What Are Proto-Oncogenes?

Proto-oncogenes Proto-oncogenes are genes that help cells grow frequently. When a proto-oncogene mutates or there are too many copies of it, it becomes a “bad” gene that can become permanently turned on or activated when it is not supposed to be. This creates the cell to grow out of control, which can lead to cancer. … Read more

Gene Environment Interaction

Gene-environment interaction is when two different genotypes respond to environmental variation in different ways. A norm of reaction is a graph that shows the relationship between genes and environmental factors when phenotypic differences are continuous. They can help illustrate GxE interactions. When the norm of reaction is not parallel, as shown in the figure below, … Read more

Point Mutation and Its Types

Molecular basis of mutation Any change in the DNA base sequence is known as the mutation. Some times this change may do not have a detectable phenotypic effect. A variety of different genetic forms can be observed as a mutational change in its nucleotide sequence. These mutational genetic forms of a gene are known as … Read more