It is true that Grendel is monstrous. He is not only a deadly enemy to Hrothgar and Herot, but to the Geats in general. Grendel seems to take his only pleasure from assaulting Herot and destroying the warriors inside. He is a bane to all those that live under Hrothgar’s rule. They hate him. He is called the enemy of mankind (29) and rightly so. However, because of Grendels actions, they cannot see the other part of Grendel that makes him do the evil he does. Grendel, like the Angels before and the Geats soon after, is symbolic of displaced races/peoples and not simply a mindless monster.
When Adam and Eve had children, they had two boys. Their names were Cain and Able. When Cain killed Able, God banished him far from mankind (29). From Cain came trolls, elves, monsters, and giants. Grendel is a descendant of Cain, so he shares Cains banishment. Cain may have been the first displaced person after Adam and Eve were thrown out of the Garden. Grendel shares his ancestors sentence. He is displaced not only from whatever land or wealth he would have if he were human but he is also displaced form God. It is this displacement that causes Grendel to destroy.
Since he cannot approach the throne (28) like other people, he chooses to try to destroy the throne, because he has no love for him (God) (28). This is the main reason Grendel is symbolic of displaced peoples. After all, he is a direct descendent of the very first displaced people, Adam and Eve. However, unlike Adam and Eve, Grendel is doomed to an eternity of banishment from Gods light because of Cains sin against his brother. That is why Grendel kills, because he cannot be in the light, because he is at war with God. Grendel is not only banished from Gods light, but from the light in general.
Throughout the text, references are made to Grendel as the walker in darkness (36), and the dark-death shadow (29). This kind of imagery further shows how displaced Grendel has become. The text refers to him as a creature deprived of joy (36). The text also refers to Grendels dwelling as his joyless home (37). It is no wonder Grendel was considered so monstrous. Like other displaced peoples, he has nowhere that is a refuge to him, because he has been removed from his home, or in Grendels case, the love of the Lord. Grendel, like other displaced peoples, did not accept his banishment without a fight.
Like other displaced peoples, Grendel fought back. He had no sorrow over the killings he committed. He did them willingly. The reason behind Grendels slaughter is not because he is a mindless beast, but because he is jealous over not being able to share in the Geats feasting and celebrating under Gods love. Grendel has been permanently kicked out of the light. And like any race that has lost his or her land or home, he fought back, if not to get back in the light, then to at least make sure no one else can enjoy it. Grendel can have no peace as long as he sees Gods people celebrating and living in a way he will never be able to.
Thats why Grendel, driven by evil desire and swollen with rage (36), worked so hard at attempting to destroy Herot. In Grendels mind, if he could deprive the Geats of their meadhall, which they loved so much, then they would be like him: a people with no home and with no joy. Grendel, being symbolic of displaced peoples, also makes him very symbolic of the Angels. Grendels tale shares many similarities with the Angels. While God pushed Grendel into exile, the Vikings forced the Angels from their land. Both Grendel and the Angels were forced to retreat under duress. Both of them also fought back.
Grendel waged his battle against Herot and Hrothgar people while the Angels battled with the Danes for control of England. However, while the Angels won against the Vikings and formed a truce, Beowulf destroyed Grendel. The Angels are just one of many misplaced races whose story of destruction is mirrored by that of Grendels. Grendel is not just a simple killer, a monster who lived under the bed or in a dark cave in the woods. He is much more. His is a tale of loss, sorrow, resistance, and death that has been seen in numerous cultures and peoples throughout the centuries.