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Essay about The Importance Of Primate Evolution

For such a complex concept a direct definition leaves more questions than answers. When a species changes biologically over time, evolution guides the process. All living species on earth effect one and other, during the evolutionary process. We depend on that change for our change and they depend on us to affect their change (Park, 2014). The success of those changes depends on the ever constant fight to adapt to the natural environment. For a species to survive depends on the best genetic mutation to survive the current environment.

Humans use natural selection or changing the environment of species to ause the desired mutation to help produce food. For instance, while evolution takes place through biological changes these effects are genetic and occur socially as well. A physical or biological anthropologist studies the evolution of humans and closely related species such as primates to understand how human beings evolved biologically through all the given environmental changes. Additionally, biological anthropologist researchers our behavior and our culture they are not separate from our biology.

We are programmed to be a society of culture (Park, 2014). Social environment effects the changes in biology nd likewise biological changes affect our social environment. Biological anthropologist prefers many different methods for investigating evolution such as genetics, primatology, paleoanthropology and human ecology. Anthropologist study DNA of prehistory humans, primates and fossils discovered to biologically connect current humans to past societies. Primatologist gathers data on nonhuman primates such as nonlinguistic communication, use of tools and social behaviors as a connection to humans and primates.

Laboratory work done by a primatologist use DNA to track the evolution of primates. Similarly to archeologist paleoanthropologist studies the remains of humanoids and primates to discover evolution patterns. Paleoanthropologist seeks to understand how human beings evolved from primates by studying discovered remains of anthropoids. Laboratory work as a paleoanthropologist use X- rays and MRI’s to examine bones. Human ecology or the relationship between humans and their environment. This includes ecosystems and biological community.

The relationship among organizing and the aspect of their environment (Park, 2014). The importance of understanding primate evolution is necessary for understanding human evolution. This is why primate evolution is considered paleoanthropology (Begun, 2012). In researching the evolution of primates to humans a common topic is the curvature of hominoid phalangeal. The concept derives from the adaptation of tree living (arboreal) to land locomotion. When a prime is classified as arboreal the phalangeal is curved more than a knuckle walker.

In the article Broke Fingers by David R. Begun in the Journal of Human Evolution, begun compares pedal phalangeal (toe) and manual phalangeal (fingers) curvature of various species including homo sapiens. The research exhibits a noticeable line correlation etween homo sapiens who have the least amount of curvature of both manual and pedal phalangeal to genus Pongo ancestors of Orangutan with the highest degree. The experiment is conducted using a one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance). This study shows identical results as analyses Normalized curvature moment arm (NCMA) Stern, Jungers, & Susman 1995 (Begun, 2008).

Begun notes the most interesting observation from the study is the inability to distinguish the ranges of manual and pedal phalangeal curvature (2008). The conclusion drawn is while the results show variations it is not a reliable source of iscrimination among most hominoid locomotor functional groups. (Begun, 2008). The results of this study further strength previous research. The significance of the research done examining phalanges of primates is a correlating line from arboreal to the most significant non-orboreal humans.

The evidence is not a huge gap between homo sapiens and Papio. The difference is nearly as distinguishable between the Papio and Macaca. A major development in life- history research of fossil record lead to the recognition that earliest hominins grew like great apes more than humans, more recent fossil humans, uch as Homo erectus and Neanderthals differ from modern humans (Begun, 2012). The research done over phalanges compared to other physical characteristics show a distinction between homo sapiens and Neanderthals.

The subfield of anthropology known as archaeology studies the physical remains of humans prehistoric and historic in order to date and preserve them for future research. Additionally, archaeologists study artifacts (man-made tools, art, and dwellings) in order to reconstruct past cultures (Park, 2014). Archaeologists do not only study where and when a culture lived but how and why (www. saa. com). Since the majority of human existence lack anyone form of written language archaeologist relies on every one aspect of a culture to generate an understanding.

Also, Archaeologist is the only field of study that researchers everyone time period. Since archeologist study, all time periods the field must further be derived from specific fields or analysis. The fields include historic, prehistoric, and experimental archaeology. A historic archaeologist studies the actions of cultures with written language but does not discuss the actions of their culture. Prehistoric archeology, the study of societies before written language. Some concepts of archaeology are theoretical, experimental archaeologist attempt to reconstruct or replicate missing pieces of a society.

In a research project done by Coolidge, Haidle, Lombard, and Wynn uses the discovery of bow hunting to evaluate cognitive evolution. Is the modern mind different then our ancestors, some focus should fall on the technologies and behavior unique to homo sapiens (Coolidge, Haidle, Lombard, & Wynn, 2016). A key question is whether and how does the thinking of Homo sapiens different from other hominins. Bow hunting is not the only technology associated with behavior the study includes ore advanced technology such as snare making. As far as archaeologist know bow hunting is exclusive to H. apiens.

Bow hunter has been thought to be a recent invention, but with recent discoveries, it could be as old as 71 000 years old (Coolidge et al. , 2016). The bridging argument of archaeological assessment of prehistoric cognition is an artifact or feature, with a technical system, following procedures and knowledge and the cognitive prerequisites (Coolidge et al. , 2016). The artifact being the bow and arrow and other tools. The technical system being the justification for making the artifact. A procedure of nowledge attributed to the notion of what to do with it now.

The cognitive prerequisites rest on the idea that H. Sapien had a large scale goal and plan to break down all the steps in an orderly fashion (Coolidge et al. , 2016). The concluding argument is not exclusively about the bow and arrow making or using itself but falls more on the operation of a snare. The reason being that when a snare is placed it is now out of sight, but H. sapiens contain the capacity to remember where the snare is placed. Also, bow-and-arrow technologies in all likelihood possessed a fully autonoetic awareness (Coolidge et al. 2016).

With the research is done here provides a theory that the current cognitive mind is more complex not by as rapidly evolving as believed before. The human mind has taken as long as 70 000 years to evolve into what it is now. The findings are fairly new and will be used to expand on other research projects and fields of study. Both subfields of anthropology physical anthropologist like archaeologist study the bones of primates and humans, as well as prehistoric evidence such as fossils. Additionally, use artifacts to theorize and evaluate how the society of the remains lived and interacted with the nvironment.

On the other hand, biological anthropologist evaluates DNA to find a link between genes of H. sapiens, apes and prehistoric remains for a genetic connection or differences. The study includes diseases and the effects of they have on a society. Also, resend research of humans remains are used to determine how they died. Forensic anthropology reconstructs the remains to create a reconstructed model. Conversely, archeologist studies artifacts and reconstruct the society that used those artifacts. The study of archaeology includes the cultural aspects the artifact had on the culture.

Dwellings and eft behind artifacts show patterns of migrations and the formation of new societies. Reflecting back on the research was done on the two subfields of anthropology and how they influence the study of evolution, I learned the most interesting information from recent discovery connection between bow and arrow technology and cognitive evolution. I found it interesting because it is a new research that shows promise. I assume that most archaeological breakthroughs were already made and the future of archaeology would become more conceptual. I am glad to find an interesting topic to evaluate evolution.

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