The situation in Albania

Today, Albania is a real mess. What is currently occurring in the region complicates the situation even further. I’m not sure what Albania should do for the next ten days, let alone ten years. But, I will try to discuss economics and resources. Second, past and current military and diplomatic policy. Finally, I want to tie all of this to the idea of adopting the policies and philosophies of the Western democracies. Only through the aid, encouragement and protection of the West, can Albania hope to make progress for itself and it’s citizens.

Economics Albania is the poorest country in Europe. Years of dependence on the Soviet Union and China, followed by virtually complete isolation led to economic collapse in 1991 (Colliers Encyclopedia CD-Rom, 1998). Government control of all areas of the economy resulted in manufacturing plants that lacked the freedom to adapt to changes. The lack of competition also created a lack of innovation. Collective agriculture produced less and less from harvests (European Forum, June 1997).

In 1992, the Albanian government realized drastic change was necessary; Albania made very rapid progress in stabilizing the economy ollowing the substantial political and social changes that accompanied the demise of Communism and the shift to a market economy in the period between 1990 and 1992. During that period, overall GDP fell by 41%, industrial pro- duction fell by 74%, and inflation rose to 237% in 1992. By 1993, output had started to rise, inflation reduced to 31%, and the currency had been stabilized, as a result of tight fiscal policies (Poole p. 2).

In the early 1990’s Albania’s government abandoned most of its communist policies relating to the economy. In essence, leadership decided it could no longer deal with the problems, so why not lets its people try. A new privatization plan was enacted. “Within several months about 30,000 people found themselves employed by the non-agricultural private sector. ” The government privatized 25,000 retail businesses in the first year through direct sales to workers (Colliers). The government has also relinquished title to much of the country’s farmland. Eighty percent of farmland was in private hands as of 1995 (European Forum).

Larger firms have been harder to privatize due to a lack of capital in the private sector. However, the government did introduce reforms in the larger manufacturing plants, allowing for managers to set wages, prices, and allowance of employee incentives through bonuses (Colliers). As of 1995, the few manufacturing firms that were not privatized were not economically viable and were in the process of being closed, although this may take a long time for fear of creating unemployment problems (Poole p. 3). All of these moves and others has resulted in many economic gains for Albania.

Inflation dropped to 5% in 1995. “The drop in production levels of 40% in 1991-1992 have been reversed into growth (over 10% per year since 1993). Industrial production grew for the first time in several years, real wages are up, and foreign investment is increasing (Poole p. 4-6). Resources “With its significant petroleum and natural gas reserves, coal deposits, and hydroelectric power capacity, Albania has the potential to produce enough energy for domestic consumption while also exporting fuels and electric power” (Colliers). Under the communist system, these potentials were rarely realized.

Known petroleum reserves are 200 million tons. During the 1970’s, Albania produced between 1. 5 and 2. 1 million tons. By the late ’80s it had dropped to 1. 2 (Colliers). Albania is blessed to have many rivers with strong currents. The country has numerous hydroelectric plants. In normal times, water provides 80% of the country’s electric needs. During a two year drought in the late ’80s, there was not enough water to keep the turbines running. The poor quality of coal facilities, and obsolete oil drilling equipment could not make up for the power loss.

Albania suffered brownouts, and blackouts. During times of regular precipitation, Albania actually sells excess power to neighboring states (Colliers). Albania ranks behind on South Africa and Russia in the production of chromium. It accounts for 5% of the GDP, and 35% of exports. The country also has enough bitumen, asphalt, and limestone to handle any immediate road building and construction needs (Compton’s Encyclopedia CD-Rom, 1994). Human capital, through education, is an asset that can be exploited. One benefit of communism is the insistence on education.

Formerly a country where very few people were literate, the government confidently announced that everyone under 40 was literate in 1960. During the ’60s, many technical schools were opened to enable students to move into the economy with marketable skills (Compton’s). Foreign Policy Albanias’ foreign policy is complicated by having some three to four million ethnics living outside of Albania. The government is disgusted and angered by the treatment of Albanians in Kosovo. They don’t have the military or economic resources to do much about it. They have publicly endorsed Kosovon independence.

Tensions with Macedonia heightened when the government closed the Albanian University. In Greece, thousands of Albanians were deported following Albania’s expulsion of a Greek Orthodox cleric. Another incident got five Greeks in an Albanian prison, thousands more Albanians shipped out of Greece, and a small border skirmish. The two countries did sign a friendship treaty in 1995. Italy had had problems with migrant Albanian workers. After thousands came in 1997, Italy considered military action, but declined (European Forum). Albania has greatly improved relations with the West.

Albania is considered to be of great strategic importance to NATO. Albania has tried to use their geographic location to their advantage. “Albania concentrates on military integration into NATO and the EU and it was the first post-communist country to apply for NATO membership. ” They were denied, but allowed to join the Partnership for Peace. Albania was admitted to the Council of Europe in 1995. Deemed to be too financially unstable to join the EU, EU does give economic assistance through PHARE program (European Forum). Future I like a lot of what I’ve read about Albania and heard in the last couple of weeks.

The country has real possibilities within it own land. Governments of the past, with the assistance and backing of communist superpowers have put the country further behind than it should be. Capitalist ideals and democratic elections point to a bright future. My first and most important recommendation is to keep backing the West. They are at the moment bombing another country to protect your people. If you cooperate with the West, they will, in turn, take care of you. You must insist upon assistance to care for and integrate Kosovo refugees. Massive assistance cannot only provide for dislocated brother, but can be a boon to Albania itself.

Would the Swedes, Norwegians, and Germans rather have Albanians living with them, or in Albania? It could also be suggested that if NATO eventually takes back Kosho and returns refugees to their own land, that a militarily strong Albania would be a deterrant to Milosevic trying this type of action again. In economics, the government must make it as easy as possible for foreign investment. The most critical issue will be to increase investment in productive industry and relation services which will lead to a increase in export revenues, permanent employment and increased tax revenues.

Investment s urgently needed to make better use of Albania’s natural resources and harness the skills of Albania’s labor force. In many instances, the high levels if investment required will require greater participation from foreign investors (Poole p. 9). Much of this foreign investment will come from the private sector. Open it up, let the capital flow in. Some of the funds need to come from foreign aid. Many times, foreign aid comes with not only economic, but human and civil strings attached. Albania currently had problems with press freedoms and free speech problems with government critics.

These things must eventually cease, and some progress should be made immediately. Money is needed to repair, create, and update a pitiful infrastructure and telecommunications system. Remind the West that their businesses will profit here only if there are roads, rails, and communications to move the country’s products and resources. Resist the temptation to get too close with all your Islamic brothers. It is important to discriminate between Turkey/Saudi Arabia and Libya/Iran. You will not anger the West, and will make your diplomacy less complicated.

Albania has had a bleak past and an uncertain present. But there are bright spots and finally it appears that leadership is on the right track. To survive as a small country in the Balkans, it helps to have friends in high places. The Albanians not only have that now, but friends who have a whole lot of resources. Albania has a vast amount of natural resources and a fairly well trained and educated work force. After communism, they need help in order to take advantage of this. If Albania stays the course of free markets, and free speech, the country’s best days could be ahead of them.

Australia Report

Australia is the only country that is also a continent. In area, Australia ranks as the sixth largest country and smallest continent. Australia is located between the South Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. The part of the Indian Ocean that is south of Australia is called the Southern Ocean in the country. Australia is about 7,000 miles (11,000 kilometers) southwest of North America and about 2,000 miles (3,200 kilometers) southeast of mainland Asia. Australia is often referred to as being “down under” because it lies entirely within the Southern Hemisphere.

The name Australia comes from the Latin word australis, which means southern. The official name of the country is the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia is a dry, thinly populated land. Only a few areas along or near the coasts receive enough rainfall to support a large population. The southeastern coastal region has the most people by far. Australia’s two largest cities–Sydney and Melbourne–lie in this region. Canberra, the national capital, lies only a short distance inland. The huge interior of Australia is mostly desert or dry grassland and has few settlements.

The country as a whole averages only six persons per square mile (two persons per square kilometer). Australia is famous for its vast open spaces, bright sunshine, enormous numbers of sheep and cattle, and unusual wildlife. Kangaroos, koalas, platypuses, and wombats are only a few of the many unusual animals that live in Australia. The country was once a group of British colonies, and most of the Australian people are of British ancestry. When people moved to Australia from Britain, they took many British customs with them. For example, Australians drive on the left side of the road, as do British drivers.

Tea is the favorite hot drink in Australia, as it is in Britain. English, the official language of Australia, includes many British terms. But Australians have developed a way of life all their own. Australia has a warm, sunny climate. The people can therefore spend much of their free time out of doors. Australians love outdoor sports and outdoor living in general. Australia is one of the world’s developed countries. It has busy cities, modern factories, and highly productive farms and mines. Australia is the world’s leading producer and exporter of wool and bauxite (the ore from which aluminum is made).

It also produces and exports large amounts of other minerals and farm goods. The income from these exports has made it possible for most of the people of Australia to have a high standard of living. In the past, Britain was Australia’s most important trading partner. Today, Australia trades most with Japan and the United States. The first Australians were a dark-skinned people known today as Aborigines (pronounced ab uh rihj uh neez). The Aborigines had lived in Australia for at least 40,000 years before the first white settlers arrived.

Britain settled Australia as a prison colony in 1788. Since then, the number of whites has steadily increased and the total number of Aborigines has declined. Today, the vast majority of Australians are white. Government The Commonwealth of Australia is a federation of states. The nation is administered under a written constitution. The Australian Constitution gives certain powers to the federal government and leaves all other government powers to the states. Australia has six states. They are New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Western Australia.

Each state has its own government. Australia also has two mainland territories–the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. Each territory is responsible for its own administration, the first step toward statehood. But until the territories become states, the federal government must approve major policy changes. Australia has a parliamentary system of government. Under the parliamentary system, the national government is controlled by the political party or the coalition (combination) of parties with a majority of seats in the lower house of the parliament.

The leader of the majority party or the coalition heads the government as prime minister. Australia is a constitutional monarchy like Britain. The British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is also queen of Australia and the country’s head of state. However, the queen has little or no power in the Australian government. She serves mainly as a symbol of the historical tie between the two countries. Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the association formed by Britain and a number of its former colonies that are now independent countries.

The federal government of Australia is officially headed by a governor general, who represents the queen. The queen appoints the governor general on the recommendation of the Australian prime minister. The governor general’s role, like the queen’s, is mainly symbolic. In 1975, however, the governor general used his power to remove the prime minister from office. See the History section of this article for details. The prime minister, Australia’s head of government, is normally responsible only to the majority party or coalition.

If the party or coalition chooses a new leader, that person becomes prime minister. The prime minister appoints members of Parliament to head the government departments. The department heads, called ministers, and the prime minister make up the Cabinet. The Cabinet establishes major government policies. The federal Parliament has an upper and a lower house. The upper house is called the Senate and the lower house is called the House of Representatives. Most bills are introduced in the House. The Senate reviews bills passed by the House and can reject them. The Australian Senate has 76 members.

Each state elects 12 senators, and each mainland territory elects 2. Membership in the 148-member House of Representatives is divided among the states and mainland territories according to population. Senators are elected to six-year terms, and representatives to three-year terms. Elections for the House must be held at least every three years. But the prime minister may ask the governor general to dissolve the House and call for new elections at any time. All Australians 18 years of age or older must vote in parliamentary and state elections. Those who do not vote may be fined.

The federal courts. The High Court of Australia decides constitutional questions. It also serves as the nation’s court of final appeals. Other federal courts deal with bankruptcy cases, family law, industrial disputes, and violations of federal law. State and local government. Each Australian state has its own parliament, court system, head of government, and governor. The heads of state governments are called premiers. The governor of each state represents the queen. Australia’s states do not operate as independently of the federal government as do, for example, the states of the United States.

The Australian states have heavy administrative responsibilities in certain areas, such as local law enforcement, public education, and the building of roads. But the federal government collects nearly all the nation’s taxes. Each state receives a share of the federal tax income. But this allowance is usually not enough to finance major new public works. By granting or denying a state’s requests for additional funds or loans, the federal government strongly influences the services that the state provides.

Iran a country in the Middle East

Iran is a country located in the Middle East. The main source of income for the country is oil, the one object that had greatly influenced its history. Iran’s present government is run as an Islamic Republic. A president, cabinet, judicial branch, and Majilesor or legislative branch, makes up the governmental positions. A revolution that overthrew the monarch, which was set in 1930, lasted over 15 years. Crane Brinton’s book, An Anatomy of a Revolution, explains set of four steps a country experiences when a revolution occurs.

Symptoms, rising fever, crisis, and convalescence are the steps that occur. The Iranian Revolution followed the four steps in Crane Brinton’s theory, symptoms, rising fever, crisis, and convalescence occurred. Numerous symptoms led to the crumbling downfall of Reza Shah Pahlavi, ruler of Iran until 1978. One of these symptoms is rising expectations which can be seen during the 1960’s and 70’s. The rich Shah cleared the way for the land reform law, enacted in 1962. The land minority had to give up its land to the government, and among those stripped of land, were the Shi’ah Muslims.

Iran’s power structure was radically changed in a program termed the “White Revolution”. On January 26, 1963, the White Revolution was endorsed by the nation. By 1971, when land distribution ended, about 2,500,000 families of the farm population benefited from the reforms. From 1960-72 the percentage of owner occupied farmland in Iran rose from 26 to 78 percent. Per capita income rose from $176 in 1960 to $2,500 in 1978. From 1970-77 the gross national product was reported to increase to an annual rate of 7. 8% (“Iran” 896). As a result of this thriving economy, the income gap rapidly widened.

Exclusive homes, extravagant restaurants, and night clubs and streets loaded with expensive automobiles served as daily reminders of a rowing income spread. This created a perfect environment for many conflicts to arise between the classes. Iran’s elite class consisted of wealthy land owners, intelligencia, military leaders, politicians, and diplomats. The Elite continued to support the monarchy and the Shah. The peasants were victim of unfulfilled political expectations, surveillance by the secret police, and the severe social and economic problems that resulted from modernization.

The middle class favored socialism over capitalism, because capitalism in their view supported the elite, and does not benefit the lower classes. The middle class was the most changeable element in the group, because they enjoyed some of the privileges of the elite, which they would like to protect. At the same time, they believed that they had been cheated by the elite out of their share of the industrialization wealth (Orwin 43). About this time, the middle class, which included students, technocrats, and modernist professionals, became discontent with the economy.

The key event should have further stabilized the royal dictatorship, but the increase in oil prices and oil income beginning in 1974 caused extreme inflation. This was due to the nvestment strategy followed by the Shah, which led to a spectacular 42% growth rate in 1974. (Cottam 14). And because of the Shah’s support structure which enabled the new rich to benefit from inflation, the government effort to deal with inflation was aimless. Poor Iranians and Iranians with a fixed income suffered major losses in real income.

Better standards of living were no longer visible. Thus, the majority of the Iranian people developed a revolutionary predisposition. As the middle class became discontent in Iran throughout the 1970’s, the desertion of intellectuals could be found in great xcess. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini represented much of the discontent of the religious sector of Iran. For speaking out against the Shah’s autocratic rule, Khomeini was exiled to Turkey in 1963. In 1965, Khomeini moved to Iraq where he became the central spokesperson for expatriate opposition to the Shah.

On October 6, 1978, Khomeini was expelled from Iraq and moved to Paris, where he was accessible to a larger body of opposition forces. He was also accessible to the Western Press. Khomeini preached that he would displace the Shah and expel the foreigners. He also said he would enforce religious and raditional values, and redirect Iran’s wealth away from large industrialization schemes and toward reforms needed by the common people. Throughout the 1970’s, Khomeini gained tremendous popularity with the masses, and he became the symbol of the opposition towards the Shah.

As Khomeini gained popularity, many religious groups grew in numbers and in status. In the early 1950’s, the technocrats had showed core support for Mohammad Mossedeq and Iran’s national movement. They saw Mossadeq’s overthrow as the removal of the symbolic leader of the Iranian nation by an American directed coup d’etat. Many of his followers formed groups in opposition to the Shah. Leaders of the Freedom Front, one of the groups that grew out of the Mossadeq movement, were a group composed of intellectuals who tended to be centrist in philosophy, more religious, anti-Marxist, and militant (Cottam 13).

They recognized Khomeini’s large and potentially enormous following, and associated themselves with him The rise of religious opposition groups and Khomeini proved to be a great test for the Shah. As time progressed the weakness of the Shah became apparent. Waves of opposition began building after 1975, due to the formation of the Rastakhiz , the legal olitical party in Iran, and the banning of opposition political parties. It also became clear that the increased oil revenues following oil price increases, were spent on arms and industrialization.

In mid-1977 the religious leaders began demonstrating against the modernization brought on by the Shah. In November, several people were killed when police broke up demonstrations. As time went on, protests became more radical. To try and quiet dissent, the Shah became more of a dictator. As a result, those who had been moderate in demands for reform became more radical. In the fall of 1978, strikes against the il industry, the post office, government factories, and banks demolished the economy. This pattern continued throughout most of 1978 (Orwin 45). As these protests became more frequent there were more and more people killed.

This reflects the Shah’s loss of power over his government and his people. In late 1978, the Shah came to the conclusion that he would and could not rule a country in which he had to stand in the flowing blood of his people. In short, he understood that he could not militarily occupy his own country. The Shah’s early mistakes had been devastating as the years went on. His forceful ctions did not work and it’s no wonder that his grip weakened and his mid wavered. These events all led to the march against the government of the Shah, in which eight million Iranians protested on December 10, 1978 (Bill 25).

One-fifth of the Iranian government was willing to join in a massive and nonviolent manifestation of opposition even though most of them knew that thousands of their countrymen had been shot in previous demonstrations. The banners and slogans made clear the religious and political essence of the revolutionary movement. This massive demonstration was the turning point from symptoms to rising fever. It clearly reflected the weakness of the Shah, and the inevitability of revolution in Iran. After a year of public demonstrations against him, the Shah of Iran left Tehran on January 16, 1979, for an “extended vacation” (Orwin 46).

He left the country in the hands of a regency council and Prime Minister Shahpur Bakhtiar, who was a former member of the National Front. The opposition leader, Khomeini, was to become the new ruler, and he returned to Iran on February 1, 1979. Khomeini occupied preeminent positions among Iran’s most respected religious scholars, the Mujahedin-e Khalq.. Although Khomeini anted a stable government that could cope with the problems of reconstruction, he wanted to eradicate the evil roots of the old system, which he describes as satanic.

He denounced the materialism of the recent past and called for a climate in which social justice would prevail. On April 1, 1979, after a landslide victory in a national referendum, Khomeini declared an Islamic republic. This republic consisted of a new constitution reflecting Khomeini’s ideals of Islamic government. He was named Iran’s political and religious leader for life. Khomeini tapped the deep-seated conservatism of he Muslim fundamentalists by making moderate changes in the law. Women were required to wear the veil, Western music and alcohol were banned, and the punishments described by Islamic law were reinstated.

Political vengeance was taken, executing hundreds of people who had worked with the Shah’s regime (“Iran” 897). The large moderate center composed of the professional and bourgeois middle class had proved to be ineffective in their leadership abilities. Moderate Bakhtiar, the last prime minister under Pahlavi rule, was very unpopular, and he was unable to compromise with his former National Front colleagues or with Khomeini. He was then forced to flee to France. On April 1, 1979, his replacement, Mehdi Bazergan was appointed by Khomeini (Cottam 15).

This 73-year-old engineer was a leader of the Freedom Front, and president of the committee of human rights. The middle and upper middle classes looked to Bazergan to provide stability so the economy would recover and the government services could be restored. Bazergan appointed a cabinet, mainly, from the ranks of the Freedom Front, the National Front, and the religious bureaucracy. Bazergan’s position was weak, however, and he steadily lost ground to the ue to the attacks from the far right and left. As their base of support narrowed, their dependence on Khomeini intensified.

During this time, Iran’s relation with the US went downhill. It reached a stage of outright confrontation, when, on November 4, 1979, 500 extremist students seized the US embassy in Tehran. They took hostage 66 citizens at the embassy and the foreign ministry (“The Iranian Revolution” 835). The takeover seemingly sanctioned by Khomeini, continued for the next 444 days, and American-Iranian relations sunk to an all-time low. This led to trade conflicts with the United States and its allies, causing conomic problems. During the rising fever stage there is a presence of a dual government.

During Bazergan’s rule, it became difficult to administer justice with a court system that had been particularly lenient to the royal will. To deal with these problems on a temporary basis. Khomeini set up a system of revolutionary committees presided over by a revolutionary council. Religious leaders clearly predominated in the revolutionary council- committee-courts system, which came to be almost a parallel government. In November, 1979, Bazergan resigned, and in his place Khomeini appointed Abol Hassan Bani Sadr. Bani Sadr was an dealist, a bookworm, and most personally ambitious of all the liberal revolutionaries.

Like the other moderates, he was a representative of the professional middle class, who had little skill or patience to build political organizations. Bani Sadr’s efforts were fruitless in dealing with the hostage releases. After being elected Iran’s first president in January 1980, he and his followers, out of self defense and desperation, formed an alliance with the Mujahedin-e Khalq (“Iran” 897). He also attempted to work hard to establish close relations with the military leaders. He ineffectively tried to appeal to the Iranian people, who had little in common with a Paris trained intellectual.

One can see that during this stage of rising fever, moderate control is losing power. The people of Iran became upset with the little change that was taking place, and wanted more extreme measures taken. In mid-1981, leaders of the Islamic Republican Party (IRP) convinced Khomeini that Bani Sadr was plotting against them, and suggested evidence indicating that he was a threat to the revolution. This led to his dismissal on June 20, of position of commander-in-chief of the armed forces. His presidency lasted 17 months. He was arrested and dismissed as president on June 22.

Forced into hiding, he fled Iran on July 29, 1981, and was granted political asylum in Paris. On July 24, extremist Muhammad Ali Rajai with substantial IRP backing, won the electoral victory over the moderates. Thus, the period of rising fever ended, and the period of crisis began. In 1981, Khomeini took complete control over Iran and took many extremist measures. He made sure the government completely controlled the media, as well as newspapers, television broadcasts, and radio programs. He had strict control of everything, including the treasury and flow of money to religious eaders.

Those who disagreed with him faced severe economic retribution. The crisis had begun and radicals had taken over. Under Khomeini’s rule (1981-1989) came a great period of reign of terror. For example, after a speech the Ayatollah made, right wing revolutionary guards fired into a rally of approximately one hundred thousand Muslim leftists outside the U. S. Embassy in Teheran. Five people were killed and more than 300 were wounded. Supporters held food riots in Tunisia, and others held six car bombings in Kuwait.

The Islamic Jihad held suicide bombings that killed two hundred-forty one U. S. Servicemen, and fifty-eight French troops in Beirut. These acts were not looked at as being bad acts of terrorism, but rather as acts of patriotic heroes. The reign of terror, the next step in the crisis, brought extremists into complete control. The people of Iran in the early 1980’s, had just about enough of all these laws and regulations, and were outraged at their standard of living. People were finally starting to revolt against the way that they have been treated. This period according to Crane Brinton, is known as the civil war.

Civil war started in Iran with the conflict with the Kurds. These people ere pushed out of their homes, religious temples, and places of business, because of the overpowering radicals. An entire religious group was almost completely annihilated because of the savage behavior of the radicals. It was later found that the Kurdish problem was merely a pretext on Iran’s part to engage in meetings and collaborations with two influential middle eastern states, Turkey and Syria. People suffered so that government could gain allies. The poor treatment of the Kurds led to confusion in the nation.

Because of all of the chaos in the country, due to different public demonstrations and mass rioting, government groups were orming. The IRP, one of these groups, was in support of a nationalistic movement. Opposed to it was the Hojatieh, and a third party, which represented the Mullahs and the high ayatollahs. This third group thought Khomeini was reckless, so there was great hostility towards the IRP. These groups formed different factions among the people of Iran, and led to a divided nation. In the early 1980’s, patriotic fever was bordering on hysteria, and the nationalism was incredible.

This patriotic fever fits in to the next part of the revolution, the republic of virtue. Iran’s people had a great sense of nationalism inside of them. People held many parades and marches to express their nationalism. During this time, women were forced to wear veils in public, modern divorce laws were repealed, and harsh courts were set up, which set strict laws and harsh penalties. The colliding views of the Iranian groups, as well as the republic of virtue, made it hard for Iran to deal with other countries. During this period, Iran’s relationship with Iraq became troubled.

The war began with a fight for land and oil and as a result of the personalities of the two leaders. Both Hussein, the leader of Iraq, and Khomeini are headstrong. In addition, they disliked each other (Orwin 42). All of the circumstances that resulted from the war may have contributed in some measure to the outbreak and continuation of the conflict between Iran and Iraq (Iran-Iraq War 77-78). The situation worsened in September of 1980 when Iraq launched an attack on Iran to take control of the waterway that divided the two countries (“Iranian Revolution” p. 835). During the war, industry suffered.

Chemical, steel, and iron plants in the war zone were heavily shelled. There have been shortages in electricity, fuel, and spare parts. The available pool of workers has diminished as thousands of men marched off to the front lines to fight. This caused great economic problems throughout the mid-1980’s. Iraq attempted to devastate oil economy even further. Tankers and ships 50 miles off the oil terminal were struck. Iran would be deprived of a major source of income (Orwin 41). By 1984 it was reported that there were one million refuges in the Iranian province of Khuzestan.

Some 300,000 Iranian soldiers and 250,000 Iraqi troops had been killed, or wounded. Among the injured were Iranian soldiers who sustained burns, blisters, and lung damage from Iraqi chemical weapons (Orwin 47). The war lasted about 8 years and Iran suffered casualties, not nly in people, but in economy and leadership as well. Because of the war with Iraq, and the purges going on in Iran, the economy was severely depressed. Besides the enormous human cost, economic losses from the war exceed $200 billion. Agricultural growth has declined as a result of war, also (Orwin 34).

During the crisis and during the war with Iraq, industry is plagued by poor labor management, a lack of competent technical and managerial personnel, and shortages of raw material and spare parts. Agricultural suffers from shortage of capital, raw materials, and equipment, and as a result, food production has declined. Also, out of an estimated work force of 12 million, unemployment is up to 3-4 million (Orwin 16). Iran’s economy was desperate. In connection with the devastating economy with the war, there was economic suffering through purges, the next step in crisis.

Extensive purges were carried out in the army, in the school and university systems, and in some of the departments of government although the Ministries of Justice and Commerce proved significantly more resistant because of the entrenched power of conservative elements there). Additionally, new institutions were created, like the Revolutionary Guards – including the reation of a ministry for them – and the counsel of Guardians, along with a string of other judicial bodies (Akhavi 53). Purges eliminated many qualified personnel, and lowered the morale of the Iranian people.

Finally, after about 9 years of crisis and fighting among different groups, there was a breakthrough in the revolution, with the return of conservatives. The Ayatollah Khomeini died in May of 1989, and a new leader by the name of Ali Hashemi Rafsanjani was elected and came to power two months later. This would start the convalescence stage of Crane Brinton’s revolution. Rafsanjani has not actually called for a reversal of trict Islamic injunctions, but in oblique ways he is signaling that he favors a more relaxed approach, especially in the enforcement of the hijab (Ramazani 7).

Under Rafsanjani, the return of the church has been allowed to occur, which is another step in the theory of a revolution. On August 2, 1991, Iran resumed diplomatic relations with Iraq and had also resolved the issue over the pilgrimage of Iranian Muslims to Mecca, which has been suspended for three years. Inside Iran, the most significant development in the last few months took place in October, when several Iranian leaders teamed p in a maneuver to marginalize opponents (Igram A-10). Twelve years after Khomeini came to power, Iran’s Islamic revolution has finally softened around the edges.

The signs of fitful change are everywhere. On Tehran’s streets women still observe hijab (the veil), the Islamic injunction that women keep themselves covered except for their faces and hands. But some have exchanged their shapeless black chedors for slightly fitted raincoats in colors like green and purple. Women’s fingernails are starting to sport glosses, too (Ramazani 32). Obviously, the republic of virtue has been eliminated, which is the next part in the convalescence. After Khomeini’s death, many radical groups were weakened. This led to the elimination of radicals.

President Rafsanjani, with the support of Khomeini, swiftly eliminated four of his most hard-line adversaries from the political scene by challenging their right to re-election. With Rafsanjani in control, Iranians took a new look at crisis. His pragmatic policies were firmly established, replacing militancy and isolation. Rafsanjani campaigned to decrease the influence of important opponents, therefore improving ties with the western world. As well as attracting foreign trade. The radicals were finally eliminated, nd Iran could return to the way it was.

Economic problems after a revolution are good. Iran had been in debt from the time the revolution started, and an economic recovery was needed. There was an increase in oil revenue in 1990, since ties with non-oil bearing countries had been replaced. There was also and increase in oil price, as well as other raw materials. Iran did have ten billion dollars froze in American banks, which still partly remain there today. The country’s economic problems were starting to be resolved. The return of status quo, is the final step in the convalescence stage. Iran has returned to the status quo.

They have many ties, including ties with North Korea, Libya, Syria, and Europe. Trade and friendliness has increased with Russia, as well. Russia currently want to build nuclear reactors in Iran. Commerce opened with Japan, Pakistan, Turkey, and even some allies of Iraq. Rafsanjani wants to end Iran’s pariah status in the world community and gain desperately needed aid. He thinks they are in a period of reconstruction (Desmond 32). The Iranian Revolution is over, and the country is back on its feet. Rafasanjani was an incredible help to the economy and the government, and remains in power today.

Iran has a great umber of allies, which improves its ties with the west. Iran’s oil industry is booming, and the country’s economy remains stable. Americans are again allowed to be seen on the streets of Tehran, and the foreign debt has reduced. The U. S. still has their problems with Iran (the money in the banks), but these problems are still in the process of being resolved. Iran is progressing steadily, and has recovered from the revolution. The Iranian Revolution follows Crane Brinton’s theory on a revolution because the revolution included symptoms, rising fever, crisis, and convalescence, just as the theory states.

Hungary – one of the forty countries in Europe

Hungary is one of the forty countries in Europe. Its capital is Budapest. Hungary is the smallest country in Central Europe. It is ninety – three thousand, thirty six square miles. It is divided into two halves, east and west, by the Danube river that runs threw it. There is a big plain that is very flat east of the Danube river called the Great Hungarian plain. It is also known as the waste land. It is twenty thousand square miles. There are few bushes there but parts have rich soil for farming. Hungary was made thousands of years ago when the country was under water.

Then earthquakes, wind, and rain raised the land up until there was tiny islands all over. Next, gravel and sand filled in and made the country. 1 Hungary is surrounded by the Alpine, Carpathians, Dinaric Alps, and the Alps mountains. Hungarys most important river is the Danube, which is the second largest river in Europe. They call it their life-line because it provides freshwater fish, water for livestock, fresh water, and rich soil for farming. It does cause two major floods a year though. 2 Hungary is in a warm temperature belt.

The western half is rainy, but all of it gets lots of sunshine between July and August. The average temperature in July is between sixty-four and seventy-three degrees Fahrenheit. The coldest month is January. Its average temperature is between twenty-five and thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit. 3 During World War I Hungary was ruled by King Charles the fourth. During this time the food supply was low. In 1919 Hungary was crushed and signed a peace treaty with many countries, which made them loose a lot of land. In 1940 another treaty was signed which gave Hungary back some of its land.

Then in World War II it lost more of its land. Everything stayed bad until Janos Kadar took over and helped out the country. He has been the most powerful politician in Hungary. Religions in Hungary consist of sixty-seven and a half percent Roman Catholic, twenty percent Calvinist, five percent Lutheran, and seven and a half percent is different from those. 4 Hungary is a big agricultural country. It has many exports going all over the world. It is also big in machinery which is their principal export and import. Hungarian schools are owned by the states.

Most kids start kindergarten between he ages of three and six and are required to stay until sixteen. School breaks for summer in the middle of June and comes back in September. The most popular sport in school is soccer. The constitution of Hungary was made in 1949 and amended in 1972. The constitution says The National Assembly decides how the country is governed, declares war and peace, approves economic plan, and chooses the Council of Ministers. The National Assembly has the most authority of the country. Women and men have equal rights. You can not be discriminated against because of sex, race, or religion.

In what ways did the institutional legacy of the Franco regime shape Spain’s transition to democracy

In less than two decades Spain has rushed from dictatorship to democracy and from virtual world isolation to membership in the European Union. The actual transition (1973-1982) took place from the assasination of Carrero Blanco, heir to the regime, to the 1982 democratic elections (3rd after Franco’s death) when the Socialists won by a wide margin. The transition may have been relatively peaceful, but was not without its formidable challenges. Spain existed under the authoritarian rule of Francisco Franco for thirty-nine years.

Throughout this period the Francoist ideology was based on the three pillars of the regime’: the Nationalist Army, the Falange (the single party government) and the Church. In addition, the mass media also played an important role in the dictatorship and the transition to democracy. The Spanish regime, under the directive of General Franco operated under a fascist doctrine, adamantly rejecting the principles of democracy. Upon Franco’s death he was no longer able to protect and promote the values of national unity, anti-communism, and Catholicism.

He could no longer stand in the way of a nation ready to turn to a democratic government, society, and culture. Although Franco’s death on November 20th, 1975 precipitated a nominal shift to democracy, the transition, shaped by the institutional legacy left behind by the Franco regime, actually began much earlier. Franco was the Caudillo of Spain for nearly forty years. From the close of the Civil War in 1939 (Franco was Chief of the Government of the Spanish State since September 1936) up until his death in 1975, General Franco was the authoritarian ruler in Spain.

Franco was the last of the European dictators still alive from the inter-war period. The Francoist constitution, the Leyes Fundamentales, was supposed to make possible the institutionalization of the regime and ensure its continuity after Franco’s death, Franco counted on the army to guarantee the established legality and constitutionality of the regime. Over time, it appeared as though the army had internalized this role and would not allow the regime to fall. This, however, may have led to a search developing as to how to break the regime within the parameters of the Constitution so that the military would not get involved.

This, in the end, is what happened. The transition to democracy took place within the boundary’s of the law. Francoism was based on the coalition of forces that had gained victory during the civil war. Franco divided the functions of the state among various families of the regime. This, all in an attempt to keep the regime strong and prevent its collapse. More specifically, Franco believed that balancing the families (Catholics, monarchists, soldiers, clergymen, Falangists, and technocrats) against one another within his government would decrease the possibilities of a coup or uprising occurring to oust him from power.

The families were formally united in the single party known as the Movimiento, in reality, however, they were locked in rivalry and would turn to Franco as arbiter. This was Franco’s plan and one of his greatest achievements. While Franco was alive only minimal changes were allowed; those that did not threaten the nature of the regime. The Spanish regime began by rejecting the principles of liberal democracy and adhering to the fascist teachings of the Falange. “The belief that democracy engendered chaos and national disunity was a central tenet of the regime’s educational and cultural policy.

The regime later realized that it would be necesaryin the rapidly expanding global world to co-exist with democratic governments. New institutions were created to cover up the isolated figure of the dictator. With Franco becoming seriously ill in the summer of 1974, power was handed over to Juan Carlos, who was declared heir to the throne in 1969. Juan Carlos swore loyalty to Franco and the principles of the regime and promised that he would continue the legacy of Francoism after the ruler’s death. This as it turned our was one of Franco’s most serious political mistakes and may have been the deciding factor in the fall of the regime.

Following his death in 1975, the political structure of Spain remained somewhat uncertain. While many institutions remained from the day’s of the regime, it was not sure how long they would last. The change in political structure was not without warning. While many people expected a change to occur in the near future, Franco’s death was not properly prepared for and people were unsure of what to do with Franco gone. At this time Carlos Arias Navarro was in office as prime minister following the assassination of Carrero Blanco in December of 1973.

The government, under the control of Navarro was a failure both in the attempt at reform and to control the process of change. He held office until July 1976, when he resigned as Prime Minister. Adolfo Surez Gonzlez took the role of Prime Minister following Navarro’s resignation. Surez was seen as both the promoter of the continuation of Francoism as well as the chief promoter of the transition to democracy. Surez’ government had a strategy of reform containing three main tasks: to solve the economic crisis, pass the proposed constitution, and find a solution to the regional problems facing Spain.

The first two issues were solved through a series of negotiations among the major parties involved, then ratified by the Cortes (Parliament). The negotiating of the demands of the ruptura pactada (negotiated break) was the key to Surez’ successful rule until the elections of 1977. He made strategic agreements with the right and left of government in the hope of keeping a settled atmosphere within the state. Specifically, he accepted several of the opposition’s demands including: the right to political parties, the granting of political amnesty and the call for free elections to a constituent assembly.

The third issue was solved by granting Statutes of Autonomy to those regions that were in conflict; in the attempt to lower the widespread terrorism throughout the country. If the ETA did not destroy the prospects of democracy, democracy would have to destrooy the ETA. This was done through the granting of autonomy. While the ETA still had to be feared, it was not as great a threat as before. The goal and eventual achievement of the Surez government was to establish democracy in Spain. He used the instruments left over from the dictatorship to dismantle the institutions of Francoism.

He wanted to provide the Spanish people with the first opportunity to vote for their government in forty years. The goal of democracy was faced with three main problems before the path could be left clear for democratic reform. First, there was the opposition from the right and the left. Second, Surez was unsure if the opposition, so openly critical of the government’s recent failures, obsessed with politics, would accept a democratic form of government to solve the worsening economic situation. The chief opposition to the new government was the Socialist Party.

Under the leadership of Felipe Gonzlez the party held it’s first Congress in roughly forty years. A decision was arrived at to accept the monarchy, as long as it was democratic. Thirdly, unless the Communist party was legalized, the democratic opposition, however much it disliked the Communists, they could not accept the proposed reforms. If, however, the Communists were legalized, the government could expect strong negative reaction from the right. The overcoming of these problems led to a clear path for the installation of democracy in Spain.

The Unin Centro Democrtico (UCD) was an electoral coalition formed in 1977 under the leadership of the Prime Minister Adolfo Surez. It brought together the common interests of many Social Democrat and Liberal parties within Spain, along with a number of independent politicians. After the 1977 elections, it went on to become a unified political party of the new government. The UCD took steps to reduce the military threat to the transition imposed by the Francoist dictatorship. “Strategic promotions and an emphasis on fidelity to the monarch were intended to engender loyalty to the democratic regime.

The UCD wanted to establish civilian control over the military in as short a time as possible. The military was the backbone of Franco’s power. He used the army to impose threats and repress opposition to the regime within Spain. The officers of the military, known as the Bunker, were taught the anti-democratic values of the regime. They “upheld the Civil War mentality of victors and vanquished, of hierarchy, authority, and discipline, patriotism, and fatherland. ” The military repressed political action against the regime.

The dictatorship and the military had a poor relationship during the rule of Franco because of low pay and old equipment. To compensate, the government provided them with stores, schools, hospitals, and other general social services. The effect of this compensation was two fold. On one hand, this compensation increased the military’s standing in society, its respect and honour. On the other hand, it increased the military’s dependence on the regime. One of the most disturbing legacies left over from Francoism is that of terrorism, stemming from the regionalism issue.

ETA terrorism was on the rise during the middle and late 1970’s and the Bunker was convinced that the UCD government was failing to protect the Spanish state. They therefore began to plot against the transition to democracy. The military’s attitude toward democracy and its important role in Spanish politics (because of what it was taught), severely threatened the transition process and gave birth to a series of proposals for reform within government; all of course within the framework of the “Francoist legality”. The Second Republic (1931-1936) ordered the separation of church and state while they controlled politics in Spain.

At the time, the church was very anti-democratic. When Franco gained control following the Civil War, he reversed the ways of the Second Republic and basically united the church and state. Since Franco was supported by many members of the hierarchy, he gave the church very strong political influence in his newly established government. While Franco held office, the church was exempt from taxation, free from censorship and received state funding. The church also controlled the education system in Spain, adding additional support to the principles of Francoism.

Unlike the relationship with the military, the relationship between the church and the state changed a good deal during Franco’s rule. The later emergence of contacts between young catholics and leftist opponents to the dictatorship laid some of the foundation for the pluralist cooperation which was to mark Spain’s transition to democracy. Contrarily, the Opus Dei rose in political influence and played a key role in economic development. The Opus Dei was a brotherhood of Catholics aimed at influencing university and political life.

The Opus Dei played a very important role in the fall of the regime. The ministers of the movement put tremendous pressure on General Franco at the end of the 1950’s to open up Spain’s borders to the international markets. Franco’s eventual giving in to the Opus Dei demands led to the economic boom of the 1960’s and the downfall of the regime as a result of newly established international influence and a booming economy. Up until the final years of the regime, the Opus Dei (often referred to as technocrats) continued to claim that they were without a political agenda.

Even so, there were constant struggles between its members and members of the Falange over their influence in government affairs. Of great concern to the Catholic Church since the death of Franco and the start of democracy in Spain was a continued decline in religious practice. Even of greater concern, however, was the impact of the decline in those seeking profesional roles in Catholicism. The number of men wishing to join the priesthood had fallen, and an increase in the number of priests abandoning their vows had also occured.

As a result of the declining clergy and the growing separation between Church and State, the ability of the Church to exercise influence over everyday life has been hindered. Another issue facing the Church was that of funding. Under Franco the Church was supported by the government, but in the post-Franco era, a goal of financial independence and separation between the Church and the State was desired. The transition to democracy was greatly facilitated by the Church’s exceptance of democracy The mass media, while under strict government control during Franco’s rule, did help in the transition to democracy.

In the early years of the regime, state control over the media (newspapers, magazines and television) controlled what could be said. The media acted as a puppet of the State in order to get its word across. If the media did not preach the doctrine of the state, it would deal solely with non political issues such as sporting events or social events. The greater independence of the media in the final years of Franco’s life, as well as in the period following his death, has led to a decline in relations between the government and the people. The Francoist government had control over the media and what it published or showed to viewers.

Franco was able to use this power to promote Francoism and at the same time frustrate anything negative from being said about the existing government and the principles of the regime. He was able to prevent the use of the media to support another form of government or political party. After Franco’s death censorship of the media declined and items against the regime and in support of political change were published more freely and often. This newly published material helped to gain the support of the people of Spain for a transition to democracy.

The past three decades in Spain have experienced unprecedented economic growth as well as dramatic political transformation. This rapid economic growth, due to the policies of Franco to increase foreign investment and promote industrialization within Spain, altered the social structure and undermined the basis of Francoist support. The inner contradictions of the regime, the foundation of Francoist rule, is what made transformation possible. The lack of party structure within the regime gave Franco’s government a degree of flexibility denied to democratic governments.

This flexibility helped to hold the regime and its families together until Franco’s death, at which time there was no central figure to keep everyone in line. Social unrest had risen during the last 10 years of the Franco regime. Transition pressures from both the workers and nationalist movements made a strategy of mere liberalisation impossible early on. “The death of Franco in 1975 brought together the economic crisis, the administrative rationality crisis, and the ideological legitimation crisis of the regime” Any government lasting for nearly forty years is going to leave a legacy.

This legacy, until many changes are made, will delay the transition to a new form of government and make the transition that much more difficult. Spain today is an effective democracy in that elections control who is in office. “The Spanish experiment was led by the political class of the dictatorship. Hence the transition in Spain was painfully slow and remains haunted by the spectres of dictatorship. ” While certain aspects of the Francoist rule may still exist, they can now be modified through the democratic process.

The Geography of New Zealand

The well-known country of New Zealand is a small, resourceful nation located 1,000 miles off Australia’s south east coast. New Zealand has an impressive economy that continues to grow, a physical landscape that attracts people from around the globe, and although small, New Zealand is a respected nation for its advanced civilization and stable government. The geography of this prestigious nation can be described through five principal categories, the physical geography, the cultural geography, the citizens’ standard of living, the government, and the nation’s economy.

New Zealand is located in the southern hemisphere, with an absolute ocation of 37 degrees south longitude to 48 degrees south longitude and 167 degrees east latitude to 177 degrees east latitude. It is composed of two major islands named the North and South Islands, and the total land area of the nation, approximately divided equally between the two islands, is 103,470 square miles. Surprisingly, only 2 percent of the land area is arable. New Zealand has an abundance of natural resources, explaining why the country is so wealthy compared to other nations.

These resources include fertile grazing land, oil and gas, iron, coal, timber, and excellent fishing waters. New Zealand’s climate is basically moderate year round because of the nearby ocean that regulates the climate. New Zealand enjoys a marine west coast climate, that on average produces sixty to eighty degree temperatures in January and forty to sixty degree temperatures in July. Because it is surrounded by the ocean, New Zealand receives immense quantities of precipitation on both islands. The average annual precipitation on the North Island is thirty to forty inches and on the South Island it is forty to fifty inches.

This climate produces mixed forests, mid-latitude deciduous forests, and temperate grassland egetation. The terrain is dominated by meadows, pastures, wood lands, and a small chain of mountains called the Southern Alps. The land is blanketed with small lakes and rivers that drain the highlands and empty into the ocean. The extraordinary diversity of the physical geography found in the United States seems to have been duplicated in this relatively small country, where the ski slopes and the beaches may be only an hour apart.

The cultural geography of New Zealand is not as diverse as its physical geography. Currently 3,547,983 people live in New Zealand, but 83. 7 percent of he population live in urbanized areas. The chief cities, each containing more than one hundred thousand people, are Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Manukau, and Wellington. The average population per square mile is only 34, but it is growing due to a 0. 8 percent natural growth rate. Keeping in mind that only 2 percent of the land is arable, the crop land per capita is a meager 0. 25 acres per person.

Large portions of New Zealand are devoted to sheep stations, for there are more sheep in New Zealand than people. The official language of New Zealand is English, although a small ercentage of the people speak Maori, the native language. Somewhat corresponding to the language groups, the religious make up is 52 percent Christian, 15 percent Roman Catholic, and 33 percent unspecified or none. The country takes pride in a 99. 9 percent literacy rate by having an excellent education system.

The entire nation resides in a single time zone that would report 6:00 A. M. if the time in Amarillo, Texas was noon. From the country’s cultural geography, it could be predicted that the nation would enjoy a good standard of living. In 1994 the gross national product of New Zealand was a olossal 56. 4 billion United State’s dollars, generating a per capita income of $16,640. For every 3. 2 people there is a television, and for every 2. 2 people there is a telephone, meaning there are over 2,600,000 televisions and telephones in New Zealand.

Fortunately, 99. 8 percent of the people are able to enjoy safe drinking water, including the natives who live in rural areas. New Zealand has a superb health care industry that serves as a paragon to the rest of the world. There are presently 11,335 physicians and 31,122 hospital beds in New Zealand, for an ample ratio of one physician per 313 people nd one hospital bed per 114 people. The population of New Zealand is provided with plenty of food and a healthy diet, the average person receives approximately 3,250 calories per day.

New Zealand has one of the highest life expectancies in the entire world, that being 74 for men, 80 for women, and 77 for any person. Unfortunately, AIDS is a growing problem in New Zealand that continues to spread at a phenomenal rate. There have been 3,548 AIDS cases reported, affecting one out of every 1,000 people with the syndrome, not to mention the thousands more infected with the HIV virus. New Zealand’s government has contributed to its impressive standard of living. New Zealand achieved independence from the United Kingdom on September 26, 1907.

The government was placed in Wellington, on the North Island, and still remains there today as the capital. The government is a constitutional monarchy that was designed to resemble the United Kingdom government. It includes an executive branch, legislative branch, judicial branch, and a King and Queen employed only as figureheads. The military is divided into three branches, the New Zealand army, the Royal New Zealand Navy, and the Royal New Zealand Air Force. Presently there are 742,871 men fit for military service, but only 10,500 active troops in service.

New Zealand has a flourishing economy that is based on three main economic activities, livestock raising, farming, and foreign trade. The economy is almost completely dependent on the export of goods, which include wool, lamb, mutton, beef, fish, and forestry products. Twenty percent of the exports go to Australia, 15 percent to Japan, 12 percent to the U. S. , 6 percent to the U. K. , and 47 percent to other countries. New Zealand’s monetary unit is the New Zealand dollar, and the exchange rate is 1. 6 N. Z. dollars equals 1 U. S. dollar. With a 6. percent economic growth rate, New Zealand could soon have one of the top five economies in the world.

New Zealand is among the world’s finest countries, because of its exquisite landscape and first-rate economy. With an excellent standard of living, perfect climate, and majestic terrain, New Zealand for many people is an ideal place to live. Every year hundreds of thousands of people tour New Zealand just to catch a glimpse of what many proclaim to be paradise, and after researching this report, I intend to someday be one of those tourists.

Cuba vs. China

Cuba is one of the last actual socialism in a world that has given up on the idea of state-dominated economies and has started adopting market-based democracy. Cuba is one of the last orthodox Marxisms in the world. It is led by Fidel Castro, a dictator. Cuba is starting to have problems with its socialism. Cuba is being influenced by market forces that are changing its economy and politics. The end of hugh subsidies and loans from the former Soviet Union and its communist allies has placed the Cuban government under pressure to reform quickly.

The Castro regime has been forced to use market-based reforms to preserve its absolute control over political power. While the reform measures are making some economic stabilization, recent attempts to extent the reforms have been unpopular with the people. Making an uncertain future for economic and political change in Cuba. This former socialist country has had to penetrate world markets to earn hard currency. The loss of socialist subsidized imports, as well as major markets for its exports, has devastated the Cuban economy.

The government is now forced to use hard currency o pay for imports, Cuba’s foreign exchange reserves are being rapidly depleted, particularly since it must now pay world-market prices for almost all imports. Since 1989 overall imports have plummeted more than 60%, representing a contraction in GDP of over 25%. Most of the lost imports have been essential raw and intermediate materials, thereby severely depressing industrial production. Excess capacity in all sectors except agriculture and tourism is now estimated by local experts at more than 80%.

Because of the foreign exchange shortage, Cuba has been getting further into debt. Although official debt statistics have not been published since 1990, Cuba’s external debt was estimated at $32 billion in 1991 and now hovers around the $35 billion mark. Worse yet, most of the debt is poorly structured, creating a tremendous drain on its limited resources and already depleted foreign exchange coffers. The loss of most of the heavily subsidized oil from the NIS area, for example, has created severe energy shortages, with the government forced to import bicycles from China as a substitute for public transportation.

Gasoline is very costly and out of reach of most Cubans, while scheduled and unscheduled power cuts are now common throughout the island. (“Brown-outs” continue to damage already antiquated industrial machinery. ) Shortages of spare parts and fuel have also affected the still pivotal sugar industry. The government reports some progress in a generally poor outlook. One is a increase in oil exploration and production 1992. The other is the recent decision of the NIS to sell Cuba additional oil, but still well above the subsidized prices of the Pre-Gorbachev period.

Cuba is far from getting the foreign investment needed to boost its oil production enough to become self-sufficient in the near future. The island does continue to receive needed crude from Mexico and Venezuela in line with its bilateral framework accords with these two countries. However, they are charging Cuba world market prices, which are currently increasing. As might be expected, Cuba’s economic crisis is taking its toll on Cuban citizens. Food rationing has reduced many people to bare subsistence, and malnutrition is now a problem.

Medical supplies are scarce. Unemployment and underemployment in many urban and industrial areas exceed 50% even by official estimates. Exports of manpower to Central America and as far as Bolivia and Angola once served as an important safety valve for the Cuban regime. But such foreign “technical” and military missions have largely ceased with the end of longstanding civil conflicts in those nations. As a result of Cuba’s economic difficulties, the black market is now larger than the legal, state-dominated economy.

The Cuban Center for the Study of the Americas stimates that in the 1990-93 period underground economic activity grew five-fold to over 10 billion pesos. The legalization of dollar transactions in July 1993 was ample recognition of the US dollar as the medium of exchange in a large and growing parallel economy. The Cuban government favors international investment that generates or conserves badly-needed foreign exchange. Investments in tourism, the oil industry, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment and computer software receive priority.

In mid-June, a large Mexican group agreed to purchase and run Cuba’s ailing phone company. As happens elsewhere, the actual capital inflows may, of course, be lower than the amount registered because of delays in getting the projects from the blueprint to the actual construction stage. Also, the Cubans are liberally interpreting Decree 50 and other laws and regulations governing foreign investment. Due to its need for credit, trade guarantees, import and export financing, credit card operations and other financial services, Cuba’s financial services sector can be described as full of potential.

Cuba is actively seeking foreign banks and major accounting irms to establish joint ventures with state-owned firms. On the other hand, China’s economic system has been reformed both structurally and functionally. Some of the reasons lay in their youth as a communist country, lacking the institutionalism and complete central authority which would have restricted change. The key reasons, though, lay in the manner in which reform was presented, and how the government was modified in advance to accept those changes when they came. China’s economy evolved into the system it is today without radical political reform.

The basic structure of their government remains and retains a level of control over how policy is made and where power is distributed. The original design, modeled after the Russian system produced policy and handed down decisions in a one way fashion, with those in lower party and government levels left only to carry out orders and monitor progress. Involvement by those closest to a given facet of the economy was limited, even more so for some than others. China, following in the footsteps of Russia, had focused its economic efforts toward heavy industry.

Light industry and agriculture served to support urban, industrialized areas. Foreign trade and foreign investment existed almost solely to feed heavy industry and was under exclusive government control. Political power followed this narrow path, as well. Individuals and government agencies involved with heavy industry reaped the benefits of an economic system which funneled resources in only their direction. If policy was to be made regarding economic change, those select ministries and localities were more actively involved in the process.

Nearly all other industries lacked the representation necessary to bear sufficient influence for economic change. Once again, political and economic change flowed from the top down. Successively lower political tiers towed the party line fed to them from the one above. Common sense tells us that this system has its limitations as those at the highest levels of government cannot be well versed on all facets of economy and industry. Their ability to make informed decisions is dependent upon how much they interact with those at lower levels, and by their own political agendas. Delegation of authority was the obvious choice.

Allowing those closer to, and better informed about a given process lends itself to effective control of its progress. Central control over disseminated authority remained strong. Shirk used the term delegation by consensus to describe this process of requiring that the level of government below agree with the one above it over a given policy before it can be passed down. While no level of government should be given unchecked rein over policy determination, this limited lower level input so severely that I see it as little better than simply being handed your orders as before.

If the lower level organization wished to block a measure, it could by refusing to agree, but that would only throw the measure back to the party leaders to be decided upon and delivered in old style party fashion. Before any real reform could be made, communist leader Deng Xiaoping knew that some political power restructuring would have to be made. The balance of power toward the center and away from the provinces did not lend itself to reforms that did not follow the heavy industry intensive trends of the past.

His position gave him the power to look to provinces for political support in exchange for appointments to, and therefore better representation in, the central committee. This was not a new idea, Mao Zedong attempted to use this strategy of decentralization before to a small degree of success. After placing individuals in positions of power, select markets were given the right to sell small amounts of goods domestically at their own prices. In return for the opportunity to participate, these provinces had to pledge support for the political reform.

This represents an ingenious method for guaranteeing future political success. Waving the carrot of prosperity, through economic freedoms, in return for the support to wave it at others. Other provinces who see the good fortune of their neighbors view the change as a positive process, and are even more willing participants than those who came before them. Opening markets at startup and providing access to sales abroad followed shortly through special economic zones (SEZ’s). There were four zones set up by Deng Xiaoping for foreign investment with Chinese residing outside the mainland .

Ideally, this would present Xiaoping with the opportunity to sell the new idea to the government, on the basis that the select few number of zones would stave off foreign domination of culture and promote foreign trade. Xiaoping persuaded officials to offer preferential treatment for the newly established zones. Exports had to be subsidized with government funds to compensate losses. The major contributor to this was the value placed on the yuan by the Chinese themselves to increase import rates. Later attempts to compensate for this would find China with one rate for domestic and another for foreign exchange.

This dual rate system is the major detractor from the success of the SEZ’s and those areas granted similar freedoms in the years after. It is obvious in hindsight that devaluing renminbi rates before aggressively pursuing exports would have aided the new markets tremendously. Of course a closed economy, lacking in past experience in the particulars of exporting may not have had the background knowledge to foresee this as the staggering hindrance that it has become. China still battles against this problem today. It has become the point of much speculation over what will be the future of China’s economy if the matter is not resolved correctly.

Rapid devaluation internally to a one rate system stands to damage their economy as a whole, not just in foreign trade. Opportunities to work this dilemma out when both rates had approached similar levels were not taken advantage of. The pressure from countries such as the United States was never so great as it is now, however, giving the Chinese a sense that a solution is urgently needed. Many important economic issues face the Chinese in the coming years, aside from the problems of overvaluation. Many are being caused by the very same practices used to initiate reform.

Some markets, freed of restrictions via particularism and decentralization are being found difficult to control by a much more distant party. They may set their own rates and valuation with respect to foreign markets, in some instances with debilitating effect on those set by the government. Central government, dealing with localities through individual agreements, cannot gain control due to a lack of standardization of how these values are set. China’s future success may well depend upon another restructuring of the allocation of power and on finding a better way to control rogue influence from individuals.

Divisions of government will have to be guaranteed the ability to enforce such regulations, and treat all markets with an equal hand. China’s past successes have removed the doubt that fueled opposition to opening markets. Thus the need to make lucrative exchanges, be it for political support or monetary gain, seem unnecessary, damaging practices. This leads back to the argument for standards regarding government-market interaction. It also questions the necessity of favoring heavy industry through capital investments.

No longer a threat politically to policy change, the idea of diverting funds to other more profitable markets only makes better sense. The institution of better economic control, then, could be at the base of future achievement. When the economy behaves as expected, then plans can be constructed and implemented with fewer variables standing in the way. If that control is not found, then government is at the mercy of the market to determine its own path. It is a reasonable assumption that China will find a way to rein in market control, while still providing the autonomy necessary to allow it to grow efficiently.

Just as China did not require major political change to implement reform, nothing leads me to believe that future reforms will require it as well. Coming changes to China’s economy will not be as revolutionary, or likely be met with such opposition as those in the past. I see these changes more as adjustments, fine tuning the present system. Movement in new directions could only be viewed as expansion of the present system, not construction of a new one. Without a doubt, China has attained its goal of a more open economy without the need for radical restructuring politically.

The path chosen to pursue that goal was well planned and exercised with caution. The importance of a gradual movement into reform was recognized, as was the need to prepare the provinces in advance for their upcoming changes. Opposition was quieted through monetary and political offering, and later by better representation of beneficiaries in policy making bodies. The importance of maintaining certain controls under the command of central government was recognized as well. All of these factors contributed to the success of this most difficult campaign.

Belarusian Economy Essay

Belaruss economy has done fairly well from the situation it started in. The economy has some strengths, but it is also not without its weaknesses. Also the Republic has not done yet enough to restructure its economy after the break up of the USSR. Belarus has a fairly well balanced economy with an agriculture capable of feeding its population and a well developed industrial base. Belarusian industry is capable of producing 1. 1 million tons of steel per year, and it manufactures machine tools, agricultural machinery, motor vehicles.

It also has a well developed chemical manufacturing plants, and there is also a branch of industry for consumer goods such as radio, television sets and bicycles. Furthermore its industrial construction complex ensures a considerable scope of construction. The Republic also has a diversified agricultural crop ranging from potatoes and grain to flax and livestock. The agricultural sector accounts for 20% of the GDP while the industrial around 43%. Besides helping to develop the industry, Russia helped to develop the infrastructure of Belarus making most of the country accessible.

Belarus has a reasonably well developed industry and a long history of agricultural development. Problems for the economy of Belarus began to arise after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The weakness with Belarusian industry is two-fold. It has to import much of its raw materials from other nations and it imports most of its energy. As a result industry came under severe economic pressure shortly after independence. The problem with its agriculture is that it that about two thirds of the peasants are still organized into collective farms and the remainder in state farms.

A few private farms were established but the treatment they received from the state discouraged other from trying. Also Belarus has a 14% trade deficit, which increase the vulnerability of the economy. Another drag on the economy is the continuing cost associated with the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster, estimated in 1995 at a quarter of the national economy. The southern part of Belarus was severely hit by the nuclear fallout and many of the estimated 2 million victims live in Belarus.

The Belarusian economy has room for improvement, however if put in the right circumstances it could thrive. After the dissolution of the USSR the national economy of Belarus was being restructured to introduce science intensive and low power consuming industries. However, Belarus has seen little reform since 1995 when president Lukaschenko launched the country on a path of “market socialism. ” Privatization of enterprises controlled by the central government virtually ceased in 1996. Only about 10% of all enterprises under central government control had been privatized.

In addition, Lukaschenko has re-imposed administrative control over prices and the national currency’s exchange rate, and expanded the state’s right to intervene arbitrarily in the management of private enterprise. Lack of structural reform, and a climate hostile to business, have inhibited foreign investment in Belarus in 1995-97. Belaruss economy consisted mainly of secondary industry, dependent on Russia and other Soviet republics for both raw materials and markets. The second problem is that it inherited a weak political leadership at independence that never managed to even begin economic reform.

To make the conditions favorable for investments Belarus is taking steps for creating an adequate base of legal standards for foreign investment security, liberalization of taxation order and customs regulations, granting cost benefits to investors and providing various information and business services. The economy of Belarus has great potential. Its strengths can be strengthened and its weaknesses can be improved. Having a strong trading partner would put Belarus in a position to over come the crisis in its economy.

Costa Rica Essay

Within it’s 51,100 square kilometers there is a wider variety of species of birds than in all of Europe or North America. With a relatively small population of roughly three million inhabitants, Costa Rica also boast of one of the oldest and more consolidated democracies in Latin America. In 1869 the primary education for both sexes was declared obligatory and free of cost, defrayed by the State. In 1882 the death sentence was abolished. In the year 1949 the armed forces were abolished and in 1983 Perpetual Neutrality was proclaimed.

Prestigious international human rights organizations have their headquarters in Costa Rica.. Beacause of this, of its lush 1500 kilometers of tropical sun-bathed beaches and the wild diversity of flora and fauna to be found in it’s wide array of microclimates Costa Rica has justifiably earned it’s reputation of paradise regained. Being located within the tropics, seasonal changes in Costa Rica are not as drastic as they are in countries on other latitudes.

There is a ‘dry” season (equivalent to summer and spring) during which temperatures pleasantly in the high 20s (Degrees Celsius), which goes from December to May, and a “wet” season from June till November during which mornings are usually sunny and showers might be expected after noon. On areas near the coasts temperatures may be as much as ten degrees higher, where as in the Chirripo Peak, the highest mountain of Costa Rica (3800 meters) temperature may drop down to freezing point although snow is unheard of, even at the Chirripo. Costa Rica’s official language is Spanish.

On the Caribbean Coast a small minority of Jamaican descendants speak a local version of English, and most Costa Rican can understand and speak a bit of English. Quite recently all public schools made mandatory the learning of a second language. The main religion, as in the rest of Latin America is the Roman Catholic, but there is a very wide margin of tolerance. The national currency is the colon. All air traffic to and from Costa Rica is handled through the Juan Santamara Airport, located 29 minutes from San Jos, in the city of Alajuela.

Government Costa Rica is a democratic republic, as stated by the 1949 Constitution, which guarantees all citizens and foreigners equality before the law, the right to own property, the right of petition and assembly, freedom of speech. The government is divided into independent executive, legislative, and judicial powers. This “separation of powers” is stipulated under Article 9 of the Constitution. In 1969 an amendment ruled that neither the incumbent president nor any other president may be reelected.

Costa Rica’s executive power is composed of the president, the vice-presidents, and the ministers, all of them conform a group of 17 members called Government Council. Legislative power is vested in the Legislative Assembly, an unicameral body composed of 57 members elected from proportional representation. Diputados are elected in a period of four year period and can be reelected four years later. The Assembly holds the power to amend the presidents budget and to appoint the Comptroller General, who checks public expenditures and prevents the executive power from overspending.

Costa Rica’s Legislative Assembly also appoints the Supreme Court judges for a minimum term of eight years. They are automatically reappointed unless voted out by the Legislative Assembly. Twenty-four judges now serve the supreme court. These judges, in turn, select judges for the civil and penal courts. Together the courts have done much to enforce constitutional checks on presidential power. The courts also appoint the three permanent magistrates on the Special Electoral Tribunal, an independent body that oversees each election and is given far-reaching powers.

Costa Rica’s seven provinces, Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, Guanacaste and San Jose, its capital, are ruled by a governor appointed by the president. The provinces are subdivided into 81 counties, which are divided into a total of 421 districts ruled by municipal councils. The provinces play only one important role : as electoral districts for the Legislative Assembly. The number of deputies for each province is determined by its population, with one member for every 30. 000 people ; seats are allotted according to the proportion of the vote for each party.

In the past three decades, the municipalities have steadily lost their prerogatives of central authority and now are relegated to fulfilling such functions as garbage collections, casino and liquor licensing and public lightning and upkeep of the streets. Exports / Industry The main exports of the country consist of Bananas, Coffee, Sugar, Livestock, cocoa, cotton and hemp. Food, beverages and tobacco constituted 48% of manufacturing in 1994 for Costa Rica. Other main goods in the industry consist of rubber, plastics, chemicals, textiles, adhesives, cosmetics, bricks, cement and wood products.

Education Everything in San Jose shows clearly that Costa Ricans are a highly literate people : the country boasts of 93% literacy in those 10 years or over, the most literate population in Central America. Many of the countrys early fathers like the first president, Jose Maria Castro, were former teachers who were concerned about the education in Costa Rica. In 1869, the country became one of the first in the world to make the education both free and obligatory, funded by the states share of the great coffee wealth. In those days only one in ten Costa Ricans could read and write .

By 1920 the 50% of the population was literate and by 1970s 89% were able to read and write. The last 20 years have seen significant boosts to educational standards. Since the 70s the country has invested more than 28% of the national budget on primary and secondary education. President Figueres elected in 1994, advocates a computer in each of the nations 4000 schools, plus obligatory English classes, probably with the technological and tourist industries boom of recent years. Libraries are the only way for adults in rural areas to continue education beyond six grade.

The country, with approximately 100 libraries, has a desperate need for books and for funds to support the hundreds of additional libraries that the country needs. Elementary and High schools are to be found in every community. Students are not required to pay for assistance, a nominal charge of around $20 per year applies. Elementary school has 6 year levels, where as high school has 5 year levels. Each is divided in two cycles, and upon completion of each cycle, students are required to pass tests on all subjects studied during those years.

The most notorious of these tests are the Bachillerato Tests, which are required to get the high school diploma needed for admission to Universities. Although the country lacked a university until 1940, Costa Rica now has four state-funded universities and a score of small private ones, whose number has increased dramatically in the last decade, due to the difficulty of being admitted to state-funded, more prestigious universities. Opportunities abound for adults to earn the primary or secondary diplomas they failed to gain as children.

The University of Costa Rica (UCR), the largest and oldest university, enrolls some 35,000 students, mostly on scholarships, but even paying full tuition is not hard as it rarely surpasses $200 a semester. The main campus is in the northeastern San Jose community of San Pedro but the UCR also has regional centers in Alajuela, Turrialba, Puntarenas and Cartago. In addition there are many private institutions like, the Autonomous University of Central America, the University for Peace, sponsored by the United Nations offering a masters degree in communications for Peace.

History in Brief of Indonesia

This essay will be on the History in Brief of Indonesia, the Government of Indonesia, the island of Java, and the Geography of Indoneisa. In early days, the region from India to Japan, including Indonesia, was known to the Europeans as the Indies. Chris Colombus was looking for a westward sea roots from Europe to the Indies when he arrived in America. During 1600’s dutch political control began to spread Indonesia. Indonesia declared it’s independencein 1945 and fought the Dutch until 1949 when they gave up their control. At first, the Dutch allowed nationalist movement to delevope.

In 1905, t had introduced municipal councils to govern the towns and cities. By 1920, there were 32 such councils, with little electorial franchise. Other councils were also established. They included provicial councils in Java, and group communities concils outside Java. The government of Indonesia is based on a constitution written in 1945. A president serves as the head of government. The president apionts a sheet of advisers consisting of top military leaders and civillians. In theory, the peoples console assembly is supposed to establish a general direction of the government’s policys.

A house of peoples Representatives is the nations parlament, however, in practice neither the assembly nor the house has real power. Instead, it is the president who makes all of the important decisions. The president is elected to a five year term the Peoples Consulative assembly. Te assembly has 1,000 members. It includes the 500 members of the peoples representives. It also includes 500 members of regional, occupational, and other groups. All assembly members serve five year terms. The assembly usually is only held once every five years.

The 500 members of the People’s Representatives ncludes 400 who are elected through a system that insures that the government’s potlitical organization win most of the seats. Servicmen have no vote, so the remaining 100 are appointed by the president on the reccomendation of the comander of the armed forces. Indonesia is divided into twenty-seven provinces. The provinces are divided into regioncies and municipalities. These units are further divided into villages. Officials of all local government units exept villages are appointed by central government from lists of people nominated by regional legislators.

Indonesian villages elect their own village officials to provide local government. Java lies between Sumatra (to the west), and Bali (to the east). To the north is the Java Sea. To the south is the Indian Ocean which Indonesians call the Indonesian Ocean. The greatest distance from North Java to South Java is two hundred kilometers. From East Java to West Java is over one thousand kilometers. The island of Java has five administrative units: the special territory of Jakarta Raya, Java Barat , Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, the special territory of Yogjakarta, and Jawa Timur.

A chain of volcanic mountains run along the island from west to east. These mountains are apart of a fold in the earth’s crust which extends from Southeast Asian mainland through Sumatra and Java to the lesser Sundra Islands. Java itself has 112 peaks. The volcanic soil is extremely fertile and this are supports a large population. Tangkuban Prahu in West Java is a live volcanoe that attraccts manu tourists. A similar mountain in the Sunda Straights, Krakatoua, is famous for its erruption in 1883. The whole northern portion of the peak was blown away.

The explosion was heard over 700 kilometers away. The resulting sea waves caused over thirty six thousand Indonesian deaaths in the low lying of West and South Jakarta. Indonesia is a country in south east Asia that consists of more than 13,600 islands. The islands lie along the equator, and extend more than 5,000 kilometers. Many of the islands cover only a few square kilometers but about half of New Guinea (an area called Irian Jaya), and three fourths of Borneo (Kalimantan), also belong to Indonesia. New Guinea and Borneo are the second and third largest islands in the world after Greenland.

Egypt, a Middle Eastern country

Egypt is a Middle Eastern country located in the northeast corner of Africa. A small part of Egypt, called the Sinai Peninsula, is located in Asia. Deserts cover most of Egypt, so it gets little rain, but the longest river in the world, the Nile River, flows through the desert and is key to living for many Egyptians. Almost all of Egypts population, about 99%, is located near the Nile or along the Suez Canal, another body of water important to Egyptian life, although together they cover only four percent of Egypts total land. The largest city, Cairo, has a population of about 6 million.

About 10 million people live in the Cairo metropolitan area. Alexandria, a port city, is the second largest. Egyptian cities are extremely crowded and have inadequate public transportation, causing lots of traffic. They do have crowded streetcars and trains, though. Many Egyptians consider themselves Arabs. The Bedouins, who are nomads, make up a distinct ethnic minority among the Arab population. Most have settled down on farms, but some tribes still wander. The major non-Arab minority are the Nubians. They originally lived in villages along the Nile in northern Sudan and the very bottom of Egypt, called the Nubian Valley.

When the Aswan High Dam was constructed in the 1960s, it forced the Nubians to move higher up on the Nile. Arabic is the official language of Egypt. Regional Arabic dialects have their own variations of sounds and words. The most widely used dialect is that of Cairos. The Bedouin dialect is different from the settled residents of the Nile Valley. Some people in desert villages even speak Berber. Many educated Egyptians also speak English or French in addition to Arabic. Egyptian city life is much different than its village life.

City residents deal with normal city problems such as housing shortages and traffic. Most of city residents live in poverty, although others enjoy special conveniences and services. Villagers regularly live much like their ancestors did hundreds of years ago, getting by growing crops and tending animals. Egyptian cities have a wide range of wealth. Good-looking residential areas exist near widespread slums. Lack of satisfactory housing is a major problem. Many people live together in small apartments. Others build makeshift huts on land that belongs to others, or on roofs of apartments.

Some of Cairos poorest citizens take shelter in historic tombs on the outskirts of the city, in a place call the City of the Dead. Cities provide many jobs. Educated Egyptians work as businessmen and government workers. Uneducated citizens find jobs at factories or as unskilled laborers. The majority of the population are peasants living in rural areas call fellahin. The fellahin farm small plots of land owned by someone else or tend animals. Some of Egypts rural people are Bedouin nomads who wander the desert with their herds of camels, goats, and sheep. The fellahin usually live in small huts made up of mud bricks with straw roofs.

In southern Egypt, some houses are made of stone. Most huts have between one and three rooms and a courtyard for the animals. Most homes are unfurnished and have only a few mats, benches, a low table, some clay pots, wooden dishes, and a copper kettle. Each family member of a village has to perform certain duties. The husband organizes the planting, weeding, and harvesting of crops. The wife cooks, carries water, and helps in the fields. Children watch after the animals and help bring the water for the fields. Egyptian villages are distinguished by a strong sense of community.

Villagers come together to celebrate feasts, festivals, marriages, and births. Islam, the major Egyptian religion, provides a strong unifying bond. 90 percent of Egyptians are Muslims, or followers of Islam. The follow the Sunni, or orthodox, branch of Islam. Mosques, which are Islamic houses of worship, serve as places of both religious and social life Soccer is a major point of recreation in Egypt. Many people attend matches or watch their favorite teams on television. The most common recreation, though, is going to the bazaar, or outdoor marketplace, and socializing.

The make purchases with friends and sit and talk over a cup of coffee or tea. Islam is very important to Egyptian life. Religious duties include praying five times a day, giving money or goods to the poor, called almsgiving, and, if possible, making a pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the sacred city of Islam. Islamic traditions also affect government and law. For example, the government collects contributions from the wealthy and gives the money to the poor to fulfill the almsgiving requirement. Less than half of Egypts adult population can read or write. Illiteracy is at its most in rural areas.

The government is making an effort to improve the quality and availability of education. According to law, all children from 6 to 14 must attend school, but attendance is only demanded of children 6 to 12. About 85 percent of this group actually go to school. About half the children who graduate from elementary school go on to high school, and about 20 percent go past high school. There is a lack of funds for schools, causing there to be a shortage of teachers and school buildings, especially in rural parts. Elementary and high schools are free in Egypt. Egypt only has 12 universities, which train their students very well.

The Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea)

The United States has been presented a dilemma towards its foreign policy with the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea). North Koreas alleged launch of a new Taepo-Dong I missile on August 31, 1998 has heightened American worries and escalated an already tense situation with North Korea. The United States response towards this new missile, which could possibly be able to reach the edges of both Alaska and Hawaii , will be a factor in its decision on whether or not to continue to finance support towards North Korea.

New sanctions could mean the collapse of a weak North Korean economy. Already on the brink of conomic and political collapse, the loss of U. S. and KEDO aid could push them over the edge and into political ruin. One major factor involved in the foreign policy decision is the collapse of North Korea. It could mean one of three things: Implosion (collapse of the state), explosion (war with South Korea) or absorption (reform and reunification). In May 1997, acting Director of Central Intelligence, George Tenet, stated, One of the things that worries us most is an implosion internally.

The result of an implosion, the collapse of the state, would be hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing to China and South Korea. China has already begun stepping up troops at the North Korean border to halt the flow of refugees should this happen. South Korea would possibly use force to deter refugees to the south. Another factor here is the humanitarian influences. Massive floods, droughts and typhoons since 1995 have forced North Korea to accept international food aid. Widespread famine has reportedly killed hundreds of thousands of people. This acceptance is contrary to the North Korean governments policy of juche or self-reliance .

It is feared that the government of North Korea is diverting scarce food sources from the civilian ector to its military, even at a time of humanitarian crisis . A third factor is the general flow of our foreign policy towards North Korea. Since 1994, we have been implementing constructive engagement with North Korea. The Agreed Framework was a barter system where the United States would provide economic and food aid to North Korea. North Korea would cease production of nuclear weapons and they would make other concessions as well. Congress has recently called for the end to this.

In a plenary session on September 18, the US Congress adopted a resolution, H. J. RES. 83, to call on President Clinton to stop implementing the U. S. -North Korea Agreed Framework reached in Geneva, 1994 . On September 17, Congress also passed a resolution to cut funding to KEDO. The State Department feels that constructive engagement is still the answer. Secretary of State press briefer James P. Rubin said, We believe that if we cant fulfill our part of the agreement, it will be much, much harder to convince the North Koreans to fulfill their pat of the agreement.

This highlights differences within the U. S. government that may effect the outcome. Another factor is the North Korea military presence in northeast Asia. With increases technology in SCUD missiles nd new longer range missiles being developed, North Korea is a source of instability in its region. It is one of the last Marxist regimes. Unlike the other communist countries peaceful exit from the international scene, North Korea could strike out in desperation as they try to hold on to power as they slip out.

North Korean military implications are important in two ways 1) the exporting and sales of missiles and technology abroad; and 2) the domestic stockpiling of troops and weapons along the De-Militarized zone. These two factors will effect the United States foreign policy to North Korea. Historical Context The United States has held virtually no relations with North Korea since the end of the Korean War. In response to the Korean War, the United States Government established severe economic sanctions towards N. Korea under the Trading with the Enemy Act in 1950.

These sanctions and additional sanctions from the West caused North Korea to fall behind technologically to its neighbor, South Korea over time. Kim Il sung dominated most political and governmental affairs since the Korean War. Both as premier and president, Kim continued to press for the reunification of Korea (under the Korean Workers Party rule of ourse). Domestically, he transformed Korea into one of the most repressive and strictly regimented societies in the world. The Korean Workers Party dominated all aspects of life; police forces were also used to suppress the slightest dissent or opposition .

In doing this Kim terrorized his own people and thus failed to produce adequate quantities of food and consumer goods for them. Nearly one quarter or one third of the North Korean budget has been based on the military. Much trade involved the export of military goods such as missiles. North Korea began producing advanced missile systems in 1984. They ave also been producing chemical and biological weapons since the 1960s. This coupled with their exporting of missile systems to Iran, Syria and Egypt provided sufficient grounds for the United States to ignore relations with them.

The United States also feared another Korean War. If we began to bolster the military there and to begin to take more action in the east Pacific, North Korea could become unsecured and launch an attack on South Korea. North Korea became a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty in 1985. Although a party to it, they did not finalize a safeguard agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency until 1992, thereby becoming a full member. During the late eighties the N. Korea government worked to advance and distribute its missile systems. The United States was worried by this but continued their quarantine of them.

The IAEA continued to inspect the nuclear program and take stock. The year 1994 started a tension point between the U. S. and N. Korea. North Korea had been under constant watch by the United Nations and the United States due to their experimentation with nuclear energy. The International Atomic Energy Agency, who had been the main group responsible for observing and keeping track of North Korean nuclear progress, reported that it had become impossible to determine whether nuclear fuel had been diverted from nuclear reactors near the city of Yongbyon.

Any misplaced atomic fuel could possibly be used to produce plutonium, the basis for nuclear weapons. The volatile and hostile nature of the North Korean government could use nuclear weapons to a maximum advantage for terror. This gave grounds for the United Nation to impose sanctions towards North Korea. President Clinton and the United States pressed for the sanctions. The North Korean government responded by threatening to declare war. In response o the situation, Former-President Jimmy Carter met with Kim Il-Sung in mid-June and helped to ease the growing tension.

His negotiations were cut short by the death of the Korean leader in early July. But the talks resumed and on October 21, 1994, after much talking, the United States and North Korea agreed to sign the Agreed Framework. In this, North Korea pledged to:

1. Freeze operations at, or cease construction of, all of these reactors and cease operating the Yongbyon reprocessing plant, with the freeze to be verified by the IAEA; 2. Not separate plutonium from the spent fuel removed from the 5-Mwe eactor in May 1994 (the status of the fuel to be monitored by the IAEA. 3. Ship the spent fuel out of North Korea; and 4. Thereafter dismantle all facilities of nuclear proliferation concern.

In exchange, North Korea will be provided with two less proliferation-prone light-water reactors (LWRs) and a number of other energy-related inducements as well as security assurances. (See appendix A for full text) This gave way for better relations between the United States and North Korea. President Clinton took positive steps by signing an executive order in January 1995 to reduce some sanctions towards North Korea by allowing private US firms to sell foodstuffs to them at market prices.

The international community sought to further be involved in North Koreas new developments. On March 5, 1995, the United States, Japan, and South Korea formed a multinational consortium, called the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO), to supply North Korea with the two promised light water reactors from the Agreed Framework. This group would become the liaison between Washington and North Korea. It is the principle agent in implementing the Agreed Framework of 1994. One of KEDOs first breakthroughs came on December 15, 1995 when they and North Korea signed a Supply Agreement for the actual financing and supply of the reactors.

1996 started a year of ups and downs in the US-North Korean relationship. In April, the two countries held a two-day talk discussing the North Korean ballistic missile program. The United States wanted North Korea to stop development of long range missiles and missile exports. In exchange, the US would lift additional sanctions that were imposed on DPRK. May saw these talks go sour as North Korea failed to comply and the US imposed additional sanctions.

Things turned even worse for North Korea when on September 18, 1996, a North Korean reconnaissance submarine was discovered grounded off of South Koreas coast. Its crew had reportedly gone to shore and killed South Koreans while conducting a limited form of guerrilla warfare South Korea called for a limited halt on KEDO implementation of the Agreed Framework until the North issued an apology. Japan and The United States agreed, putting significant pressure on the North Korean government until December 29 of that year when a formal apology was administered.

Clinton issued a statement saying, I am pleased that Pyongyang has pledged to prevent the recurrence of such an incident and has expressed its illingness to work with others for durable peace and stability on the peninsula. The situation was resolved. The next day the US rewarded them by approving a license sought by Cargill, Inc. , a US firm, to negotiate a commercial deal to sell N. Korea up to 500,000 tons of grain. 1997 was no exception to the struggle between North Korea and the members of KEDO.

When the Taiwan Power Co. nnounced it would ship 200,000 barrels of low-level nuclear waste to Pyongsan, the United States and Japan fiercely protested fearing that the waste would be used as a source from which the N. Koreans could extract plutonium. The North Koreans were still wary of the United States. Washington pressured the Taiwan Power Co. and the North Korean government until they agreed to postpone shipments until further times. KEDO went along as planned. Domestically, North Koreas economy was collapsing; massive floods and typhoons from 1995 destroyed many areas of food production and cause widespread famine and disease.

Production ground down to a minimum. This put large amounts of pressure on a government that still stressed self-sufficiency. The launching of Pakistans first nuclear weapon in April 1998 caused many in the US chagrin. The source of the missiles and technology transfer that they applied to the weapon was also a source irritation: North Korea. The United States condemned this. Sanctions were again applied as the US became aware of transfers made from the North Korean Mining Development Corporation. Since the North Korean economy is state run the sanctions applied to the government and forbade any arms or arms technology sales to them.

This leads us up to August 31, 1998 when the Democratic Peoples Republic of North Korea launched what appeared to be a missile test of their newest missile, the Taepo-Dong I. Immediate Aftermath In he next few days after the August 31 launch, the world, especially the members of KEDO were in shock. They raced to find out just what it was that the N. Koreans had launched with their new missile. The fact they had developed the new missile was of concern as well. Its new long-range capabilities would be sought after on the international arms market.

Older ties with Iran, Egypt, Pakistan, and Syria could bud new agreements that would spread the use of these missiles outward into Asia and the Middle East. The US denounced N. Koreas government for the lack of them to notify Washington of the launch. Our surprise turned into a month of ups and downs with the State Department and the Defense Department, and Congress. Congress wanted US involvement in North Korea to halt (anything above the liaison office level) due to the failed cooperation with nuclear inspection on part of the North Korean government.

The North Korean nuclear reactor at Yongbyon, near Pyongyang, has long been a target of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which has complained about Pyongyangs uncooperative attitudes towards nuclear inspection. The House stresses that nuclear inspections should be thorough and complete and the IAEA inspectors hould have the freedom to conduct any and all inspections that it deems necessary to fully account for the stocks of plutonium and other nuclear materials in North Korea. The House also attempted to pass a resolution on September 17, 1998 that would kill KEDO funding in 1999.

The State Department replied to Congress stating that KEDO was vital to US interests on the Korean Peninsula as a foundation for stability. Without US funding in whole, the United States portion of the Agreed Framework would not be able to be carried out completely. Charles Kartman, the Special Envoy for the Korean Peace Process and he U. S. Representative to KEDO (from the State Department) testified before the House International Relations Committee on September 24 defending the United States interests in North Korea through KEDO.

He verified that the Agreed Framework also provides a means to engage North Korea on other key concerns as terrorism, MIA remains and missile activities. The State Department basically stated that through constructive engagement with KEDO, we could open new doors to negotiations with military and economic ideals. He also cited the benefits of the use of United States humanitarian aid towards North Korea as an nhancer of relations. The Department of Defenses news briefing on September 8, 1998 seemed to be pessimistic towards the North Koreans claims of the purpose of the launch; to place a North Korean satellite in orbit.

At that time SPACECOM had not observed any new object in orbit around the earth that could comply with the North Koreans claims. Also no radio transmissions were picked up from the frequency in which the North Koreans claimed their satellite was transmitting. The Defense Department seemed rather amused at the notion of a North Korean attack on any troops abroad. Kenneth Bacon, a DOD representative nd briefer stated, I think any country that would contemplate using weapons to attack United States troops abroad would have to expect a very swift and decisive, maybe even massive, response.

Im sure the North Koreans are aware of that. If theyre not, they should be aware of it now. James Rubin followed up on this with a State Department briefing the next day. He reflected the notion that they were still assessing data on the launch. He also reported progress on talks that were currently taking place in New York concerning the Agreed Framework and the DPRKs nuclear program. These Four Party Talks Japan, United States, South Korea and North Korea) had been taking place since the beginnings of KEDO. Another was to take place at the beginning of October. In the briefing, however, Mr.

Rubin stated, We have no illusions about dealing the North Korean government, and we do not trust North Korea. A reporter later asked Rubin whether or not he was aware that a South Korean spokesperson said that S. Korea, Japan and the US had reached a consensus that the missile was a failed satellite launch. Rubin again stated that the US was still looking at all possibilities and that additional launches should not be epeated. He also stated that KEDO would attempt to proceed with the implementation of the Agreed Framework. Talks resumed on October 1 about United States doubts in the North Korean missile programs.

James Rubin praised the resumption of the talks. He also reiterated the point that the United States was very interested and worried about the North Korean missile programs and exports. The new technological advance could spark an arms race in missiles in the region. Rubin also stated in this briefing that the United States does believe that the August 31st incident was a failed satellite launch attempt. CNN eports, however, show that little progress was made. The talks, held behind closed doors in Geneva, gave way to North Korea demanding the immediate removal of 37,000 U. S. troops from South Korea.

Washington reportedly rejected this . Recent developments in North Korea have been focused mainly on the massive famine that is plaguing the country. With North Korea only able to produce two-thirds of the minimum supply of food it needs, it has been reported that thousands of people are dying of hunger and diseases. A CNN report on November 9, 1998 stated that the North Korean government asked the United States for cash s a condition of allowing an American mission visit to Pyongyang for talks on a suspected underground nuclear site.

Spokesman James Rubin responded to this, And given that kind of posture (referring to the offer of money for visitation rights), its why we dont expect to see this resolved, because we dont intend to pay money to see whether they are living up to their expectations under the Agreed Framework. Access to two disputed underground sites that are reported to be nuclear development sites is a key point in the US arguments. Latest reports do show that the United States has sent 300,000 tons f grain to North Korea through the World Food Program. Hopes are that the humanitarian aid will help inspire North Korea to cooperate.

Decision Options Towards North Korea The United States is presented with a difficult situation in North Korea. The country falls deeper into depression and famine each day. Undoubtedly, if funds were diverted from the military into agricultural assistance, the situation would be eased. This is unlikely seeing that military exports account for such a significant portion of foreign revenue. Therefore, several options are presented to us:

1. ) Increasing United States leadership esponsibilities and bolstering the military presence in the Pacific. Also, cutting off all aid to N. Korea and letting them sweat it out. U. S. public support would be instrumental in this. 2. ) The United States should utilize constructive engagement to gain more influence. Tools for this would be KEDO and humanitarian aid that could be directly sent and distributed by the United States. 3. ) Do nothing. By doing nothing we can let the North Korean government destroy itself. Our involvement may be what is keeping the government in power. 4. ) Military invasion of North Korea. Take control of their economy and let Korea unite into one nation. These options are all viable, but perhaps not realistic solutions to the North Korean problem.

For instance, a military invasion of North Korea, while some in the government may want it is not acceptable. The Department of State would not support this option either seeing their extensive efforts already in place. Domestic would generally be unsupportive, and support in Congress appears almost obsolete. Public opinion abroad might turn overwhelmingly anti-American and the United States would be could be forced with a coalition of Asian states against it. Also this would not ack the United States morally righteous opinion of itself. Therefore, we can conclude that this option is neither achievable nor realistic.

Option three, doing nothing, is also a viable solution. Could it happen though? The United States may already have too many interests and groundwork laid in North Korea to simply take everything aback and cut off all support. Again, public opinion comes into play. The media would exploit this decision as mean and cruel. That in turn would put pressure on the public servants who run the government. They might be compelled to alter the decision. This would not be a very umanitarian option and might conflict with the presidents seemingly more idealistic foreign policy.

The Department of Defense also would not be keen on the idea seeing it would give the North Koreans an opportunity to mobilize its resources, perhaps even develop nuclear weapons. Therefore, this is also not a realistic option. Option two seems more realistic. It also seems to be the current foreign policy being used on North Korea as dictated by the State Department. The State Department has the task of overseeing the implementation of the Agreed Framework of 1994. They can use KEDO and the Agreed Framework to ut pressure on the North Korean government to make concessions and reforms.

This would be a peaceful process that would only require time and cooperation from most of the legislative and executive branches of the government. It would also require adequate help from Japan and South Korea. China might be a wild card to throw into this as well. They could help the North Koreans restructure their system away from a command economy and provide leadership in relations with the United States and the United Nations. Charles Kartman stated in his address to the House International Relations Committee, Through engagement, n 1994 we concluded with the DPRK the Agreed Framework to deal with the DPRKs nuclear program.

He also stated, Although it is a difficult task we are convinced that we can achieve our objectives best by carefully engaging the North Korean regime, not by isolating it. This clearly shows the entire State Departments views towards North Korea: constructive engagement. In response to the missile test of August 31, 1998, we can observe that the United States is responding to this point of view as if it were not really important in the grand scheme of dealings with North Korea, although it should not be repeated. Notice that no extremely harsh measures were imposed against North Korea for this.

Implementation of KEDO went along as planned. Kartmans statements above can illustrate that the basis of this decision is deeply rooted in the Agreed Framework and the precedent that was started with it. The strength of this argument lies in the fact that North Korea has not developed any nuclear weapons (that we know of at this time) and that engagement resolved a crisis in 1994. The weaknesses of this argument are that it gives too much leeway to North Korea in terms of what happened August 31. Was that actually a satellite launch r was it a test for their new missile for potential buyers elsewhere?

We still do not know what is contained in the two underground sites that they hold and we are still unsure of where all of the nuclear products have gone. This system is based on a level of trust and the assumption that North Korea will play by the rules. In a pre-production copy of a report to Congress, the Committee to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States stated that development of the Taepo-Dong 2 is currently taking place. Our knowledge of their ability to use this weapon may be very short before the actual launching.

This missile is hought to have a long enough range to target most military bases in Alaska as well as an area from Phoenix, Arizona to Madison, Wisconsin. This could be used to target the United States and other countries with nuclear weapons that could be developed away from the watchful eyes of the United States. The fourth option of the United States would be to increase military pressure on the North Korean government by taking a strong leadership role in the International Community. Richard V. Allen, an analyst for the Heritage Foundation, wrote an essay on Ten Steps to Address North Koreas Nuclear Threat.

The general scheme of the ocument is the basis for this argument. The United States must be ready militarily for a backlash from the North Korean government. The United States should lead the allied coalition for a strong policy against North Korea. They need to stop funding and technology transfers coming from other countries, especially Japan, China and Russia. Koreans in Japan send as much as one billion dollars a year in aid to North Korea. If this is cut off, we can effectively use sanctions against North Korea.

Korea uses much of this money to buy oil from China, who supplies up to 75% of North Koreas imported oil. China is also uspected to be a principle supplier of technology information to North Korea. The United States should also make sure to let it be known to China and Russia that sanctions are sanctions and the United States expects them to be followed. Non-compliance consequences could be set up to prompt a more pro-US trade relation between those countries and North Korea. US forces should be deployed to counter any North Korean attack on South Korea or its neighbors.

If the North Korean government collapses, it might lash out militarily as it goes, leaving behind a war-zone in the wake of its destruction. The launch of the missile on August 31 only goes to bolster this argument, the worse off the people become, the better equipped the government becomes militarily and the more desperate they become. Public support in the United States would be essential to the implementation of this. That could determine partisan support in congress. That support would be greatly needed to fully implement this. Only a total conviction would be fully effective. It could not be half-asked.

The pressure built on North Korea would hopefully force it to comply with United States demands and maybe even collaborate with South Korea over some issues of migration and maybe ven unification. The weakness of this position is that it is so complex. The end result can only be achieved by a full commitment. Past United States history has shown that since Vietnam the country is very reluctant to go to war unless we are sure to win (Persian Gulf), also the Nixon Doctrine may be used in retaliation to U. S. increased military presence in Asia. Vietnam will be used as an example and the media may turn the situation sour.

This might also lead North Korea to desperation in their anticipation of a U. S. attack. They could attack South Korea, hoping to gain territory to be used for bargaining. Also the olatile nature of the North Korean government lends another hand to this issue. What will the North Koreans reaction be when the United States withdraws from the Agreed Framework 0f 1994? It is currently unpredictable. The Best Solution Many factors must go into the United States foreign policy decision about North Korea. There are many long term and short term complications that one must consider. Unification is an enormous factor.

It is generally thought that there is a sense of manifest destiny on the Korean peninsula. But Korean unification could be costly and painful. Estimates are that the cost could amount to omething like $800 billion over ten years. This is based upon the assumption that a German model will be used with heavy expenditures on social welfare and environmental cleansing. That is a long-term implication of policy. Both options one and two work to achieve this but through different ways. The best solution in my opinion is option number one. I agree with the slightly more idealistic option.

It warrants a peaceful solution that would perhaps ease the North and South into unification over a long, extended period of time. The increase of troops in option two could serve to undermine security on the Korean Peninsula. Reducing an adversarys security can reduce the states own security in a wayby increasing the value the adversary places on expansion, thereby making it harder to deter. The United States buildup of military on the Korean Peninsula could serve to make the North Koreans believe that we intend them for offensive use. The first option also seems better to me because is has proven successful in a number of ways so far.

While the North Koreans are still building missiles, they are not building nuclear warheads to arm them with. The non-proliferation aspects of this option work. The IAEA is monitoring the uclear reactors there effectively. Although things are not quite what we desire, cooperation is being used to benefit all. North Korea will greatly benefit from the two new energy reactors and the world will benefit from them not becoming a nuclear power. North Korea still will remain a threat to peace and stability in northeast Asia. We can only attempt to deal with them as we did with South Africa.

Hopefully, the recent domestic problems will fuel dissent among the North Koreans and perhaps there will be an overthrow of the government (although unlikely at this time). Economically, it is more beneficial to aid them. We appear to the world community to promote economic welfare and humanitarian aid while we establish closer links to our partners in KEDO. North Korea could ease into the unification process by working together with the South to build the new power plants. The people working together might inspire a new age to the Korean Peninsula and might push the people of North Korea to want reform.

The Four-Party Peace Talks might yield progress yet, although when will progress come about is another question. This option is the long and tedious process of negotiation, testing each others will and making concessions towards progress. This seems to be the logical choice in light of public opinion today and the growing anti-war trend in world politics. A change could be made however in the nature of the aid that is being given to North Korea in the form of food. Instead of going through International groups, the United States should take the initiative to give and distribute the aid themselves.

If United States workers got contracts to ship and distribute the food aid, it might possibly help the situation. It would do this by improving relations on the grass roots level. It might help settle anti-United States feelings that are running high in Korea. Stronger leadership is another pre-requisite for a change in the current situation The United States must be resolute in its dealings with North Korea. Without strong leadership, partisan politics could restrain the implementation of KEDO and other vital resources to the Korean Peace Process.

KEDO can not survive without funding from the United States government. Congress must appropriate the money as it sees fit. It will be the job of the leader to convince Congress and the whole nation that this is the right option. Conclusion The United States dilemma towards North Korea was heightened by the August 31, 1998 launch of the new missile. The incident tightened an already tight operation. The United States responded to it in two different manners. Domestically, people including Congress wanted to cut funding seeing that the process wasnt going anywhere.

Whereas the State Department and some choice institutions believe that the process of constructive engagement is the best way to achieve progress. Historically it seems that our quarantine of North Korea only led to a near disaster in 1994. The engagement worked here and produced an agreement that still binds the four parties involved. While there have been bumps in the road, it seems that things are progressing. Unfortunately he famine and widespread poverty in North Korea dampens the situation and requires food aid that would otherwise not be diverted there.

This catastrophe might even heighten the situation to the point where North Korea is willing to negotiate in more favor of United States interests. This could come in exchange for a clause to the Agreed Framework whereby food is included in drop-offs of oil and parts for the reactors. This scenario is still tense, with each side attempting to play out the situation to the best of their advantage. I do believe that the best foreign policy option to pursue in light of the situation is the current one; building

In the Search for Liberty

Being a Cuban must be a terrible thing, not for the fact of being from Cuba but because of the type of government Cuba has, the government of Cuba is very extrict and sometimes very mean. Cuba is a beautiful country, but they do not have liberty there, Cubans can not leave the country, so some of the citizens do not have other resources that to join other thousands of Cubans that make rafts and go into the sea hoping to reach the coast of Florida for relieves and a new life.

The story Jumping off for Freedom written by Anilu Bernardo lets the reader knows how a Cuban family goes through just to get the liberty. The author easily expresses her outstanding style of writing by the plot, the conflicts and the setting.

To begin with, the book or the story is about a fifteen year old man name David Leal that with his family had not other choice but to make a raft and search for freedom, David, Miguel (David’s father) and Luis (helped making the raft) were the only ones supposed to get on the raft, but while aborting the raft ‘El Toro’ (Luis’ friend) with the help of Luis got on the raft as well, he was rude, he never had a smile of approbation, David and his dad had to keep up with his bad jokes, and bombastic comments, he also made inveigh comments to the Leals.

David and Miguel were disappointed because he was not supposed to be on the raft, since he did not have the prerogative to be on it and they only had food and water for three persons. They were also scared of the see because they were callow, they did not know much about rafts or the ocean, but they ameliorated later, they learned from their own experience.

The author easily express her great form of writing and also share it with the reader through the plot, the plot is the sequence of events in a literary work, in this case Jumping off for Freedom, Arilu Bernardor wrote the book in such way that it makes the reader like what he or she is reading and also makes it easy to follow. The exposition introduces the setting and the character, the reader notice this at the very beginning of the book, for example, when Elena, David’s girlfriend, told Rosa and Miguel, David’s parents that David has been arrested by the police, the reader has been introduced to three characters and one conflict as well.

The raising action will follow, this is when the central conflict is introduced, by chapter 5 you have been introduced to at least three conflicts, like when David was arrested, the second one was when Luis told ‘El Toro’ that they were going to leave the country and head to Florida and the third conflict will happen when they are in the raft because ‘El Toro’ was not suppose to leave with them and they did not get along that well, of course there were more that three conflicts but these are three of the most important.

The climax will follow the rising action, the climax is when the reader meet the highest point of interest, the climax of Jumping off for Freedom is when the four members of the raft are in the middle of the sea, they were kind of lost so their only resource was praying God. The reader will meet with the falling action when they finally saw land and of course this will tied the resolution, when they arrived safely to land and got a chance to talk with their families and assuage their feelings since they really missed their families, and their families were really worried about them, and that will be the end of the book.

Another good feature that Jumping off for Freedom contains are the conflicts, as the one already knows, conflict is the struggle between opposing forces, while reading this story the reader will find a lot of stories, basically the entire book is a conflict, without the conflicts this book would have been a boring book, the first conflict starts when David get arrested by the Cuban police because he let Pepe, a friend of David, used his back and apparently he killed a cow, in Cuba a cow is government property, and if someone destroy that property they are infringing the law.

Since they found the bike near by where the incident happened, they arrested David and this inspired David’s family to take off to Florida. Other conflicts will happen later in the raft, this is one of the features that made the book unique, ‘El Toro’ was always messing with the Leal family, he was always saying rude comments and jokes that were not so nice, he always kept saying that they were not going to make to Florida, but the Leal family had a lot of patience and kept up with him until they got to the United States’ coast.

Most of these conflicts were human Vs human, but that was not it they had to face with another obstacle, human Vs nature, while on the raft they were in dangers of sharks, the sun was also an obstacle. Since all of the members were sun burned, they felt jaded, but they made it through that obstacle. They also faced with storms and they almost lost their lives.

Finally the last characteristic that makes this book so unique is the setting; the setting is the time and place that scene of the story take place. In Jumping off for Freedom the author explains really well where the story takes place, for example the author says “The next morning David and his family after seeing the beautiful sun and the birds flying by through the window they decided to go to Luis’ house”, after the reader read this he or she will figure out that the day is shiny.

Also after David, Luis, Miguel, and ‘El Toro’ took off to Florida Anilu Bernardo, the author of Jumping off for Freedom, explains with detail the setting, that way the readers knows and feels what they four members of the raft goes through, for example while reading the book the reader knows that the weather in the sea is not a good help for the crew. Also while reading the last part you know the weather was favoring them and that help them to reach Florida.

In conclusion Jumping off for Freedom, is a very unique, interesting book to read, it takes the reader’s imagination through what a Cuban family lives through when they made the decision of leaving the country in search of liberty. The author, Anilu Bernardo, is a meritorious and very smart lady, Bernardo found a new life in South Florida in 1961, when her family escaped the Communists take over of their land, she now lives in Plantation with her husband and her daughters, Stephanie and Amanda.

Anilu Bernardo writes from the heart. Jumping off for Freedom is a moving, sensitive and informative novel, told with clarity and compassion. She also shows her intelligence and great style of writing through the plot, the conflicts and finally the setting. She knows what it feels because she went through what the Leal family went through, There are now thousands of Cubans who leave the country yearly just looking for freedom, some Cubans die in the ocean while sealing to South Florida.

Kinship in Sudan: Buth and Mar Among the Nuer

The Nuer people are one of more than one hundred ethnic groups in the northeastern African country of Sudan, which stretches stretches southward from Egypt for 2000 kilometres and westward from the Red Sea for 1500 kilometres. The Nuer are the second largest tribe in southern Sudan, numbering over one million people, according to estimates from the 1980’s. Other tribes in the south include the more populous Dinka, the Shilluk, Anuak, Acholi and Lotuho, along with numerous smaller tribes. The Dinka are closely associated with the Nuer, and are often integrated into Nuer society when they reside with, or marry into a Nuer village.

Principally the Nuer inhabit the swamps and expansive open grasslands on either side of the upper Nile River, and its tributaries, in the south. The south has an equatorial rainy climate, divided by a very dry season and a very wet one, and Nuer life is regulated entirely by the seasons. In the dry season only a few of the older folk remain in the village, the rest going with the cattle to water-holes or to the river bank, where summer camps are built. The Nuer are pre-emiinentaly pastoral, though they grow more millet and maize than is commonly supposed (Evans-Pritchard, 1940:16).

The lives of the Nuer revolve around their herding practices, raising cattle, and the seasonal patterns of the terrain. Like many of his pastoral neighbors, the dearest possession of the Nuer is cattle, and their herds play a significant role in the economy, social structure, and religion of these communities. The Nuer cattle are used as payment for virtually everything and are also the main source of food; they are used in purchases of land, as payment of bride price, and for milk, blood and meat.

Cattle are passed down as part of inheritance, and can stay in the family for several generations. An ox or lactating cow is always a part of any religious ceremony no ritual is complete without the symbolic or actual sacrifice of one of the herd. Cattle also play a part in the kinship system used by the Nuer. Kinship is defined by Chodkiewicz (1998, Oct. 9) as the ideology of domestic life. Kinship systems are formed by sets of rules concerning four areas. Descent concerns all the rules of inheritance in group membership, name, property or status.

Affinity deals with all the rules defiing which kind of marriage is forbidden, permitted or perferred. Residence rules dictate where new spouses wil live, and kinship terminology are the named for the categories of relatives which are recognized by a society. It is these four areas of Nuer society that will form the primary focus of this paper, however other areas influence kinship and will be dealt with as they arise. Bibliography for Kinship in Sudan: Buth and Mar Among the Nuer References listed are the primary ones used in the development of ideas or quoted.

Kinship Lecture: Social Organization in Cross Cultural Perspective. October 9, 1998 1940The Nuer: A description of the modes of livelihood and political institutions of a Nilotic people. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1951Kinship and Marriage Among the Nuer. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1956 Nuer Religion. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1987 African Systems of Kinship and Marriage. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. 1932Pagan Tribes of the Nilotic Sudan. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. The position of leader is not an inherited responsibility.

Leaders emerge in the community after demonstrating leadership qualities and gaining the respect of the other community members. Leaders were often the elders in the community The people are generous to each other, but any request which has an overtone of an order can quickly anger them. Friends must have an obligation to be hospitable to each other. Hospitality offered by one friend must be returned by the other at a later time. Relative age is of great importance in interpersonal relations. Every person is categorized in terms of an age set which is an association made up of equals in age.

Males are divided into age grades so that each one is a senior, equal or junior to any other males. One is deferential to a senior, informal with an equal and superior to a junior. Women belong to the system as mothers, wives, sisters or daughters of the males. The Nuer are kind to their aged and usually respect their opinions. Age, rather than relationship, governs the use of terms of address. Anyone older is addressed as “father” or “mother”; anyone younger is addressed as “son” or “daughter”. The very old are called “grandfather” or “grandmother”.

People of the same age are addressed as “brother” or “sister”. The cutting of six tribal scars on each side of the forehead is seen as qualifying a boy for manhood and he is then able to fight in battles. The typical age of initiates has decreased over time. During the 1930’s, the typical age range was 14-15 years which decreased to between 9 and 13 years in the 1980’s. A celebration takes place and a big cow is killed. The age set may then take on the name of the cow’s color as part of their name. The ultimate goal of marriage is the bearing of children.

Therefore, a woman’s standing with her husband and his people, is governed by her ability to bear children. To be the mother of many children is the greatest privilege and honor. Should she be unable to bear children, her position is insecure, and her husband will try to get another wife who will bear children. In Nuer culture, gender roles have traditionally been well-defined. Men tended the cattle and other animals and were the warriors fighting neighboring tribes for land, cattle and out of a sense of pride in their tribe and abilities.

Women managed the household and made most decisions regarding rearing of the children. However, the idea of “home” included both men and women; that is, without a man, there is no home and without a woman, there is no home. In fact, a “home” is more easily maintained if the husband/father dies, in which case the children will stay with the mother, than if a wife/mother dies, in which case the children are given to relatives for care until the man remarries. In addition, women were often consulted on issues of public affairs and played an important role in mediating disputes.

Everyone in the family participated in planting and harvesting the few crops grown (millet and maize) and fishing. Marriage, a home and children are the goal of both men and women. The simplest expression of the family consists of husband and wife, or wives, with their children. Men normally marry around 20 years of age; women marry when they are mature enough to bear children (15-18 years). Before a man can marry, all of his older brothers must be married. Although a man may indicate his preferred choice for a wife, the final choice is the woman’s family who must approve of the suitor’s family.

A man will not approach the woman’s family unless he has assurance from the woman that she will accept him as her husband. It is said that the woman can refuse to marry the man approved by her family, but in practice this is very difficult. Marriage is a civil contract in which both parties commit themselves to certain obligations. The contract calls for a transfer of goods or money, or both, from the groom’s family to the bride’s family. A marriage concluded without this dowry means humiliation and even dishonor to the wire. The medium of transfer is usually cattle.

In the event that a man dies, leaving a wife and children, the younger brother of the deceased takes over the responsibility for the wife and children. The younger brother becomes the guardian of the family. Marriage does not occur and the widow retains her name as the wife of the dead man. Because the living brother feels a strong sense of obligation for the future of his dead brother’s family, the children are taken care of very well. Divorce can be granted for reasons such as drunkenness, sexual and temperamental incompatibility, unfriendly relationships with a mother-in-law, adultery, barrenness and impotence.

Divorce rates among the Nuer in Sudan have increased in recent decades. Studies conducted in the 1980’s indicated that up to one-third of marriages experienced divorce. In Sudan, in cases of divorce, child custody typically goes to the males. If a husband and wife are having difficulties, members of the extended families, both men and women, will meet to discuss the situation. The wife will go to her parent’s house. The husband and his relatives will then meet with the male relatives of the wife’s family to further discuss the situation and determine a course of action.

In most cases, the husband and wife will follow the recommendations. This method of solving family disputes is frequently not possible in the United States since many of the Nuer are young adults without the benefit of extended families. Ideal family size was quite large in the Sudan and a family might have more than seven children. Abstinence for up to 3 years was practiced after the birth of a child. Other forms of birth control were generally not practiced in the Sudan.

Overview of Italy

Italy is a country located in southern Europe. Italy occupies a boot-shaped peninsula that extends into the Mediterranean sea from southern Europe. The country also includes two large islands, Sicily and Sardinia. The History Italy has had a long and colorful history. For much of its history, Italy has been divided into many small and often warring city states. This occurred after the break up of the Roman Empire when much of Europe became feudal. In 476, Odoacer defeated the last emperor of ancient Rome, Romulus Augustulus. Odoacer ruled for 13 years after gaining control.

He was then attacked and defeated by Theodoric, the king of a Germanic tribe named the Ostrogoths. Both kings, Theodoric and Odoacer ruled jointly until Theodoric murdered Odoacer. Theodoric continued to rule Italy with a government comprised mostly of Italians and an army composed of Ostrogoths. During his rule, he brought peace to the country but after his death in 526, the kingdom began to grow weak. In 553, Justinian, the Byzantine emperor who ruled the eastern part of the Roman Empire, defeated the Ostrogoths and expelled them. For a time, the Old Roman Empire was united again.

Byzantine rule in Italy collapsed as increased attacks from Germanic tribes weakened the empire. Byzantine rule collapsed in 572 when the Lombards invaded. In the 400s and 500s the popes increased their influence in both religious and political matters in Italy and elsewhere. The popes were usually the ones who made attempts to protect Italy from foreign invasion or to soften foreign rule. The popes for almost 200 years had opposed attempts by the Lombards, who controlled most of Italy, to take over Rome. The popes defeated the Lombards with the aid of two Frankish kings, Charlemagne and Pepin the Short.

The papal states were created out of land won for the popes by Pepin. From the 10th century on, Italian cities began to grow rapidly and became increasingly independent of one another. They flourished because of their access to the Mediterranean trade routes and almost had a complete monopoly on all spice and silks coming into Europe. They became centers of political life, foreign trade and banking. At this time, the church grew in power also. The Italian popes became increasingly more involved in the European political scene.

Many of these city states became extremely wealthy and powerful and resisted the attempts of noblemen and emperors to control them. During the 1300s, one of the greatest eras in human history occurred, The Renaissance. The Renaissance occurred primarily in Italy in the various city states. Many great artists and philosophers lived during this period and enhanced Italys prestige. The kingdom of Italy was formed in 1861. Five years later, in 1866, Venetia became a part of that kingdom. Rome became its capital in 1871. Benito Mussolini became premier in 1922.

In 1940, Italy entered World War II on the side of the Germans. Italy surrendered in 1943 and established a new republic in 1946. Culture and Customs The population of Italy is approximately 58 million people, most of whom live in the urban cities. The four largest cities in Italy, in order of population are Rome, Milan, Naples and Turin. The most densely populated areas of the country are the industrialized regions of Lombardy and Liguria in the northwest region of Campania in the south. The areas with the lowest population density are the mountains of both the north and south.

More than two thirds of Italys population reside in cities. Most live in large, concrete apartment buildings. A few of the more wealthy people live in single-family homes. The oldest sections of an Italian city are made up o low buildings that have apartments around a central courtyard. Newer parts of the city often have larger apartment buildings. Poor neighborhoods are usually found on the outskirts of the city. Most unmarried children live with their parents. Parents often help an adult son or daughter purchase an apartment near their own.

Many young women work outside the home, and grandparents often help care for the children of working mothers. Many urban areas provide public child-care centers. City growth and the increased use of the automobile have led to some serious problems with urban pollution in Italy. In large cities, the air pollution poses a health hazard and has damaged priceless architecture. Many cities have banished private cars from the city centers. Most rural communities in the past consisted of a compact settlement surrounded by a large area of agricultural land.

The farmers usually lived in town and traveled to work in the fields each day. This pattern of living was especially common in southern Italy, in northern Italy the farmers usually lived on their land. Italians take great pride in the quality of their cooking. They traditionally eat their main meals at midday. Large meals usually consist of a past course, followed by a main course of meat or fish. Italian foods vary greatly by region. In the north, flat, ribbon-shaped pastas served with cream sauces are most popular. In the south, macaroni served with tomato-based sauces is the favorite type of pasta.

Italians enjoy a wide variety of sports. Soccer is the most popular sport in Italy. Every major city has a professional soccer team. But soccer is not just a spectator sport- on weekends Italys parks are filled with children and adults playing the game. Basketball is also very popular, and some cities have more than one professional basketball team. Other popular sports include fishing, hunting, cycling, roller skating, and baseball. Major Religions About 95 percent of the population in Italy is Roman Catholic. Most religious ceremonies such as baptisms, weddings and funeral services are held in church.

Only about 30 percent of all Italians attend church regularly. Many others occasionally attend church. An agreement called the Lateran Pact governs the relationship between Italy and the Roman Catholic Church. For example, the pact exempts priests and other members of religious orders from military service and gives tax exemptions to Catholic organizations. The Roman Catholic Church has had a strong influence on laws in the past, but that influence has weakened. For example, until 1970, the church was able to block attempts to legalize divorce in Italy.

Vatican City, the spiritual and governmental center of the Roman Catholic Church, lies entirely within the city of Rome. But Vatican City is independent from Italy and has its own diplomatic corps. There are several small religious groups in Italy. The other groups include Protestants, Muslims and Jews. Political Systems Italy set up its present form of government in 1946. That year, the people voted to change their nation from a monarchy ruled by a king to a republic headed by a president. King Humbert II immediately left the throne. The president of Italy is elected to a seven-year term by both houses of Parliament.

The president must be at least 50 years old. He or she appoints the premier, who forms a government. The president has the power to dissolve parliament and call new elections. The president is the commander of the Italian armed forces, and can declare war. The premier determines national policy and is the most important person in the Italian government. The premier is selected by the president from the members of Parliament and must be approved by Parliament. The premier has no fixed term of office, and can be voted out by office by Parliament at any time.

Members of the Cabinet are chosen by the premier and are usually chosen from among the Parliament. The Parliament consists of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate. Both of these houses have equal power in passing laws. The Senate has 315 elected members and the Chamber of Deputies has 630 members. All former presidents become Senators for life. In elections for the Chamber of Deputies, the country is divided into 32 constituencies. The number of Deputies to be elected from each constituency is determined by its population. Each political party presents a list of candidates for the position of deputy from the district.

The deputies selected from a party are chosen in the order of number of preference votes each receives. Senators are chosen in much the same way, but are elected from twenty regions instead. Italy has a complicated system of election to parliament based on proportional representation. In the Parliament, the percentage of seats held by each political party is about the same as the percentage of the total votes received by the partys candidates. Since 1948, Italy has experienced frequent Cabinet changes. Most Cabinets have lasted less than a year, but many members of one Cabinet have remain in the new one.

If some of the parties in the Cabinet are disagreeing with the Cabinets policies, they may withdraw support and require the formation of a brand new Cabinet. The fascist government that once ruled Italy is on the rise again. The fascist party grows in membership each year. Italy has also been reluctant to talk about the joining of the European nations into one large economic super power. Economic Systems Since World War II, Italy has shifted from a predominantly agricultural economy to one based on modern industries. As recently as the 1950s, more than a third of all Italians were employed in agriculture.

From 1953 to 1968, industrial production almost tripled. By the late 1980s, only about 10 percent of employed Italians worked in agriculture. The transformation has been most complete in northern Italy, which is now one of the most advanced industrial areas of Western Europe. Southern Italy remains poorer and less industrialized, despite long-term efforts of the Italian government to improve the regions industry and agriculture. In 1957, Italy became a member in the European Economic Community. This union of Western European nations, also called the European Common Market, has abolished tariffs on trade among its members.

This membership has helped strengthen the economy of Italy. Service industries account for about two-thirds of Italys gross domestic product. Trade ranks as Italys most important type of service industry. It accounts for a larger percentage of the countrys gross domestic product and employs a greater share of workers than any other service industry. Manufacturing accounts for almost a fourth of Italys gross domestic product. Languages The language of Italy is Italian. Like French and Spanish, Italian is a romance language – one of several languages that evolved from Latin.

There are only a few communities in Italy in which Italian is not spoken as the first language. German is the first language of many of the Terntino-Alto Adige region. French is spoken as a first language in portions of the northwestern part of Italy. Solvene, a Slavic language, and Ladin, a language similar to the Romanasch of the Swiss, are spoken in northern sections of Italy. The Land, Environment and Growth Potential Italy has eight different regions. The first one is the Alpine Slope. The Alpine Slope runs across the northernmost part of Italy. Its landscape includes huge mountains and deep valleys.

Forests are found in the lower areas, in the higher areas, there are grasslands and conifer forests. The melting snow feeds many rivers. Many hydroelectric plants have been built along these rivers and help to power the factories of the north. The second region of Italy is the Po Valley. This area is also referred to as the North Italian Plain. It is a broad plain that stretches between the Alps in the north and the Apennine mountains in the south. This valley floods periodically, but a intricate system of dikes helps control the flooding. The third region is the Adriatic Plain.

It is a small region north of the Adriatic Sea. Its eastern edge borders Yugoslavia. This area is not very well suited for farming. The fourth region is the Apennines. This region stretches almost the entire length of Italy. The mountains in this region have steep inclines of soft rock and are constantly eroding as a result of heavy rain. The northern Apennines have some of the largest forests in the country and much pasture land. The central part of the range has productive farmland and grazing. The southern Apennines include the poorest part of Italy. This area has plateaus and high mountains, but few natural resources.

The fifth and sixth regions are the Apulia and southeastern Plains. These form the “heel” of the boot-shaped peninsula. This region is composed of plateaus that end as cliffs at the Mediterranean Sea. The seventh region is the Western Uplands and Plains. This area stretches along the Tyrrhenian Sea from La Spezia, a port city just south of Genoa, southward past Naples to Salerno. It is a rich agricultural region, second only to the Po Valley in agricultural output. Sicily is the eight region. Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is separated from mainland Italy by the Start of Messina.

The island has mountains and plains. Mount Etna, one of the largest active volcanoes in the world, dominates the landscape of northeastern Silicy. Sever erosion caused in part by the clearing of forests, has hampered agriculture and made travel in many inland areas difficult during the wet season. The climate of Italy is temperate. The spring, summer and fall are generally sunny, but winter is rainy and cloudy. In early spring, hot dry air from the Sahara expands and covers Italy. The summer climate of much of Italy is dry, with occasional rainstorms.

Technology Italys technological level is equal to that of the U. S in certain areas. The northern part of Italy uses some of the most advanced manufacturing methods in its factories. One quarter of the countries power is supplied through state of the art hydroelectric dams. More than 450 privately owned television stations and over 1000 private radio stations are operating in Italy. Italy has an excellent system of roads. Large, modern superhighways run the length of the Italian peninsula. Tunnels though the Alps link the highway system to those of neighboring countries. Italy has an average of about 1 car for ever 3 people. When compared to the United States, Italy is only slightly behind.

The United States has more advanced computers and telecommunications system. In medical technology, Italy is equal to the U. S but the technology is not as widely available as it is in the United States. Natural Resources Italy is limited in the number of natural resources and must rely on imports. Much of the mineral deposits in Italy are found on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and in the regions of Lombardy, Tuscany and in the north-central and northwestern parts of the peninsula. The most important natural resource of Italy is natural gas, which is found primarily in the Po Valley.

Italy also produces abundant amounts of marble and granite. Other minerals important to Italy are feldspar, pumice and sulfur. For it its energy supply, Italy relies upon other countries. Petroleum imported from Libya provides more than half of the countries energy. Italy imports much of its oil from Iran and Libya. Italy produces very small amounts of petroleum. Most of Italys petroleum is found in Sicily. I found Italy to be an interesting country. Many of the greatest and most important eras in mankind occurred in Italy. The Renaissance, The Roman Empire and some of World War II all happened in Italy.

I believe the historical and cultural significance of Italy is largely overlooked. Another reason I chose Italy is that it is a country we rarely study in school. When we study European history, we mainly cover France or Germany, etc. We rarely get into countries that are just as important as Italy. When we do study them, we blend them all together and just get a brief overview of the countries history and culture. One of the things that fascinated me about this country was its place in current world economics. Italy has a high GDP and is heavily involved in trade on the Mediterannean. Italy has the largest shipping fleet in the world.

When the news mentions the strongest economic nations, you never hear about Italy. Yet I found that Italy is a significant player in world economics. The government and political system of Italy also fascinated me. The political system there seems more complex than the one in the United States. The House of Deputies has over 600 members and the Senate over 300. I also found It interesting that ex-presidents are given permanent positions in their government as Senators. One of the things that bothered me in researching this paper was that it was difficult to summarize the history of the country.

Many of the books I had were long and covered the history in so much detail that it was hard to skim through and take out the important events and make them fit into this paper. When researching this paper at the library, many of the books were either travel guides or books about the art of Italy. There were quite a few about the culture and past but it took awhile to find them among all the travel guides. If I had a chance to visit this nation I definitely would. Italy seems like a fun place to visit because of all the old historic sites. It would be interesting to visit all the old Roman and middle age ruins that are located in Italy.

India Report Essay

India has undergone remarkable changes since 1991. Until that date, India had spent its fifty years of independence as a protectionist state, isolated from the trade with the rest of the world. Its share of world trade had gone from two percent in the 1950s to less than a half of a percent in the late 1980s. At that point, Indias inflation was near the double-digits. Its protectionist strategy had discouraged the production of exports, created recurrent shortages of exchange, and made the balance of payments extremely vulnerable to external markets.

By early 1990, India was very close to defaulting on its external debt obligations. In 1991 India implemented a new strategy that has shot its economy upward to now the fifth largest in the world. In June 1991, India ended its four decades of central planning by implementing advances in agricultural development for export, diversification of its industrial sector, nationwide distribution, and an educational system aimed at providing a large quantity of high quality human resources. India has also made extreme changes to its economic policies to stimulate domestic and foreign investments and trade.

Initially, growth declined, but soon after growth increased and is continuing to. India has had an average growth rate of 5% between 1992-1995. Growth reached 7% in 1996. Indias GDP growth has been impressive. Its 1993 per capita estimate was only $309 million and in 1995 Indias GNP per capita was $340 million, as reported by the Worldbank. The World Factbook reported an estimated GDP per capita of $1,500 for 1995. Close to 40% of India’s population of 952 million are in poverty. Agriculture employs 70% but only accounts for a third of the Indias GDP.

India has the highest number of poor people out of any country, containing a quarter of the worlds poor. Indias inflation rate has remained fairly high and was 9% in 1995. Changes in Indias economic policies have caused substantial industrial growth, primarily in capital goods. As a result, a large middle class has abounded almost equal to the entire U. S. population in number. Indias huge middle class consumer sector has attracted the world. Foreign direct investment is fifteen times greate! r than it was before reforms and 10% of world portfolio investment in emerging markets have been put into India.

Indias exports have been rising in world exports. The main items exported are diamonds, textiles, leather products, carpets, dyes and food. Their major exports to the U. S. are textiles/clothing and jewels. Indias largest trading partners are currently the U. S. and the EU. Trade with the Asia-Pacific region is escalating. The chart below shows the contrast in world export growth rates and Indias export growth rates over the past four decades. India, reportedly, exported $29. 96 billion worth of goods in 1995.

In the past decade, Indias exports have grown by 21. % on an average. Indias clothing and textile export far exceeds the world average of other countries. Indias large population and lack of education for over half of its residents enables it to take advantage of its huge labor force making it one of Indias biggest resources. In recent years India has put emphasis on upgrading its educational system to produce many scientists and engineers. Expanding its quality human resources has enabled India to become more active in the telecommunications market. Along with the growth of education and the middle class, consumerism is growing.

Indias imports have increased exponentially to satisfy the growing desires of its people and to improve its infrastructure. Indias main imports are aircraft and parts, telecommunications services/equipment, computer software, electric power generation, urban mass transportation and food processing and packaging equipment. Most of these items will be used to promote internal and external trade. Wood and paper are also imported frequently. The nations expenditures on goods and services have increased almost 14% each year for the past seven years.

In 1995, India imported $33. 5 billion in goods. Over the past decade imports have grown by 16. 5% on average. India is extremely far in debt. In March 1995 India had $97. 9 billion in foreign debt. The World Bank reports that India is its largest single borrower, owing $49 billion at the end of 1997. India has never defaulted on payments, even in the bad economic times during the early 1990s. India has used this money to improve its infrastructure, telecommunications, and production technology. All of this will help to improve Indias economic growth.

India keeps $17 billion in currency reserves, which is reportedly a “healthy amount”. Investors are confident that India will grow. Although India has made great strides and is expected to grow more it will still need to make more strides if it hopes to obtain a greater economic prosperity for all of its people. At this time education is still greatly lacking. The World Bank has stated that “while the number of scientists and engineers is among the highest in the world, India as a hole has unacceptably high levels of illiteracy and low learning achievement.

More than half the population over 15 years old and two-thirds of all women over 15 years old are illiterate. Adult workers average only 2. 4 years of schooling… One out of three school-age children is not enrolled in school, particularly girls or those from the poorest households and disadvantaged groups. ” If these statistics withstand over time, there will be no hope of India ever raising its GDP per a capita and will remain an LDC. Indias other obstacles include reducing its fiscal deficit.

India has done so, but at the expense of state expenditures in the important areas of health, education, roads, and irrigation. The government has been increasing its spending on expensive subsidies for water which is causing a loss. Lack of infrastructure has also stifled Indias growth and will continue to until there are adaquate means to transport goods efficiently. Indias population is ever expanding with a population growth rate of 1. 64%. The total fertility rate is 3. 2 children per a woman. The birth rate is 25. 94 births per 1,000 in the population compared to the death rate of 9. 1 deaths per ,000 people.

Although the birth rate has declined due to the improved use of birth control, the ever increasing population will burden Indias economy more and increase the poverty levels. Indias culture and maintains that people should be married at a relatively early age (before late 20s) and have children. It is also highly desired to have a male child so this may increase the population by “trying again” for a boy. Over time India may have to change its traditional ways of thinking in order to curb overpopulation. India may have many more hurdles to face, but its rapid growth cannot be denied.

The growth is predicted to be maintained. India is facing many of the same problems that other developed nations have. India is overcoming them and is well on its way to becoming a developed industrialized nation. How they quickly they react to their hurdles will be the factor which decides how long it will be until they have a strong economy and a wealthy nation. They have the resources and recently they have demonstrated their excellent decision making abilities in the world market. Indias rate of progress the past six years has been astounding. I hope to see it continue.

Cuba And Embargo

The island nation of Cuba, located just ninety miles off the coast of Florida, is home to 11 million people and has one of the few remaining communist regimes in the world. Cuba’s leader, Fidel Castro, came to power in 1959 and immediately instituted a communist program of sweeping economic and social changes. Castro allied his government with the Soviet Union and seized and nationalized billions of dollars of American property. U. S. relations with Cuba have been strained ever since. A trade embargo against Cuba that was imposed in 1960 is still in place today.

Despite severe economic suffering and increasing isolation from the world community, Castro remains committed to communism. (Close Up Foundation) The United States and Cuba share a long history of mutual mistrust and suspicion. All aspects of U. S. policy with Cuba, such as the current trade embargo, immigration practices, and most recently the possibility of a free exchange by members of the media, provoke heated debates across the United States. While most Americans agree that the ultimate goals should be to encourage Castro’s resignation and promote a smooth transition to democracy, experts disagree about how the U. S. government should accomplish these aims.

Some believe that the country’s current policy toward Cuba is outdated in its Cold War approach and needs to be reconstructed. However, many still consider Fidel Castro a threat in the hemisphere and a menace to his own people and favor tightening the screws on his regime even more. (Close Up Foundation) For almost forty years, the United States has not imported any Cuban products, nor allowed any American food, medical supplies, or capital to enter Cuba. President Clinton, like each of his predecessors, supports the trade embargo.

Two recent pieces of legislation have tightened the economic restrictions on Cuba. (Close Up Foundation) The Cuban Democracy Act, passed by Congress in 1992, further isolates Cuba from the world economy by prohibiting any foreign-based subsidiaries of U. S. companies from trading with the country. The bill’s goal was to cripple the Cuban economy in order to bring down Castro “within weeks,” according to the bill’s primary advocate Robert Torricelli (D-N. J. ). The Helms-Burton Act states that American citizens can sue foreign investors who utilize American property seized by the Cuban government.

In addition, those who “traffic” in this property or profit from it will be denied visas to the United States. Supporters of the legislation believe that prohibiting foreign investment will quicken Castro’s downfall. (Close Up Foundation) Many debate on the issue of why the U. S. should or shouldn’t keep the ebargo against Cuba. These debates deal with the effects of the Embargo on Cuba’s economy, humanitarian rights and health of the people of Cuba. The embargo today places a ban on subsidiary trade, Licensing, shipping and humanitarian aid.

Close Up Foundation) In 1992, the Cuban Democracy act imposed a ban on subsidiary trade with Cuba. This ban restricted Cuba’s ability to import medicines and medical supplies from third country sources. There have also been corporate buy-outs and mergers between U. S. and European pharmaceutical companies thus adding to the number of companies permitted to do business with Cuba. Under the Cuban Democracy Act, The U. S. Treasury and Commerce Departments are allowed to license individual sales of medicines and medical supplies, supposedly for humanitarian reasons to make up for the embargo’s impact on health care delivery.

According to the U. S. corporate executives, the licensing provisions are so tough as to have had the opposite effect. With this statement, it is assumed that there are fewer licenses given out for humanitarian reason therefore favoring the embargo and aiding in the downfall of health in Cuba. Since 1992, the embargo has prohibited ships from loading or unloading cargo in U. S. ports for 180 days after delivering cargo to Cuba. This has discouraged shippers from delivering medical equipment to Cuba. Due to this, shipping costs have risen and further constricting the flow of food, medicines and medical supplies to Cuba.

Another result of this is Cuba’s increased spending on shipping medical imports from Asia, Europe and South America rather than from the neighboring United States. Charity hasn’t been enough for an alternative to free trade in medicines, medical supplies and food. With the delays in licensing and other restrictions have discouraged charitable contributions from the U. S. The effects of the bans on subsidiary trade, licensing, shipping and humanitarian aid has contributed to malnutrition, poor water quality, lack of medicines and equipment and updated medical information.

The ban on the sale of American foodstuffs has aided in nutritional deficits. These food shortages were linked to an outbreak of neuropathy numbering tens of thousands. Poor water quality is due to restrictions on Cuba’s access to water treatment chemicals and spare-parts for the islands water supply system. This leads to unsafe drinking water therefore causing rising mortality rates from water-borne diseases. (American Association for World Health) Many foreign investors see great opportunities in the Cuban trade market, because of the end of Soviet aid and decades of the U. S. trade embargo.

For example, Canadian businesses are benefiting from the lack of competition from the United States. Canadian pharmaceutical companies are marketing Cuban products, Canadian mining companies are developing uninhabited areas in Cuba, and hotel chains are operating state-owned resorts on Cuban beaches. American investors take note of all this and conclude that they are missing out on valuable business opportunities. (Close Up Foundation) The primary purpose of the Embargo was to help facilitate the removal of Castro from power. In order to accomplish this goal, the U. S. has worsened the economy.

Cuban’s live under conditions of mass unemployment, widespread hunger and insufficient wages. In a report done by the close up foundation, there is a statement made by a Cuban market vendor. This Cuban market vendor commented, “the only way people can buy [meat] regularly is if they get money from relatives abroad or from something illegal. ” People opposing the U. S trade embargo point out that by injuring the Cuban economy is cruel and inhumanely by denying people basic essentials. However, supporters of the embargo argue that isolating Cuba from the global economy is the most effective way to weaken Castro’s political support.

People that support the embargo believe that there is a large body of false information and accusations made on the United States. There has been false accusations that include U. S. policy to deny medicine or medical supplies and equipment to the Cuban People. (Burns) Spokesman Nicholas Burns released a press statement about the misinformation about the U. S. government and the embargo against Cuba. The U. S. is not all to blame but at the same time cannot be ruled out. Everyone seems to be blaming the U. S. but Castro plays a big part as well. This release speaks of the small details that supporters of the embargo seem to leave out.

As stated earlier, the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 does permit companies and their subsidiaries to sell medicine and medical equipment to the United States and has approved 36 of 38 license requests for commercial sales of medicines and medical equipment to Cuba. During the same period, the U. S. has licensed over $150million in humanitarian assistance which is more than the total world wide foreign aid received by Cuba in those years much of which came in medicines and other health-related items. (Burns)

This contradicts the statement made by the U. S. rporate executives that licensing provisions are tough. They may be tough but they get the job done. The corporate executives may be bias in their judgment in saying this only because it is harder for them to be able to make the money. Castro’s way of controlling health care does not benefit the majority of the people but only the few elites. We must not forget once again that the U. S. is not all to blame since the U. S. did not create the health care system in Cuba. Health care has deteriorated for the average Cuban because of Castro government has made a choice to direct its resources elsewhere.

Aside from this, there has not been a fair healthcare system in Cuba. Substandard healthcare is available to the average Cuban while senior Cuban Communist Party officials and those who can pay in hard currency can get first-rate medical services when needed. This system exists because the Cuban Government has chosen to develop a two-tiered medical system, which established a kind of “medical apartheid”. This medical apartheid funnels money into services for a privileged few, while depriving the health care system used by the majority of Cubans of adequate funding.

Following the loss of Soviet subsidies, Cuba developed special hospitals and set aside floors for exclusive use by foreigners who pay in hard currency. These facilities are well equipped to provide their patients with quality modern care. (Burns) In 1994, Cuba exported $110 million worth of supplies. In 1995, this figure rose to $125 million. These earnings have not been used to support the health care system but diverted to support and subsidize Cuba’s biomedical research programs. This money could have been used for primary care facilities.

Burns) In this release, Burns mentions a group of Cuban doctors that arrive to the United States said that they were mystified at the allegations made in the American Association for World Health that the United States embargo is to be blamed for the public health situation in the country. These are doctors that see how the system really works. Burns also mentions the case dealing with the founder of the Havana International Center for Neurological Restoration and her views on how Castro runs the medical system. The founder is Dr. Hilda Molina.

She quit her position in 1994 after refusing to increase the number of neural transplant operations without the required testing and follow-up visits. She expressed her outrage that only foreigners are treated. She resigned for her seat in the national legislature, and returned the medals Fidel Castro had gave her for her work. For someone this dignified to see that the Castro government is wrong just gives people a better view and to think again on who is to blame. The U. S. has issued 21 visas to Cuban medial doctors in 1997 to attend medical congresses and/or to visit U. S. dical institutions.

Among other things, Cuban doctors have visited the Center for Disease Control, the University of Puerto Rico (Bio Ethics Congress), the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, the Johns Hopkins University/Johns Hopkins Schools of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill/Duke University (HIV infections), the Marmer Medical Eye Center, and the American Academy of Neurology (Parkinson’s Disease). In 1996, visas were issued to 125 researchers in the natural sciences, most of whom were doctors who worked in hospitals and clinics throughout Cuba.

Burns) Referring back to medical contacts, the U. S. has clearly made an effort to educate and promote the latest advances in medical research throughout Cuba. The U. S. S. R. gave $5 billion dollars a year in subsidies. With this money, the Cuban government has made significant advances in the quality of health care available to average citizens. Even though this helps, the Cuban government also devoted the bulk of its money to the military. Poor economic conditions did not arrive from the embargo but began with the downfall of the Soviet Union.

After the break up of the Soviet Union, the absence of subsidies from the Soviet Union has forced Cuba to face the real costs of its health care system. Since Castro refuses to adopt economic changes to reform its dysfunctional economy, the Castro government continue to spend more money to maintain expenses of the military. The Embargo Effects Health and Economy to a certain extent but not all of it should be blamed on the Unites States. Cuba has not only been affected by the embargo but also it’s dependence on the former Soviet Union. The U. S. ems to be helping as much as they can given the situation.

The government of Cuba has been known to be corrupt which does not help the economy. It seems that the only way we can truly free Cuba is by reform within the government. If Castro really wants the United States to lift the embargo, he should start making some changes as well. How could the United States continue aiding a government that is not willing to give in. I feel that in order for us to aid Cuba, Castro should start making changes. It is not for the United States, but for his own people.

Iran, a country located in the Middle East

Iran is a country located in the Middle East. The main source of income for the country is oil, the one object that had greatly influenced its history. Iran’s present government is run as an Islamic Republic. A president, cabinet, judicial branch, and Majilesor or legislative branch, makes up the governmental positions. A revolution that overthrew the monarch, which was set in 1930, lasted over 15 years. Crane Brinton’s book, An Anatomy of a Revolution, explains set of four steps a country experiences when a revolution occurs.

Symptoms, rising fever, crisis, and convalescence are the steps that occur. The Iranian Revolution followed the four steps in Crane Brinton’s theory, symptoms, rising fever, crisis, and convalescence occurred. Numerous symptoms led to the crumbling downfall of Reza Shah Pahlavi, ruler of Iran until 1978. One of these symptoms is rising expectations which can be seen during the 1960’s and 70’s. The rich Shah cleared the way for the land reform law, enacted in 1962. The land minority had to give up its land to the government, and among those stripped of land, were the Shi’ah Muslims.

Iran’s power structure was radically changed in a program termed the “White Revolution”. On January 26, 1963, the White Revolution was endorsed by the nation. By 1971, when land distribution ended, about 2,500,000 families of the farm population benefited from the reforms. From 1960-72 the percentage of owner occupied farmland in Iran rose from 26 to 78 percent. Per capita income rose from $176 in 1960 to $2,500 in 1978. From 1970-77 the gross national product was reported to increase to an annual rate of 7. 8% (”Iran” 896). As a result of this thriving economy, the income gap rapidly widened.

Exclusive homes, extravagant restaurants, and night clubs and streets oaded with expensive automobiles served as daily reminders of a growing income spread. This created a perfect environment for many conflicts to arise between the classes. Iran’s elite class consisted of wealthy land owners, intelligencia, military leaders, politicians, and diplomats. The Elite continued to support the monarchy and the Shah. The peasants were victim of unfulfilled political expectations, surveillance by the secret police, and the severe social and economic problems that resulted from modernization.

The middle class favored socialism over capitalism, because capitalism in heir view supported the elite, and does not benefit the lower classes. The middle class was the most changeable element in the group, because they enjoyed some of the privileges of the elite, which they would like to protect. At the same time, they believed that they had been cheated by the elite out of their share of the industrialization wealth (Orwin 43). About this time, the middle class, which included students, technocrats, and modernist professionals, became discontent with the economy.

The key event should have further stabilized the royal dictatorship, but the increase in oil prices and oil income eginning in 1974 caused extreme inflation. This was due to the investment strategy followed by the Shah, which led to a spectacular 42% growth rate in 1974. (Cottam 14). And because of the Shah’s support structure which enabled the new rich to benefit from inflation, the government effort to deal with inflation was aimless. Poor Iranians and Iranians with a fixed income suffered major losses in real income.

Better standards of living were no longer visible. Thus, the majority of the Iranian people developed a revolutionary predisposition. As the middle class became discontent in Iran throughout the 970’s, the desertion of intellectuals could be found in great excess. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini represented much of the discontent of the religious sector of Iran. For speaking out against the Shah’s autocratic rule, Khomeini was exiled to Turkey in 1963. In 1965, Khomeini moved to Iraq where he became the central spokesperson for expatriate opposition to the Shah.

On October 6, 1978, Khomeini was expelled from Iraq and moved to Paris, where he was accessible to a larger body of opposition forces. He was also accessible to the Western Press. Khomeini preached that he would displace the Shah and expel the oreigners. He also said he would enforce religious and traditional values, and redirect Iran’s wealth away from large industrialization schemes and toward reforms needed by the common people. Throughout the 1970’s, Khomeini gained tremendous popularity with the masses, and he became the symbol of the opposition towards the Shah.

As Khomeini gained popularity, many religious groups grew in numbers and in status. In the early 1950’s, the technocrats had showed core support for Mohammad Mossedeq and Iran’s national movement. They saw Mossadeq’s overthrow as the removal of the ymbolic leader of the Iranian nation by an American directed coup d’etat. Many of his followers formed groups in opposition to the Shah. Leaders of the Freedom Front, one of the groups that grew out of the Mossadeq movement, were a group composed of intellectuals who tended to be centrist in philosophy, more religious, anti-Marxist, and militant (Cottam 13).

They recognized Khomeini’s large and potentially enormous following, and associated themselves with him The rise of religious opposition groups and Khomeini proved to be a great test for the Shah. As time progressed the weakness of the Shah became apparent. Waves of opposition began building after 1975, due to the formation of the Rastakhiz , the legal political party in Iran, and the banning of opposition political parties. It also became clear that the increased oil revenues following oil price increases, were spent on arms and industrialization.

In mid-1977 the religious leaders began demonstrating against the modernization brought on by the Shah. In November, several people were killed when police broke up demonstrations. As time went on, protests became more radical. To try and quiet dissent, the Shah became more of a dictator. As result, those who had been moderate in demands for reform became more radical. In the fall of 1978, strikes against the oil industry, the post office, government factories, and banks demolished the economy. This pattern continued throughout most of 1978 (Orwin 45).

As these protests became more frequent there were more and more people killed. This reflects the Shah’s loss of power over his government and his people. In late 1978, the Shah came to the conclusion that he would and could not rule a country in which he had to stand in the flowing blood of his people. In short, he understood that he ould not militarily occupy his own country. The Shah’s early mistakes had been devastating as the years went on. His forceful actions did not work and it’s no wonder that his grip weakened and his mid wavered.

These events all led to the march against the government of the Shah, in which eight million Iranians protested on December 10, 1978 (Bill 25). One-fifth of the Iranian government was willing to join in a massive and nonviolent manifestation of opposition even though most of them knew that thousands of their countrymen had been shot in previous demonstrations. The banners nd slogans made clear the religious and political essence of the revolutionary movement. This massive demonstration was the turning point from symptoms to rising fever.

It clearly reflected the weakness of the Shah, and the inevitability of revolution in Iran. After a year of public demonstrations against him, the Shah of Iran left Tehran on January 16, 1979, for an “extended vacation” (Orwin 46). He left the country in the hands of a regency council and Prime Minister Shahpur Bakhtiar, who was a former member of the National Front. The opposition leader, Khomeini, was to become the new uler, and he returned to Iran on February 1, 1979.

Khomeini occupied preeminent positions among Iran’s most respected religious scholars, the Mujahedin-e Khalq.. Although Khomeini wanted a stable government that could cope with the problems of reconstruction, he wanted to eradicate the evil roots of the old system, which he describes as satanic. He denounced the materialism of the recent past and called for a climate in which social justice would prevail. On April 1, 1979, after a landslide victory in a national referendum, Khomeini declared an Islamic republic.

This republic onsisted of a new constitution reflecting Khomeini’s ideals of Islamic government. He was named Iran’s political and religious leader for life. Khomeini tapped the deep-seated conservatism of the Muslim fundamentalists by making moderate changes in the law. Women were required to wear the veil, Western music and alcohol were banned, and the punishments described by Islamic law were reinstated. Political vengeance was taken, executing hundreds of people who had worked with the Shah’s regime (”Iran” 897).

The large moderate center composed of the professional and bourgeois middle class had proved to be ineffective in their eadership abilities. Moderate Bakhtiar, the last prime minister under Pahlavi rule, was very unpopular, and he was unable to compromise with his former National Front colleagues or with Khomeini. He was then forced to flee to France. On April 1, 1979, his replacement, Mehdi Bazergan was appointed by Khomeini (Cottam 15). This 73-year-old engineer was a leader of the Freedom Front, and president of the committee of human rights.

The middle and upper middle classes looked to Bazergan to provide stability so the economy would recover and the government services could be restored. Bazergan appointed a abinet, mainly, from the ranks of the Freedom Front, the National Front, and the religious bureaucracy. Bazergan’s position was weak, however, and he steadily lost ground to the due to the attacks from the far right and left. As their base of support narrowed, their dependence on Khomeini intensified. During this time, Iran’s relation with the US went downhill.

It reached a stage of outright confrontation, when, on November 4, 1979, 500 extremist students seized the US embassy in Tehran. They took hostage 66 citizens at the embassy and the foreign ministry (”The Iranian Revolution” 835). The takeover seemingly sanctioned by Khomeini, continued for the next 444 days, and American-Iranian relations sunk to an all-time low. This led to trade conflicts with the United States and its allies, causing economic problems. During the rising fever stage there is a presence of a dual government.

During Bazergan’s rule, it became difficult to administer justice with a court system that had been particularly lenient to the royal will. To deal with these problems on a temporary basis. Khomeini set up a system of revolutionary committees presided over by a revolutionary council. Religious leaders clearly predominated in the revolutionary council- committee-courts system, which came to be almost a parallel government. In November, 1979, Bazergan resigned, and in his place Khomeini appointed Abol Hassan Bani Sadr.

Bani Sadr was an idealist, a bookworm, and most personally ambitious of all the liberal revolutionaries. Like the other moderates, he was a representative of the professional middle class, who had little skill or patience to build political organizations. Bani Sadr’s efforts were fruitless in dealing with the hostage releases. After being elected Iran’s first president in January 1980, he and his followers, out of self defense and desperation, formed an alliance with the Mujahedin-e Khalq (”Iran” 897). He also attempted to work hard to establish close relations with the military leaders.

He ineffectively tried to appeal to the Iranian people, who had little in common with a Paris trained intellectual. One can see that during this stage of rising fever, moderate control is losing power. The people of Iran became upset with the little change that was taking place, and wanted more extreme measures taken. In mid-1981, leaders of the Islamic Republican Party (IRP) convinced Khomeini that Bani Sadr was plotting against them, and suggested evidence indicating that he was a threat to the revolution.

This led to his dismissal on June 20, of position of commander-in-chief of the armed forces. His presidency lasted 17 months. He was arrested and dismissed as president on June 22. Forced into hiding, he fled Iran on July 29, 1981, and was granted political asylum in Paris. On July 24, extremist Muhammad Ali Rajai with substantial IRP backing, won the electoral victory over the moderates. Thus, the period of rising fever ended, and the period of crisis began. In 1981, Khomeini took complete control over Iran and took many extremist measures.

He made sure the government completely controlled the media, as well as newspapers, television broadcasts, and radio programs. He had strict control of everything, including the treasury and flow of money to religious leaders. Those who disagreed with him faced severe economic retribution. The crisis had begun and radicals had taken over. Under Khomeini’s rule (1981-1989) came a great period of reign of terror. For example, after a speech the Ayatollah made, ight wing revolutionary guards fired into a rally of approximately one hundred thousand Muslim leftists outside the U. S. Embassy in Teheran.

Five people were killed and more than 300 were wounded. Supporters held food riots in Tunisia, and others held six car bombings in Kuwait. The Islamic Jihad held suicide bombings that killed two hundred-forty one U. S. Servicemen, and fifty-eight French troops in Beirut. These acts were not looked at as being bad acts of terrorism, but rather as acts of patriotic heroes. The reign of terror, the next step in the crisis, brought extremists into complete control. The people of Iran in the early 1980’s, had just about enough of all these laws and regulations, and were outraged at their standard of living.

People were finally starting to revolt against the way that they have been treated. This period according to Crane Brinton, is known as the civil war. Civil war started in Iran with the conflict with the Kurds. These people were pushed out of their homes, religious temples, and places of business, because of the overpowering radicals. An entire religious group was almost completely annihilated because of the savage behavior of the radicals. It was later found that the Kurdish problem was merely a pretext on Iran’s part to engage in meetings and collaborations with two influential middle eastern states, Turkey and Syria.

People suffered so that government could gain allies. The poor treatment of the Kurds led to confusion in the nation. Because of all of the chaos in the country, due to different public demonstrations and mass rioting, government groups were forming. The IRP, one of these groups, was in support of a nationalistic movement. Opposed to it was the Hojatieh, and a third party, which represented the Mullahs and the high ayatollahs. This third group thought Khomeini was reckless, so here was great hostility towards the IRP.

These groups formed different factions among the people of Iran, and led to a divided nation. In the early 1980’s, patriotic fever was bordering on hysteria, and the nationalism was incredible. This patriotic fever fits in to the next part of the revolution, the republic of virtue. Iran’s people had a great sense of nationalism inside of them. People held many parades and marches to express their nationalism. During this time, women were forced to wear veils in public, modern divorce laws were repealed, and harsh courts were set up, which set strict laws and harsh penalties.

The colliding views of the Iranian groups, as well as the republic of virtue, made it hard for Iran to deal with other countries. During this period, Iran’s relationship with Iraq became troubled. The war began with a fight for land and oil and as a result of the personalities of the two leaders. Both Hussein, the leader of Iraq, and Khomeini are headstrong. In addition, they disliked each other (Orwin 42). All of the circumstances that resulted from the war may have contributed in some measure to the outbreak and continuation of the conflict between Iran and Iraq (Iran-Iraq War 77-78).

The ituation worsened in September of 1980 when Iraq launched an attack on Iran to take control of the waterway that divided the two countries (”Iranian Revolution” p. 835). During the war, industry suffered. Chemical, steel, and iron plants in the war zone were heavily shelled. There have been shortages in electricity, fuel, and spare parts. The available pool of workers has diminished as thousands of men marched off to the front lines to fight. This caused great economic problems throughout the mid-1980’s. Iraq attempted to devastate oil economy even further.

Tankers and ships 50 miles off the oil terminal were struck. Iran would be deprived of a major source of income (Orwin 41). By 1984 it was reported that there were one million refuges in the Iranian province of Khuzestan. Some 300,000 Iranian soldiers and 250,000 Iraqi troops had been killed, or wounded. Among the injured were Iranian soldiers who sustained burns, blisters, and lung damage from Iraqi chemical weapons (Orwin 47). The war lasted about 8 years and Iran suffered casualties, not only in people, but in economy and leadership as well.

Because of the war with Iraq, and the purges going on in Iran, the economy was severely depressed. Besides the enormous uman cost, economic losses from the war exceed $200 billion. Agricultural growth has declined as a result of war, also (Orwin 34). During the crisis and during the war with Iraq, industry is plagued by poor labor management, a lack of competent technical and managerial personnel, and shortages of raw material and spare parts. Agricultural suffers from shortage of capital, raw materials, and equipment, and as a result, food production has declined.

Also, out of an estimated work force of 12 million, unemployment is up to 3-4 million (Orwin 16). Iran’s economy was desperate. In connection with the devastating economy with the war, here was economic suffering through purges, the next step in crisis. Extensive purges were carried out in the army, in the school and university systems, and in some of the departments of government although the Ministries of Justice and Commerce proved significantly more resistant because of the entrenched power of conservative elements there).

Additionally, new institutions were created, like the Revolutionary Guards – including the creation of a ministry for them – and the counsel of Guardians, along with a string of other judicial bodies (Akhavi 53). Purges eliminated many qualified personnel, and lowered the orale of the Iranian people. Finally, after about 9 years of crisis and fighting among different groups, there was a breakthrough in the revolution, with the return of conservatives. The Ayatollah Khomeini died in May of 1989, and a new leader by the name of Ali Hashemi Rafsanjani was elected and came to power two months later.

This would start the convalescence stage of Crane Brinton’s revolution. Rafsanjani has not actually called for a reversal of strict Islamic injunctions, but in oblique ways he is signaling that he favors a more relaxed approach, especially in the enforcement of the hijab (Ramazani 7). Under Rafsanjani, the return of the church has been allowed to occur, which is another step in the theory of a revolution. On August 2, 1991, Iran resumed diplomatic relations with Iraq and had also resolved the issue over the pilgrimage of Iranian Muslims to Mecca, which has been suspended for three years.

Inside Iran, the most significant development in the last few months took place in October, when several Iranian leaders teamed up in a maneuver to marginalize opponents (Igram A-10). Twelve years after Khomeini came to power, Iran’s Islamic revolution has finally softened around the edges. The signs of fitful change are everywhere. On Tehran’s streets women still observe hijab (the veil), the Islamic injunction that women keep themselves covered except for their faces and hands.

But some have exchanged their shapeless black chedors for slightly fitted raincoats in colors like green and purple. Women’s fingernails are starting to sport glosses, too (Ramazani 32). Obviously, the republic of virtue has been eliminated, which is the next part in the convalescence. After Khomeini’s death, many radical groups were weakened. This led to the elimination of radicals. President Rafsanjani, ith the support of Khomeini, swiftly eliminated four of his most hard-line adversaries from the political scene by challenging their right to re-election.

With Rafsanjani in control, Iranians took a new look at crisis. His pragmatic policies were firmly established, replacing militancy and isolation. Rafsanjani campaigned to decrease the influence of important opponents, therefore improving ties with the western world. As well as attracting foreign trade. The radicals were finally eliminated, and Iran could return to the way it was. Economic problems after a revolution are good. Iran had been in debt from the time the revolution started, and an economic recovery was needed.

There was an increase in oil revenue in 1990, since ties with non-oil bearing countries had been replaced. There was also and increase in oil price, as well as other raw materials. Iran did have ten billion dollars froze in American banks, which still partly remain there today. The country’s economic problems were starting to be resolved. The return of status quo, is the final step in the convalescence stage. Iran has returned to the status quo. They ave many ties, including ties with North Korea, Libya, Syria, and Europe. Trade and friendliness has increased with Russia, as well.

Russia currently want to build nuclear reactors in Iran. Commerce opened with Japan, Pakistan, Turkey, and even some allies of Iraq. Rafsanjani wants to end Iran’s pariah status in the world community and gain desperately needed aid. He thinks they are in a period of reconstruction (Desmond 32). The Iranian Revolution is over, and the country is back on its feet. Rafasanjani was an incredible help to the economy and the government, and remains in power today. Iran has a great umber of allies, which improves its ties with the west.

Iran’s oil industry is booming, and the country’s economy remains stable. Americans are again allowed to be seen on the streets of Tehran, and the foreign debt has reduced. The U. S. still has their problems with Iran (the money in the banks), but these problems are still in the process of being resolved. Iran is progressing steadily, and has recovered from the revolution. The Iranian Revolution follows Crane Brinton’s theory on a revolution because the revolution included symptoms, rising fever, crisis, and convalescence, just as the theory states.

Greece, a country in southeastern Europe

Greece is a country in southeastern Europe, taking up most of the Balkan Peninsula and has over 2,000 islands. It is bordered by Albania, Macedonia, and Bulgaria to the north; Turkey to the east, and mostly surrounded by water. Athens is the largest and capital city in Greece. Geography- Physical Characteristics- Greece is commonly visited by tourists because of its natural beauty. It is very mountainous, almost four-fifths of it is mountains. One of the most famous and highest mountain is Mt. Olympus it stands at over 9500 ft.

In ancient Greek mythology, Mt. Olympus was thought of as the home of the gods. There are different regions of Greece: the central mountain area, the Pindus; the southeastern part of central Greece, Attica; and the large plain of the eastern coast, Boeotia. Climate- The climate of Greece is split into two major sections. The northern part of Greece is a temperate climate where is it usually cool and wet. The southern part is a Mediterranean climate where it is usually warm, but winters and mildly wet and summers are hot and dry. The thousands of island are also a Mediterranean climate, except a little bit hotter.

Location- The relative location of Greece is: it is surrounded by Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Turkey, the Aegean Sea, the Ionian Sea, plus the Mediterranean Sea. The absolute location of Greece is: it from 20 East-26 East and 41 North- 35 North. Natural Resources- Greece is a very poor country and doesn’t have any natural sources of real worth, but Greece does have a few unique things known to its country. They haves mine that receive lignite, bauxite, magnesium, salt, iron ore, chromium, lead, zinc, silver, nickel, copper, and uranium.

Also they have many agricultural resources like wheat, olives, cotton, tobacco, oats, barley, and millet. Government and Economics- Type of Government- Earlier this century Greece was controlled by a hereditary monarchy, but later Greece was declared a republic and had elections for President. Cities that have more than 100,000 inhabitants are governed by a mayor and a city council, and cities that have 300 to 10,000 inhabitants are governed by a president and a community council.

The most popular political parties are: Democratic Center Union; New Democracy; Panhellinic Socialist Movement (Pasok); and the United Left Alliance, which is a type of communist party. Greece, for administrative purposes, is divided into 13 regions. The 13 regions are Northern Aegean, Southern Aegean, Attica, Crete, Epirus, Central Greece, Western Greece, Ionian Islands, Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, Central Macedonia, Western Macedonia, Pelopnnisos, and Thessaly.

The Republic of Croatia

The Republic of Croatia, situated along the eastern coastline of the Adriatic Sea, is an independent nation formerly a constituent republic of Yugoslavia. In May of 1990, it held its first multi-party elections, phasing out the communist regime after 45 years, and constituting the new Parliament the Sabor. Official independence from Yugoslavia was declared on June 25, 1991. Following was an inter-ethnic civil war in 1991, that left Croatia with about one-third of its territory controlled by local Serbs.

Although the Republic of Croatia was recognized by European Union (EU) member states in January 1992, as well admitted to the UN in April of that year, the conflict continued through 1995 in order to bring the Serbian controlled territories (parts of western and eastern Slavonia) back under Croatian control. On August 24, 1996, the Former Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) (consisting of Serbia-Montenegro), and Croatia signed an agreement on mutual recognition, formally ending the five years of hostility.

UN peacekeeping forces today remain in Croatia, and national boundaries and final political arrangements still remain to be settled. Future Prospects Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav average. Croatia was especially strong in tourism, with its Dalmatian coast representing the most important Yugoslav attraction for foreign visitors.

Currently, should Croatia remain at peace, its future political and economic prospects are relatively good. However, a number of problems and potential dangers remain. Externally, by far the most serious of these pertain to nearby Bosnia, where the worst possible scenario would be the collapse of the Croat-Muslim Federation, another war with the Bosnian Muslims and a return to international isolation for Croatia, a scenario that cannot as yet be ruled out definitively. The danger of another war with Serbia also persists.

Internationally, Croatia’s future policies will largely determine whether its ongoing recovery will be completed. The greatest potential danger domestically is that the Croatian President, Franco Tudjman, and the ruling party the HDZ, may persist with authoritarian solutions to Croatia’s problems, thereby virtually guaranteeing worsening social and political conflict and instability. Croatia’s already questionable democratic credentials and poor human rights record have come between it and the international community, most notably in the EU.

Croatia’s increasing political isolation is also harming its prospect for integration into international structure–its key foreign policy goal, and has caused deterioration in relations with multilateral agencies such as IMF and the World Bank. The United States has recently moved to block Croatia’s access to multilateral loans, which led the World Bank to delay consideration of a US$30 million loans to support Croatia’s banking sector and promote private investment.

The IMF announced in July that it was delaying the next tranche of Croatia’s three-year Extended Fund Facility (EFF), which had been approved in March 1997. Economic Overview Croatia currently faces social and economic challenges stemming from the legacy of longtime Communist mismanagement of the economy; large foreign debt; damage during the fighting to bridges, factories, power lines, buildings, and houses; the large refugee population, both Croatian and Bosnian; and the disruption of economic ties to Serbia and the other former Yugoslav republics, as well as within its own territory.

In 1995, however, the Croatian economy appeared to have turned the corner after several years of negative growth following the war. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 1995 was $20. 1 billion (est. ), is still about 30% below 1990 pre-war levels. In 1995 GDP per capita was $4,976 compared to $11,000 in Slovenia, $300 in neighboring Bosnia, and $6,070 in 1994 in Slovakia. Croatia has enjoyed 3 years of low, single digit inflation since the introduction of the stabilization program of October 1993. Retail price inflation in 1995 was 2%, and 3. 5% in 1996.

This price stability was achieved by means of tight monetary, fiscal and incomes policies. However, there is a disturbing trend of growing indebtedness between Croatian enterprises. By October 1995, 10,000 Croatian enterprises were insolvent (there are now 60K businesses in Croatia), with total overdue debt of $1. 5 billion (about 10% of GDP). If these enterprises are forced to close under the forthcoming Bankruptcy Law, 150,000 employees would join the current 240,000 unemployed and would greatly increase the already high unemployment rate of 18. 1 in 1996.

The country Brazil

Brazil is composed of 26 states and the federal district. The states, in descending order of population, are Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, Pernambuco, Ceara, Para, Maranhao, Santa Catarina, Goias, Paraiba, Espirito Santo, Piaui, Alagoas, Rio Grande do Norte, Amazonas, Mata Grosso, Mata Grosso do Sul, Sergipe, Rondonia, Tocantins, +Akko, Amapa, and Roraima. The federal district includes Brasilia, which replaced Rio de Janeiro as the national capital in 1960. The largest city is Sao Paulo, center of Brazilian industry, with a population (1991) of 9,480,427.

Other leading cities, with their 1991 populations, include Rio de Janeiro, the former capital of the country and a commercial center (5,336,179); Salvador, a port located in a fertile agricultural region (2,056,013); Belo Horizonte, hub of a cotton-raising region (2,048,861); Brasilia, the capital (1,596,274); Recife, chief commercial city of the central region (1,290,189); Curitiba (1,290,142); Porto Alegre, an Atlantic port (1,262,631); Belem, a chief port on the lower Amazon River (1,246,435); and Manaus, a port on the Negro River (1,010,558). Religion About 89 percent of the inhabitants of Brazil are Roman Catholic.

Many Catholics combine worship of African deities with their Christian religious practices. The most prevalent of these is the Candomble sect, whose adherents are found mostly in the state of Bahia. There are also about 9. 7 million Protestants, including substantial numbers of Lutherans, Methodists, and Episcopalians, and a small community of Jews. Most Native Americans follow traditional religions. Separation of church and state is formal and complete. Language Portuguese is the official language of Brazil, although Brazilians have adopted many words and phrases from native and immigrant languages.

Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

After Russia, Canada, China and the United States, Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world. It is the biggest country in South America and takes up almost half of the continents area. Its northern part is called Amazonia, after the Amazon river, which runs through it. This region covers 40% of Brazils surface and extends into many of the surrounding countries. It is mostly covered with dense tropical rain forests and contains an enormous variety of plants and animals. Although rain forests constitute only 7% of the earths land surface, they contain 50% of its living species!

Revkin, 34) Unfortunately, these forests are now being cut down for profit. Some say this is not a major problem and that deforestation provides a source of revenue for people who need it. In reality, deforestation has few advantages all of which are in the short term, it has terrible consequences and its long term effects are devastating, this is why it should be stopped. Since its discovery, 30% of Brazils rain forests have disappeared, and the country is still losing more rain forest each year than any other on the planet.

Brazilian forests are burned or felled at the rate of 1800 hectares (about 4500 acres) every hour! (Dwyer 39) Deforestation started hundreds of years ago, but only became a major problem in the second half of this century, when it increased dramatically. It was enhanced by the Brazilian government which started cutting down the forest to construct a vast network of highways in an effort to establish a good transportation system and improve Brazils economy. The government wanted to encourage the countrys development by transporting poor families from overpopulated areas of the country to Amazonia.

Many poor people saw emigration into the Amazon as an opportunity to attain a higher standard of living. This finally offered them a chance to own their own land, and take advantage of jobs offered by multinational corporations, petroleum corporations and logging companies. An example of this happened in the late 60s, when a 2160 kilometer road was constructed to join the capital Brasilia with the Amazonian port of Belem. Just a decade after the road was completed, the population in that area had risen from practically nothing to hundreds of thousands! (Anderson 63)

The main reasons for deforestation are clearing of the forest for agriculture or building of ranches to raise cattle, commercial logging and timber production, exportation and trade of wood, and local demand for fuel wood. An other cause is the building of massive hydro-electric dams which drain rivers and devastate extremely large portions of forest. These dams are often build by international companies to produce energy which is used in the production of materials such as aluminum. (Ransom) One source of deforestation is what is know as the devastation farming technique.

Small farmers cut down the forest in order to create space to plant crops or raise cattle. First they cut down any undergrowth and small trees, thenleave them to dry in the sun and set them on fire. Then they use the space created to plant different kinds of crops such as corn, dry-land rice, brown beans, and manioc. At first, these plantations flourish under the hot sun and heavy rains, but this doesnt last long. The soil of the Amazon is actually one of the most sterile on earth. It is no good for farming. So after a year or two the crops become weaker and weaker, until at about year four they are barely worth the effort.

The earth hardens and is washed away by rain, it becomes impossible to cultivate. So the farmers have to move to an other parcel of forest and so on… (Larson) Under normal conditions, very few demands are made of the soil. Its protected from the sun by trees, and from rain by a thick carpet of leaves, branches and trunks. The litter is quickly decomposed into inorganic nutrients, which are soon absorbed by the roots of plants. This is very efficient, there is virtually no soil erosion or loss of nutrients. But when the forest is cut, the whole ecosystem collapses.

There is no leaf carpet to cover the ground, so rain leaches easily through the porous soil, carrying soluble nutrients deep beyond the reach of plant roots. Under these conditions, 1 hectare of forest loses 1 kilogram of soil a year to erosion. When the forest is removed, the same area loses 34 tones of soil a year! Such exposed soil may be easily laterized, or turned to stone. (Larson) Small farmers are not the only source of deforestation, if fact, most of it is done by large companies who eliminate the forest to clear area for cattle ranches, or cut the trees for timber.

Here again, the Brazilian government wanted to promote the industrial and agricultural development of the region. So it encouraged these companies to move to Amazonia by offering them tax breaks if they made industrial investments in the region. Many logging, farming and cattle companies seized the opportunity and came to the Amazon. And although today the government has stopped encouraging these companies, they are still a major cause of deforestation. (TED case studies) Because of such government encouragement, deforestation in the region peaked in the late 70s and early 80s.

Then, after much publicity and efforts it started to decrease and reached a low point in the early 90s. But now it is on the raise again, it increased by 34% between 1992 and 1995, and an area of forest the size of Denmark has been destroyed during this period. (Schemo) This constant destruction of the forest has many terrible consequences, some of which are irreversible. After an area of the forest has been cut down, it is practically impossible to restore. Even if it is allowed to regrow, the new forest will lack the diversity of the original one. It can take hundreds of years for it to regain its original state!

Sterv) Thousands of animal and plant species disappear each year because of deforestation, many of which havent even been discovered yet! If they were to be discovered and studied, those species might reveal to be very useful, they might have medicinal value or other qualities. (Reveret) But because of deforestation, well never even know they existed. The cutting of the forest also harms native people whose territory is being invaded and destroyed. (Revkin 47) An other consequence is what is called the greenhouse effect, progressive warming of the planet.

This effect is caused by gases produced by human activities that accumulate in the earths atmosphere. They then trap the suns heat, which gradually heats up the earth. Carbon dioxide is one such gas, and because of deforestation fires, large amounts of it are being released into the air. (Larson) This contributes to global warming, which is a major problem for the future of our planet. Deforestation can also lead to a decrease in rainfall. In the presence of the forest, the rain water is absorbed by vegetation and soon evaporates back into the air creating clouds and rain.

Without trees, the water sinks deep into the land and flows down into underground rivers which lead it to the sea. The consequences of this have already been observed, for example, the flow of the Sao Francisco river has shrunk from 2800 cubic meters a second in 1850 to only 200 cubic meters a second in 1980. (Anderson) Some, like the Brazilan government, argue that cutting the forest and converting it into pastures and fields provides a needed source of revenue for Brazil. But in fact, there are ways to earn even higher revenues without destroying the forest.

One of them is sustainable harvesting of natural forest products. Rain forest trees produce fruits, spices, dyes, raisins, edible oils, medicines, and fibers. They also produce a wide assortment of industrial compounds such as latex and rubber. But only a few of those products are traded on the international market. If those products were introduced to international markets, they could yield revenues even higher than those from deforestation. (Larson) An other alternative would be to plant alley crops between hedgerows of trees instead of cutting them down.

This would allow continuous farming of the land with much higher annual yields. (Dwyer 73) The forests are definitely worth more while they still exist then when they are cut down. In conclusion, deforestation really is a major problem, but it is not something that is impossible to stop. There are alternatives to it that would have the same financial advantages, but none of the ecological disadvantages. The governments of major countries around the world should realize this, and make an effort to stop deforestation before it is too late.

Republic of Panama

An emerging nation is a group of people linked together through nationalism in the hopes to rise from obscurity with the common goal to become a more productive and cohesive country. Panama is indeed known as one of the worlds emergent nations. There are many plans under way to ensure a better, more productive future for Panama. The current president, Ernesto Perezs main platform was to modernize Panama. He hopes to achieve this by reforming labor codes, investment laws, decreasing import barriers, privatizing the public sector companies, passing anti-monopoly laws and improve

Panama-US relations, just to name a few. President Perez is planning redevelopment of the Panama Canal Zone. Efficient operation of the Zone is expected in the year 2000. The most important interest the United States has in Panama is definitely the Panama Canal. (2. )The Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and1979 returns the Canal from the U. S. control to the Panamanians. Between that time the U. S. agreed to pay $10 million for control of the Canal until 1999. Also an annuity of $250,000 was tacked on and we promised independence for Panama. Each year the price we pay for the canal rises.

The total in 1995 was $100. 2 million due to certain provisions of the treaty. (1. )The treaty also set up the Panama Canal Commission Organization (PCCO). The PCCO is a part of the executive branch of the United States. It was enacted to manage, operate, and maintain the canal until the term ends on December 31, 1999. The commission is expected to recover all costs of operating and maintaining the canal through tolls and other revenue. This includes interest, depreciation, capital for plant replacement, xpansion, improvements, and payments to the Republic of Panama for Public services and annuities.

The revenues are deposited into a U. S. Treasury accounted known as Panama Canal Revolving Fund. (3. )The tolls being paid are based on ships tonnage. Currently the tolls are $2. 39 per PC/U. S. Net Tons for Laden (w/passengers or cargo) vessels, $1. 90 per PC/U. S. Net tons for Ballast(w/out passengers or cargo) vessels, and $1. 33 for other miscellaneous vessels. Though tolls have been gradually increasing there is an expected deficiency in the future. In 1997 tolls increased 8. % and in 1998 they are only expected to rise7. 5%.

In 1996 a total 13,536 and 198,067,990 in vessels and cargo passed through the canal. That equals $486,688,265 in tolls. We could probably have a substantial amount of profit from the tolls if we didnt have to rent the canal from Panama every year until 1999. Specifically for U. S. interest, in 1995, 899 thousand long tons of Japaneses automobiles were ship to the canal. Half of these were marked for the United States.

Also, 44. 1 million long tons of grain coming from the gulf went through the canal which as mostly heading for the far east. (4. Approximately 13% of international seaborne trade passes through the Panama canal. This doesnt seem like much but the United States is one of the major users of the canal. Economically, Panama hopes to the trading hub of this hemisphere. Anyone who has control of the Panama Canal will eventually be the trading hub this hemisphere. This includes instillment of a banking center of the world, free movement of capital, a better tourism incentive, and a restructured economy based on free markets. (5. )In 1995 Panamas Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was 6,961.

The GDP per capita was 2,646. Panamas natural resources are timber, seafood, and copper ore. Most of the products they export are bananas, corn, sugar, rice, coffee, shrimp, timber, assorted vegetables, and cattle. The United States is one of Panamas major markets for their exports. There are 2 billion tons of copper ore which is reality able to be mines. Also they export approximately $14 million in tropical fruit a year. The export of vegetables has doubled in the last three years. Another of Panamas resources is the tourist attractions.

There are miles of white sandy beaches and numerous islands on each coast. This allows for excellent snorkeling, skin diving, and fishing adventures. The climate in Panama is tropical all year round. It is rather unclear to ma as what the United States should actually do with Panama. Do we really want to give the canal to the Panamanians. I dont think so. Do we have to give the canal back. NO, we stole it first, fair and square. Yes we do have a treaty with Panama but it would not be the first time a country has broken a treaty agreement.

The U. S. es have the power to do such a thing but moral and legal it is not just. Panama and the Canal area will one day be a very stable nation and as it emerges from obscurity the United States needs to protect its investments and further interests in Panama. We must keep up good relations with Panama since we are one of the major users of the canal. It would be very costly for us if we did not keep up decent relations. I also believe there is no way the U. S. can pull out of the Canal Zone 100%. We should definately leave military forces where they will be handy in case of an emergency.

If something unforeseen, like another war breaking out the canal will be a hot commodity to have. Also, as Panama expands and grows there will be many major, million dollar construction projects on the canal and in other areas in which we can bid on. These projects will produce many outlets for U. S. technology. Overall, I believe all we really can do for Panama as they develop is aide if needed, guide when appropriate and protect the interests and investments we have there. After all, 86,000 acres of the canal is made up U. S. military infrastructure.

India, officially republic of India

India, officially republic of India is a country in Southern Asia, which consists entirely of the Indian Peninsula and parts of the Asian mainland. On the north, one can find Afghanistan, China, Nepal, and Bhutan; on the east, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and the Bay of Bengal; on the south, by Palk Strait, and the Gulf of Manhar, and the Indian ocean; and on the west, by the Arabian Sea and Pakistan (1). India has an area of 3,165,596 sq. km. The capital of India is New Delhi, and the countries largest city is Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay). It is the second most populated country in the world after China with a population of 984,003,683.

Currently the growth rate for India is at 1. 71 percent. India is known around the world as one of the worst poverty stricken and malnourished countries ever (2). India’s economy includes traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide variety of modern industries, and numerous support services. Nearly 400 million, which is 67 percent of India’s labor force, works in agriculture, which supplies 30 percent of the country’s GDP. Production, trade, and investment reforms since 1991 have given new opportunities for Indian business persons and an average of 300 million middle class consumers.

Many of the country’s fundamentals which includes saving rates (26 percent of GDP) and reserves (now about $24 billion) are healthy. Inflation eased to 7 percent in 1997, and interest rates dropped to between 10 percent and 13 percent. However, the Indian government still needs to restore the early momentum of reform, especially in continuing to reduce the remaining government regulations. Furthermore economic policy changes have not yet significantly increased jobs or reduced the risk that international finance strains redevelop within the next few years. Nearly 40 percent of the Indian population remains too poor to afford an adequate diet.

India’s exports, currency, and foreign institutional investment were affected by the East Asia crisis in late 1997 and early 1998. Export growth has been decreasing in 1996-97, averaging only about 4 percent to 5 percent, which is a large crop from 20 percent increases it was having over the prior three years- mostly because of the fall in Asian currencies relative to the rupee. Energy, telecommunications, transportation shortages, and the estate of inefficient factories compel industrial growth which expanded only 6. 7 percent. In 1997- down from more than 11 percent in 1996.

Growth of the agricultural sector is still slowly bouncing back to 5. 7 percent from a fall of 0. 1 percent in 996 (2). Successive five year plans since 1951, have slowly achieved a steady rate of economic growth, except for periods of severe drought. Agriculture generates about one-third of the value of India’s annual GDP. Most farms are very small. In terms of area sown, the leading crop is rice, the staple foodstuff of a large part of the Indian population. Wheat comes next in importance to rice, and India is also among the leading producers in the world of sugar cane, tea, cotton, and jute.

Cashews, coffee, and spices are also important cash crops. Other crops include vegetables, melons, sorghum, millet, corn, barley, chickpeas, bananas, mangoes, rubber, and linseed. The raising of livestock particularly horned cattle, buffalo, horses and mule is a central feature of the agricultural economy of India. These animals are utilized most exclusively as beast of burden, mainly because meat consumption, according to religious or social scruples is not permitted among the Hindu’s. As a result, the breeds of cattle in India are generally inferior (1).

The Republic of India is governed according to the plan of a constitution adopted in 1949, which includes various features of the constitutional systems of Great Britian, the United States, and other Western democracies. By the terms of the Indian organic law the government is federal in its structure and republican in character. Similar to the United States, India is a union of states, but its government is more highly concentrated than the US government, and rights that the states are territories have are severely limited. The Chief executive and head of state in India is president.

The job of the president in government is mostly symbolic and ceremonial, nevertheless the actual executive power dwells on a council of members responsible to the parliament, which is made up of the Council of States and the House of People. The president is elected for a five-year term by an electoral college which consists of the elected members of the national and state legislatures and is eligible for consecutive terms. The House of the People consist of 545 members which are elected by universal adult suffrage, except for a couple members who are selected by the president to represent the Anglo-Indian community.

Members of the House of the People normally serve for five years, which is the statutory limit for the duration of the house, but the house may be broken up upon defeat of major legislation which is always planned by the executive branch of Government. In many aspects the Government of India is similar to that of the U. S. except that the U. S has the advantage in that it’s much more liberal (1). Ancient India was a country of considerable educational development, with universities that attracted many foreign students.

Asians, especially the Chinese, were attracted to Indian universities, because they offered instruction in the teachings of Buddha. India also would increase their educational influence by sending its university graduates to the orient to teach. However, from the 13th century and on the original contribution of the Indians weakened, and application of newer educational methods was reduced. Since gaining it’s independence from Great Britain, India has tried to develop a modern and complete school system.

However, the problem of educating the vast population with its many social and religious differences, has remained difficult. When it comes to literacy, 52 percent of the people age 15 and over can read and write. There is no doubt that males are better educated that females when their literacy rates are compared; 65. 5 percent of males are literate as opposed to only 37. 7 percent of females (6). Most of the time funds that otherwise would have been used for education have top be used to fight the problems of poverty, food shortages and overpopulation (7).

The school systems of the various states are under the control of the state governments, and the federal ministry of education helps the state systems, directs the systems of the centrally administered areas, provides financial help for the nations institutions of higher learning, and gives out other various responsibilities. The current slightly modified pattern of schooling in India is ten years of elementary and high school, two of higher secondary education, and three of university. India has about 180 universities and about 8000 technical, arts, and science colleges.

Since independence the government has been very attentive to the health problems of the nation. But despite strong efforts in areas of preventive medicine, sanitation, and nutrition, health conditions remain marginal; although epidemics of smallpox, cholera, dysentery, and elephantantiosis no longer are common. Much of the population continues to suffer from malnutrition; starvation is a frequent result of drought; However some progress has been made in fighting malaria and plague and in controlling tuberculosis. The overall life expectancy is 62. 9 years as to before in 1941 which was 32 years (1).

Throughout South Asia, people are shorter, skinnier, and less productive than nature meant them to be. Indians use to try to make themselves feel better by saying that “small is healthy”. Dr. C. Gopalan, which is the director of Nutrition Foundation of India disapproves of this doctrine by saying that it’s “dangerous, cynical, and damaging. ” He and other Indian scientist now agree on a Universal Standard for nourishment, measuring weight for age and weight for height. By that standard, South Asia has the world’s worst nutrition record and contains half of the world’s malnourished children.

More than half of India’s under-fives, some 70 million children, have a life of stunted mental and physical growth. Fifty-three percent of the children in India are malnourished (6). The explanation can be seen in methods of childcare, and treatment of women. A report that will be published by the United Nations Children’s Fund, UNICEF, says that low birth weight is “the best single predictor of malnutrition. ” A third of Indian babies are underweight which is twice of that of Africa, because Indian mothers are much more likely than African mothers to be poorly nourished and anemic.

The maternal mortality rate for India is among the highest at 570 deaths per 100,000 live births; as is the infant mortality rate at 63. 13 deaths per 1,000 live births (8). Mothers who do survive are often ill-fed and cannot provide acceptable breast milk. So, by six months old, when babies should start on solid food, Indians are already at a disadvantage. During the crucial next year, babies are not given enough food to allow their brains and bodies to grow normally. Seventy percent of children get nothing besides milk the first year of their life.

Kerala, the state with the lowest levels of child malnutrition also has one of the lowest average levels of food consumption. The richest state, maharashtra, has one of the highest malnutrition rates. Babies that are underfed are even found in the middle class. Feeding young children takes patience and time that hard working mothers cannot spare; most of the problem is caused by ignorance. Most Indian parents simply do not know that tiny children need regular feeding with calorie-rich foods such as mushy rice or lentils. By the time a hungry child is able to say for themselves, the damage of deprivation is done.

After the age of two, it is too late to make up for early food deficits. Disease is both a cause and an effect of malnutrition. India has ten times the population density of sub-Saharan Africa, with a much higher proportion of its people living in urban shantytowns. These are breeding grounds for diseases such as diarrhea and respiratory infections that drain away nutrients. Even a mildly malnourished child is two times more likely than a properly fed child to die from a common child-hood disease, however Indians have better access to health care than Africans, in that more sick and poorly fed Indian babies survive.

Researchers are surprised that malnourishment among girls is only a tad worse that that of boys, who are greatly favored in Indian families. The answer is most likely that boys get more food, just the wrong kind of food (3). The chance of acute malnutrition is definitely high among children, especially in the age groups of 0 – 3 years in almost all states. In India only 57 percent make it to their first birthday. In many states, the percentage of children with sufficient caloric protein intakes was much lower when compared to the percentage for households.

The major nutritional problem in India is definitely PCM or protein calorie malnutrition, especially among most vulnerable groups like children, pregnant women, lower income groups and population living in tribal tracts. The term PCM implies that the problem of malnutrition is one of the mostly calorie or energy intake deficiency, the protein deficiency being secondary, since in Indian conditions, the dietary sources of proteins and calories are the same, so an adequate quota of calories will expectedly take care of an adequate protein in the diet.

The other major nutritional deficiency diseases are vitamin A deficiency, goitre and iron deficiency anemia. In certain parts of India fluorosis is also a problem due to the presence of excessive amounts of fluoride in drinking water. Pellagra, caused due to niacin or nicotinic acid deficiency is prevalent in populations whose staple diet is maize Many of the diseases mentioned have secondary effects. PCM is known to lower work capacity and productivity and worse alter immune response and mental function.

Endemic goitre, caused by iodine and deficiency, results in cretinism, deaf mutism and idiocy for the children of goitre victims (4). Nutritional anemia among pregnant women accounted for 20 percent of maternal deaths and high premature birhts. The economic cost of these nutritional disorders apart from the social and political costs, is tremendous, some of them immediately apparent, many others that would unfold over the years (5). There are many things that India needs to do to help improve the living conditions and health there. Most nutritionists now agree on what needs to be done.

Create a virtuous cycle, starting with getting more food into the mouths of babies. Then direct attention to tomorrow’s mothers-as young girls who need to be educated, as adolescents who need to grow in full size, and as pregnant women who need to gain weight and escape anemia, so as to produce full-weight babies. None of this really requires much extra spending just a change in dietary habits which is very difficult. It’s even harder to change the habits of upbringing, but the costs of not doing so can be counted in hundred of millions of undersized bodies and stunted minds.

The diets recommended should be at least expensive and confirm to their traditional and cultural practices. The energy they derive from cereals should not exceed 75 percent of the total energy requirement. About 150g of vegetables should be provided in their diet. Also energy derived from fat and oil need not exceed 15 percent of total calories and energy receive from refined carbohydrates (sugar or jaggery) should not exceed 5 percent. When it comes to children the message that needs to get across is, first of all, breast feeding as long as possible is very important.

Secondly, one should introduce semisolids to children from 6 months and feed them 3 to 6 times a day. One should never reduce food in illness and should always use available health services and immunize your child. It is very important to always keep the family and surroundings clean. Another very important tip is to never ignore mother’s health and food needs during pregnancy and lactation. India may also show more improvement it lowers the fertility rate which is currently 3. children born per women, down to at least 2 children born, to make it less mouths too feed.

In the education aspect toe government should definitely enforce going to school. It should with out a doubt equally enforce both girls and boys to attend school. It is not fair at all that currently boys have a better chance of getting an education than girls. India has a lot of work to do to make it into the idealistic place to live in. However, with government help and much patience and perseverance conditions could slowly but greatly improve.

A Study Of The Market Reforms In Post-Communist Eastern Europe With A Specific Case Study of Poland

Poland, as well as it’s fellow post-communist countries, face an arduous task in re-inventing their economies to match the dominant Western style currently dominating the world. The difficulties lie in the areas of ideology, structural needs (massive changes required), world recession(current) and debt load. Communist Economics Why did the economics of the communist bloc fail so miserably? Why has every single socialist, fascist, communist and other non-democratic country had to implement economic change in order to survive?

This is due to some inherent roblems in the command economy idea. Monopolies (in a command economy) tend to produce inefficiency, low quality goods, lack of innovation and technological improvement. Command economies tend to focus on growth rather than strength leading to larger production and an evan. worse use of available resources. The 1980’s marked a change in world markets meant that the communist economies were faced with four challenges that would, if met, have meant the continuation of the USSR.

Resource saving miniaturization requiring high technology and skill were emanded (command economies have neither), Flexible production to meet a variety of needs (command economies have large factories to keep production high – they, thus, did not have the funds or ability to affect the necessary changes to their means of production), the “information age” meant that the communist bloc had to deny the new prevalent types of technology, which would spread Western ideas, and thus they fell behind), and “software” became essential to the growth of industry (the “hardware” focus of the East could not absorb this new approach.

As well, the changes are being attempted in a deep period of economic crisis that make an already difficult process even more difficult. Changing the Economy Systematic transformation requires institutional innovations, the internal liberalization of the economy, the external liberalization and the adjustment of the real economy as well as the monetary system. Not only does there need to be a different institutional framework for a market economy but one has to remove most of the inherited structures and to change the typical behavioral patterns in industry, state and private households.

Privatization Privatization is a difficult task because of four main factors. Firm sizes in post-communist countries tend to be large. This means that their division or shrinkage poses difficulties for foreign investors, they are however, not worthwhile at current sizes and must be reshaped. Expectations are running high but attitudes ingrained in the workforce will need time to change. None of the structure exists to deal with private firms and must be created along with the labor needed to run it.

There is very little knowledge and certainty about he property rights issue and until resolved investors will be wary of the situation. However, not all countries have addressed the needed changes in the same fashion. Poland has been a leader in foreign investment and involvement when compared to it’s post-comminist counterparts. Poland:Brief History The name Poland is derived from that of the Polanie, a Slavic people that settled in the area, probably in the 5th century AD. Poland is a nation in east-central Europe. In the 18th century it was divided up by its neighbors and ceased to exist until resurrected in 1918.

Again partitioned by Germany and the USSR at the beginning of World War II, it was reestablished as a Soviet satellite state in 1945, and remained a Communist-dominated “people’s republic” until 1989. Mikhail Gorbachev’s appointment as Kremlin leader in March 1985 was the signal that the Polish opposition had been waiting for. Exploiting the new liberalization in the region, Lech Walesa and Solidarity, Pope John Paul II and the church hierarchy, and ordinary citizens stung by the deepening economic recession combined to force the Communists to sit down at roundtable talks in 1989.

They secured far-reaching political concessions and exploited the resulting opportunities for political competition to drive the Communists from power The new non-Communist government sought to bring about economic reform through “shock therapy” in a scheme devised by Finance Minister Leszek Balcerowicz. Introduction to Polish economic situation Poland’s fundamental economic problem is that production and living standards for it’s 38 million people is considered to be inadequate. With a GDP about a third of the United States (on a per capita basis), Poland is considered to be a middle income country.

During the 1970’s, the Gierek government tries to tackle the problem (of economic distress) through a policy of rapidly expanding consumption coupled with investment financed by foreign borrowing. For several years this economic policy generated growth of about ten percent per year (The USA’s current growth (In GDP) is between 2-3% with 4% being the goal). However, the policy was to eventually fail due to mismanagement, recession in Western export markets (i. e a lack of foreign investment), a bias towards products in weak demand but costly to produce (in terms of energy input and raw resources).

These three factors produced an economic crisis that resulted in negative growth rates in 1979,80,81 and 82. It also produced the Solidarity movement in 1980 and the implementation of martial law the following year. During the 1980’s, Poland managed to regain earlier production levels, at the end of this period of economic development there was some restructuring of production, away from heavy industry towards lighter industry, food processing and services. As well there was slight movement towards the movement of business from state to private hands (with the goal of believed market echanisms for efficiency).

The private sector, in Poland, now accounts for one- third of the labor force (2/3 of that in agriculture). However, former policies (as mentioned above) have created a basic economic situation in Poland that is marked by inefficiency, foreign debt and market imbalances. Inefficiency Agriculture Agriculture accounts for 13% of national income, 28% of employment and 12% of export earnings. It is predominantly a private industry sector (about 75%) but productivity is low and development is stagnant. In this area Poland as fallen progressively behind it’s east European neighbors.

This lack of progress is due mainly to an inefficiently small size of farms (10 hectares or less), inefficient production methods, lack of investment incentives and limited access to inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides (which would increase productivity and reduce loss due to pests). Industry Industry (including energy and manufacturing) produces about half of GDP and employs 29% of the labor force. The sector is largely biased towards heavy industry and large state enterprises (classic approach of communist ethic).

Over 90% of industrial output is produced by the 6000 (or so) state owned enterprises. This outmoded productive base needs to be restructured. Industry is largely over-manned and energy intensive. Energy consumption is 2-3 times higher per unit of production in Poland than in the average Western Industrialized country. There are significant energy reserves in Poland, in the form of coal, oil and gas (in eastern Poland), but these reserves need modern technology to be tapped. Poland is no longer a net energy producer and must import energy to maintain roduction.

Incentives for management and workers have been distorted (includes unrealistic prices-low energy and pollution costs, soft budget constraints and employment guarantees. Foreign Debt Largely created during the 1970’s, this totaled more than 48 billion dollars (US) before the more than 50% reduction of official debt in March of 1991. The remaining 30 billion dollars is still a heavy burden on the economy. The debt service due (interest – simple maintaining of debt at present level) in 1991 amounted to 4 billion (40% of 1989 exports).

The government fell into arrears with many creditors (2/3 owed to foreign governments, 1/3 to foreign banks). The debt was being traded on the markets at 15 cents on the dollar down from 40 cents at the end of 1988 (meaning that the creditors were not secure in the belief that Poland was a good debtor and that their debts were unlikely to be paid in full – hence the drop in value of holding part of their debt). Market imbalances Shortages and excess demand for consumer goods and factors of production were deeply ingrained in the system until the reform of January 1990.

Subsidies ccounted for 14% of GDP (down from 17% in 1983), and the budget was running a deficit of 8% of GDP in 1989. Summary Poland’s economy was structured, in the same way systematic of communist countries, in an inefficient manner. Production was large, state owned and in usual monopoly, This meant that the economy was without the benefits of private market mechanisms for economic efficiency. In attempting to compete in an increasingly globalized world market Poland’s economic situation became dire.

This coupled with debt (and the needs of servicing it) meant that the economy as in need of change on a grand scale if Poland was to emerge as an economic force with reasonable success in comparison to her neighbors in Europe and the world . The Reform Process Against the background , the Mazowiecki government adopted a rapid and radical reform program for 1990. The aim, of this program, was to effect a transformation of the Polish economy from a command to market economy based on proven institutions with market determination of prices and convertible currency. The program included measures for stabilization, liberalization and restructuring.

Human Rights In Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia became a Communist state in 1945 under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito, who ruled until his death in 1980. Under Tito, Yugoslavia developed its own form of Communism, independent of control by the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was the most powerful Communist country in the world until 1991. The Communists in Yugoslavia banned all other political parties. However, they lifted the ban in 1990. That year, the first multiparty elections were held in all the republics. Non-Communist parties won control of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia.

Communists renamed Socialists, continued to hold power in Serbia and Montenegro. National government. In theory, Yugoslavia’s government is democratic. It has an elected parliament and an appointed president and Prime Minister. In practice, however, power is in the hands of Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic. In May 1992, elections were held for parliament. However, opposition parties boycotted the elections, and Milosevic’s party–the Socialist Party of Serbia–won a majority of seats in the legislature.

Milosevic’s control of the parliament allowed him to rule in a dictatorial manner. Local government. Both Serbia and Montenegro have a popularly elected president and parliament. Serbia includes the provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. These provinces had many powers of self-government until 1990, when Serbia stripped them of their special status. History Yugoslavia is what remains of a much larger country, also called Yugoslavia that broke up into several independent nations in 1991 and 1992. The new Yugoslavia, like the former, lies on the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe.

Belgrade is the nation’s capital and largest city. The name Yugoslavia means Land of the South Slavs. The name comes from the fact that the first Yugoslav state was formed in 1918 with the goal of uniting three groups of South Slavs: the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. Yugoslavia’s mix of people gave the country a rich variety of cultures. However, differences in religion, language, and culture eventually contributed to Yugoslavia’s breakup. From 1946 to 1991, Yugoslavia was a federal state consisting of six republics.

In 1991 and 1992, four of the republics–Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia–declared their independence. Fighting then broke out between Serbs and other ethnic groups in Croatia and in Bosnia-Herzegovina. As a result of this fighting, Serbian forces occupied about 30 percent of Croatia’s territory and about two-thirds of Bosnia-Herzegovina. A cease-fire ended most of the fighting in Croatia in January 1992. But in May 1995, Croatian government forces began to take back the areas that were held by the Serbs.

In April 1992, Serbia and Montenegro formed a new, smaller Yugoslavia. However, the United States and most other nations have refused to recognize the country. Economy After the Communists took control of Yugoslavia in 1945, they began working to develop Yugoslavia from an agricultural country into an industrial nation. The government introduced programs to encourage industrial growth and to raise living standards. At first, government agencies developed and carried out the programs. But in the 1950’s, the government began a system of self-management.

Under this system, workers in individual enterprises, such as factories and mines do economic planning. Workers’ council in each enterprise determines production goals, prices, and wages–all based on government guidelines. In the early 1990’s, the new Yugoslav government announced plans to move gradually toward a free-enterprise system. Under such a system, business owners and managers would decide what to produce and how much to charge. Agriculture still employs a large number of Yugoslavs. Farmers in Serbia and Montenegro grow corn, potatoes, tobacco, and wheat.

They also raise cattle, hogs, and sheep. Other important crops in Montenegro include cherries, figs, grapes, olives, peaches, pears, and plums. Farmland covers nearly half of Yugoslavia. Forests, which cover about a fourth of the country, are an important natural resource. Yugoslavia also has mineral resources. Mines yield bauxite, coal, copper ore, lead, and zinc. Wells in the Pannonian Plains and in the Adriatic Sea produce petroleum and natural gas. Factories in Yugoslavia make aluminum, automobiles, cement, iron and steel, paper, plastics, textiles, and trucks.

A good system of roads extends from Belgrade, the capital. Roads in the rest of the country, especially in Montenegro, are less developed. There are airports in Belgrade, Nis, Podgorica, Pristina, and Tivat. Communication media have faced censorship in Serbia since 1989, when Slobodan Milosevic became president. Milosevic put two of Serbia’s leading newspapers, Politika and Politika ekspres, under government control. Other major newspapers include Vecernje novosti and Sport of Belgrade, Dnevnik of Novi Sad, and Pobjeda of Podgorica.

Kenya – The Heart Of African Safari

Kenya is in the heart of African safari country and no Tarzan movie can prepare you for Kenya’s wilderness. I chose Kenya because someday I want to go on a safari and I thought that by researching Kenya I would learn a little more about safaris. The major tourist attractions in Kenya are the safaris. No other country contains a greater variety of birds and animals than Kenya, home of the Safari. Kenya has about eleven different types of safaris: Wildlife Safaris, Orinthological Safaris/Bird Watching, Camel Safaris, Hot Air Balloon Safaris,

Horse Riding Safaris, Cycle and Trekking Safaris, Golf Safaris, Camping Safaris, Sport Fishing, Conference and Business Tourism, Mountaineering and Walking Trails, and Safari Circuits. There are so many different types of safaris that deciding how to take a safari, available on foot, by bicycle, by 4 wheel drive, by camel, by horse, by ox wagon, by balloon or by classical aerial safari, is sometimes a difficult decision. If you plan on going to Kenya and staying for less than thirty days, then a visa is not required. However, if u plan on a onger stay, you can get a visa before your trip or when you enter Kenya.

Tourist visas require one application form, two passport photos, an onward or return ticket and the required fifty-dollar fee. Immunization for Yellow fever is recommended and Anti-malarial pills are recommended for those people who are traveling to the coastal regions of Kenya. Anthropological discoveries indicate that humans, perhaps the first on earth, probably inhabited southern Kenya some 2 million years ago. In the Kenya highlands farming and domestic herds can be ated to 1000 BC Arab traders settled on the coast by the 8th cent.

AD, establishing several city-states. The Portuguese, who first visited the Kenya coast in 1498, gained control of much of it but were expelled by Arabs in 1729. In 1886, under a British-German agreement on spheres of influence in East Africa, most of present day Kenya passed to Britain, and in 1903, after a railroad opened up the interior, the first European settlers moved in. Under Britain, Europeans controlled the government, and Indians, who had arrived arlier, were active in commerce, while Africans were largely confined to subsistence farming or to work as laborers.

Protests by Africans over their inferior status reached a peak in the so-called MAU-MAU emergency, an armed revolt against British rule. After the rebellion Britain increased African representation in the legislative council, and in 1963 Kenya gained independence. The country became a republic in 1964, with Jomo Kenyatta as president. The first decade of independence was marked by disputes among ethnic groups, especially the Kikuyu and the Luo, by the exodus of many Europeans and Asians, and by sporadic fighting with Somalia over boundary issues.

Daniel Arap Moi of the Kenya African National Union succeeded to the presidency after Kenyatta’s death in 1978. A stable democracy in 1978, Kenya under Moi became a one-party state and, increasingly, a dictatorship. Undermined by growing internal opposition and international resistance to supplying aid to his government, Moi agreed to end one-party rule in 1991, but social and political unrest, especially tribal conflicts that Moi’s government has been accused of promoting, continued. Moi was reelected president in 1992 in a multiparty election that his opponents denounced as fraudulent.

Since 1993, the government of Kenya has implemented a program of economic liberalization and reform. Steps have included the removal of import licensing and price controls, removal of foreign exchange controls, fiscal and monetary restraint, and reduction of the public sector through privatizing publicly owned companies and downsizing the civil service. The government has the support of the World Bank, IMF (International Monetary Fund), and other donors, and along with them these eforms have led to a turnaround in economic performance following a period of negative growth in the early 1990s.

Kenya’s real GDP (Gross Domestic Product) grew at 5% in 1995 and 4% in 1996, and inflation remained under control. Economic growth slowed in 1997-98. The exchange rate from U. S. Dollars ($) to Kenyan Shillings (KSh) is $1—76. 30KSh. Political violence damaged the tourist industry, and the IMF allowed Kenya’s Enhanced Structural Adjustment Program to lapse due to the government’s failure to enact reform conditions and to adequately address public sector corruption. Moreover, El Nino rains destroyed crops and damaged an already crumbling infrastructure in 1997 and 1998.

Long-term barriers to development include electricity shortages, the government’s continued and inefficient dominance of key sectors, endemic corruption, and the country’s high population growth rate. I think that Kenya has enormous potential for future growth. I think that if political violence ceases, the tourist industry can once more be at a high. The government also needs to address the issues of corruption.

Also, once the crops that were evastated during El Nino have been restored. large part of Kenya’s economy will be restored. I think that in the next ten years, Kenya will have a great economic growth. Although Kenya is a beautiful and exciting place to go, I would not recommend going there now because of all the economic and political problems that the country is facing. I would recommend going to Kenya in a couple of years when, hopefully, their economy is starting to get better. I also hope to go to Kenya someday when it has a good economy and less political and economical struggles.

Afghanistan – A Country in Distress

Afghanistan, a country located in South Asia just east of Iran whose population is 28,513,677, is one of the countries that I chose to address. Their government is under Transitional Authority which is in a state of unrest as national elections would formally dissolve this system and adapt or establish the Government of Afghanistan under a new constitution. The country like others in the Middle East suffers from enormous poverty and a few other problems to include the lack of skilled and educated workers, which also has such a grave effect on most other countries.

The lack of is more than likely what lies beneath the country’s poverty. If people aren’t educated or don’t have the knowledge to perform certain tasks then this definitely causes a problem with employment issues. Not only does the country have problems as these but they are also plagued by the crumbling infrastructure and land mines which hinder the expansion or opening of more companies, so there are definite geographical issues as well. One of the main economic concerns that I would like to make mention of is the poverty rate and problem with employment.

Although the rate of unemployment is zero the lack of skilled and educated people could lead to possible unemployment as the job market calls for education and skill. With these factors in mind we think of the reasoning behind the poverty; if most of the labor force are uneducated and unskilled then the rate of pay isn’t very much which leads to the poverty. The economic outlook has made significant progress over the past few years and this is partly because of the ending of a four-year drought that hindered many crops, international assistance in the amount of over $2 billion dollars, and a remarkable recuperation in agricultural production.

The agricultural workforce is made up of 80% of the country’s people while the other 20 percent works in services and industry. Even though unemployment doesn’t exist, the country is still poor but hopes to see some significant progress and changes to offset the housing shortages, the lack of clean water, infrastructure reconstruction, jobs, education, and economic reform. One third of the GDP comes from opium trade which fell to a low with the past drought but the replacement is well under way.

The GDP rate is 29% but appears to be such a high amount because of past figures resulting from the drought and the impact of international assistance. The country exports opium, fruits and nuts, hand-woven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems and equals to about $98 million not counting the illicit trade of opium. The country’s import totals to around $1. 1 billion which clearly shows that they spend more than they actually out. The imports are essentials and couldn’t be eliminated or substituted as they are capital goods, food, textiles, and petroleum products.

The country is currently in a great state of deficit as their debt totals to “$8 billion in bilateral debt, mostly to Russia and $500 million in debt to Multilateral Development Banks. ” The currency level has increased from 3000 per U. S. dollar in 1999-2001 to 50 per U. S. dollar. Iran, another country with the problems of employment, also suffers from pretty much the same environmental issues as Afghanistan but appears to be a wealthier country than Afghanistan. Although there is an unemployment rate of 15. as of 2002 and there is a lack of skilled workers present as well, they are clearly in a better economic state than Afghanistan.

40% of the population lives below the poverty level while in Afghanistan only 23% lives below the level. The real GDP is a t a rate of 6. 1% compared to the amount of 29% for Afghanistan. Their purchasing power is $478. 2 billion as opposed to Afghanistan’s meager $20 billion, yet they still remain in a better state than Afghanistan. The workforce for Iran consists of agriculture 30%, industry 25%, and services 45%. The amount of exports total to $29. 88 billion and the imports $25. billion which helps the economy and puts them in much better shape than Afghanistan.

If you are putting out more than you take in then you have a source of positive cash flow. Even though the country has some over $22 billion in foreign exchange reserves, the inflation and unemployment rates remains unchanged. Despite government attempts to achieve self-sufficiency the value of Iran’s imports continues to be high, with machinery and transport accounting for a considerable proportion. However, the huge income derived from the export of petroleum products had generally created a favorable balance of trade.

The trends that I have noticed may be because the countries are so close in location and are the environmental issues, the poverty factor, and the employment issues. Although Afghanistan doesn’t have any unemployed and Iran does, the fact remains that the lack of educated and skilled workers contributes to the problems in both areas. This coupled with environmental issues has an adverse effect on the economy and thus creates a domino effect leading to poverty and other issues. All of this information is backed by statistical facts and is sited below on my cite page.

An Indian Woman In Guatemala: Without A Trace Of Bitterness In Her Voice

Guatemala is the land of Eternal Springs and the home of the richly cultured and historic Mayan people. It it also the country of Rigoberta Menchu, an illeterite farm worker, turned voice of oppressed people everywhere. Guatemala also has the sad distinction of being home to Latin America’s oldest civil war. “For more than three decades, left-wing guerrillas have fought a series of rightist governments in Guatemala. The war has killed an estimated 140,000 in the country, which has 11 million people. ” (N. Y. Times June 14, 1996 pA4 col 2)

This is a story of a people in crisis, and one woman’s struggle to use truth, as means of setting her people free. The majority of the population are Indians, and much of the struggles arise out of the ashes of the past. Spain conquered Guatemala in 1524, which was the start of the oppression of the native people of Guatemala. Since this time the native people have been ruled by the Spanish speaking minority, the Ladinos, many of which are descended from the Spanish colonists.

Beginning in 1954, when Guatemala’s elected government was overthrown by the army, the military began a brutal war against the Indian people. This type of torture and oppression continued, and during the 1970’s the repression was specially harsh; during this time more and more Indians began to resist. It was during this time that Rigoberta Menchu’s family became involved in the resistance. The situation in Guatemala is similar to South Africa, where the black majority are ruled with absolute power by the white minority.

Like South Africa, the Indians in Guatemala are lacking in even the most basic of human rights. Indeed the so-called forest Indians are being systematically exterminated in the name of progress. But unlike the Indian rebels of the past, who wanted to go back to pre-Columbian times, Rigoberta Menchu is not fighting in the name f an idealized or mythical past. ” (Menchu xiii) Rigoberta is working toward drawing attention to the plight of native people around the globe. Once an illiterate farm worker, she has taught herself to read and write Spanish, the language of her oppressor, as a means of relating her story to the world.

She tells the story of her life with honesty and integrity in hopes of impressing upon the world the indignation of the oppressed. In addition to the Spanish language, Rigoberta borrows such things as the bible and trade union organization in order to use them against their original owners. There is othing like the bible in her culture. She says, “The Bible is written, and that gives us one more weapon. ” ( Menchu xviii ) Her people need to base their actions on the laws that come down from the past, on prophecy.

Her own history and the history of her family is told with great detail in the book I, Rigoberta Menchu. Not only does one learn about the culture of her people and about the community in which she lives, but an understanding is gained as to impetus to react against ones oppressor. Born the sixth child to an already impoverished but well respected family, Rigoberta remembers growing p in the mountains on land that no one else wanted, spending months at a time going with her family to work on the fincas (plantations).

A lorry owned by the finca would come to their village, and the workers, along with their children and animals, would ride together, in filthy and overcrowded conditions. Each lorry would hold approximately forty people, and the trip to the finca took two nights and one day, with no stops allowed for the bathroom, it is easy to imagine the unsanitary condition that resulted. Each worker would take with them a cup and a plate and a bottle for water when they worked in the ields.

The youngest of the children that were not yet able to work had no need for their own cup and plate since, if they did not work, they would not be fed by the finca. These children’s mothers would share with them their own ration of tortilla and beans, though many of the children were severely malnourished, and two of Rigoberta’s own brothers died while on the finca. At the tender age of eight Rigoberta was earning money to help her family, and as proof of her own personal fortitude, by age ten she was picking the quotas of an adult and was paid as such.

Her first experience in the city was at twelve ears old in the capital of Guatemala where she worked as a maid. She retells the story of how when she met the lady of the house, she was told that she needed new clothes, since hers were so worn and dirty from working on the finca, and how she was given a salary advance of two months pay which was to be used for the new clothes. Remembering back, Rigoberta describes how she was treated, “The mistress used to watch me all the time and was very nasty to me. She treated me like… I don’t know what… not like a dog because she treated the dog well.

She used to hug the dog. (Menchu 94) The first night she recalls being given her dinner the same time that the dog had been fed, she was given a hard tortilla and some beans, while the dog was given “bits of meat, rice, things that the family ate. ” (Menchu 92) It hurt her to see that in the eyes of this family she was lower than a dog. She left her job when one of her brothers came to tell her that her father was in prison. This was the beginning of her father’s involvement with the unions, and the beginning of the awakening for her family, but also, the beginning of their troubles with the government.

Three months after getting out of prison, her father was “tortured and abandoned-They had torn off the hair on his head on one side. His skin was cut all over and they’d broken so many of his bones that he couldn’t walk, lift himself or move a single finger. ” (Menchu 112) When her father was arrested the second time, he was considered a political prisoner. This prompted Rigoberta to begin to learn to speak Spanish as a means of helping her father. After spending fifteen days in prison and meeting a man who was being held for helping the peasants, her father found his calling and continued to fight against the government.

He had to leave his family in order to protect them and as of 1977 went into hiding. The village began to study the bible as text to educate the people. “Many relationships in the bible are like those we have with our ancestors, our ancestors whose lives were very much like our own. ” (Menchu 131) They learned about revenge and fashioned weapons based on the descriptions in the bible. There were many attacks on the village and many of her friends and family members were killed In September 1979, when she was 19, her younger brother was kidnapped by the Guatemalan army and accused of trying to help the peasants win the right to wn land.

They cut off his finger-nails, then his fingers, then the skin on his face, then the soles of his feet. He was then marched to the village square where, in front of his family, he was doused with gasoline and set aflame. A few months later her father was also burned to death. Several weeks after that the army arrested, tortured, and killed her mother, then left her body hanging from a tree to be eaten by dogs. Menchu fled to Mexico, but continued her struggle to help her people. as a result of her work on the rights of indigenous people around the world, she was warded the honor of receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992.

She still remains a controversial figure in Guatemala, where government officials criticized her selection for the prize. She has been accused of supporting the country’s leftist actions and harming Guatemala’s image abroad. In awarding the prize, the Nobel committee wanted to draw attention to the plight of Guatemala’s Indians in the hope that it would lead to improved conditions. Recently, Guatemalans have found cause for that hope, as a peace accord is due to be signed in January 1997, ending the fighting between the ebels and the government.

In addition, a truth commission has been formed to help families of disappeared members find answers relating to their deaths, by uncovering the country’s many unmarked mass graves. Rigoberta Menchu continues to live in exile under death threghts upon her return to Guatemala. She is well adapted to the life which has been handed down to her, by generations of poor and oppressed Indians. Yet when she speaks, she speaks of her beautiful culture, and of the many joys that her family had over the years, all without a trace of bitterness in her voice.

Israel, a small country in southwestern Asia

Israel is a small country in southwestern Asia known as the Middle East. It has the density of 528 per square mile, and the elavation of 3,963 above sea level on the highest point, mount Meron. On the eastern shore is the Mediterranean Sea. Israel was founded in 1948. It’s pupose was to be a homland for Jews from all around the world, and more than 5 out of 4 of its people are Jews. Almost all non-jews in Israel are Arabs. The national anthem is Hatevka, which means hope in English. Around 83% of Israel are Jews. Arabs make up nearly all of the remaining 17%. Most are Palestinians who have their own farm villages.

There are two official languages; Hebrew, the language spoken by most of the Jewish population, and Arabic. Many Israelis also speak English, and Many Jews speak Yiddish, a Germanic language developed in Europe. About one-fifth of the Jewish population are very strict to observe their religion. These are called Orthodox Jews. The rest are secular or non-religious. Orthodox believe that religious values should help build the government. Sucular and non-religious want to limit the role of religion. 77% of non-jews are Arab Muslims. 13% of non-jews are Arab Cristians, mostly Greek Catholic and Greek Orthodox.

Most of the remaining 10% are Druses, an Arabic speaking group who follow a religion that formed out of Islam. A few are Baha’is of other small religious groups. The natonal Israeli government is democratic rebublic with a parliament-cabinet form of government. There is no written constitution. Instead there are “basic laws” passed by the Knesset, the Israeli parliament. The national government devides the country into 6 districs, and 14 subdistrics. One of the cabinet members appoints officials to head them. The local government has elected councils. Regional councils serve rural areas.

Councils are reasponsible for providing education, health and sanitation srevices, water, road mantenance, fire protection, and recreation facilities. They also set local taxes and fees. Councils are lead by cabinet members. All Israeli citizens 18 and over can vote. Instead of casting ballots, they vote for a party list, and that includes all candidates from a political party. The number of names on each list can range from one to one-hundred twenty. There are many political parties, with a wide range of views. The two main parties are the Labor Party and the Likud Bloc.

The Labor Party supports the government controling the economy, but the Likud Bloc has conections with smaller political parties, and supports a limited government. The prime minister is the head of the government, and to stay in office, must maintain support from the majority of the Knesset. The Knesset elects presidents for each state. The presidental duties mostly have to do with cerimonies. One ceremony is the national holiday on the 5th day of the year. European jews began to settle in Palestine in the mid-1800’s because they wanted to live in the holy land.

By 1880, 24,000 jews lived in Palestine, and by 1914, 85,000. In1917, during World War 1, Britian was fighting to win control of Palestine, and in doing so would give the Jews a national homeland. When the British won, the League of Nations made Palestine a mandated territory of the British. Britian was supposed to help the jews build a national home, but in fear of the arabs fighting back promised to limit jewish immigration to Palestine, but were never enforced. Lots of European jews immigrated to Israel in the 1930’s to escape the Nazis.

Palestinian arabs didn’t like this and the British began to limit jewish immigration. Durring World War ll, the nazis killed more than 6 million jews in eastern Europe. There was a big demand for a jewish state, but Britian continued to limit immigration. Finally, in 1947 the British submitted the problem to the United Nations. In the early 1950’s, the holocaust began. This was when 6 million jews were killed in concentration camps, such as Auchwitz. Jews were rounded up by German soldiers, and were told they would be relocated. Instead, they were either sent to work camps, for hard labor, or to killed.

Jews were killed by gas showers, and many terrible ways. Sometimes, they dug their own graves, and just stood in front of it to be shot. The Nazis also created places to creamate the Jews. Now there is a place in Poland where a camp used to be. You can actually walk through and see rooms full of Jews’ hair and teeth that were taken by the Nazis. This was when many fled to either the United States, or Israel. When the Jews fled to Israel it contributed very much to the Jewish population there. The UN agreed to devide Palestine into a Jewish state and arab state on November 29, 1947.

Jews exepted this but the Arabs were against it. Fighting broke out immediatly. Israel officialy was declared a state on May 14, 1948, with the leader, David Ben-Gurion, with Jeruselum as the capital. On May 15th, Arab armies, mostly from Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraqu and Jordon attacked Israel, trying to destroy the new nation. By early 1949, Israel defeated the Arabs and gained control about half of the land planned for the new Arab state. Egypt and Jordon owned the rest of Palestine. By mid 1949, Israel signed agreements for peace with Egypt, Syria, Jordon, and Lebanon.

Former treaties weren’t signed because the Arab nations refused to admit Isreael had a right to exist. Because Israel is surrounded by Arab enemies, a strong army is vital to Israel to survive. Israel puts so much money into the army, there is a strain on the national economy. Israel cannot always aford other priorities because of the need for such a strong army. The army, navy, and air force have about 141,000 members. The country’s requires almost all Jewish men and most unmarried Jewish women to enter the millitary at age 18. Men must serve for three years, and women for two.

Even though the army takes so much money to support, Israel is still known for its excellent health care, which is almost as good as the United States health care. First, Israel was a poor country with little agriculture nor industries, but the economy has grown since 1948. Even though there is limited water supply and few natural resources, the nation has a high standard of living, with the population of 4,882,000 in 1994. There was a lot of immigration soon after independence. A lot of the immigrants were good workers and professionals who contributed to the economic development.

Israel now has a high literacy rate. Help with money came from Western nations especialy the United States. Now, there form of money is Shekel. Econonic services make up 72% of the net domestic product. The NDP is the value of all the goods and services produced yearly. Service industries employ about 69% of Israel’s workers. Tourism is also a major service industry in Israel. Manufacturing is about 19% of the NPD and employs about 21% of its workers. They produce goods like chemical products, electronic equipment, fertilizer, plastics, processed foods, and clothing.

Agriculture accounts for around 3% of the NPD and employs 5%. Agriculture products include cotton, fruits, eggs, grain, poultry, and vegetables. About 90% of the people live in the city. The country’s three biggest cities-Jerusalem, Tel-Aviv, and Haifa-make up 25% of the country’s population. Many cities are built on ancient sites, and have historic buildings, but there are many modern sections, built in the early 1990’s. Most urban Israelis live in appartments. Traffic polution and congestion have become problems in the cities. Jerusalem is the holy city of the Christians and Muslims.

The city is devided into two sections, east and west. West Jerusalem has mostly Jews, and is newer. East has mostly arabs. It also has many ancient, holy, places. Tel-Aviv is the second largest city, and is the countries comercial, finacial, and indrustrial center. Haifa is Israel’s major sea port city, and the industrial center of northern Israel. Beersheba is the most important city in the Negev Desert region. Only about 10% of the people live in rural areas. More than half of the rural population lives in collective or cooperative communities. A collective community is called a Kibbtz.

Members receive food, housing, child and health care, and education in exchange for work and labor. All property is shared. In a cooperative community, called a moshav, each family works its own land and has their own home. The villiage administration provides tools, and supplies, and markets the produce. With these different situations for making money, there is no per capita income. In both areas, the weather is very simular. Hot, dry summers, and cool, mild winters. Israelis dress according to the weather, usualy in shorts, and other warm-weather clothes.

The life expectancy is about 83 for a man, and 86 for women. With all the warm weather, Israel is a big fan of track and feild. Right now the prime minister was recently elected, due to the death of prime minister, Yitzak Rabin. He was shot by a man from agoup who wanted to keep lands that Rabin was willing to give for peace. There are many extremists groups in Israel because of so much disagreement and war. Many groups are not willing to give up something to have peace with a neighboring country. This is why prime minister Rabin was shot.

People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

Algeria which is officially known as the Peoples Democratic Republic of Algeria has a population at about 33,375,089 citizens. Arabic is the official language spoken in this country but the people that live here also speak French and Berber dialects. Islam is the state religion which falls at about ninety-nine percent as for the other one percent its a mixture of Christian and Jewish. Although I could not find the specific type of foods eaten in Algeria most likely the people there eat the same things we do as well as a few custom foods that have been passed down from generation to generation.

Many of the people in Algeria use railroads as transportation but for a few that dont they do use cars. Algeria is the second largest country in Africa and it borders the Mediterranean coastline. Algierss is the countrys capital as well as the largest city. Algeria has little fertile land and for the most part the country is a desert. The country has four main geographic regions which extend east to west. The coastal plain and Tell Atlas in the north have a typical Mediterranean climate. This is made up of warm dry summers and mild rainy winters.

During the summer an exceedingly hot, dry wind called the sirocco also known by the Algerian people as Chehili blows north from the Sahara. As you go south the climate becomes very dry. The Sahara is a region that has daily temperature extremes and winds it also receives less the five inches of rain each year. Algeria gets an average rainfall of about 28 inches per year. The Algerian government controls the nations economy. Since Algerias independence, Algeria has nationalized most foreign-owned companies and properties.

The government also runs all heavy industry and controls the production and distribution of petroleum, natural gas, and minerals. Less the five percent of the land is cultivated. Along the coastal plains lies all the principal crops such as cereal grains, grapes, olives, and citrus fruits. Petroleum and natural gas are Algerias main exports. The major oil fields are located in the northeastern Sahara on the Libyan border. Algeria has nine billion barrels of petroleum reserves and natural gas reserves are the fourth largest in the world.

Algeria is also known for producing minerals such as iron ore, mercury, and phosphate rock. Manufacturing counts only for a small part on Algerias income but the major industries are iron, steel, and petroleum refining. Algerias exports estimate at about twenty-five billion dollars and its imports estimate at about twelve point three billion dollars. Like I stated before Algerias population is 33,357,089 citizens. Algerias ethnic background is made up of Arab-Berber which is ninety-nine percent and European which is one percent. About seventy percent of the citizens in Algeria over the age of fifteen can read and write.

The ration of male to female in this country is seventy-eight point eight percent male and sixty-one percent female. The infant mortality rate in Algeria is 37. 74 deaths to 1,000 live births. The life expectancy rate for males is 69. 14 years and for women its 72. 01 years. The unemployment rate in Algeria is about thirty percent. For the people that are employed-32% work in the government, 14% work in agriculture, 10% work in construction or public works, 13. 4% work in trade and for anyone else who works in a miscellaneous job its 16%. Algerias government is republic and is separated into 48 provinces.

All parties must be approved by the Ministry of the Interior. No political party can be formed if it is based on any of the following- differences in religion, language, race, gender, or region. The President of the republic is also the head of state and it elected for a five year term and is renewable once. The Algerian parliament is bicameral and the legal system is based on the French and Islamic law. Algerias flag is made up of two equal vertical bands of green and white, a red five pointed star within a red crescent moon which is centered over the two color boundaries.

The crescent, star, and green represent the traditional symbols of Islam. The national holiday of Algeria is Revolution Day which was established on November 1st of 1954. Algeria still uses the death penalty for crimes committed. Although I could not find out which methods they use to exile people Id assume they give the criminals the chair or behead them. There could also be a few other methods used for these people. I also could not find how severe the crimes would have to be in order to receive the death penalty.

Demographics Of Madagascar

Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1886, but regained its independence in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held, ending 17 years of single-party rule. Madagascar’s forests are a shimmering, seething mass of a trillion stems and dripping leaves and slithering, jumping, quirky beasts out of nature’s bag of tricks.

Cut off from the African mainland for millions of years, Madagascar’s teeming forests are a naturalist’s wet dream; they’ve preserved oddities and developed specializations found nowhere else on earth, and you can get among them in a spectacular collection of accessible national parks. But any nation that turns to North Korea for aid has got to be a basket case. Madagascar’s Marxist generals as well as its chameleons are fresh out of the Age of Dinosaurs. The generals haven’t got it right – part of the population regularly suffers malnutrition owing to bad seasons and archaic economic orthodoxies at home and abroad.

Since human settlement, the forests have been whittled down to a mere 15% of their former extent, scores of species are on the brink of extinction and the topsoil is barreling down into the Indian Ocean like. The countryside alternates between astounding untouched forests and breathtaking human-induced destruction on a scale almost unmatched anywhere. Madagascar’s physical geography is not conducive of the current global trends and needs for economic production. They are severely behind the World as a whole in economic growth and restructuring to fit new world markets.

Most of Madagascar lies in tropical or subtropical environment; the soil structure in these sorts of regions is not able to sustain long-term cultivation. The topsoil is good for agriculture for a few years, but after much longer it becomes burnt out, or depleted, and then it needs to rest for a period of time until it can yield a decent crop again. This is because of the way this soil obtains nutrients and the type of nutrients generally located there. Considering the island’s physical composition, it will be hard for the poor African nation to catch-up to the new world averages.

Physical Geography Madagascar is located 250 miles off the eastern coast of Africa, just south of the equator. This island nation contains no Principal’ lakes, oceans, seas, rivers or islands; however it does have one Principal’ mountain- Maromokotro- that is located on the island’s central plateau. The island is over 1000 miles (1580 km) long and 350 miles (570 km) wide. Madagascar is the fourth largest island in the world – after Greenland, New Guinea and Borneo. It is about the size of Spain and Portugal combined, or slightly less than twice the size of Arizona.

It lies in the Indian Ocean, separated from Mozambique on the African mainland by the 400km (248mi) Mozambique Channel. Unlike its volcanic neighbors – Mauritius, Reunion, Rodrigues and the Comoros – Madagascar was formed by continental drift rather than volcanic eruption, it tore off the African mainland around 165 million years ago. A narrow coastal strip in the east is where most of the rainforest grows; the central plateau in the high altitudes is cool; and there are plains and low-lying plateaus to the west. Ecology

Madagascar is a continent in miniature, with vastly different habitats such as rain forests, river valleys, coastal plains, grasslands, caverns, and deserts. Like many islands Madagascar also is home to a huge number of endemic species. The international conservation community has singled it out as one of the ecologically richest countries on the planet; Madagascar and the nearby Comoros have nearly one-quarter of all the flowering plants in Africa. It also has 90% of the known species of lemurs, and half the world’s chameleons are found there.

Add baobab trees, unique cacti and aloes from the dry areas, and you start to build up a picture of an incredibly rich ecology. When humans arrived, they brought rice and slash-and-burn techniques to clear the way, and today the situation is grim, with barely 15% of the original forest cover remaining. Ecoregions There are three main eco-regions in Madagascar, which create a broad variance in the natural vegetation. These three regions lie in the Humid-Tropical zone, the first of which is the Savanna Altitudinal zone.

This zone, in the middle of the island holds grass and other herbaceous plants. In the next zone, Savanna province, broadleaf deciduous trees, grass and other herbaceous plants can be found here along the West coast. The Eastern coast, the Rainforest Altitudinal zone, has broadleaf evergreen trees. A small portion at the Southern tip falls into the Tropical Sub-Tropical desert province and broadleaf deciduous shrub form can be found in this area. Recently, Madagascar has suffered a severe loss of forest cover.

The forest cover was approximately 58,325 square miles in 1995 and had a change rate of negative 4. 1% from 1990 to 1995, compared to a change rate of negative 1. 8% in Chile (a country similar in size and geography) over the same time period. Apart from its southern tip, Madagascar lies wholly within the tropics. The hauts plateaux, that run nearly the length of the island and form its backbone, are cool enough to grow apples and stone fruit, and even vineyards above 800m (2896ft). Snow is not uncommon in winter at the highest altitudes.

Trade winds prevail from the east and the monsoons come from the northwest. With its tropical mid-latitude, most of the rain hits the east coast and the far north, but in the rain shadow southwest of the highlands it remains almost perpetually dry. From January to March, the east coast, the far north and sometimes the far south are subject to occasionally devastating cyclones. Madagascar has a very diverse physical geography; unfortunately, due to its relatively small size and environmental make-up, it is not supportive of any major world economic activities.

France – the largest nation in Western Europe

France, which is the largest nation in Western Europe, is a presidential republic. France is a very important nation in Europe and it continues to be involved in contemporary policy issues. Helping the world as one of the great trading nations, France is a very important trading partner with the United States. Not only is France important to the United States, they are also important to countries all over the world. Their abundance of both mineral and agricultural resources make them a very important supplier of products all over the world.

I chose to report on France because it is an interesting county and I wanted to learn more about it. Geography France is located in Western Europe and has an area of approximately 211,000 square miles. Along with being the capital, Paris is also the largest city in France. Spain borders France in the south, Italy and Switzerland in the east, and Germany, Luxembourg, and Belgium in the northeast. The French Alps are located in the east where snow capped peaks, such as Mont. Blanc reach heights of 15,781 feet.

About one-half of France’s total border is formed by coastline, with the Mediterranean Sea on the Southeast and the Atlantic and the English Channel on the west and northwest. Many rivers and canals run through France forming a vast network, tying different regions and cities together. The Seine is the country’s largest navigable river. It flows northwest from eastern France through the city of Paris, and empties into the channel at Le Harre. The Rhone River is the largest in the country in terms of volume of discharge. Along with its tributaries, it drains the French Alpine region.

Although France has many rivers, it only has a few lakes. One of the lakes in France is Lake Geneva (also known as Lake Leman), but in lies mainly in Switzerland. France is richly endowed with an excellent balance of both mineral and agricultural resources. The nation produces substantial amounts of iron ore. In addition, France has sizable deposits of antimony magnesium, pyrites, tungsten, salt, potash, radioactive materials, lead and zinc. Coal mining has decreased significantly since the 1960’s, as many mines have been depleted and are now closed. Currently, the production of natural gas and sulfur is being developed.

History France has one of the most complete records of human history in all of Europe. Archaeologists have uncovered artifacts that are more than 100,000 years old. During the 16th century, Protestantism spread across France leading to a number of religious and civil wars. The wars between the Protestants and the Roman Catholics resulted in the massacre of some 3,000 Protestants in Paris on the eve of St. Bartholomew’s Day in 1572. The statecraft of such royal advisers as the cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin helped France in becoming the greatest power in Europe during the 17th century.

Unfortunately, defeats in a series of costly foreign wars during the 18th century caused France to loose many of their overseas territories, and brought the country near bankruptcy. In 1789 revolution toppled the King, Louis XVI, and proclaimed the rights of man. The French Revolution took a bloody turn and ended in a weak government of five directors. France soon fell into the hands of Napoleon Bonaparte, who ruled from 1799-1814, first as consul, then as emperor. Napoleon’s far fetched military ventures ended in 1815 with his downfall.

A limited monarchy was restored and, with the exception of a brief republican period (1848-52), brought about the creation of the Third Republic. After WWI, a resistance movement known as Free France was organized in Britain under the leadership of General Charles de Gaulle. Allied and Free French forces liberated France in 1944. Parliamentary democracy was restored to France under the Fourth Republic. Another costly war against nationalist guerrillas in Algeria and other French colonies during the 1950’s brought an end to the Fourth Republic. In 1958, Gaulle returned as president of the Fifth Republic.

In 1981, France elected its first Socialist president, Francois Mitterand, who served 2 terms until 1995. France’s current president, elected in 1995, is Jacques Chirac. People One of the things that make France so unique is the people that live there. Due to the current concerns with making money and being successful, more people are working in France than ever before. Great emphasis is being put on efficiency. Some say that France has been Americanized. This is because the United States is a world symbol of the technological society and it’s consumer products.

Since the 1940’s, the French population has been growing at a rapid rate. The most recent estimate of France’s population is 58,804,944 people. This averages out to 280 persons per square mile. Out of these 58 million some civilians, 94% of them are natives of France and are of Caucasian decent. The largest foreign-born groups are Portuguese, Algerians, Moroccans, Italians and Turkish. More recently many elements in the modern French nation have come to include descendants of the Senegalese, Congolese, Indochinese, and other African and Asian peoples, as well as Germans, Russians, Poles and Spaniards.

Roman Catholicism is the faith of 81% of French residents. Islam is the next largest with about 5% of the population. Protestants and Jews account for about 1-2% respectively. In 1905, because of popular opposition to the political influence of the Roman Catholic church and to the Catholic country of public education, legislation prohibited the payment of public funds to the Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish clergies. By the provisions of that and other subsequent legislation, the French government withdrew official recognition of religious denominations. The French are said to be tolerant of all kinds.

This does not mean that they are wholly without prejudice, but in general they do not regularly exclude whole groups of people. There has always been a fairly continuous acceptance of newcomers. To be French is not so much to claim any certain ancestry as it is to “feel” French. French is the official language of France. It is taught and spoken all over the country. Although French is the official language, as well as other countries sections of France speak languages such as German and Italian. Constitution France has a constitution that is somewhat similar to that of the Untied States.

Also similar to the Untied States, France’s constitution is the bases of their governmental system. Adopted in 1958, France’s constitution is fairly new. This document reduces the power of the parliament and enlarges authority of the president. This constitution puts the sovereignty of the republic in the French people, who exercise their political powers through a representative parliament as well as through referenda. The constitution of 1958 established a new body, the Constitutional Council, which has general power to supervise elections and referenda. They also have the power to decided constitutional questions.

The council consists of 9 appointed members and all former presidents of the republic. Constitutional amendments may be adopted after approval by both chambers of Parliament and by a subsequent popular referendum, or merely by approval of 3/5 of Parliament. National Government France is a multi party democracy dominated by a strong executive. France’s national government has three branches. The executive branch, the legislative branch, and the judicial branch. The president and the Prime Minister head the executive branch. The president is elected for a seven-year term by direct popular vote.

The president is commander of the armed forces and presides over High Council of the Judiciary, the Committee of National Defense, and the Council of Ministers. The president also designates the Prime Minister and he appoints cabinet ministers. The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are responsible only to the National Assembly, although they do have the right to ask the Senate for approval of a general declaration of policy. The Prime Minister oversees the day-to-day affairs of the government, while the president, as head of the state, focuses more on the direction of national policy and foreign affairs.

The president can dissolve the National Assembly and call for new elections at any time. In an emergency, he can assume almost complete power. Due to the stated powers of the president, the executive branch does hold some higher importance over the legislative branch. The legislative branch is the Parliament. It consists of two housesthe National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly has 577 deputies who are elected for five years by direct universal suffrage. They have the final say in any issue that is being debated.

They can accept the Senate’s version of bill of they may adopt their own. The constitution limits the National Assembly to 2 regular sessions a year. The Senate is made up of 321 members who are elected for nine years through an indirect system using an electoral college. They are the advisory body that has the right to examine and render opinions on legislation and policies initiated in the National Assembly. The Assembly is the more powerful of the two houses. There is a hierarchy of courts in the French judicial system.

Civil cases are tried in higher and lower courts, criminal cases are tried in courts of correction, and minor offenses are tried in police courts. The administrative courts, which are under the control the Council of State, examine cases on appeal. The police and the “gendarmaerie” maintain public law and order. All of these courts are subject to the control of the Court of Cassation. Very exceptionally, in cases of high treason, a High Court of Justice composed of members of the National Assembly and of senators is empowered to try the president of the republic and the ministers.

This court can also try them if they have committed felonies or misdemeanors during their term of office. The National School of Magistracy recruits more than 5,000 judges by means of competitive examinations. Judges can serve successively as members of the bench and the public prosecutor’s department. Local Government France is divided into 22 regions for planning, budgetary policy and national development. Within the mainland regions are 95 departments. Each department has a main town and is run by a general council that includes a commissioner representing the national government and also a local president.

The departments are divided into smaller units called “arrondissements”. These in turn are subdivided into “communes,” or townships. There are about 36,500 communes in France, ranging in size from small villages to entire cities. Mayors elected by local municipal councils run the communes. One of the mayor’s duties is to perform marriages. In France, stability is provided both nationally and locally by a “political class” of men and women whose entire working lives are spent as professionals in government service. Governmental Services and Budget

Besides things such as roadways, and police and fire protection, France provides universal social protection to its citizens regardless of income. This Social Security service was created in 1945. It finances or largely reimburses the health care expenditures of 58 million inhabitants. Both employers and workers finance national health insurance mainly through mandatory contributions. Overall, France is the fourth exporting nation in the world. They rank first in sales of luxury goods and second in exporting. Their yearly budget is approximately 265 billion dollars.

Regarding France’s military, their total armed forces are numbered at 358,800 troops. Of these troops 203,200 serve in the army, 63,300 in the navy, 78,100 in the airforce, and the remainder serve in strategic nuclear forces or in central staff positions. France requires all men between the ages of 18 and 35 to do national service for 10 months. Politics The current leader of France is president, Jacques Chirac. He founded the Rally for the Republic political party. In France one must be the age of 18 to vote for officals such as the president.

When a Franciscan reaches the age of 18, their are many political parties that they may choose to vote with. The concept of Left and Right in describing political parties stems from the French Revolution. At that time, the radicals sat on the left side of the assembly and the conservatives sat on the right. Today, about five major political parties span the French spectrum from left to right. On the left are the Socialist Party and the smaller Communist Party. On the right are the Rally for the Republic (RPR), the Union for French Democracy (UDF) and the extremely conservative National Front.

The leftist parties support public ownership or control of most industries. The rightist parties want less government regulation of the economy. The RPR favors free enterprise but also a strong national government, a strong military and an independent foreign policy. The National Front (FN) strongly opposes immigration. Labor unions and the Green Party also exert pressure on the government. In general, French liberals and conservatives today both believe in “big government. ” When civic and economic problems arise, most citizens expect the government to take care of them. Foreign Relations

France is a leader in Western Europe because of its size, location, strong economy, membership in European organizations, strong military posture, and energetic diplomacy. France has generally worked to strengthen the global economic and political influence of the European Union and its role in common European defense. France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). France rejoined NATO in 1995, after French military forces had withdrawn from the NATO command. France has also supplied troops for the United Nations peacekeeping operations in Cambodia, Somalia, and the former Yugoslavia.

France is currently the 4th leading contributor to the UN budget. In 1994, France paid out $101. 4 million in assessed contributions and $995 million in voluntary contributions to institutions in the UN system. Currently in Middle Eastern, African and Asian countries with which France has long had friendly relations with are involved in regional conflicts. Because of these past ties, France is taking an active part in international efforts to find a fair solution. Future The people of France are looking towards a great future. They are currently awaiting the acceptance of a new currency, the Euro.

This currency will be instated all through out Europe hoping to make the traveling between countries less difficult. Such a youthful population means an urgent demand for better schools to train young people in the skills needed in today’s world. It necessitates creating new jobs to bring millions of young men and women into productive careers. It results in the great deal of purchasing power in the hands of teenagers and young adults. These are buyers who want to enjoy what they can get now, who are confident of tomorrow, and whose tastes show a willingness to experiment, to sample the new, and to use up and replace goods.

Since the late 1950’s, life in France has indeed taken on qualities of rush, tension, and the pursuit of material gain. Some of the strongest critics of the new way of life are the young, especially university students. They are concerned with the future and they fear that France is threatened by the triumph of competitive, goods-oriented culture. Regardless of what some French citizens may think, France is doing very well, and will continue on improving technologically and industrially in the future. Conclusion France is a very interesting and unique country.

Due to the lengthy history of the origination of France, they have many fascinating features. Their government is in many ways similar to the United State’s government. The three branches of government do their best to help make and carry out the law. Not only is France a beautiful country, it is also the home to many interesting people. It is a very prestigious nation that is constantly changing and growing economically and politically. France will continue to have strong international influence and will strive to keep on forming and carrying out policy that will benefit their country and the rest of the world.

Australia’s Economy Essay

Australia became a commonwealth of the British Empire in 1901. It was able to take advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. Now, Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP at the level of the four dominant West European economies. Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels.

Commodities account for 57% of the value of total exports, so that a downturn in world commodity prices can have a big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in international markets continues to be severe. While Australia has suffered from the low growth and high unemployment characterizing the OECD countries in the early 1990s and during the recent financial problems in East Asia, the economy has expanded at a solid 4% annual growth pace in the last five years.

Canberra’s emphasis on reforms is a key factor behind the economy’s resilience to the regional crisis and its stronger than expected growth rate. Growth in 2000 will depend on key international commodity prices, the extent of recovery in nearby Asian economies, and the strength of US and European markets. Australia’s economy is basically free-enterprise in structure, and its largest components are finance, manufacturing, services, and trade. The gross national product (GNP) is increasing more rapidly than the population, and the GNP per capita is comparable to those of other industrialized countries.

Agriculture produces 4 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) and occupies an almost equal proportion of the labour force. Arable land totals approximately 6 percent of the total area; of that, about one-third requires irrigation. Wheat and sugarcane are the leading crops, followed by barley, oats, rice, potatoes, cotton, sunflower seeds, and tomatoes. Fruits include grapes, primarily for wine, and oranges, apples, pineapples, and bananas. Rangeland and pastures occupy about 55 percent of the total land area; on this are raised the world’s largest number of sheep, producing more wool than any other country.

Other livestock include cattle, about one-twelfth for dairying, and pigs. Beef and cattle hides are important products. Australia is almost self-sufficient in lumber production. Most of roundwood production is broadleaved, and timber plantations account for about one-fifth of the lumber output. Most fishing in Australia is marine, three-fifths from the Indian Ocean and two-fifths from the Pacific Ocean. More than two-thirds of the annual catch consists of crustaceans; tuna is also important.

Mining and quarrying account for about 4 percent of the GDP and employ about 1 percent of the labour force. Bituminous and lignite coal are the leading energy minerals, followed by petroleum and natural gas. Australia leads the world in the production of bauxite, industrial diamond, and lead; other metallic minerals include iron ore, manganese ore, titanium oxide, zinc, copper, nickel, tin, silver, gold, platinum, cobalt, cadmium, antimony, zircon, bismuth, and tungsten. The principal nonmetallic minerals include limestone, sand and gravel, brick clay, shale, salt, and sulfur.

Manufacturing is well diversified and comprises more than 17 percent of the GDP; it employs about 15 percent of the labour force. The principal manufactures include cement, crude steel, pig iron, metal manufactured products, refined-petroleum products, chemicals, wheat flour, plastics, newsprint, beef and mutton, and textiles. More than four-fifths of electrical production is from thermal power plants, the rest from hydroelectric plants. Tourist attractions include beaches and deep-sea fishing, diving along the Great Barrier Reef, and winter sports in the mountains.

Australia’s labour force was a little less than half of the population in the late 20th century. Unemployment rose to 7 percent in the late 1980s, but some industries reported a shortage of skilled labour. Most unions, organized by industry, are affiliated to the Australian Council of Trade Unions. Except for part of the railway system, industry is privately owned; many of Australia’s large companies are subsidiaries of multinational corporations. The government regulates the economy mainly through monetary policy and taxation.

Government spending cuts achieved a balanced budget in 1981 after deficits throughout the 1970s, and surplus budgets were achieved in the late 1980s. The principal revenue sources are income taxes, excise and sales taxes, corporate taxes, and nontax revenue. The principal expenditures are for social security and welfare, state-government transfers, health, interest on the public debt, and defense. The Reserve Bank of Australia, located in Sydney, is the central bank, with a separate department for commodity-market finance.

The Commonwealth Banking Corporation controls its member development, savings, and trading banks. There are branch banks throughout Australia. The Australian Stock Exchange, located in Sydney, has member exchanges in the six state capitals. The Australian National Railways Commission incorporates the Commonwealth railways and the South Australian (nonmetropolitan) and Tasmanian state railways; other railways are operated by the state governments. About two-fifths of the road network is paved.

Major port facilities are located in Adelaide, Brisbane, Darwin, Fremantle, Gladstone, Gove (Melville Bay), Launceston, Melbourne, Newcastle, Sydney, Townsville, and Westernport. Most of the nation’s inland waterways are accessible only to small, shallow-draft vessels. The busiest international airports are at Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, and Adelaide. Australia achieved a foreign-trade balance or slight surplus annually from the late 1970s to the mid-1980s. In the late 1980s the country experienced a small foreign-trade deficit annually.

Major exports are metal ores and scrap, wheat, coal, meat, and wool, principally to Japan and the United States. Major imports are machinery, miscellaneous manufactured products (textiles, paper, and nonferrous metals), transport equipment, and crude petroleum, primarily from the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, and Germany. In the past, the Australian economy has revealed itself as moody, rugged, rebellious and magnanimous, in keeping with the way many Australians see themselves.

Amid financial market turmoil and the economic ruin and civil strife of neighbors, a bold Australian economy has surged ahead. Again and again, it has defied all odds. By 1998, Despite 8% unemployment, Australian consumers continued to shop, build houses and buy cheaper Asian cars. The stock market hit new highs, enticing more than a million Australians to buy shares for the first time. “The secret of this economic magic is productivity growth, which has been more rapid and sustained than at any time in the last two decades,” says John Edwards, chief economist at investment bank HSBC in Sydney.

Australia’s economy was once exposed to capricious markets and climate, relying on tariffs to keep foreigners at bay. It is now more robust, flexible and export-oriented. The country of almost 19 million people, with a medium-sized economy (comparable to Mexico, South Korea and the Netherlands), can now better withstand shocks such as a currency crisis or trade slump. But, after such a powerhouse fundraiser such as the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, Australia need not worry. Australia and it’s government has experienced much. It has suffered and triumphed, and has stood the test of time.

South Africa, The Southernmost Part Of The Continent Of Africa

South Africa is the southernmost part of the continent of Africa. It is one of the earth’s oldest and stable landmasses. This is why there are no folded mountain ranges. The only mountain ranges that are similar to that kind of range, would be those in the southern tip. This is where the north-south ranges meet an east-west range in the Paarl area. The rest of the country has been slightly pitted so that interior lakes like the Okovango Delta have no outlet to the sea. Most of the country is at an elevation of 3,000 to 6,500 feet above sea level.

South Africa lies north of 35 S latitude and is surrounded on three sides by the Indian and Atlantic oceans. Two large high-pressure areas control the weather in South Africa brought over by both of the oceans, in the winter a belt of depressions moves northward to bring rains to the south. During the summer moist tropical air masses migrate southward, bringing frequent thunderstorms. There are not many rivers in South Africa, and those few are not navigable. The unpredictable rainfall makes drought in the areas a very common problem.

The towns and cities cannot depend on a consistent source of water for the year. Water supplies for both the town and the country must be very well planned, so there is no drought. Wells are usually the source for irrigation and general water supply in the countryside, however the urban and industrialized areas need the use of dams. On the major rivers of South Africa it is easy to see many of the plus 360 dams that have been built. These are easily found on the Orange, Vaal, Limpopo, and the Tugela rivers. Many of the dams provide hydroelectric power to the national electricity grid.

Located on the upper Orange River are two of the largest dams in South Africa. The Lesotho Highlands Water Project was developed to supply water to the Transvaal industrial area by mid 1990’s. Even though there are an abundant amount of dams in the country, the populations of both city and town must persevere intermittent water rationing. In spite of the amount of land that South Africa encompasses, surprisingly only 15% of the land is arable. Even so, South Africa exports any of its crops including wine, fruits, vegetables, corn, and cane sugar.

Dairy and beef cattle are raised in many different areas, including sheep and Angora goats to provide wool and mohair. Natural vegetation has been changed greatly through overgrazing, seasonal burning, and introducing new species. Subtropical forests nurtured by spring and summer rains have been displaced by grasslands, exotic trees; east of the Drakensburg escarpment. Only one area of the Southern cape has a perennial rainfall, the Knysna and George districts. This rainfall has a true hardwood temperate forest in which the species such as stinkwood, sneezewood, yellowwood, and ironwood survive.

Farther westward, the natural tree life fades and the grassy upland, otherwise known as the Highveld, prevails. As one travels further west the rainfall decreases and the thorn-tree country begins. Thin grasses and sparsely covered areas become more prevalent. These areas are commonly called the Kalahari Desert and the bare Namib desert. The Western Cape province has a Mediterranean type of climate, referred to as a “summer dry” climate. The vegetation is found to be shrubby with waxy leaves, and pine and oak trees. Northwest of this region are low scrub, cactus, and aloes.

These plants dominate the areas of Little and Great Karroo. It is quite obvious that the areas change very much by each mile because of the unsteady amount of precipitation, and South Africa’s climate. Gold mining produces as by-product called uraninite. This product is then converted into uranium oxide for local use and export. Gem-quality and industrial diamonds are both mined in large quantities and sold on world markets. Significant deposits of iron ore are mined for local use and export. Immeasurable reserves of bituminous coal are exploited for thermo-electric power and for worldwide export.

There is a singular nuclear power plant at Koeburg that supplies the west with electric power, because this area is very far from the coalfields. South Africa does have a lack of petroleum, however it has built the wold’s only plants that create oil from coal. These three plants supply 70% of South Africa’s gasoline needs and a large volume of the petrochemicals that are used in industry. There was a large find of natural gas near Mossel Bay that has been changed to gasoline production. The animal life in South Africa is very rich in animals from the “Old World. ” It has large cats, such as lions, leopards, and cheetahs.

These cats roam freely in parts of South Africa and feed on the many species of antelope and monkey. A large variety of reptiles that include crocodiles, iguanas, and snakes are found in the countryside. Large quantities were reduced in large numbers during the 19th century for gaming purposes. Hunters killed large numbers of elephants, rhinoceros, and other animals in search of trophy. Unfortunately there were not many animals to survive this hunting. To protect these animals, four different game reserves were established in Natal in 1897 and the Kruger National Park in 1898.

There are ten major reserves today, and strenuous efforts are being made to save these endangered animals. The white rhinoceros is one of the many animals trying to be saved today. Some of the reserves have become tourist attractions. The many peoples of South Africa are put into many categories. These groups include blacks, whites, Coloreds, and Asians (sometimes referred to as Indians). The largest group to represent South Africa is the blacks. The blacks originated in the area of the Cameroons and emigrated southward, eventually spreading over Central and Southern Africa.

They are easily distinguished by their (Bantu) languages that are represented in South Africa today by Nguni, Sotho, Venda, and Shangaan Tsonga. The blacks are usually sheepherders and cultivators. During the 19 century the British colonial government placed the various tribes in reservations after they were defeated in war. In these reservations the men herded livestock, and the women cultivated corn and sorghum. The people that originate from these reservations, today, large numbers of the men travel to various mines (gold, platinum, diamond, and coal.

In these mines they work as migrant laborers, that live in the mining compounds only to return home periodically. Other people work in the fast growing industrial cities accompanied by their families. These people at first lived in shantytowns in the outskirts of town. Over time the government replaced many of the shantytowns with rented low income housing in separate areas. However, immigration from reservations in the surrounding areas has completely besieged any of the planned development. The occupants can now buy the houses.

An example of a black city would be Soweto, on the edge of the city of Johannesburg, has an estimated 2 million or more residents. It does have primary and secondary schools, also technical colleges. The people that live in Soweto transport to work by bus, train, taxi, and privately owned automobiles. The white population has two main segments. There are the descendents of the Dutch or British immigrants, and then there are the Afrikaners. The Afrikaners speak Afrikaans, this is a language that is resultant from the Netherlandic, Dutch, and Flemish.

These people are descendents of the Boers, who were the earliest white settlers. These people migrated northward from the Cape Colony into the interior, this was because the farmers and cattlemen started competing with Bantu tribes for the rural pastoral lands. The British immigrants that spoke English started to inhabit the cities from 1820 and on. They were reinforced by the others that became attracted by the diamond, gold, coal, and platinum mines. Eventually they came for the industry and commerce. The rural Afrikaners began to migrate to the areas that included mining and industry.

This happened around 1920 and today are moving English-speaking businessmen. Afrikaans and English have equal status as official language. However, intermarriage is slowly mixing the two groups. Another colored group resulted from the enslavement of the San hunters and Khoi-Khoi farmers and herdsmen. In 1652 the Dutch East India Company officials arrived in Table Bay. Here they enslaved some of these people, the rest fled northward to the Kalahari desert to seek refuge from the settlers. The company had much trouble trying to enslave the Africans, so they imported Malay, Malagasy, East Indian, and Javanese slaves.

The Asian slaves, Khoisan, and white settlers intermarried during the next century and produced a Cape Colored community. When freed, they stayed in the in the southwestern Cape area as tradesmen and agricultural workers, speaking Afrikaans and practicing religion. Many of the Cape Coloreds still continue to live in the southwestern cape. The intermarriage between the black and whites resulted in this colored group. There were laws enacted to prevent the mixed marriages, however the numbers still increased. The laws were abolished in June of 1985. The Asian community is mostly made of East Indians.

Brought to the coast of Natal between 1860 to 1895, they were made to become indentured servants. The large need for laborers was because of the large sugar plantations and many black men refused to work them. So they basically took people for slaves that did not have a defense. The Indians were insured a free passage back to their native country of India, however the bulk chose to stay in South Africa. They stayed for work in Natal as industrial workers or market gardeners, which eventually led them to taking jobs as businessmen. They abandoned their homeland languages to learn their new native language of English or Afrikaans.

The other Asians that make up the population are East African Arabs. They came as shopkeepers to the Transvaal gold-mining area in the beginning of the 20th century. There are a few hundred Chinese that are descendents of the indentured laborers that were brought from Canton to work in the mines. The low-income groups of any and all races acquire medical, dental, and regular health services. Unfortunately, the qualified staff shortages and the mass rural isolation have delayed the full coverage for many communities. For the rest, there are copious amounts of private services throughout South Africa.

The medical training in the country is very high quality. The first heart transplant was preformed in South Africa. The Baragwanath Hospital neat Johannesburg is the largest hospital in Southern Hemisphere of the world. It runs 12 independent clinics in the black township of Soweto (mentioned earlier. ) Malaria is very commonly found in the northeastern part of South Africa, however there are intermittent epidemics in some rural areas. A disease that was a past threat, however presently poses none, was yellow fever. Usually in areas of rural poverty diseases such as tuberculosis, typhoid, and cholera are found quite often.

There is a very common water disease, with the name of Bilharzia, is found in all rivers flowing eastward. This poses a threat for many residents that drink, bathe, and cook with the water because it cannot be very easily destroyed. This is because the piped water supplies are very lacking in the countryside, and it would be a very expensive problem to fix. There are an abundant amount of environmental health problems, two of which are malnutrition and major pollution. These do receive extra attention from the medical and social-welfare authorities, especially when the crops fail.

The city from which Teri is from is called Johannesburg, South Africa. Johannesburg happens to be one the largest cities in South Africa that is not placed on a coast, a lakeshore, or a river. It lies on a prairie in the southern part of the Transvaal province, which happens to be a major center for international air travel and for an extensive network of rail lines. The city is sometimes called the “city of gold”, because gold was found there in 1886. The gold-bearing reef is commonly called the “Rand”(Teri referred to this earlier.

The city has a moderately mild climate, with summer temperatures averaging 50 degrees F and winters averaging 68 degrees F. The rainfall averages about 30 inches a year. The effects of all of the developers and damage to this land have left it with little remains of the original plant and animal life. However, work has been done to create reserves, such as the Melville Kopje (small hill) Reserve, to keep the history of South Africa in tact. The principal population groups in the cosmopolitan city are English and Afrikaans (speaking whites and African Blacks) who speak Zulu, Xhosa, Pedi, Venda, and Tswana.

The population of Asians includes Japanese, Chinese, and Indians. The European population includes Germans, Hungarians, Italians, and French. A large number of blacks from the rural areas set up squatter camps and shantytowns because of the city’s rapid urbanization and industrialization between the two world wars. Johannesburg underwent a large slum-clearance program because of the tremendous pressure that they exerted on the city’s services. (Including water, transportation, and health. ) Johannesburg’s narrow downtown streets are towered over by its tall buildings, the suburban streets are much more spacious and tree lined.

The city is the administrative headquarters of the gold mining companies located in the environs. A financial center, that houses the Stock Exchange, several banks, and insurance companies, was established in 1887. Education in Johannesburg includes many primary and secondary schools. It also has various technical colleges and research institutions. The University of Witwatersrand is for English-speaking students, and was founded in Johannesburg in 1922. The Rand Afrikaans University gives higher education in Afrikaans, the Transvaal College of Education is for Asians, and the Rand College of education is for coloreds.

History in Brief of Indonesia

This report will be on the History in Brief of Indonesia, the Government of Indonesia, the island of Java, and the Geography of Indonesia. In early days, the region from India to Japan, including Indonesia, was known to the Europeans as the Indies. Chris Columbus was looking for a westward sea root from Europe to the Indies, when he arrived in America. During 1600s the Dutch political control began to spread Indonesia. Indonesia declared it’s independence in 1945 and fought the Dutch until 1949, when they gave up their control. At first, the Dutch allowed nationalist movement to develop.

In 1905, it had introduced councils to govern the towns and cities. By 1920, there were 32 such councils, with little electoral franchise. Other councils were also established. They included provincial councils in Java, and group communities councils outside Java. The current government of Indonesia is based on a constitution written in 1945. A president serves as the head of government. The president appoints a sheet of advisers consisting of top military leaders and civilians. In theory, the assembly is supposed to establish a general direction of the government’s olicies.

A house of peoples Representatives is the nation’s parliament, however, in practice neither the assembly nor the house has real power. Instead, it is the president who makes all of the important decisions. The president is elected to a five-year term the Peoples Consultative assembly. The assembly has 1,000 members. It includes the 500 members of the people’s representatives. It also includes 500 members of regional, occupational, and other groups. All assembly members serve five-year terms. The assembly usually is only held once every five years.

The 500 members of the People’s Representatives includes 400 who are elected through a system that insures that the government’s political organization win most of the seats. Serviceman have no vote, so the remaining 100 are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the commander of the armed forces. Indonesia is divided into twenty-seven provinces. The provinces are divided into regencies and municipalities. These units are further divided into villages. Officials of all local government units except villages are appointed by central government from lists of people nominated by regional egislators.

Indonesian villages elect their own village officials to provide local government. Java lies between Sumatra (to the west), and Bali (to the east). To the north is the Java Sea. To the south is the Indian Ocean, which Indonesians call the Indonesian Ocean. The greatest distance from North Java to South Java is two hundred kilometers. From East Java to West Java is over one thousand kilometers. The island of Java has five administrative units: the special territory of Jakarta Raya, Java Barat , Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, the special territory of Yogjakarta, and Jawa Timur.

Chains of volcanic mountains run along the island from west to east. These mountains are apart of a fold in the earth’s crust which extends from Southeast Asian mainland through Sumatra and Java to the lesser Sundra Islands. Java itself has 112 peaks. The volcanic soil is extremely fertile and this are supports a large population. Tangkuban Prahu in West Java is a live volcanoe that attracts many tourists. A similar mountain in the Sunda Straights, Krakatoua, is famous for its eruption in 1883. The whole northern portion of the peak was blown away.

The explosion was heard ver 700 kilometers away. The resulting sea waves caused over thirty six thousand Indonesian deaths in the low lying of West and South Jakarta. Indonesia is a country in Southeast Asia that consists of more than 13,600 islands. The islands lie along the equator, and extend more than 5,000 kilometers. Many of the islands cover only a few square kilometers but about half of New Guinea (an area called Irian Jaya), and three fourths of Borneo (Kalimantan), also belong to Indonesia. New Guinea and Borneo are the second and third largest islands in the world after Greenland.

The officially Kingdom of the Netherlands

The Netherlands, officially Kingdom of the Netherlands, is a constitutional monarchy located in Northwest Europe. The Netherlands Antilles is part of the state and consists of islands in the Caribbean. The Netherlands is often called Holland after a historic region, part of the present day nation. The country is bounded on the North and West by the North Sea, on the East by Germany, and on the South by Belgium. Land is scarce in the Netherlands and is fully exploited. The natural landscapes have been altered over the centuries.

The average January temperature is 35 degrees F and the mean July temperature is 63 degrees F. The Netherlands was considered to be lacking in natural resources. Salt is produced and in the 1950s and 60s, great natural gas reserves were discovered in Groningen Province. The Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries of the world. The Dutch make up the great majority of the nations inhabitants. They are mostly descended from the Franks, Frisians, and Saxons.

According to a 1994 estimate, the Netherlands had a population of 15,401,000, an increase of about 17. 9% over the 1971 census total. The overall population was about 961 persons per sq. mile. The nation is heavily urbanized; about 27% of the people live in cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants, and another 62% inhabit smaller cities and towns. The largest cities are, the capital, Amsterdam; one of the worlds leading seaports, Rotterdam; the nations administrative center, The Hague; and a manufacturing hub, Utretch.

The official language of the Netherlands is Dutch, which is spoken throughout the country. Roman Catholics constitute about 33% and Protestants about 25% of the Dutch population. From the time of the reformation the 16th century, the Netherlands has had a high level of basic education and comparatively high literacy rates. The Netherlands has played a major role in the European economy for many centuries. Since the 16th century, shipping, fishing, trade, and banking have been leading sectors of the Dutch economy.

A diversified manufacturing base was created as employment in agriculture fell and the country became a major energy exporter as large deposits of natural gas were discovered. Most firms are privately owned even though the government distributes about 40% of the Dutch national income. From 1965 to 1980, the gross domestic product of the Netherlands grew at an average yearly rate of 3. 8%, about equal to that of neighboring countries of continental Europe. Between 1980 and 1992, the GDP increased by only 2. 3% annually.

About 23% of the GDP is produced by manufacturing and energy related activities; about 16% by trade; about 9% by public utilities, transportation, and communications; 6% by construction; 4% by agriculture; and 42% by the service sector. The annual gross national product in the early 1990s was about $20,480. The Dutch currency unit is the guilder, or gulden (1. 89 guilders equal a U. S. $1, 1998). As of January 1, 1999, the Netherlands adopted the Euro, the common currency of the European Union, at a fixed conversion rate of 2. 20371 guilders to one Euro.

De Nedelandsche Bank, the Dutch central bank, is a full participant in the European System of central banks. Amsterdam is the leading center of Dutch banking and insurance and the home of the countrys principal stock exchange. The Dutch economy is fully open to world trade. Much of the flow of goods into its ports is intended for transshipment to other countries, mainly members of the EU. Major imports are machinery and transport equipment (about 32% of total imports), basic and miscellaneous manufactured goods (30%), food and live animals (11%), chemicals (11%), and crude petroleum (6%).

Leading exports of the country are manufactured goods (24%), machinery and transport equipment (24%), food and live animals (18%), chemicals (16%), and mineral fuels (9%). Members of the EU account for most Dutch imports and exports. Germany is the most important single trading partner, accounting for about 27% of Dutch trade. More than 3. 9 million foreigners visit the Netherlands every year. The Dutch also enjoy traveling and they generally spend nearly twice as much abroad as foreigners spend in the Netherlands.

Ethiopia Country

Relief: Ethiopia consists mainly of Desert and Mountains. Many valleys and plateau are also can be found in the country. Due to these landform types, the percentage of farm land is approximately 5.7% of the total amount of land in Ethiopia. The amount of arable land is 10% of the 5.7% in total. Ethiopia has an area of 1 221 900 sq. km. Ethiopia does not receive any problems such as volcanism, tidal waves, etc., but it does receive great winds and monsoons. It is located in Eastern Africa neighboured by Sudan (NW), Kenya(S), and Somalia(SE). Elevations can be seen on figure 1, and the physical features of Ethiopia on figure 2.

Climate: The Climate in Ethiopia is of three different climatic zones. These being the cool or dega zone, consisting of the central parts of the western and eastern sections of the high plateaus and the area around Harar, with terrains roughly above 7 900 ft. in elevation. The second zone is the temperate, or weina dega zone, comprising portions of the high plateau between 4 900 and 7 900 ft.. The final area being the hot or kolla zone, encompassing an area with an altitude less than 5 000 ft. The cool zones temperatures and precipitation can be seen on figure 3. The temperate zones temperatures range from 15.6C to 29.4C. The temperature in the hot zone of the lowlands can reach temperatures as high as 60C.

There are two distinct seasons in Ethiopia the rainy season, or kremt, lasting from mid-June to mid-semptember. the other is the Dry season, or bega, lasting from mid-September to mid-June. In April and May there is slight transition period. The greatest amount of precipitation is found in the southwest areas, near gore. They receive approx. 104 in. a year. The littlest amount of precipitation is found in the Great Rift Valley receiving less than 4 inches per year. the average annual precipitation in the central plateau at 48 in.

The prevailing winds that strike Ethiopia are the Southwesterly monsoon in the rainy season and the northeasterly wind from the Arabian Desert in the dry season.

Ethiopia’s climatic conditions suffer severe drought jeopardizing millions with starvation. These extreme weather changes create horrible growing seasons, making yields quite unsuccessful.

Vegetation: The percentage of forest land is minimal in Ethiopia, most of the area is grazed dry farmland, and some generally arable land. Near areas where beef cattle are being raised tsete flies can be found in great numbers. They spread a sleeping disease, that in turn wear down farmers, and create less productivity, and more disease than needed. Another insect that causes severe problems are locusts. They are considered the plague of Ethiopia, eating, therefore ruining crops. Due to lack of money Ethiopia does not have sufficient preservation facilities, and much of there food rots and goes to waste. Rodents also get into crops and eat whatever is at hand.

Soils: Almost all of Ethiopia’s soils are made up of infertile red and yellow laterite. Humus and other nutrients are washed out of the soils and into the rivers. Much land is lost from erosion and desertification, from constant over grazing and loss of trees.

Wildlife: I couldn’t find any information on Ethiopia’s wildlife, but I would suspect it is minimal. Small amounts of cattle and ox.

Is The Celtic Tiger A Paper Tiger

Last year Ireland’s GDP grew faster than anywhere else in the world. In 2001 Ireland remains at the top of the OECD growth league (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2001: 10- 11; OECD, 2001: vi). Nonetheless, though the Irish economy continues to attract the headlines, gone is the euphoric tone of even a year or two ago. Now attention focuses more on plant closures by (mainly U. S. ) multinationals and the downward revision of growth forecasts.

Economists debate the prospects of a ‘soft landing’ and the sustainability f growth rates half or less those experienced in the 1990s. Nonetheless the achievements of the last decade or so have been indeed notable. For reasons noted below, they are better captured by GNP per head than by GDP per head. Not only has GNP per head in the Republic moved far ahead of Northern Ireland’s in the 1990s, but it has reached that of the UK as a whole. Living standards have risen too, if not quite in tandem.

Who would have believed all this possible even a decade ago? Just as there was no hint that a Celtic Tiger was about to roar in the conomic commentary of the early 1990s, there was little sense that the experience might prove temporary in the commentary of the late 1990s (e. g. Gray, 1997; Sweeney, 1998; ansey, 1999; Barry, 1999). Accounts of the Irish economic miracle tended to be very presentcentred. Reading them just a few years later, they seemed to imply that Ireland had switched definitively to a new, higher, steady state growth regime.

So much so that for a few years policy makers from far and near sought the key to achieving apid sustained economic growth from Ireland. 1 It became the turn of IDA personnel and Irish economists to travel abroad offering rather seeking advice. A longer-term, more historical perspective suggests a less dramatic spin. Measuring the performance of the Irish economy against that of the OECD convergence club (shorthand for the pattern reflected in Figures 1(a) and 1(b) below) between mid-century and the mid-1980s implies serious under-achievement.

In this period only the 1960s offered a ray of hope. The 1950s were a ‘lost decade’ of virtual stagnation and mass emigration, while between 1973 and the mid-1980s the record was one of initial growth fuelled by reckless fiscal deficits and a bloated public sector, followed by a painful fiscal correction. However, applying the same simple convergence framework to the 1950-1998 period as a unit suggests that Ireland was 2 ‘on track’, in the sense that it grew as fast as an economy with its 1950 income level might be expected to grow ( Grda and O’Rourke, 1996; 2000).

The difference is clear from Figures 1(a) and 1(b). This, and signs that the economy is now returning to more modest growth rates, suggest that the Celtic Tiger’s main achievement was catching up with the rest. Seen from this perspective, the signs that growth is slackening are nothing to be concerned about. Press commentary evokes a sense of disappointment, however, and public policy, with its focus on the need for yet more and more imported capital and imported labour seems hell-bent on the pursuit of continued rapid growth.

Ethiopia: A Country Study

Located in northeastern Africa, in an area known as the Horn of Africa, Ethiopia is one of the largest and most populous countries in Africa. It is bordered by Djibouti and the former Ethiopian autonomous region of Eritrea on the north, Somalia on the east, Kenya on the south, and Sudan on the west. While influenced and even occasionally occupied by other nations, Ethiopia is one of the few countries in Africa or Asia never truly colonized. The Ethiopian population is very mixed, with broad differences in cultural backgrounds and traits, languages, and religions.

The greatest numbers of people speak either Semitic or Cu*censored*ic languages and their dialects. In the west and southwest some people speak Nilotic languages. Various religions are represented, with numerous people following Christianity, Islam, and traditional African religions. Christianity was introduced into Ethiopia in the 4th century and was the official state religion until 1974. Christians tend to be the most numerous in the highland areas, Muslims in the lowlands, and Traditional African religions in the south and west. The diversity of people has always played a significant role in Ethiopia.

Disagreements and problems between groups are often tied to differences in language, religion, and other cultural aspects. The population of Ethiopia is about 54 million. It is most densely concentrated in the highland areas. Like in most other African countries, most people live in rural areas. Only about 10% of Ethiopians live in the cities. The life expectancy is among the world’s lowest at approximately 45 years for males and 49 years for females. The Ethiopian economy is one of poverty. Average annual incomes are estimated at between 100 and 150 dollars per person in United States dollars.

Little is produced that is not needed within the country. Throughout most of Ethiopia there is the raising of both plants and animals. In most areas the major crops include grains such as teff, wheat, barley, sorghum, millet, and corn. Manufacturing forms only a small part of the Ethiopian economy. Processed foods, textiles, and beverages are the major products, mostly for local consumption. Semitic people from Arabia settled in Ethiopia about 3,000 years ago. Their descendants established an empire at Aksum in northeast Ethiopia before the time of Christ.

The empire grew wealthy as trade with other lands poured through its port of Adulis, near what is now Mitsiwa. The people were converted to Christianity in the early A. D. 300’s. The Aksumite empire declined around the 900’s. A new empire, ruled by the Zagwe dynasty, began 200 years later about 150 miles south of Aksum. In 1270, Yekuno Amlak, a prince claiming descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, overthrew the dynasty. The empire broke into small kingdoms in the 1600’s after a series of wars against invading Muslims.

During this time, anyone accepted as possessing Solomic descent could claim rights to the monarchy. This obviously caused frequent internal problems, civil wars, and wars of succession. The ruler who laid the foundations of modern-day Ethiopia was Menelik II. Menelik became emperor in 1889. He began to modernize the country, and regained many lost provinces. In the late 1800’s, the Italians invaded Ethiopia but were defeated by Ethiopian armies in the battle of Aduwa in 1896. This was the first major victory of an African country over a European power.

This preserved Ethiopia as one of the few noncolonized nations of Africa. Menelik died in 1913, and his heir Lij Yasu came to the throne. But the people dethroned Lij Yasu in 1916, accusing him of becoming a Muslim. Zauditu, Menelik’s daughter, then became empress. She governed the country with her cousin, Ras Tafari, who was regent and heir to the throne. Ras Tafari assumed the title of Emperor Haile Selassie I in 1930, after Zauditu’s death. Haile Selassie, planning to modernize Ethiopia, introduced the country’s first written constitution in 1931.

But his reforms were halted when Italy invaded Ethiopia again on October 3, 1935. The Ethiopian army was poorly equipped and not prepared for the invasion. By 1936, the royal family had been driven into exile and it became clear that the capital of Ethiopia could not be defended. Emperor Selassie was persuaded to go into exile. The Italians occupied Ethiopia until 1941 when Ethiopian and British troops defeated them. Emperor Selassie returned to Ethiopia and helped build new roads and schools and started to modernize Ethiopia’s agriculture. In the early 1960’s, the Ogaden region of southeastern Ethiopia became a trouble spot.

Large numbers of Somali people live there, and the government of Somalia claims ownership of the region. Border fighting flared up between Ethiopia and Somalia in the early 1960’s. In 1974, Emperor Selassie’s long reign came to an end when he was dethroned in a Marxist revolution. After 1974 Ethiopia had a Marxist military government run by the Provisional Military Administrative Council (PMAC), also called the Derg. The Derg was full of internal power struggles until Lieutenant Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam emerged as the head of state. Under Mengistu, the Derg enlarged the military tenfold.

Beginning in 1975 it also instituted a program of nationalization of industry, banking, insurance, and large-scale trade. Many Ethiopians who opposed military rule supported the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary party, which fought the military regime in the cities until it was destroyed in 1978. The problems between Somalia and Ethiopia worsened in 1977 when Somali people in Ogaden staged a major revolt against Ethiopian rule, and widespread fighting broke out. Ethiopia shifted its international ties with the United States to an alignment with the Soviet Union, which became its chief source of weapons.

Somalia withdrew its troops from Ogaden in March 1978 after a major Ethiopian attack. By the early 1980’s, most of the fighting in Ogaden had ended, but some fighting has continued on a small scale. In 1987 a new constitution was approved to make the country the People’s Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. This constitution established a civilian Communist government. The PMAC was dissolved, members of the new assembly, or Shengo, were installed, and Mengistu became the first president of the republic. Ethiopia was struck by a major famine in the early 1970’s and two more during the 1980’s.

More than 200,000 people may have died in the first of these. Because of these famines, Ethiopia has been heavily dependent upon international donations to overcome starvation in famine areas. Conflict between Eritrean rebels and the Ethiopian government, which began in the early 1960’s after Eritrea (a former Italian colony) became part of Ethiopia in 1952, continued. By 1991 rebel forces controlled all or parts of seven provinces. Already facing a bankrupt economy and famine, the government saw its army fall apart.

Mengistu resigned and fled the country and an unstable transitional government, led by Meles Zenawi, was appointed in August 1991. The government planned a general election for 1993. The Eritreans’ goal, for which they had been fighting for more than 31 years, was finally realized. Eritreans voted overwhelmingly for independence in an April 1993 referendum. The happier days for Eritrea were limited, though. Today, after over 30 years of fighting and only 5 years of peace and independence, another war is threatening.

Ethiopia and Eritrea have quibbled peacefully for years over their border, using colonial maps and more recent surveys to argue their case on who is entitled to a zone named Badme. However, the dispute turned violent on May 6, 1998 with each accusing the other of invading. A report into the conflict drawn up by the Organization for African Unity (OAU) at the start of July stated that Badme was under Ethiopian administration before its occupation by Eritrean troops on May 12. In June, Ethiopia’s fighter planes bombed an airport in Eritrea which brought Ethiopia and Eritrea very close to an all-out war.

Zenawi tried to avoid a war by producing a peace plan that would allow a third party to rule the 160-square-mile area of Badme. The United States, The European Union, Russia and others have strongly urged both sides to accept the peace plan, which includes the withdrawal of Eritrean forces from the disputed territory. Eritrean officials have not publicly rejected the proposal, but have not shown any signs toward acceptance either. By mid-June however, a step was made in the right direction. It seemed that Eritrea and Ethiopia had accepted a United States proposal to immediately halt air strikes.

The moratorium against air strikes, as well as threats of air strikes will continue indefinitely or until either country concludes that any hopes for a peaceful resolution has come to an end and provides formal advance notice to the U. S. government that it will no longer respect this moratorium. If this ending of air raids is a partial form of an ending of hostilities, then there may be some tranquility, at least for a while. Other diplomatic efforts were also made. Five leaders appointed by the Organization of African Unity (OAU) began a mission later on that week.

In addition, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak was trying to arrange a cease-fire. The most recent events have not exhibited much change. Although the disputes have been running since May, there have been no reports of border fighting for several weeks and the air raids that characterized the conflict’s early days have remained ceased. The OAU has been working towards its main goal of avoiding a full-scale war. They have been able to make the two parties understand that they must continue to maintain the cease-fire while African leaders pursue their efforts.

However, talks with the foreign ministers of the two states (who are refusing to meet face to face) appeared to have made little progress. The Ethiopian Foreign Minister Seymoun Mestin says he will not meet the Eritrean Foreign Minister Haile Weldensae until Eritrean troops have left Badme. After three hours of talks with OAU representatives things were not looking hopeful. Weldensae stated that Eritrea has not occupied any part of Ethiopian territory and that they are not prepared to withdraw from their own territory. With the Eritrean withdrawal being a key element in Zenawi’s peace plan, the end of this dispute is not drawing near.

Since May hundreds have died in tank and artillery battles on three fronts. Bombing raids have killed at least 48 civilians in northern Ethiopia and four people in the attacks on the airport outside the Eritrean capital, Asmara. This war is a war between countries that were once friends. The Ethiopians gave Eritrea their independence peacefully and without any struggle. The Eritrean people have just gotten over 31 years of fighting and long for stability. They truly want peace and should be listened to. I believe that the leaders of these once allied nations should look and listen.

They should look back at all the border disputes that have ensued in so many African nations and that have ended up killing millions of civilians and have caused the economic disasters that wars always do. In addition to looking back through history, they should listen to their people. There are loud protests in the streets and quiet protests, in the form of prayers, in the churches throughout these two countries. If the leaders of Ethiopia and Eritrea would just look and listen to the very people that fill their nation’s controversial borders, they would realize that the issue is simply too trivial to put so many at risk.

I think that the best solution to this problem is the one proposed in the peace plan presented by Zenawi. The Eritrean government should put their stubbornness aside as the Ethiopians are willing to do, and should leave the area. A third party should then be appointed by the OAU to rule over this region. With war, whether you win or lose, you lose. The people want peace. War will not solve their problems. These two nations pray to the same God and speak the same language. They were once friends and will be again.

Location Of Brazil

Brazil lies between thirty five degrees west longitude and seventy five degrees west longitude. Brazil also runs between five degrees north latitude and thirty five degrees south latitude. Brazil is located in mainly the eastern part of South America. This country sits in mostly the southern hemisphere of the world. Being completely on the west side of the world, Brazil is not all in the south side of the world. With the equator running through north Brazil, a small portion of Brazil, a small portion of Brazil is in the northern hemisphere.

Brazil is bordered by a number of South American countries. Brazil borders Uruguay to the north; Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru to the east; Bogota to the southeast; Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana to the south; and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The landscape of Brazil is covered with plains, plateaus, and tropical grasslands. The plains has a fertile ribbon of lowlands, about ten through thirty miles wide which are along the country’s coastline. Behind the plains sits a huge interior plateau that runs steeply near the lowlands in front of it.

This drop forms an escarpment, steep cliff that separates two level areas. In Brazil there is much poverty. People make a living there by subsistence farming. Even though they do farming subsistintly, they use much advanced farming there. Aside from farming there is much more to there culture. People there are involved a lot in astronomy and mathematics. Architecture is another way of living there. This used not only as a money making job, but private uses also. In the 1500s, the Portuguese colonist built big sugar plantations along the fertile coastal plain and port cities to ship crops to Europe.

Brazilian government has been tearing desolate slums, called favelas, down in order to improve Brazilian cities. These favelas were replaced with public housing people could afford. In 1955, Brazil decided to build a new capital city, 600 miles inland, called Brasilia, in order to decrease the population of the former capital Rio de Janeiro. Between 1940s and 1950s, Brazil’s government built the country’s first steel mill and oil refinery. The government also built it’s firs series of dams to produce hydroelectricity in order to run industries.

During the 1970s Brazil began a large road-building project beginning at Brasilia. At the same time Brazil developed a fuel called ethanol from sugarcane, and were clearing the Amazon to plant crops there. Brazil was inhabited by Portuguese colonist in 1500. Brazil’s colonist brought over three hundred million African slaves to Brazil, to work on the plantations. This continued until the late 1800s, when the practice was done away with. During the same time, thousands of people came from many different regions like Portugal, Italy, Spain, and Japan.

They all came to work in the coffee business. Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paul are two of Brazil’s biggest populated cities. This is because of it’s mystique, beauty, and economic health. Between 1970 and 1985 one million people had migrated to the Amazon regions and to the Brazilian Highlands because of new roads and free land grants. These free land grants were a way of the government promoting settlement in the north. REGION OF BRAZIL Brazil is all part of Latin America. It is also largely covered by the Amazon River Basin, as well as the rest of South America.

The Northeast Region has a wet and dry climate, while the Southeast Region has a humid subtropical climate. Some affect on the climate has to do with the equator running straight through Brazil. Besides climate there are other differences between the regions. The Northeast is the world’s biggest producer of coffee. The major language between these regions is Spanish and Portuguese although a large number of people in the Northeast have African ancestry. In the Southeast there are many favelas in all the major cities, which are just another way of saying desolate slums.

The other two regions aren’t as detailed as the Northeast and Southeast. The Brazilian Highlands which is where the capital is and the Amazon River Basin which covers all of Brazil. Brazil lies between thirty five degrees west longitude and seventy five degrees west longitude. Brazil also runs between five degrees north latitude and thirty five degrees south latitude. Brazil is located in mainly the eastern part of South America. This country sits in mostly the southern hemisphere of the world. Being completely on the west side of the world, Brazil is not all in the south side of the world.

With the equator running through north Brazil, a small portion of Brazil, a small portion of Brazil is in the northern hemisphere. Brazil is bordered by a number of South American countries. Brazil borders Uruguay to the north; Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru to the east; Bogota to the southeast; Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana to the south; and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The landscape of Brazil is covered with plains, plateaus, and tropical grasslands. The plains has a fertile ribbon of lowlands, about ten through thirty miles wide which are along the country’s coastline.

Behind the plains sits a huge interior plateau that runs steeply near the lowlands in front of it. This drop forms an escarpment, steep cliff that separates two level areas. In Brazil there is much poverty. People make a living there by subsistence farming. Even though they do farming subsistintly, they use much advanced farming there. Aside from farming there is much more to there culture. People there are involved a lot in astronomy and mathematics. Architecture is another way of living there. This used not only as a money making job, but private uses also.

The population of Spain

The Spanish people are essentially a mixture of the indigenous peoples of the Iberian Peninsula with the successive peoples who conquered the peninsula and occupied it for extended periods. These added ethnologic elements include the Romans, a Mediterranean people, and the Suevi, Vandals, and Visigoths (see GOTHS), Teutonic peoples. Semitic elements are also present. Several ethnic groups in Spain have kept a separate identity, culturally and linguistically.

These include the Basques (Euskal-dun), who number about 2. illion and live chiefly around the Bay of Biscay; the Galicians, numbering about 2. 5 million, who live in northwestern Spain; and the nomadic Spanish Gypsies (Gitanos; see GYPSIES). Population Characteristics The population of Spain (1991) was 38,872,268. The estimate for 1993 was 39,207,159; the overall density was about 78 people per sq km (about 201 per sq mi). Spain in increasingly urban with more than three-fourths of the population in towns and cities. “Spain,” Microsoft (R) Encarta. Copyright (c) 1994 Microsoft Corporation.

Copyright (c) 1994 Funk & Wagnall’s Corporation. Forestry and Fishing The cork-oak tree is the principal forest resource of Spain, and the annual production of cork, more than 110,000 metric tons in the mid-1980s, is second only to that of Portugal. The yield of Spain’s forests is insufficient for the country’s wood-pulp and timber needs. The fishing industry is important to the Spanish economy. The annual catch was about 1. 5 million metric tons in 1990 and consisted primarily of tuna, squid, octopus, hake, sardines, anchovies, mackerel, blue whiting, and mussels.

Mining The mineral wealth of Spain is considerable. In 1990 annual production included about 36 million metric tons of coal and lignite, 1. 5 million tons of iron ore, 255,000 tons of zinc concentrates, 58,400 tons of lead, 5 million tons of gypsum, and 795,000 tons of crude petroleum. The principal coal mines are in the northwest, near Oviedo; the chief iron-ore deposits are in the same area, around Santander and Bilbao; large mercury reserves are located in Almadn, in southwestern Spain, and copper and lead are mined in Andalusia.

Other minerals produced are potash, manganese, fluorite, tin, tungsten, wolfram, bismuth, antimony, cobalt, and rock salt. Manufacturing Among the leading goods manufactured in Spain are textiles, iron and steel, motor vehicles, chemicals, clothing, footwear, ships, refined petroleum, and cement. Spain is one of the world’s leading wine producers, and the annual output in the late 1980s was about 2. 3 million metric tons. The iron and steel industry, centered in Bilbao, Santander, Oviedo, and Avils, produced about 13. 8 million metric tons of crude steel and 5. illion tons of pig iron annually in the mid-1980s.

Energy About 48 percent of Spain’s electricity is generated in conventional thermal plants primarily using coal or refined petroleum. Hydroelectric facilities produce 17 percent, and nuclear installations, 35 percent. In 1991 Spain had an installed electricity generating capacity of some 45. 2 million kilowatts, and annual output was about 157 billion kilowatt-hours. “Spain,” Microsoft (R) Encarta. Copyright (c) 1994 Microsoft Corporation. Copyright (c) 1994 Funk & Wagnall’s Corporation. Plants and Animals

Only a small part of Spain is forested, and forests are located mainly on mountain slopes, particularly in the northwest. A common Spanish tree is the evergreen oak. Cork oak, from which the bark may be stripped every ten years, is abundant, growing chiefly as second growth on timbered land. Poplar trees are grown throughout the country and the cultivation of olive trees is a major agricultural activity. Other Spanish trees include the elm, beech, and chestnut. Shrubs and herbs are the common natural vegetation on the central plateau. Grapevines flourish in the arid soil.

Esparto grass, used for making paper and various fiber products, grows abundantly in both the wild and cultivated state. On the Mediterranean coast sugarcane, oranges, lemons, figs, almonds, and chestnuts are grown. The Spanish fauna includes the wolf, lynx, wildcat, fox, wild boar, wild goat, deer, and hare. Among the more famous domesticated animals are the bulls bred near Seville and Salamanca for bullfighting, the Spanish national sport. Birdlife is abundant, with varieties of birds of prey. Insect life abounds. Mountain streams and lakes teem with such fish as barbel, tench, and trout.