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Essay on Four Health Theories

Introduction The purpose of this paper is to describe the four health theories. The paper will address how these theories are applied, address two strengths for each theory model, and any limitations. Furthermore, the paper will address the theory that will be used in my public health campaign and justification. Theory of Reasoned Action The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) model is used for “evaluating the behavior belief are usually scored from -3 to +3, capturing the psychology of double of double negatives, where a belief will not result in a negative outcome contributes positively to the person’s attitude. (Glanz, Rimer & Viswanath, 2008, p. 72)

One study conducted in 2004, using the theory of reasoned action, “surveyed 96 physicians from Southern and Midwestern universities to assess factors associated with intention to prescribe emergency contraception. High intention to prescribe emergency contraceptive was associated with positive attitudes and with perception that professional groups did not predict intention. ” (NIH 2006) Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, the study guided the hypothesis.

Strengths One of the strengths with using the TRA model, is that it provides “excellent framework to conceptualize, measure, and identify factors that affect behavior. The TRA framework provides guidance for understanding behaviors. (Glanz, Rimer, && Viswanath, 2008, p. 91) In addition, the TRA model has behavioral elements in which, individuals forms an intention to act and they will be free to act without limitations. (Fidis, n. d. , p. 24) Limitations The TRA Model may limit how it captures how social issues surrounding the individual may influence his or her behaviors.

Health Belief Model Mikhail (1981) proposed that the HBM could be used to gain knowledge of client motives and health beliefs, and the information could be used to develop strategies for changing health beliefs or correcting health misconceptions. (Amlung, 1996, p. 36) In a study conducted using the HBM model, the data were obtained from “Champion and Miller’s (1996) intervention study that examined the relationship between breast cancer and breast cancer detection behaviors. A total of 541 women selected through random digit dialing were interviewed in their homes.

Of these 541, the secondary analysis was based on 527 women, deleting 14 due to missing data. ” (Amlung, 1996, p. 143) Based on the results of the study, the analysis indicated that health belief measures do exist, and the measures reflect the theoretical constructs, thus substantiating the HBM as it was hypothesized. (Amlung, 1996, 147) Strength The Health Belief Model (HBM), focuses on health determinants and most appropriate for implementing interventions that address behavior problems. (Orji, Vassileva, and Mandryk, 2012, p. 5) In Addition, this type of model provides the framework in order to have individuals to get involved in the decision-making process and take action regarding their health. (Boston University, 2013) Limitations Findings were somewhat difficult to interpret due to the complexity of translating the interview data to a five-point scale. (Amlung, 1996, p. 37)

Furthermore, potential biases may be introduced if there is a low participating response. Theory of Planned Behavior The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) focus on constructs concerned with individuals motivational factors as determinants of the likelihood of performing a specific behavior. Glanz, Rimer & Viswanath, 2008, p. 68) A study conducted looked at “84 smokers attending health promotion clinics in a primary care setting completed questionnaires that assessed the main constructs of the theory of planned behavior, perceived susceptibility, and past cessation attempts. The Theory of Planned Behavior model was used and found results that suggest that interventions should focus on perceptions of susceptibility and control to increase smokers’ motivation to quit. (NIH, 1999) Strengths

Limitations The Theory of Planned Behavior, assumes the person has acquired the opportunities and resources to be successful in performing the desired behavior, regardless of the intention. It does not account for other variables that factor into behavioral intention and motivation, such as fear, threat, mood, or past experience. (Boston University, n. d. ) Trans-Theoretical Stages of Change Trans-theoretical Model (TTM) focuses on the decision-making of the individual and is a model of intentional change. (Boston University, n. . ). In a study conducted in 2000, which looked at evaluating pain stages of people with chronic pain, the transtheoretical model of change found that individuals go through specific stages in the process of changing maladaptive behaviors. (Jensen, Nielson, and Turner, 2000) According to this theory, when people have time to plan how they are going to behave, the best predictor of that behavior is one’s intention.

In other words, to predict what people are going to do, you need to know what they intend to do. Croswell, 2015) In a study conducted in 2011, the model was used to look at management of overweight and obese adults. (Tuah, Amiel, Car, i. e. , 2011) Strengths TTM provides experiential processes that will predict early stage progress. (Prochaska, 2006) Furthermore, this model has been long considered as a useful interventional approach in lifestyle modification interventions. Limitations Critics, such as West (2005), believe that TTM model does not offer much of the variance in behavior. And, claims that key issues draw away from what are the main factors that cause human motivation.

The question should be asked in order to understand how much impact TTM will have on reducing a problem. (Prochaska, 2006). Justification for Using Health Belief Model The role of Public Health researchers is not just to study problems however, it is about organizing and mobilizing the community in order to support and implement solutions. (Resnick and Siegel, 2013, P. 45) As I prepare to formalize a plan for my public health campaign, it is important for me to collect as much information as possible in order to compare the models in order to move forward with the model of choice.

Additionally, the model that is most appropriate for my campaign based on the research, is the Health Belief Model. “The emerging chronic disease epidemic poses both a threat to the public’s health and a challenge to public health practice. ” (Resnick & Siegel, 2013, p. 3) Based on this epidemic, it is crucial for researchers to conduct interventions that will encourage people to take action and create behavioral changes in order to live healthier lives.

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