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John Dalton Biography

John Dalton was born in September 5,1766 in Eaglesfield in Cumberland, England. Dalton and his family lived in a small country house. His family had been Quakers since 1690. Quakers where members of a society of friends. John had a brother named Mary and A brother named Charles, when he was born his brother was twelve years old and his sister was two years old. Dalton’s birth was not recorded, so when he grew up older he asked one of his relatives and got and answer which was his birthday. His parents were honest people and good workers. His dad Joseph had land he had inherited were Dalton and his brother Charles help out with the crop.

His mother Deborah Greenup homespun textile Dalton’s sister help her too. John Dalton’s family were poor but “although they were never hungry they were poor” Dalton was lucky he was a Quaker , other boys received little or no education, but as Quakers Dalton received a fair education at the closest Quaker school . For Dalton it was an achievement going to school since in those times only one out of two-hundred and fifteen people could read. John Dalton went to the Quaker school at Pardshow Hall. Dalton was quick when it came to studies and in mathematical problems he was good and seem to be tireless of them.

John Fletcher was Dalton’s teacher, he was a smart man who didn’t use a rod to hammer in learning to Dalton, he was to provide Dalton with a excellent back-round and lifelong quest for knowledge. Then came Elihu Robinson a rich Quaker gentlemen. who become Dalton’s mentor, and was another person to lead Dalton to mathematics , science, and specially meteorology. John Dalton had an intense fascination for meteorology he even in fact kept careful daily weather ecords for forty six straight years. When Dalton was twelve he opened his school in Eaglesfield.

He was smaller than some boys so he was threatened by the older boys who wanted to fight with the young teacher. He managed to control the kids for two years, but eventually due to poor salary Dalton return to work the land for his rich uncle. In 1785 Dalton and his brother opened another school this time at Kendall where Dalton had recently moved in. The school offered English, Latin, Greek, French, along with twenty one mathematics and science subjects. Although they were sixty students attending, Dalton and Charles had to borrow money and take outside jobs to support themselves.

John Dalton was very smart, but he was poor, unorganized and he was colorblind, In France this condition was known as Daltonism. Being colorblind was terrible for a chemist, but inspite of this disadvantages he helped contribute to science. Once in his mom’s birthday, he bought his mom some very special stockings. He taught they were blue and asked his brother to verify if it were really blue, that’s when Dalton found out him and his brother were both colorblind. Dalton studied the condition from which himself suffer colorblindness.

And he did a paper in it which, brought more attention than then his first book published when presented to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. His paper was the earliest description of the phenomenon of vision. John Dalton later met another man named Gough who was his new mentor. He was the son of a wealthy tradesman, and was blind. He taught Dalton languages, mathematics, and optics. Dalton dedicated to Gough two of his earliest published books to Gough who had encourage his ifelong interest in meteorology, Gough was the one that told Dalton to keep a daily journal, and he would for forty six straight years.

Through his observations Dalton was the first to prove the validity of the concept that rain is precipitated by a decrease in temperature, not by a change in atmospheric pressure. In 1787 Dalton began to try to get more money by selling his eleven volume classified botanical collections and giving public lectures. His studying were to prepare him for medical school, but because of lacked of money, his family discourage him and did not feel he was suited for a physician. In 1793 Dalton moved to Manchester to tutor at New College. He joined the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society.

It was there at New College in Manchester were Dalton published his first book in 1793, entitled Meteorological Observation and Essays. In his first book he said that each gas exists and its independently and purely physically, rather than chemically. However his first published attracted little attention. Dalton’s most important contribution to science, was his atomic theory that “matter is composed of atoms differing weights and combine in simple ratios by weight”. In 1808 Dalton published a third book entitled A New System of Chemical Philosophy.

In this book he listed the atomic weights of a number of known elements related to the weight of hydrogen, although his weight were not precisely accurate they did in fact form the basis for the modern periodic table of the elements. Dalton came to this atomic theory by studying the physical properties of atmospheric air and other gases. While in the quest he discovered the law of partial pressures of mixed gases which became known as Dalton’s Law. Dalton’s Law stated that the total ressure put out by a mixture of gases would pout out if it alone occupied the whole volume.

Dalton’s law applies only to ideal gases. But it might hold closely enough for real gases. For example, I f water was put into a closed container of dry air, some water will evaporate, and the pressure inside the container will increase by an amount approximately equal to the partial pressure of the water vapor. In 1804 and 1809 Dalton was invited to teach courses n The Royal Institution in London. In 1822 he was made a fellow of the Royal Society and was awarded the society’s gold medal in 1826. Here are some laws of importance. First- matter is made of atoms.

Second- atoms are indiscrutable, which means that in chemical reactions the atoms rearrange but they never break apart. Third- atoms of an element are identical. Fourth- Atom of different elements are different. Fifth-Say’s compounds are combinations of the smallest whole ratios. He postulated that al atoms from a given element weight the same. He also postulated that all chemical compounds are made up of elements in well defined proportions. Dalton once separated water into two gases, hydrogen and xygen. He notice that the oxygen gas created was eight times heavier than the hydrogen gas .

Hydrogen was known to be the lightest gas of all. The Law of Multiple Proportion was apparently developed by Dalton himself around 1804. The law of multiple proportions states that when two elements are observed to form more than one compound between them, the mass ratios in one compound will be related to the mass ratios in the other, in the proportions of the whole numbers, that means that if for example you have CO and CO2 the oxygen to carbon ratios are 16:12 and 32:12. That means that the second ration is exactly twice as the first because they are exactly twice as many oxygen’s in CO2 per carbon as there are in CO.

The way he did this is by decomposing. The ratios were determine by synthesizing compound from pure elements. For example when a measured amount of hydrogen was burned in excess oxygen an exact amount of water always evolved. The result of the water product was weighted, and since the hydrogen used was known, the oxygen used was determined assuming conservation of mass. In this way it was found that water contains 11. 19% hydrogen and 88. 81% oxygen by mass. Since it was the lightest element known, and assumed to be a fundamental value, Dalton assumed by research that hydrogen should have an atomic mass of one.

In 1830 Dalton because one of the eight foreign associates of the French Academy of Sciences. And one July 27,1894 John Dalton died of normal reason. He was really old when he died. In conclusion John Dalton was one of the greatest thinkers. He was an English, and foreign language teacher, chemist physicist. Was born in September 6,1766 and died in July 27,1894. Dalton is best known for developing the ancient concept of atoms into a scientific heory that has become a foundation of modern chemistry.

All his life he learn and never quit , and wanted others to learn too as wll so he considered himself a teacher and earned his living by teaching and lecturing others until 1833, when he was given an annual civil pension. Today units of atomic mass are often referred to as dalton’s on honor of John Dalton. His analytical apparatus could be called the worlds first mass spectrometer. Dalton would always be remember for his contributions to science. He was the only one that form a basis for the periodic table of the elements.

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StudyBoss » John Dalton Biography

John Dalton Biography

John Dalton was born on September 6 1766 at Eagelsfield, Cumbria in England. Although he was born in England, he spent most of his life in Manchester. He was born into a Quaker family and while his family had food, they were still poor. His father Joseph was a weaver and John recieved most of his early education from his father. At the age of 12, John opened a school in Eagelsfield where he was the master. He was often threatened by the older boys who wanted to fight him because he was smarter, but he managed to keep in control for 2 years.

Due to a poor salary, John was forced to leave his school and work in the fields with his brother. In 1781 John and his brother moved to Kendall. There John, his cousin George, and his brother ran a school where they offered English,Latin,Greek,French and twenty one mathematics and science course. Their school had sixty pupils. After twelve years at Kendall John started doing lectures and answering questions for mens magazines. John found a mentor in John Gough,who was the blind son of a wealthy tradesman. John Gough taught Dalton languages,mathematics,and optics. In 1973 John moved to Manchester as a tutor at New College.

He immediately joined the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society and in the same year he published his first book: Meteorological Observations and Essays. In his book Dalton stated that gas exits and acts independantly and purely physically not chemically. After six years of tutoring, John resigned to conduct private research while still doing tutoring at 2 shillings a lesson. In 1802 John stated his law of partial pressures. When two elastic fluids are mixed together ( A and B) they dont repel each other. A particles do not repel B particles but a B particle will repel another B particle.

One of his experiments involved the addition of water vapor to dry air. The increase in pressure was the same as the pressure of the added water. By doing this experiment, John established a relationship between vapor pressure and temperature. John’s interest in gases arose from his studies of meteorology. He had weather equipment that was with him at all times and he was constantly studying weather and atmosphere. He also kept a journal throughout his life in which he wrote over 200,000 observations. In 1803, John made his biggest contribution to science: The Atomic Theory.

On August 3, 1803 he stated the law of porpotions: the weights of elements always combine with each other in small whole number ratios. Later that year John published his first list of atomic weights and symbols, giving chemistry it’s own language. Over the next couple years John began to lecture and continually experiment. In his lectures reported the experiments, and published them in a book in 1808. His book , A New System of Chemical Philosophy Part 1, was his most famous work. John had relied on his observations and his mathematical reasoning to create this astounding book.

But not everyone accepted his atomic theory so he often had to defend it. In 1810 he published the second part of his book which gave more evidence for his theory. On July 28, 1844 John died of a stroke at the age of 78. John was buried with kingly honors in Manchester. Because of his popularity, John’s body was viewed by over 400,000 people. John is honored with a statue and a large monument. Without question John Dalton’s biggest contribution to science was the atomic theory as well as his books on chemical philosophy and his list of atomic weights and symbols. Without John Dalton science would not be where it is at today.

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