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The Tobacco Plant

Tobacco is a plant grown for its leaves that are smoked, chewed, or sniffed for a variety of effects. It is considered an addictive substance because it contains the chemical nicotine. The tobacco plant is believed to have originated in the Western Hemisphere. The cultivated species most often grown for North American and European tobacco products is Nicotine Tabacum. The leaves of the plant are prepared for smoking, chewing, or sniffing. In addition nicotine tobacco contains over 45 carcinogens and more than 4,000 chemicals.

Prior to European influence in the Americas, the Indians of Mexico and Peru used tobacco for the eremonies, medical purposes and to alleviate hunger pains during famines. Columbus is credited with introducing tobacco into Europe. Tobacco use became widely accepted by the Portuguese, Spanish, French, British, and Scandinavians. Explorers and sailors who became dependent upon tobacco began planting seeds at their ports of call, introducing the product into other parts of Europe and Asia. The colonist introduced tobacco on the American continent in the early 1600’s.

It became a major crop and trading commodity of the Jamestown Colony. Over the years tobacco has been claimed as a cure for a wide range of ailments with arying forms of administration. Its social importance also grew over the years, even the point of denoting the “modern women” during the 1st part of the twentieth century. It was not until the 1960’s, with the introduction of medical research related to cigarette smoking that the adverse health effects of the tobacco became widely publicized. Unfortunately, most of the health hazards were only associated with cigarette smoking.

While the number of cigarette smokers in the United States has continually decreased over recent years the number of smokeless tobacco users has steadily increased. Since the 1970’s a 15-fold increase in mokeless tobacco has been noted in adolescents 17 to 19 years old. This has most likely been related to the emphasis on smoke free environments, availability, increased advertising of smokeless products, and the false belief that smokeless tobacco is a safe alternative for those convinced they should stop smoking but who still want the nicotine effects of tobacco.

Although over 40 million people in the United States have quit smoking, about 50 million continue to smoke (about 25% of the population). Each year, approximately 1. 3 million Americans quit smoking. In addition about two thirds of current smokers report they have ever tried to quit. About 30 to 40% of those who have not tried to quit say they do not believe that the health risks of smoking will ultimately decrease their risks for disease. Young men are at highest risk for using tobacco products but the incidence in women is increasing.

Smokeless tobacco use patterns are higher within the following occupations; athletes, ranchers, farmers, fishermen, lumberjacks, and industrial workers, who have jobs requiring hand freedom. Nicotine has both stimulant and depressant effects upon the body. Bowel tone and activity increases along with saliva and bronchial secretions. Stimulation is followed with a phase that depresses the respiratory muscles. As an euphoric agent, nicotine causes arousal as well as relaxation from stressful situations.

On the average, tobacco use increases the heart rate 10 to 20 beats per minute and it increases the blood pressure reading by 5 to 10 millimeters of mercury (because it constricts the blood vessels). Nicotine may also increase sweating, nausea and diarrhea because of its effects on the central nervous system. Nicotine’s effect upon hormonal activities is also present. It elevates the blood level of glucose and increases insulin production. Nicotine also tends to enhance platelet aggregation, which may lead to blood clotting. The positive effects of nicotine upon the body should also be noted.

It stimulates memory and alertness, enhancing cognitive skills that requires speed, reaction time and work performance. As a mood-altering agent, it tends to alleviate boredom, reduces stress, and reduces aggressive responses to stressful events. It also tends to be an appetite suppressant specifically decreasing the appetite for simple carbohydrates and disturbs the efficiency with which food is metabolized. People who use tobacco products frequently depend upon it to rovide these side effects to help them accomplish certain tasks at specific levels. With all the information that is out today why do people continue to smoke?

Since 1964, the Surgeon General has warned that smoking is a health hazard this announcement promoted the U. S. Public Health Service and The American Cancer Society to publicize the dangers of tobacco smoking, and offer suggestions to those trying to quit. Cigarette packages were required to carry the warning ” may be hazardous to health. ” Later the wording was strengthened to read ” Smoking is Dangerous to Your Health. ” The reason cigarette smokers do not give up this armful habit easily is simple; Nicotine is a highly addictive substance like many other drugs.

Smokers are hooked as surely as is any heroin or cocaine addict; giving up cigarettes creates painful withdrawal symptoms and a craving that many people cannot overcome. The Public Health Service has declared cigarettes and tobacco to be our most common form of drug dependency. Researchers discovered that nicotine is carried to the brain via the bloodstream within a minute or two of smoking; it’s then eliminated about a half-hour later, and then the craving returns. Scientists and farmers have long known that nicotine is a deadly poison.

They use a concentrated spray of the chemical, extracted from tobacco leaves as a potent insecticide. In humans, nicotine constricts the blood vessels, decreasing blood circulation to the skin and vital organs. Long term smokers tend to look much older than non-smokers- a result of the contraction of the capillaries on the skins surface, which prevents absorption of tissue building nutrients. Furthermore, smokers afflicted with arterial hardening and cholesterol deposits suffer a significantly higher number of heart attacks than non-smokers.

The damaged blood vessels give way sooner, when shriveled by nicotine. Until the early 900’s tobacco was usually chewed, inhaled as snuff, or smoked in cigars and pipes without being inhaled. In other words, nicotine was being absorbed into the bloodstream through the membranes of the mouth, nose, and bronchial passages, not through the lungs. The invention of cigarette paper and automatic rolling machinery changed all that, and soon tobacco users were puffing away on white wrapped sticks of tobacco. This introduced new toxins deep into the body, known collectively as “tar”.

These toxins are byproducts of the combustion of paper, tobacco, and chemicals in tobacco processing. The most lethal byproduct inhaled from urning tobacco is benzopyrene; a carcinogenic chemical also emitted by automobile exhaust pipes and factory smokestacks. In numerous tests, benzopyrene has been applied to the respiratory tracts of laboratory animals, and has usually resulted in malignant tumors. The leading killer among all forms of cancers, lung cancer currently claims about 140,000 victims annually.

The American Cancer Society estimates that 87% of lung cancer deaths could be avoided if only people would stop smoking. Lung cancer isn’t the only concern. The chemical irritants absorbed into the blood are excreted almost unchanged in the urine, and they can lead o the development of cancer of the kidneys, prostate glands, and bladder. The last 10 years have seen a shift inner awareness of the dangers of smoking. While we have known for three decades that smoking is a leading cause of cancer death, we have finally acknowledged that second hand smoke can cause the same problems as firsthand smoke.

In early 1993, in fact, the EPA classified second hand smoke a Class A carcinogen. That label means Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is every bit as potent as arsenic, asbestos, and radon in its ability to cause cancer. In 1988, following years of study, the Surgeon General stated that sidetream moke could be deadly for non-smokers. In addition to causing respiratory problems, ETS is responsible for 3,000 to 5,000 lung cancer deaths a year in non-smokers, as well as 35,000 to 40,000 deaths from heart disease. It is easy to see why tobacco smoke is so deadly.

It contains more than 4,000 chemicals and at least 45 of its ingredients are known or suspected to be cancer causing. But what is truly alarming is that secondhand smoke contains greater concentrations of certain carcinogens than primary smoke. It also contains greater amounts of nicotine and tar, both strong and addictive toxins. The first interview I had conducted was with y grandmother who happily admits she has never been a smoker or tobacco user. Even though she has never used tobacco, she has firsthand experiences of what tobacco can do to a person and their family.

The first story she told me was about how her husband and my grandfather, needed to have triple by-pass surgery. The surgery was performed in the spring of 1991 and was successful; my grandfather still lives today. The doctor had told him that his smoking over the last 40 years was one of the biggest factors that made him need the surgery. My grandfather has since quit, but will be on medication for the rest of his life. The second tory my grandmother had told me did not have such a happy ending. Her sister was only 52 years old when she was diagnosed with emphysema.

The contributing factors were obvious, it was tobacco use. She sat and told me the stories of how she would sit by her sister’s side feeling helpless because they were told that nothing could be done. My grandmother said of how her sister wished she knew the dangers of smoking when she was younger; because by the time she had found out she had no desire to quit because she had been smoking for so long. After a period of time the emphysema finally killed my aunt and left her husband, two children nd many family members behind. These were two stories with different endings that my grandmother will never forget.

Stories like these should make society realize that tobacco is not a personal problem, it is a global problem. Everyone is affected by tobacco smoke, and it is time we all should get the proper education to learn about the dangers of cigarette smoke. More Americans are deciding to quit smoking due to its negative effects on their health, so the tobacco companies must find new ways to market their products. Studies show that most smokers start smoking as teens (80% before the age of 18) and if they don’t start then, they will robably never smoke.

The tobacco companies know this, so they target these children through advertisements. They also target the women more because women are more likely to be influenced than men are. The third most targeted population is the minority group. Currently in the United States the minorities’ make-up 25% of our population, this is a lot of people with a lot of money to spend on tobacco products. Tobacco companies spend $700,000 an hour trying to convince people smoking is fun and exciting. These companies need to recruit 5,000 new smokers each day, because 1,000 smokers will die and another 4,000 mokers quit each day.

There are a lot of different methods that these advertisements companies use: such as using good looking models to make smoking look fun and exciting. They put ads in magazines and on billboards, they sponsor car races, rodeos, and sporting events to make smoking look like winners. They use cartoon characters so young people will recognize their brands and they also try to use “free stuff” coupons so you buy more cigarettes. With all this advertisement how can we prevent our children from smoking? The Federal Government along with state and local government have started their war with these tobacco ompanies.

They are trying to educate students on the dangers of smoking, through health educators and programs such as D. A. R. E. They have also used the same advertising techniques as tobacco companies, with their own anti-smoking campaign. Except they make smoking look terrible and show that to be a real winner you don’t need to smoke. What about all these people who are currently addicted and want to quit smoking, what are we to do as health professionals? Numbers show there is a high percentage of American adults that want to quit smoking but just can’t.

Like other addictive behaviors, tobacco use is difficult to stop and aintain, particularly if acting alone. The best success in quitting has been noted with comprehensive programs that may combine various strategies including education, peer support, behavior recognition, behavior modification methods, recognition of potential relapse situations, and strategies for confronting such situations. Medications that are nicotine substitutes, such as transdermal nicotine or nicotine chewing gum may be used but their effectiveness ranges between 25%-40%.

There are also alternative methods such as hypnosis, acupuncture, or even cold turkey. Anyone of these methods can work with the proper support nd total mindset upon quitting. The benefits of quitting are almost instant. Within 20 minutes blood pressure and pulse rate drop, body temperature of extremities increase to normal. Within 8 hours, risk of sudden heart attack decreases. After 48 hours nerve endings begin to regenerate and sense of smell and taste begin to return to normal.

Between 2 weeks and 3 months of quitting, circulation improves and walking becomes easier. Lung function increases up to 30%. These benefits will increase the longer the person has not smoked. Given all the dangers of cigarette smoking it is not surprising that many states have taken legal action to rotect non-smokers from secondhand smoke. More than 40 states and at least 480 communities have passed legislation to restrict smoking in public places. A majority of companies now have smoking policies that restrict or ban smoking in the workplace.

We spend some 22 billion a year on medical care related to smoking, and lost productivity exceeds another 43 billion a year. As of 1986 smokeless tobacco commercials were banned from TV and radio. As of 1987 smokeless tobacco companies were required to have warning labels on them. The second interview I had conducted was with the Chief of City 1 Tobacco Control Office, person 1. He told me about all the consequences and adverse effects that tobacco will produce, but more importantly we talked about what this city is doing to stop tobacco use among the people who live here.

The city’s first requirement is that all tobacco sellers need to have a tobacco permit, this allows the city to monitor the tobacco in the city. This also allows the tobacco control office to set up a database for compliance checks. These compliance checks will test stores for sale to minors and for signage in the stores. They have also created a new ordinance that will ban smoking in all restaurants, effective July 1, . They also work in conjunction with the D. A. R. E. program to educate children on the dangers of tobacco. These programs and ordinances work together to slow down tobacco use in this city.

I have stated facts and figures on tobacco and the society it affects. This is a problem that people on all levels need to address. The government needs to put an end to tobacco companies. Cities and states need to ban smoking in all public places to keep those who do not smoke healthy. Most importantly parents and all adults need to show children that smoking is dangerous, by not smoking ourselves. By everyone doing a little something to help this alleviate problem we can make our environment a much healthier place to live.

There are billions of dollars invested in health care cessation programs, education, and prevention. Tobacco affects everyone; even if you do not smoke, all taxpayers are being affected and do not even realize it. People are dying everyday from a drug that if not so socially and financially acceptable would be banned by now. Everyone has a reason to help in this cause whether it is global warming, pollution, taxes, or pain and suffering. Our society has been kept in the dark to long, and it is time we all ight to take back what is ours “HEALTH”.

Alcohol abuse Alcohol Abuse Alcohol is liquid distilled product of fermented fruits, grains and vegetables used as solvent, antiseptic and sedative moderate potential for abuse. Possible effects are intoxication, sensory alteration, and/or anxiety reduction. Symptoms of overdose staggering, odor of alcohol on breath, loss of coordination, slurred speech, dilated pupils, fetal alcohol syndrome (in babies), and/or nerve and liver damage. Withdrawal Syndrome is first sweating, tremors, then altered perception, followed by psychosis, fear, and finally auditory hallucinations.

Indications of possible mis-use are confusion, disorientation, loss of motor nerve control, convulsions, shock, shallow respiration, involuntary defecation, drowsiness, respiratory depression and possible death. Alcohol is also known as: Booze, Juice, Brew, Vino, Sauce. You probably know why alcohol is abused some reasons are relaxation, sociability, and cheap high. But did you know that alcohol is a depressant that decreases the responses of the central nervous system. Excessive drinking can cause liver damage and psychotic behavior.

As little as two beers or drinks can impair coordination and thinking. Alcohol is often used by ubstance abusers to enhance the effects of other drugs. Alcohol continues to be the most frequently abused substance among young adults. Alcohol abuse is a pattern of problem drinking that results in health consequences, social, problems, or both. However, alcohol dependence, or alcoholism, refers to a disease that is characterized by abnormal alcohol-seeking behavior that leads to impaired control over drinking.

Short-term effects of alcohol use include: -Distorted vision, hearing, and coordination -Altered perceptions and emotions -Impaired judgment -Bad breath; hangovers Long-term effects of heavy alcohol use include: -Loss of appetite -Vitamin deficiencies -Stomach ailments -Skin problems -Sexual impotence -Liver damage -Heart and central nervous system damage -Memory loss Here are some quick clues to know if I, or someone close, has a drinking problem:

-Inability to control drinking–it seems that regardless of what you decide beforehand, you frequently wind up drunk -Using alcohol to escape problems -A change in personality–turning from Dr. Jekyl to Mr. Hyde -A high tolerance level–drinking just about everybody under the table -Blackouts–sometimes not remembering what happened hile drinking -Problems at work or in school as a result of drinking -Concern shown by family and friends about drinking If you have a drinking problem, or if you suspect you have a drinking problem, there are many others out there like you, and there is help available. You could talk to school counselor, a friend, or a parent.

Excessive alcohol consumption causes more than 100,000 deaths annually in the United States, and although the number shows little sign of declining, the rate per 100,000 population has trended down since the early 1980s. Accidents, mostly due to drunken driving, accounted for 24 percent of these deaths in 1992. Alcohol-related homicide and suicide accounted for 11 and 8 percent respectively. Certain types of cancer that are partly attributable to alcohol, such as those of the esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity, contributed another 17 percent.

About 9 percent is due to alcohol-related stroke. One of the most important contributors to alcohol-related deaths is a group of 12 ailments wholly caused by alcohol, among which alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver and alcohol dependence syndrome are the most important. These 12 ailments together accounted for 18 percent of the total alcohol-related deaths in 1992. Mortality due to the 12 causes rises steeply into late middle age range and then declines markedly, with those 85 and over being at less than one-sixth the risk of 55 to 64-year olds.

The most reliable data are for the 12 conditions wholly attributable to alcohol. The map shows these data for all people 35 and over. The geographical distribution for men and women follows much the same pattern, although men are three times as likely to die of one of the 12 alcohol-induced ailments. The geographical distribution for whites and blacks follows roughly the same pattern but the rates for blacks are wo and half times higher.

In the late nineteenth century blacks, who were then far more abstemious than whites, were strong supporters of the temperance movement, but the movement in the South was taken over by whites bent on disenfranchising black people by any means possible, such as propagating lurid tales of drink-crazed black men raping white women. Consequently, blacks became less involved in the temperance movement, a trend that accelerated early in the twentieth century with the great migration of blacks to the North, where liquor was freely available even during Prohibition.

The geographical pattern of ortality from the 12 conditions wholly caused by alcohol is partly explained by the average alcohol consumption among those who drink, which tends to be higher in the Southeast certain areas of the West and than elsewhere. In New Mexico, Arizona, Alaska, and in many counties in the Plains and Mountain states, the rates are high, in part, because of heavy drinking among Native Americans. Another possible contributor to high rates in the West is lower family and community support than elsewhere, as suggested by high divorce and suicide rates, low church membership, and the large number of migrants from other regions.

In the South Atlantic states, black males contribute heavily to the high mortality rates, although white rates there are above average. One unexplained anomaly is the comparatively low rates in the area stretching from Kentucky through Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, to Louisiana, all states with high alcohol consumption among those who drink. There were at least four cycles of high alcohol consumption in the last 150 years with peaks in the 1840s, in the 1860s, the first decade of the twentieth century, and again in the 1970-1981 period.

Each of these peaks was probably ccompanied by an increase in alcohol-related deaths, as suggested by the course of liver cirrhosis mortality, which, since the early twentieth century, has followed more-or-less the same trend as consumption of beverages alcohol. America is now in a phase of declining alcohol consumption, so one would expect that the rate of alcohol-related deaths would continue to decline. Among westernized countries, America in the early 1990s was somewhat below average in both alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality. If you have been arrested for DWI, you may be court ordered to go to counseling for alcohol abuse.

Does that ean that you’re an alcoholic? Sometimes people get the idea that alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the same thing. They are not. The National Council on Alcoholism says, “Alcohol Abuse : a problem to solve. Alcoholism: a disease to conquer. ” In case you have wondered what the difference is, here’s some help: Alcohol Abuse is the misuse of the substance, alcohol. You know you are abusing a substance when: -You continue to use it, even though you’re having social or interpersonal problems because of your use. -You still use it even though it’s causing you physical problems. -Using it the way you do is causing you legal roblems.

You don’t live up to major responsibilities on the job or in your family. Alcoholism refers to being addicted, or dependent on alcohol. You may be dependent on a substance if any three of the following are true: -You must use larger and larger amounts of it to get high. -You have withdrawal when you try to stop or cut down. -You use it much more and for longer times than you really want to. -You can’t seem to cut back and feel a strong need or craving for it. -You spend a lot of your time just getting the substance. -You’d rather use than work or be with friends and family. -You keep using, no matter what.

The National Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism estimates, based on research, that a Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) between . 02 and . 04 makes your chances of being in a single-vehicle fatal crash 1. 4 times higher than for someone who has not had a drink. If your BAC is between . 05 and . 09, you are 11. 1 times more likely to be in a fatal single vehicle crash, and 48 times more likely at a BAC between . 10 and . 14. If you’ve got a BAC of . 15, your risk of being in a single-vehicle fatal crash is estimated to be 380 times higher than a non-drinker’s. How much do you have to rink to get a BAC that high?

A 160 pound man will have a BAC of about . 04, 1 hour after consuming two 12-ounce beers on an empty stomach. Your BAC will depend on how much you weigh, how much you drink, amount of time since your last drink and your gender. Women metabolize alcohol differently from men, causing women to reach higher BAC’s at the same doses. Recent research is showing that true substance dependence may be caused, in part, by brain chemistry deficiences. That is one reason that substance dependence is considered a disease. And, as with other diseases, there is the possibility of taking medicine to et better.

There is now promising evidence that taking medicine can correct some of the deficiences that may cause drug dependence. It is beginning to look like a combination of the right medicine along with talking therapy and behavior therapy, will help us treat this disease as we have never before been able to. One drug is Naltrexone, sometimes known as ReVia. Fluoxetine (Prozac) and Desipramine (Norpramin) have also shown promise. Alcohol abuse is also a serious medical and social problem, but is not the same as alcoholism. Alcohol abuse is the intentional overuse of alcohol, i. . to the point of drunkenness.

This includes occasional and celebratory over-drinking. Not all people who abuse alcohol become alcoholics, but alcohol abuse by itself can have serious medical effects. Overuse of alcohol is considered to be: -more than 3-4 drinks per occasion for women -more than 4-5 drinks per occasion for men. One drink equals one (12-ounce) bottle of beer or winecooler, one (5-ounce) glass of wine, or one and a half ounces of liquor. Alcohol, probably the oldest drug known, has been used at least since the earliest societies for which records exist.

Of the numerous types of alcohol, thyl alcohol is the type consumed in drinking. In its pure form it is a clear substance with little odor. People drink alcohol in three main kinds of beverages: BEERS, which are made from grain through brewing and fermentation and contain from 3% to 8% alcohol; WINES, which are fermented from fruits such as grapes and contain from 8% to 12% alcohol naturally, and up to 21% when fortified by adding alcohol; and distilled beverages (spirits) such as WHISKEY, GIN, and VODKA, which on the average contain from 40% to 50% alcohol.

Drinkers may become addicted to any of these beverages. Physical Effects of Alcohol The effects of alcohol on the human body depend on the amount of alcohol in the blood (blood-alcohol concentration). This varies with the rate of consumption and with the rate at which the drinker’s physical system absorbs and metabolizes alcohol. The higher the alcohol content of the beverage consumed, the more alcohol will enter the bloodstream. The amount and type of food in the stomach also affect the absorption rate.

Drinking when the stomach is filled is less intoxicating than when it is empty; the foods in the stomach, which contain fat and protein, delay alcohol absorption. Body weight is also a factor; the heavier the person, the slower the absorption of alcohol. After alcohol passes through the stomach, it is rapidly absorbed through the walls of the intestines into the bloodstream and carried to the various organ systems of the body, where it is metabolized.

Although small amounts of alcohol are processed by the kidneys and secreted in the urine, and other small amounts are processed through the lungs and exhaled in the breath, most of the alcohol is metabolized by the liver. As the alcohol is metabolized, it gives off heat. The body metabolizes alcohol at about the rate of hree-fourths of an ounce to one ounce of whiskey an hour. Technically it is possible to drink at the same rate as the alcohol is being oxidized out of the body. Most people, however, drink faster than this, and so the concentration of alcohol in the bloodstream keeps rising.

Alcohol begins to impair the brain’s ability to function when the blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) reaches 0. 05%, that is, 0. 05 grams of alcohol per 100 cubic centimeters of blood. Most state traffic laws in the United States presume that a driver with a BAC of 0. 10% is intoxicated. With a concentration of 0. 0% (a level obtained from drinking about 10 ounces of whiskey), a person has difficulty controlling the emotions and may cry or laugh extensively. The person will experience a great deal of difficulty in attempting to walk and will want to lie down.

When the blood-alcohol content reaches about 0. 30%, which can be attained when a person rapidly drinks about a pint of whiskey, the drinker will have trouble comprehending and may become unconscious. At levels from 0. 35% to 0. 50%, the brain centers that control breathing and heart action are affected; concentrations above 0. 50% may cause death, although a person enerally becomes unconscious before absorbing a lethal dosage. Moderate or temperate use of alcohol is not harmful, but excessive or heavy drinking is associated with alcoholism and numerous other health problems.

The effects of excessive drinking on major organ systems of the human body are cumulative and become evident after heavy, continuous drinking or after intermittent drinking over a period of time that may range from 5 to 30 years. The parts of the body most affected by heavy drinking are the digestive and nervous systems. Digestive-system disorders that may be related to heavy drinking include cancer of the mouth, throat, and sophagus; gastritis; ulcers; cirrhosis of the liver; and inflammation of the pancreas.

Disorders of the nervous system can include neuritis, lapse of memory (blackouts), hallucinations, and extreme tremor as found in delirium tremens. Delirium tremens (“the DTs”) may occur when a person stops drinking after a period of heavy, continuous imbibing. Permanent damage to the brain and central nervous system may also result, including Korsakoff psychosis and Wernicke’s disease. Recent evidence indicates that pregnant women who drink heavily may give birth to infants with the FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME, which is characterized by face nd body abnormalities and, in some cases, impaired intellectual facilities.

Additionally, the combination of alcohol and drugs, such as commonly used sleeping pills, tranquilizers, antibiotics, and aspirin, can be fatal, even when both are taken in nonlethal doses. Many studies have been made of attitudes toward drinking in different societies. Every culture has its own general ethos or sense of decorum about the use and role of alcoholic beverages within its social structure. In some cultures drinking is either forbidden or frowned upon. The Koran contains prohibitions against drinking, and Muslims are forbidden to sell or serve alcoholic everages.

Hindus take a negative view of the use of alcohol; this is reflected in the constitution of India, which requires every state to work toward the prohibition of alcohol except for medicinal purposes. Abstinence from alcohol has also been the goal of temperance movements in Europe and the United States. Some Christian religious groups strongly urge abstinence, including the Christian Scientists, Mormons, Seventh-Day Adventists, Pentecostalists, and some Baptists and Methodists.

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