The Civil War was a remarkable moment in history. This war went from 1861 to 1865, between the North and South of the United States. The North and South were drifting apart over time because of slavery and agriculture. The North wanted a unified country but the South wanted their own government. There were many battles throughout the war, one of the craziest being Shiloh. There were also multiple important people involved in this war. Ulysses S. Grant impacted the Civil War tremendously by bringing the country back together. But even after the war ended and the country was unified, black people were still treated poorly.
The Civil War was a time that will never be forgotten. The North and South had always been drifting apart because of the major differences in civilization and economy (Guelzo). The main factor being slavery. Since the South was so agricultural, they thought that making slaves do their work was acceptable. They had many large farms and needed workers, so instead of working themselves, they made slaves do their work for them. The North had their own agricultural resources and did not need slavery. They had factories and less farms so they did not need any slaves to do their work. The abolitionists were tarting to become loud and harsh.
After the Missouri Compromise extreme anger between the North and South started. The Missouri Compromise passed Missouri as a slave state. Missouri has always been a border state until this compromise, so many people were unhappy. The Compromise of 1850 tried to give both sides what they wanted. The compromise left almost all of the slavery issues unresolved (“Civil War”). By 1861 there were nineteen free states and fifteen slave states. The North states fought to keep the country united as the South was fighting for independence and their own constitution (“Causes Of The Civil.. “).
Many years before the war started, people from the North already thought slavery was wrong (Guelzo). Abraham Lincoln was elected president and he promised to put an end to slavery. Abraham wanted slavery to stop but knew he had to be careful on what he said. Seven states (South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas) quickly separated from the Union. The Northerners did not realize they were being serious. They thought they were not going to leave the Union in the first place (“North and South”). Northerners were very confident that with just one battle, they would defeat the South.
After the Battle of Bull Run, they soon realized that they were wrong. The South ended up winning that battle, leaving the whole North side shocked (Cummings 33). Later, abolitionists disobeyed the law by creating an underground railroad (an escape system for runaway slaves) that led from the South to the North. Some runaway slaves were rescued after they had been found in the North by their owners (Guelzo). Northern victory in the Civil War kept the United states as a whole and ended slavery, the practice that divided the country in the first place. The Confederate States of America started with South Carolina,
Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas, but it only grew from there (Cummings 7-8). One of the first battles of the Civil War, The Battle of Fort Sumter, ended up with the South winning after just one day (Cummings 10). The South tried to have political power during the Civil War, but it ended up being unsuccessful. They wanted to have their own country and government, but it did not end how they hoped. It was difficult to work with both the Confederacy and the State and City officials. At one point, high inflation rate occurred because the Confederacy printed huge amounts of money.
From the beginning of the war to the end of the war, the prices were ten times higher, For example, a pair of shoes were two-hundred dollars (Guelzo). Eighty percent of all labor in the South happened on the farm. Since agriculture was so beneficial in the South, not many people wanted industrial development (“North and South”). The South went through many ups and downs during the war, one of them being losing the war. Shiloh was one of the fiercest and bloodiest battles of the Civil War. The Battle of Shiloh took place in the southwestern part of Tennessee on April 6 and 7, 1862. The Confederates were led by
General Albert Sidney Johnston. The Union was led by Ulysses S. Grant. Johnston had forty-four thousand men ready to fight against the forty thousand men fighting for the Union (Woodworth). Johnston kept his soldiers in Corinth, Mississippi, while Grant had his along the Tennessee River. Johnston had originally planned to attack on April 4, but due to the bad weather, the attack was delayed until April 6. When they finally were ready for battle, they went to the Union soldier’s camp. They were very unprepared and did not know they were coming (“The Battle of Shiloh”). On the first day, the Confederates were eating the Union.
The Union turned around and fought back the next day, resulting in a win. In the end, the Confederates lost with ten thousand fatalities and the Union won with thirteen thousand fatalities. President Lincoln recognized that Grant would do what it takes to win as many battles as possible (“Historical Context: “Shiloh”). The Battle of Shiloh was an eventful battle with many deaths, a huge turn-around, and an unexpected victory for the North. Ulysses S. Grant was a very important person for the North during the Civil War. Grant led his troops with determination to win and lots of energy while hey fought.
Grant was thirty-nine years old when the Civil War started. He wanted to fight for the Union, but his request was quickly turned down. Two months later, he was ordered to lead troops to battle the Confederates in Missouri (Simpson). One of Grant’s most famous battles was the Battle of Shiloh. Grant severely struggled on the first day, but managed to come back, fight hard, and win on the second day (Wilson). Grant needed to win control over the Mississippi Valley. In February, 1862, he attacked Fort Donelson. The Confederate commander asked for the conditions of the battle. Grant said only an immediate urrender would be acceptable.
The Confederates surrendered and President Lincoln promoted Grant to Major General of Volunteers (“Ulysses S. Grant”). Because of his success, fame, and popularity, he was liked by all and later voted as President (Simpson). The way blacks were treated quickly became one of the most important problems after the Civil War and into the reconstruction period. The former slaves experienced many attacks from the white people. In 1865 and 1866, five thousand southern blacks were murdered by whites. Black Codes were soon created as well. One code allowed blacks to be whipped by heir employers.
Another code allowed states to put unemployed black people in jail and make their children work (Ash). Sharecroppers were forced to sign contracts with white landowners. If the blacks refused to sign, they were thrown in jail or forced to work. Another important issue was that many blacks lived in extreme poverty for many decades after the war (“Life After Slavery.. “). People from the North and South were not ready to have former slaves be equal to them and all of the harmful things they did to the blacks showed that (Cocca). The Civil War had a huge impact on many people during, and fter the war.
While slavery and Southern agricultural problems were the main causes of this war, there were many other causes as well. The North and South were against each other long before the war. The North wanted to abolish slavery and wanted one country, instead of two countries. The major battles and notable people affected the war greatly and helped bring the country back together. As the war ended, white people still did not want or like black people, so they were treated badly. The Civil War was a serious and traumatic period of time, but in the end, the North won and the country continued as a whole.