Describe the Central External Conflict(s): Yossarian’s external conflict pertains to his squadron’s bureaucracy. Yossarian’s resentment to missions creates a problem with several of the higher ranking members of his squadron. These higher ranking members have put a system in place that doesn’t allow anyone to get out of war. This doesn’t allow Yossarian to get the one thing that he wants, to get out of battle. Describe the Internal Conflict(s): 2 Minor Characters Of Significance > explain who they are and why they are important: Orr-Orr, Yossarian’s tent mate, is shown as a relatively idiotic character throughout the novel.
The author does this by giving Orr the unusual habit of stuffing crab apples in his cheeks with hopes of making them bigger and by repetitively crashing his plane. During one of the crashes Orr disappears. Yossarian eventually realizes that Orr purposely crashed his plane to have the chance to escape. This allows the reader to see that Orr is one of the smartest soldiers at the camp and can put words of leaving into action. This also is ultimately the deciding factor in convincing Yossarian that he should run away.
In the end, Orr’s master plan has given Yossarian a possible way to escaped, something he has wanted to do throughout the entire novel. Milo-Milo started in the army with the hopes of being the best mess officer of all time. This fundamental hope evolves into M&M enterprise, a business that sells black market goods. To expand his business he begins to sell to the Germans. The author uses this to show that some people care more about making money then the country they’re fighting for.
Furthermore, because he brings demand into to many towns that have been failing economically in this time of war, many of these cities deem him as mayor and treat him like a celebrity. The author tells this to the reader to show the tough times that everyone experiences during war. Key Plot Points + describe in detail + include page ranges: 7 Exposition (7-50): In this portion of the novel we begin to learn about who Yossarian is. This includes his dislike for war and what he is willing to do to get out of it. 5 Rising Action (50-421): During this part, Yossarian finally is able to start realising that due to the rising mission rate and the catch 22 he will never be able to go home. Furthermore, during this section, Yossarian’s defiance to his higher ranking officials has rapidly increased. Climax (421-441): Within the portion of the story, one major events occurred. This event is the court martial. Essentially, Yossarian will be sent home if he agrees with Cathcart and Korn; however, this plan increases the workload on the other troops in his squadron.
He wants to protect himself at all costs, but because of the bonds he has formed with the other men, his self interests have become less important. Falling Action (441-450): During this portion of the novel, Yossarian decides that he cannot betray the other men in his squadron by forcing them to fly his missions for him. Instead of taking option a, forcing his squadron to have extra work by taking the deal, or taking option b, being court martialed, he makes his own option, do his best to desert the air force.
Denouement (450-453): During this portion of the novel, Yossarian has already decided that he wants to run away. Now he is just working on the logistics of what he will do and if it is possible with Major Danby and the Chaplain. Major Danby is very doubtful of this plan’s possibility of working, while the chaplain will do whatever it takes to help Yossarian. 2 Themes [full statements of the lessons or messages of the work, not 1-word “concepts’] Joseph Heller uses the phrase catch 22 to show the inability of man to escape war.
Joseph Heller uses constant miscommunication to show how all words and actions can be life changing. Explain 1 example of a specific Symbol or Motif or Significant Metaphor (include page number): The number of missions these soldiers have to face is a motif that is constantly repeated throughout this story. This story follows Yossarian, a man who constantly tries to get out of battle. For him, and many other soldiers in war the mission limit serves as a door out. However, because Cathcart continues to raise the mission limit, this door is always within reach, but it is never actually attainable.
This motif allowed Joseph Heller to show the endlessness of war and danger. Explain 1 example of a specific Mythological, Biblical, Literary, Historical, Scientific, or Cultural Allusion (include page number). You can look this up, but make sure to cite where the info came from. If there are none, do a second Symbol or Motif or Significant Metaphor: On page 88, the story reads, “[Major – de Coverley] started forward in a straight line, and the wall of officers before him parted like the Red Sea.
This allusion was used to characterize Major – de Coverley as a powerful and influential person. This quote compares the Major to a god, which could also suggest that he is very well respected by the other officers. Throughout the novel, it looks like Major – de Coverley is just a minor, mysterious character, but the officers still show a great deal of respect for him. Significant Literary Techniques: Choose 5 terms from your Summer Research Assignment, that have not been already addressed in this form, and apply those 5 terms to your Summer Reading selection.
List & define the term. Write out the full quote (& page number) where the term can be seen in your selection. Explain how the term enhances the reading experience (at least 3 sentences). Paradox- A self contradictory statement. “If he flew them he was crazy and didn’t have to; but if he didn’t want to he was sane and had to. ” (Heller, 46) Heller uses this sentence to summarize what catch 22 is. It is essentially a rule that traps soldiers in war. Yossarian does everything he can to find a loophole in this fundamental rule.
Situational Irony- Occurs when incongruity appears between expectations of something to happen, and what actually happens instead. ” Clevinger was a genius… a Harvard undergraduate… [going] far in the academic world… In short, he was a dope. ” (Heller, 68) Heller uses this quote to reveal a constant problem in what we conceive as intelligent. We normally assume that Harvard graduates are the smartest people; however, Heller is talking about the difference between book smarts and street smarts. This is important because in war, there is no real need for book smarts.
Dramatic Irony- It is a figure of speech where the audience has knowledge that the character does not. “Yossarian was in the hospital with a pain in his liver that fell just short of being jaundice. The doctors were puzzled by the fact that it wasn’t quite jaundice. ” (Heller, 7) Before this quote occurs, we are informed that Yossarian constantly fakes pain to be able to leave the battlefield and go into the hospital. Heller use states this to show that the doctors are clueless to what is wrong with Yossarian.
This allows him to stay out of combat, his goal all throughout the novel. Parallel Structure- The use of components in a sentence that are grammatically the same; or similar in their construction, sound, meaning or meter. “Yossarian-the very sight of the name made him shudder. It just had to be subversive. It was like the word subversive itself. It was like seditious and insidious too, and like socialist, suspicious, fascist, and Communist. ” (Heller, 210). Cathcart continually has problems with Yossarian.
Heller uses these similar sounding and negative words to show the extreme hatred Cathcart has for Yossarian. Furthermore, by making the words similar, Heller creates a fast tone, which ultimately makes these words sound like ramblings. This adds to the amount of insanity that Cathcart has already obtained. Irony- A figure of speech in which words are used in such a way that their intended meaning is different from the actual meaning of the words. ” The only one who lived with the chaplain in his clearing in the woods was Corporal Whitcomb, his assistant.
Corporal Whitcomb, an atheist was a disgruntled subordinate who felt he could do the chaplain’s job much better than the chaplain was doing it. ” (Heller, 200) Heller created irony here by stating that even though Whitcomb is an atheist, he is still the chaplain’s assistant and believes he can do better than the chaplain. This religious based problem shows the incredible amount of madness during the time of war. Furthermore, because Whitcomb feels he can do a better job than the chaplain, this shows the little religious importance and respect during this time.