to do things that are socially unacceptable. As was mentioned earlier, pornography only causes feelings of excitement and satisfaction and these feelings overpower those feelings of violence. For these reasons, it can be said that until a positive link can be found between pornography in the media and violence against women, it will remain that sexual violence such as rape is the result of sexual frustration, and not of sexual arousal.

A term Pornography

Pornography, a term which varies from nation to nation, from person to person, has , in many cases when it was regarded as a mysterious for a large number of chinese student , been critisized by many of the upper class in the daily modern societies-especially the parents who are strongly prone to turn against it. In my perspective, there are some effective way to render the children taboo it.

First of all, as far as everyone know that media has a favorable impact upon the step of the social morality which is a assessment to evaluate a erson is good or not. o some one should take the advantage of the public media to broadcast the event that the blackmarket sell lots of discs about the blue movies to the innocent and pure students around some of the ivory tower. Meanwhile , those things are distractions of making students always think about them instead of the study. Furthermore , in terms of the same case we have been used on the administrstion of the government via the media , we could pay more attention on the way of the successful case.

Secondly, government , literally speaking, a machine which is served to the country, has the most poweful right to deal with the conflict. There is a strange phemomen that as if , in the cosumers day in china , government will strive to aresst most of the monger snaking around cosumers. Nonetheless, the strength of beating pirate and pornography industry can not last long-just a few days. And the aftermath is that they are ressuicate from the ruin of the inspection. So the government should make a continuous effort to it -turn against the pornography and the pirate preading around high schools.

Finally, maybe the most direct way is to chat with the children. If some one wants to solve the problem ,he or she should understand the essence of the problem. so we should ,first, understand the mind of the children. And then narrow the the gap of the Relationship between the parents and children, talking to them patiently and kindly as their friends. At this time ,the best moment to solve it, parents could educate them passionately and successfully. In conclusion, these factors would influnce the chance of success to put an end to the pornography.

Sex, Erotica, nude women – keywords for finding pornography on the internet

Sex, Erotica, nude women, three some, these are some keywords for finding pornography on the internet. The censorship of pornography has a positive affect on the United States of America and is a good thing because pornography leads to crime, pornography has no positive affects on society, and censoring pornography is not against the constitution. Crimes and pornography have a direct and apparent link. Eighty-one percent of criminals rate pornography as their highest sexual interest ( ).

This means that the clear majority of criminals love ornography and find it highly interesting, most other people probably rank other human beings as their highest sexual interest. When an adult book store is closed the crime rate in the surrounding areas falls significantly ( 188). Also It was found that child molesters have a higher probability of molesting a larger number of victims and it is likely that these offenders have some access to pornography or erotica. ( 189). Over all crime and pornography do have a link between them and that makes censoring it a positive idea for America.

Pornography has no positive effect on society. The American population agrees that pornography does not serve a legitimate purpose. Seventy-two percent of Americans want some sort of crack down on pornography. Also Ninety-two percent of Americans want a crack down on child pornography because it has no value and is disgusting and against the law ( 179). Pornography was found to have little redeeming social value by artistic criteria and is close to worth less ( 218). The censoring of pornography is not against the United States Constitution.

The reason why pornography is not included under the constitution is because it was emeaned by the United States Supreme court in 1973 to be lewd and obscene material ( 173). The first amendment was intended to protect political speech in America not the speech that includes the exploiting of women and photography of women being raped ( 183). The founding fathers did not intend for their bill of rights to be exploited in the ways that it is today they would have wanted us to have a safe and peaceful society. That would be one that does not include pornography.

The opposition to the censoring of pornography will say that it is against the United States Constitution, which it is not. They will also say that it is censoring thoughts and ideas not actions. Lastly they will say that if you censor one thing what is there to keep you censoring other things and that will lead to the collapse of what America was built on freedom. First, there are no legitimate arguments against censorship all of the arguments are intended to frighten one into believing the way they do. The argument that the censorship of pornography is against the constitution is a false and ludicrous idea.

The Supreme court id rule that it is not against the constitution to censor pornography. The censorship of pornography does not censor thought and ideas it does not say that one needs to not ever have a dirty thought or even that one can not talk about it to someone else. What it does mean is that by censoring material published in the media form we will be protection our society. Last is the most ridiculous argument of all the on that says that if you censor one thing it will cause you to censor more and more things until the there is nothing left to censor.

The censorship of pornography has worked in many other countries before an it has not caused a massive increase in the censoring of other ideas what it did cause was a fall in crime rates ( 174). The one thing the opposition failed to prove was what is pornography’s positive affect on society. In conclusion the censorship of pornography does not have a downside. It will decrease the crime rate, it will make America a better society, and will up hold what the founding fathers want free political speech not free speech to watch children getting raped.

Pornography On The Internet

It started by way of messengers and scribes, evolved through the presentation of newspapers and radio, brought us together with television, and now serves us world-wide by the ever-popular Internet. It is the mass media, and even from the beginning it has contributed greatly in ways that both enlighten and enrich society, and ways that deteriorate and corrupt it. It is not a surprise to learn, then, that the mass media is the most powerful source of information we have, and nothing else in todays world influences public perception quite as heavily.

Unfortunately, most of what is broadcast in the news today is something that society as a whole sees as negative or damaging. But the news on television is not the only type of media taking the criticism of society. Other forms of mass media, specifically movies and television programs containing pornography and violence have been heavily criticized. The question here is; are these images of pornography resulting in increased violence against women. There is no concrete evidence supporting this theory. Research by Baron (1990) shows that gender equality is greater where pornography is more prevalent, answering the question for us.

The key here is that the mass media does not cause undesirable social behavior and in actuality, the media people should not be labeled as the bad guys. They simply use their power in the most constructive ways possible in order to promote their ratings and popularity. One way to do that is to concentrate on what sells: sex, violence and disaster. Having said this, why is it then, that many in society still believe otherwise? Why do they continue to believe that pornography is evil and is a major cause for violence against women, specifically rape?

There are many reasons for this misinterpretation and through the following few points, an attempt will be made to show that pornography has very little to almost no connections to violence against women. In order to demonstrate this, it must be made evident that pornography is not evil and does not cause undesirable social behavior by displaying nude women in sexually explicit circumstances. Thus, it is important to indicate that women are not treated only as sexual objects through the media. This is done in an attempt to quash any traces of evil in pornography.

For thousands of years, sex itself has been considered evil and revolting. This is exactly why the concealment of the sex organs and teaching feelings of shame toward human sexuality is so common worldwide (Christensen 1990:4). These same feelings of shame are the chief reasons that sex is considered a personal and private matter. Contrary to the beliefs of many, the mass media did not create these settings; society creates this image. In some societies, women have no reservations with regard to living their entire lives completely naked, while in other societies, females cover themselves from head to toe, only revealing their eyes.

The sex industry is easily topping $20 billion per year. Because of this, the media has been bombarded with criticism, overwhelmingly from the female community, pertaining to the amount of sexually explicit material that is published in magazines and that appears on television. A common argument against pornography is that the media portrays women as being nothing more than sexual playthings and objects to satisfy male sexual desires. The media once again, is not to be held responsible for creating this image. These views are products of society.

It would be crazy to assume that women in this society are treated as sexual objects only because the media releases or broadcasts pornographic material. To say that pictures featuring nudity, etc. are making objects out of women is foolish. One should consider females who pin-up posters of male rock stars or children who collect hockey or baseball cards. Society, however, does not say that objects are being made out of these rock stars and sports heroes; pictures of clothed people are no less objects than pictures of naked people.

It is also said that the media reduces women to a collection of body parts through pornography (Christensen 1990:74). But why then are their no complaints of advertisements in magazines displaying only ears, for example, or a nose, or feet? The reason is a simple one; society considers certain body parts to be shameful or disgusting and once again, the media can be let off the hook. Realistically, the only way to prevent women from being seen as sex objects is for society to stop feeling as though sex is a bad topic.

Its natural. To say that women are not sexual beings would be misleading because both men and women are very much sexual (Christensen 1990:42). Similarly, to say that women are singled out in the media is fallacious due to the many examples of media where men are seen catering to the needs of women; something known as chivralic sexism (Christensen 1990:42). Take, for instance, a recent television ad portraying young men groveling at the feet of supermodel Cindy Crawford, almost begging to be the one to cater to her needs.

There were no men lined up yelling about this sexist ad, and this is precisely why male stereotyping in the media often goes unnoticed. Although it is obvious that pornography is largely a male interest, a noted increase in female interest would certainly cause an increase in the amount of pornographic material geared for women. So, are men who are exposed to pornography likely to commit violent acts, such as rape against women, more so than men who are not exposed to pornography?

It is tempting to believe that media influences males and over-stimulates them through pornography to the point that they become aggressive towards females. But this is completely baseless just as pornography arouses or stimulates, it also satisfies. The American Commission on Obscenity and Pornography performed a study in which several college students were asked to spend one and a half hours in an isolated room with a large volume of pornographic media, as well as a large volume of non-explicit media such as Readers Digest (Howitt, Cumberbatch 1975:80).

The study was conducted over a three-week period over which time it was discovered that the males involved in the experiment began to lose interest, or become desensitized to the erotic media nearing the end of the experiment, even if new material was added. Out of 70,587 criminal cases filed in 93 federal districts during the 1996 fiscal year, only six of them involved obscenity violations. To address the argument that males are pushed over the brink into committing rape because of pornography, one may point to the evidence above; to cover the female body would theoretically only increase male sexual desires.

Four more separate experiments were conducted of which the above was one. Three other experiments came to the conclusions that pornography does not cause violence against women and reported that the number of sex offenders that had been exposed to pornographic material were smaller in number than the amount of sex-offenders that had not been exposed to pornography (Christensen 1990:130). These results can be offered as evidence against the theory that males become over-stimulated and thus dangerous when exposed to pornography.

Other experiments conducted in the early 1980s by the Williams Committee in England, reported that as the availability and abundance of sexually explicit material increased, the number of violent sex crimes such as rape did not increase, but in fact decreased in many areas (Christensen 1990:128-129). Also, a study conducted by Kimberly Davies of the Journal of Sex Research, found that amounts of exposure to X-rated videos had no significant effect of mens feelings of violence toward women (Davies:1997).

So what is it about pornography that women and anti-pornography organizations do not like? Violence! One of the greatest myths about pornography is that it contains an excess of violence against women inevitably resulting in real-life violence against women. However, the total amount of violence in sex-related movies was found to be approximately 6% in a study by T. Palys in the early 1980s in Vancouver, Canada. Even this material was almost entirely composed of verbal threats and spanking (Christensen 1990:59).

In addition to the above, studies in Ohio also found that the amount of violence in G-Rated movies was a staggering two times more than in X-Rated movies. In fact, major films such as Die Hard With A Vengeance and Terminator 2, contain extreme violence 85-90% of which is directed solely at men. There are, however, exceptions. Slasher movies contain much more violence towards women, possibly due to the desensitization to violence in other genres of films. Because women are involved, violence against them could create a true sense of horror.

However, this does not suggest that men should go into society and rape a woman any more than it suggests that men should go out and kill other men. Needless to say, no sane individual would wish for this violence to become a real-life conception. Similarly, sex also excites people and because these two elements offer the most thrills in movies, they are often combined. It should be pointed out that women, and not just men, also enjoy these thrills based on numerous studies.

When discussing pornography, it is scarcely noted that men are not the only ones who enjoy fantasizing about sex. Women also enjoy pondering sex; just not through pornography. In fact, most of these fantasies involve some degree of violence or force and are largely driven by the romance novels discussed earlier. Actual laboratory experiments (Hawkins, Zimring 1988:103) have shown that when groups of women were shown erotic scenes involving rape, their reactions to the scenes were as or even more stimulating than less violent consensual lovemaking scenes.

This is not to say that all women want to be raped, far from it. This is to say that if women can fantasize about rape but not wish to experience it, then men, too, can fantasize about rape and not wish to commit it. Some women have even said that rape is the fault of women who dress provocatively; they ask for it. According to this, if pornography is banned, then an attempt should be made to force women to cover their skin and wear clothing that completely hides the shapes of their bodies so as not to provoke rape.

Absurd. As members of society, we recognize the power of the mass media. We understand that public perception can be easily persuaded. But it should be clearly understood that pornography in the media alone couldnt persuade men to cause harm to women; it cannot cause men to do things that are socially unacceptable. After all, Websters Dictionary definition for pornography is the depiction of erotic behavior intended to cause sexual excitement. Webster never mentioned intended for sexual misconduct.

Why is the Internet so enticing for pedophiles

Its created easily accessible stimulation for child molesters. Anybody can download pictures in complete anonymity. They do not have to make any kind of human contact (Trebilcock 102). There may be definitions to describe pornography, but they do not truly examine the destruction, degradation, and the pathetic nature of the concept. The word pornography is more destructive than one might believe. It would fit perfectly into Sonia Maasik and Jack Solomons essay entitles Cheap Thrills. The essay talks about the influencing images of music, video and television.

The computer is becoming more and more influencing because f the internet these days. The problem with this type of material today is it is assessable on every computer that is connected on-line to the Internet. Pornography should be eliminated on the Internet so that impressionable individuals can not access the degrading Al Gore says Some say that we should refrain from action, that all action to block childrens access to objectable content amounts to censorship. To them I say, blocking your childs access to objectionable Internet content is not censoring thats called parenting( Simons B10).

Eliminating pornography on the net will help to decrease the arge amount of pornography users, which will decrease crime. Dr. Victor Cline, from the University of Utah, conducted a study regarding serial murders and rapists. He observed users developing a four-step pattern with pornography. The first step in his study was the addiction. The serial murders and rapist claimed that at first they become addicted to the material. Dr. Clines study didnt stop there. The serial murderers and rapists claimed to continue on with their addiction. They increased to the next step of Dr. Clines observed patterns.

The use of pornography material escalated. They felt as if they needed more and ore pornography with hard core material to meet their needs. Becoming indifferent to others was the third stage. The serial murderers and rapists felt after becoming addicted and escalating their habits, they needed to desensitize. This is when they stopped caring about others. As long as their needs were fulfilled they felt that no harm was done. They were the only innocence in the picture. The last step in Dr. Clines observation was the actualization, which is the acting out what he/she saw regarding pornography.

This is the final stage that serial murderers and rapists concluded themselves in this four-stage process. Therefore, this is the end for innocent adults, children, and animals to get hurt. Pulling all pornography from the Internet will allow fewer people to have access to the degrading material. This is the material that is a common character trait among serial murderers and rapists, which are a belief, held by Dr. Calvin. These four steps of Dr. Calvins need to be prevented by us the users of the Internet and the people of the world. We need to take it off the Internet now before it gets any worse.

Years ago people believed if pornography was to be legalized, the demand for the aterial would decrease. Now with the experience and technology today, the demand for the material is increasing. A study was directed in many cities with de facto legalization. The results of this study concluded men becoming addicted to the pornography material This study also determined, in the last two decades, the number of rapes and child sexual abuse has increased tremendously due to the men who are acting out their desires. This material is like a deadly weapon. It encourages one to strike a gun when they have it in their hand.

Then the criminal uses it as an excuse to react on the topic. It was resolved in this study that when pornography addicts become bored with a certain type of material, they continue on to much harder material. Material that consumes much more than they have previously observed. They want the hard core pornography. They want it all and this is where the situation becomes a problem. With these two studies from Is it Pornography article, the conclusions were both acted out as a result. When a person consumes hard core pornography, this is when most of the violent crimes occur.

We must not allow this degrading material to destroy our people, futures and world. People need to realize the damage pornography does and stop it Pornography is illegal for the same reason crack cocaine, steroids, and heroin are illegal. Peoples lives are consumed and often destroyed by it and those who use it are a threat to others (Elmer-Dewitt 636). This quotation, from the Censorship II: Should Electronic Networks Be Restricted? article, allows us to compare how destructive this topic really is to a drug that we all know the level of destruction. The only problem with this is, it is easier to get pornography today, than cocaine.

All one has to do is turn on his omputer and down load on the Internet. Its much too easy which makes it incredibly scary. Anybody can down load images in a public library, a friends house, at local schools, and at any computer that is accessible to the Internet. There is no demand for ID checking; all thats needed is a mouse and a few clicks. Its more assessable than one might think. A child or an adult can load images at any age. A Veteran Internet surfer opposes, If you dont want them you wont get them (Walsh 7). He claims that one must show proof of ID to obtain such material and the material is off limits to minors/kids.

This is absolutely not true. If one is connected to the Internet, all they have to do is type the word PORNOGRAPHY and its that easy. Just as curiosity kills the cat, it also poisons the mind. Clifford L. Linedecker says, The chances of randomly coming across them are unbelievably slim (7). Coming across them which is pornography, is much easier than one must believe. Typing a word is dealing with pornography (for the sake of research) into the computer and a few clicks from the mouse can disprove by Linedeckers message. Its much easier than one must believe. This unwanted material can be accessed nytime with just a click from the mouse.

In Internet Child-Pornography Peddlers, Sex Predators Targeted by White House, John Simons claims that since 1960 the rape percent has increased over 500%. This is an enormous amount of rapes that occur due to the use of pornography. This article also acknowledges the fact that 57% of serial rapists that were studied claimed that they imitated scenes that were learned from types of pornography (B10). Among all the crimes in the America, sexual violence is driven to the maximum, due to hard core pornography. According to Robert M. Baird, Pornography in the United States, is the third largest money-maker in systematic crime.

After following drugs and gambling, pornography has a $8-$10 billion per year enterprise (117). This is a large amount of money for this one topic to make in a year, but the real issue is the human lives that are being tormented. This material needs to be eliminated in all areas. On the Internet, this material should be taken off 100%. It is obvious that pornography does more harm than good. This material degrades the nature of impressionable individuals. This material hurts the innocent and by taking it off the nternet, the crime rates of rape and murders will decrease in numbers tremendously.

If we dont give the addicts their material, hopefully they will move on to bigger and better ideas. Being able to define the word pornography truly, is a question we all need to ask ourselves. We can get the definition from a dictionary or encyclopedia, but can we agree with the definition. Is it bias on our beliefs? Taking this material off the Internet will help to pursue the innocence of many individuals and make it harder of the addicts to get the material. The road to pornography, is also the road to destruction.

Child Pornography on the Internet

In this new age of Information, the Internet has made all types of information readily available. Some of this information can be very useful, some can be malicious. Child pornography, also known as Paedophilia is one of these problems. Any one person can find child pornography on the internet with just a few clicks of the mouse using any search engine. Despite webmaster’s and law enforcement officials’ efforts to control child pornography and shut down illegal sites, new sites are posted using several ways to mask their identity. The Internet provides a new world for curious children.

It offers ntertainment, opportunities for education, information and communication. The Internet is a tool that opens a window of opportunities. As Internet use grows, so do the risks of children being exposed to inappropriate material, in particular, criminal activity by paedophiles and child Many children first come in contact with the Internet at a very young age. Some children become victims of child pornography through close relatives who may have abused them. Some children become involved with chat services or newsgroup threads.

It is usually through these sites that they meet child pornographers. Children may be asked to send explicit pictures of themselves taken either by a digital camera or scanned from a polaroid. The pornographer will then post the pictures on their web site, sometimes hiding them through encryption, steganography or password protecting them using a javascript or applet. Certain efforts have been made to control child pornography through legislation. In 1977 the Sexual Exploitation of Children Act was put into Legislation. (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2253)

The law prohibits the use of a minor in the making of pornography, the transport of child across state lines, the taking of a pornographic picture of a minor, and the production and circulation of materials advertising child pornography. It also prohibits the transfer, sale, purchase, and receipt of minors when the purpose of such transfer, sale, purchase, or receipt is to use the child or youth in the production of child pornography. The transportation, importation, shipment, and receipt of child pornography by any interstate means, including by mail or computer, is also prohibited.

The Child Protection Act of 1984 (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2255) efines anyone younger than the age of 18 as a child. Therefore, a sexually explicit photograph of anyone 17 years of age or younger is child pornography. On November 7, 1986, the U. S. Congress enacted the Child Sexual Abuse and Pornography Act (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2256) that banned the production and use of advertisements for child pornography and included a provision for civil remedies of personal injuries suffered by a minor who is a victim.

It also raised the minimum sentences for repeat offenders from imprisonment of not less than two years to imprisonment of not less than five years. On November 18, 1988, the U. S. Congress enacted the Child Protection and Obscenity Enforcement Act (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2256) that made it unlawful to use a computer to transmit advertisements or visual depictions of child pornography and it prohibited the buying, selling, or otherwise obtaining temporary custody or control of children for the purpose of producing child pornography.

On November 29, 1990, the U. S. Congress enacted US Code : Title 18, Section 2252 making it a federal crime to possess three or more depictions of child pornography that were mailed or shipped in nterstate or foreign commerce or that were produced using materials that were mailed or shipped by any means, including by computer. With the passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, it is a federal crime for anyone using the mail, interstate or foreign commerce, to persuade, induce, or entice any individual younger than the age of 18 to engage in any sexual act for which the person may be criminally prosecuted.

The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 amends the definition of child pornography to include that which actually depicts the sexual conduct of eal minor children and that which appears to be a depiction of a minor engaging in sexual conduct. Computer, photographic, and photocopy technology is amazingly competent at creating and altering images that have been “morphed” to look like children even though those photographed may have actually been adults.

People who alter pornographic images to look like children can now be prosecuted under the law. Abstracts for these laws can be found at http://www4. law. cornell. edu/uscode/18/. The current legislation in place at the federal and state level clearly defines child pornography, and the standard sentencing for offenders. It also clearly defines a minor and what activity involving a minor is illegal. What the legislation does not do is set the standards for retreival of evidence from an electronic device, namely computers.

Also, the current legislation does not set standards for decrypting child pornography that is protected. One example is the use of Steganography. Steganography uses a bitstream algorithm to hide information in the form of raw binary code within other files suitable to hold information. The most commonly used form of Steganography uses the least significant bit f a bitmap image to store virtually any type of information. Every three bytes in a bitmap file represents a pixel. Each of these bytes represents a level of red, blue or green.

Since there are eight bits in a byte, there can be up to 256 different combinations of 1’s and 0’s in a single byte. In the case of a bitmap, each unique combination of 1’s and 0’s represents a level of red, blue or green. When the colors are combined, there is the possibility of 256^3 or 4,294,967,296 different colors. In order to hide information within a bitmap file, the file in which you want to hide must be opied bit for bit into the last bit of each byte in the bitmap file.

This will change each pixel of the bitmap file at the most by 1 / 2,097,152, depending on whether the bit being copied is the same as the bit it is replacing. Since the human eye can only physically distinguish between an average of 250 different colors, a difference of 1 / 2,097,152 is indistinguishable. Since only one bit of the target bitmap is being used to store information, the source file can at most be 1/8 of the size of the target file. In the case of a bitmap, a high resolution picture can easily hold lower resolution picture that may contain child pornography.

Legally, if a bitmap image is found to contain a hidden image using steganography, there is no legal procedure for extracting that evidence for a court case. The prosecution would have to somehow explain how steganography works to a jury, and to the judge, and would have to prove in some way that the information found did in fact come from that bitmap file. Currently, evidence found in this manner is inadmissible in court because there is no legislation dealing with this type of evidence. Also, there is no standard approved software that will decode these files.

There are several software programs readily available on the internet which will encode or decode information using the least significant bit algorithm. One example is called Hide and Seek. Anyone can obtain this software free of charge, making it easy for child pornographers to hide their work. Another problem is illicit material that is stored on a remote computer. If the perpetrator of child pornography does not own the computer that the material is stored on, it would be difficult for law enforcement officials to obtain a warrant to search a third party’s computer.

Child Pornography on the Internet

In this new age of Information, the Internet has made all types of information readily available. Some of this information can be very useful, some can be malicious. Child pornography, also known as Paedophilia is one of these problems. Any one person can find child pornography on the internet with just a few clicks of the mouse using any search engine. Despite webmaster’s and law enforcement officials’ efforts to control child pornography and shut down illegal sites, new sites are posted using several ways to mask their identity. The Internet provides a new world for curious children.

It offers entertainment, opportunities for education, information and communication. The Internet is a tool that opens a window of opportunities. As Internet use grows, so do the risks of children being exposed to inappropriate material, in particular, criminal activity by paedophiles and child pornographers. Many children first come in contact with the Internet at a very young age. Some children become victims of child pornography through close relatives who may have abused them. Some children become involved with chat services or newsgroup threads.

It is usually through these sites hat they meet child pornographers. Children may be asked to send explicit pictures of themselves taken either by a digital camera or scanned from a polaroid. The pornographer will then post the pictures on their web site, sometimes hiding them through encryption, steganography or password protecting them using a javascript or applet. Certain efforts have been made to control child pornography through legislation. In 1977 the Sexual Exploitation of Children Act was put into Legislation. (U. S.

Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2253) The law prohibits the use of a minor in the making of pornography, the transport of child across state lines, the taking of a pornographic picture of a minor, and the production and circulation of materials advertising child pornography. It also prohibits the transfer, sale, purchase, and receipt of minors when the purpose of such transfer, sale, purchase, or receipt is to use the child or youth in the production of child pornography. The transportation, importation, shipment, and receipt of child pornography by any interstate means, including by mail or computer, is also prohibited.

The Child Protection Act of 1984 (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2255) efines anyone younger than the age of 18 as a child. Therefore, a sexually explicit photograph of anyone 17 years of age or younger is child pornography. On November 7, 1986, the U. S. Congress enacted the Child Sexual Abuse and Pornography Act (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2256) that banned the production and use of advertisements for child pornography and included a provision for civil remedies of personal injuries suffered by a minor who is a victim.

It also raised the minimum sentences for repeat offenders from imprisonment of not less than two years to imprisonment of not less than five years. On November 18, 1988, the U. S. Congress enacted the Child Protection and Obscenity Enforcement Act (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2256) that made it unlawful to use a computer to transmit advertisements or visual depictions of child pornography and it prohibited the buying, selling, or otherwise obtaining temporary custody or control of children for the purpose of producing child pornography.

On November 29, 1990, the U. S. Congress enacted US Code : Title 18, Section 2252 making it a federal crime to possess three or more depictions of child pornography that were mailed or shipped in nterstate or foreign commerce or that were produced using materials that were mailed or shipped by any means, including by computer. With the passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, it is a federal crime for anyone using the mail, interstate or foreign commerce, to persuade, induce, or entice any individual younger than the age of 18 to engage in any sexual act for which the person may be criminally prosecuted.

The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 amends the definition of child pornography to include that which actually depicts the sexual conduct of eal minor children and that which appears to be a depiction of a minor engaging in sexual conduct. Computer, photographic, and photocopy technology is amazingly competent at creating and altering images that have been “morphed” to look like children even though those photographed may have actually been adults.

People who alter pornographic images to look like children can now be prosecuted under the law. Abstracts for these laws can be found at http://www4. law. cornell. edu/uscode/18/. The current legislation in place at the federal and state level clearly defines child pornography, and the standard sentencing for offenders. It also clearly defines a minor and what activity involving a minor is illegal. What the legislation does not do is set the standards for retreival of evidence from an electronic device, namely computers.

Also, the current legislation does not set standards for decrypting child pornography that is protected. One example is the use of Steganography. Steganography uses a bitstream algorithm to hide information in the form of raw binary code within other files suitable to hold information. The most commonly used form of Steganography uses the least significant bit f a bitmap image to store virtually any type of information. Every three bytes in a bitmap file represents a pixel. Each of these bytes represents a level of red, blue or green.

Since there are eight bits in a byte, there can be up to 256 different combinations of 1’s and 0’s in a single byte. In the case of a bitmap, each unique combination of 1’s and 0’s represents a level of red, blue or green. When the colors are combined, there is the possibility of 256^3 or 4,294,967,296 different colors. In order to hide information within a bitmap file, the file in which you want to hide must be opied bit for bit into the last bit of each byte in the bitmap file.

This will change each pixel of the bitmap file at the most by 1 / 2,097,152, depending on whether the bit being copied is the same as the bit it is replacing. Since the human eye can only physically distinguish between an average of 250 different colors, a difference of 1 / 2,097,152 is indistinguishable. Since only one bit of the target bitmap is being used to store information, the source file can at most be 1/8 of the size of the target file. In the case of a bitmap, a high resolution picture can easily hold lower resolution picture that may contain child pornography.

Legally, if a bitmap image is found to contain a hidden image using steganography, there is no legal procedure for extracting that evidence for a court case. The prosecution would have to somehow explain how steganography works to a jury, and to the judge, and would have to prove in some way that the information found did in fact come from that bitmap file. Currently, evidence found in this manner is inadmissible in court because there is no legislation dealing with this type of evidence. Also, there is no standard approved software that will decode these files.

There are several software programs readily available on the internet which will encode or decode information using the least significant bit algorithm. One example is called Hide and Seek. Anyone can obtain this software free of charge, making it easy for child pornographers to hide their work. Another problem is illicit material that is stored on a remote computer. If the perpetrator of child pornography does not own the computer that the material is stored on, it would be difficult for law enforcement officials to obtain a warrant to search a third party’s computer.

Pornography – Sex Or Subordination

In the late Seventies, America became shocked and outraged by the rape, mutilation, and murder of over a dozen young, beautiful girls. The man who committed these murders, Ted Bundy, was later apprehended and executed. During his detention in various penitentiaries, he was mentally probed and prodded by psychologist and psychoanalysts hoping to discover the root of his violent actions and sexual frustrations. Many theories arose in attempts to explain the motivational factors behind his murderous escapades.

However, the strongest and most feasible of these theories came not from the psychologists, but from he man himself, as a teenager, my buddies and I would all sneak around and watch porn. As I grew older, I became more and more interested and involved in it, [pornography] became an obsession. I got so involved in it, I wanted to incorporate [porn] into my life, but I couldnt behave like that and maintain the success I had worked so hard for. I generated an alter-ego to fulfill my fantasies under-cover.

Pornography was a means of unlocking the evil I had burried inside myself (Leidholdt 47). Is it possible that pornography is acting as the key to unlocking the evil in more unstable minds? According to Edward Donnerstein, a leading researcher in the pornography field, the relationship between sexually violent images in the media and subsequent aggression and . . . callous attitudes towards women is much stonger statistically than the relationship between smoking and cancer (Itzin 22).

After considering the increase in rape and molestation, sexual harassment, and other sex crimes over the last few decades, and also the corresponding increase of business in the pornography industry, the link between violence and pornogrpahy needs considerable study and examination. Once the evidence you ill encounter in this paper is evaluated and quantified, it will be hard not come away with the realization that habitual use of pornographic material promotes unrealistic and unattainable desires in men that can leac to violent behavior toward women.

In order to properly discuss pornography, and be able to link it to violence, we must first come to a basic and agreeable understanding of what the word pornography means. The term pornogrpahy originates from two greek words, porne, which means harlot, and graphein, which means to write (Websters 286). My belief is that the combination of the two words was originally meant to escribe, in literature, the sexual escapades of women deemed to be whores. As time has passed, this definition of pornography has grown to include any and all obscene literature and pictures.

At the present date, the term is basically a blanket which covers all types of material such as explicit literature, photography, films, and video tapes with varying degrees of sexual content. For Catherine Itzins research purposes pornogrpahy has been divided into three categories: The sexually explicit and violent; the sexually explicit and nonviolent, but subordinating and dehumanizing; and the exually explicit, nonviolent, and nonsubordinating that is based upon mutuality.

The sexually explicit and violent is graphic, showing penetration and ejaculation. Also, it shows the violent act toward a woman. The second example shows the graphic sexual act and climax, but not a violent act. This example shows the woman being dressed is a costume or being talked down to in order to reduce her to something not human; such as a body part or just something to have sex with, a body opening or an orifice. Not only does erotica show the entire graphic sexual act, it also depicts an attraction between two people.

Her research consistently shows that harmful effects are associated with the first two, but that the third erotica, is harmless (22). These three categories basically exist as tools of discerning content. Although sometimes they overlap without a true distinction, as in when the film is graphic in the sexual act and also in violence, but shows the act as being a mutual activity between the people participating. In my view, to further divide pornography, it is possible to break it down into even simpler categories: soft and hard core pornography.

Hard core pornography is a combination of the sexually explicit and violent and the exually explicit and nonviolent, but subordinating and dehumanizing categories, previously discussed. Soft core pornography is thought to be harmless and falls into the category known as erotica; which is the category based on mutuality. In hard core pornogrpahy, commonly rated XXX, you can see graphic depictions of violent sexual acts usually with a man or group of men, deriving sexual gratification from the degradation of a woman.

You can also see women participating in demoralizing sexual behavior among themselves for the gratification of men. In a triple-X movie all physical aspects are shown, uch as extreme close-ups of genitalia, oral, vaginal, and anal penetration, and also ejaculation. Much of the time emphasis is put on the painful and humiliating experience of the woman, for the sole satisfaction of the male. Soft core pornography, or X-rated pornography, is less explicit in terms of what is shown and the sexual act is usually put in the light of mutual enjoyment for both the male and female parties(Cameron and Frazer 23).

Triple-X pornography is manufactured and sold legally in the United States. Deborah Cameron and Elizabeth Frazer point out that other forms of hard core pornography that have to be ept under wraps, made and sold illegally in underground black markets. These are ultraviolent, snuff, and child pornography. Ultraviolent tapes or videos show the actual torture, rape, and sometime mutilation of a woman. Snuff films go even future to depict the actual death of a victim, and child pornography reveals the use of under-age or pre-pubescent children for sexual purposes (17-18).

These types of pornogrpahy cross over the boundaries of entertainment and are definitely hard core. Now that pornography has been defined in a fashion mirroring its content, it is now possible to touch upon he more complex ways a community, as a society , views or defines it. Some have said it is impossible for a group of individuals to form a concrete opinion as to what pornography means. A U. S. Supreme Court judge is quoted as saying, I cant define pornography, but I know it when I see it (Itzin 20).

This statement can be heard at community meetings in every state, city, and county across the nation. Community standards are hazy due to the fact that when asked what pornography is to them, most individuals cannot express or explain in words what pornography is, therefore creating confusion among hemselves. Communities are left somewhat helpless in this matter since the federal courts passed legislation to keep pornography available to adults.

The courts assess that to ban or censor the material would be infringing on the publics First Amendment Right (Carol 28). Maureen OBrien quotes critics of a congressionally terminated bill, the Pornography Victims Compensation Act, as saying That if it had passed, it would have had severely chilling effects on the First Amendment, allowing victims of sexual crimes to file suit against producers and distributors of any work that was proven to have had aused the attack, such as graphic material in books, magazines, videos, films, and records (7).

People in a community debating over pornography often have different views as to whether or not it should even be made available period, and some could even argue this point against the types of women used in pornography: A far greater variety of female types are shown as desirable in pornography than mainstream films and network television have ever recognized: fat women, flat women, hairy women, aggressive women, older women, you name it (Carol 25).

If we could all decide on just exactly what pornography is nd what is acceptable, there wouldnt be so much debate over the issue of censoring it. The bounds of community standards have been stretched by mainstreaming movies, opening the way even further for the legalization of more explicit fare (Jenish 53). In most contemporary communities explicit sex that is without violent or dehumanizing acts is acceptable in American society today. These community standards have not been around very long.

When movies were first brought out, they were heavily restricted and not protected by the First Amendment, because films then were looked upon only as iversionary entertainment and business. Even though sexual images were highly monitored, the movie industry was hit so hard during the Great Depression that film-makers found themselves sneaking in as much sexual content as possible, even then they saw that sex sells (Clark 1029).

Films were highly restricted throughout the 30s, 40s, and 50s by the industry, but once independent films of the 60s such as: Bonnie and Clyde and Whose afraid of Virginia Woolfe? Clark 1029-30), both with explicit language, sexual innuendo, and violence started out-performing the larger wholesome production companies, many of the arriers holding sex and violence back were torn down in the name of profit .

Adult content was put into movies long ago, we have become more immune and cant expect it to get any better or to go away. Porn is here for good. Pornography is a multi-million dollar international industry, ultimately run by organized crime all over the world, and is produced by the respectable mainstream publishing business companies (Itzin 21).

Although the publishing companies are thought to be respectable, people generally stereotype buyers and users of pornographic material as dirty old men in trenchcoats, ut most patrons of adult stores are well-educated people with disposable income (Jenish 52). Porno movies provide adults of both genders with activities they normally wouldnt get in everyday life, such as oral pleasures or different types of fetishes. Ultimately adult entertainment is just a quick-fix for grown-ups, as junk-food would be for small children. Pornographys main purpose is to serve as masturbatory stimuli for males and to provide a sexual vent.

Although in the beginning, society saw it as perverted and sinful, it was still considered relatively harmless. Today there is one case studie, standing out rom the rest, that tends to shatter this illusion. The study done my Monica D. Weisz and Christopher M. Earls used eighty-seven males . . . that were randomly shown one of four films, by researchers William Tooke and Martin Lalumiere: Deliverance, Straw Dogs, Die Hard II, and Days of Thunder, for a study on how they would react to questions about sexual violence and offenders after watching.

In the four films there is sexual aggression against a male, sexual aggression against a female, physical aggression, and neutrality-no explicit scenes of physical or sexual aggression. Out of this study the ales were more acceptable of interpersonal violence and rape myths and also more attracted to sexual aggression. These same males were less sympathetic to rape victims and were noted less likely to find a defendant guilty of rape (71). These four above mentioned movies are mainstreamed R-rated films.

If a mainstream movie can cause this kind of distortion of value and morality, then it should become evident that continuous viewing/use of pornographic films depicting violent sex and aggression could lead vulnerable persons into performing or participating in sexual violence against their partners or against a stranger. Bill Marshall, psychology professor at Queens University and director of a sexual behavior clinic in Kingston, interviewed one-hundred and twenty men, between the years 1980 and 1985, who had molested children or raped women.

In his conclusion he found that pornography appeared to be a significant factor in the chain of events leading up to a deviant act in 25% of these cases (Nicols 60). The results of this study should prove that pornography obviously has a down side to it. According to Mark Nicols, a psychology professor at the University of Michigan, Neil Malamuth, concludes quite autiously that some messages combined with other factors, including the viewers personality type, in pornography can lead to antisocial behavior and make individuals less sensitive to violence.

Dr. Marshall also quotes men in Nicols article as saying, that they looked at pornography with the intent to masturbate, but then became aroused, and decided to go out and assault a woman or child. Men who are drawn into pornography and use it frequently, have also been proven to suggest more lenient prison terms for sex offenders (60). If this previous statement is true, should we reevaluate how many men serve on juries for hese trials? Itzin gives possible support for these theories.

It can be found in the case of an ex-prostitute who had her pubic hair removed with a jackknife and was forced by her pimp to be filmed reenacting what they had seen in pornographic movies; she was sexually assaulted and forced to have intercourse with animals, generally dogs. Another such case is one of a woman who reports having metal clips attached to her breasts, being tied to a chair, and being raped and beaten continuously for twelve hours (22-24). The dehumanizing, degradation, and reduction of a womans body isnt just a result of viewed pornography, it is ften inseminated into the production of a pornographic project.

During the making of Deep Throat, a 1970s pornographic film, Linda Marchiano (a. k. a. Linda Lovelace), was presented to the public as a liberated woman with an ever present and unfulfilled appetite for fellatio. What isnt known to the general public is that during the making of the movie, she was hypnotized to suppress the natural gagging reaction, was tortured when caught trying to escape, and also held at gun-point by her boss, who threatened her with death (Itzin 22).

Ms. Marchiano did escape and when her story was told, it was epeated by a number of women in the pornography business. According to DArcy Jenish many children are lured into the pornography industry by choosing first to model. These young teens egos are boosted when they are told [they have good bodies], and are asked if they work out?. More often than not, they are told to take off [their] shirts, and then asked Do you feel nervous? (36). These youngsters honestly dont know when too much is too much, and what they dont know could put them in serious danger.

Calvin Klein, once known for being a reputable clothing designer, is now known for his racy ads using teens. Some feel he crossed the line when he chose this type of advertising. Jenish observes that these advertisements featured an array of . . . teen-aged models dressed in loose jeans or hiked-up skirts, one showing bare breasts, others offering androgynous models kissing (36). If adults in positions of power act this way, these youngsters cannot expect other adults to act any differently. Therefore they accept this type of behavior as normal.

Diana Russell claims that tactics like these are being used more often in advertising and television, which has led media watchdogs and anti-porn activists to believe hat this sort of masked imitation of pornography tricks mainstream television viewers into having an everybodys doing it attitude about pornography. She also feels that this attitude subconsciously leads them into seeking pornography out (39). We need to show the younger generation that everyone is not doing it, and that it is all right not to have sex if they feel pressured.

Another problem anti-pornography activists believe arises from regular viewing of pornography, is the acceptance of rape myths. Rape myth is a term pertaining to peoples views on rape, rapists, and sexual ssaults, wherein it is assumed that the victim of a sexual crime is either partially or completely to blame (Allen 6). To help understand the rape myth a Rape Myth Acceptance Scale was established, which lists some of the most prominent beliefs that a person accepting the rape myth has. Men and women were exposed to over four hours of exotic video (of varying types; i. e. soft, hard core, etc. ) and then asked to answer a set of questions meant to gage their attitudes of sex crimes. All the men were proven to be more accepting to rape myths, and surprisingly, over half of the women were also (123). Once again, the women in these films were portrayed as insatiable and in need of constant fulfillment.

After so much exposure to women in this light from films and books, it is generally taken for granted that women should emulate this type of behavior in real life(125). omment? Of all the studies and examples from real life situations connecting pornography with violent behavior and sexual aggressiveness, none are more concrete than the activities the Serbian military are part of every day now in the Bosnian war. Part of the ethnic cleansing process the Serbs are practicing in Bosnia involves the ang-raping of all Muslim and Croatian women. Andrea Dworkin states that it is mandatory for the Serbian soldiers to rape the wives and female children of Muslim men.

Concentration camps are set up as brothels where women are ordered to satisfy the soldiers in the most painful and dehumanizing ways imaginable. The women in these camps are taped with cam-corders and the videos are displayed everywhere throughout the camps to lower the womans will and need to resist. Were do the soldiers get the inspiration to commit these crimes, from commercial pornography. Serbian troops are basically force-fed porn; t is present all through training and is made readily available to (even pushed upon) the soldiers.

They are basically asked to watch and learn. After the seed is planted not much is needed to be done, because they are naturally instilled with the desire to repeat what they have seen, and are not concerned with the feelings of the women. They have seen that some women have no feelings and are meant to be used merely for sexual gratification (M2-M6). To add insult to injury, some of the tapes of these women being victimized have entered the black market, being sold internationally, possible infecting the minds of millions.

Child Pornography On The Internet

In this new age of Information, the Internet has made all types of information readily available. Some of this information can be very useful, some can be malicious. Child pornography, also known as Paedophilia is one of these problems. Any one person can find child pornography on the internet with just a few clicks of the mouse using any search engine. Despite webmaster’s and law enforcement officials’ efforts to control child pornography and shut down illegal sites, new sites are posted using several ways to mask their identity. The Internet provides a new world for curious children.

It offers entertainment, opportunities for education, information and communication. The Internet is a tool that opens a window of opportunities. As Internet use grows, so do the risks of children being exposed to inappropriate material, in particular, criminal activity by paedophiles and child pornographers. Many children first come in contact with the Internet at a very young age. Some children become victims of child pornography through close relatives who may have abused them. Some children become involved with chat services or newsgroup threads.

It is usually through these sites hat they meet child pornographers. Children may be asked to send explicit pictures of themselves taken either by a digital camera or scanned from a polaroid. The pornographer will then post the pictures on their web site, sometimes hiding them through encryption, steganography or password protecting them using a javascript or applet. Certain efforts have been made to control child pornography through legislation. In 1977 the Sexual Exploitation of Children Act was put into Legislation. (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2253)

The law prohibits the use of a minor in the making of pornography, the transport of child across state lines, the taking of a pornographic picture of a minor, and the production and circulation of materials advertising child pornography. It also prohibits the transfer, sale, purchase, and receipt of minors when the purpose of such transfer, sale, purchase, or receipt is to use the child or youth in the production of child pornography. The transportation, importation, shipment, and receipt of child pornography by any interstate means, including by mail or computer, is also prohibited.

The Child Protection Act of 1984 (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2255) efines anyone younger than the age of 18 as a child. Therefore, a sexually explicit photograph of anyone 17 years of age or younger is child pornography. On November 7, 1986, the U. S. Congress enacted the Child Sexual Abuse and Pornography Act (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2256) that banned the production and use of advertisements for child pornography and included a provision for civil remedies of personal injuries suffered by a minor who is a victim.

It also raised the minimum sentences for repeat offenders from imprisonment of not less than two years to imprisonment of not less than five years. On November 18, 1988, the U. S. Congress enacted the Child Protection and Obscenity Enforcement Act (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2256) that made it unlawful to use a computer to transmit advertisements or visual depictions of child pornography and it prohibited the buying, selling, or otherwise obtaining temporary custody or control of children for the purpose of producing child pornography.

On November 29, 1990, the U. S. Congress enacted US Code : Title 18, Section 2252 making it a federal crime to possess three or more depictions of child pornography that were mailed or shipped in nterstate or foreign commerce or that were produced using materials that were mailed or shipped by any means, including by computer. With the passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, it is a federal crime for anyone using the mail, interstate or foreign commerce, to persuade, induce, or entice any individual younger than the age of 18 to engage in any sexual act for which the person may be criminally prosecuted.

The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 amends the definition of child pornography to include that which actually depicts the sexual conduct of eal minor children and that which appears to be a depiction of a minor engaging in sexual conduct. Computer, photographic, and photocopy technology is amazingly competent at creating and altering images that have been “morphed” to look like children even though those photographed may have actually been adults.

People who alter pornographic images to look like children can now be prosecuted under the law. Abstracts for these laws can be found at http://www4. law. cornell. edu/uscode/18/. The current legislation in place at the federal and state level clearly defines child pornography, and the standard sentencing for offenders. It also clearly defines a minor and what activity involving a minor is illegal. What the legislation does not do is set the standards for retreival of evidence from an electronic device, namely computers.

Also, the current legislation does not set standards for decrypting child pornography that is protected. One example is the use of Steganography. Steganography uses a bitstream algorithm to hide information in the form of raw binary code within other files suitable to hold information. The most commonly used form of Steganography uses the least significant bit f a bitmap image to store virtually any type of information. Every three bytes in a bitmap file represents a pixel. Each of these bytes represents a level of red, blue or green.

Since there are eight bits in a byte, there can be up to 256 different combinations of 1’s and 0’s in a single byte. In the case of a bitmap, each unique combination of 1’s and 0’s represents a level of red, blue or green. When the colors are combined, there is the possibility of 256^3 or 4,294,967,296 different colors. In order to hide information within a bitmap file, the file in which you want to hide must be opied bit for bit into the last bit of each byte in the bitmap file.

This will change each pixel of the bitmap file at the most by 1 / 2,097,152, depending on whether the bit being copied is the same as the bit it is replacing. Since the human eye can only physically distinguish between an average of 250 different colors, a difference of 1 / 2,097,152 is indistinguishable. Since only one bit of the target bitmap is being used to store information, the source file can at most be 1/8 of the size of the target file. In the case of a bitmap, a high resolution picture can easily hold lower resolution picture that may contain child pornography.

Legally, if a bitmap image is found to contain a hidden image using steganography, there is no legal procedure for extracting that evidence for a court case. The prosecution would have to somehow explain how steganography works to a jury, and to the judge, and would have to prove in some way that the information found did in fact come from that bitmap file. Currently, evidence found in this manner is inadmissible in court because there is no legislation dealing with this type of evidence. Also, there is no standard approved software that will decode these files.

There are several software programs readily available on the internet which will encode or decode information using the least significant bit algorithm. One example is called Hide and Seek. Anyone can obtain this software free of charge, making it easy for child pornographers to hide their work. Another problem is illicit material that is stored on a remote computer. If the perpetrator of child pornography does not own the computer that the material is stored on, it would be difficult for law enforcement officials to obtain a warrant to search a third party’s computer.

Pornography For The Increase In Sexual Violence

The causes of the deterioration of society are attributed to many parts of human nature. Actions, feelings, and events have all been blamed for the rise in crime and violence. None of these, however, have created as much controversy as pornography. Anti-pornography groups have tried to make all forms of this entertainment illegal. These activists blame pornography for the increase in sexual violence, the degradation of women, and a blockade to the first amendment. Truly a multi-media event, pornography can be seen in magazines, theaters, television programming, bars, clubs, telephone numbers, and the Internet.

The term pornography is derived from the Greek word prone, which means whore, and graphing, which means, to write. So, literally, pornography translates to the writings of harlots or depictions of acts of prostitutes. The broad field of pornography is divided into two fields, hard-core and soft core. The difference between the two is that in hard-core porn, genital manipulation and penetration are visible (Media and Gender Monitor). Hard-core pornography can only be bought in specialty, adult only stores. Other ways that this can be seen is through pay-per view and the Internet.

Late night movies on ShowTime and other premium cable channels are good examples of soft-core pornography. These movies often show nudity and sexual situations. However, these shows never show the act of intercourse explicitly (Media and Gender Monitor). Magazines like Playboy and Penthouse are not exactly true pornography because there is no sex involved at all. Magazines, like these, are characterized as exotica (McElroy). Even though hard-core pornography is harder to get than soft-core, many moral conservatives and radical feminists choose to blur the distinction. Most even include erotica in as pornography.

This causes problems because these activist groups are trying to ban everything pornographic. For example, conservatives and feminists are trying to link the increase in sexual violence with pornography. The increase in violence has never even been proven in relation to hard-core pornography. Most of the groups that conduct experiments in attempt to prove this theory must find no conclusive evidence. Both the pro-censorship Meese Commission Report and Metropolitan Toronto Task Force on Violence Against Women have admitted that none of the research has been consistent linking violence to pornography (McElroy).

Obviously, if hard-core porn does not even evoke violence, imagining violence stemming from the harmless pictures in magazines, which are often tastefully done, is absurd. Also, pornography is considered violent because women are coerced into [sexual acts] (McElroy). However, the accounts of actual rape and abuse that occur as a direct result of porn are very few in regard to the amount of women in the industry. As mentioned earlier, the films and pictures themselves are not conducive to sexual violence either.

Women in abusive consensual relationships or women often report the violence that is documented within the industry from abusive childhoods (Media and Gender Monitor). In reality, an experiment conducted by Dr. Suzanne Ageton showed that membership in a delinquent peer group accounted for three-quarters of sexual aggression. Comparison of sex crimes by nation is interesting as well. Japan, whose pornography is extremely violent and unrestricted, has only 2. 4 rapes per 100,000 people. On the other hand, the United States boasts a whopping 34. 5 rapes per 100,000 (Feminism).

Anti-pornography advocates have made accusations concerning the degradation of women. Pro-sex feminists, however, vehemently deny this. These women feel that pornography liberates women to express themselves in roles that society has dubbed taboo. Wendy McElroy, author of the book XXX: A Womans Right to Pornography, writes, Pro-sex feminists retain a consistent interpretation of the principle a womans body, a womans right and insist that every peaceful choice a woman makes with her own body must be accorded full legal protection, if not respect (McElroy).

The president of the ACLU also defends the right to pornography with respect to womens rights. Not only is she the ACLUs president, but also Nadine Strossen has written a book entitled Defending Pornography. Some sex industry workers affirm their occupational choice in explicitly feminist terms, stressing that they find it empowering as well as enjoyable (Strossen 186). The one idea that all these pro-sex activists believe in is that porn benefits women, both politically and personally. The pro-sex defense of pornography includes three tiers (McElroy). Porn can be very educational.

Many women pass through adulthood never knowing how to pleasure themselves completely. In this way, pornography steps in as an extension of the proverbial birds and bees speech. Watching videos lets women safely experience sexual situations that may be otherwise dangerous. Polls show that the number one sexual fantasy of women is one that includes being taken, or more blatantly, rape (Cosmopolitan). Naturally, a woman cannot go out and look to fulfill such a fantasy safely. Pornography allows these feelings and urges to be released in a controlled atmosphere (McElroy).

The third level of sexual benefits of porn says, Pornography provides a sexual outlet for those who for whatever reason have no sexual partner. Perhaps they are away form home, recently widowed, or isolated because of infirmity (McElroy). Now that pornography has become closer to mainstream entertainment, many new genres and videos are being made with the intentions of woman audiences. Studies have shown that at least half of all sales and rentals of pornographic materials are purchased by either women who are alone or women who are with a significant other (Feminism).

Yet another argument about the degradation of women entails that women are exploited and victimized. All supporters of pornography simply challenge these nay Sayers to find a career where women are not exploited. The only way to change this problem is through severe advancements in our culture itself (Feminism). Perhaps the most controversial part of the degradation argument ties in with interpretation and freedom of speech problems. Who is to say what is degrading to a woman?

What is degrading to a conservative catholic woman will be completely different than what a rebellious teen of the millenium may find offensive. Pro-sex activists claim that porn does not degrade women; sexism is what degrades women. Again, to rid society of sexism is a task, which is not to be completed in the foreseeable future (Feminism). The final point that is a main argument of pornography defenders is the right upheld by the First Amendment of the Constitution. Freedom of speech, press, and media covers all pornographic material.

There is no way to restrict some speech, but not too much speech or wrong speech (Strossen). The proposed solution offered by advocates of pornography is, If you do not like to see it, do not look at it (Media and gender Monitor). Pornography is already restricted in many ways in attempt to placate the moral conservatives and the radical feminists. The youngest legal age to purchase and possess pornographic material is eighteen years old. All stores that sell videos and magazines are required to check identifications when selling this material.

All adult stores do not even admit minors to enter. On satellite and cable television, pornographic shows are only available through an optional pay-per-view service. Topless bars and strip joints, obviously, are not allowed to admit anyone who is underage in to see the shows. Most recently, pornography on the Internet is becoming heavily restricted. Many web sites have conceived clever plans that make Internet users prove appropriate age in order to view objectionable material (Media and Gender Monitor).

In light of the arguments made in defense of pornography, this specific type of erotic entertainment must remain legal. If the government curtails to the wishes of the anti-pornography groups, other protesters concerning other causes may use pornography as a precedent for their own case. By mistakenly banning porn, the government may open a Pandoras Box of censorship. Who would have guessed that something as human and natural as sexual feelings and expressions would be harder to agree on as say a real controversy such as abortion?

Limiting Childrens Access To Internet Pornography

Pornography is one of mankinds most revered, respected, and repulsed pastimes. Adults can use pornography to relieve stress, enhance their sex lives, or simply as a means of entertainment. One of the easiest and most popular ways of obtaining pornographic material is over the Internet. The only downside is that the Internet is accessible to children; therefore, pornography is accessible to children. While adults should have limitless access to Internet porn, minors should be kept away from this concubine. Usage of Internet pornography grows rapidly every day.

It can be accessed easily enough by anyone that wishes to see the material, has a modem, and some times a wishful intent. The material ranges from semi-nude photos to videos of men and women having sexual intercourse with farm animals. Porn is attainable by going to a site that advertises it, or by typing anything remotely perverted in your web browser. The problem with this is that most pornographic sites do not use adult verification systems. Even if they do, the material can still be sampled before users fully journey into the site.

This is where the problems lye; because of Internet pornographys popularity and the growth being so strong it is everywhere and has become hard to adequately control. It is probable to say that anyone who has been on the net long enough, regardless of age, will come across Internet pornography. Proprietors of Internet pornography are in business to make money, and will do anything to achieve this. They advertise their websites by a variety of ways, one of which is by buying space on a website. With this many problems arise, for anyone who visits these sites become unwilling subjects of Internet porn.

The Internet porn industry has little regards for the unknowing victim. Some advocates of decency have taken up the tremendous workload of taming Internet pornography. Their biggest reason is the endangerment of American children that use the Internet. Children can be endangered in many ways, one of which is being lured by a pedophile and possibly sexually assaulted. A pedophile is an adult with a psychosexual disorder where children stimulate sexual arousal. There is evidence that children who have been sexually victimized are more likely to be troubled adults.

Advocates worry about the safety of the American children and wish to eliminate this from happening. A recent example is People v. Barrows, 174 Misc. 2d 367, 664 N. Y. S. 2d 410 (1997): an adult, James Barrows, entered an AOL chat room and seduced what he thought was a thirteen year old girl, who in actuality was an officer of Kings County District Attorney. Barrows had transmitted pictures of under-aged children having sex, engaged in sexually explicit conversations and attempted to lure the child to engage in sexual acts. Barrows was one of the few pedophiles to be caught and brought to justice.

One proposal that was struck down from protecting children is the Communications Decency Act (CDA). Janet Reno, Attorney General of the United States, argued that the CDA was in violation of the U. S. Constitution and laws that would be enacted were clear and undefined. If made into law, the CDA could severely censor the Internet in ways that were never attempted before. It would filter out anything that is deemed obscene and pornographic. Those opposed to the CDA claim because of its ambiguity, the CDA could infringe on Americans Constitutional rights.

The CDA proposed that anyone sending material classified as obscene to a minor would be penalized and prosecuted under law. The question in debate is who and what would determine the classification of obscene. Even if the CDA was passed little that can be done to stop all transmitted obscene material. The Internet has experienced an extraordinary growth. The number of host computersthose that store information and relay communicationsincreased from about 300 in 1981 to approximately 9,400,000 by the time of the trial in 1996. Roughly 60% of these hosts are located in the United States.

About 40 million people used the Internet at the time of trial, a number that expected to mushroom to 200 million by 2000. How can it be possible to regulate all Internet transmissions with user numbers at 200 million? Another problem that arises is the fact that not all Internet sites can quantifiably prove that the user wishing to browse their domain is of legal age. An annoy-mailer can be used to hide the identity of the user. Some sites require the use of a credit card in order to view its contents, but credit card numbers are easy to obtain.

This limitation of proof is being minutely controlled by a number of sites dedicated to helping parents censor what their children see. This might possibly be the first step in what will protect the American children from viewing obscene material. One such site, Mcgruff. com, gives Internet safety tips for parents. It explains to tell children about the Internet, and how to let parents know if there are any materials or persons online that makes a child feel uncomfortable. In addition, never meet with anyone face to face from which they have met off the Internet.

Children should be taught about exploitation, pornography, hate literature, excessive violence and other issues that concern them. One way that this can be controlled by using software designed to block offensive materials. Net Nanny is one type of software that will censor any obscene materials. The program scans the web page for any text that is deemed offensive. After the program finds the site obscene, it will not let the user view the materials. Using such a type of program will protect children only if the site contains such text. Otherwise, the child will be able to view the adult materials.

One possibility, created and passed into law, is encoding the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http) and File Transfer Protocol (ftp) that would make Internet pornographic sites easier to be censored by software similar to Net Nanny. This would make it easier since the program will not only scan the page the entire site itself. Sites will be censored by a certain code that is relayed to the computer when the Internet navigator tries to enter the site. The computer will send a request and the site will send an answer, or a code that will trigger the software telling it that this is an adult site; thus, children cannot browse the site.

It would be a hard task to make every pornographic site adhere to the law; of all pornographic sites in existence, 70% are run from American locals. While many adults have and will use the Internet to achieve pornographic nirvana, children need to be kept out of its confines. Censoring can only be taken so far before someones Constitutional rights are infringed upon. The most practical and effective way to ensure your childs safety is to talk to them about the hazards of the internet and to monitor who and what they interact with while surfing the web.

Child Pornography on the Internet

In this new age of Information, the Internet has made all types of information readily available. Some of this information can be very useful, some can be malicious. Child pornography, also known as Paedophilia is one of these problems. Any one person can find child pornography on the internet with just a few clicks of the mouse using any search engine. Despite webmaster’s and law enforcement officials’ efforts to control child pornography and shut down illegal sites, new sites are posted using several ways to mask their identity. The Internet provides a new world for curious children.

It offers entertainment, opportunities for education, information and communication. The Internet is a tool that opens a window of opportunities. As Internet use grows, so do the risks of children being exposed to inappropriate material, in particular, criminal activity by paedophiles and child pornographers. Many children first come in contact with the Internet at a very young age. Some children become victims of child pornography through close relatives who may have abused them. Some children become involved with chat services or newsgroup threads.

It is usually through these sites hat they meet child pornographers. Children may be asked to send explicit pictures of themselves taken either by a digital camera or scanned from a polaroid. The pornographer will then post the pictures on their web site, sometimes hiding them through encryption, steganography or password protecting them using a javascript or applet. Certain efforts have been made to control child pornography through legislation. In 1977 the Sexual Exploitation of Children Act was put into Legislation.

The law prohibits the use of a minor in the making of pornography, the transport of child across state lines, the taking of a pornographic picture of a minor, and the production and circulation of materials advertising child pornography. It also prohibits the transfer, sale, purchase, and receipt of minors when the purpose of such transfer, sale, purchase, or receipt is to use the child or youth in the production of child pornography. The transportation, importation, shipment, and receipt of child pornography by any interstate means, including by mail or computer, is also prohibited.

The Child Protection Act of 1984 (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2255) efines anyone younger than the age of 18 as a child. Therefore, a sexually explicit photograph of anyone 17 years of age or younger is child pornography. On November 7, 1986, the U. S. Congress enacted the Child Sexual Abuse and Pornography Act (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2256) that banned the production and use of advertisements for child pornography and included a provision for civil remedies of personal injuries suffered by a minor who is a victim.

It also raised the minimum sentences for repeat offenders from imprisonment of not less than two years to imprisonment of not less than five years. On November 18, 1988, the U. S. Congress enacted the Child Protection and Obscenity Enforcement Act (U. S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2256) that made it unlawful to use a computer to transmit advertisements or visual depictions of child pornography and it prohibited the buying, selling, or otherwise obtaining temporary custody or control of children for the purpose of producing child pornography.

On November 29, 1990, the U. S.Congress enacted US Code : Title 18, Section 2252 making it a federal crime to possess three or more depictions of  child pornography that were mailed or shipped in nterstate or foreign commerce or that were produced using materials that were mailed or shipped by any means, including by computer. With the passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, it is a federal crime for anyone using the mail, interstate or foreign commerce, to persuade, induce, or entice any individual younger than the age of 18 to engage in any sexual act for which the person may be criminally prosecuted.

The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 amends the definition of child pornography to include that which actually depicts the sexual conduct of eal minor children and that which appears to be a depiction of a minor engaging in sexual conduct. Computer, photographic, and photocopy technology is amazingly competent at creating and altering images that have been “morphed” to look like children even though those photographed may have actually been adults.

People who alter pornographic images to look like children can now be prosecuted under the law. Abstracts for these laws can be found at http://www4. law. cornell. edu/uscode/18/. The current legislation in place at the federal and state level clearly defines child pornography, and the standard sentencing for offenders. It also clearly defines a minor and what activity involving a minor is illegal. What the legislation does not do is set the standards for retreival of evidence from an electronic device, namely computers.

Also, the current legislation does not set standards for decrypting child pornography that is protected. One example is the use of Steganography. Steganography uses a bitstream algorithm to hide information in the form of raw binary code within other files suitable to hold information. The most commonly used form of Steganography uses the least significant bit f a bitmap image to store virtually any type of information. Every three bytes in a bitmap file represents a pixel. Each of these bytes represents a level of red, blue or green.

Since there are eight bits in a byte, there can be up to 256 different combinations of 1’s and 0’s in a single byte. In the case of a bitmap, each unique combination of 1’s and 0’s represents a level of red, blue or green. When the colors are combined, there is the possibility of 256^3 or 4,294,967,296 different colors. In order to hide information within a bitmap file, the file in which you want to hide must be opied bit for bit into the last bit of each byte in the bitmap file.

This will change each pixel of the bitmap file at the most by 1 / 2,097,152, depending on whether the bit being copied is the same as the bit it is replacing. Since the human eye can only physically distinguish between an average of 250 different colors, a difference of 1 / 2,097,152 is indistinguishable. Since only one bit of the target bitmap is being used to store information, the source file can at most be 1/8 of the size of the target file. In the case of a bitmap, a high resolution picture can easily hold lower resolution picture that may contain child pornography.

Legally, if a bitmap image is found to contain a hidden image using steganography, there is no legal procedure for extracting that evidence for a court case. The prosecution would have to somehow explain how steganography works to a jury, and to the judge, and would have to prove in some way that the information found did in fact come from that bitmap file. Currently, evidence found in this manner is inadmissible in court because there is no legislation dealing with this type of evidence. Also, there is no standard approved software that will decode these files.

There are several software programs readily available on the internet which will encode or decode information using the least significant bit algorithm. One example is called Hide and Seek. Anyone can obtain this software free of charge, making it easy for child pornographers to hide their work. Another problem is illicit material that is stored on a remote computer. If the perpetrator of child pornography does not own the computer that the material is stored on, it would be difficult for law enforcement officials to obtain a warrant to search a third party’s computer.

Pornography in the Media

It started by way of messengers and scribes, evolved through the presentation of newspapers and radio, brought us together with television, and now serves us world-wide via the ever-popular Internet. It is the mass media, and even from the earliest days of its existence, it has contributed greatly in ways that both enlighten and enrich society, and ways that deteriorate and perplex it. It is not a surprise to learn, then, that the mass media is the most powerful source of information we have, and nothing else in todays world influences public perception quite as heavily.

Unfortunately, however, most of what is broadcast or ransmitted in the news today is with reference to the chaotic condition of our planet, or something else that society as a whole sees as detrimental or damaging. But the news on television is not the only type of media taking the criticism of society. Other forms of mass media, specifically movies and television programs containing pornography and violence have been heavily criticized. The underlining concept to be debated here is that society is negatively influenced, specifically, by these images of pornography and the result is increased violence against women.

This assumption, and it is indeed nly an assumption, is completely fallacious, however, as no concrete and completely conclusive evidence has ever been formulated in support of the theory. The key premise here is that the mass media does not cause undesirable social behaviour and in actuality, the media people should not be dubbed as the bad guys. They simply use their power in the most constructive ways possible in order to promote their ratings and popularity. One way to do that is to concentrate on what sells: sex, violence and disaster.

Having said this, why is it then, that many in society still believe otherwise; why do they continue to believe that pornography is vil and is a major cause for violence against women, specifically rape? There are many reasons for this misinterpretation and through the following few points, an attempt will be made to show that pornography has very little to almost no correlation with violence against women (of course nothing is absolute in society). In order to demonstrate this, it must be made evident that pornography is not evil and does not cause undesirable social behaviour by displaying nude women in sexually explicit circumstances.

Thus, it is important to indicate that women are not treated only as sexual objects through he media. This is done in an attempt to quash any traces of evil in pornography. Subsequently, a second point, that some may consider to be completely bizarre, can be addressed; that pornography actually reduces the amount of violence against women. For thousands of years, sex itself has been considered evil and revolting. This is exactly why the concealment of the sex organs and teaching feelings of shame toward human sexuality is so common worldwide (Christensen 1990:4).

These same feelings of shame are the chief reasons that sex is considered a personal and private matter. Contrary to the beliefs of many, the mass media did not create these settings; society creates this image. In some societies, women have no reservations with regard to living their entire lives completely naked, while in other societies, females cover themselves from head to toe, only revealing their eyes. The media has been bombarded with criticism, overwhelmingly from the female community, relative to the amount of sexually explicit material that is published in magazines and that appears on television and in the cinemas.

A common argument against pornography is that the media portrays women as being nothing ore than sexual playthings and objects to satisfy male sexual desires. As before, the media once again, is not to be held responsible for creating this image; these views are products of It would be downright absurd to assume that women in this society are treated as sexual objects only because the media releases or broadcasts pornographic material. A magazine associated with make-up and skin care, for example, will quite obviously not be concentrating on much else.

Such a magazine would not display pictures of women who mountain-climb or women who water-ski; only images of make-up and text referring to skin care would be relevant. Clearly, society does not consider women to be beings whos only purpose in life is to worry about make-up and skin care; but why are the complaints only directed towards pornographic media then? The answer to this question may be more complicated, however, what remains obvious is that the media does not portray women as only being able to fill male sexual desires. To say that pictures featuring nudity, etc, are making objects out of women is foolish.

One should consider females who pin-up posters of male rock stars or children who collect hockey or baseball cards. Society, however, does not say that objects re being made out of these rock stars and sports heroes; pictures of clothed people are no less objects than pictures of naked people. Many complaints are also made to the effect that pornography only offers a one-dimensional view to life; that women are seen as nymphomaniacs who are hysterically addicted to sex. It should be pointed out that events such as hockey games, boxing matches, horse races and operas all offer a one-dimensional view of life.

One does not attend an opera hoping to see a horse race. The underlying problem here is that the above mentioned events are socially cceptable; media displaying pornography is not. It is also said that the media reduces women to a collection of body parts through pornography (Christensen 1990:74). But why then are their no complaints of advertisements in magazines displaying only ears, for example, or a nose, or feet? The reason is a simple one; society considers certain body parts to be shameful or disgusting and once again, the media can be let off the hook.

Realistically, the only way to prevent women from being seen as sex objects is for them to be seen as other things as well; but to say that women are not sexual beings would be misleading because both en and women are very much sexual (Christensen 1990:42). Similarly, to say that women are singled out in the media is fallacious due to the many examples of media where men are seen catering to the needs of women; something known as chivralic sexism (Christensen 1990:42). Take, for instance, a recent television ad portraying young men groveling at the feet of supermodel Cindy Crawford, almost begging to be the one to cater to her needs.

There were no lineups of men aching to announce their displeasure with the sexist ad; and this is precisely why male stereotyping in the media often goes unnoticed. Similarly, it is pornography in the media that is noticed and shunned by anti-pornographic and censorship organizations because it seemingly singles out females for their bodies. It should be well noted, however, that paperback romance novels, which make up an incredible 40% of total paperback sales (Gerbner 1988:15), depicts males as sexual objects, performing what is called Sweet Savagery (rape), just as pornography depicts females as sexual objects.

But once It is fundamentally important to realize that the media does not deliberately create images of hate or disagreement (Howitt, Cumberbatch 1975:80). They just influence the more appealing things in society (thus directly increasing their ratings). Although it is obvious that pornography is largely a male interest, a noted increase in female interest would certainly cause an increase in the amount of pornographic material geared for women; this relates to the laws of the business world (Christensen 1990:50).

Having discussed the untruthfulness of the claims against pornography and showing that pornography is not evil, it is now possible to consider the violence issue. Are men who are exposed to pornography likely to commit violent acts, such as rape against women, ore so than men who are not exposed to pornography? It is tempting to believe that media influences males and overstimulates them through pornography to the point that they become aggressive towards females. But this is completely baseless; just as pornography arouses or stimulates, it also satisfies.

The American Commission on Obscenity and Pornography performed a study in which several college students were asked to spend one and a half hours in an isolated room with a large volume of pornographic media, as well as a large volume of non-explicit media such as Readers Digest (Howitt, Cumberbatch 1975:80). The study was conducted over a three week period over which time it was discovered that the males involved in the experiment began to lose interest, or become desensitized to the erotic media nearing the end of the experiment, even if new material was added.

To address the argument that males are pushed over the brink into committing rape because of pornography, one may point to the evidence above; to cover the female body would theoretically only increase male sexual desires. Four more separate experiments were conducted of which the above was one. Three other experiments came to the conclusions that ornography does not cause violence against women and reported that the number of sex offenders that had been exposed to pornographic material were smaller in number than the amount of sex-offenders that had not been exposed to pornography (Christensen 1990:130; Harmon, Check 1988:28-30).

These results can be offered as evidence against the claim that males become overstimulated and thus dangerous when exposed to pornography. Other experiments conducted in the early 1980s by the Williams Committee in England, reported that as the availability and abundance of sexually explicit material increased, he number of violent sex crimes such as rape did not increase, but in fact decreased in many areas (Christensen 1990:128-129). So what is it about pornography that women and anti-pornography organizations do not like? Violence!

One of the greatest myths about pornography is that it contains an excess of violence against women inevitably resulting in real-life violence against women. Anti-pornography groups release propaganda that the media approves of violence against women through pornography. In actuality, however, the total amount of violence in sex-related movies was found to be approximately 6% in a study by T. Palys in the early 1980s in Vancouver, Canada. Even this material was almost entirely composed of verbal threats and spanking (Christensen 1990:59).

In addition to the above, studies in Ohio also found that the amount of violence in G-Rated movies was a staggering two times more than in X-Rated movies. In fact, major films such as Die Hard: With A Vengeance and Terminator 2, contain extreme violence 85-90% of which is directed solely at men. There are, however, exceptions; the slasher genre of movies contain much more violence towards women, possibly due to the desensitization to violence in other genres of films.

Because women are involved, violence against them could create a true sense of horror. However, this does not suggest that men should go into society and rape a woman any more than it suggests that men should go out and kill other men. Horror movie fans choose to watch these movies because they enjoy portrayed violence. Needless to say, no sane individual would wish for this violence to become a real-life conception. Similarly, sex also excites people and because these two elements offer the most thrills in movies, they are often combined.

It should be pointed out that women, and not just men, also njoy these thrills based on numerous studies. When discussing pornography, it is scarcely noted that men are not the only ones who enjoy fantasizing about sex. Women also enjoy pondering sex; just not through pornography. In fact, most of these fantasies involve some degree of violence or force and are largely driven by the romance novels discussed earlier (once again supporting the evidence that romance novels prove to be the female equivalent to male-geared pornography).

Recent reports published by Nancy Friday, show that the number of female fantasies involving rape far outweigh the number of ale fantasies involving rape. What comes as a surprise to many is that in male fantasies, the woman rapes the man and conversely, in female fantasies, the man rapes (Sweet Savagery), the woman! (Christensen 1990:66). Fridays reports also provided some interesting reasoning for the female fantasies. Her reports find that females fantasize about rape to show that they are not acting in accordance with such sinful actions; to show that sex is being forced upon them.

Any other feelings towards the fantasized rape would prove to be undesirable social behaviour and amazingly, the media is not even involved! Actual laboratory experiments (Hawkins, Zimring 1988:103) have shown that when groups of women were shown erotic scenes involving rape, their reactions to the scenes were as or even more stimulating than less violent consensual lovemaking scenes. This is not to say that all women want to be raped; far from it.

This is to say that if women can fantasize about rape but not wish to experience it, then men, too, can fantasize about rape and not wish to commit it. In addition to the many other accusations against pornography, many in society believe that there is definite connection etween organized crime and pornography. Although this may be true, the idea is largely over-exaggerated. The reasoning behind this theory is very simple, yet very shallow. Consider, that pornography is created by organizations and contains sexually explicit material that may be thought to be legally obscene in some areas.

To make the connection, these anti-pornography organizations assume that the organizations (hence organized) that produce the legally obscene (hence crime) material, are operating illegally. It is obvious why pornography is attractive to criminals; just as anything that is anned or is made illegal, there is always someone who will pay Having considered the issues at hand, it can be said that since there is no concrete evidence to support otherwise, pornography in the media does not cause undesirable social behaviour.

As mentioned before, sexually explicit movies and magazines do not just arouse, but also satisfy. It is an undisputed fact that feelings of love and happiness cancel out violent feelings (Zillman, Connections Between Sex and Aggression) and to say that pornography endorse violent feelings fails to make sense; if it did, why would men want to e exposed to it. To suggest that pornography causes men to go over the edge and commit rape is as ludicrous as suggesting that pictures of food cause the hungry to steal more food.

It has even been said by some women that rape is the fault of women who dress provocatively; they ask for it. According to this logic, in the event that pornography is banned, then an attempt should be made to force women to cover their skin and wear clothing that completely hides the shapes of their bodies so as not to provoke rape. Absurd. As members of society, we recognize the power of the mass media. We understand that public perception can be easily persuaded.

But it should be clearly understood that pornography in the media alone cannot persuade men to cause harm to women; it cannot cause men to do things that are socially unacceptable. As was mentioned earlier, pornography only causes feelings of excitement and satisfaction and these feelings overpower those feelings of violence. For these reasons, it can be said that until a positive link can be found between pornography in the media and violence against women, it will remain that sexual violence such as rape is the result of sexual frustration, and not of sexual arousal.

The Pornography Industry

After considering the increase in rape and molestation, sexual harassment, and other sex crimes over the last few decades, and also the corresponding increase of business in the pornography industry, does the media cause undesirable social consequences with specific reference to pornography and violence. In the late seventies, America became shocked and outraged by the rape, mutilation, and murder of over a dozen young, beautiful girls. The man who committed these murders, Ted Bundy, was later apprehended and executed.

During his detention in various penitentiaries, he was mentally probed and prodded by psychologist and psychoanalysts hoping to discover the root of his violent actions and sexual frustrations. Many theories arose in attempts to explain the motivational factors behind his murderous escapades. However the strongest and most feasible of these theories came not from the psychologists, but from the man himself, ” as a teenager, my buddies and I would all sneak around and watch porn. As I grew older, I became more and more interested and involved in it, (pornography) became an obsession.

I got so involved in it, I wanted to incorporate (porn) into my life, but I couldn’t behave like that and maintain the success I had worked so hard for. I generated an alter-ego to fulfill my fantasies under-cover. Pornography was a means of unlocking the evil I had buried inside myself” According to Edward Donnerstein, a leading researcher in the pornography field, ” the relationship between sexually violent images in the media and subsequent aggression and ….. callous attitudes towards women is much stronger statistically than the relationship between smoking and cancer.

After considering the increase of sex related crimes, the linkage between violence and pornography needs considerable study and examination. In order to properly discuss pornography, and be able to link it to violence, we must first come to a basic and agreeable understanding of what the word pornography means. The term pornography originates from two greek words, porne, which means harlot, and graphein, which means to write. It is common belief that the combination of the two words was originally meant to describe, in literature, the sexual escapades of women deemed to be whores.

As time has passed, this definition of pornography has grown to include any and all obscene literature and pictures. At the present date, the term is basically a blanket which covers all types of material such as explicit literature, photography, films, and video tapes with varying degrees of sexual content. Now that pornography has been defined in a fashion mirroring its content, it is now possible to touch upon the more complex ways a community, as a society, views or defines it.

Some have said it is impossible for a group of individuals to form a concrete opinion as to what pornography means. A U. S. supreme judge is quoted as saying, ” I can’t define pornography, but I know it when I see it”. This statement can be heard at community meetings in every state, city, and county across the nation. Community standards are hazy due to the fact individuals cannot express or explain in words that pornography is, therefore creating confusion among themselves. For thousands of years, sex itself has been considered evil and revolting.

This is exactly why the concealment of the sex organs and teaching feelings of shame toward human sexuality is so common worldwide. These same feelings of shame are the chief reasons that sex is considered a personal and private matter. Contrary to the beliefs of many, the mass media did not create these settings, society creates this image. In some societies, women have no reservations with regard to living their entire lives completely naked, while in other societies, females cover themselves from head to tow, only revealing their eyes.

The media had been bombarded with criticism, overwhelmingly from the female community, relative to the amount of sexually explicit material that is common argument against pornography is that the media portrays women as being nothing more than sexual playthings and objects to satisfy male sexual desires. As before, the media once again, is not to be held responsible for creating this image: these views are products of society. It would be downright absurd to assume that women in this society are treated as sexual objects only because the media releases or broadcasts pornographic material.

A magazine associated with make-up and skin care, for example will quite obviously not be concentrating on much else. Such a magazine would not display pictures of women who mountain climb or women who water ski; only images of make-up and text referring to skin care would be relevant. Clearly, society does not consider women to be beings who’s only purpose in life is to worry about make- up and skin care, but why are the complaints only directed toward pornographic media then? The answer to this question may be more complicated, what remains obvious is that the media does not portray women as only being able to fill male sexual desires.

To say that pictures featuring females who pin-up posters of male rock stars or children who collect hockey or baseball cards. Society , hows not say that objects are being made out of these rock stars and sports heroes, pictures of clothed people are no less objects than pictures of naked people. Many complaints are also made to the effect that pornography offers a one-dimensional view to life. That women are seen as perverts who are addicted to sex. It should be pointed out that events such as hockey games, boxing matches, horse races and operas all offer a one-dimensional view of life.

One does not attend an opera hoping to see a horse race. It is also said that the media reduces women to a collection of body parts through pornography. But why then are their no complains of advertisements in magazines displaying only ears, for example, or a nose, or feet? The reason is simple, society considers certain body parts to be shameful or disgusting. Realistically, the only way to prevent women from being seen as objects is for them to be seen as other things well, but to say that women are not sexual beings would be misleading because both men and women are very much sexual.

For instance, a television ad protraying young men groveling at the feet of supermodel Cindy Crawford, almost begging to be the one to cater to her needs. There were no lineups of men aching to announce their displeasure with the sexist ad and this is precisely why male stereotyping in the media often shunned by anti- pornographic and censoring organizations because it seemly singled out females for their bodies. It should be also noted that 40% of all sales of romantic novels depict male models as sexual objects just as pornography depicts females a sexual objects.

Having discussed the untruthfulness of the claims against pornography and showing that pornography is not evil, it is now possible to consider the violence issue. Are men who are exposed to pornography more likely to commit acts, such as raps against women, more so than men who are not exposed to pornography? It is tempting to believe that media influences males and overstimulates them through pornography to the point that they become aggressive towards females is baseless, just as pornography arouses or stimulates .

The American Commission on Obscenity and Pornography performed a study in which several college students were asked to spend one and a half hours in a isolated room with a large volume of pornographic media, as well as a large number of non-explicit media such as Reader’s Digest. The study was conducted over a three week period over which time it was discovered that the males involved began to lose interest, or became less interested to the erotic media nearing the end of the experiment, even if new material was added.

Four more separate experiments were conducted of which the above was one. Three other experiments came to the conclusion that pornography does not cause violence against women and reported that the number of sex offenders that had been exposed to pornographic material were smaller in number than the amount of sex- offenders that had not been exposed to the pornography. These results can be offered as evidence against the claims that males become overstimulated and thus dangerous when exposed to pornography.

It should be also pointed out that women, and not just men, also enjoy these thrills based on numerous studies. When discussing pornograghy, it is scarcely noted that men are not the only ones who enjoy fantasizing about sex. In fact, most of these fantasies involve some degree of violence or force and are largely driven by the romance novels. The reports published by Nancy Friday, show that the number of female fantasies involving rape far outweigh the number of male fantasies involving rape.

What comes as a surprise to many is that n male fantasies, the women rapes the man and conversely, in female fantasies, the man rapes the women. Having considered the issues at hand, it can be said that since there is no concrete evidence to support, pornography in the media does not cause undesirable social behavior. It is an undisputed fact that feelings of love and happiness cancel out violent feelings and to say that pornography endorses violent feelings fails to make sense, if it did, why would men want to be exposed to it.

To suggest that pornography causes men to go over he edge and commit rape is as ludicrous as suggesting that pictures of food cause the hungry to steal more food. As members of society, we recognize the power of mass media. We understand that public perception can be easily persuaded. But it should be clearly understood that pornography in the media alone cannot persuade men to cause harm to women; it cannot cause men to do things that are socially unacceptable. Pornography only causes feelings of excitement and satisfaction and these feelings overpower those feelings of violence.

Pornography – Sex Or Subordination

In the late Seventies, America became shocked and outraged by the rape, mutilation, and murder of over a dozen young, beautiful girls. The man who committed these murders, Ted Bundy, was later apprehended and executed. During his detention in various penitentiaries, he was mentally probed and prodded by psychologist and psychoanalysts hoping to discover the root of his violent actions and sexual frustrations. Many theories arose in attempts to explain the motivational factors behind his murderous escapades.

However, the strongest and most feasible of these theories came not from the psychologists, but from he man himself, as a teenager, my buddies and I would all sneak around and watch porn. As I grew older, I became more and more interested and involved in it, [pornography] became an obsession. I got so involved in it, I wanted to incorporate [porn] into my life, but I couldnt behave like that and maintain the success I had worked so hard for. I generated an alter-ego to fulfill my fantasies under-cover.

Pornography was a means of unlocking the evil I had burried inside myself (Leidholdt 47). Is it possible that pornography is acting as the key to unlocking the evil in more unstable minds? According to Edward Donnerstein, a leading researcher n the pornography field, the relationship between sexually violent images in the media and subsequent aggression and . . . callous attitudes towards women is much stonger statistically than the relationship between smoking and cancer (Itzin 22).

After considering the increase in rape and molestation, sexual harassment, and other sex crimes over the last few decades, and also the corresponding increase of business in the pornography industry, the link between violence and pornogrpahy needs considerable study and examination. Once the evidence you will encounter in this paper is evaluated and quantified, t will be hard not come away with the realization that habitual use of pornographic material promotes unrealistic and unattainable desires in men that can leac to violent behavior toward women.

In order to properly discuss pornography, and be able to link it to violence, we must first come to a basic and agreeable understanding of what the word pornography means. The term pornogrpahy originates from two greek words, porne, which means harlot, and graphein, which means to write (Websters 286). My belief is that the combination of the two words was originally meant to describe, in literature, the sexual escapades of women eemed to be whores. As time has passed, this definition of pornography has grown to include any and all obscene literature and pictures.

At the present date, the term is basically a blanket which covers all types of material such as explicit literature, photography, films, and video tapes with varying degrees of sexual content. For Catherine Itzins research purposes pornogrpahy has been divided into three categories: The sexually explicit and violent; the sexually explicit and nonviolent, but subordinating and dehumanizing; and the sexually explicit, nonviolent, and nonsubordinating that is based upon mutuality.

The sexually explicit and violent is graphic, showing penetration and ejaculation. Also, it shows the violent act toward a woman. The second example shows the graphic sexual act and climax, but not a violent act. This example shows the woman being dressed is a costume or being talked down to in order to reduce her to something not human; such as a body part or just something to have sex with, a body opening or an orifice. Not only does erotica show the entire graphic sexual act, it also depicts an attraction between two people.

Her research consistently shows that harmful effects are associated with the first two, ut that the third erotica, is harmless (22). These three categories basically exist as tools of discerning content. Although sometimes they overlap without a true distinction, as in when the film is graphic in the sexual act and also in violence, but shows the act as being a mutual activity between the people participating. In my view, to further divide pornography, it is possible to break it down into even simpler categories: soft and hard core pornography.

Hard core pornography is a combination of the sexually explicit and violent and the sexually explicit and nonviolent, but subordinating and dehumanizing categories, previously discussed. Soft core pornography is thought to be harmless and falls into the category known as erotica; which is the category based on mutuality. In hard core pornogrpahy, commonly rated XXX, you can see graphic depictions of violent sexual acts usually with a man or group of men, deriving sexual gratification from the degradation of a woman.

You can also see women participating in demoralizing sexual behavior among themselves for the gratification of men. In a triple-X movie all physical aspects are shown, such as extreme close-ups of genitalia, oral, vaginal, and anal penetration, and also ejaculation. Much of the time mphasis is put on the painful and humiliating experience of the woman, for the sole satisfaction of the male. Soft core pornography, or X-rated pornography, is less explicit in terms of what is shown and the sexual act is usually put in the light of mutual enjoyment for both the male and female parties(Cameron and Frazer 23).

Triple-X pornography is manufactured and sold legally in the United States. Deborah Cameron and Elizabeth Frazer point out that other forms of hard core pornography that have to be kept under wraps, made and sold illegally in underground black markets. These are ultraviolent, snuff, and hild pornography. Ultraviolent tapes or videos show the actual torture, rape, and sometime mutilation of a woman. Snuff films go even future to depict the actual death of a victim, and child pornography reveals the use of under-age or pre-pubescent children for sexual purposes (17-18).

These types of pornogrpahy cross over the boundaries of entertainment and are definitely hard core. Now that pornography has been defined in a fashion mirroring its content, it is now possible to touch upon the more complex ways a community, as a society , views or defines it. Some have said it is impossible for a group f individuals to form a concrete opinion as to what pornography means. A U. S. Supreme Court judge is quoted as saying, I cant define pornography, but I know it when I see it (Itzin 20).

This statement can be heard at community meetings in every state, city, and county across the nation. Community standards are hazy due to the fact that when asked what pornography is to them, most individuals cannot express or explain in words what pornography is, therefore creating confusion among themselves. Communities are left somewhat helpless in this matter since the federal courts passed legislation to keep pornography available to adults.

The courts assess that to ban or censor the material would be infringing on the publics First Amendment Right (Carol 28). Maureen OBrien quotes critics of a congressionally terminated bill, the Pornography Victims Compensation Act, as saying That if it had passed, it would have had severely chilling effects on the First Amendment, allowing victims of sexual crimes to file suit against producers and distributors of any work that was proven to have had caused the attack, such as graphic material in books, magazines, videos, films, and records (7).

People in a community debating over pornography often have different iews as to whether or not it should even be made available period, and some could even argue this point against the types of women used in pornography: A far greater variety of female types are shown as desirable in pornography than mainstream films and network television have ever recognized: fat women, flat women, hairy women, aggressive women, older women, you name it (Carol 25).

If we could all decide on just exactly what pornography is and what is acceptable, there wouldnt be so much debate over the issue of censoring it. The bounds of community standards have been stretched by mainstreaming movies, opening the way even further for he legalization of more explicit fare (Jenish 53). In most contemporary communities explicit sex that is without violent or dehumanizing acts is acceptable in American society today. These community standards have not been around very long.

When movies were first brought out, they were heavily restricted and not protected by the First Amendment, because films then were looked upon only as diversionary entertainment and business. Even though sexual images were highly monitored, the movie industry was hit so hard during the Great Depression that film-makers found themselves sneaking in as much sexual content as possible, ven then they saw that sex sells (Clark 1029).

Films were highly restricted throughout the 30s, 40s, and 50s by the industry, but once independent films of the 60s such as: Bonnie and Clyde and Whose afraid of Virginia Woolfe? Clark 1029-30), both with explicit language, sexual innuendo, and violence started out-performing the larger wholesome production companies, many of the barriers holding sex and violence back were torn down in the name of profit . Adult content was put into movies long ago, we have become more immune and cant expect it to get any better or to go away. Porn is here for good. Pornography is a multi-million dollar international industry, ultimately run by organized crime all over the world, and is produced by the respectable mainstream publishing business companies (Itzin 21).

Although the publishing companies are thought to be respectable, people generally stereotype buyers and users of pornographic material as dirty old men in trenchcoats, but most patrons of adult stores are well-educated people with disposable income (Jenish 52). Porno movies provide adults of both genders with activities they normally wouldnt get in everyday life, such as oral pleasures or different types of fetishes. Ultimately adult ntertainment is just a quick-fix for grown-ups, as junk-food would be for small children. Pornographys main purpose is to serve as masturbatory stimuli for males and to provide a sexual vent.

Although in the beginning, society saw it as perverted and sinful, it was still considered relatively harmless. Today there is one case studie, standing out from the rest, that tends to shatter this illusion. The study done my Monica D. Weisz and Christopher M. Earls used eighty-seven males . . . that were randomly shown one of four films, by researchers William Tooke and Martin Lalumiere: Deliverance, Straw Dogs, Die Hard II, nd Days of Thunder, for a study on how they would react to questions about sexual violence and offenders after watching.

In the four films there is sexual aggression against a male, sexual aggression against a female, physical aggression, and neutrality-no explicit scenes of physical or sexual aggression. Out of this study the males were more acceptable of interpersonal violence and rape myths and also more attracted to sexual aggression. These same males were less sympathetic to rape victims and were noted less likely to find a defendant guilty of rape (71). These four above mentioned movies are mainstreamed R-rated films.

If a mainstream movie can cause this kind of distortion of value and morality, then it should become evident that continuous viewing/use of pornographic films depicting violent sex and aggression could lead vulnerable persons into performing or participating in sexual violence against their partners or against a stranger. Bill Marshall, psychology professor at Queens University and director of a sexual behavior clinic in Kingston, interviewed one-hundred and twenty men, between the years 1980 and 1985, who had molested children or raped women.

In his conclusion he found that pornography ppeared to be a significant factor in the chain of events leading up to a deviant act in 25% of these cases (Nicols 60). The results of this study should prove that pornography obviously has a down side to it. According to Mark Nicols, a psychology professor at the University of Michigan, Neil Malamuth, concludes quite cautiously that some messages combined with other factors, including the viewers personality type, in pornography can lead to antisocial behavior and make individuals less sensitive to violence.

Dr. Marshall also quotes men in Nicols article as saying, that they looked at pornography ith the intent to masturbate, but then became aroused, and decided to go out and assault a woman or child. Men who are drawn into pornography and use it frequently, have also been proven to suggest more lenient prison terms for sex offenders (60). If this previous statement is true, should we reevaluate how many men serve on juries for these trials? Itzin gives possible support for these theories.

It can be found in the case of an ex-prostitute who had her pubic hair removed with a jackknife and was forced by her pimp to be filmed reenacting what they had seen in pornographic movies; she was sexually assaulted and forced o have intercourse with animals, generally dogs. Another such case is one of a woman who reports having metal clips attached to her breasts, being tied to a chair, and being raped and beaten continuously for twelve hours (22-24). The dehumanizing, degradation, and reduction of a womans body isnt just a result of viewed pornography, it is often inseminated into the production of a pornographic project.

During the making of Deep Throat, a 1970s pornographic film, Linda Marchiano (a. k. a. Linda Lovelace), was presented to the public as a liberated woman with an ever present and unfulfilled appetite for ellatio. What isnt known to the general public is that during the making of the movie, she was hypnotized to suppress the natural gagging reaction, was tortured when caught trying to escape, and also held at gun-point by her boss, who threatened her with death (Itzin 22).

Ms. Marchiano did escape and when her story was told, it was repeated by a number of women in the pornography business. According to DArcy Jenish many children are lured into the pornography industry by choosing first to model. These young teens egos are boosted when they are told [they have good bodies], and are asked if they work out?. More often than not, they are told to take off [their] shirts, and then asked Do you feel nervous? (36). These youngsters honestly dont know when too much is too much, and what they dont know could put them in serious danger.

Calvin Klein, once known for being a reputable clothing designer, is now known for his racy ads using teens. Some feel he crossed the line when he chose this type of advertising. Jenish observes that these advertisements featured an array of . . . teen-aged models dressed in loose jeans or hiked-up skirts, one showing bare breasts, others offering androgynous models kissing (36). If adults in positions of power act this way, these youngsters cannot expect other adults to act any differently. Therefore they accept this type of behavior as normal.

Diana Russell claims that tactics like these are being used more often in advertising and television, which has led media watchdogs and anti-porn activists to believe that this sort of masked imitation of pornography tricks mainstream television viewers into having an everybodys doing it attitude about pornography. She also feels that this attitude subconsciously leads them into seeking pornography out (39). We need to show the younger eneration that everyone is not doing it, and that it is all right not to have sex if they feel pressured.

Another problem anti-pornography activists believe arises from regular viewing of pornography, is the acceptance of rape myths. Rape myth is a term pertaining to peoples views on rape, rapists, and sexual assaults, wherein it is assumed that the victim of a sexual crime is either partially or completely to blame (Allen 6). To help understand the rape myth a Rape Myth Acceptance Scale was established, which lists some of the most prominent beliefs that a person accepting the rape myth has.