Alternative Health Care

Alternative health care, also known as holistic or homeopathic care, is a myriad of unconventional health care approaches to healing and improving ill health. Dr. Samuel Hahnemann discovered homeopathy in the early 1800s. He was sick of the art of medicine practiced in his time; he said it was barbaric. He knew there had to be alternatives so, like any devoted science lover would do, he experimented on himself and his friends. Hahnemann found that large dosages of herbs increased symptoms so he decreased the dosage and found that the symptoms decreased and usually ceased (Smith 10). Homeopathy became popular in the nineteenth century.

This may be accounted for because most patients at that time agreed that them-modern techniques were harsh and didnt work. The same thing is happening today. People are resorting to holistic remedies because the promise of allopathic medicine has lost its luster(Smith 10). Some criticize holistic care as being primitive. According to Joseph Wassesug, Holistic medicineis what we practice when we dont know the real answer. For example, years ago tuberculosis was treated was treated with fresh air and Adirondack chairs, polio was treated with baths and hub tanks, and rheumatic fever was treated with good nutrition and bed rest!

Copeland 103) Another problem with holistic care is that the government has no regulation of holistic practices and who practices them. This makes it difficult to determine exactly who is really qualified and which alternative medicines are safe. Finally, critics such as Joseph D. Wassersug argue that while alternative practitioners may be more caring, some may not have the education or expertise to effectively treat serious injury (Wekesser 95). We have got to use common sense when choosing a doctor. When a person has a M. D. or an R. N. after his name we opt to trust our life to him!

One should check the doctors background before visiting him. blind trust of medical degrees is not a replacement for using common sense (Copeland 105). When someone chooses alternative care he must take into consideration its dangers. One could actually overdose on vitamins or misuse herbal therapies. Instead of feeling better, I felt increasingly worse, like a spaced out zombie complained Carol Copeland, a former holistic patient who almost lost her life to cancer because her homeopathic physicians were to proud to think they were wrong thus they neglected an ovarian cyst (Copeland 104 Wekesser 95).

Another problem with these unconventional health care alternatives is that they give false relief. What this means is that when someone uses a holistic remedy and then feels relief he tends to credit the remedy. This method does not hold water because most ailments resolve themselves (headache for example). Barrett says holistic practitioners are quacks. The main reason for quackerys success is its ability to seduce people who are unsuspecting and desperate (Barrett 112-113). Nevertheless, holistic medicine has strengths. One, it recognizes the psychological, environmental and social aspects of illness.

Two, it involves the patient in his own treatment with activities etc.. And three, it emphasizes preventive medicine as its base (holistic). Holistic medicine is a practice of health cares that that emphasizes treatment of the entire patientbody, mind and spirit. Homeopathic care, compared to allopathic is expensive. There are no doctors visits, or expensive antibiotic prescriptions necessary. This is not to say that doctors are not useful; obviously, if there were a serious injury one should not hesitate to go to a medical (allopathic) doctor (Smith 10).

Homeopathy is ideal for the homemaker or mother because it enables her to cure common ailments with herbs that she may have around her home (Smith10). Homeopathy is easy to learn. There are workshops for the lay person that wants to understand holistic medicine. The use of many remedies can be performed by anyone; hence homeopathy does not require a medical degree (Smith 10). It makes sense to try alternative care. Some people feel that doctors are too interested in money and not entirely concerned with the patient (Gordon 107).

There is an entirely new faith involved in alternative health care. It is a new approach to tradition and though some may be skeptical there is much reason to have a sound mind towards it. Homeopathy works fast; in most cases the remedies take affect in ten minutes. If by chance a homeopathy remedy didnt work one could still seek other medical help without worrying that he waited too long (Solovitch 100). Some people chose alternative care because so many other methods (and doctors) fail to cure them.

Others do not like the way they were treated by doctors–whether it is bad bedside manner or neglect of their feelings. Physicians of holistic medicine are oft more attentive to their patients needs and not as rushed as medical doctors (Wekesser 95). In the time of need it is most comforting to know that the physician cares and wants to help. This is a true story of a man diagnosed with colon cancer. The oncologist told him that he had only a few months to live; the tumors were enormous and irreversible. A week after that doctor visit the man, Jon, and his wife were in a car accident.

Both were okay yet suffered minor back and neck injuries so they went to a chiropractor. On January 18, 1993 Dr. Gil Logatto saw Jon and his wife Tina for their first visit. He learned of Jons illness and instead of feeling sorry for him he was excited for him. Dr. Logatto went on to tell of his own interest in holistic medicine. And a study he had read that carrot juice would shrink the tumors. Jon told Tina and, though skeptical, she bought a juicer and a case of carrots. They began drinking carrot juice three times a day.

When Jon went back to the oncologist on March 9, 1993 to everyones surprise there was only one small tumor left from the six massive tumors which had afflicted him just two months before! It is almost five years since Jon was diagnosed terminally ill and he is cancer free. Tina and Jon have a new found faith in holistic medicine; and they also have a baby on the way thanks to Dr. Logattos interest in holistic medicine. Dr. Logatto has been a close friend of the family for many years. He is well educated in many fields of medicine.

American Health Care

The American Health Care system has prided itself on providing high quality services to the citizens who normally cannot afford them. This system has been in place for years and until now it did a fairly decent job. The problem today is money; the cost of hospital services and doctor fees are rising faster than ever before. The government has been trying to come up with a new plan these past few years even though there has been strong opposition against a new Health Care system. There are many reasons why it should be changed and there are many reasons why it shouldnt be changed.

The main thing that both sides eads towards is money. Both sides want to save money just in The movement for changing the Health Care system believes that there is a need for change because of the problems that the system faces today cannot be handled. Every month, 2 million Americans lose their insurance. One out of four, 63 million Americans, will lose their health insurance coverage for some period during the next two years . 37 million Americans have no insurance and another 22 million have inadequate coverage . Losing or changing a job often means losing insurance.

Becoming ill or living with a chronic medical condition can ean losing insurance coverage or not being able to obtain it. Long- term care coverage is inadequate. Many elderly and disabled Americans enter nursing homes and other institutions when they would prefer to remain at home. Families exhaust their savings trying to provide for disabled relatives. Many Americans in inner cities and rural areas do not have access to quality care, due to poor distribution of doctors, nurses, hospitals, clinics and support services. Public health services are not well integrated and coordinated with the personal care delivery system.

Many serious health problems — such as lead oisoning and drug-resistant tuberculosis — are handled inefficiently or not at all, and thus potentially threaten the health of the entire population. Rising health costs mean lower wages, higher prices for goods and services, and higher taxes. The average worker today would be earning at least $1,000 more a year if health insurance costs had not risen faster than wages over the previous 15 years . If the cost of health care continues at the current pace, wages will be held down by an additional $650 by the year 2000.

More and more Americans have had to give up insurance altogether because the premiums have become rohibitively expensive. Many small firms either cannot afford insurance at all in the current system, or have had to cut benefits or profits in order to provide insurance to their employees. Those problems are just with the system, the main part of the problem comes from the insurance agencies. Quality care means promoting good health. Yet, the agencies waits until people are sick before they starts to work. The agencies are biased towards specialty care and gives inadequate attentions to cost-effective primary and preventive care.

Consumers cannot compare doctors and hospitals because reliable quality nformation is not available to them. Health care providers often don’t have enough information on which treatments work best and are most cost-effective. Health care treatment patterns vary widely without detectable effects on health status. Some insurers now compete to insure the healthy and avoid the sick by determining “insurability profiles” while they should compete on quality, value, and service. The average doctor’s office spends 80 hours a month pushing paper. Nurses often have to fill out as many as 19 forms to account for one person’s hospital stay.

This is time that could be better spent caring or patients. Insurance company red tape has created a nightmare for providers, with mountains of forms and numerous levels of review that wastes money and does nothing to improve the quality of care. America has the best doctors who can provide the most advanced treatments in the world. Yet people often can’t get treated when they need care. The medical malpractice system does little to promote quality. Fear of litigation forces providers to practice defensive medicine, ordering inappropriate tests and procedures to protect against lawsuits.

Truly negligent providers often are not disciplined, and many victims of real alpractice are not compensated for their injuries. Purchasing insurance can be overwhelming for consumers. With different levels of benefits, co-payments, deductibles and a variety of limitations, trying to compare policies is confusing and objective information on quality and service is hard for consumers to find. As a result, consumers are vulnerable to unfair and abusive practices. Insurers have responded to rising health costs by imposing restriction on what doctors and hospitals do.

A system that was complicated to begin with has become incomprehensible, even to experts. Each health insurance plan includes ifferent exclusions and limitations. Even the terms used in health policies do not have standard definitions. Small business owners, who cannot afford big benefits departments, have to spend time and money working through the insurance maze. For firms with fewer than five workers, 40 percent of health care premiums go to pay administrative expenses. Administrative costs add to the cost of each hospital stay with the number of health care administrators increasing four times faster than the number of doctors.

Health claim forms and the related paperwork are confusing for consumers, and time-consuming to fill out. Insurance coverage for most Americans is not a matter of choice at all. In most cases, they are limited to whatever policy their employer offers. Only 29% of companies with fewer than 500 employees offer any choice of plans. With a growing number of insurers using exclusions for pre-existing conditions, arbitrary cancellations and hidden benefit limitations, consumers have few choices for affordable policies that The movement for Health Care reform has created a plan to cover every American.

The plan is called the Health Security plan. The Health Security plan guarantees comprehensive health benefits for all American itizens and legal residents, regardless of health or mployment status. Health coverage is seamless; it continues with no lifetime limits and without interruption if Americans lose or change jobs, move from one area of the country to another, become ill or confront a family crisis. Every American citizen will receive a Health Security Card that guarantees comprehensive benefits that can never be taken away.

Fundamental principles underlie health care reform, the guarantee of comprehensive benefits for all Americans, effective steps to control rising health care costs for consumers, business and the nation, mprovements in the quality of health care, increased choice for consumers, reductions in paperwork and a simplified system, making everyone responsible for health care. Americans and their employers are asked to take responsibility for their health coverage and, in return, they are guaranteed the security that they will always be covered under a comprehensive benefit.

The Health Security plan creates incentives for health care providers to compete on the basis of quality, service and price. It unleashes the power of the market and puts American consumers in the driver’s seat. Consumers choose from The plan empowers each state to set up one or more “health alliances” that contract with health plans and bargain on behalf of area consumers and employers. Health plans must meet national standards for coverage, quality, and service set by the National Health Board. But each state tailors its approach to local needs and conditions.

The Health Security plan frees the health care system of much of the paperwork and regulation, allowing doctors, nurses, hospitals and other health providers to focus on providing high-quality care. It cracks down on abuse, reforms malpractice law and policy and outlaws insurance ractices that hurt small businesses and imposes the first national standards for the protection of patient privacy and confidentiality in This plan that has been developed by this movement is under serious scrutiny by the people that dont want to see a change, mainly Republicans.

Their main argument is that by allowing the states to run health care insurance agencies will run out of control.. Unfortunately, reforms have generally relied on increasing government control rather than expanding market choices. A review of nine states’ reforms reveals a host of negative consequences: insurance premiums increase; ccess to medical care is not improved; jobs are lost; spending on goes up; insurance companies leave the market; and medical care is explicitly rationed. The Republicans are completely against state run health care and are fighting for federal government health control.

The Republican plan allows workers to keep their health insurance if they leave or lose their job, even if a worker has a pre- existing condition. Allows the self- employed to deduct from their taxes 80 percent of their health insurance premiums . Allows the self-employed and small businesses with 50 or fewer employees to open tax-free Medical Savings Accounts to pay for routine medical expenses. In the year 2000, MSAs will be made available to businesses with more than 50 workers unless Congress prevents the expansion .

Allows tax deductions for long-term health care, including nursing-home and home-health care. Fights fraud and abuse in the health care system and reduces burdensome paperwork.. The Republican national health plan that would be funded by the federal government and administered by the federal government. The plan would fully cover everyone via a comprehensive public insurance pool, paid for by taxes from individuals and businesses. The plan has rovisions to limit over-treatment and insufficient care, designed to both protect patient interests as well as contain costs.

Costs would also be controlled by cutting the current administrative overload and through health care planning. The plan would not result in an increase in total health expenditures. The people who are now uninsured will be insured with funds deriving from massive savings that will occur from the elimination of the inherent waste in the current system. With more than 1500 insurance companies and virtually countless payment plans and policies, our administrative costs have exploded. A single payer system as a much more basic payment scheme.

Doctors would spend less time on paperwork, and potentially more time with patients. Clinics and hospitals would need fewer staff members, and would require less costly, The details of the Republican plan are as followed. All essential care would be incorporated into the plan, including: mental health, acute care, ambulatory care, long term care and home health care, prescription drugs and medical supplies, rehabilitation services, occupational therapy, and preventive medicine. Exclusions would be made for unnecessary and ineffective procedures.

These exclusions would be etermined by expert panels, most probably made of doctors, nurses, other health care workers, and health planners. Everyone in the U. S. would receive a national health care plan card, with necessary identification encoded on it. The card can then be used to gain access to any fee-for-service practitioner, hospital or clinic. HMO members can receive non-emergency care through the HMO. As mentioned before, to implement the national health program, health care costs do not need to increase.

It would however produce a major shift in payment toward government and away from private insurers and out-of-pocket payments. Individuals and businesses would pay the same amount for health care, on average, but the payments would be in the form of taxes. The taxes contributing to the plan can be found for businesses, for instance, by adding up the amount spent currently by business for health care. This would approximately add up to a 9% tax increase for midsize and large employers .

Hospitals and clinics would receive a global sum on a yearly basis, in addition to allowances for new technology. Funds would be distributed to physicians and other health care workers in one of three ways: through fee-for-service arrangements with a simplified illing schedule, through capitation, paying health care providers on the basis of how many patients they serve, or through global budgets established for hospitals and clinics employing salaried health care The debate stands now between letting the states run health care or continuing control by the federal government.

Both make valid points as to why they are the way to go, but my stance after careful thought is one of compromise. Let the federal government standardize health while the state governments fund it on a state to state level. With a national standard to follow prices would be forced to keep the same hrough out America. Procedures for problems would not be questioned. Finally there will be less paperwork.

Making the state governments fund their own health care system at first lance seems to be cost inefficient. At another look and a explanation I can dispute that. With the government in total control it had one big pile of money it had to divide to all the states and no real way to determine how to divide it. With the individual states involved in funding health care, they know the size of their population, who needs care in their population and can do a more efficient job on a smaller scale.

Also by letting the governments on the state level run everything the problem of the government giving to little to states that need funding and to Unfortunately due to the way the government handles major changes health care reform will most likely be debated for another ten years. The way the debate is moving it seems to be heading towards the state controlled health care, but there doesnt appear to be enough power behind the movement to get it approved. The dream of universal coverage s it a dream or is it a near future for all Americans, only with patience by the people will they find out.

Upholders and health educators for patients

Upholders and health educators for patients, families, and communities, I did my report on Registered Nurses. There are all sorts of fields one could go into. For example, you have hospital, office, home health, nursing home, public health, occupational health nurses, supervisors, nurse practitioners and other advanced practice nurses such as clinical nurse specialists, certified nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse midwives. Among the list of things to go through to be a nurse, a nurse should also be caring and sympathetic.

They must be able to accept responsibility, direct or supervise others, follow orders precisely, and determine when consultation is required. They must also be able to spend a considerable amount of time walking and standing. They need emotional stability to cope with patient suffering, emergencies and other stresses. Other working conditions are you must be able to give up your time for being a specific nurse. Many nurses work nights, weekends and holidays. They may also be on-call.

In addition, they face back injury when moving patients, shocks from electrical equipment, and hazards from compressed gases. Nursing education includes classroom instruction and supervised experience in hospitals and other health facilities. Students take courses in anatomy, physiology, microbiology, chemistry, nutrition, psychology and other behavioral sciences and nursing. They also must take liberal arts classes. In all states, students must graduate from a nursing program and pass a national licensing examination to obtain a nursing license.

Licenses must be renewed periodically; some states require continuing education for license renewal. There are three major education paths to nursing: Associate degree (A. D. N. ), diploma, and Bachelor of Science degree in nursing (B. S. N. ). A. D. N. programs are offered by community and junior colleges and take about two years. Possible places for employment are everywhere. Just to name a few: hospitals, nursing homes and offices.

Employment of RNs is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2006 and because the occupation is large, many new jobs will result. There will always be a need for traditional nurses but a large number of new nurses will be employed in home health, long term and ambulatory care. Many job openings will also result from the need to replace experienced nurses who leave the occupation, especially as the average age of the registered nurse population continues to rise.

Employment in hospitals is expected to grow more slowly than in other health-care sectors. While the intensity of nursing care is likely to increase, requiring more nurses per patient, the number of inpatients is not likely to increase much. Employment in home health care is expected to grow the fastest. This is in response to a growing number of older persons. The type of care demanded will require nurses who are able to perform complex procedures. Employment in nursing homes is expected to grow much faster than average due to increases in the number of people in their 80s and 90s.

Of course, opportunities will be best for nurses with advanced education and training. According to a Hay Group survey of HMOs, group practices, and hospital-based clinics, the median annual base salary of full time nurse practitioners was $66,800 in May 1996. The middle 50 percent earned between $59,300 – $75,700. The group surveyed again in January1997, and a full-time nurse anesthetists earned $82,000, the middle 50 percent $74,700-$90,300. In addition to this, many employers offer flexible work schedules, childcare, educational benefits, and bonuses.

Genetic Testing: Essential for the Future of US Healthcare System

Healthcare in America is in a crisis. By 1996, more than 43 million Americans were uninsured. By 2010, the number is expected to rise to 57 million. These figures are already shocking, but they are even more so considering that the healthcare costs of the US total $1. 2 trillion or 15% of the gross national product (GNP) – the highest in the world. The rise in healthcare costs has been the result of a multitude of factors: aging of the population, skyrocketing prescription drug costs, and stricter healthcare legislation.

But perhaps the greatest contributor to increased costs has been the development of new biomedical technologies and the greater use of sophisticated medical procedures. The development of such technologies has not lead to increased costs as much as our dependence upon such technologies has. They have greatly improved our ability to diagnose and treat illnesses but we continue to use them excessively. As a result, we must find a way to reduce our use of such technologies and therefore reduce our overall health care expenditures. If we do not, healthcare costs will rise to $2. 18 trillion by 2008.

Therefore, the answer to reducing costs is to adopt a healthcare system based upon preventive medicine. With the rapid advances in medical science in the past half century, the healthcare system now has a new “molecular toolkit” at its disposal. Specifically, the availability of genetic testing has made it feasible to diagnose and determine the risk of disease before the actual onset, and therefore reduce our dependence upon costly medical procedures. Thus, to address our concerns of spiraling healthcare costs and inequity in healthcare distribution, I propose the widespread use of genetic testing in the US healthcare system.

What is Genetic Testing? According to the National Human Genome Research Institute, “Genetic testing is the analysis of human DNA, RNA, chromosomes, protein, and certain metabolites in order to detect heritable disease-related genotypes, mutations, phenotypes, or karyotypes for clinical purposes. Prenatal, newborn and carrier screening, as well as testing in high risk families, are included. Tests for metabolites are covered only when they are undertaken with high probability that an excess or deficiency of the metabolite indicates the presence of heritable mutations in single genes.

As of now, nearly 400 genetic tests are currently being offered to the public. The Promise of Genetic Testing Increased information about genetics and disease susceptibility has led to an interest in genetic testing. Initially, medical genetics was devoted largely to the study of relatively rare single-gene or chromosomal disorders. But as result of advances in molecular medicine, genetics is now able to provide information about more common and accordingly more costly diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and coronary artery disease.

It is the predictive ability of genetic tests for these diseases that makes them especially intriguing in adopting a preventive medicine approach and reducing overall healthcare expenditures. In Alzheimer’s disease, there are three rare genetic syndromes that cause people to develop the disease before the age of sixty. These syndromes are caused by mutations in single genes call APP, PS1, and PS2. These mutated genes are usually inherited by one’s parents and virtually guarantee the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

Genetic testing is currently available for these mutations and could prove to be extremely helpful in taking early action against the disease. Breast cancer, a very painful disease emotionally and physically for women, can also be detected with genetic testing. The majority of cases of breast cancer are not the result of known inherited mutations, but rather from two breast cancer susceptibility genes: BRCA1 and BRCA2. Although the two genes are similar, BRCA1 mutations lead to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer, whereas BRCA2 mutations lead to estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

Consequentially, the lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is substantially increased when an individuals has either mutation. The lifetime risk in the general population is 12%, whereas the risk for those with either mutation is 50 to 85%. Colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men and women in the US, can also be genetically determined with currently available genetic tests. There are four types of genetic syndromes that have been associated with colorectal cancer: familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), attenuated FAP (AFAP), hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), familial colorectal cancer (FCC).

In FAP and AFAP, there is a mutation in the APC gene that almost always develops into colorectal cancer. HNPCC results from mutations in the hMSH2 and hMLH1 genes. FCC does not have a firm genetic basis that we know about and thus cannot be predicted using a genetic test. Genetic testing is especially intriguing for colorectal cancer since there were over 130,200 new cases and 56,300 deaths in the year 2000 alone. Coronary artery disease (CAD), the number one killer in the US, can in some ways be detected by a genetic test. Researchers have identified more than 250 genes that may play a role in coronary artery disease.

The major genetic mutations that result in coronary artery disease are those in the low density lipoprotein receptor, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein B-100, apolipoprotein(a), MTHFR, Cystathione B-synthase, apolipoprotein A1, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. Although genetic test alone cannot determine the specific risk of heart disease, it can provide important additional information when done along with other diagnostic tests. The Economics of Genetic Testing Genetic testing provides important information for assessing the susceptibility of a disease. But will it save the healthcare system money if used? The answer is yes.

Widespread genetic testing will provide the following economic benefit: more efficient allocation of resources by healthcare providers in the public and private sectors while significantly reducing overall healthcare costs. Genetic testing will provide healthcare providers with a greater knowledge of the needs of society. With this information, providers can plan and more efficiently allocate resources based upon the demographic information obtained from genetic tests. Capital expenditures can be optimized by assessing the true needs from the data provided rather than relying upon information from the past.

Furthermore, capital allocation for research and development can be more properly distributed for the same reasons. As a result, precious healthcare dollars can be targeted towards needs with a scientific justification. Genetic testing will also improve the allocation of future human capital. Training of future healthcare providers, such as doctors, nurses and technicians can be planned to maximize payback based on the information provided from genetic testing. Decisions concerning human capital allocation can now be based upon a more accurate projection of need rather than upon the inefficiencies of the current system.

Genetic testing can also significantly reduce healthcare costs if used as a form of preventive medicine. As we already discussed, genetic testing does not diagnose a disease, but rather determines the risk or susceptibility the individual has for a disease. Therefore, genetic tests used in conjunction with other means of preventive medicine could prove to be especially beneficial for the healthcare system. Consider the following scenario. Person A, age 45 years goes to his primary physician for his annual check up.

He mentions to his doctor that his 47 year-old brother was recently diagnosed with colon cancer and further reveals that his maternal uncle died of colon cancer in his 50s. The clinician, aware of the benefits of genetic tests, suggests testing and sure enough, a mutation in the MLH1 gene is discovered in person A. As a result the doctor suggests that person A have an annual colonoscopy. With this early detection and screening, person A’s likelihood of long survival increases significantly. This scenario presents a perfect example of how genetic testing can play an important role in preventive medicine and thus reduce healthcare costs.

According to a report in the April 5, 2000 Journal of the National Cancer Institute, endoscopic screening for colorectal cancer may save enough in future treatments costs to pay for itself. If a program of continuing screening had begun in 1993, endoscopic screening performed every five years would result in a net savings of $5 per person in the US, the researchers calculated. Furthermore, a study published in the October 2000 Annals of Internal Medicineconcluded, “Colonoscopy represents a cost-effective means of screening for colorectal cancer because it reduces mortality at relatively low incremental costs.

Given this data, genetic testing improves the situation since it more accurately determines whether a patient should opt for more diagnostic tests. Rather than wastefully screening everyone, genetic testing is able to determine who really needs more diagnostic tests. As we can see, genetic testing not only allows us to allocate our resources more efficiently, but also leads to a reduction in healthcare costs. Genetic testing can also be a relief for the healthcare system in the treatment of breast cancer.

Researchers from Lahey’s Risk Assessment Clinic concluded that genetics brings with it opportunities for improved medical care and will eventually save more lives and healthcare dollars. They specifically found that early detection of cancer in the form of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations can result in cost savings of at least $10,000 per patient as the cost of treating cancer grows. Furthermore, genetic testing coupled with prophylactic surgery or chemoprevention may decrease the incidence of cancer and therefore eliminate the need for the cost of treatment in its entirety.

Prophylactic surgery would also eliminate the need for periodic screening. With all this data considered, the Lahey study concluded that the incremental cost per life-year saved who carry the genetic mutation is between $336 to $1,271. In addition to prophylactic surgery, genetic testing can also make way for more efficient use of mammography, which is also cost effective. In the Netherlands, the Gaiha – page 8 annual mammographic screening of women aged 50-69 years was estimated at a cost of $14,800 per life year gained. Simulated models based on the United Kingdom estimate costs ranging from $4500 to $5500 per life year saved.

Estimates using data from the US Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP) showed that annual screening of women aged 55-65 years with physical examination and mammography yielded a marginal cost of $22,000 per life year saved. Thus, genetic testing can efficiently reduce healthcare costs in the treatment of breast cancer as well. Now the question most people are asking: what about the expensive costs of genetic tests themselves? Now this question is valid, especially looking at things in the short-term. But we are concerned about changes that will have a long-term effect on the healthcare system.

Clearly, genetic testing saves money in the long term by more efficiently adopting a preventive medicine approach. But we must also look at the price of genetic tests in the long term. As genetic testing proves to be a more and more useful tool for fighting and predicting disease, the tests will surely become more widely used. As a result, more genetic test producers will enter the market place to account for the increased demand resulting in a lowering of price. Therefore, in the long term, genetic tests will become less expensive and as a result, more attractive.

Improved Quality of Life Along with obvious economic improvements for the healthcare system, genetic tests also boast potential improvements in the overall quality of life. Throughout this paper, the focus has been on genetic tests for diseases that have serious economic effects on the healthcare system. But genetic tests are essential for the proper diagnosis of rare single-gene disorders. As of now, scientists are aware of the specific mutations in numerous single-gene disorders. Unfortunately, they have been unable to develop treatments for any of these diseases.

Examples of such diseases are Tay-Sachs, cystic fibrosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s disease, retinoblastoma, Wilms’ tumor and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Genetic testing allows doctors to not only categorically determine the onset of such a disease, but rather to determine the disease early in its progression. As a result, treatment steps can be taken quickly and improve the quality of life in this way. Furthermore, families of the victims can begin preparing for the onset of the disease earlier, and thus make dealing with the problem easier.

Genetic testing, because it is a preventive medicine approach, improves quality of life by eliminating the mental and physical anguish associated with disease. If an individual suffers through cancer and survives, it is not only he who had to deal with the trauma, but his entire family as well. In addition to emotional trauma, genetic testing also reduces the financial burden of families. In more ways than one, genetic testing clearly improves the quality of life and many members of the healthcare system. With this improved quality of life comes a more productive society.

Workers are sick less often, spending less money on healthcare, and are more able to continue Gaiha – page 10 working and remain productive members of society. Thus, in this way, genetic testing continues to have economic benefits. Implications for the Healthcare System In adopting genetic testing, we are able to efficiently allocate our resources and can do so while still cutting overall costs. But we cannot forget about the 43 million Americans without insurance. Reducing costs through genetic testing now allows us to provide insurance to these individuals.

I am not certain whether they should be provided with insurance from the public or private sector, but at least the means for making such a decision are now available. Introducing genetic testing does have its drawbacks. Many people are concerned that genetic testing will result in a kind of “genetic profiling” that will punish people for having certain genetics. This punishment may be in the form of denial of health insurance, life insurance or employment. In response to these claims, I stand in full support of the actions of our government.

Genetic testing could have incredible benefits in terms of economic savings and improvement in quality of care, but this will all be meaningless if high-risk individuals become genetically discriminated. Therefore, I propose the swift ratification of bills in Congress outlawing genetic discrimination by insurance providers, and also the setting of premiums based upon genetic information. I am in full support of healthcare providers using the information to more efficiently allocate resources as I previously discussed, but not to treat individuals inequitably.

Conclusion Genetic testing needs to play an increasingly important role in the US healthcare system. As we have seen, genetic testing will allow healthcare providers to allocate resources more efficiently while still reducing overall healthcare expenditures. From these savings, healthcare reform can begin to take action in the form of providing uninsured individuals with health insurance options. It is the eventual hope that through the use of genetic testing and a more preventive medicine approach, that state of healthcare in the US will no longer be in crisis.

The Eye and Laser Eye Surgery

A Functioning Eye (Emmetropia)The eye is the organ of sight. It is used in almost everything we do, from playing sport to reading. A normal and well functioning eye can focus objects and images, both near and far, perceive depth and adapt to changes in light. The perception of depth is due to having two separate eyes creating two separate images, while the ability to adapt to light change is attributed to the iris and the dilator muscles. However these two aspects of the eye are not involved in laser eye surgery and will not be discussed in reference.

The focusing of objects and images is very much part of laser eye surgery. In order for a clear visual image to be formed the image must come to a point on the retina. Light rays do not normally travel toward each other, usually the light rays either travel outwards or almost parallel, for this reason the light rays must be refracted. The cornea is the primary place of refraction, the bent light rays then travel through the aqueous humor and the pupil to the lens. Here the light is one again refracted even closer together, the light then goes through the vitreous humor and is projected onto the retina.

The focus of the lens should be aimed at the fovea centralis (a tiny pit in the middle of the macula). It is in this region that vision is most sharp. For this reason, instead of simply staring at one point the eye must constantly scan the area to focus the whole object or image. In order to accommodate the changing distances of the object or image the lens in the eye has to adjust, becoming thinner to focus distant objects and fatter to focus near by objects. This process, of changing the lens thickness is known as accommodation.

In order for this to occur the ciliary muscles contract and relax. The contraction fattens the lens and the relaxation stretches the lens. The eye functions on much the same principle as a camera. The iris, or coloured portion of the eye, acts as a shutter to regulate the amount of light admitted to the eye. The cornea (the clear window at the front of the eye) and the lens (located behind the pupil) serve to focus light rays from the object viewed onto the retina at the back of the eye. The retina then transmits the “picture” of the object viewed to the brain where the object is “seen”.

Clear vision is the result of light rays passing through the cornea, pupil and lens and focusing directly upon the retina. If the cornea is not round or it is too steep or too flat in relation to the length of the eye, light rays focus either in front of or behind the retina resulting in “refractive errors” such as nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia) and astigmatism. Refractive surgery is a term for several procedures designed to treat these vision abnormalities. Eye DefectsMyopia – is the refractive condition where the farthest point of focus is located at a point near to the observer, and not at infinity.

When one is nearsighted, distance vision is blurred at all times while near vision is often excellent within a certain range. There are a number of explanations for this optical condition. The eyeball may be too long, causing the image to be focused short of the retina at the back of the eye. Or, the focusing lenses of the eye are too strong. The primary focusing lens is the cornea, the clear window at the very front of your eye. The internal lens, called the crystalline lens, is adjustable and alters your focus from distance to near. Sometimes, one of these two lenses may have a radius of curvature that is too steep.

In myopia, it is often the cornea that is too highly curved. It is this curvature which is altered in laser eye surgery. Shortening the eyeball has been tried, but it has not been without the potential of serious and permanent damage. Often in situations where the crystalline lens is forced into an excessive plus power curvature, myopia can result. This may occur from near vision stress, a spasm of the ciliary muscle, diet, medications, and even emotional fatigue. Hyperopia – The cornea and the lens work together to focus images from the visual world on the back of the eye (the retina).

If an image is out of focus, it is typically because the overall shape of the eye is incorrect or the cornea does not have the proper curvature. Farsightedness or hyperopia occurs when the eye is too small or the cornea is too flat. When this happens, visual images are focused behind the retina. A person with hyperopia is able to see objects at a distance, but has trouble with objects up close. Many people are not diagnosed with hyperopia without a complete eye exam. Astigmatism – is a vision condition that occurs when the front surface of your eye, the cornea, is slightly irregular in shape.

This irregular shape prevents light from focusing properly on the back of your eye, the retina. The light becomes unevenly refracted and falls short of the retina. As a result, your vision may be blurred at all distances. People with severe astigmatism will usually have blurred or distorted vision, while those with mild astigmatism may experience headaches, eyestrain, fatigue or blurred vision at certain distances. Most people have some degree of astigmatism. A comprehensive optometric examination will include testing to diagnose astigmatism and determine the degree.

Presbyopia – is a vision condition in which the crystalline lens of your eye loses its flexibility, which makes it difficult to focus on close up objects. Presbyopia may seem to occur suddenly, but the actual loss of flexibility takes place over a number of years. Presbyopia usually becomes noticeable in the early to mid-forties. Presbyopia is a natural part of the aging process of the eye. It is not a disease and it cannot be prevented. Some signs of presbyopia include the tendency to hold reading materials at arm’s length, blurred vision at normal reading distance and eye fatigue along with headaches when doing close work.

A comprehensive optometric examination will include testing for presbyopia. What is Laser Eye Surgery? Laser surgery reshapes the cornea, the clear window in front of the eye, which provides two-thirds of the focussing or refractive power of the eye (the lens located behind the iris and pupil provides one third). Shortsightedness is corrected by making the cornea flatter. Long-sightedness is corrected by making the corneal curve steeper while astigmatism is corrected by returning the cornea to a spherical shape. Excimer lasers were first developed by the computer industry for precisely etching microchips, are used.

The same cold ultraviolet beam with the assistance of computer technology accurately removes corneal tissue, altering its shape. To correct most vision problems the amount of corneal tissue removed is less than a third of the thickness of a human hair. History of the Excimer LaserThis recent development in the application of lasers to ophthalmology was the reshaping of the cornea in a procedure known as photorefractive keratectomy. The excimer laser itself, a device that often uses a mixture of argon and fluorine gases(other gases such as Xenon and Chlorine can also be used), was developed in the mid-1970s.

A number of researchers were involved in early work with the excimer laser and its application to ophthalmology. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, John Taboada found that corneal epithelium is extremely sensitive to the excimer’s 193-nanometer wavelength light. Also in the early 1980s, R. Srinivasan, an IBM researcher, was using an excimer laser to etch microscopic circuits in computer chips and discovered that it could also be used to cut and remove biological tissue, with extreme precision and most importantly without substantial thermal damage.

Stephen Trokel, of Columbia University, worked with Srinivasan and in 1983 published his work on applying this precision to create linear “excisions” in the cornea. How the Excimer Laser WorksIn the development of laser technology, excimer lasers operating in the ultra-violet may be considered as the third generation of industrial lasers. The short wavelength, or, in other words, the high photon energy of excimer lasers, leads to a wide range of new applications. Excimer stands for excited dimer, a diatomic molecule usually of an inert (noble) gas atom and a halide atom, which are bound in excited states only.

These diatomic molecules have very short lifetimes and separate releasing the excittion energy through UV photons. The Excimer Laser used is an Ultraviolet Light Laser. This light has a high degree of energy associated to it. This energy does not produce appreciable heat but is capable of breaking the bonds between the complex molecules that make up the corneal tissue. A powerful computer guides the Laser beam during the procedure to obtain the degree of accuracy required to remodel the cornea. An electrical discharge is used to bring energy into the laser.

The current required for laser operation is very high, so the discharge becomes inherently unstable after a certain time. The laser can therefore only operate in pulses. With a sophisticated electrical circuit the discharge can be kept stable for 400ns (nano-seconds). The corresponding optical pulse of 250 is very long compared to other lasers. The discharge is build up in three phases: 1) X-ray pre-ionisation provides a homogeneous distribution of electrons in the discharge area. 2) A high voltage pre-pulse with a very fast rise time multiplies these electrons in an avalanche process, providing a homogeneous ignition of the discharge.

Finally the main pulse gives the high current at moderate voltage to create the laser output. The energy per pulse is 1 Joule. With a repetition rate of 1 kHz this makes an average power of 1 kW. The efficiency of the laser is about 2 %, so 50 kW of electrical input power is required. To reach 1 kHz repetition rate a large flow loop, as in the drawing below, is required. 3) Between every shot the gas needs to be refreshed to start with homogeneous conditions. The used gas is turbulent and contains all kinds of charged particles. A centrifugal blower circulates the gas.

The heat exchanger removes the heat from the blower and the discharge. The settling chamber reduces turbulence and the contractor speeds up the gas flow to refresh the gas between the electrodes within 1 ms (micro-second). The diffuser converts the gas speed back into pressure and then the gas enters the blower again. Types of Laser Eye SurgeryPhotorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) – treats lower degrees of myopia and astigmatism problems. The procedure is done under what is known as topical anesthesia. Anesthetic eye drops are administered to numb the eye before the surgery begins.

The protective layer of the cornea, known as epithelium, is removed. Then, using the excimer laser, a precise amount of tissue is removed to correct the specific refractive error. The laser removes less than 1/1000 of a millimeter of tissue, less than the thickness of a human hair. For nearsighted people, tissue is removed from the central cornea, thus have the effect of flattening the cornea. For farsighted individuals, tissue is removed from the peripheral cornea a steepening effect on the cornea. For astigmatism, the curvature of the cornea is evened out by sculpting tissue along a specific area or axis.

A contact lens, known as a bandage contact is then put in place and will be removed three to four days later, after the epithelium has regenerated. Vision is generally blurry for several days after the surgery but improves after the contact is removed and gradually improves further over the next several weeks. The entire procedure usually takes about 20 to 25 minutes per eye, with a short recovery period after the surgery. Laser Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) – is a procedure used to correct nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.

The operation is done under what is known as topical anesthesia. Anesthetic eye drops are administered to numb the eye before the surgery begins. With LASIK, the cornea is reshaped under a flap, thus changing the way the light entering your eye is focused. LASIK is able to correct to correct almost all degrees of refractive errors from low to high. LASIK offers the advantage of quicker visual recovery, because it is done under a flap. A specially designed instrument called a microkeratome is used to create a thin flap of corneal tissue. The flap is then deflected back to expose the underlying corneal tissue.

Then, using the excimer laser, a precise amount of tissue is removed to correct specific refractive error. The laser removes less than 1/1000 of a millimeter of tissue, less than the thickness of a human hair. For nearsighted individuals, tissue is removed from the central cornea, thus have the effect of flattening the cornea. For farsighted individuals, tissue is removed from the peripheral cornea, thus having the effect of steepening the cornea. For astigmatism, the curvature of the cornea is evened out by sculpting tissue along a specific area or axis. The corneal flap is then replaced and precisely aligned to its’ original position.

Because of the natural bonding process that occurs in the cornea, sutures are not required. Vision is usually much better immediately after surgery and gradually clears over the next 36 to 48 hours. The entire procedure usually takes about 10 to 15 minutes per eye, with a short recovery period after the surgery. Radial Keratectomy (RK) – is an incisional procedure used to correct mild to moderate amounts of myopia. A series of incisions are made with a diamond scalpel, preset to a precise measurement, starting near the center of the cornea and radiating out toward the periphery.

No incisions are made in the central cornea, thus allowing light to pass through a clear central window. Usually four to eight incisions are placed equally spaced around the cornea to a depth of 80% – 90% of the thickness of the cornea. The incisions allow the central cornea to flatten, thus reducing the amount of myopia. The number, depth, and length of the incisions determine the amount of correction that can be achieved with RK. With the advent of laser correction, RK is generally reserved for low levels of myopia or for people who for other reasons may not be candidates for laser surgery.

Astigmatic Keratectomy (AK) – is an incisional procedure used to correct mild to high amounts of regular astigmatism. Astigmatism occurs when the cornea is shaped like an oval, rather than a circle. The cornea with astigmatism typically has a steep curve in one quadrant and a flatter curve in the opposite quadrant. Incisions are made with a diamond scalpel, preset to a precise measurement, in the periphery of the cornea in the quadrant where the steepest curvature occurs. These incisions allow the cornea to relax and thus take on the shape of the flatter quadrant.

AK is often used in conjunction with both PRK and LASIK when a person has a high amount of astigmatism. The AK can be performed either prior to or after a laser procedure. Automated Lamellar Keratoplasty (ALK) – For those people with higher degrees of nearsightedness, there is another possible procedure for reshaping the cornea. In cases of moderate to severe nearsightedness, and even some cases of farsightedness, many leading ophthalmologists choose to perform Automated Lamellar Keratoplasty, or ALK. ALK is done with an instrument called a microkeratome.

The microkeratome is placed on the eye and the cap of the cornea is lifted and placed to the side. In nearsighted people, a microscopically thin section of the cornea is removed with the excimer laser. Then the cap of the cornea is placed back in position. It adheres quickly and seals itself without the use of stitches. In farsighted people the cap of the cornea is lifted, as it seals itself, the pressure within the eye pushed up on the cornea, steepening its curve. In either case, the result is a cornea that has been fine tuned to reduce the refractive error.

Insulin-Dependent Diabetes

The information contained in the Rare Disease Database is provided for educational purposes only. It should not be used for diagnostic or treatment purposes. If you wish to obtain more information about this disorder, please contact your personal physician and/or the agencies listed in the “Resources” section of this report. Insulin-dependent Diabetes is a disorder in which the body does not produce enough insulin and is, therefore, unable to convert nutrients into the energy necessary for daily activity. The disorder affects females and males approximately equally.

Although the causes of nsulin-dependent diabetes are not known, genetic factors seem to play a role. Symptomatology ——————————– Normally, sugars and starches (carbohydrates) in the foods we eat are processed by digestive juices into glucose. Glucose circulates in the blood as a major energy source for body functions. Its use is regulated primarily by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas gland (located behind the stomach). In the person with diabetes, there is a malfunction in the production of insulin.

There are two main types of diabetes: Type I or Insulin-Dependent and Type II or Noninsulin-Dependent. The insulin-dependent type of diabetes generally has onset during childhood or adolescence, though it can occur at any age. Because the pancreas supplies little or no insulin in this disease, daily injections of the hormone and a controlled diet are necessary to regulate blood sugar levels. Insulin is generally effective in preventing glucose buildup, but it is a treatment and not a cure for diabetes.

The onset of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes begins with frequent urination, extreme thirst, constant hunger, and unexplained weight loss. Because people with Type I Diabetes lack sufficient insulin, glucose accumulates in the blood to levels too high for the kidneys to excrete. In an effort to remove the excess sugar, the kidneys excrete large amounts of water as well as essential body elements resulting in frequent urination, thirst, and weakness. Hunger and fatigue are caused by the body’s inability to utilize foods properly for nourishment and energy.

To find alternate sources of energy, the body turns to its stores of fat and protein, causing weight loss and the accumulation of fat breakdown products (acetone and related cids) in the blood. These metabolites of fat produce increased acidity of the blood, and a potentially fatal condition (ketoacidosis) can result if treatment is not prompt. A child with Type I Diabetes may also fail to grow and develop normally. Diabetics of all ages may experience itching of the skin, changes in vision, and slow healing of cuts and bruises.

Medical attention should be sought if any of these symptoms occur. The diabetic condition can result in certain long-term complications which may involve many organs of the body. The blood essels, nervous system, kidneys and eyes are particularly affected. While successful control of blood glucose levels may reduce the risk of complications, the exact relationship between these factors is not fully understood. Studies are being conducted to determine whether strict blood glucose control plays a significant role in preventing or delaying the onset of complications resulting from diabetes. . Cardiovascular Complications. Heart and blood vessel diseases such as heart attack, hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis), and stroke are the leading causes of llness, disability and death among diabetics. Persons with diabetes are twice as likely to suffer from coronary heart disease and stroke and five times as likely to suffer from arterial disease of the limbs than the non-diabetic population. Exactly how diabetes damages the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. 2. Diabetic Nephropathy (Kidney Disease).

Kidney (renal) disease, or diabetic nephropathy, can be a serious complication of diabetes. Normally, the kidneys cleanse impurities from the blood, but diabetes can cause damage to the blood essels in the kidney and interfere with this vital process. A procedure called hemodialysis is frequently used to remove waste products from the blood when the kidneys can no longer perform this function adequately. Diabetics with serious renal disease may also be candidates for a kidney transplant if a suitable donor organ is available. 3. Diabetic Neuropathy (damage to the nerves).

Diabetes can also cause a complication called Diabetic Neuropathy which is damage to the peripheral nerves. These nerves run throughout the body, connecting the spinal cord to muscles, skin, blood vessels, and all ther organs. Most importantly, they serve as the primary link between the central nervous system and the entire body. Diabetes is a common cause of peripheral neuropathy; however, this condition can also result from injury, alcoholism, or other factors. Almost all people with diabetes eventually develop some peripheral nerve involvement, but for many, it is slight and produces no symptoms.

For the 10 to 25 percent who suffer from serious neuropathy, it can produce problems such as tingling and numbness in the feet, dizziness, impotence, leg pain and double vision. 4. Diabetic Retinopathy (damaged retina). Diabetes is the leading cause of partial loss of vision and new blindness in the United States today. Generally, diabetes affects the retina of the eye and produces a variety of changes referred to as diabetic retinopathy. Less frequent, but no less serious, are several other eye problems caused by diabetes including cataracts, glaucoma, and optic nerve disease.

While many persons with diabetes undergo some changes in the retina, only about 3 percent are seriously threatened with blindness. Today, there are approximately 150,000 Americans who uffer significant visual impairment due to diabetic retinopathy. (For more information on this disorder, choose “Diabetic Retinopathy” as your search term in the Rare Disease Database. ) Although the way in which diabetes damages eye tissue is not known, two important treatments have been developed in recent years.

The first, laser photocoagulation, uses finely focused beams of laser light to seal off and destroy abnormal retinal vessels and diseased tissues. While this treatment does not prevent diabetic changes from taking place, it has proven beneficial in reducing the risk of severe ision loss in many cases. The second technique, vitrectomy, involves surgical removal of cloudy eye fluids that result from blood vessel hemorrhage. This procedure offers hope to people with severely impaired vision resulting from this form of diabetic retinopathy.

Scientists continue to explore better use of these techniques as well as the basic causes of eye damage resulting from diabetes. 5. Complications of Pregnancy. Diabetic women run a greater risk of having babies who are stillborn, die in infancy, and suffer from congenital defects than do non-diabetics. It is not uncommon for infants of diabetic mothers to be larger than normal at birth if maternal blood glucose level is elevated. In fact, this is sometimes a warning sign of diabetes in a woman who has not yet been diagnosed with the disorder.

Strict attention to control of diabetes is essential during pregnancy to help reduce risks to both mother and baby. Diabetic emergencies which require prompt medical attention include hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis. Hypoglycemia, also called “insulin reaction” or “insulin shock” can occur if the blood sugar level of the person with diabetes falls too low. This results from too much insulin in the system caused by too large a dose of insulin, overly strenuous exercise, or failure to eat shortly after insulin is taken.

Although each person may react differently, common symptoms of insulin reaction include trembling, sweating and nervousness. Some persons with diabetes may experience hunger, headache, nausea, drowsiness, or symptoms similar to inebriation. In severe cases of insulin shock, the person with diabetes may even become unconscious. A careful blend of correct amounts of insulin, exercise and food can usually prevent insulin reaction. When hypoglycemia does occur, however, most people with diabetes sense early warning signals and eat or drink something sweet to raise the amount of sugar in the blood.

If a person is unconscious, an injection of glucose solution or the hormone glucagon (which stimulates the production of glucose), should be administered. Ketoacidosis, or Diabetic Coma, results from too little insulin in the system. When the body is unable to use glucose for fuel, it draws on its own stores of protein and fat for energy. Acids, or ketones, produced by the excessive breakdown of fat then accumulate in the blood stream uicker than the kidneys can excrete them. Unlike hypoglycemia, the symptoms of ketoacidosis develop slowly over a period of days.

The person with diabetes may begin to experience abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, rapid breathing and drowsiness. If left untreated, ketoacidosis can progress to coma and death. Ketoacidosis can be prevented by careful daily evaluation of insulin needs. Particularly stressful situations such as illness or surgery may require increased amounts of insulin. Most importantly, a person with diabetes should never skip or delay an insulin injection nd should pay careful attention to his/her diet.

A survey by the U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare during 1960 to 1962 on forty-four million adults showed that men and women with diabetes ran a higher than average risk of periodontal disease. Related Disorders ——————————– Type II Diabetes (Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) is the more common form of the disorder. Also known as Adult Onset Diabetes, it usually occurs after the age of 40 years. This type of diabetes is not secondary to other diseases or conditions.

In many cases, he disorder can be controlled through diet, regular exercise, and sometimes, with oral medications (e. g. , chlorpropamide, glypizide, or glyburide). Therapies: Standard ——————————– A daily routine of insulin-injection, controlled diet, exercise to burn off glucose, and testing for blood sugar level is vital in achieving and maintaining good blood sugar control in patients with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes. Urine testing for glucose spillage had been a standard recommendation in past years, but has now been replaced with self blood glucose testing.

Self monitoring of blood glucose levels uses a single drop of blood which is obtained with a finger stick, and placed on a chemically treated pad on a plastic strip; the color change of the chemically treated pad is compared to a color chart or “read” by a battery operated portable meter. Insulin must be given by injection, usually two or more times each day. Recently portable “insulin pumps” have been developed, which permit continuous administration of insulin, as well as additional amounts of insulin when needed to control the changes in blood sugar level that occurs after meals.

Etiology ——————————- The exact causes of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes are not known although most types of diabetes are known to have hereditary factors. Scientists believe that both heredity and environment may play important roles in the development of diabetes. Research suggests that certain viruses, in combination with genetic susceptibility and other unknown environmental factors, may trigger the onset of some types of this disorder. High levels of growth hormone in adolescents and adults under stress may also stimulate the production of glucose by the liver. Insulin-Dependent Diabetes

Paradigms of Health Care

In this paper I will be discussing the two most prevalent models of health. These two models of health are not, of course, total opposites. Similar to terms such as gay and straight they are two definitive labels placed upon a broad spectrum that is hardly definitive. There exists in this case as well a large clouded middle between the two limiting labels. These are collections of thoughts about how to go about continuing life. These two paradigms in modern healthcare I hope will one-day come to know one another.

For now let us say that in generally speaking there are two different approaches or models of medicine and they are allopathic and holistic. Allopathic is another term for our modern western medicine, which in the United States is the dominant one and the one most familiar to the masses. The other, the holistic model, also known as alternative, is commonly associated with older ideas that originated in the East. This first paradigm of thinking when it comes to medicine is the modern-day allopathic approach. This model of care has behind it an idea that there is a separation between the body and mind. The mind is seen as secondary to the body.

Illnesses that are seen as psychosomatic are to be fixed in the mind and perhaps the patient would even be referred to a psychiatrist. The training of a medical doctor in this approach rests primarily on looking to quantitative information like research and charts. It does not matter who the observer is the same results should be achieved. This approach views the other as being outdated and sometimes even uncivilized. The second paradigm of thinking, the holistic model believes that there is a connection not only between the body and mind but also the soul something not often considered in the allopathic ideal.

The mind is either primary or at least as equal to the body in respect to importance. The idea of bodymind as it is called is something to be considered by all health care professionals. Information is based on qualitative information from the patient and from the professional’s own intuition, quantitative data is an adjunct. This approach to medicine sees the allopathic approach as one that is too limiting. In the allopathic model, when it comes to examining the patient the physician, the allopath, looks mainly for symptoms.

The allopath is taught to look for specifics; something that could be labeled and classified. If a patent were to go a doctor who is a General Practitioner of Medicine (GP), he or she, would most likely make a routine check of the individual’s vital signs to start to see if there were any evidence of what could be deemed illness. If there were not any to be found then the doctor would most likely investigate further. The holistic practitioner also would examine the vital signs of the individual but would also try to see patterns in the individuals general health and to note them.

Many of the differences in ideas are caused simply by the difference in the cultures from which they sprang. Our society is founded on capitalism and is incessant for more. For this reason it is no wonder that an allopath is trained with an emphasis on efficiency. In the cultures of the East, many of which trail us in modern technology and differ in values, a holistic practitioner is taught to have an emphasis on human values. Our culture while it knows that addictions such as smoking or drinking causes the body to be less resistant to illness but our society that is more intrigued with the pleasure principle will not stop.

The theologies of the east particularly Buddhism and Hinduism teaches towards finding freedoms from addictions and also wants. Buddha taught that as long as life is the striving towards obtaining gratification then life would always be suffering since one would always desire to have more. The yogis and monks of the East influenced holistic medicine greatly. Many of these men gave up certain foods and studied the body’s reactions. Vegetarian diets were often employed in the East and this was probably either for religious reasons or economic ones. There are Fruitarians who only eat fruit.

Others who only drink water and even those who only breathe (breatharians). The breath is one of the primary things in holistic health to consider since an individual can live weeks without food, days without water but only minutes without air. How a health professional is to act is also different. In the traditional model the individual is a professional who is a representative of the medical industry and what it stands for. A MD is taught to be emotionally neutral as so too not interfere with the diagnosis. Personal involvement with the patient is shunned upon.

In the holistic model one must be emotionally involved. Involvement is seen as a necessary component of healing. The holistic practitioner takes into account their feelings and reactions to utilize these in their treatment. The emotional reactions of the clients are also taken into account in these two models but also in different ways. Pain and disease are seen as negative in the allopathic model. These things and any kind of disability are seen as an entity. This entity is to be destroyed in the allopathic view. The traditional model seeks to cure a patient of his or her ills.

To cure is for the body to be free of any illness. In the holistic model pain and disease are considered to be positive. Quite differently from the traditional, any disability is seen as a process. The holistic view is that pain and disease would be something to be learned from because these may be signals of some internal conflict. The holistic model seeks to heal the individual. This is called a way of life since even a dying individual can be healing if their experience is one of balance, integration and a satisfaction from deep within.

An allopath does more of the work in our modern medicine and believes primarily in intervention. As a treatment, he mainly uses drugs and surgery. The holistic model prefers minimal intervention when it comes to technology. A holistic practitioner would place emphasis primarily on instructing the patient to make changes in that individual’s lifestyle, since this is where the illness began this is where it should be treated. Medication is seen as a quick fix that glosses over the problem, the cause. Nutrition is of vital importance to the holistic practitioner.

If any treatment were employed it would then be complemented by this. Allopathic or holistic both agree that a healthy diet is imperative to health. This coupled with a regiment of exercise will also aid the body in its resistance to environmental stresses. These two models in theory often times agree, it is in application that they differ. When viewing the body in the traditional paradigm it is considered to be like a machine, which functions or does not. Treatment is to return it to working condition by eliminating the symptoms and the disease.

The individual can prevent disease by changing environmental issues. The alternative view is that the body is seen as “a dynamic system, a complex energy field within fields (family, workplace, environment, culture life history)” (Ferguson 248). This field is constantly interacting with the individual’s environment and is affected by their place in the world and in society. The patient must realize these influences which this and change themselves to adapt or if need be then to change their environment. Treatment does not end when symptoms of illness are gone instead it continues towards a greater idea of health.

In the traditional model the patient gives himself or herself up to their doctor so to speak. This professional is viewed as the authority and the patient is dependent upon them and also their treatments. A patient of holistic therapies is autonomous any treatment would be make the individual have greater independence. The practitioner is considered to be a partner in the process towards healing. Underlying holistic medicine the idea of balance can be heard. Balance is want the holistic idea towards healing is all about. This is why it believes in incorporation of western and eastern therapies.

It sees western therapies as often being drastic because of the eastern therapy idea of the body’s ability to prevent most illness but does believe that they are sometimes necessary. There are many modalities that encompass the term holistic. They range from ones similar to western medicine such as Chiropractic and Ayurveda to others that are not at all alike. Chiropractors make up the second most health professionals, the first are General Practitioners and the third are Dentists. Chiropractors use manipulations to stretch and align the spine.

The theory of chiropractic is based on the spine because it is the highway of the central nervous system it is imperative that it is healthy. Manipulations offer increased blood flow and bring the body into its natural alignment. Chiropractic practices are seen by modern medicine as being useful for back problems but have yet to acknowledge the claims that they can help with some illnesses. An osteopath is Medical Doctor who is often considered similar to a chiropractor. Osteopaths also use spinal manipulations but are not limited to them. Besides these osteopaths manipulate the entire musculoskeletal system.

This like chiropractic can cause increased blood flow and also correct any imbalances caused by sustained trauma to the body like car accidents for example. Both this and chiropractic can loosely fall under the term bodywork. There are other modalities that are more associated with the term bodywork. These are the various kinds of massage: Swedish, deep tissue, Shiatsu, Rolfing a deep tissue manipulation that releases emotions trapped in the muscles and others. Massage on particular parts of the body like the feet in reflexology, are thought to relieve stress in the internal organs.

Another is the Alexander Technique, which is a retraining of the body to move properly. Yoga is a word commonly associated with the physical body exercise but it really means path to enlightenment. There are many different branches of yoga. Some like Hatha and even Jhana yoga focus on the body, utilizing asanas (body poses that incorporate breathing and stretching) and also meditation. These systems have formed the basis for modern day Pilates, aerobics and even recently isometrics. Other paths of yoga are more internally orientated such as Karma Yoga. In all yogas breathing is considered vitally important.

Yoga originates in India and is greatly utilized in Ayurveda. Ayurveda the science of India is a system of medicine that is concerned with “Eight branches of medicine: pediatrics, gynecology, obstetrics, ophthalmology, geriatrics, otolaryngology, general medicine and surgery” (Lad, Intro. ). This two thousand-year-old system is the basis for much of today’s modern medicine. It sees man as a microcosm of the universe and seeks to achieve the homeostasis that is seen in nature. There are many Ayurvedic practitioners who have come to the United States to become Medical Doctors and who utilize both schools of medicine.

Dr. Deepak Chopra is one of these; he came from India an Ayurvedic Doctor and is now a MD as well. Chopra has written numerous books on health and is one of people whom are responsible for bringing the ideas of the East to the West. Acupuncture originated in China over 5,000 years ago. This science is based on energy meridians that flow throughout the body. Illness is caused by these meridians being out of balance. An acupuncturist manipulates these lines using needles that redirect too much energy to places that are lacking in it.

Acupuncture has been used successfully in modern medicine as an alternative to anesthesia. Other modalities that utilize and manipulate energy are Reiki, Therapeutic Touch (TT), and hands-on-healing. These all involve the user channeling a healing energy into the patient. Reiki and TT are specific forms of the generic hands-on-healing. For someone to practice Reiki they must first be attuned by a Reiki Master, who has gone through at least the first three attunements of Reiki. There are 12 in all. TT has been utilized in hospitals for many years and is now part of a nurse’s curriculum.

As I said before nutrition is very important to the holistic model of health. There are even modalities that focus specifically on them. A naturopath is someone who prescribes only food for the curing of illness. A herbalist is similar, they too prescribe only natural herbs to fight illness and disease. A Homeopath takes the sickness or the thing causing sickness and by diluting and having the patient ingest it believes that the body will create its own immunity to it. There are numerous other modalities that exist and holistic practitioners often employ a collection of these to be used depending on the patient.

Capitalism and Conspiracy: the Creation of Modern Medicine: In my hope that these two models will someday combine for the greater good of the world I must mention the reasons why they are so segregated today. . In the allopathic system the use of drugs is considered by many to not be for health reasons but instead for economic ones. Modern day medicine is ruled by government agencies. Today, in the United States, the American Medical Industry along with the Food and Drug Administration and numerous other government agencies have supremacy over the treatments that are available to its citizens.

It is illegal for any physician to recommend a treatment that is natural. The doctors insurance does not cover it and if they are caught can be stripped of their license. Under the medical industry and its many laws a doctor can only prescribe drugs that have been approved by the FDA. There are literally dozens of books on this subject of the creation of the medical industry. I will attempt to summarize it as best as I can. The establishment of traditional medicine is not one that is set into a foundation of tradition or of practices that are hundreds of years old.

Instead today’s medical industry is more aptly called a corporation that began at the beginning of the 20th century by pioneers of American business and, eventually, monopolies. John Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and the Rothschild family were all involved in the creation of the complex medical system that we believe exists independently of one another. Let me explain. In the early decades of the 1900s by setting up firstly medical schools, then hospitals, then drug companies and decades later insurance companies these men created ways to invest their enormous empires of capital tax free and virtually untouchable.

Then to simply launder the profits in a continuo circulatory system that is still in effect today. But the “conspiracy” as it is called goes deeper than this. There are underlying interactions between American companies and their conglomeration with Hitler before, during and even after World War II. The use of the Jewish people for the testing of new drugs and therapies as well. In A World Without Cancer, by Griffen is a primary source for this information Griffen writes: “In the years prior to World War II, there came into existence an international cartel, centered in Germany, that dominated the entire world’s chemical and drug industries.

It had spread its operations to ninety-three countries and was a powerful economic and political force in all countries. It was known as I. G. Farben. ” When John D. Rockefeller interlocked his American-based, international empire with that of I. G. Farben in 1928 “there was created the largest and most powerful cartel the world has ever known. Not only has that cartel survived through the years, it has grown and prospered. Today it plays a major role in both the science and politics of cancer therapy. ” The Allied Forces attacked Germany, and specifically the city where the headquarters of I.

G. Farben were located. Now take in mind that the ties between IG Farben and its American counterparts were to be dissolved after the war began. The Allies destroyed nearly everything in the city. Every building was destroyed except one and it happened to be the largest building, the headquarters of I. G. Farben. Following the war the dissolved American counterparts seized control of I. G. Farben and all of its records. In his book, Griffen shows that everyone involved prospered from the war, American business as well as those overseas.

Their conglomeration, these umbrellas of businesses, where money changed hands between the countries involved Allied and Axis forces. Standard Oil Company secured the patent rights over the synthetic oil and rubber the holocaust victims were about to produce in the factories they built adjacent Auschwitz and elsewhere. It should also be known that IG Farben, Rockefeller’s partner, held the patent on the gas that killed the millions of holocaust victims as they entered the “showers,” allegedly for “public health” and “disinfection. IG Farben was dismantled into many companies, mostly American that still exist today. These companies and the drug industry are the second largest industry next to only the defense industry. Modern medicine has become the last economic frontier. Hundreds of billions of dollars are spent every year upon creation of new drugs and research. Because something natural cannot be patented then no drug company will put millions into researching its effects. These companies instead synthesize the natural element and make it far more expensive than the natural one with many more side effects.

The push for medication can be seen today in the use of for numerous health problems and even more recently for emotional ones. The masses are ingesting the quick fix of their problems, me included. Children are being prescribed drugs like Ritalin, an amphetamine, that is a low dose derivative of the illegal drug cocaine to help them focus. We have become blinded I think to the domination of these capitalistic monopolies. And I did not think so until I began to research this paper. I realize that these last few ideas are not in my original proposal but felt that I would be doing the same injustice to not mention them.

Especially in this class we have learned to raise our consciousness to what we have been taught and look to the other side and to seek our out a new truth. One of my favorite quotes is by Charles Dubois and it is this and this has recently helped to transform my life: The important thing is this: to be ready at any moment to sacrifice what you are for what you could become. So this too has been for me a journey, not just a repeating of things already known but a movement from an old view to a new one.

I hope it will have the same effect. The holistic model would not be complete without saying that it is the individual who must make their own choice, another thing that the allopathic model wishes to be in charge of. My journey has been from allopathic to holistic and currently in a corroboration of allopathic therapies from my own General Practitioner and a number of holistic ones that I have through my own research came to use. For me it seems that I have thrown out many greater evils of drug use and drinking to these lesser evils.

I see this now as a process that if I were not meant to experience I would not be. Becoming dependent upon anything I think is in no way good no matter if that thing were called religion, addiction, hobby or love. I believe that the seeking of balance is a must. And one cannot forever deny who he is. As Shakespeare said “To think own self be true. ” A lesson I am currently trying to employ and so unfortunate it is that “Once the mind has been stretched from a new idea it can never again return to its original state” Einstein.

Are we trying to control the uncontrollable

When I was a child, I can remember my parents taking me into the apple orchard and picking apples. I couldn’t wait to eat them until I got home, so I would have one for a snack right in the middle of the field. Today, when I take my children apple picking, I cannot let the children eat an apple out of fear of what pesticides could be on the apple and the harmful affects they can cause. Instead I have to take them home and scrub them before they can even take a bite. This is the result of the harmful pesticides that have left their mark on our argriculture.

A pest is any species that competes with us for food invades our homes and gardens, destroys wood in houses, spreads disease, or is simply a nuisance in our natural ecosystem. In many polyculture agroecosytems, natural enemies such as predators parasites in disease organisms control the population between 50 and 90 percent of the pest species(Miller, 1998). When we keep the natural ecosystem simple we upset the natural checks and balances. The natural system keeps any form of pest from taking over before too long.

We have devised ways to protect our crops, tree farms, and lawns from insect and other pests that nature could have once controlled. We have done this by primarily developing a variety of pesticides. Pesticides are chemicals created to kill organisms that we consider undesirable. Some types of pesticides include insecticides which are insect killers, herbicide which are weed killers, fungicides which are fungus killers, nematocides which are round eat worm killers, and rodenticides which are rat in mouse killers. According to the EPA, worldwide and we used to 2. million tons of these pesticides annually that breaks down to approximately one pound for each person on earth. About 75 percent of these chemicals are being used in developed countries but is now soaring in the developing countries. In the United States approximately 25 percent of pesticide use is for ridding house, gardens, lawns, playingfields, swimming pools, and golf courses of unwanted pests. According to the EPA, the average lawn in the United States is doused with more than ten times the needed amount of insecticides.

Each year more than 200,000 U. S. esidents become a ill because of household use of pesticides resulting from accidental poisoning. Broad spectrum agents are toxic to many species while others called selective or in narrow spectrum agents are effective against barely defined groups of organisms. Pesticides very in their persistence in the length of time they remain deadly in the environment. Supporters of pesticides state they save human lives, increase food supply, lower food costs, increased profits for farmers, in the field that the health risks are in significant compared to the benefits(Miller, 1998).

Since 1945, EDT and other chlorinated hydrocarbon and organic bio phosphate insecticides have probably prevented the premature deaths of at least 7 million people from inset transmitted diseases such as malaria (mosquito), bubonic plague(rat fleas), typhus(body lice), and sleeping sickness(tsetse fly). About 55 percent of the world’s human food supply is lost to pests before or after harvest in the United States. An estimated 37 percent of the potential food supply is destroyed due to insect or plant pathogens in weeds without pesticides, the losses would be worse and food prices would rise by 30 to 50 percent.

Pesticide companies estimate that every one dollar spent on pesticides leads to an increase in U. S. crops worth approximately 4 dollars. Studies have shown that the benefit drops to about 2 dollars if the harmful attacks the pesticides are included (Miller, 1998). According to Elizabeth Whelan, director for the American council on science and held the she says “the reality is that pesticides, when used in the uproot may enter, pose no way as to either bomb workers or consumers. ” supporters of pesticides also state that the media records describing the harm are distorted and irresponsible reporting.

Opponents of the use of pesticides believe that side effects outweighed their benefits. The biggest problem is the development of genetic resistance to pesticides by pest organisms. Insects breed rapidly and within 5 to 10 years (much sooner in tropical areas) develop immunity through natural selection and comeback stronger than they were before. Weeds and plants can also become resistant to the process is much lower. The at least 17 types out in insect pests are resistant to all major classes of insecticies and several fungal plant diseases are now immune to most fungicides.

Because of genetic resistance, most widely used insecticides no longer protect people from insect transmitted diseases in many parts of the world. Another problem is that broad spectrum insecicides kill natural predators and parasites that may have been maintaining the population of a pest species at reasonable level. It also wipes out the natural predator and unleashes new pests into the population that predators had previously held in check . Another problem with pesticides that they do not stay put. No more than 2 percent applied to the crops by spraying actually reaches the insects and the less than 5 percent to reaches the weeds.

They miss their target and end up in the air, water, food, and end up on nontarget zones such as humans and wildlife. Pesticides can also harm wildlife and human life. It is estimated that 220,000 deaths are a result of the pesticides. Primarily this is high among farmworkers in developing countries as a result of applying by hand. Residue food causes between 4, 0000 to 20,000 cases of cancer per year in the United States. A 1993 study by the National Academy of Science has concluded that the legal limits for pesticide residue will need to be reduced to 1000 times to protect our children.

The food industry denies that anyone in the United States has ever been harmed for eating food grown with the use of pesticides for the past 50 years. Do we have other ways to control pests? Crop rotation consists of crops being rotated each year. A farmer can also plant hedges around the field to prevent insect invasion while also providing homes for their natural enemies. Planting times can also be changed to allow them to be eaten by their predators and starve the insects. Trap crops can be planted to lure insects away from the main crop. Biological agents must also be protected from pesticides sprayed on nearby fields.

More than 300 biological control projects worldwide have been successful. In the United States it has saved farmer is an average of $25 for every 1 dollar they have invested. A negative side to this is that they are slow to act and if they are not under control they can become pests themselves. Biopesticides, are chemicals produced from plants and are used by organic farmers. However, a genetic resistance is already developing. Insect birth control is also being used by radiation or chemicals, which they are reenter the males resulting into the population resulting in unsuccessful mating.

The problem is this is a high cost venture with unpredictable mating times for each kind of insect. Many experts and farmers believe that the best way to control pests is by a carefully designed integrated pest management program (IPM). The over out of IPM is not to eradicate the populations, but reduce the amount of damage to a tolerable level. Small amounts of insecticides are used and only as a last resort. Thenn other chemicals are used to slow the development of genetic restistance and avoid killing predators.

The widespread use of this program is hindered by government subsidies of chemical pesticides and opposition from agriculture groups and chemical companies because it l would have a significant drop in sales. Many experts believe that a key to reduce the world hunger, poverty, and harmful environmental attacks is to develop a system of the sustainable agriculture that would be integrated into society over a 3 year period. Low input farming will reduce this waste of irrigation water and less use of pesticides and inorganic fertilizer. A few general guidelines for this system are as follows: Combine traditional high yield. The modern monoculture methods of growing crops. ? Reduce destruction of the natural forests, grasslands, and wetlands for producing foods by emphasizing on increasing yields per area by sustainable methods. ? Produced waterways to in irrigation. ? Educate the public about hidden environmental and health costs and gradually incorporate these costs into the market price. ? Integrate agriculture, the population, urban and rural, energy, health, climate, water resource, soil resource, land use, pollution, and biodiversity protection policies.

Integrating many of these things would be difficult to, but many environmentalists believe that a new revolution could take place through most of the world over the next 30 to 50 years by instituting the policies outlined. If we continue to use pesticides, we will continue to harm our population through explosure, food contamination, and insect mutation. Is up to the people to force our government to make change, before we create irreversible damage that will have detrimental effects on our world in its population.

The problem of Anorexia

It seems today that eating disorders are on the rise. While this may be true, the numbers may appear to grow only because more cases are being brought out into the open. The purpose of this paper is to discuss eating disorders and prove the these disease, specifically Anorexia Nervosa, continue to plague of women due to psychological and environmental factors along with pressure from the media. The term Anorexia Nervosa is misleading. It means loss of appetite due to nerves. But people with anorexia dont actually lose their appetite until the late stages of their starvation.

Until, they do feel hungry, but they just wont eat. People affected by anorexia have an extreme fear of gaining weight. In addition to drastic dieting, they may resort to vomiting and the use of laxatives and diuretics to lose weight. Statistics show that many teens and young adults suffer from anorexia nervosa. Without treatment, anorexia nervosa can cause serious health problems–even death! The sooner treatment begins the better the chances for a full recovery. The person with another anorexia is a model child.

He/She is well behaved, eager to please, and a good student who gets along well with her peers. She rarely admits that anything is wrong or that anything is wrong or that she/he extra helps. Behind the mask is an insecure, self-critical perfectionist who feels unworthy of any praises she receives. A person who has anorexia is also very concerned about whether other people like her. Occasionally, she feels that theres something wrong with her- that shes bad or that her thoughts are disgusting. PennSAHIC) One interpretation of an eating disorder is termed as a relationship between the person and food the appears abnormal. Anorexia Nervosa is one of the most prevalent eating disorder decease. The definition of Anorexia, Dr. Barton J. Blinder gives an interpretation similar to this: Anorexia is an all-encompassing pursuit of thinness, occurring most often in adolescents and young adult woman. This is accomplished by avoidance of eating by any means possible. The person affected by Anorexia has an absolutely terrifying fear of becoming obese.

In short, food becomes the enemy; one researcher described Anorexia as weight phobia. (noah. cuny. edu/wellconn/eatdisorders. html) Some experts believe that a fear of growing up is the root of the problem. Other experts see the disorder as a subconscious rebellion against parents whove set standards that are too high. All experts agree that food is not the central problem. There is evidence that people with anorexia secrete abnormal amounts of various hormones. But, many researchers believe these imbalances are the results of emotional stress and severe dieting, not the case of them.

In our culture, thin is in and dieting is normal behavior. The pressure to be the best may also be a factor in the disorders development. (PennSAHIC) People who intentionally starve themselves suffer from an eating disorder called anorexia nervosa. The disorder, which usually begins in young people around the time of puberty, involves extreme weight lossat least 15 percent below the individuals normal body weight. Many people with the disorder look emaciated but are convinced they are overweight. Sometimes they must be hospitalized to prevent starvation.

An example of this will be illustrated in the following story: Deborah developed anorexia nervosa when she is 16. A rather shy, studious teenager, she tried hard to please everyone. She had an attractive appearance, but was slightly overweight. Like many teenager girls, she was interested in boys but concerned that she wasnt pretty enough to get their attention. When her father jokingly remarked that she would never get a date if she didnt take off same weight, she took him seriously and began to diet relentlessly- never believing she was thin even when she became extremely underweight.

Soon after the pounds started dropping off, Deborahs menstrual periods stopped. As anorexia tightened its grip, she became obsessed with dieting and food and developed strange eating rituals. Every day she weighted all the food she would eat on a kitchen scale, cutting solids into minuscule pieces and precisely measuring liquids. She would then put her daily ration in small containers, lining them up in neat rows. She also exercised compulsively, even after she weakened and became faint. She never took an elevator is she could walk up steps.

No one able to convince Deborah that she was in danger. Finally, her doctor insisted that she be hospitalized and carefully monitored for treatment of her illness. While in the hospital, she secretly continued her exercise regimen in the bathroom, doing strenuous routines of sit-ups and knee-bends. It took several hospitalizations and a good deal of individual and family outpatient therapy for Deborah to face and solve her problem. Deborahs case is not unusual. People with anorexia typically starve themselves, even though they suffer terribly from hunger pains.

One of the most frightening aspects of the disorder id that people with anorexia continue to think they are overweight even then they are bone-thin. For reasons not yet understood, they become terrified of gaining any weight. Food and weight become obsessions. For some, the compulsiveness shows up in strange eating rituals or the refusal to eat in front of others. It is not uncommon for people with anorexia to collect recipes and prepare gourmet feasts for family and friends, but not partake in the meals themselves.

Like Deborah, they may adhere to strict exercise routines to keep off weight. Loss of monthly menstrual periods is typical in woman with the disorder. Men with anorexia often become impotent. (Lee Hoffman) When one looks at the media today, it is difficult not to notice the fashion industry. To look at the fashion models who are 15% thinner than the average American woman, one can clearly see that underneath the seasons hottest new trends the taller-than-average woman, are very, very slender almost to the point of being gaunt.

For example, Kate Moss (nicknamed Skeleton), Calvin Kleins newest supermodel, sports the figure of the newest look for the fashion industry: the waif. This is the look that the media portrays to the public to say while million of children and adults look on. Studies show that children as young as six years of age see themselves as overweight and look up to such personalities of the fashion world as Cindy Crawford, Naomi Campbell, and the before-mentioned Kate Moss; all of whom are extremely thin.

Society seems to teach the people that they have to look a certain way to be successful and accepted. (noah. cuny. edu/wellconn/eatdisorder. html) The effects of the environment can influence eating disorder. Family members can play a major role in the influence of eating disorders. For example when mother and father stress the importance of weight. Parents stress to their children that eating right will keep their body into shape. Parents do not like to see children being teased because of their weight so they try to keep them fit.

Sometime the stress from the parents and/or if there is any physical or sexual abuse in the family, the child in this situation may lead to an eating disorder to have a way to control something in their life. In conclusion, Anorexia Nervosa greatly affects all that are touched by it. Close family members and friends go through fighting battle with the person helping to serve this deathful battle. The information in this paper is just touching briefly on what can happen to someone with this disease called Anorexia.

It is important that people are aware of these problems, know how to spot eating disorders, and help someone else or themselves overcome something like Anorexia. Works Cited: Matthews, John R. Eating Disorders. New York: Facts on file Inc. 1990 http://noah. cuny. edu/wellconn/eatdisorder. html Self-Help & Psychology Magazine- written by Lee Hoffman, Office of Scientific Inf. , NIH Publication No. 94-3477, 1993. http://www. cybertowers. com/selfhelp/article/eating/nih/anorexia. html PennSAHIC booklet by Channing L. Bete Co. , Inc. 1996 edition.

What is Creatine

Creatine is not an Herb, mineral, vitamin, hormone, or a steroid. It is also not those bread cubes that you scatter over your salad, either. Creatine is a natural nutrient found in our bodies and the bodies of most animals. Approximately ninety five percent is scattered throughout the rest of the body, with the highest concentrations in the heart, brain and testes. The human body gets most of the creatine it needs from the food or dietary supplements. Creatine is easily absorbed from the intestinal tract into the bloodstream.

When dietary consumption’s is inadequate to meet the body’s needs, a limited supply can be synthesized from the amino acids arginine, glycine and methionine. This creatine production occurs in the liver, pancreas and kidneys. This is just a little bit about creatine and for my experiential component, I interviewed the weight training coach for LIU, Mr. Ken Tavani. Creatine is an essential player in the primary energy source used for muscle contractions. It exists in two different forms within the muscle fiber, as a free (chemically-unbound) creatine and as creatine phosphate.

This later form of creatine makes up two-thirds of the total creatine supply. When your muscles contract, the initial fuel for this movement is a compound called ATP. This compound provides energy by releasing one of its phosphate molecules. It then becomes a different compound called ADP. Unfortunately, there is only enough ATP to provide energy for about ten seconds, so for muscle contraction to continue more ATP must be produced. Creatine phosphate comes to the rescue by giving up its phosphate molecule to ADP, recreating ATP.

This ATP can then be burned again as fuel for more muscle contraction. The bottom line is that your ability to regenerate ATP depends on your supply of creatine. More creatine means more ATP is being remade, and this increases your ability to train your muscles to their maximum potential. This greater ATP synthesis also keeps your body from relying on another energy system called glycolysis, which has lactic acid as a byproduct. This lactic acid creates the burning sensation you feel during intense exercise. If the amount of acid becomes too great, muscle movement stops.

But if you keep on using ATP because of all the creatine you have, you can minimize the amount of lactic acid produced and actually exercise longer and harder. “This helps you to gain strength, power, and muscle size, and you won’t get fatigued as easily” (Saheliar). Creatine has also been shown to enhance your body’s ability to make proteins, especially the proteins within the muscle fibers. Two of these proteins, actin and myosin, are essential to all muscle contraction. So when you build up your supply of these contractile proteins, you are actually increasing your muscles ability to perform physical activities.

And the more work or activities you do, whether it is lifting weights or running the one hundred meter dash, the stronger you will become over time. Creatine can also absorb intracellular water, thus resulting in a higher muscle volume. An additional way creatine increases muscle size is thought to be its fluid retention abilities within muscle tissues. Although the research on creatine and exercise performance is relatively new, so far it appears that the greatest benefits occur in those who wish to put on muscle mass.

Athletes in body building, power lifting, martial arts, and track and field events, such as javelin, and shot-put may benefit the most due o greater strength. “Wrestlers, football players, bodybuilders, and anyone else who wishes to have more muscle build will find creatine extremely helpful” (Sahelian). Athletes insist creatine works in any sport. Football player Wadsworth, who started college as a two hundred and seventeen pound walk on was hardly considered a prospect. He transformed himself into a two hundred and eighty five pound incredible hulk.

Wadsworth’s explanation, “Creatine, I have been taking it for three years and it worked tremendously. ” The Saint John’s University basketball program buys creatine for its athletes, while the Giants and Yankees leave it up to their players to decide whether it is safe for them. Superstar outfielder, of the Baltimore Orioles, and Shannon Sharpe, of the Denver Broncos, say the nutrient has helped them pump up their physiques. Troy Aikman of the Dallas Cowboys also states that creatine is effective. The Broncos, for one, have designated creatine as their official supplement.

The former trainer at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas says ” We had about two hundred athletes taking creatine, and I never so any negative effects from taking it. ” Margold, the Yankee pitcher, said “That catchers and pitchers who depend on rapid recovery between pitches may benefit” (Gola). It is still unclear whether athletes involved in endurance activities, such as marathon running or long distance bicycling will benefit from creatine supplementation. There have been anecdotal reports that people in these sports may benefit. The difficulty in these situations appear to center on the increased muscle mass which creatine provides.

While that’s great, if your a bodybuilder or a wrestler, but it can be a detriment if you have to carry all that weight around during a marathon or triathlon. It becomes a trade off between the increased strength you get from creatine and the increased muscle mass. “Further research will provide us with more definitive answers as to what role creatine supplementation can play in endurance type sports” (Sahelian). Scientists discovered creatine one hundred and sixty odd years ago, but only in the 1980’s did they figure out muscle cells can be “loaded” with up to thirty percent more of the compound than they normally carry.

In one experiment, creatine-fueled subjects added an average of eighteen pounds to their bench press in less then one month. Creatine users pack on fat-free pounds too, though no one is sure whether all the added mass is lean tissue or if some of it is water weight. (muscle cells fill with water during creatine loading) “Some studies show that twenty to thirty percent of those who try creatine do not get any faster or stronger. This is most likely due to the fact that their bodies have naturally high baseline levels of the compound” (Gower). Many question how this new product has come about.

Such questions talked about are, does the increase in creatine availability actually lead to higher phosphocreatine levels, and, does this translate to increased performance, and increase in strength, muscular endurance, and lower body mass? Over the past few years, studies have examined these questions, and received varying results. One study by Greenhaff, et. al. at the University of Nottingham, showed a statistically significant increase in muscle torque while performing knee extensions during sets two and three, but no significant increase was found during sets four and five.

Another study by Birch and Greenhaf showed an increase in power output from iso-kinetic cycling during bouts one and two, but not during bout three. Cook, Grandjean, and Barnes at Texas A&M showed no significant effect on power output and fatigue when comparing a creatine ingesting group to a placebo group during exercise performed on a specially modified cycle ergo meter. Oddland, et. al. suggested that supplementation increases muscle creatine, but does not increase the level of phosphocreatine, which is the substance needed to increase energy. So, as you can see, there are no definitive answers to these questions. creatine monohydrate)

Should we believe that anything natural is safe for are bodies. Is creatine safe, a muscle-building supplement that is becoming as common as sweaty towels in gyms across the country. Even though so many people use creatine, users have complained about nausea, diarrhea and cramps. But on the other side look at the people it has worked for, all the big named athletes, the bodybuilders, and many others. Shannon Sharpe, Denver Broncos tight end, says “I don’t care if you get five Phd’s, I don’t care if you get seven strength and conditioning coaches to tell me otherwise. I believe it works for me” (ESPN Sports Zone).

Antibiotics

Antibiotics have played a major role in our society thanks to Sir Alexander Fleming’s careful observations in 1928. Without it, many lives would be in danger due to infectious diseases. Antibiotics are chemical substances produced by various species of microorganisms and other living systems that are capable in small concentrations of inhibiting the growth of or killing bacteria and other microorganisms. These organisms can be bacteria, viruses, fungi, or animals called protozoa. A particular group of these agents is made up of drugs called antibiotics, from the Greek word anti (“against”) and bios “life”).

Some antibiotics are produced from living organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and molds. Others are wholly or in part synthetic – that is, produced artificially. Penicillin is perhaps the best known antibiotic. Its discovery and later development is among mankind’s greatest achievements. Antibiotics have enabled the medical profession to treat effectively many infectious diseases, including some that were once life-threatening. How Antibiotics Work ? Antibiotics can be bacteriostatic (bacteria stopped from multiplying) or bactericidal (bacteria killed).

To perform either of these functions, ntibiotics must be brought into contact with the bacteria. It is believed that antibiotics interfere with the surface of bacteria cells, causing a change in their ability to reproduce. Testing the action of an antibiotic in the laboratory shows how much exposure to the drug is necessary to halt reproduction or to kill the bacteria. Although a large amount of an antibiotic taken at one time might kill the bacteria causing an illness, such a dose usually would make the person suffer from illness caused by the drug.

Therefore, antibiotics are given in a series of smaller amounts. This assures that the bacteria are either killed or reduced enough in numbers so that the body can repel them. When too little antibiotic is taken, bacteria can often develop methods to protect themselves against it . The next time the antibiotic is needed against these bacteria, it will not be effective. Taking in Antibiotics. To work against infecting organisms, an antibiotic can be applied externally, such as to a cut on the skin’s surface, or internally, reaching the bloodstream within the body.

Antibiotics are made in several forms and given in different ways. Topical. Topical application means “to a local area” such as on the skin, in the eyes, or on the mucous membrane. Antibiotics for topical use are available in the form of powders, ointments, or creams. Oral. Tablets, liquids, and capsules are swallowed. The antibiotic is released in the small intestine to be absorbed into the bloodstream. Troches, or lozenges, are allowed to dissolve in the mouth, where the antibiotic is absorbed through the mucous membrane. Parenteral. Applications outside the intestine are called parenteral.

One form is an injection, which can be subcutaneous (under the skin), ntramuscular (into a muscle), or intravenous (into a vein). Parenteral administration of an antibiotic is used when a physician requires a strong, quick concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream. Manufacture. Natural. At one time all antibiotics were made from living organisms. This process, known as biosynthesis, is still used in the manufacture of some antibiotics. It is actually the organisms that manufacture the antibiotic. The people involved merely provide favorable conditions for the organisms to do the work and then they collect the drug.

For example, old organisms are placed in a medium (a substance used for the growth of microorganisms) such as corn steep liquor to which milk sugar has been added. This forms a broth that is put into a tank, which is kept at a temperature of 25C and shaken for more than 100 hours. The mold organisms grow rapidly in this warm soup, producing penicillin as they do so. The penicillin is later extracted. Synthetic. All penicillin types have an identical chemical nucleus called a ring. The chemical chain that is attached to the ring is different in each type.

By changing the molecules of the chain, scientists evise drugs with potentially different effects on different organisms. Some of these drugs are useful in treating infections, some are not. Pharmaceutical manufacturers now use computer-generated images of the rings and experiment with an endless variety of possible chains. Researchers have developed antibiotics with long half- lives (period of effectiveness), which allow taking the medication once in 24 hours instead of every few hours. The newer antibiotics are also more effective against a wider range of infections than were earlier drugs.

Varieties of Antibiotics. There are dozens of antibiotics. The following are in common use: Penicillins. The various types of penicillins make up a large group of antibacterial antibiotics of which only those from benzyl penicillin are naturally produced from molds. Penicillin G and ampicillin are in this class. Another penicillin, called piperacillin, has been shown to be effective against 92 percent of infections without causing serious side effects. Penicillins are often given in combination with some of the following categories of drugs. Cephalosporins.

Similar to the penicillins, cephalosporins are often given when a sensitivity (allergic reaction) to the former is known or uspected in a patient. Cefotaxime sodium is a kind of cephalosporin that is very effective in combating deep infections such as those that occur in bones and those resulting from surgery. Aminoglycoside. Aminoglycosides include streptomycin and neomycin. These drugs are used to treat tuberculosis, bubonic plague, and other infections. Because of potentially serious side effects, such as interference with hearing and their ability to make one sensitive to sunlight, these drugs are given with caution.

Tetracyclines. Tetracyclines are effective against pneumonia, typhus, nd other bacteria-caused illness but can harm the function of the liver and kidneys. Tetracycline in a special gel base is used to treat many eye infections. Macrolides. Macrolides are often used in patients who appear to be sensitive to penicillin. Erythromycin is the best known medicine in this group. Polypeptides. The class of antibiotics called polypeptides is quite toxic (poisonous) and is used mostly on the surface of the skin (topically). Bacitracin is in this category. Resistance and Side Effects.

An antibiotic acts by limiting or stopping (and therefore killing) the growth of a specific microorganism. It probably accomplishes this by interfering with the wall of the bacteria cell at which it is targeted while at the same time having little effect on the body’s normal cells. When one is exposed continually to an antibiotic for an illness of long duration (such as rheumatic fever), the targeted bacteria may develop its own defense against the drug. An enzyme that can destroy the drug may be produced by the bacteria, or the cell wall can become resistant to being broken by the action of the antibiotic.

When this happens, and it does most frequently in response to long or frequent treatment with penicillin r streptomycin, the patient is said to be “fast” against the drug. For example, one may be penicillin-fast, meaning penicillin is no longer able to help fight the infection and another type of antibiotic must be given. Allergic reactions to antibiotics are usually seen as rashes on the skin, but severe anemia (too few red blood cells), stomach disorders, and deafness can occasionally result. It was once thought that allergic reactions to antibiotics – penicillin in particular – were frequent and permanent.

Recent studies suggest, however, that many people outgrow their ensitivity or never were allergic. The large number of antibiotics that are now available offers a choice of treatment that can, in most instances, avoid allergy-causing drugs. It is well to remember that all drugs can cause both wanted and unwanted effects on the body. The unwanted ones are called side effects, and these must be balanced against the effects desired in determining if a particular drug will do more harm than good. It is a fact that all drugs have the potential to be both beneficial and harmful. History and Future.

The years between 1928 and 1940 were the most fruitful in the iscovery and development of antimicrobial drugs. In 1928 Sir Alexander Fleming, a British bacteriologist, noticed that a mold growing in one of his laboratory cultures was able to destroy that culture’s bacteria. Since the mold that produced the substance that killed the bacteria was a species of Penicillium, he named the germ-killing substance penicillin. The first use of an antibiotic, however , is not known, as folk medicine has used various molds to fight infections throughout history. In 1935 a German chemist, Gerhard Domagk, discovered the first sulfa drug, prontosil.

In 1941 penicillin was used to treat serious infections. The results were dramatic because patients who received the drug made rapid and complete recoveries. Bacitracin, chlortetracycline, and streptomycin, naturally occurring antibiotics, were discovered by 1948. The penicillin ring was finally isolated in 1959 by british and united States scientists, and the way was open for the development of penicillin was the beginning of an era that has been called the golden age of chemotherapy. Since 1948, a large number of substances that inhibit or kill bacteria have been discovered.

Another use of antibiotics is as additives to the feed of animals. Chickens and beef cattle, for example, can be fed with these additives for better weight gains and to speed their growth. Current work in antibiotics is largely in the area of viruses. Although some antivirals are available, most have toxic effects so severe that they can be used only in life-threatening diseases where the negative effects are the lesser danger. Preliminary studies, however, are reporting success in the development of safer antiviral drugs, and their use should be possible within the near future.

Your Brain

Many lessons are embedded into Mary Shelleys Frankenstein (Bantam Books 1991), including how society acts towards the different. The monster fell victim to the system commonly used to characterize a person by only his or her outer appearance. Whether people like it or not, society summarizes a person’s characteristics by his or her physical appearance. Society has set an unbreakable code individuals must follow to be accepted. Those who don’t follow the “standard” are hated by the crowd and banned for the reason of being different.

When the monster ventured into a town he “had hardly placed [his] foot within the door before the children shrieked, and one of the women fainted” . From that moment on he realized that people did not like his appearance and hated him because of it. If villagers didn’t run away at the sight of him, then they might have even enjoyed his personality. The monster tried to accomplish this when he encountered the De Lacey family. The monster hoped to gain friendship from the old man and eventually his children.

He knew that it could have been possible because the old man was blind, he could not see the monster’s repulsive characteristics. But fate was against him and the “wretched” had barely conversed with the old man before his children returned from their journey and saw a monstrous creature at the feet of their father attempting to do harm to the helpless elder. “Felix darted forward, and with supernatural force tore [the creature] from his father, to whose knees [he] clung… ” Felix’s action caused great inner pain to the monster.

He knew that his dream of living with them “happily ever after” would not happen and with the encounter still fresh in his mind along with his first encounter of humans, he “declared everlasting war against the species, and more than all, him who had formed [the creature] and sent [him] forth to this insupportable misery. ” The wicked being’s source of hatred toward humans originates from his first experiences with humans. In a way the monster started out with a childlike innocence that was eventually shattered by being constantly rejected by society time after time.

His first encounter with humans was when he opened his yellow eyes for the first time and witnessed Victor Frankenstein, his creator, rush out of the laboratory. Would this have happened if society did not consider physical appearance to be important? No. If physical appearance were not important then the creature would have had a chance of being accepted into the community with love and care. But society does believe that physical appearance is important and it does influence the way people act towards each other.

Frankenstein should have made him less offending if even he, the creator, could not stand his disgusting appearance. There was a moment however when Frankenstein was moved by the creature. He “felt what the duties of a creator towards his creature were” and decided that he had to make another creature, a companion for the original. But haunting images of his creation (from the monster’s first moment of life) gave him an instinctive feeling that the monster would do menacing acts with his companion, wreaking twice the havoc!

Reoccurring images of painful events originating from a first encounter could fill a person with hate and destruction. We as a society are the ones responsible for the transformation of the once childlike creature into the monster we all know. The public doesnt realize that our society has flaws, and that they must be removed before our primal instincts continue to isolate and hurt the people who are different. With such a large amount of technology among us, some people may wonder why such an advanced civilization still clings on to such primitive ways of categorizing people.

Creatine for Athletic Performance

If, about 5 years ago, you were to tell an athlete there was a supplement (which was not an anabolic steroid or other bodybuilding drug) that would help bodybuilders and athletes pack on as much as 10 rock-hard pounds of muscular bodyweight (which could lead to better performance for athletes) in less then 2 weeks; increase their bench press by 25 lbs. hich also would help in enhancing performance) in a mere 10 days; “get a pump like you were loaded on Dianabol”(Phillips 48) (a pump that last for hours and hours which helps in muscle development); and, all the while, help you run faster, jump higher, recover from exercise more quickly, they would probably tell you to get lost. Well all these facts and more have now been proven to be effective on athletes. “Creatine is the safest, most effective supplement out on the market today,” says Ron Terjung, a physiology professor at the University of Missouri.

Millions of men are buying the dietary supplement, hoping it is the magic pill that can transform them from scrawny to brawny. Creatine has made a strong impact on the athletic world giving many an edge on the competition and enhancing athletic performance. The discovery of Creatine leads back to 1832. A French scientist named Chevreul, identified a naturally occurring organic compound in meat and then was later found to be manufactured by the liver, kidneys and pancreas using three amino acids. The scientist named the compound Creatine after the greek word for flesh(Phillips 8).

Creatine is a compound that is naturally made in our bodies to supply energy to our muscles. It is an energy rich metabolite that is found mainly in muscle tissue. It is responsible for supplying the muscle with energy during exercise. Chemically, it is called Methylguanido-acid. Creatine is formed from the three amino acids, argentine, methionine, and glycogen that undergo a chemical process to form Creatine. Creatine is manufactured in the liver and may be produced in the pancreas and kidneys.

It is transported through the blood and taken up by muscle cell, where it is converted into Creatine phosphate; also called phosphocreatine. This reaction involves the enzyme Creatine kinase that helps bond Creatine to a high-energy phosphate group. Once Creatine is bound to a phosphate group, it is permanently stored in a cell as phosphocreatine until it is used to produce chemical energy called Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). ATP then loses a phosphate group and becomes Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP).

Creatine, when present in the muscle in sufficient amounts donates a phosphate group to ADP and it rapidly retransform to ATP, which is immediately available to the muscle to be used for a fuel for exercise. During brief explosive-type exercises, the energy supplied to rephosphorylate adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is determined largely by the amount of phosphocreatine stored in the muscle. As phosphocreatine stores become depleted, performance is likely to rapidly deteriorate, due to the inability to resynthesize ATP at the rate required.

Since the availability of phosphocreatine stores in the muscle may significantly influence the amount of energy generated during brief periods of high intensity exercise, it has been hypothesized that increasing muscle creatine through creatine supplementation may increase the availability of phosphocreatine and allow for an accelerated rate of resynthesis of ATP during and following high intensity, short duration exercises(Kreider 1). ” ATP is the primary source of fuel for muscular exercise. It is used before sugars (carbohydrates) and before fats.

When muscles are used to lift weight, run or perform any type of work the ATP is broken down to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and energy is released. The amount of ATP stored in the muscles will only fuel a maximum effort such as lifting a weight for 10 to 15 seconds. After that, the muscle must rely on Creatine Phosphate to restock its supply of ATP. Increasing the muscles supply of Creatine phosphate helps increase the rate in which the body can supply ATP. This increases the muscle capacity to do work and improves the energy level of the muscles.

Typically, the average person metabolizes about two grams of Creatine per day, and the body normally synthesizes that same amount; thus, you generally maintain a Creatine balance (Bamberger 59), but “it is not uncommon for an athlete to have what is called Creatine deficiency. “(Phillips 15) which is not being able to create enough Creatine on your own. In these cases through a more balanced diet or by supplementing Creatine in their diet they regain the balance. This leads to a point that proves in one way how Creatine has an advantage on enhancing athlete’s performance. Creatine is naturally found in foods.

For example, the average helping of beef or fish contains about 1 gram of naturally occurring Creatine. Unfortunately, Creatine is very sensitive to heat and cooking virtually destroys the effectiveness of Creatine. The amount of Creatine needed depends on the athlete’s body weight and on the number of days Creatine has been supplemented. Creatine should be loaded in relatively high amounts for the first six days of supplementation and then may be taken in daily dosage while maintaining positive performance. Creatine can bind water to the muscle giving an athlete a more muscular appearance.

Competitive bodybuilders usually drop Creatine supplementation two weeks prior to a show to insure maximum definition and vascularity. Creatine has not yet been definitely linked to any adverse health effects, and thus has very few side effects. One side effect usually caused by over-dosage which some have complained about is stomach cramps. Reducing the intake of creatine in almost all cases has reduced cramps to little or none. Although no adverse side effects have been reported in the literature from clinical trials, concern has been raised by some physicians, athletic trainers, and dieticians regarding: 1. possible suppression of endogenous creatine synthesis; 2. ) a possible enhanced renal stress/liver damage; 3. ) anecdotal reports of muscle cramping when exercising in the heat; 4. ) anecdotal reports of muscle strains/pulls; and, 5. ) unknown long-term effects of creatine supplementation(Kreider 2-3). There are three theories today which answer the question, “How do dietary supplements work? “(Phillips 13) The first theory is when you have an adequate amount of a substance that your body needs. Take Creatine for example, “a human body normally only needs two grams a day.

That is the adequate amount or the minimum your body needs to stay healthy, but lets say you stored five grams of Creatine, which is the maximum your muscles could hold to give you a more optimal amount. The reason why an athlete would need more Creatine is that they exert more physical activity and burn more ATP than a standard person would. This makes him consume more body resources than the average person. So, adding more Creatine to your diet would give you better results. The second theory states that “not all but most supplements have a mutating effect (Phillips 15). ” 1. By volumizing your cells to hold more resources then normal(15). ” 2. ) “Create a drug like effect on cellular processes(15). ” With this scenario, the dietary supplement can exert a positive effect on muscle metabolism and/or performance. The third theory and most important relating to my paper states that a supplement might help you build muscle, enhance athlete performance and improve your health by simply making up for the deficiency. This has basically been what most dieticians, nutritionists, doctors, etc. have viewed supplements as a means of protecting your body against vitamin and mineral deficiencies and so on.

Supplements have been widely used for decades as a means of preventing serious, even fatal diseases, which are caused by nutrient deficiencies. Thus, proving my topic by adding more Creatine to the bodies of an athlete can enhance performance by replenishing the body with the most needed resources. It is rumored that athletes in the former USSR and Bulgaria may have been using Creatine to enhance athletic performance since the early 1970’s. While this may be true, the documented use of Creatine supplementation by athletes was with British track and field competitors who competed in the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona.

Creatine was given credit for powering several of the British athletes who won gold medals. The London Times reported (August 7, 1992) that Linford Christie, the 100meter gold medallist, supplemented with Creatine before the 1992 Olympics, and a European magazine called Bodybuilding Monthly reported that Sally Gunnele, the 400 meter gold medallist, also used Creatine. The London Times also reported that Colin Jackson, the champion British 110-meter hurdler, used Creatine before the Olympics (Bamberger 61). Shortly thereafter, U. S. champion athletes began using Creatine.

Since then, scientists have elucidated more secrets on how to best utilize Creatine for optimal benefit. Now, champion athletes and bodybuilders around the world swear by Creatine’s effects. Now in the 90’s Creatine has major use in all sport categories, “At least one quarter of all major leaguers now use the substance. That number is at least as high in professional hockey and basketball, and perhaps 50% of NFL Players take Creatine. Among Olympic Sprinters, cyclists and weightlifters, those who do not use Creatine are harder to find than those who do. Bodybuilders live on the stuff. Boxers, too.

Innumerable ordinary weekend athletes use it. It’s everywhere (Bamberger 62). ” When I was a sophomore in high school, I was first introduced to this miracle drug called “creatine. ” Many of the guys on the football team were taking this, and soon did I. I did not really know what this white powdery substance was, but all I know is that it seemed to jump my weight up 10 pounds within about three weeks. My weightlifting max’s seemed to be increasing and I was full of energy. Some of us would “load” just before a football game to give us that extra boost of energy. To us, it seemed like legal steroids with no side effects.

Creatine seemed to improve performance for short-duration activities like our 40 times, bursting off the snap of the ball, and our weightlifting max’s. What I found was in order to make creatine effective, you must work out at least three times a week consistently. Most people do not notice any difference until about three weeks into the cycle. A recent study followed 19 men who lifted weights regularly over 12 weeks. Those taking creatine registered an average 6. 3 percent gain in fat-free body mass, compared with a 3. 1 percent gain in those not taking the supplement(Timberline 1).

In 1981, an article published in the New England Journal of Medicine by Dr. l. Silila. Reported that supplementation with Creatine in a group of patients suffering from a condition called Gyrate Atrophy (a genetic ailment of the eyes caused by a metabolic inability to efficiently metabolize ornithine and synthesize Creatine). Improved the test subject’s strength, increased their bodyweight by ten percent, and partially reversed the Type II muscle fiber atrophy associated with this disease(Silila 867). One athlete in this group of test subjects improved his best time in the 100-meter sprint by two seconds.

In 1993, a study peer reviewed and published in Scandinavian Journal of Medicine, Science and sports (Balsom 143) demonstrated that Creatine supplementation could significantly increase body mass (in only one week) and that it was responsible for improved performance in high-intensity intermittent exercise. Over the past 4 years, at least 20 separate university studies have demonstrated that Creatine monohydrate supplementation increases athletic performance; strength; recuperation; speed in the 100-, 200-, and 400-meter sprints. A lot of factual, scientifically proven data shows Creatine monohydrate works.

It produces fast and significant results even in the most rigorous trials(Casey 31). The goal of the bodybuilder and most athletes is to use progressive resistance exercise to force the muscles to adapt and grow in size and strength. This increased workload or progressive resistance can be achieved in several ways: by increasing the force of contraction through increased resistance such as when lifting a heavier weight, by increasing the duration of time that the muscle is under tension or contracted, and by increasing the frequency of exercise.

Creatine helps in all three ways: it helps build lean body mass which allows still greater force to be used; provides energy so the duration of exercise or work can be lengthened; and speeds recovery, so exercise frequency can be increased. I have also personally benefited from the use of Creatine. I have benefited from all of the above, but have also gained more personal respect and confidence for myself from the results I have accomplished with the use of Creatine.

Air Quality & Dispersion

Today, the air quality aspect of ARL research is by far the dominant theme, but distinctions among the themes remain somewhat vague. For example, the models developed for emergency response purposes are among those used for air quality prediction. The Air Quality and Dispersion theme is one of the strongest ties that binds ARL’s components together. ARL is not heavily involved in the pure science of the business.

Instead, ARL focusses on the need to assemble integrated understanding and models from all available sources, to develop the capability to predict changes in air quality that will follow changes in emissions, or that will occur as a result of meteorological factors. ARL air quality research extends to studies of atmospheric deposition essentially the coupling between the atmospheric pollutant environment and the surface below. ARL now operates the only research-grade deposition monitoring network in the nation: AIRMoN (the Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network). Programs.

Air Quality and Deposition Modeling Air quality models have demanded this kind of coupling for a considerable time. As a result, there are now well-developed descriptions of PBL processes in use in air quality models. ARL research products are now receiving a wider audience, within the mesoscale modeling community at large. It is recognized that modern models are invariably data assimilative, and that modern monitoring programs require coupled modeling activities for data interpretation. Model development programs are supported by a vigorous physical modeling program, located at Research Triangle Park, NC.

ARL operates one of the nation’s major fluid modeling facilities, at which studies are conducted on the effects of mountains, buildings, and other surface obstacles on atmospheric flow patterns. Integrated Monitoring, and AIRMoN The Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network is an atmospheric component to the overall national integrated monitoring initiative that is currently evolving. AIRMoN has two principal components: wet and dry deposition. ARL presently focuses its research attention on ? the measurement of precipitation chemistry with fine time resolution (AIRMoN-wet), the development of systems for measuring deposition, both wet and dry, ? the measurement of dry deposition using micrometeorological methods (AIRMoN-dry), ? the development of techniques for assessing air-surface exchange in areas (such as specific watersheds) where intensive studies are not feasible, and ? the extension of local measurements and knowledge to describe areal average exchange in numerical models. Aerosols and visibility ARL specializes in the geochemical cycling of atmospheric aerosols, particularly the particulate component.

Research groups in ARL concentrate on (a) the injection of dust and soil particles into the atmosphere, (b) the transport of particles through the atmosphere, the production of aerosol particles in the air by chemical reactions, (d) the scavenging of airborne particles by clouds and their subsequent deposition in precipitation, (e) the dry deposition of particles as air moves across different landscapes, and (f) the assembly of numerical models. Specific topics include ? the injection of dust and soil particles into the atmosphere, ? the long-range transport of particles through the atmosphere, the production of aerosol particles in the air by chemical reactions, ? the scavenging of airborne particles by clouds and their subsequent deposition in precipitation, and ? the dry deposition of particles as air moves across different landscapes. International ARL serves as the leader of the U. S. multi-agency effort to impose formalized and uniform quality assurance programs on the many national air quality and deposition monitoring networks that are operational around the globe. How are ozone concentrations calculated with Hysplit?

Ozone is then calculated from the photostationary state equation. The IER solution is used in the operational Hysplit ozone calculation. The pollutant particles are tracked and air concentrations for each species are computed each advection time step following the usual lagrangian approaches. At the conclusion of the advection step the GRS differential equations are solved on the concentration grid (Eulerian solution), and the change of concentration of each pollutant species is applied to the pollutant mass on the particles that contributed concentration to each grid cell. Eulerian chemistry solution on the grid dc/dt = {Equations 1 – 7} 1) ROC + hv -* RP + ROC Nitric oxide-ozone titration reaction 5) RP + RP -* RP k5 = 10200 Sink for nitrogen dioxide to stable gaseous nitrates What is the Integrated Empirical Rate Model? Time Integrated on the particle (Lagrangian): Algebraic solution on the grid (Eulerian): Smog product = ozone produced and oxidized nitric oxide Photostationary state balances formation and destruction of ozone Definition of NOx

Air-Surface Exchange Heat, Momentum, Water, and CO2 Transfer at the Earth Surface Presently, ARL focuses its attention on the development of systems for measuring fluxes at specific locations, and the extension of local measurements and understanding to describe areal average exchange in numerical models. Improving NOAA’s prediction capabilities requires this understanding. ARL’s internal model developments are arranged to be in close association with the field work. Tower Studies. Dennis Baldocchi ([email protected] noaa. gov)

Three ARL groups (Oak Ridge, Research Triangle Park, and Silver Spring) are currently working with portable eddy flux systems, based upon original ARL developments. The system is specifically designed to provide uninterrupted monitoring of momentum, heat, water vapor, and carbon dioxide fluxes. Walker Branch watershed flux studies have recently been extended in an exploration of the flux contributions of the forest floor and the trees themselves. Experience gained in this effort will be important for anticipated surface-layer model testing and evaluation studies (under NOAA/GEWEX/GCIP).

At Research Triangle Park, and in cooperation with Oak Ridge, a separate portable flux-measuring system was developed, this time designed for direct measurement of trace gas fluxes but relying on measurement of the standard micrometeorological quantities for quality assurance. The system provides for direct eddy correlation measurements of sulfur dioxide, ozone, and carbon dioxide fluxes, and of nitric acid by filter pack gradient analysis, as well as the important components of the surface energy budget. The Mobile Flux Platform, and GPS. Ron Dobosy ([email protected] oaa. gov) During 1994, the use of new Global Positioning System (GPS) technology was evaluated, and the newest available GPS systems were adopted. The systems developed for aircraft eddy flux use have now been fitted to one of NOAA’s two Twin Otter aircraft. Large-Area Exchange Tim Crawford ([email protected] noaa. gov) The Oak Ridge group has frequently deployed both tower and aircraft eddy correlation systems during studies of areal fluxes over a heterogenous surfaces, in real-world studies of how well flat-earth formulations apply in real situations.

Analysis of tower eddy correlation fluxes of heat and moisture displayed differences in the fluxes among alfalfa, corn, and wheat crops; during daytime, transpiration rates differed by 20% to 50%. Measurements of momentum, heat, and moisture fluxes from the ATDD Long-EZ research airplane were analyzed to quantify spatial variabilities in the fluxes. Carbon Dioxide. Tilden Meyers ([email protected] noaa. gov) Continuous eddy correlation measurement of CO2 flux over the Walker Branch (Oak Ridge) forest have continued since 1993.

The eddy flux measurement of CO2 exchange is now a mature technology. (See discussion above — Tower Studies. ) Air-surface exchange has been studied extensively in classical investigations that focus on revealing the processes involved. Winston Luke (winston. [email protected] gov) The importance of accurate air-surface flux formulation in numerical models is now widely acknowledged. Atmospheric Loadings to Coastal Ecosystems Regulatory strategies that fail to recognize that part of the problem arises from atmospheric deposition will not work as expected.

The ARL Role Measurement and modeling of atmospheric deposition are long-standing ARL specialties. east coast, from Maine to Florida. ARL is leading a large part of the integrated research effort focusing on this issue. Leadership of the Chesapeake Bay Air Subcommittee Contact — richard. [email protected] gov The Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) is a multi-agency program of targeted scientific research and integrated assessment, which has been instrumental in alerting policy makers to the need to couple air and water issues in their decision-making processes.

Characterizing the East and Gulf Coast Atmospheric Resource Contact — bruce. [email protected] gov It is clear that emissions from the airshed that serves as a regional origin of air pollutants affecting the Chesapeake Bay also influence other coastal ecosystems. east coast estuarine and coastal ecosystems would benefit as well. Research Grade Monitoring of Deposition in the Coastal Zone Contact — richard. [email protected] gov The atmospheric deposition that affects east coast ecosystems is very poorly measured. For dry deposition, there are very few data points.

The NOAA Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN) has constituted a framework for exploring methods for quantifying the actual deposition loadings to the Chesapeake Bay watershed. ARL is currently operating several AIRMoN stations in the watershed — State College, PA, is a long-term site where both wet and dry deposition are being studied. Modeling Deposition to the Coastal Zone at Regional Scales Contact — [email protected] epa. gov The Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM) has been adopted as the modeling workhorse of the east coast estuarine regulatory community.

The results indicate that grid sizes *2 km may be necessary to resolve the effects of the Bay on atmospheric dry deposition (but not wet). Estimating Air-Water Exchange of Nitric Acid in Coastal Areas Contact — richard. [email protected] gov A project was successfully undertaken which, i) developed and evaluated an iterative bulk exchange model to estimate air-water exchange of heat, water and momentum from buoy data, and ii) used the model outputs to estimate air-water transfer rates of nitric acid (HNO3). Natural emissions of Oxidant precursors: Validation of techniques and Assessment (NOVA)

Contact — winston. [email protected] gov Historically, NOx emissions from soils have been estimated using chamber, or enclosure, techniques, whereby the measured rate of increase of [NO] within the chamber used to derive an estimate of the NO emission flux from the underlying soil surface. Mercury Deposition Contact — [email protected] noaa. gov ARL researchers at Oak Ridge (a collaboration between ATDD and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) have been working on techniques to measure the deposition of mercury directly.

More recently, field studies have been conducted in southern Florida, where mercury originating from sugar farming practices is suspected to be affecting coastal ecosystem viability. Research Plans Linkages within NOAA The ARL coastal studies program is strongly linked with the NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office of the National Marine Fisheries Service. The work is also tied to the NOAA Coastal Ocean Program, and to coastal activities of the National Ocean Service.

The Chesapeake Bay Air Subcommittee (led by ARL) serves as an interface with all federal agencies involved in related research (EPA, DOD, DOE, DOI, DOA, NASA, Smithsonian) as well as with the air and water environmental components of each of the states in the Chesapeake Bay region (Delaware, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, District of Columbia, West Virginia). Describing statutory authorities which help the NPS protect air resources. In 1983, barely a half dozen parks were using air quality information in interpretive/educational programs.

Science Essays Air Quality Air Quality & Dispersion Today, the air quality aspect of ARL research is by far the dominant theme, but distinctions among the themes remain somewhat vague. For example, the models developed for emergency response purposes are among those used for air quality prediction. The Air Quality and Dispersion theme is one of the strongest ties that binds ARL’s components together. ARL is not heavily involved in the pure science of the business.

Instead, ARL focusses on the need to assemble integrated understanding and models from all available sources, to develop the capability to predict changes in air quality that will follow changes in emissions, or that will occur as a result of meteorological factors. ARL air quality research extends to studies of atmospheric deposition essentially the coupling between the atmospheric pollutant environment and the surface below. ARL now operates the only research-grade deposition monitoring network in the nation: AIRMoN (the Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network). Programs.

Air Quality and Deposition Modeling Air quality models have demanded this kind of coupling for a considerable time. As a result, there are now well-developed descriptions of PBL processes in use in air quality models. ARL research products are now receiving a wider audience, within the mesoscale modeling community at large. It is recognized that modern models are invariably data assimilative, and that modern monitoring programs require coupled modeling activities for data interpretation. Model development programs are supported by a vigorous physical modeling program, located at Research Triangle Park, NC.

ARL operates one of the nation’s major fluid modeling facilities, at which studies are conducted on the effects of mountains, buildings, and other surface obstacles on atmospheric flow patterns. Integrated Monitoring, and AIRMoN The Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network is an atmospheric component to the overall national integrated monitoring initiative that is currently evolving. AIRMoN has two principal components: wet and dry deposition. ARL presently focuses its research attention on ? the measurement of precipitation chemistry with fine time resolution (AIRMoN-wet), the development of systems for measuring deposition, both wet and dry, ? the measurement of dry deposition using micrometeorological methods (AIRMoN-dry), ? the development of techniques for assessing air-surface exchange in areas (such as specific watersheds) where intensive studies are not feasible, and ? the extension of local measurements and knowledge to describe areal average exchange in numerical models. Aerosols and visibility ARL specializes in the geochemical cycling of atmospheric aerosols, particularly the particulate component.

Research groups in ARL concentrate on (a) the injection of dust and soil particles into the atmosphere, (b) the transport of particles through the atmosphere, the production of aerosol particles in the air by chemical reactions, (d) the scavenging of airborne particles by clouds and their subsequent deposition in precipitation, (e) the dry deposition of particles as air moves across different landscapes, and (f) the assembly of numerical models. Specific topics include ? the injection of dust and soil particles into the atmosphere, ? the long-range transport of particles through the atmosphere, the production of aerosol particles in the air by chemical reactions, ? the scavenging of airborne particles by clouds and their subsequent deposition in precipitation, and ? the dry deposition of particles as air moves across different landscapes. International ARL serves as the leader of the U. S. multi-agency effort to impose formalized and uniform quality assurance programs on the many national air quality and deposition monitoring networks that are operational around the globe. How are ozone concentrations calculated with Hysplit?

Ozone is then calculated from the photostationary state equation. The IER solution is used in the operational Hysplit ozone calculation. The pollutant particles are tracked and air concentrations for each species are computed each advection time step following the usual lagrangian approaches. At the conclusion of the advection step the GRS differential equations are solved on the concentration grid (Eulerian solution), and the change of concentration of each pollutant species is applied to the pollutant mass on the particles that contributed concentration to each grid cell. Eulerian chemistry solution on the grid dc/dt = {Equations 1 – 7} 1) ROC + hv -* RP + ROC Nitric oxide-ozone titration reaction 5) RP + RP -* RP k5 = 10200 Sink for nitrogen dioxide to stable gaseous nitrates What is the Integrated Empirical Rate Model? Time Integrated on the particle (Lagrangian): Algebraic solution on the grid (Eulerian): Smog product = ozone produced and oxidized nitric oxide Photostationary state balances formation and destruction of ozone Definition of NOx

Air-Surface Exchange Heat, Momentum, Water, and CO2 Transfer at the Earth Surface Presently, ARL focuses its attention on the development of systems for measuring fluxes at specific locations, and the extension of local measurements and understanding to describe areal average exchange in numerical models. Improving NOAA’s prediction capabilities requires this understanding. ARL’s internal model developments are arranged to be in close association with the field work. Tower Studies. Dennis Baldocchi ([email protected] noaa. gov)

Three ARL groups (Oak Ridge, Research Triangle Park, and Silver Spring) are currently working with portable eddy flux systems, based upon original ARL developments. The system is specifically designed to provide uninterrupted monitoring of momentum, heat, water vapor, and carbon dioxide fluxes. Walker Branch watershed flux studies have recently been extended in an exploration of the flux contributions of the forest floor and the trees themselves. Experience gained in this effort will be important for anticipated surface-layer model testing and evaluation studies (under NOAA/GEWEX/GCIP).

At Research Triangle Park, and in cooperation with Oak Ridge, a separate portable flux-measuring system was developed, this time designed for direct measurement of trace gas fluxes but relying on measurement of the standard micrometeorological quantities for quality assurance. The system provides for direct eddy correlation measurements of sulfur dioxide, ozone, and carbon dioxide fluxes, and of nitric acid by filter pack gradient analysis, as well as the important components of the surface energy budget. The Mobile Flux Platform, and GPS. Ron Dobosy ([email protected] oaa. gov) During 1994, the use of new Global Positioning System (GPS) technology was evaluated, and the newest available GPS systems were adopted. The systems developed for aircraft eddy flux use have now been fitted to one of NOAA’s two Twin Otter aircraft. Large-Area Exchange Tim Crawford ([email protected] noaa. gov) The Oak Ridge group has frequently deployed both tower and aircraft eddy correlation systems during studies of areal fluxes over a heterogenous surfaces, in real-world studies of how well flat-earth formulations apply in real situations.

Analysis of tower eddy correlation fluxes of heat and moisture displayed differences in the fluxes among alfalfa, corn, and wheat crops; during daytime, transpiration rates differed by 20% to 50%. Measurements of momentum, heat, and moisture fluxes from the ATDD Long-EZ research airplane were analyzed to quantify spatial variabilities in the fluxes. Carbon Dioxide. Tilden Meyers ([email protected] noaa. gov) Continuous eddy correlation measurement of CO2 flux over the Walker Branch (Oak Ridge) forest have continued since 1993.

The eddy flux measurement of CO2 exchange is now a mature technology. (See discussion above — Tower Studies. ) Air-surface exchange has been studied extensively in classical investigations that focus on revealing the processes involved. Winston Luke (winston. [email protected] gov) The importance of accurate air-surface flux formulation in numerical models is now widely acknowledged. Atmospheric Loadings to Coastal Ecosystems Regulatory strategies that fail to recognize that part of the problem arises from atmospheric deposition will not work as expected.

The ARL Role Measurement and modeling of atmospheric deposition are long-standing ARL specialties. east coast, from Maine to Florida. ARL is leading a large part of the integrated research effort focusing on this issue. Leadership of the Chesapeake Bay Air Subcommittee Contact — richard. [email protected] gov The Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) is a multi-agency program of targeted scientific research and integrated assessment, which has been instrumental in alerting policy makers to the need to couple air and water issues in their decision-making processes.

Characterizing the East and Gulf Coast Atmospheric Resource Contact — bruce. [email protected] gov It is clear that emissions from the airshed that serves as a regional origin of air pollutants affecting the Chesapeake Bay also influence other coastal ecosystems. east coast estuarine and coastal ecosystems would benefit as well. Research Grade Monitoring of Deposition in the Coastal Zone Contact — richard. [email protected] gov The atmospheric deposition that affects east coast ecosystems is very poorly measured. For dry deposition, there are very few data points.

The NOAA Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN) has constituted a framework for exploring methods for quantifying the actual deposition loadings to the Chesapeake Bay watershed. ARL is currently operating several AIRMoN stations in the watershed — State College, PA, is a long-term site where both wet and dry deposition are being studied. Modeling Deposition to the Coastal Zone at Regional Scales Contact — [email protected] epa. gov The Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM) has been adopted as the modeling workhorse of the east coast estuarine regulatory community.

The results indicate that grid sizes *2 km may be necessary to resolve the effects of the Bay on atmospheric dry deposition (but not wet). Estimating Air-Water Exchange of Nitric Acid in Coastal Areas Contact — richard. [email protected] gov A project was successfully undertaken which, i) developed and evaluated an iterative bulk exchange model to estimate air-water exchange of heat, water and momentum from buoy data, and ii) used the model outputs to estimate air-water transfer rates of nitric acid (HNO3). Natural emissions of Oxidant precursors: Validation of techniques and Assessment (NOVA)

Contact — winston. [email protected] gov Historically, NOx emissions from soils have been estimated using chamber, or enclosure, techniques, whereby the measured rate of increase of [NO] within the chamber used to derive an estimate of the NO emission flux from the underlying soil surface. Mercury Deposition Contact — [email protected] noaa. gov ARL researchers at Oak Ridge (a collaboration between ATDD and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) have been working on techniques to measure the deposition of mercury directly.

More recently, field studies have been conducted in southern Florida, where mercury originating from sugar farming practices is suspected to be affecting coastal ecosystem viability. Research Plans Linkages within NOAA The ARL coastal studies program is strongly linked with the NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office of the National Marine Fisheries Service. The work is also tied to the NOAA Coastal Ocean Program, and to coastal activities of the National Ocean Service.

The Chesapeake Bay Air Subcommittee (led by ARL) serves as an interface with all federal agencies involved in related research (EPA, DOD, DOE, DOI, DOA, NASA, Smithsonian) as well as with the air and water environmental components of each of the states in the Chesapeake Bay region (Delaware, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, District of Columbia, West Virginia). Describing statutory authorities which help the NPS protect air resources. In 1983, barely a half dozen parks were using air quality information in interpretive/educational programs.

Abortion: Birth Control Or Legal Murder?

Approximately 1. 6 million murders are committed legally each year. With the exception of laws in few states, the mutilated bodies of the victims are thrown into dumpsters like pieces of rotten meat. While these victims lay waiting in the infested dumpsters to be hauled off to a landfill, the murderers are in their offices waiting for their next patient–the accomplice to the murder. This is the murder of an innocent child by a procedure known as abortion. Abortion stops the beating of an innocent child’s heart. People must no longer ignore the scientific evidence that life begins at the moment of conception.

People can no onger ignore the medical and emotional problems an abortion causes women. People must stop denying the facts about the procedure, and start hearing the silent screams of unborn children. The argument by the pro-abortion side is that the unborn child is not truly a child. Many people who are pro-abortion justify their beliefs through the concept that a fetus is only a blob of tissue until it is born, or the statement: life begins at birth. Abortion is not as simple as removing a “blob of tissue” (as the pro-abortion activists put it) from a woman’s body.

Abortion is the destruction, dismembering and killing of a human life–an unborn baby. But it is scientific and medical fact based on experimental evidence, that a fetus is a living, growing, thriving human being, directing his or her own development” (Fetal Development). A fetus is not just a blob of tissue, rather a fetus is Latin for “offspring or young one. ” Human life begins at fertilization, therefore it is wrong to murder the innocent child in the womb. At a US Senate Judiciary Subcommittee meeting, most scientists said that life begins at conception or implantation of the embryo.

No scientist at the meeting claimed that life begins at birth (Factbot). Professor Hymie Gordon of the Mayo clinic stated “‘ . by all criteria of modern biology, life is present from the moment of conception'” (Fetal Development). In a 1963 Planned Parenthood pamphlet entitled ‘Plan Your Children’ it states “an abortion kills the life of a baby after it has begun. It is dangerous to your life and health” (Factbot). Even though abortion is dangerous to a woman’s life, and it kills her baby, Planned Parenthood still offers it as a safe solution.

This statement contradicts what most abortion clinics say. It is not possible for abortion to be offered to women as a safe solution, when it not only puts her life in danger, but it also kills her child. Not only has science proven that a fetus is truly a human, the simple facts also confer abortion kills the life of a human being. Life begins at conception because of the fact that life in the womb does not change at birth. There are no special procedures or changes that occur during birth to magically change the fetus to a baby. It is already a baby–a human life. ‘If a fertilized egg is not by itself a full human being it could not become one, because nothing is added to it,'” said Dr. Jerome Lejeune (Factbot).

Most of all the development also takes place before one is born. Of the 45 generations of cell divisions efore adulthood, 41 have taken place before a person is born (Factbot). Fertilization is just the beginning of a long process of growing and maturing. “Life in a continuum. From the moment the egg is fertilized a new life has begun. All of the genetic information is present to construct a unique individual.

Gender, physical features, eye color have already been determined. The baby’s heart begins beating regularly at 24 days. Babies in the womb hiccup, cry, play, and learn” (Factbot). Life continues from the day of fertilization until death. Nothing is added to a person during a lifetime. “‘Conception confers life and akes that life one of a kind,'” said Dr Landrum Shettles father of in vitro fertilization (Factbot). Abortion is wrong because it ends the life of a human being. The day of conception marks the beginning of a new human life.

‘The zygote is the first cell of a new human being,'” said Keith L. Moore. There is no way that the fetus is just a “blob of (Factbot) tissue. ” Scientific and medical facts prove that the fetus is living. They prove that the fetus is a person, a human, and functions separate from the mother. According to our law murder is wrong, therefore it is unlawful to kill an unborn child. The child in he womb deserves the right to life. The fetus is a real human being and deserves all the rights and freedom given to people under the Constitution.

This right is evident in the Fourteenth Amendment that states, “The State shall not deprive any person of life, liberty, property, without due process of the law; nor deny any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the law” (Factbot). Abortion denies babies equal protection under the law, and is depriving a person of life. Thomas Jefferson stated human rights best when he wrote, “We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness” (Factbot).

All unborn babies have the right to life guaranteed to humans under the constitution. No other person has the right to take away the unborn child’s life, no matter what the situation is. One must not sacrifice a life to make one’s own life better. Many argue that most of the babies that are aborted are unwanted babies. They believe that they would be abused and neglected. This is why abortion is okay to them. They believe abortion is saving the child from abuse. Abortion, however, is the most severe case of child abuse.

The procedures are painful to the child and intentionally end in death (except in cases where the procedure results in a living child. “About once a day, somewhere in the US, something goes wrong and an abortion results in a live baby” (Factbot)). The fetus is alive and has the capacity to feel the painful abortion procedure. The US Department of Health and Human Services reported that after nine weeks unborn babies can feel pain, yet 48 per cent of all abortions are done after this point ( Fetal Development). The baby can feel all the pain put on it by the painful procedures.

The ultra sound shows the baby struggling to survive. Abortionist octors such as Joseph Randall admit that seeing the abortion “. . . of the baby on the ultra sound bothered me more than anything else. The staff couldn’t take it. Women were never allowed to see the ultra sound” (Factbot). Women should be allowed to see this. They should see the struggling of the life they are killing. An early abortion takes about five minutes and is performed six to fourteen weeks after a woman’s last period.

The procedure is called a suction aspiration. It is like a vacuum cleaner. ‘A hollow plastic tube with a sharp edge is placed into the uterus. The suction tears the baby apart, and the sharp edge is used to crape the placenta from the wall of the uterus. Everything is sucked out into a bottle'” (Whitney 94). The other common method is dilation and curettage. “‘A curette, which is a loop-shaped steel knife, is inserted into the uterus, and the baby and the placenta are cut into pieces and scraped out. Both procedures are usually done under general anesthesia, so they’re not painful for the mother. Of course we know the child feels pain'” (Whitney 94).

Another method that is not performed much anymore is the saline injection; a long slow death process of poisoning the baby. The saline injection was developed in the Nazi Concentration Camps (Factbot) The most controversial form of abortion is the partial-birth abortion. Using an ultra sound the abortionist grabs the baby’s legs with forceps and pulls them out into the birth canal. The abortionist then delivers the entire baby except for the head and continues by jamming scissors into the baby’s skull. The scissors are then opened to enlarge the hole. The scissors are removed and a suction is inserted.

The baby’s brains are sucked out causing the skull to collapse. The dead baby is then removed ( Partial). It has been proven that babies can feel pain in these procedures. The fetus can feel pain because t is alive and growing like a human. Something that is not living cannot feel pain. If one crushes a pop can as the abortionist crushes a baby, the pop can feels no pain because it is not living. The baby feels pain because it is a living human being. Abortion is wrong because it deprives the baby of rights and happiness because of the suffering it must go through during the abortion.

Women who have these painful abortions suffer emotional stress, and years after having the procedure they discover that they destroyed a human life. The women finally realize after many years of emotional stress the cause of it. After 5-10 years 54 per cent of mothers choosing abortion had nightmares and 96 per cent felt they had taken a life” a from study by Dr Anne Speckhard of the University of Minnesota. People need to listen to the women who have had abortions in the past to hear what they are really about. From them people can learn much more than a clinic can teach.

After having an abortion, many women can tell a person the true facts–abortion is murder. “‘Recent evidence indicates many women harbor strong guilt feelings long after their abortions. Guilt is one important cause of child battering and infanticide. Abortion lowers omen’s self-esteem and there are studies reporting a major loss of self-esteem in battering parents,'” said Dr. Phillip Ney. There are places that give abortion counseling. However, many of these places do not give accurate information Accurate information is needed so women, and men, know that abortion will take away a human life.

Ninety-five percent of women who had abortions said their Planned Parenthood counselors gave “. . . little or no biological information about the fetus which the abortion would destroy. ” Where 80 percent of women who have had abortions from Planned Parenthood said little or no health nformation was given to them about potential health risks (Factbot). Women need to be told the true facts of abortion. They need to see the fetal monitors. In many clinics they are not allowed to see the ultra sound. The doctors do not want a woman to see that the baby inside of her is alive.

This is wrong because it not only denies the child the rights such as the right to be heard and seen, it denies women the truth. The truth must be told and shown. Shari Richard, an Ultrasonographer, said, “‘In fact many women will come to me considering an abortion, and I have been personally told that I am to turn the monitor away rom her view so that seeing her baby jump around on the screen does not influence her choice'” (Factbot). Abortion clinic staff members are taught how to sell abortions, told never to give alternatives, and told to tell the women how much trouble a baby is.

Women are not told the facts. It is obvious from the ultra sound that the baby they are carrying is alive, and abortion kills the baby. If the clinic can clearly see that the baby is alive, the mother should also see. Abortion is described as a decision between a women and her doctor. Yet over 90 percent don’t even see the doctor until he appears to abort their baby. This should not be the case. The clinics are hiding and withholding the true facts. Clinics need to shape-up and tell the truth to women: Abortion is wrong. Abortion is one of the key issues facing the human race today.

This issue, like many, forces people to take sides against each other, and is one of the main factors people look at when voting. In a 1973 court ruling, known as Roe v. Wade, abortion became legal. Since this ruling the number of teen pregnancies has increased from 4. 94 per cent in 1972 to 9. 92 per cent in 1990. The number of teen abortions has doubled from 19. 9 per thousand teenagers in 1972 to 43. 8 per housand teenagers in 1990 while the number of teen births has increased from 22. 8 to 42. 5 per thousand. The number of births to unmarried women has increased 7. per cent during the years from1972 to 1990 while the number of abortions increased 11. 7 per cent during those years (Factbot).

Abortion should no longer be legal. It is rapidly becoming a form of birth control. No longer must women worry about protection, if they should conceive a child, they can choose to take its life. One-third of all babies (Planned Parenthood) are aborted, which entitles the abortion industry to $500 million a year in income in the United States (Factbot). Abortion is the most frequent surgical operation in the US, and the leading cause of death in Minnesota (Factbot).

Currently there are two million couples waiting for adoption in America, yet there are 30 abortions for every one adoption (Factbot). These statistics are true. Abortion needs to be stopped. There are arguments against the stopping of abortion. However, there are solutions. Many say abortion should be legal if the woman’s life is in danger. Only three percent of all abortions are done for the mother’s health, where 40 percent of women who have abortions will have more than one, and 50 per cent use t as their sole means of birth control (Factbot).

As for the argument that women will do them illegally in the back alleys endangering their lives, 72 per cent said they would definitely not have sought an abortion if they were illegal, and death happens during a legal abortion too; maternal death rates for first trimester abortions are 61 per 100,000 cases (Factbot). Abortion is clearly the taking of a human life, an action that is wrong under the United States constitution. Women must stop being denied the facts and start being told the truth. The people of the US must start standing up for the ights of all people, born and unborn. Abortion concerns not only the unborn child , it concerns every one of us. ” said former President of the United States Ronald Reagan (Factbot). Abortion concerns all of us. People need to start caring for the women who are hurting as a result of an abortion, and women who are struggling over the decision. People must tell them the facts, and work at making the conditions better for women, because 84 per cent would keep their babies under better circumstances (Factbot). America needs to open her ears to the screams of the 1. 6 million babies murdered each year.

Obesity

The dramatic growth in obesity and over weight among Americans can become a hot topic, receiving widespread attention in the media. In a recent article in science magazine said that the national obesity rate will be 39% by 2008. Obesity has risen dramatically in the past 10 years. It is estimated that as many as one in five Americans is obese, a condition defined as being more than 30 percent above the ideal weight based on height.

Even scarier is that obesity rates for children have doubled over the last 20 years, and overweight children are being diagnosed with obesity-related illnesses such as diabetes sleep apnea, and respiratory illness that in the past have only afflicted adults… They are eating too much-fat-rich foods such as soft drinks, and snacks foods, and have decreased there physical exercise and or activities. Our children today spend more time in from of television, computer and video screens.

A 2003 CBS news/New York reported that 21% of Americans believe that eating fast foods is to blame for obesity among children while 27% of parents have the inability to prepare healthy meals for them. Obesity Obesity causes 30,000 deaths a year. Obesity occurs when more calories are consumed that he or she can burn. The typical person will gain one pound of weight fro each 3, 5000 excess calories consumed, which are not utilized to fuel basic metabolism or physical activity. If a person eats an average 100 excess calories per day, they can be expected to gain some ten pounds in a year.

The body mass index (BMI) is a persons weight in kilograms divided by the square of a persons height in meters or kilograms divided (height in meters)2. The body mass index is the measure used to define obesity. In adults BMI between 25 and 29 is overweight and BMI of 30 and higher is obese. In children with the BMI changes with age and gender. ” The center for disease control defines a child whose Body Mass Index is between the 85th and 95th percentile for age (meaning that 85-95% of his or her peers have equal or lower BMI) as being at risk for obesity” A child that has a body mass index of 95 or higher is consider obese.

Obesity increases one’s risk of developing conditions such as high blood pressure type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, gall Bladder disease, and breast cancer. The tendency toward obesity is fostered by our environment the lack of physical activities with high calorie, and lost cost foods. The growing prevalence of obesity and overweight is a reflection of the enormous success for there United States food system. Food that is cheap and frequently high in calorie content is widely available.

Over ten thousands years ago food was essential problem for most people. Food was considered sacred. Obtaining food by hunting and farming require a lot of physical activity. Now food is easily gotten and people no longer need to over exert themselves to obtain it. Obesity and being overweight has usually been viewed as a personal issue. But today with enormous attention now being focused on this issue there is a transition from blaming the individual to blaming society and the fast food industry.

Americans have gained so much weight in the last couple of decades that even the airline industry has to adjust to the growing trend. In November 2004, the Associated press Reported: American’s growing waistlines are hurting the bottom lines of airline companies as the extra pounds on passengers are causing a drag on plans. Heavier fliers have created heftier fuel costs, according to a government study. The extra weight cause airlines to spend $275 million to burn $350 million more gallons of fuel in 2000 just to carry the additional weight of Americans.

The extra fuel burned also had an environmental impact, as an estimated 3. 8 million extra tons of carbon dioxide were released in the air. With obesity on the rise the market for the industry that has supply us with extra-large and reinforced “car seats, giant chairs, super-heavy duty bathroom scales, toilets rated to 1500 pounds, beds built to hold 1,100 pounds even something called a trapeze that helps people who weight 1,000 pounds turn over in bed” the AP reports (Spurlock pg10).

Testosterone and Steroids

Testosterone was often referred to as the “male” hormone, because it is responsible for developing some of the male characteristics such as lowering of the voice and hair growth, and because the male body produces much more of it than the female. However, it is responsible for stimulating quite a few other processes. Steroids are a very large class of compounds which occur in all animals. The steroids used by athletes are mostly androgenic steroids: steroids which act like testosterone.

The steroids used to treat inflammatory disorders (e. g. dnisolone, cortisone,beclomethasone, budesonide, dexamethasone and dozens of others) are cortico steroids and do not have anabolic effects. Testosterone in the male is produced mainly in the testis, a small amount being produced in the adrenal. It is synthesized from cholesterol. The regulation of its production may be simplified thus: the hypothalamus(part of the brain) produces gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) which acts on the anterior pituitary to increase the production of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).

LH acts on the Leydig cells in the testis, causing them to produce testosterone. FSH, together with testosterone act on the Sertoli cells in the testis to regulate the production and maturation of spermatozoa. Testosterone in turn acts on thehypothalamus and anterior pituitary to suppress the production of GnRH, FSHand LH, producing a negative-feedback mechanism which keeps everything well-regulated. The small amount produced in the adrenal (in both sexes) is regulated by secretion of adrenal corticotrophic hormone (ACTH), also secreted by the pituitary.

Testosterone, and its metabolites such as dihydrotestosterone, act in many parts of the body, producing the secondary sexual characteristics ofthen male: balding, facial and body hair, deep voice, greater muscle bulk,thicker skin, and genital maturity. At puberty it produces acne, the growth spurt and the enlargement of the penis and testes as well as causing the fusion of the epiphyses (through its conversion to estrogen), bringing growth in height to an end.

It plays some role in maintaining the sexualorgans in the adult, but only a low concentration is required for this. The normal production of testosterone in the adult male is 4 to 9mg per day. The normal plasma concentration is 22. 5nmol/l, of which 97% is protein bound. Most is excreted in the urine as 17-keto steroids, but a small amount is converted to oestrogens. Various analogs of testosterone are used in medical treatment of testicular failure,hereditary angioedema, anemia, severe endometriosis and a few other conditions. Testosterone itself is given by injection.

Oral preparations such as methyltestosterone, fluoxymesterone, mesterolone andstanolone are sometimes used, but they cause substantially more liverdamage than injectable or rectally administered preparations because they are absorbed from the gut and transported first to the liver (like most things taken by mouth)where they reach quite high concentrations and are extensively metabolized before circulating to the rest of the body. in both the male and female body, such as skin, muscle and bone. Anabolic steroids are synthetic versions of testosterone, they are steroid hormones that are claimed to have a greater anabolic effect than virile. testosterone molecule has in different ways been altered to lessen the androgenic effects and increase it’s protein build-up abbility, and preferably eliminate it’s masculine enhancing features. Unfortunately this has not been completely successful, so there are a lot of different side effects with any anabolic steroid. Steroids was developed in the 1940s in Germany and used experimentally on their troops during World War II, the drugs ability to stimulate tissue growth and protein synthesis lead them to believe that the drug might be beneficial to treat burn victims and towards other war accidents.

The drug was never such a big success, because other drugs with fewer side effects were discovered, and the legal use of steroids still seems to be declining. Steroids are used for treating anaemia, because of it’s abbility to increase the production of red blood corpuscles (red blood cells). They are also used for treatment of leukemi, cancer mammae, and at times steroids are also used for general strengthening therapy. Steroids have also been tried in combination with other drugs as a means of helping AIDS pasients.

It’s no secret that athletes often use steroids to stay at the top, unfortunately it seems as if it is not possible to dominate in some sports without the aid of drugs like steroids. Steroids can without doubt increase muscular growth in women and children but there is still some dispute on whether steroids work for grown up men. Still, a vast number of athletes and trainers are convinced that steroids causes muscular growth and increases the body’s ability to recuperate after hard training. This might very well be true, but for these effects the doses need to be pretty high, causing greater side effects.

Side effects that might occur: Sterility Liver damage and pain Kidney damage and pain Heart damage/problems/disease/irregularities/strokes Hypophysis supression High blood pressure (Hypertension) Acne Cancer Shrunken testicles Neanderthale-look, a big jaw-bone and spacing between teeth Higher risk of injury because of strain on tendons and joints Water retention Baldness (male) Prostrate enlargement Aggressive behavior (‘roid rage) Depression Gynecomastia Lowered sperm count Temporarily raised sex drive when on steroids and almost eliminating it later.

Be aware that some steroid side effects are not reversible Women should take even more caution using steroids since their normal levels are only 5% of the average male’s testosterone level. Women may get most of the above mention side effects but might have more trouble with the following: Lowering of the voice Increased fascial and body hair growth Reduced breast size Acne Genital enlargement Menstrual cycles Well, some of the side effects of using steroids are reversible, but far from all of them. However, once you get off steroids you might loose almost all the gains you made while being on them.

This might be due to the fact that your body shuts down the production of it’s own testosteron when supplied with large amounts of synthetic testosteron in the form of steroids. Some bodybuilders claim that it is possible to kickstart your body’s production of testosterone by using certain drugs after getting off steroids. Depression is often experienced, self esteem drops and the desire to train as well. Sometimes people stop cycling steroids because they don’t manage to get off the drugs for a month or two.

Injectable steroids are longer lasting in the body, but therefore they can be detected in your body for a longer periode of time, so athletes that are likely to be doping tested have shifted from using injectables to orals. The problem with orals however, aside from the fact that they are not as long lasting, is that they put a lot of strain on the liver as they must be processed there. Larger quantities are also needed as a lot of it is broken down before it enters the bloodstream. How can You tell if someone is using Steroids?

If he has some of these symptoms he might be on steroids: Rapid weight and muscle gain Sudden mood changes and aggressive behavior Acne, especially on the back Trembling Sudden increase of food consumption Enhanced recuperation / Reduced recovery time Strength increases Reduced bodyfat Enlarged muscle size Many of these effects are only temporary, which means that once you get off steroids most of the gains disappear. As mentioned before steroids causes water retention, so steroid users will gain mass very quickly, but most of it will be water not muscles. This will put the body through a lot of stress, loosing and gaining weight in cycles.

The more positive sides of steroids are that they seem to be able to suppress the body’s production of the stress hormone cortisol after exercise. Cortisol is actually a muscle tissue destroyer, so by keeping the levels of cortisol down reduces muscle damage and allows for faster recuperation. So the steroid user might be able to train more frequent. Another major effect of steroids is the increased stimulation of the protein synthesis by increasing the amount of nitrogen in the body, more protein available to the body means that the environment for muscle production is better.

A lot of steroid users report that the steroids help them lower their body fat levels, the reason for this is not clear, but some feel it is because of an increased metabolic rate. Others claim that oxidation of fat is increased because the steroids promote mitochondria growth in the cells. What if You don’t exercise, but take steroids, will you experience muscle gains? Yes, in fact you might experience muscle growth, but this growth will be much less than what is achieved together with training. Steroids will mostly help your body to recuperate faster thus enabling you to train longer and harder.

But will also build muscles by stimulating the protein synthesis and keeping the production of the stress hormone cortisol down. Cancers of the prostate are frequently dependent on testosterone(hence their treatment by castration) and they may progress very rapidly in the presence of high level of androgens. A percentage of testosterone is converted to estrogen and some artificial androgens have some estrogen effect as well, causing enlargement of the breast tissue behind the nipple (gynaecomastia). This is occasionally seen naturally in pubescent boys and a small percentage of the adult male population.

This effect may be reduced by drugs which inhibit the binding of estrogen to its receptors: e. g. clomiphene, cyclofenil and tamoxifen or drugs that block the enzyme,aromatase, that converts testosterone to estrogen. So are they safe? The approval and use of any drug is a matter of deciding whether the therapeutic benefits from its use are worth the adverse effects. No drug is safe; acetaminophen (paracetamol) causes some verynasty fatal poisonings, aspirin causes rare cases of devastating skinreactions. Problems occur with every pharmaceutical and it is usually dose dependent.

However, the concensus is that they save enough lives and alleviate enough problems to more than compensate for the bad effects. In therapeutic doses, steroids result in few side effects. Androgenic steroids have a fairly limited use in medicine. They are effective in males with testicular failure and are occasionally used inosteoporosis and as an appetite stimulant in severely wasted patients. In the past they were also used to treat anemia, however, more effective treatements now exist for this disease. In these cases the benefits clearly outweigh the risks for the patient.

Using them for essentially cosmetic or frivolous reasons doesn’t produce much of value to compensate for the risks associated with their abuse. Using drugs under medical supervision doesn’t make the drugs any safer, it just gives a greater chance that the adverse effects may be picked up sooner, and it decreases the chances that an abusive quantity will be used. What Side effects are commonly seen with steroid use? First, there are many different anabolic steroids and based on how the body handles them, they have very different side effects.

Some steroids have virtually no side effects and to lump all anabolic steroids into one category (in terms of benefit or harm) shows a lack of understanding with respect to their pharmacological action. In therapeutic doses, 100 mg deca-durabolin per week for example, very fewside effects are observed. Unfortunately, most athletes will not restrict their use to therapeutic doses. What happens when athletes take some of the harsher anabolic steroids in abusive dosages? Numerous side effects can result while on steroids including acne, increased sex drive, impotence, liver problems, aggression and psychological dependence.

Other side effects, including gynecomastia, high blood pressure, other cardiovascular diseases, baldness, stunted growth in adolescents, and enlargement of pre existing prostate tumors can persist even after steroid use has stopped. Female steroid users, in addition to the problems listed above, can have virilizing(masculinizing) symptoms when using the harsher, androgenic compounds,including amenorrhea (which is reversible), clitoral hypertrophy, deepervoice, excessive growth of body hair, loss of scalp hair and alterations in skin texture (which frequently aren’t reversible). Not all of these conditions are caused by all anabolic steroids.

Some of the harsher anabolic steroids will only cause these problems for a certain percentage of the users, above certain dosages. Some of the milder anabolic steroids cause almost none of these side effects. There fore, it is a mistake to state that all steroid users will come down with these side effects. Any such silly statements will be readily flamed on m. f. w. Most of the sideeffects of steroid use result from the conversion of testosterone to estrogen or dihydrotestosterone. Some anabolic steroids do not undergo this conversion. These steroids will have fewer side effects.

Human Cloning

The cloning of humans is now very close to reality, thanks to the historic scientific breakthrough of Dr. Ian Wilmut and his colleagues in the UK. This possibility is one of incredible potential benefit for all of us. Unfortunately the initial debate on this issue has been dominated by misleading, sensationalized accounts in the news media and negative emotional reactions derived from inaccurate science fiction. Much of the negativity about human cloning is based simply on the breathtaking novelty of the concept rather than on any real undesirable consequences.

On balance, human cloning would have overwhelming advantages if regulated in a reasonable way. A comprehensive ban on human cloning by a misinformed public would be a sorry episode in human history. This essay will discuss both the advantages and the alleged negative consequences of human cloning. What is a Human Clone? A human clone is really just a time-delayed identical twin of another person. Science fiction novels and movies have given people the impression that human clones would be mindless zombies, Frankenstein monsters, or “doubles. ” This is all complete nonsense.

Human clones would be human beings just like you and me, not zombies. They would be carried and delivered after nine months by a human mother and raised in a family just like everyone else. They would require 18 years to reach adulthood just like everyone else. Consequently, a clone-twin will be decades younger than the original person. There is no danger of people confusing a clone-twin with the original person. As with identical twins, the clone and DNA donor would have different fingerprints. A clone will not inherit any of the memories of the original person.

Because of these differences, a clone is not a xerox copy or “double” of a person, just a much younger identical twin. Human clones would have the same legal rights and responsibilities as any other human being. Human clones will be human beings in every sense. You could not keep a clone as a slave. Human slavery was abolished in the United States in 1865. It should be emphasized that all human cloning must be done on an individual voluntary basis. The living person who is to be cloned would have to give their consent, and the woman who gives birth to the clone-twin and raises the child must also be acting voluntarily.

No other scenario is conceivable in a free democratic country. Because cloning requires a woman to gestate the baby, there is no danger of evil scientists creating thousands of clones in secret laboratories. Cloning will be done only at the request and with the participation of ordinary people, as an additional reproduction option. Many people have asked, “Why would anyone want to clone a human being? ” There are at least two good reasons: to allow families to conceive twins of exceptional individuals, and to allow childless couples to reproduce.

In a free society we must also ask, “Are the negative consequences sufficiently compelling that we must prohibit consenting adults from doing this? ” We will see that in general they are not. Where specific abuses are anticipated, these can be avoided by targeted laws and regulations, which I will suggest below. Alleged Objections to Human Cloning Some politicians in the United States are now proposing to save us from the horrors of human cloning by a comprehensive prohibition. The interesting thing is that under close analysis there really aren’t any serious problems.

In the few cases where abuses are likely to occur, these can be avoided by targeted legislation. There is nothing about human cloning per se that justifies its criminalization. The only objection that stands up under analysis is that the technology has not been perfected. This is a justification for further research, not for a prohibition. The only objection that stands up under analysis is that the technology has not been perfected. This is a justification for further research, not for a prohibition.

The number of fantastic and absurd objections to human cloning is absolutely astonishing, and indicate a fundamental lack of understanding of the concept by the general public. Instead of pandering to uninstructed fears, politicians would do better to undertake a program to educate the public to a realistic understanding of cloning. If lawmakers are foolish enough to criminalize human cloning in the US, there are good prospects that the Supreme Court will declare this to be unconstitutional. Failing that, Americans will still have the option of flying to a free country to obtain the procedure.

Evil Dictators Might Abuse Human Cloning. There is the possibility that unscrupulous dictators such as Fidel Castro or Saddam Hussein might try to perpetuate their power by creating a clone of themselves and transferring power to the clone when they die. There is also the possibility that such people might try to create a super army of thousands of clones of Arnold Schwarzenegger, and so on. These possibilities cannot be dismissed. However, it is important to keep in mind that passing laws in the US or other democratic countries cannot control the behavior of rogue dictators in totalitarian countries.

The prohibition of human cloning in the US or Europe is not going to stop cloning in Iraq. If Saddam Hussein wants to clone himself, nothing short of a major military invasion can stop him. The evil in these scenarios derives not from cloning but from dictatorships. The proper solution would be a world-wide ban on dictators, which of course is not likely to happen. The Technology Has Not Been Perfected. No area of human activity is free of accidental death. Human cloning is no exception. Some of the other cloned lambs at Roslin were stillborn. At the moment the technology for cloning mammals is experimental and the success rate is still low.

By additional experimentation on higher mammals, we may anticipate that cloning procedures will be perfected to the point where the risk of miscarriage or death of the baby is the same as for any other birth. Thirty thousand people perished on the Oregon Trail. Forty thousand people die in automobile accidents every year in the United States. There are many fatal airplane crashes, with hundreds of people and dozens of children dying in a single accident. Many adults and children choke to death on chicken bones every year. Yet we do not think of banning automobiles, airplanes, or fried chicken because the positive benefits outweigh the risks.

If airplanes were to be invented now instead of 90 years ago, I’m afraid there would be serious proposals to ban airplanes because of the risk of injury and death. It is absurd to ban a new technological breakthrough just because, initially, it is not perfectly safe. Many legitimate future applications of cloning technology have been envisioned in the areas of organ replacement, skin grafts for burn victims, etc. These would not involve cloning an entire person, but only application of the same nucleus transfer technology to grow new tissue or organs for medical purposes.

It Amounts to Playing God. The Bible and the holy texts of other major religions do not explicitly prohibit human cloning. Consequently, religious opposition to human cloning is not firmly based. There will nevertheless be many who think that cloning humans is “wrong” for religious reasons. These people should of course not participate in cloning. Religious leaders who believe human cloning is wrong are entitled to preach their beliefs and persuade whom they can. They discredit themselves when they propose to jail people that they cannot persuade.

Jesus never advocated force to compel people to live according to Christian beliefs. Legal enforcement of religious beliefs is a very poor idea and also a violation of the US Constitution. In contrast with abortion, which involves the termination of the life of a fetus, cloning involves the creation of new life. Consequently, opposition to human cloning is not based on established moral principles. It is also possible to argue that if God had not wanted us to clone mammals or people, he would not have created Dr. Wilmut. By all means remain true to your own beliefs, but don’t tell me what to do with my DNA.

I personally wouldn’t want to clone myself, but free people should be free to make that choice without compulsion from society. The accusation of “playing God” is a vague but recurring criticism. We hear it every time there is a major advance in medicine. At one time birth control pills, in vitro fertilization, and heart transplants were criticized on the same grounds. God often performs good deeds which we should try to imitate. If playing God by cloning humans can have bad consequences, the critics are obliged to specify precisely what those bad consequences might be. So far they have not done so.

Desirable Governmental Regulations Human cloning is a new and unexplored legal arena and will definitely require some legal regulation to prevent abuse. Here are some suggestions for moderate legislation which seems desirable: 1. Human clones should be declared to have the same legal rights and responsibilities as any other human being. People will not be able to keep a human clone in the wine cellar for spare body parts any more than they can an identical twin. The abuse of any human being is a crime, regardless of whether or not their genetic code is unique. 2. A living person should not be cloned without their written consent.

A person is entitled to an automatic copyright for their genetic code, and this should remain under their control. A person should be allowed to specify in their will whether they wish to allow themselves to be cloned after their death, and under what circumstances. We may want to prohibit the cloning of someone who has not reached adulthood, because they may not have the maturity to make this kind of decision. 3. Human clones should only be gestated and delivered by a voluntary adult woman. The growth of a human fetus outside of a woman’s body, for example in a laboratory apparatus, should be prohibited.

At present the technology does not exist for an artificial uterus, but Japanese researchers are working on it. 4. The cloning of convicted murderers and other violent criminals should be prohibited. There is reason to believe that a predisposition to violence and murder are genetically determined. It should be illegal to clone Charles Manson. The world has an ample supply of criminals without artificially creating more of them. This should definitely include notorious mass-murderers of the past, such as Hitler, Lenin, and Stalin, in anticipation of the day when this will become possible.

Cloning the Dead Cloning of the dead is not science-fiction. It has already happened. An interesting but little-known fact about the Wilmut cloning procedure is that it was performed with frozen cells, not fresh cells. (This information was obtained directly from Ian Wilmut by Dr. Patrick Dixon. ) At the time Dolly was cloned, the sheep from which the udder cells were taken was already dead. Thus the DNA donor, whether animal or human, need not even be alive when the cloning occurs. If a tissue sample of a person is properly frozen, the person could be cloned long after their death.

In the case of people who have already died and whose tissue has not been frozen, cloning becomes much more difficult, and present procedures are inadequate. However, any biologist would be brave indeed to now declare that this is impossible. Let us now look ahead to the near future and speculate on the possibilities which will open up if research can develop a method for creating a clone from non-living DNA. All human tissue contains DNA and could potentially be a source for cloning. This includes human hair, bones, and teeth. Unfortunately, DNA begins to slowly decompose a few weeks after death, destroying segments of the genetic code.

Only a few short fragments of dinosaur DNA have survived after 60 million years, so the chances for realizing Jurassic Park are slim. However, the prospects are good for recovering a complete DNA sequence from human tissue samples, because much less time has elapsed. Think of the genetic code as a book of blueprints from which paragraphs or pages are randomly erased over time. If we only have one copy of the book, the complete set of blueprints can not be recovered. Luckily we will have more than one copy. In a bone or tissue sample there will be many thousands of cells, each with its own copy of the DNA code.

This is like having thousands of copies of the same book. If page 239 has been erased in one book, that page may still be intact in another one, so that it is possible to recover a perfect copy of the original genetic code by combining information from many cells. Another mitigating factor is that only a small percentage of the three billion symbols in the human genetic code is responsible for individual differences. For example, the genetic codes for chimpanzees and humans are actually 99% identical. This means that less than 1% of the code, the part that determines human individual differences, needs to be recovered.

The rest could be spliced in from any living human cell. Clearly all this is beyond present technology, but is feasible in principle. Cloning Exceptional People Exceptional people are valuable in many ways, both culturally and financially. For example, US movie stars and sports stars are often worth hundreds of millions of dollars. Let’s consider the specific example of Clint Eastwood. His films have grossed several billion dollars over thirty years. Today he is 67 years old and nearing the end of his acting and directing career. He is one of the most popular living movie stars.

As Richard Schickel says in an essay on Eastwood, “For actors, more than for most people, genetics is destiny. ” The cultural and economic value of cloning Clint Eastwood would be enormous. Tens of millions of fans would be delighted. Furthermore, this could be done very conveniently. He certainly has the financial resources to pay for the procedure. His new wife is of child-bearing age, and could easily carry and deliver the child, which would be brought up in the family. If the Eastwood family decided they wanted to do this, why should government prohibit it? Why should this be a crime?

Why should we not also allow the cloning of distinguished intellectuals and scientists, such as science fiction visionary Arthur C. Clarke, Dr. Jonas Salk, inventor of the polio vaccine, and even Dr. Ian Wilmut himself? Wilmut is certain to win the Nobel prize in medicine/physiology. In fact any Nobel prize winner would be worth cloning for the potential future contribution which their twin might make. Again we are talking about the decision being made by the individuals directly involved: the DNA donor, the woman who will bear the child, and her husband who would help in raising the child.

Cloning is also reasonable in the case of even ordinary individuals. The concept of “exceptional people” is not limited to movie stars and Nobel prize winners. All of us know people we admire and respect. We sometimes think to ourselves, “Wouldn’t it be nice if there were more people in the world like that? ” Human cloning allows us to go beyond wistful thoughts of this kind. Suppose old Uncle Max is a great guy, regarded with affection and respect in the community and by his family. His niece and her husband decide they would like to have a child just like Uncle Max.

He is flattered and agrees to allow himself to be cloned. Why should the US Congress, in its infinite wisdom, intervene and declare that Uncle Max and his niece are criminals who should be jailed by the reproduction police? Where is the evil consequence for them and for society? Why should this be a crime? What might we expect from human clones? The answers come from studies of natural identical twins. Human clones will look just like the original person and have essentially the same height and build. For famous super-models and movie stars, these may be the most important characteristics.

Identical twins have a 70% correlation of intelligence and a 50% correlation of personality traits. This means that if someone clones a distinguished scientist, the clone-twin might actually be more intelligent than the original scientist! If a clone of Elizabeth Taylor has a somewhat different personality, who cares? At the present time we cannot be sure what percentage of twins of distinguished people will make equally valuable contributions, but if we ban cloning we will never know. Drive and determination are certainly important characteristics of many distinguished people.

Perhaps drive and determination are genetically influenced characteristics. If we find that clones of distinguished people are not living up to the reputations of their predecessors, then the incentive for human cloning will be diminished. We would then see human cloning done less frequently based on informed individual choice. Bringing Back the Past Locks of hair of many famous people from the past have been preserved. This list includes Isaac Newton, George Washington, Napoleon, Beethoven, Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley, and John Lennon.

For example, not too long ago some of Isaac Newton’s hair was analyzed and discovered to contain a high concentration of arsenic, due to his chemical experiments. Until now these locks of hair were merely curiosities. With human cloning on the edge of reality, they now take on a much greater significance. It is entirely possible that great men and women of the past could be cloned from samples of their hair, tissue, or bones. Albert Einstein’s brain has been preserved in a jar. We know the location of the bones of many other famous people, such as Abraham Lincoln, Leonardo da Vinci, and Eva Peron.

We should take action to ensure that tissue samples of distinguished people of the past are adequately preserved from destruction, if necessary by law. Cryogenic storage would be desirable to prevent further deterioration of the DNA in these samples. The prospect of cloning outstanding people of the past is an extremely exciting possibility, and justifies the most intensive research efforts. Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein are two of the greatest scientists of all time. Imagine the potential for scientific advancement if these two scientists could be cloned and educated in the 21st century.

Having due regard for cultural sensitivities, Newton’s clone would be raised in England, and Einstein’s clone would no doubt be raised in a Jewish family, perhaps by the actual descendants of Einstein. As with clones of movie stars and sports figures, there is no guarantee than their twins would necessarily want to study physics. They might instead find some other field of science more interesting in their new existence, such as artificial intelligence or genetic engineering. Assuming they were born at about the same time, it would even be possible for the clone-twins of Newton and Einstein to collaborate scientifically!

What scientific marvels might these two great minds discover working together? It is also possible to imagine that the great political leaders of the past might be cloned from hair or bone samples. Names that come to mind include Winston Churchill, Abraham Lincoln, Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt, and John F. Kennedy. There is some evidence that leadership traits are genetically determined. Of course a person’s life experience has a major impact on their personality, interests, and ambitions.

Yet it does not seem unlikely that some of the twins of these great men might also want to enter politics and even aspire to high office, just as the son’s of politicians sometimes follow the same career. How incredibly exciting it would be to witness a presidential race in the next century between the twin of Abraham Lincoln and the twin of Franklin Roosevelt, unstricken by polio. Who would win in a contest between clone-twins of John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan? Would the twin of Winston Churchill once again be chosen prime minister of Great Britain, or would he be out of place in the presumed peace of the 21st century?

He might instead become a distinguished television commentator and author. There would also be tremendous interest and advantage in cloning great sports figures of the past, such as Jim Thorpe, Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, and Jesse Owens. The Olympic games of the year 2032 would be a sensation if the clone-twins of Jim Thorpe and Jesse Owens were to compete against each other. Another potential for human cloning may be in the partial restitution of great iniquities of the past. It is possible that many of the millions of victims of the Nazi concentration camps could be cloned to recover lost genetic strains.

The same technology that could clone Adolf Hitler could also be used to clone Anne Frank! Human cloning would for the first time offer the world’s Jewish community a constructive response to the Holocaust. In Russia there remains a serious concern about the diminution of the gene pool caused by Stalin’s mass executions of their society’s best and brightest. In a limited sense, cloning could give a chance for new life to individuals of the past whose lives were unjustly and prematurely ended. And what about DNA from the Egyptian mummies? Perhaps the ancient Egyptians were wiser than we thought to preserve the body after death.

The complete mummy of Ramses II reposes in excellent condition in the Egyptian museum in Cairo. This is the Pharaoh of the Old Testament. A technology for human cloning would allow a modern Egyptian woman to give birth to the twin of this great historical figure. Who would not want to see the living image of Ramses II and hear the same voice that spoke to Moses over three thousand years ago? It is clear that human cloning has enormous potential benefits and few real negative consequences. As with many scientific advances of the past, such as airplanes and computers, the only real threat is to our own narrow mental complacency.

In the areas of scientific advancement and cultural achievement, human clones can make major contributions. In specific cases where abuse of cloning is anticipated, these abuses can be prohibited by targeted legislation. With a little common sense and reasonable regulation, human cloning is not something to be feared. We should look forward to it with excited anticipation, and support research which will hasten its realization. Exceptional people are among the world’s greatest treasures. Human cloning will allow us to preserve and eventually even recover these treasures.

Conversation on cloning

Twenty years ago, scientists said that cloning was completely impossible. But now, the science of cloning has come to realization. Imagine meeting an exact replica of somebody. They look alike, think alike, and even have the same genetic makeup. No, this isn’t an episode of Star Trek, this is reality. This is the new world of cloning, and thanks to a 7-month-old sheep named Dolly, a new science has been born. As with every new science, there are those who believe in it, and those who oppose it.

The new technology of cloning should be utilized because it could bring back extinct organisms, help infertile couples to have hildren, and potentially save many lives. Cloning could bring back extinct animals. Over millions of years, thousands of different species have gone extinct. Most were due to “natural selection”, while several others were due to human intervention. According to the Encarta Encyclopedia, 1997, “nearly two-thirds of all the native bird species and one-tenth of the native plants originally found on the Hawaiian Islands have gone extinct recently.

Most of these losses have been of species unique to the Hawaiian archipelago. Predators, ompetitors, or diseases introduced by humans from continental areas are responsible for many of the extinctions. Many remaining species on oceanic islands are threatened or endangered. ” With cloning, many of the animal species, and potentially several of the plant species could be brought back to life. Even though there is currently no technique for bringing the plants back, with technology advancing so quickly, we could have a solution quite soon. Cloning, though now limited to an! imal subjects, potentially has significant human applications.

Toughts on abortion

The most striking feature of this short story is the way in which it is told. It is not a story in the classical sense with an introduction, a development of the story and an end, but we just get some time in the life of two people, as if it were just a piece of a film where we have a lot to deduce, This story doesn’t give everything done for the reader, we only see the surface of what is going on. It leaves an open end, readers can have their own ending and therefore take part in the story when reading.

The story told here is that of a woman and a man in their trip to a place where she can have an abortion. Everything in the tale is related to the idea of fertility and barrenness. This main topic can be seen from the title Hills Like White Elephants, where Hills refer to the shape of the belly of a pregnant woman, and White Elephants is an idiom that refers to useless or unwanted things. In this case the unwanted thing is the fetus they are going to get rid of. In the beginning we find a narrator that describes with a simple language the area where it is going to take place.

We can see that the story happens in Spain, in the Valley of the embryo, and we also see that the train the characters are going to take is an express train that comes from Barcelona and goes to Madrid, but we don’t know exactly where they are or the time or date in which it takes place, we don’t even know if they really take the train. The train here symbolizes change, movement but in some way they are scared of it as movement is not always forward but it can also be backwards in this case in their relationship.

It is the train of life. Another thing we must take into account is the fact that the train is stopping only for two minutes, a very short time. This limited time symbolizes the time she has to have the abortion, she cannot think it over for a long time first because the later she has the abortion the more risky for her health it gets and second, because abortion has not been legal in Spain till very recently and in a dictatorship time it was a very punished practice, it had to be done before noticeable.

In a first reading and after checking Hemingway’s biography we could think that the story was set in the Spanish civil war, but we must discard this possibility because it was written in 1927, some years before the Spanish civil war and in the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera. The first impression we get when we start reading the text is that we are in the middle of a dry, barren place under the sun, with no shade or trees, it reinforces the idea of lack of life but in contrast, they are in the warm shadow of the building where life is.

This emphasizes the contrast between the pregnancy of the woman, as being fertile and everything around them, including him in this idea of fertility as he is also apart from the barrenness and sharing the shadow. They are also separated from the rest of the people that are inside the bar from a bamboo bead curtain, it gives the idea of privacy reinforced by the idea of the warm shadow of the building that protects them from the world that exists inside the bar, they are outside, with nature.

In the first paragraph we have a short and concise introduction to the characters, the narrator refers to them as the American and the girl, the narrator doesn’t give name to them, they may be symbols of lots of couples in the same situation as they are, but we can deduce the difference in age as she is considered as the girl and he is the american . Later on we will know that her name is Jig, but we aren’t going to know his name.

The name of the girl which by the way, is not a normal name, is also very symbolic, as it is the name of a lively dance or it can also refer to a particular sort of behavior or activity which varies according to the situation that someone is in (Collins Cobuild dictionary). What this name implies is that she can change her mind about the abortion and as we will see later on in the conversation, he is afraid of her changing her mind about this, he is all the time trying to reassure her in the decision. After the first introductory paragraph we find a dialogue between them.

This dialogue is presented as being very natural, but it was carefully written for sure because through it we are going to deduce the kind of relationship they have. The language here is a very simple one, even colloquial, this colloquial language usually expresses feelings. The real theme of the conversation is not clearly stated but it is underlying, they are talking about love, feelings and her pregnancy. There is tension in the air at some moments but they cannot express it openly, maybe they don’t want to be heard in case somebody can understand them or maybe it is just a problem of communication and of sharing feelings, or maybe both.

There are also references to sexuality in the form of phallic symbols, the first one is related to the title, the trunk of the elephant, then we find another one in Ans del Toro , the bull as a symbol of virility. Also references to life in the form of the rivers and the trees. It’s her who starts the dialogue, this here implies that the decision for the abortion in the end will be really hers, she is the one who starts the conversation and she is the one who is taking the decision, she is very straight forward.

She also takes her hat off and puts it on the table, she is getting rid of what covers her, she wants to speak out about the situation clearly and put the feelings, as she does with the hat, on the table to be talked about openly. In his turn to answer instead of answering to the question he changes the subject and answers it’s pretty hot this implies that he wants to change the subject and talk about simpler things such as the weather. Men have problems to show their feelings. She answers with a decision and says Let’s drink beer She is the one who takes decisions, she decides what to drink.

In this story we can also see something typical of Hemingway, that is the use of Spanish words and sentences. He orders dos cervezas to the bar lady. We assume that she cannot speak English and that he can speak Spanish but, later on he orders and she answers in English. We have to think that the conversation must have taken place in Spanish but that in order not to translate the whole conversation into English only the first exchange of words was kept in Spanish because the story is so carefully written and developed that such a mistake would be unconceivable.

When the bar lady gives them the drinks the girl is looking at the line of hills in the distance, as if considering the possibility of having the child but when she asks him about having ever seen an elephant he answers that he has never seen one alluding to not having been father before. At this stage she is having doubts about the abortion. The characters are really mysterious to us, we know nothing about their lives but they seem to have nothing to do in life apart from sex and drinking.

They spend the time drinking, alcohol is considered as aphrodisiac. They order ans because she wants to try new things, maybe she is considering the possibility of having a new relationship or a new experience in life, but when she tastes it she says it tastes like licorice which is a very common and not exotic taste, and she adds that Everything tastes of licorice. Especially all the things you’ve waited so long for… implying that when you wait for something for a long time, for instance a relationship, once you get it, it loses exotism and appeal.

Later on there is a reference to the routine they seem to be in when she says that all they do is looking at things and trying new drinks. As the conversation goes on, the man openly refers to the operation as if taking importance off it, he says it is not important but very easy, like opening a window It’s just to let the air in , he wants her to have the abortion but she is sure about the fact that their relationship is going to change after that. He wants to convince her that the decision has been hers by means of saying thing like if you dont want to you don’t have to …

But I know it’s perfectly simple but it is him the only one who has no doubts about it. She is having the normal doubts a woman can have in a situation like that. He feels that the pregnancy is a nuisance in their lives. The baby would mean the necessity of settling down and starting a family and this would be a change in their lives as they move a lot around, that is why their suitcases are full of labels from all the hotels they had spent nights . There is another allusion when almost at the end of the story he says we can have the world and she replies No, we can’t.

It isn’t ours anymore … And once they have taken it away, you never get it back here we can see that she wants the baby and she knows that once she has the operation she won’t be able to get the child back. And at the very end in the last sentence he asks her if she feels better, but what he is really asking is if she has taken a decision and he wants to know what she has decided and then she replies : I feel fine … There’s nothing wrong with me. I feel fine , if there is something wrong it is with the baby, that is the problem she has to solve.

Should Steroids Be Banned?

It is amazing what athletes will do to achieve higher levels of performance and to sometimes get the extra edge on the competition. Most of the time people do not realize the long-term effects that result from the decisions they make early in life. This resembles the use of steroids in a persons life. Steroids became an option to athletes in the Olympics and other major sporting events during the 1950s.

But this use of steroids among athletes only became widely apparent when Canadian sprint runner Ben Johnson tested positive for steroid use after winning the gold medal for the one hundred-meter dash during the 1988 Olympics (Francis, 45). Now a skinny fifteen-year-old can just walk down to the local gym and find people who either sell or know how to get in contact with those who sell the drug that will make him envious of his friends. Steroids are an attractive drug. While steroids seem harmless to the unaware user, they can have a risky effect.

Most of the time whether the users are new or experienced, they do not know the dangerous consequences steroids can have on their bodies and their minds. Though steroids cause a relatively insignificant number of deaths in our society, the banning of steroids is justified because steroids have a lot of side effects not known to the uninformed user. Even though steroids are known as a somewhat dangerous substance, they are legal to have and to consume. There has not been a study that proves such possible side effects are linked to medical problems of steroid users (Rogak, 89).

There are those who have pointed out several cases where someone has died and an autopsy has shown that the person was using steroids, but they claim this does not mean that it is a deadly drug as some medical professionals have stated (97). Some advocates of steroids believe that because steroids are legal, and because it is the decision of the user to take the drug, steroids are not causing a problem in society. Alcohol and cigarettes are consumed by millions of people, causing a lot of deteriorating effects on their bodies, but there has never been a ban on these items because of the dangers that they can cause.

Why should steroids be different? Some people say that the wide spread use of steroids among athletes is forcing the young athletes to use steroids, even though it is against their standards. This is because they know they can not compete at the level against their opponents who are using steroids to go to the next level of performance. A lot of people claim that this is how competition is supposed to be. Race car drivers are out there every day, pushing themselves to the limit. They are taking that corner a little bit faster, putting themselves in danger just a little bit more.

This is no different than the risk football players, wrestlers, and weight lifters take when they decide to use steroids to take them to the next level. There are the people who justify steroid abuse because of these reasons, claiming that their use in sports and other activities are just the added element that an athlete needs to boost their performance. However, there has not yet been any definite medical research to prove that steroid abuse is linked to severe medical conditions (Cowart, 33).

Only the warnings that come from users that are currently dealing with medical difficulties that most likely have been a result of steroid use. These people are living proof of the harmful effects of steroids. Cigarettes and alcohol are major contributors to thousands of deaths each year (47). A lot of people have family members or friends that are suffering from diseases and health conditions cause by smoking and drinking. Sometimes these can lead to an early grave, sometimes a very painful death. Some people will use these situations as a reason not to drink or smoke.

A similar situation would be a young athlete watching their muscular idols suffering from medical problems caused by steroids. Some of these professionals will even admit to their former steroid abuse in hopes to persuade the thousands of young athletes that the quick results of steroids do not pay off in the end. When these kids see the long-term results that occur to professional athletes, they should realize the need to stay away from steroids or give up the addiction that they have to them. This might mean they will have to give up the idea of the body that they have always dreamed of.

If someone who was currently abusing steroids was to listen to what a former addict has gone through, that person might very well be persuaded to give up the addiction. In the end these people would have the advantage because they will be the ones who are going to live a longer and happier life. Also, the physiological and psychological dependencies caused by steroids are most of the time consistent with steroid abusers (Silverstein, 61). These problems cause personal problems with the user as well as with the family and friends of the user. Once a young user sees the results in his body from the steroids, there is no turning back.

It would be his worst nightmare to go back to that little body that was made fun of or picked on in school. When athletes see the performance advantages that they have gained, they will soon want to take more steroids because they will get used to the level they have obtained. For the athletes to stop and drop the addiction all of the sudden is not possible because second best is not acceptable in their minds. These addictions can also lead them to lose interest in friends and family because they are concentrating only on their physique and their athletic improvements.

One of the worst results of steroid abuse is that the drug will cause roid rages. This is when out of no where there are spontaneous acts of violence and abuse towards anyone a user comes in contact with. Roid rage is usually caused when the user is cycling on and off of steroids (Lukas, 29). This creates a psychological rollercoster that can lead to violent outbursts because of the need to workout and release tension. The situation can be worse if the user is non-athletic because football players can release a lot of their rage on the field.

Some sever addictions can include symptoms such as increased libido, sexual perversion, and psychotic episodes (48). Steroid induced criminal violence and murder has been documented many times (Park, 97). For instance, Horace K. Williams, a twenty-three year old steroid user, was tried in May 1988 for the brutal murder of a hitchhiker (Gallaway, 104). Williams did not have a violent history and he did not have any major psychological problems. But Williams had started using steroids in order to improve his athletic performance.

He played football in high school and after high school he got into bodybuilding. During his trial he described how steroids changed his behavior. In his first stage of steroid use, he used 5mg of oral Dianabol for two weeks and then 25mg per day for the next five weeks. Williams experienced an increase in confidence, which increased his ability to ask women out. This gave him a strong willingness to train harder. He also was increasing the steroids he used. He now was stacking Dianabol and oxymetholone orally along with injections of testosterone cypionate.

He then described how he became easily agitated into violent behavior and he then was going around threatening people. At one time he tried to get off steroids but he was so depressed that I thought I might kill myself if I didnt get back on steroids. I felt like a wimp when I wasnt on steroids. He then started taking higher doses, stacking four to five different steroids daily. He became obsessed with fighting, he felt like everyone was afraid of him, and he got to the point were he could not control his own madness. Steroids caused this state of mind in Williams.

One night he picked up a hitchhiker, drove him to an empty field, undressed him, beat him to death with a board and a lead pipe, scalped him, shaved the hair off his arms and legs, hung him with a rope, and repeatedly ran him over with his car (121). Steroids are also becoming more common in womens athletics. The doses of steroids that women will take when they are cycling on steroids can have a lot of dangerous side effects. Some of the short-term effects involve deepened voice, loss of scalp hair, growth of facial hair and chest hair, and also genital problems.

Women may also have irregularities in their menstrual cycle. The long-term side effects for women have not been determined yet. Even with all of these effects, steroid use is very common in the sports world (Courson, 88). Athletes who use steroids do not think of themselves as cheaters. Many set high goals for themselves and work hard at achieving them. Steroids are seen as just a way to help them work harder and more effectively. Athletes that do not use steroids know that steroid users have an unfair advantage.

United States shot putter Augie Wolf summarized many athletes feelings: Drug taking is rampant. Only the uninformed get caught. The pressure to take drugs is enormous. An athlete asks himself, Do I take drugs and win medals, or do I play fair and finish last? Bill Curry, football coach at Alabama, comments, The system is saying do whatever it takes to win. It is saying, Well make you rich, famous and put you on TV. We are a quick-fix society that wants the rush, that medal, that national championship (Johnson, 50).

In addition, Retired sprinter Carl Lewis, who has won nine Olympic gold medals, came out with comments about drugs in modern sports. He called it lies and cover-ups by some track and field administrators who protect athletes who use performance enhancing drugs. Lewis said that authorities overlook many infractions and contended that it is no coincidence that most of the current high-profile drug controversies involve athletes over the age of thirty. Lewis went on to say the sport is losing credibility because people know it is dirty. We need to change the whole moral standard of this sport(Thibault, 2).

If professional athletes are taking steroids, then a high school athlete has to be kicking the thought around of trying steroids. They have to wonder how they are going to succeed if they do not take them. Steroid use could possibly be lowered in high school age kids if their high school physical education teachers taught their students about the effects of steroids and the lifestyle it could lead to. Just because there is no official proof that steroids can damage and possibly kill is no reason to allow steroids to be legal in out society.

No proof does not mean that the dangers do not exist. Every year more and more famous retired athletes are admitting to steroid use in their career, and admitting certain medical problems as a result of their steroid abuse. People need to listen to what they have to say, and use them as the example for teaching the younger crowd. The banning of steroids would not only help the people who are currently abusing them, but also it help taper the spread of addiction to steroids in society.

Hyperkinetic Children

Hyperkinetic is just another word for Hyperactive. Hyperactivity describes children who show numerous amounts of inappropriate behaviors in situations that require sustained attention and orderly responding to fairly structured tasks. Humans who are hyperactive tend to be easily distracted, impulsive, inattentive, and easily excited or upset. Hyperactivity in children is manifested by gross motor activity, such as excessive running or climbing. The child is often described as being on the go or “running like a motor”, and having difficulty sitting still.

Older children and adolescents may be xtremely restless or fidgety. They may also demonstrate aggressive and very negative behavior. Other features include obstinacy, stubbornness, bossiness, bullying, increased mood lability, low frustration tolerance, temper outbursts, low self-esteem, and lack of response to discipline. Very rarely would a child be considered hyperactive in every situation, just because restraint and sustained attentiveness are not necessary for acceptable performance in many low-structure situations. Many parents rate the onset of abnormal activity in their child when it is and infant or toddler.

Abnormal sleep patterns are requently mentioned, the child objects to taking naps, he also seems to need less sleep, and becomes very stubborn at bedtime. Then, when the child is seemingly exhausted, hyperactive behavior may increase. Family history studies show that hyperactivity, which is more common in boys than in girls, may be a hereditary trait, as are some other traits (reading disabilities or enuresis-bed wetting). Certain predisposing factors affect the mother, and therefore the child, at the time of conception or gestation or during delivery.

Included are radiation, infection, hemorrhage, jaundice, toxemia, trauma, medications, lcohol, tobacco, and caffeine. The course of the syndrome typically spans the 6-year to 12-year age range. In many classrooms, children who display inappropriate overactivity (restlessness, moving around without permission) , attention deficits (distractible by task-irrelevant events, inability to sustain attention to the task) , and impulsivity (making decisions and responses hastily and inaccurately, interrupting and interfering with classmates and the teachers) are likely to be identified as hyperactive.

The diagnosis of hyperactivity is usually suggested when parents and teachers complains that a child is xcessively active, behaves poorly, or has learning difficulties. However, there is no specific definition or precise test to confirm that a child is hyperactive. This syndrome is most frequently recognized when the child cannot behave appropriately in the classroom. There are three characteristic courses. In the first, all of the symptoms persist into adolescence or adult life. In the second, the disorder is self-limited and all of the symptoms disappear completely at puberty.

In the third, the hyperactivity disappears, but the attentional difficulties and impulsivity persist into adolescence or adult life. The relative frequency of the courses is unknown. The individual, accordingly, does not grow out of the disorder. As the child passes through puberty, aggression and restlessness may decrease, but most symptoms persist and may lead the adolescent to develop a low self-esteem and a tendency to withdraw. The adolescent may also manifest anti-social tendencies, for instance, lieing, stealing, and violence, which frequently lead to delinquency.

Similarly, symptoms persist into adult life and account for social maladjustment (behavior that violates laws or unwritten standards of the school or community, yet onforms to the standards of some social subgroup). Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), also called attention deficit disorder (ADD), is presently the most common condition diagnosed in hyperactive children. This specific syndrome focuses on the child’s inability to pay attention. This syndrome occurs early in life (in infancy or by the age of 2 or 3 years ) is more common in boys and may occur as many as 3 percent of prepubertal children.

A small proportion of hyperactive children have a definite history of injury to, or disease of, the brain that preceded a change to abnormal behavior. These children show relatively minor disabilities of coordination, reflexes, perception, problem solving, and other behaviors often referred to as “softsigns” of neurological disorder (brain-injured). It has not been established, however, that brain damage or malfunction is a factor in most cases of hyperactivity. Studies of many children who had difficulties at birth show no connection between such difficulties and later hyperactivity.

In these other wise, normal children, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and distractibility are variable. The syndrome has been described for many years, and these children ere previously said to have minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). In the MBD syndrome, the behaviors of ADHD (attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity) were combined with poor coordination, emotional instability, immature development, perceptual difficulties, learning disabilities, language disorders, and minor neurological abnormalities observed through medical examinations.

In most cases it is not possible to find a specific cause for hyperactivity and may not be appropriate to try. Since hyperactivity behavior is common, starts early and persists at least into adolescence, has hereditary determinants, and also is elatively hard to change by psychological means, it may represent a type of temperament rather than a psychological or medical disorder. Most authorities feel that factors that interfere with the normal development of a child’s brain during pregnancy, labor, delivery, and early infancy are most significant.

These include infections, injuries, prematurity, and difficult births. Other possible causes include environmental conditions such as maternal drug addiction, lead poisoning, malnutrition, and emotional deprivation. In some, hyperactivity seems to be an inherited trait. Only in rare circumstances is there a precise istory of previous injury or disease of the brain, or an ongoing neurological or psychiatric disorder that can be diagnosed.

Although, it’s usually associated with normal intelligence, it may accompany mental retardation or emotional disturbances. Target-behavior recording is commonly used to measure hyperactivity, especially the inappropriate overactivity component, but also inattention and impulsivity. Behavior-rating scales often include hyperactivity items; some such as the Conners Parent-teacher Questionnaire, are especially designed for measuring hyperactivity.

Other behavior patterns indicative of yperactivity may be measured with objective tests, such as “selective attention” (ability to concentrate on task-relevant aspects of a situation rather than in cendental, task-irrelevant features) and “impulsive cognitive tempo” (tendency to decide and act hastily without fully considering alternative responses, which often leads to mistakes in problem solving and decision making).

These measures of actual functioning in an artificial situation do resemble important learning situations for students, and are useful and are useful research tools, but are not yet well developed enough for educational pplications. Because, it is not possible in most cases to find a specific cause for hyperactivity, there is little agreement as to how much medical or psychological investigation is needed for every child. Most parents begin by discussing their child’s problem with their family doctor or pediatrician.

Based upon that evaluation, referral is sometimes made for neurological, psychological, psychiatric, and educational evaluations for consideration of possible related disorders and to place the child in the most appropriate school environment. Researchers must understand a disorder before they can attempt to reat it. There are a variety of theories on the etiology of ADHD, but most researchers now believe that there are multiple factors that influence it’s development. It appears that many children may have a greater likelihood of developing ADHD as a result of genetic factors. This predisposition is exacerbated by a variety of factors.

Although a very popular belief is that food additives or sugar can cause ADHD, there has been almost no scientific support for these claims. Since so many factors have been found to be associated with the development of ADHD, it is not surprising that numerous reatments have been developed for the amelioration of ADHD symptoms. Although, numerous treatment methods have been developed and studied, ADHD remains a difficult disorder to treat effectively. Treatments of hyperactivity can be broken down into roughly two categories: medication, and behavioral or cognitive-behavioral treatment with the individual ADHD child, parents, or teachers.

Stimulant medications have been used in the treatment of ADHD since 1937. The most commonly prescribed stimulant medications are methylphenidate (Ritalin), premoline (Cylert) and dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine). Ritalin corrects the neurochemical imbalances in the brain, and it is the most widely used stimulant drug. Until the 1960’s hyperactive children were thought to be suffering from anxiety resulting from conflict between their parents, and together with their families they were treated by psychotherapy. Since then, stimulant drugs have come into wide use to calm hyperactive children.

Drug therapy, however, is only temporary in effect and presents the danger that, if prolonged, the children may become psychologically dependent on the drugs. Behavioral improvements caused by timulant medications include impulse control and improved attending behavior. Overall, approximately 75 percent of ADHD children on stimulant medication show behavioral improvement, and 25 percent show either no improvement or decreased behavioral functioning. It appears that stimulant medications can help the ADHD child with school productivity and accuracy, but not with overall academic achievement.

Although ADHD children tend to show improvement while they are on stimulant medication, there are rarely any long-term benefits to the use of stimulant medications. In general, stimulant medication can be seen as only a hort-term management tool. Antidepressant medications (such as imipramine and desipramine ) have also been used with ADHD children. These medications are sometimes used when stimulant medication is not appropriate. Antidepressant medication, however, like stimulant medications, appear to provide only short- term improvement in ADHD symptoms.

The treatment program for hyperactive children must be individualized to meet their particular needs. Medication, used alone or in combination with educational and psychological interventions, are most commonly utilized. Overall, the use or nonuse of medications in the reatment of ADHD should be carefully evaluated by a qualified physician. If a child is put on medication for ADHD, the safety and appropriateness of the medication must be monitored continuously throughout it’s use. Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral treatments have been used with ADHD children themselves, with parents, and with teachers.

Most of these techniques attempt to provide the child with a consistent environment in which on-task behavior is rewarded (for example, the teacher praises the child for raising his or her hand and not shouting out an answer) , and in which off-task behavior is either ignored or unished (for example, the parent had the child sit alone in a chair near an empty wall, a “time-out chair” , after the child impulsively does something wrong) . In addition, cognitive-behavioral treatments try to teach ADHD children to internalize their own self-control by learning to “stop and think” before they act.

One example of a cognitive-behavioral treatment, which was developed by Philip Kendall and Lauren Braswell, is intended to teach the child to learn five “steps” that can be applied to academic tasks as well as social interactions. The five problem-solving steps that children are to repeat to hemselves each time they incounter a new situation are the following: Ask :What am I supposed to do? ” , “What are my choices? ” ; concentrate and focus in ; make a choice ; ask “How did I do? ” (If I did well, I can congratulate myself ; If I did poorly, I should try to go more slowly next time. In each therapy session, the child is given twenty plastic strips at the beginning. The child looses a strip every time he or she does not use one of the steps, does too fast, or gives an incorrect answer. At the end of the session, the child can use the chips to purchase a small prize. This treatment alone combines the use of cognitive strategies ( the child learns self-instructional steps) and behavioral techniques ( the child looses a desired object, a chip, for impulsive behavior).

Overall, behavioral and cognitive-behavioral treatments have been found to be relatively effective in the settings in which they are used and at the time, they are being instituted. There is some evidence to suggest that the combination of medication and behavior therapy can increase the effectiveness of the treatment. Like the effects of medications, however, the effects of ehavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapies tend not to be long-lasting.

A promising trend in treatment is to help the hyperactive child by teaching his parents and teachers how to cope with his individual behavior. Hyperactive children need to have a relatively set routine that includes a maximum of regularity and a minimum of surprises and interruptions. The school setting may need to be altered in such a way as to make additional help and provisions available. The children frequently need praise, encouragement, and special attention so that experiences that previously only lead to failure may now ecome successful and enjoyable.

Unfortunately, some children may never make a complete recovery from hyperactivity, and have a greater chance of developing alcoholism or mental health problems as adults. While the diagnostic definition and specific terminology of ADHD will undoubtedly change throughout the years, the interest in and commitment to this disorder will likely continue. Children and adults with ADHD, as well as the people around them, have difficult lives to lead. The research community is committed to finding better explanations of the etiology and treatment of this common disorder.

The effectiveness of urine on Cancer

The Greek audience would have been familiar with the story told in Antigone and with the background of the characters. An understanding of Antigone’s family and her father’s fate helps to put the events of the play in context. Antigone is of the Labdacids, a great but star-crossed family. Her father was Oedipus. Oedipus was born of Laius and Jocasta, the rulers of Thebes, but his parents were warned in prophecy that the boy would grow up to murder his father and marry his mother.

A herdsman was charged with killing the child, but out of pity he gave the boy to another herdsman from a neighboring kingdom. This second herdsman gave the child to his own king and queen, who raised the child as their own. The child Oedipus never knew that his adoptive parents were not his biological parents. When a young man, Oedipus was warned by an oracle that he would kill his father and marry his mother. He fled home, thinking he would be able to avoid this fate, embarking on a series of adventures that resulted in the exact fulfillment of the prophecy.

Along the way, he solved the riddle of the Sphinx, saving Thebes and becoming her king as well as Jocasta’s new husbandbut not before he killed, in a fit of uncontrolled anger, a stranger at a crossroads. The stranger, of course, was his true father, Laius. After Oedipus had been in power in Thebes for some time, a plague began to kill Theban citizens. An oracle informed the king that Thebes was being punished because Laius’ murderer was dwelling among them. Oedipus, the great riddle-solver, set out to learn the culprit’s identity.

Finally, he learned that Laius was the man at the crossroads, and worse, that Jocasta and Laius were his true parents. Jocasta was able to put the pieces of the puzzle together some time before her husband-son, and in despair she hanged herself. Oedipus, on discovering her body, blinded himself with her broaches and left the city. He entrusted his daughters, Antigone and Ismene, to Creon’s care. In the days preceding the start of the action of Antigone, Thebes has been torn by war. Many years have passed since Oedipus’s reign, and war eventually broke out between Oedipus’s two sons.

During the conflict, the two brothers, Polyneices and Eteocles, fought against each other as leaders of the two different sides. Eteocles was of the entrenched faction, in power in Thebes. Polyneices was the upstart, a returning exile, and he brought an invading army against the city. In the course of the battle, the two brothers were slain, “by their hands dealing mutual death” (l. 16), but Eteocles’ army eventually triumphed. In the aftermath, Creon ascended to the throne. These are the events leading up to the action of the play. Antigone and Ismene meet at night in front of the city gates.

Antigone has called her sister out for a secret meeting: she bewails their fate, daughters of a doomed mother and father, and sisters of two men who have slain each other. She then informs Ismene that Creon has declared that Eteocles shall be given a full and honorable funeral, while the body of Polyneices will be left for the animals and the sun. Anyone who tries to perform the proper funeral rites for Polyneices will be killed by public stoning. Antigone asks Ismene to help her bury Polyneices. Ismene fearfully refuses, and the two women argue over what should be done.

Antigone is outraged. She tells Ismene that she would no longer want her help even if Ismene were willing to give it. She also says that she will die willingly for her brother for giving her brother the proper rites. Ismene cannot dissuade Antigone, who parts to do the deed, speaking harsh words to Ismene as Ismene stays behind. Ismene is afraid for her sister, and she cannot condone her actionsbut she also understands that there is something to what Antigone wants to do: “Know this; that though you are wrong to go, your friends / are right to love you” (ll. 116-7).

The Chorus of Theban elders celebrates the Theban victory, praising Zeus. Zeus, they say, hates pride. They condemn Polyneices for fighting against the city. Creon meets with the elders, praising their past loyalty to Oedipus and their subsequent loyalty to Oedipus’ sons; he implies that he hopes for their continued loyalty to him. Creon speaks about the value of counsel and the importance of loyalty and patriotism. He tells them of his royal decree: though Eteocles will have all rites and honors, Polyneices’ carcass will be left to rot. The Chorus pledges to support him, though they are less than enthusiastic.

Anabolic steroids

Anabolic steroids are powerful muscle-building and performance-enhancing compounds. They are many times used as the “secret-weapon” behind many world-class athletes, their performance, and bodybuilding. Steroids increase the amount of muscle one can build. They are banned by almost every athletic organization and are illegal, therefore leading to arrests and jail time if one is caught with them. They also have terrible side effects that can even be deadly. Anabolic steroids are used to gain the physical advantage over opponents. Steroids are forms of hormones.

These hormones control various things. Animals have different steroids in their bodies, some for self-defense, some to help heal injuries, and some steroids even assist with development. Testosterone is the male hormone reproduced to make anabolic steroids. This reproduced testosterone is known to increase strength, speed, endurance, muscle mass, and aggression. The use of steroids is the introduction of testosterone into the body from a source other than the testes. The use of these steroids can increase strength, muscle size, and athletic performance.

Steroids are thought to be first used in athletics by the Russian weightlifting teams of the 1950s. Now steroids are used (illegally) from professional athletes to high school football players. Once introduced into the body by injection or taken orally the steroids enter the bloodstream and travel to every cell in the body. In muscle cells, it causes them to reproduce at an increased rate. After strenuous exercise the muscles naturally break down and duplicate, however when on steroids, the muscles dont break down, they just reproduce. Steroids will also increase recovery time from injures.

Another gain from the use of steroids is the increase in red blood cell production allowing for greater endurance. There are many negative side effects from the use of steroids. These side effects can be permanent and quite serious. These side effects differ from males and females. In males acne problems and early hair loss develop. Increased levels of circulating testosterone can act as negative feedback to the pituitary gland, decreasing the production of sperm and natural testosterone. People on steroids often show various behavioral changes as well.

Know as roid rage, irritability, increased aggressiveness, nervous tension are the most prominent examples of this. Side effects in women using steroids include deepening of the voice, increased body and facial hair and decreased breast size. The steroids also throw off the hormonal balance in a female throwing off her menstrual cycle. Making it difficult, if not impossible to have a child. These side effects can become permanent in females after only a few months of use. The platelets in the blood will also clump together inside the blood vessels clogging them. Steroids can shatter the heart, liver kidneys, and immune system.

Another highly feared side effect is cancer. With the steroids weakening the immune system, cancer cells have more freedom to develop. If the muscles grow too fast, tendons and ligaments can be torn. If steroids are taken in through injection, there is a risk of infection from bacteria, viruses, and even HIV. Steroids have a lot of psychological symptoms as well. They can cause mania, depression, schizophrenia, and paranoia. Steroid users usually become very irritable, aggressive, and violent. Suicide is also a problem of people who have taken steroids for an extended period of time.

One of steroids mental side effects can be massive depression in which people sometimes feel that the only way out is to kill themselves. Also, steroid withdrawal can be so devastating that suicide is contemplated. Incredibly aggressive and violent sexual behavior due to steroids has also been recorded. Once someone starts taking steroids for the physical advances it gives them it can become incredibly difficult to stop taking the drugs. Your body becomes so used to the steroid being in the body that it becomes difficult to go one it without it.

Luckily there are many treatment centers where someone could get help getting off of drugs, including steroids. As serious and devoted and athlete may be, they should not engage in such dangerous smuggling of their bodies. Steroids may deliver quick and extraordinary results, but in the long run, the side effects are much more serious. The chance of being terminally ill is much more regrettable than loosing a tournament. As athletes, we should become wiser about the choices we make today, because these will affect our bodies tomorrow.

Steroid in the world of athletics

Steroid use has become very common in the world of athletics. Steroids are no longer just used by body builders. Steroids are now becoming widely used in all sports such as baseball, football, track and field, and ice hockey. Steroids have become easy for just about anyone to get their hands on them. This has become a serious problem that needs to be taken care of immediately. A steroid is a laboratory-made version of the human hormone testosterone, which is primarily found in males. Steroids are taken by athletes to enhance the growth of muscles.

There are however, certain kinds of steroids that do enhance the growth of bones. The use of steroids creates many risks that are often looked over when compared to the benefits. Some of these risks include damaging important body organs such as the liver and kidneys; some of the other risks include shrinkage of testicles in men and they may create bad breakouts of acne. There are also other side effects which result in thicker skin and courser facial hair (Mihoces, 2000) (Conaway, 1998). The problem of steroid use exists everywhere including all ages from young middle school students to forty-year-old men.

A Penn State professor states in the USA Today web site that approximately 175,000 teenage girls and 375,000 teenage boys have used steroids at one time or another (Michoces, 2000). This is a serious problem when teenage boys and girls are using steroids. Unless using one specific steroid, all of these teenagers are going to stunt their growth because the most common steroids used completely halt the growth of bones and increase the growth of muscles. Many people take steroids for many different reasons but most of the athletes that take steroids take them for one reason and that is to become better at what they do.

Some of the reasons that athletes take steroids are because the competition is so high. In the sport of Major League Baseball for instance, only around seven hundred players participate in a single season. There are approximately 7,100 players that play professional baseball all together, including the minor leagues. The average career in the major leagues only lasts 2. 7 years. This is a rather short career and considering the amount of money to be made, every player would like to play as long as he possibly can. There are also other incentives that makes a player want to play longer and that is the Players’ Association Pension Fund.

This is when a player plays five years or more he becomes eligible to receive a penchant, which can support the average person for the rest of their life. These are only a few of the reasons why athletes result to using steroids (Prinston Review Online, 2000). Steroids are also high at the college level even in baseball. Considering the large amount of college baseball players there are, and then looking at the small amount of professional baseball players that there are it is no surprise to find the large amount athletes using steroids. The same principle follows all other sports too.

Steroids have obviously become a problem in all of our professional sports. In professional baseball, approximately thirty percent of all major league baseball players use steroids. This is just the numbers of players that admit to using them. In the major leagues, there is no such thing as drug testing and steroids are not illegal, but they need to be. In an article written By Bob Nightengale he writes “Why should players like Fred McGriff or Tim Salmon, two of the finest power-hitters of the game who are drug-free, have to watch players on steroids out-perform them on the field? (Nightengale, 1997).

This is the truth and it is completely unfair. The only way to stop this problem is to begin random drug testing among the professional leagues. This might also be a huge step to cutting down the numbers of college and high school athletes who use steroids. If level of professional athletics is not so high then maybe the college and high school athletes will not feel as much pressure to perform at such a high level. Certain high schools are already taking the steps needed to cut down on the numbers of high school athletes using steroids.

In North Carolina, the Gaston County school system began random drug testing student athletes. (WRAL 5 Online, 1999) In conclusion steroid use is not only unfair to true meaning of the game but it is also unfair the player’s teammates and their opponents. Professional athletes need to be better role models and learn to grow up and start doing things on their own. The risk of steroids are too high and may be life threatening in some cases. The Professional athletes need to understand this, then maybe the younger athletes will follow in the footsteps of their role models and learn to accomplish something on their own too.

Anabolic Steroids and the Male Reproductive System

AS are derivatives of testosterone, which has strong genitotropic effects. For this reason, it will not be surprising that side effects include the reproductive system. Application of anabolic steroids leads to supra-physiological concentrations of testosterone or testosterone derivatives. Via the feed back loop, the production and release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) is decreased.

Prolonged use of anabolic steroids in relatively high doses will lead to hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, with decreased serum concentrations of LH, FSH, and testosterone.

There are strong indications that the duration, dosage, and chemical structure of the anabolic steroids are important for the serum concentrations of gonadotropins. A moderate decrease of gonadotropin secretion causes atrophy of the testes, as well as a decrease of sperm cell production. Oligo, azoospermia and an increased number of abnormal sperm cells have been reported in athletes using AS, resulting in a decreased fertility. After stopping AS use, the gonadal functions will restore within some months. There are indications, however, that it may take several months.

In bodybuilding, where usually high dosages are uses, after stopping steroid use, often choriogonadotropins are administered to stimulate testicular function. The effectiveness of this therapy is unknown.

The various studies suggest that using more than one type of anabolic steroid at the same time (“stacking”) causes a stronger inhibition of the gonadal functions than using one single anabolic steroid. After abstention from anabolic steroids these changes in fertility usually reverse within some months. However, several cases of have been reported in which the situation of hypogonadism lasted for more than 12 weeks.

A well known side effect of AS in males is breast formation (gynecomastia). Gynecomastia is caused by increased levels of circulating estrogens, which are typical female sex hormones. The estrogens estradiol and estrone are formed in males by peripheral aromatization and conversion of AS. The increased levels of circulation estrogens in males stimulate breast growth. In general, gynecomastia is irreversible.

AS may affect sexual desire. Although few investigations on this issue have been published, it appears that during AS use sexual desire is increased, although the frequency of erectile dysfunction is increased. This may seem contradictory, but sexual appetite is androgen dependent, while erectile function is not. Since sexual desire and aggressiveness are increased during AS use, the risk of getting involved in sexual assault may be increased.

american literature

Anabolic Steroids and the Male Reproductive System

AS are derivatives of testosterone, which has strong genitotropic effects. For this reason, it will not be surprising that side effects include the reproductive system. Application of anabolic steroids leads to supra-physiological concentrations of testosterone or testosterone derivatives. Via the feed back loop, the production and release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) is decreased.

Prolonged use of anabolic steroids in relatively high doses will lead to hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, with decreased serum concentrations of LH, FSH, and testosterone.

There are strong indications that the duration, dosage, and chemical structure of the anabolic steroids are important for the serum concentrations of gonadotropins. A moderate decrease of gonadotropin secretion causes atrophy of the testes, as well as a decrease of sperm cell production. Oligo, azoospermia and an increased number of abnormal sperm cells have been reported in athletes using AS, resulting in a decreased fertility. After stopping AS use, the gonadal functions will restore within some months. There are indications, however, that it may take several months.

In bodybuilding, where usually high dosages are uses, after stopping steroid use, often choriogonadotropins are administered to stimulate testicular function. The effectiveness of this therapy is unknown.

The various studies suggest that using more than one type of anabolic steroid at the same time (“stacking”) causes a stronger inhibition of the gonadal functions than using one single anabolic steroid. After abstention from anabolic steroids these changes in fertility usually reverse within some months. However, several cases of have been reported in which the situation of hypogonadism lasted for more than 12 weeks.

A well known side effect of AS in males is breast formation (gynecomastia). Gynecomastia is caused by increased levels of circulating estrogens, which are typical female sex hormones. The estrogens estradiol and estrone are formed in males by peripheral aromatization and conversion of AS. The increased levels of circulation estrogens in males stimulate breast growth. In general, gynecomastia is irreversible.

AS may affect sexual desire. Although few investigations on this issue have been published, it appears that during AS use sexual desire is increased, although the frequency of erectile dysfunction is increased. This may seem contradictory, but sexual appetite is androgen dependent, while erectile function is not. Since sexual desire and aggressiveness are increased during AS use, the risk of getting involved in sexual assault may be increased.

Both Sides of the Abortion Issue

During the past quarter century, abortion has joined race and war as one of the most debatable subject of controversy in the United States. It discusses human interaction where ethics, emotions and law come together. Abortion poses a moral, social and medical dilemma that faces many individuals to create a emotional and violent atmosphere. There are many points of view toward abortion but the only two fine distinctions are “pro-choice” and “pro-life”. A pro-choicer would feel that the decision to abort a pregnancy is that of the mothers and the state has no right to nterfere.

A pro-lifer would hold that from the moment of conception, the embryo or fetus is alive. This life imposes on us a moral obligation to preserve it and that abortion is tantamount to murder (Kolner 5). In the United States about 1. 6 million pregnancies end in abortion. Women with incomes under eleven thousand are over three times more likely to abort than those with incomes above twenty-five thousand. Unmarried women are four to five times more likely to abort than married and the abortion rate has doubled for 18 and 19 year olds. Recently the U. S. ate ropped 6 percent overall but the rate of abortion among girls younger than 15 jumped 18 percent.

The rate among minority teens climbed from 186 per 1,000 to 189 per 1,000. The most popular procedure involved in abortions is the vacuum aspiration which is done during the first trimester (three months or less since the women has become pregnant). A tube is simply inserted through the cervix and the contents of the uterus are vacuumed out. The most commonly used type of second trimester abortion is called dilation and evacuation. Since the fetus has bones, bulk and can move, second trimester is not as imple.

When as much of the fetus and placenta are vacuumed out then tweezers are used to remove larger parts. After this, or the beginning of the fifth month abortion is serious and actually induced as childbirth. That is, the mother is given substances which puts her into labor and delivers the fetus as she would a full-term baby. About 40 percent of Americans believe that abortion should remain legal and 40 percent believe it should be banned except when the pregnancy threatens the life of the mother or is the result of rape or incest. Also 15 percent b eveit should be illegal in all cases.

Although abortion is regarded as a women’s right, it should be banned with exceptions because it’s considered murder, has many psychological side effects and there is an alternative. Abortion is a women’s own right and choice. In 1973 the Roe v. Wade decision proved this by recognizing abortion as a fundamental constitution right and made it legal in all states. The law now permits abortion at the request of the women without any restrictions in the first trimester and some restrictions in the second trimester to protect the women’s health.

The National Abortion Right Act League argues that without legal abortion omen would be denied their constitutional right of privacy and liberty. The women’s right to her own body subordinates those of the fetus and the U. S. Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade argued that the women’s “right to privacy” overruled the fetus’s right to life. If abortion was illegal it would force poor women to bear and raise children they can’t afford to bring up. There would be a number of unsafe abortions in back allies. It would also force women to give up their dreams and stay home to bring up babies.

Worst of all, it would condemn victims o apeand incest to carry and nurture the offspring of their rapist. Kolner 5) Abortion is necessary for women to have control over their own bodies and life. One activist said, “If I hadn’t had that abortion my life would have been a disaster. I wouldn’t have made it to medical school. I was married at that point to a very ill man and it would have been terrible to have to have my baby. People who need abortions are in some kind of turmoil and it’s really a life-saving thing. “(Blender 4) To ignore the rights of others is selfish and injustice.

Women must have the right to control the functions of their own bodies. Revern George Gardiner pastor of the college Hill United Methodist Church, told the council that the ordnance would have done little good. “Young women need the freedom to make choices for their reproductive life when their family can’t guarantee them parental support. “(Lynn B6-7) Women should not be forced to have babies they don’t want. They must be able to decide what happe ns to them and have a safe plus legal way of doing so. Women are in control of their own bodies and lives.

Legislators have no right to interfere. The practical assertion that since pregnancy involves a women’s body, the choice of continuing that pregnancy must be hers alone. This was the first given buerful theoretical articulation and defense by Judith Thomson. (meilander 3) However, abortion is considered murder by half of all Americans. Pro-lifers believe that human life begins at the moment of conception. When the merge of the egg and sperm is complete, they are fertilized and known as the “zygote”. The zygote contains a full set of 46 chromosomes which is required to create a human life.

Scientists identify that at the moment of fertilization the ovum takes on a entirely different destiny, life. About 15,000 genes from the sperm and ovum form a unique combination. This is nothing less than a new human life at its earlier stage of life. In the United States many infants will not make it to puberty, old age or even their second birthday. Just because of their shortened life, it doesn’t mean that it never existed. Dr. Nathanson stopped preforming abortions after becoming aware of the horrors he observed. “A woman has the right to go to bed with who she wants, but she can not choose death for her child.

It’s a direct violation of human rights. ” (Koval i grid c-7) Anthony Simpson has a photo of a aborted fetus and believes that abortion is othing less but ruthless murder. In southern Kentucky, Robert Hollis brutally assaulted his wife in effort to abort the fetus he suspected wasn’t his. He successfully did so and Caroll believed Hollis set out intentionally to kill that fetus and that is in fact murder. Kristina Kleg a graduate from high school has recently become pregnant and decided against abortion. She feels that it’s an innocent child inside of her.

It has a brain and a heart therefore it also has a right to life. “Abortion is the unnatural end of pregnancy. That child has a right to life that is equal to the mothers right. One cannot kill another human being just because they wished it wasn’t around. Abortion is murder of the innocent practiced on a national scale. ” (Abortion: The Personal, Medical and Social Dilemma) Overall it has been proven that the fetus is a real person. It responds to noise, has feeling and fears. To h ave an abortion it will destroy an innocent life which is directly connected to murder.

Scientific research has successfully shown that abortion causes many psychological side effects. It leaves the woman with many strong feelings about their desicion. They feel sadness, wishing things could have been ifferent and grief for a lost life. Guilt arises because they know a fetus represents an independent life. Anger builds up towards other people having to do with their desicion. Sometimes the mother may feel that she has infact been abandoned. Most of all the mother feels ashamed and embarrassed about her action.

People close to the mother may be angry at her for ending her pregnancy and make it difficult for her to deal with. Even years after the abortion, women tent to remember the regretful experience. They usually wonder what the baby would have looked like and its birthday. Thirty-three year old Michelle Urbain of south Florida has had five abortions so far. She realizes now that they all left emotional scares her that are unbearable. “It wasn’t just a mass of cell t was children I was killing. ” (Kovaleski c-7) It maybe a month or a year but feelings do catch up with the mother.

Symptoms like nightmares, panic attacts and flashbacks are signs of a recently discovered Post Abortion Syndrome (PAS). According to a study published by Association for Interdisciplinary Research in Valves and Social Change, one in five women studied had diagnosable stress disorders. Lyons d-11) Also two in five had sleep disorders and flashbacks following abortion. Both Sides of the Abortion Issue During the past quarter century, abortion has joined race and war as one of the most debatable subject of controversy in the United States. It discusses human interaction where ethics, emotions and law come together.

Abortion poses a moral, social and medical dilemma that faces many individuals to create a emotional and violent atmosphere. There are many points of view toward abortion but the only two fine distinctions are “pro-choice” and “pro-life”. A pro-choicer would feel that the decision to bort a pregnancy is that of the mothers and the state has no right to interfere. A pro-lifer would hold that from the moment of conception, the embryo or fetus is alive. This life imposes on us a moral obligation to preserve it and that abortion is tantamount to murder (Kolner 5). In the United States about 1. 6 million pregnancies end in abortion.

Women with incomes under eleven thousand are over three times more likely to abort than those with incomes above twenty-five thousand. Unmarried women are four to five times more likely to abort than married and the abortion rate has doubled for 18 and 19 year olds. Recently the U. S. rate dropped 6 percent overall but the rate of abortion among girls younger than 15 jumped 18 percent. The rate among minority teens climbed from 186 per 1,000 to 189 per 1,000. The most popular procedure involved in abortions is the vacuum aspiration which is done during the first trimester (three months or less since the women has become pregnant).

A tube is simply inserted through the cervix and the contents of the uterus are vacuumed out. The most commonly used type of second trimester abortion is called dilation and evacuation. Since the fetus has bones, bulk and can move, second trimester is not as imple. When as much of the fetus and placenta are vacuumed out then tweezers are used to remove larger parts. After this, or the beginning of the fifth month abortion is serious and actually induced as childbirth. That is, the mother is given substances which puts her into labor and delivers the fetus as she would a full-term baby.

About 40 percent of Americans believe that abortion should remain legal and 40 percent believe it should be banned except when the pregnancy threatens the life of the mother or is the result of rape or incest. Also 15 percent b eveit should be illegal in all cases. Although abortion is regarded as a women’s right, it should be banned with exceptions because it’s considered murder, has many psychological side effects and there is an alternative. Abortion is a women’s own right and choice. In 1973 the Roe v. Wade decision proved this by recognizing abortion as a fundamental constitution right and made it legal in all states.

The law now permits abortion at the request of the women without any restrictions in the first trimester and some restrictions in the second trimester to protect the women’s health. The National Abortion Right Act League argues that without legal abortion omen would be denied their constitutional right of privacy and liberty. The women’s right to her own body subordinates those of the fetus and the U. S. Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade argued that the women’s “right to privacy” overruled the fetus’s right to life. If abortion was illegal it would force poor women to bear and raise children they can’t afford to bring up.

There would be a number of unsafe abortions in back allies. It would also force women to give up their dreams and stay home to bring up babies. Worst of all, it would condemn victims o apeand incest to carry and nurture the offspring of their rapist. Kolner 5) Abortion is necessary for women to have control over their own bodies and life. One activist said, “If I hadn’t had that abortion my life would have been a disaster. I wouldn’t have made it to medical school. I was married at that point to a very ill man and it would have been terrible to have to have my baby.

People who need abortions are in some kind of turmoil and it’s really a life-saving thing. “(Blender 4) To ignore the rights of others is selfish and injustice. Women must have the right to control the functions of their own bodies. Revern George Gardiner pastor of the college Hill United Methodist Church, told the council that the ordnance would have done little good. “Young women need the freedom to make choices for their reproductive life when their family can’t guarantee them parental support. “(Lynn B6-7) Women should not be forced to have babies they don’t want.

They must be able to decide what happe ns to them and have a safe plus legal way of doing so. Women are in control of their own bodies and lives. Legislators have no right to interfere. The practical assertion that since pregnancy involves a women’s body, the choice of continuing that pregnancy must be hers alone. This was the first given buerful theoretical articulation and defense by Judith Thomson. (meilander 3) However, abortion is considered murder by half of all Americans. Pro-lifers believe that human life begins at the moment of conception.

When the merge of the egg and sperm is complete, they are fertilized and known as the “zygote”. The zygote contains a full set of 46 chromosomes which is required to create a human life. Scientists identify that at the moment of fertilization the ovum takes on a entirely different destiny, life. About 15,000 genes from the sperm and ovum form a unique combination. This is othing less than a new human life at its earlier stage of life. In the United States many infants will not make it to puberty, old age or even their second birthday.

Just because of their shortened life, it doesn’t mean that it never existed. Dr. Nathanson stopped preforming abortions after becoming aware of the horrors he observed. “A woman has the right to go to bed with who she wants, but she can not choose death for her child. It’s a direct violation of human rights. ” (Koval i grid c-7) Anthony Simpson has a photo of a aborted fetus and believes that abortion is nothing less but ruthless murder. In southern Kentucky, Robert Hollis brutally assaulted his wife in effort to abort the fetus he suspected wasn’t his.

He successfully did so and Caroll believed Hollis set out intentionally to kill that fetus and that is in fact murder. Kristina Kleg a graduate from high school has recently become pregnant and decided against abortion. She feels that it’s an innocent child inside of her. It has a brain and a heart therefore it also has a right to life. “Abortion is the unnatural end of pregnancy. That child has a right to life that is equal to the mothers right. One cannot kill another human being just ecause they wished it wasn’t around. Abortion is murder of the innocent practiced on a national scale. (Abortion: The Personal, Medical and Social Dilemma) Overall it has been proven that the fetus is a real person. It responds to noise, has feeling and fears. To h ave an abortion it will destroy an innocent life which is directly connected to murder. Scientific research has successfully shown that abortion causes many psychological side effects. It leaves the woman with many strong feelings about their desicion. They feel sadness, wishing things could have been different and grief for a lost life. Guilt arises because they know a fetus represents an independent life.

Anger builds up towards other people having to do with their desicion. Sometimes the mother may feel that she has infact been abandoned. Most of all the mother feels ashamed and embarrassed about her action. People close to the mother may be angry at her for ending her pregnancy and make it difficult for her to deal with. Even years after the abortion, women tent to remember the regretful experience. They usually wonder what the baby would have looked like and its birthday. Thirty-three year old Michelle Urbain of south Florida has had five abortions so far.

She realizes now that they all left emotional scares her that are unbearable. “It wasn’t just a mass of cell t was children I was killing. ” (Kovaleski c-7) It maybe a month or a year but feelings do catch up with the mother. Symptoms like nightmares, panic attacts and flashbacks are signs of a recently discovered Post Abortion Syndrome (PAS). According to a study published by Association for Interdisciplinary Research in Valves and Social Change, one in five women studied had diagnosable stress disorders. (Lyons d-11) Also two in five had sleep disorders and flashbacks following abortion.

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive and irreversible brain disease that destroys mental and physical functioning in human beings, and invariably leads to death. It is the fourth leading cause of adult death in the United States. Alzheimer’s creates emotional and financial catastrophe for many American families every year. Fortunately, a large amount of progress is being made to combat Alzheimer’s disease every year. To fully be able to comprehend and combat Alzheimer’s disease, one must know what it does to the brain, the part of the human body it most greatly affects.

Many Alzheimer’s disease ufferers had their brains examined. A large number of differences were present when comparing the normal brain to the Alzheimer’s brain. There was a loss of nerve cells from the Cerebral Cortex in the Alzheimer’s victim. Approxiately ten percent of the neurons in this region were lost. But a ten percent loss is relatively minor, and cannot account for the severe impairment suffered by Alzheimer’s victims. Neurofibrillary Tangles are also found in the brains of Alzheimer’s victims.

They are found within the cell bodies of nerve cells in the cerebral cortex, and take on the structure of a paired helix. Other diseases that have “paired helixes” include Parkinson’s disease, Down’s Syndrome, and Dementia Pugilistica. Scientists are not sure how the paired helixes are related in these very different diseases. Neuritic Plaques are patches of clumped material lying outside the bodies of nerve cells in the brain. They are mainly found in the cerebral cortex, but have also been seen in other areas of the brain.

At the core of each of these plaques is a substance called amyloid, an abnormal protein not usually found in the brain. This amyloid core is surrounded by cast off fragments of dead or dying nerve cells. The cell fragments nclude dying mitochondria, presynaptic terminals, and paired helical filaments identical to those that are neurofibrillary tangles. Many neuropathologists think that these plaques are basically clusters of degenerating nerve cells. But they are still not sure of how and why these fragments clustered together.

Congophilic Angiopathy is the technical name that neuropathologists have given to an abnormality found in the walls of blood vessels in the brains of victims of Alzheimer’s disease. These abnormal patches are similar to the neuritic plaques that develop in Alzheimer’s disease, in that amyloid has been found ithin the blood-vessel walls wherever the patches occur. Another name for these patches is cerebrovascular amyloid, meaning amyloid found in the blood vessels of the brains. Acetylcholine is a substance that carries signals from one nerve cell to another.

It is known to be important to learning and memory. In the mid 1970s, scientists found that the brains of those afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease contained sixty to ninety percent less of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase(CAT), which is responsible for producing acetylcholine, than did the brains of healthy persons. This was a great milestone, as it was the first functional change related to learning and memory, and not to different structures. Somatostatin is another means by which cells in the brain communicate with each other.

The quantities of this chemical messenger, like those of CAT, are also greatly decreased in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus of persons with Alzheimer’s disease, almost to the same degree as CAT is lost. Although scientists have been able to identify many of these, and other changes, they are not yet sure as to how, or why they take place in Alzheimer’s disease. One could say, that hey have most of the pieces of the puzzle; all that is left to do is find the missing piece and decipher the meaning.

If treatment is required for someone with Alzheimer’s disease, then the Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association(ADRDA), a privately funded, national, non- profit organization dedicated to easing the burden of Alzheimer victims and their families and finding a cure can be contacted. There are more than one hundred and sixty chapters throughout the country, and over one thousand support groups that can be contacted for help.

ADRDA fights Alzheimer’s on five fronts 1- funding research – educating and thus increase public awareness 3- establishing chapters with support groups 4- encouraging federal and local legislation to help victims and their families 5- providing a service to help victims and their families find the proper care they need. Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive and irreversible brain disease that destroys mental and physical functioning in human beings, and invariably leads to death. It is the fourth leading cause of adult death in the United States.

Alzheimer’s creates emotional and financial catastrophe for many American families very year. Fortunately, a large amount of progress is being made to combat Alzheimer’s disease every year. To fully be able to comprehend and combat Alzheimer’s disease, one must know what it does to the brain, the part of the human body it most greatly affects. Many Alzheimer’s disease sufferers had their brains examined. A large number of differences were present when comparing the normal brain to the Alzheimer’s brain. There was a loss of nerve cells from the Cerebral Cortex in the Alzheimer’s victim.

Approxiately ten percent of the neurons in this region were lost. But a ten ercent loss is relatively minor, and cannot account for the severe impairment suffered by Alzheimer’s victims. Neurofibrillary Tangles are also found in the brains of Alzheimer’s victims. They are found within the cell bodies of nerve cells in the cerebral cortex, and take on the structure of a paired helix. Other diseases that have “paired helixes” include Parkinson’s disease, Down’s Syndrome, and Dementia Pugilistica. Scientists are not sure how the paired helixes are related in these very different diseases.

Neuritic Plaques are patches of clumped material lying outside the bodies of nerve cells in the brain. They are mainly found in the cerebral cortex, but have also been seen in other areas of the brain. At the core of each of these plaques is a substance called amyloid, an abnormal protein not usually found in the brain. This amyloid core is surrounded by cast off fragments of dead or dying nerve cells. The cell fragments include dying mitochondria, presynaptic terminals, and paired helical filaments identical to those that are neurofibrillary tangles.

Many neuropathologists think that these plaques are basically clusters of degenerating nerve cells. But they are still not sure of how and why these fragments clustered together. Congophilic Angiopathy is the technical name that neuropathologists have given to an abnormality found in the walls of blood vessels in the brains of victims of Alzheimer’s disease. These abnormal patches are similar to the neuritic plaques that develop in Alzheimer’s disease, in that amyloid has been found within the blood-vessel walls wherever the patches occur.

Another name for these patches is cerebrovascular amyloid, meaning amyloid found in the blood vessels of the brains. Acetylcholine is a substance that carries signals from one nerve cell to another. It is known to be important to learning nd memory. In the mid 1970s, scientists found that the brains of those afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease contained sixty to ninety percent less of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase(CAT), which is responsible for producing acetylcholine, than did the brains of healthy persons.

This was a great milestone, as it was the first functional change related to learning and memory, and not to different structures. Somatostatin is another means by which cells in the brain communicate with each other. The quantities of this chemical messenger, like those of CAT, are also greatly decreased in the erebral cortex and the hippocampus of persons with Alzheimer’s disease, almost to the same degree as CAT is lost. Although scientists have been able to identify many of these, and other changes, they are not yet sure as to how, or why they take place in Alzheimer’s disease.

One could say, that they have most of the pieces of the puzzle; all that is left to do is find the missing piece and decipher the meaning. If treatment is required for someone with Alzheimer’s disease, then the Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association(ADRDA), a privately funded, national, non- profit rganization dedicated to easing the burden of Alzheimer victims and their families and finding a cure can be contacted.

There are more than one hundred and sixty chapters throughout the country, and over one thousand support groups that can be contacted for help. ADRDA fights Alzheimer’s on five fronts 1- funding research 2- educating and thus increase public awareness 3- establishing chapters with support groups 4- encouraging federal and local legislation to help victims and their families 5- providing a service to help victims and their families find the proper care they need.

AIDS and You

AIDS is a life and death issue. To have the AIDS disease is at present a sentence of slow but inevitable death. I’ve already lost one friend to AIDS. I may soon lose others. My own sexual behavior and that of many of my friends has been profoundly altered by it. In my part of the country, one man in 10 may already be carrying the AIDS virus. While the figures may currently be less in much of the rest of the country, this is changing rapidly. There currently is neither a cure, nor even an effective treatment, and no vaccine either.

But there are things that have been PROVEN immensely effective in slowing the spread of this hideously lethal disease. In this essay I hope to present this information. History and Overview: AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Defficiency Disease. It is caused by a virus. The disease originated somewhere in Africa about 20 years ago. There it first appeared as a mysterious ailment afflicting primarily heterosexuals of both sexes. It probably was spread especially fast by primarily female prostitutes there. AIDS has already become a crisis of STAGGERING proportions in parts of Africa.

In Zaire, it is estimated that over twenty percent of the adults currently carry the virus. That figure is increasing. And what occurred there will, if no cure is found, most likely occur here among heterosexual folks. AIDS was first seen as a disease of gay males in this country. This was a result of the fact that gay males in this culture in the days before AIDS had an average of 200 to 400 new sexual contacts per year. This figure was much higher than common practice among heterosexual (straight) men or women.

In addition, it turned out that rectal sex was a particularly effective way to transmit the disease, and rectal sex is a common practice among gay males. For these reasons, the disease spread in the gay male population of this country immensely more quickly than in other populations. It became to be thought of as a “gay disease”. Because the disease is spread primarily by exposure of ones blood to infected blood or semen, I. V. drug addicts who shared needles also soon were identified as an affected group.

As the AIDS epidemic began to affect increasingly large fractions of those two populations (gay males and IV drug abusers), many of the rest of this society looked on smugly, for both populations tended to be despised by the “mainstream” of society here. But AIDS is also spread by heterosexual sex. In addition, it is spread by blood transfusions. New born babies can acquire the disease from infected mothers during pregnancy. Gradually more and more “mainstream” folks got the disease. Most recently, a member of congress died of the disease.

Finally, even the national news media began to join in the task of educating the public to the notion that AIDS can affect everyone. Basic medical research began to provide a few bits of information, and some help. The virus causing the disease was isolated and identified. The AIDS virus turned out to be a very unusual sort of virus. Its genetic material was not DNA, but RNA. When it infected human cells, it had its RNA direct the synthesis of viral DNA. While RNA viruses are not that uncommon, very few RNA viruses reproduce by setting up the flow of information from RNA to DNA.

Such reverse or “retro” flow of information does not occur at all in any DNA virus or any other living things. Hence, the virus was said to belong to the rare group of virues called “Retro Viruses”. Research provided the means to test donated blood for the presence of the antibodies to the virus, astronomically reducing the chance of ones getting AIDS from a blood transfusion. This was one of the first real breakthroughs. The same discoveries that allowed us to make our blood bank blood supply far safer also allowed us to be able to tell (in most cases) whether one has been exposed to the AIDS virus using a simple blood test.

The Types of AIDS Infection: When the AIDS virus gets into a person’s body, the results can be broken down into three general types of situations: AIDS disease, ARC, and asymptomatic seropositive condition. The AIDS disease is characterized by having one’s immune system devastated by the AIDS virus. One is said to have the *disease* if one contracts particular varieties (Pneumocystis, for example) of pneumonia, or one of several particular varieties of otherwise rare cancers (Kaposi’s Sarcoma, for example). This *disease* is inevitably fatal.

Death occurs often after many weeks or months of expensive and painful hospital care. Most folks with the disease can transmit it to others by sexual contact or other exposure of an uninfected person’s blood to the blood or semen of the infected person. There is also a condition referred to as ARC (“Aids Related Complex”). In this situation, one is infected with the AIDS virus and one’s immune system is compromised, but not so much so that one gets the (ultimately lethal) cancers or pneumonias of the AIDS disease. One tends to be plagued by frequent colds, enlarged lymph nodes, and the like.

This condition can go on for years. One is likely to be able to infect others if one has ARC. Unfortunately, all those with ARC are currently felt to eventually progress to getting the full blown AIDS disease. There are, however, many folks who have NO obvious signs of disease what so ever, but when their blood serum is tested they show positive evidence of having been exposed to the virus. This is on the basis of the fact that antibodies to the AIDS virus are found in their blood. Such “asymptomatic but seropositive” folks may or may not carry enough virus to be infectious.

Most sadly, though, current research and experience with the disease would seem to indicate that EVENTUALLY nearly all folks who are seropostive will develop the full blown AIDS disease. There is one ray of hope here: It may in some cases take up to 15 years or more between one’s becoming seropositive for the AIDS virus and one’s developing the disease. Thus, all those millions (soon to be tens and hundreds of millions) who are now seropositive for AIDS are under a sentence of death, but a sentence that may not be carried out for one or two decades in a significan fraction of cases.

Medical research holds the possibility of commuting that sentence, or reversing it. There is one other fact that needs to be mentioned here because it is highly significant in determining recommendations for safe sexual conduct which will be discussed below: Currently, it is felt that after exposure to the virus, most folks will turn seropositive for it (develop a positive blood test for it) within four months. It is currently felt that if you are sexually exposed to a person with AIDS and do not become seropositive within six months after that exposure, you will never become seropositive as a result of that exposure.

Just to confuse the issue a little, there are a few folks whose blood shows NO antibodies to the virus, but from whom live virus has been cultured. Thus, if one is seronegative, it is not absolute proof one is not exposed to the virus. This category of folks is very hard to test for, and currently felt to be quite rare. Some even speculate that such folks may be rare examples of those who are immune to the effects of the virus, but this remains speculation. It is not known if such folks can also transmit the virus.

Transmission of AIDS: The AIDS virus is extremely fragile, and is killed by exposure to mild detergents or to chlorox, among other things. AIDS itself may be transmitted by actual virus particles, or by the transmission of living human CELLS that contain AIDS viral DNA already grafted onto the human DNA. Or both. Which of these two mechanisms is the main one is not known as I write this essay. But the fact remains that it is VERY hard to catch AIDS unless one engages in certain specific activities. What will NOT transmit AIDS? Casual contact (shaking hands, hugging, sharing tools) cannot transmit AIDS.

Although live virus has been recovered from saliva of AIDS patients, the techniques used to do this involved concentrating the virus to extents many thousands of times greater than occurs in normal human contact, such as kissing (including “deep” or “French” kissing). Thus, there remains no solid evidence that even “deep” kissing can transmit AIDS. Similarly, there is no evidence that sharing food or eating utensils with an AIDS patient can transmit the virus. The same is true for transmission by sneezing or coughing. There just is no current evidence that the disease can be transmitted that way.

The same may be true even for BITING,though here there may be some increased (though still remote) chance of transmitting the disease. The above is very important. It means that there is NO medical reason WHAT SO EVER to recommend that AIDS suffers or AIDS antibody positive folks be quarrantined. Such recommendations are motivated either by ignorance or by sinister desires to set up concentration camps. Combined with the fact that the disease is already well established in this country, the above also means that there is no rational medical basis for immigration laws preventing visits by AIDS suffers or antibody positive persons.

The above also means that friends and family and coworkers of AIDS patients and seropostive persons have nothing to fear from such casual contact. There is no reason to not show your love or concern for a friend with AIDS by embracing the person. Indeed, there appears still to be NO rational basis for excluding AIDS suffers from food preparation activity. Even if an AIDS suffer cuts his or her finger and bleeds into the salad or soup, most of the cells and virus will die, in most cases, before the food is consumed. In addition, it is extremely difficult to get successfully attacked by AIDS via stuff you eat.

AIDS cannot be transmitted by the act of GIVING blood to a blood bank. All equipment used for such blood donation is sterile, and is used just once, and then discarded. How is AIDS transmitted? Sexual activity is one of the primary ways AIDS is transmitted. AIDS is transmitted particulary by the transmission of blood or semen of an infected person into contact with the blood of an uninfected person. Sex involving penetration of the penis into either the vagina of a woman or the rectum of either a woman or a man has a very high risk of transmitting the disease.

It is felt to be about four times MORE likely for an infected male to transmit AIDS to an uninfected woman in the course of vaginal sex than it is likely for an infected woman to transmit AIDS to an uninfected male. This probably relates to the greater area of moist tissue in a woman’s vagina, and to the relative liklihood of microscopic tears to occur in that tissue during sex. But the bottom line is that AIDS can be transmitted in EITHER direction in the case of heterosexual sex. Transmission among lesbians (homosexual females) is rare.

Oral sex is an extremely common form of sexual activity among both gay and straight folks. Such activity involves contact of infected semen or vaginal secretions with the mouth, esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth with the stomach) and the stomach. AIDS virus and infected cells most certainly cannot survive the acid environment of the stomach. Yet, it is still felt that there is a chance of catching the disease by having oral sex with an infected person. The chance is probably a lot smaller than in the case of vaginal or rectal sex, but is still felt to be significant.

As mentioned above, AIDS is also transmitted among intravenous drug users by the sharing of needles. Self righteous attitudes by the political “leaders” of this country at local, state, and national levels have repeatedly prevented the very rational approach of providing free access to sterile intravenous equipment for IV drug users. This measure, when taken promptly in Amsterdam, was proven to greatly and SIGNIFICANTLY slow the spread of the virus in that population. The best that rational medical workers have succeeded in doing here in San Francisco is distribute educational leaflets and cartoons to the I.

V. drug abusing population instructing them in the necessity of their rinsing their “works” with chlorox before reusing the same needle in another person. Note that even if you don’t care what happens to I. V. drug abusers, the increase in the number of folks carrying the virus ultimately endangers ALL living persons. Thus, the issue is NOT what you morally think of I. V. drug addicts, but one of what is the most rational way to slow the spread of AIDS in all populations. Testing of donated blood for AIDS has massivly reduced the chance of catching AIDS from blood transfusions.

But a very small risk still remains. To further reduce that risk, efforts have been made to use “autotransfusions” in cases of “elective surgery” (surgery that can be planned months in advance). Autotransfusion involves the patient storing their own blood a couple of weeks prior to their own surgery, to be used during the surgery if needed. Similary, setting up donations of blood from friends and family known to be antibody negative and at low risk for AIDS prior to schedualed surgery further can decrease the already small risks from transfusion.

AIDS and SEX: What are the rational options? The “sexual revolution” of the 1960’s has been stopped dead in its tracks by the AIDS epidemic. The danger of contracting AIDS is so real now that it has massively affected the behavior of both gay and straight folks who formerly had elected to lead an active sexual life that included numerous new sexual contacts. Abstinence The safest option regarding AIDS and sex is total abstinence from all sexual contact. For those who prefer to indulge in sexual contact, this is often far too great a sacrifice. But it IS an option to be considered.

Safe Sex For those who wish to have sexual contact with folks on a relatively casual basis, there have been devised rules for “safe sex”. These rules are very strict, and will be found quite objectionable by most of us who have previously enjoyed unrestricted sex. But to violate these rules is to risk unusually horrible death. Once one gets used to them, tho, the rule for “safe sex” do allow for quite acceptable sexual enjoyment in most cases. For those who wish to indulge in pentration of the vagina or rectum by a penis: The penis MUST be sheathed in a condom or “rubber”.

This must be done “religiously”, and NO exceptions are allowed. A condom must be used by a man even when he is receiving oral sex. Cunnilingus (oral stimulation of a womans gentitals by the mouth of a lover) is NOT considerd to be safe sex. Safe sex includes mutual masturbation, and the stimultion of one genitals by another’s hand (provided there are no cuts in the skin on that hand). But manual stimulation of another’s genitals is NOT safe if one has cuts on one’s hands, unless one is wearing a glove. Note that even when one is conscientiously following the recommendations for safe sex, accidents can happen.

Condoms can break. One may have small cuts or tears in ones skin that one is unaware of. Thus, following rules for “safe sex” does NOT guarantee that one will not get AIDS. It does, however, greatly reduce the chances. There are many examples of sexaully active couples where one member has AIDS disease and the other remains seronegative even after many months of safe sex with the diseased person. It is particularly encouraging to note that, due to education programs among San Francisco gay males, the incidence of new cases of AIDS infection among that high risk group has dropped massively.

Between practice of safe sex and a significant reduction in the number of casual sexual contacts, the spread of AIDS is being massively slowed in that group. Similar responsible action MUST be taken by straight folks to further slow the spread of AIDS, to give our researchers time to find the means to fight it. Monogamy For those who would have sexual activity, the safest approach in this age of AIDS is monogamous sex. Specifically, both parties in a couple must commit themselves to not having sex with anyone else. At that time they should take AIDS antibody tests.

If the tests are negative for both, they must practice safe sex until both members of the couple have been greater than six months since sexual contact with anyone else. At that time the AIDS blood test is repeated. If both tests remain negative six months after one’s last sexual contact with any other party, current feeling is that it is now safe to have “unprotected” sex. Note that this approach is recommended especially for those who wish to have children, to prevent the chance of having a child be born infected with AIDS, getting it from an infected mother.

Note also that this approach can be used by groups of three or more people, but it must be adhered to VERY strictly. What to AVOID: Unscrupulous folks have begun to sell the idea that one should pay to take an AIDS antibody test, then carry an ID card that certifies one as AIDS antibody negative, as a ticket to being acceptable in a singles bar. This is criminal greed and stupidity. First, one can turn antibody positive at any time. Even WEEKLY testing will not pick this change up soon enough to prevent folks certified as “negative” from turning positive between tests.

Much worse, such cards are either directly or implicitly promoted as a SUBSTITUTE for “safe sex” practices. This can only hasten the spread of the disease. If you want to learn your antibody status, be sure to do so ANONYMOUSLY. Do NOT get the test done by any agency that requires your real name, address, or any other identifying information. Fortunately, in San Francisco, there is a public place to get AIDS antibody testing where you may identify yourself only as a number.

Tho that place has a three month long waiting list for testing, there are other private clinics where one may have the test done for cash, and may leave any false name one wishes. The reason I suggest this is that currently there are some very inappropriate reactions by government and business to folks known to be antibody positive. Protect yourself from such potential persection by preventing your antibody status from being a matter of record. That information is for you, your lover(s), and (if need be) your physician. And for NO one else.

There currently is NO treatment for AIDS (this includes AZT) that shows significant promise. In Conclusion: It is my own strongly held view, and that of the medical and research community world wide, that the AIDS epidemic is a serious problem, with the potential to become the worst plague this species has ever known. This is SERIOUS business. VASTLY greater sums should be spent on searching for treatments and vaccines. On the other hand, we feel strongly that this is “merely” a disease, not an act by a supernatural power.

And while it does not seem likely we will find either a cure or a vaccine in the forseeable future, it may be that truly effective treatments that can indefinitely prolong the life of AIDS victims may be found in the next few years. When science and technology do finally fully conquer AIDS, we can go back to deciding what sort and how much sex to have with who ever we choose on the basis of our own personal choice, and not by the coercion of a speck of proteins and RNA. May that time come soon. In the mean time, we must all do what we can to slow the spread of this killer.

This article is intended to help accomplish that. Please circulate it as widely as possible. * PLEASE UPLOAD THIS FILE TO EVERY INFORMATION SERVICE AND BULLETIN BOARD * Category: Science AIDS and YOU AIDS is a life and death issue. To have the AIDS disease is at present a sentence of slow but inevitable death. I’ve already lost one friend to AIDS. I may soon lose others. My own sexual behavior and that of many of my friends has been profoundly altered by it. In my part of the country, one man in 10 may already be carrying the AIDS virus.

While the figures may currently be less in much of the rest of the country, this is changing rapidly. There currently is neither a cure, nor even an effective treatment, and no vaccine either. But there are things that have been PROVEN immensely effective in slowing the spread of this hideously lethal disease. In this essay I hope to present this information. History and Overview: AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Defficiency Disease. It is caused by a virus. The disease originated somewhere in Africa about 20 years ago. There it first appeared as a mysterious ailment afflicting primarily heterosexuals of both sexes.

It probably was spread especially fast by primarily female prostitutes there. AIDS has already become a crisis of STAGGERING proportions in parts of Africa. In Zaire, it is estimated that over twenty percent of the adults currently carry the virus. That figure is increasing. And what occurred there will, if no cure is found, most likely occur here among heterosexual folks. AIDS was first seen as a disease of gay males in this country. This was a result of the fact that gay males in this culture in the days before AIDS had an average of 200 to 400 new sexual contacts per year.

This figure was much higher than common practice among heterosexual (straight) men or women. In addition, it turned out that rectal sex was a particularly effective way to transmit the disease, and rectal sex is a common practice among gay males. For these reasons, the disease spread in the gay male population of this country immensely more quickly than in other populations. It became to be thought of as a “gay disease”. Because the disease is spread primarily by exposure of ones blood to infected blood or semen, I. V. drug addicts who shared needles also soon were identified as an affected group.

As the AIDS epidemic began to affect increasingly large fractions of those two populations (gay males and IV drug abusers), many of the rest of this society looked on smugly, for both populations tended to be despised by the “mainstream” of society here. But AIDS is also spread by heterosexual sex. In addition, it is spread by blood transfusions. New born babies can acquire the disease from infected mothers during pregnancy. Gradually more and more “mainstream” folks got the disease. Most recently, a member of congress died of the disease.

Finally, even the national news media began to join in the task of educating the public to the notion that AIDS can affect everyone. Basic medical research began to provide a few bits of information, and some help. The virus causing the disease was isolated and identified. The AIDS virus turned out to be a very unusual sort of virus. Its genetic material was not DNA, but RNA. When it infected human cells, it had its RNA direct the synthesis of viral DNA. While RNA viruses are not that uncommon, very few RNA viruses reproduce by setting up the flow of information from RNA to DNA.

Such reverse or “retro” flow of information does not occur at all in any DNA virus or any other living things. Hence, the virus was said to belong to the rare group of virues called “Retro Viruses”. Research provided the means to test donated blood for the presence of the antibodies to the virus, astronomically reducing the chance of ones getting AIDS from a blood transfusion. This was one of the first real breakthroughs. The same discoveries that allowed us to make our blood bank blood supply far safer also allowed us to be able to tell (in most cases) whether one has been exposed to the AIDS virus using a simple blood test.

The Types of AIDS Infection: When the AIDS virus gets into a person’s body, the results can be broken down into three general types of situations: AIDS disease, ARC, and asymptomatic seropositive condition. The AIDS disease is characterized by having one’s immune system devastated by the AIDS virus. One is said to have the *disease* if one contracts particular varieties (Pneumocystis, for example) of pneumonia, or one of several particular varieties of otherwise rare cancers (Kaposi’s Sarcoma, for example). This *disease* is inevitably fatal.

Death occurs often after many weeks or months of expensive and painful hospital care. Most folks with the disease can transmit it to others by sexual contact or other exposure of an uninfected person’s blood to the blood or semen of the infected person. There is also a condition referred to as ARC (“Aids Related Complex”). In this situation, one is infected with the AIDS virus and one’s immune system is compromised, but not so much so that one gets the (ultimately lethal) cancers or pneumonias of the AIDS disease. One tends to be plagued by frequent colds, enlarged lymph nodes, and the like.

This condition can go on for years. One is likely to be able to infect others if one has ARC. Unfortunately, all those with ARC are currently felt to eventually progress to getting the full blown AIDS disease. There are, however, many folks who have NO obvious signs of disease what so ever, but when their blood serum is tested they show positive evidence of having been exposed to the virus. This is on the basis of the fact that antibodies to the AIDS virus are found in their blood. Such “asymptomatic but seropositive” folks may or may not carry enough virus to be infectious.

Most sadly, though, current research and experience with the disease would seem to indicate that EVENTUALLY nearly all folks who are seropostive will develop the full blown AIDS disease. There is one ray of hope here: It may in some cases take up to 15 years or more between one’s becoming seropositive for the AIDS virus and one’s developing the disease. Thus, all those millions (soon to be tens and hundreds of millions) who are now seropositive for AIDS are under a sentence of death, but a sentence that may not be carried out for one or two decades in a significan fraction of cases.

Medical research holds the possibility of commuting that sentence, or reversing it. There is one other fact that needs to be mentioned here because it is highly significant in determining recommendations for safe sexual conduct which will be discussed below: Currently, it is felt that after exposure to the virus, most folks will turn seropositive for it (develop a positive blood test for it) within four months. It is currently felt that if you are sexually exposed to a person with AIDS and do not become seropositive within six months after that exposure, you will never become seropositive as a result of that exposure.

Just to confuse the issue a little, there are a few folks whose blood shows NO antibodies to the virus, but from whom live virus has been cultured. Thus, if one is seronegative, it is not absolute proof one is not exposed to the virus. This category of folks is very hard to test for, and currently felt to be quite rare. Some even speculate that such folks may be rare examples of those who are immune to the effects of the virus, but this remains speculation. It is not known if such folks can also transmit the virus.

Transmission of AIDS: The AIDS virus is extremely fragile, and is killed by exposure to mild detergents or to chlorox, among other things. AIDS itself may be transmitted by actual virus particles, or by the transmission of living human CELLS that contain AIDS viral DNA already grafted onto the human DNA. Or both. Which of these two mechanisms is the main one is not known as I write this essay. But the fact remains that it is VERY hard to catch AIDS unless one engages in certain specific activities. What will NOT transmit AIDS? Casual contact (shaking hands, hugging, sharing tools) cannot transmit AIDS.

Although live virus has been recovered from saliva of AIDS patients, the techniques used to do this involved concentrating the virus to extents many thousands of times greater than occurs in normal human contact, such as kissing (including “deep” or “French” kissing). Thus, there remains no solid evidence that even “deep” kissing can transmit AIDS. Similarly, there is no evidence that sharing food or eating utensils with an AIDS patient can transmit the virus. The same is true for transmission by sneezing or coughing. There just is no current evidence that the disease can be transmitted that way.

The same may be true even for BITING,though here there may be some increased (though still remote) chance of transmitting the disease. The above is very important. It means that there is NO medical reason WHAT SO EVER to recommend that AIDS suffers or AIDS antibody positive folks be quarrantined. Such recommendations are motivated either by ignorance or by sinister desires to set up concentration camps. Combined with the fact that the disease is already well established in this country, the above also means that there is no rational medical basis for immigration laws preventing visits by AIDS suffers or antibody positive persons.

The above also means that friends and family and coworkers of AIDS patients and seropostive persons have nothing to fear from such casual contact. There is no reason to not show your love or concern for a friend with AIDS by embracing the person. Indeed, there appears still to be NO rational basis for excluding AIDS suffers from food preparation activity. Even if an AIDS suffer cuts his or her finger and bleeds into the salad or soup, most of the cells and virus will die, in most cases, before the food is consumed. In addition, it is extremely difficult to get successfully attacked by AIDS via stuff you eat.

AIDS cannot be transmitted by the act of GIVING blood to a blood bank. All equipment used for such blood donation is sterile, and is used just once, and then discarded. How is AIDS transmitted? Sexual activity is one of the primary ways AIDS is transmitted. AIDS is transmitted particulary by the transmission of blood or semen of an infected person into contact with the blood of an uninfected person. Sex involving penetration of the penis into either the vagina of a woman or the rectum of either a woman or a man has a very high risk of transmitting the disease.

It is felt to be about four times MORE likely for an infected male to transmit AIDS to an uninfected woman in the course of vaginal sex than it is likely for an infected woman to transmit AIDS to an uninfected male. This probably relates to the greater area of moist tissue in a woman’s vagina, and to the relative liklihood of microscopic tears to occur in that tissue during sex. But the bottom line is that AIDS can be transmitted in EITHER direction in the case of heterosexual sex. Transmission among lesbians (homosexual females) is rare.

Oral sex is an extremely common form of sexual activity among both gay and straight folks. Such activity involves contact of infected semen or vaginal secretions with the mouth, esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth with the stomach) and the stomach. AIDS virus and infected cells most certainly cannot survive the acid environment of the stomach. Yet, it is still felt that there is a chance of catching the disease by having oral sex with an infected person. The chance is probably a lot smaller than in the case of vaginal or rectal sex, but is still felt to be significant.

As mentioned above, AIDS is also transmitted among intravenous drug users by the sharing of needles. Self righteous attitudes by the political “leaders” of this country at local, state, and national levels have repeatedly prevented the very rational approach of providing free access to sterile intravenous equipment for IV drug users. This measure, when taken promptly in Amsterdam, was proven to greatly and SIGNIFICANTLY slow the spread of the virus in that population. The best that rational medical workers have succeeded in doing here in San Francisco is distribute educational leaflets and cartoons to the I.

V. drug abusing population instructing them in the necessity of their rinsing their “works” with chlorox before reusing the same needle in another person. Note that even if you don’t care what happens to I. V. drug abusers, the increase in the number of folks carrying the virus ultimately endangers ALL living persons. Thus, the issue is NOT what you morally think of I. V. drug addicts, but one of what is the most rational way to slow the spread of AIDS in all populations. Testing of donated blood for AIDS has massivly reduced the chance of catching AIDS from blood transfusions.

But a very small risk still remains. To further reduce that risk, efforts have been made to use “autotransfusions” in cases of “elective surgery” (surgery that can be planned months in advance). Autotransfusion involves the patient storing their own blood a couple of weeks prior to their own surgery, to be used during the surgery if needed. Similary, setting up donations of blood from friends and family known to be antibody negative and at low risk for AIDS prior to schedualed surgery further can decrease the already small risks from transfusion.

AIDS and SEX: What are the rational options? The “sexual revolution” of the 1960’s has been stopped dead in its tracks by the AIDS epidemic. The danger of contracting AIDS is so real now that it has massively affected the behavior of both gay and straight folks who formerly had elected to lead an active sexual life that included numerous new sexual contacts. Abstinence The safest option regarding AIDS and sex is total abstinence from all sexual contact. For those who prefer to indulge in sexual contact, this is often far too great a sacrifice. But it IS an option to be considered.

Safe Sex For those who wish to have sexual contact with folks on a relatively casual basis, there have been devised rules for “safe sex”. These rules are very strict, and will be found quite objectionable by most of us who have previously enjoyed unrestricted sex. But to violate these rules is to risk unusually horrible death. Once one gets used to them, tho, the rule for “safe sex” do allow for quite acceptable sexual enjoyment in most cases. For those who wish to indulge in pentration of the vagina or rectum by a penis: The penis MUST be sheathed in a condom or “rubber”.

This must be done “religiously”, and NO exceptions are allowed. A condom must be used by a man even when he is receiving oral sex. Cunnilingus (oral stimulation of a womans gentitals by the mouth of a lover) is NOT considerd to be safe sex. Safe sex includes mutual masturbation, and the stimultion of one genitals by another’s hand (provided there are no cuts in the skin on that hand). But manual stimulation of another’s genitals is NOT safe if one has cuts on one’s hands, unless one is wearing a glove.

Note that even when one is conscientiously following the recommendations for safe sex, accidents can happen. Condoms can break. One may have small cuts or tears in ones skin that one is unaware of. Thus, following rules for “safe sex” does NOT guarantee that one will not get AIDS. It does, however, greatly reduce the chances. There are many examples of sexaully active couples where one member has AIDS disease and the other remains seronegative even after many months of safe sex with the diseased person.

It is particularly encouraging to note that, due to education programs among San Francisco gay males, the incidence of new cases of AIDS infection among that high risk group has dropped massively. Between practice of safe sex and a significant reduction in the number of casual sexual contacts, the spread of AIDS is being massively slowed in that group. Similar responsible action MUST be taken by straight folks to further slow the spread of AIDS, to give our researchers time to find the means to fight it. Monogamy For those who would have sexual activity, the safest approach in this age of AIDS is monogamous sex.

Specifically, both parties in a couple must commit themselves to not having sex with anyone else. At that time they should take AIDS antibody tests. If the tests are negative for both, they must practice safe sex until both members of the couple have been greater than six months since sexual contact with anyone else. At that time the AIDS blood test is repeated. If both tests remain negative six months after one’s last sexual contact with any other party, current feeling is that it is now safe to have “unprotected” sex.

Note that this approach is recommended especially for those who wish to have children, to prevent the chance of having a child be born infected with AIDS, getting it from an infected mother. Note also that this approach can be used by groups of three or more people, but it must be adhered to VERY strictly. What to AVOID: Unscrupulous folks have begun to sell the idea that one should pay to take an AIDS antibody test, then carry an ID card that certifies one as AIDS antibody negative, as a ticket to being acceptable in a singles bar.

This is criminal greed and stupidity. First, one can turn antibody positive at any time. Even WEEKLY testing will not pick this change up soon enough to prevent folks certified as “negative” from turning positive between tests. Much worse, such cards are either directly or implicitly promoted as a SUBSTITUTE for “safe sex” practices. This can only hasten the spread of the disease. If you want to learn your antibody status, be sure to do so ANONYMOUSLY. Do NOT get the test done by any agency that requires your real name, address, or any other identifying information.

Fortunately, in San Francisco, there is a public place to get AIDS antibody testing where you may identify yourself only as a number. Tho that place has a three month long waiting list for testing, there are other private clinics where one may have the test done for cash, and may leave any false name one wishes. The reason I suggest this is that currently there are some very inappropriate reactions by government and business to folks known to be antibody positive.

Protect yourself from such potential persection by preventing your antibody status from being a matter of record. That information is for you, your lover(s), and (if need be) your physician. And for NO one else. There currently is NO treatment for AIDS (this includes AZT) that shows significant promise. In Conclusion: It is my own strongly held view, and that of the medical and research community world wide, that the AIDS epidemic is a serious problem, with the potential to become the worst plague this species has ever known.

This is SERIOUS business. VASTLY greater sums should be spent on searching for treatments and vaccines. On the other hand, we feel strongly that this is “merely” a disease, not an act by a supernatural power. And while it does not seem likely we will find either a cure or a vaccine in the forseeable future, it may be that truly effective treatments that can indefinitely prolong the life of AIDS victims may be found in the next few years.

When science and technology do finally fully conquer AIDS, we can go back to deciding what sort and how much sex to have with who ever we choose on the basis of our own personal choice, and not by the coercion of a speck of proteins and RNA. May that time come soon. In the mean time, we must all do what we can to slow the spread of this killer. This article is intended to help accomplish that. Please circulate it as widely as possible.