In this every day changing world, many of us are living in a comfortable home, have enough food to eat, well clothed, healthy, and financially independent. All these are provided to us because we are living in a well-developed country. Others in the third world nation are not so lucky. They may have no shelter, limited food supply, and unemployed. This is because their country is not well developed like ours.
Low levels of living is one of the major obstacles toward development. Low levels of living is comprised of low incomes, high inequality, poor health and inadequate education. The gross national product (GNP) is the most commonly used measure of the overall level of economic activity. The gross domestic product (GDP) measures the total value for final use of output produced by an economy, by both residents and nonresidents. Thus GNP comprises GDP plus the differences between the income residents receive from abroad for factor services (labor and capital) fewer payments made to nonresidents who contribute to the omestic economy.
Many Third World countries have a low level of per capital income, in addition there is a slower GNP growth compare to the developed nations. Secondly, many people in third world countries are unhealthy and constantly battle with disease while trying to stay alive. The infant mortality rate is very high compared to the developed countries. One reason that leads to this is that they do not have the access to safe drinking water and health service. Clean drinking water is one of the major factors necessary to avoid illness.
Water-borne diseases such as typhoid fever, cholera, and a wide array f serious or fatal diarrheal diseases are responsible for more than 35% of the deaths of young children Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Most of these diseases and resulting deaths can be eliminated with safe water supplies. In addition, health service is very limited in the least developed countries. It is limited in the number of doctors and beds provided for the patients. Also, all the hospitals and medical facilities are located in the urban areas.
People who are not living in the urban areas will have trouble getting to hospital and use the medical facilities provide. Thirdly, many people who live in the third orld countries lack education. This is due to the limited budget the government provides. In most countries, education takes the largest share of the government budget. Besides low levels of living, low level of productivity is also a major obstacle toward development. A production function is often used to describe the way in which societies go about providing for their material needs.
In the developing countries, the levels of labor productivity are very low compared with those in developed countries. The reason which lead to this is that they lack capital and experienced management. Developed countries have enough capital and experience to buy machinery to increase their productivity. To raise productivity for third world countries, domestic savings and foreign finance must be used to generate new investment in physical capital goods. This will give more opportunity to the workers in terms of education and training and have more high tech machinery to increase in the productivity.
The high rate of population growth is the third obstacle toward development. The birth rate in the third would country is so high that it is counted as three-fourths of the population out of the whole world. Children nder the age of 15 is close to 40% of the total population in the third countries as opposed to 21% in the developed countries. Older people and children are often referred to as an economic dependency burden because they are the nonproductive members in the society and therefore must be supported financially by the government or the country’s labor force.
The dependency burden in developed countries is one-third of their population, whereas 45% in the less developed countries. The high dependency burden is stopping the country from developing because most of the money generated in the country goes to children and older people. If the country can reduce the population, then the dependency burden will decrease, and the money that was generated by the country’s our force can be used to develop the country. Another factor that affects the development of a country is the high level of unemployment and underemployment.
Underemployment where a person who is working less that he/she could or working full-time but the productivity is so low that there is a reduction in hours. The second one is unemployment, where the person is able to work and often eager to but there is no suitable job available for him/her. Underemployment and unemployment are the major impact to ow output. People that have no job will not have any income. Therefore people are not willing to spend money on merchandise such as cloth, and other. The percentage of unemployment and underemployment is 35% of the labor force in the least developed countries.
If a country has a low export and high import, the country is losing their currencies to other countries. The way to eliminate unemployment is to have foreign investment. It can create more jobs for people in the third world. Another factor that affect development of a country is the substantial dependence on agricultural production and primary product exports. There is a big difference between the proportionate size of the agricultural population in the third world countries (75%) versus the developed countries (5%).
People in the third world countries are concentrating in production of agricultural and other primary production activities because at low level of income, their first priorities are food, clothing and shelter. Their agricultural productivity is low not only because of the large number of people involve in agricultural production but their limited technologies, poor organization, and limited physical and human capital input. For their primary product exports, they have a high exports rate. Most developing countries are exporting basic foodstuffs, nonfood cash crops, and raw materials.
Most of their earning is come from export. Although they earned many foreign exchanges through exports but they used the money to pay the interest they borrow from other developed countries. In the recent years, their foreign currency is flowing out more than they received. This is because their export is lower than their import. The last factor is Dominance, Dependence, and Vulnerability in International Relations. Often the rich nations control the pattern of nternational trade but also control where technology, foreign aid, and private capital are transferred to developing countries.
Colonial powers left their values, attitudes, and institutions in the developing countries. Example such as inappropriate education structure, inappropriate government administrative systems, western style trade unions and curative medicine rather than preventive medicine. The penetration of rich-country attitudes, values, and standards also contributed to a problem widely recognized and referred to as the international brain drain. The problems of poverty, low productivity, population growth, nemployment, primary product export dependence, and international vulnerability are the major obstacles for the development in a third world country.
In order to eliminate the problem, modification of the present international economic order is needed. Many countries have use the same method and have succeeded in raising incomes, lowering infant mortality, improving educational access, and increasing life expectancy. If the third world countries continue to modify their present international economic order, eventually they will be the same, and people who live in the third world countries will have a better life.