StudyBoss » Abuse » Essay about Domestic Violence Theory

Essay about Domestic Violence Theory

Domestic violence in Australia is in a critical situation negatively impacting on the lives of many victims. The Australian Bureau of Statistics indicated that more than 100,000 Australians have experienced domestic violence in their lives (ABS, 2006). In Australia one in three women has experienced physical violence since the age of 15. Statistics revealed in 2005, over 350,000 women experienced physical violence and over 125,000 women experienced sexual violence (ABS, 2006).

Domestic violence refers to acts of violence that occur between people who have, or have had, an intimate relationship. While there is no single efinition, the central element of domestic violence is an ongoing pattern of behaviour aimed at controlling a partner through fear, for example by using behaviour which is violent and threatening. In most cases, the violent behaviour is part of a range of tactics to exercise power and control over women and their children, and can be both criminal and non-criminal. buse, psychological abuse and homicide just to mention but a few (National Plan, 2014). It is evident that Australia needs a collective response to this issue through prevention programs and awareness campaigns that address this issue and reduce he occurrence of domestic violence which currently exists at unacceptable levels. Who experiences domestic violence? Domestic violence refers to acts of violence that occur within intimate relationships and take place in domestic settings.

It includes physical, sexual, emotional and psychological abuse (Morgan and Chadwick, 2009). Children are often the first and second-hand victims of domestic violence, becoming part of a cyclical process. Most studies indicate that women and children are most often the victims of domestic violence. In fact, statistical data shows that 85% of domestic assault victims are emale and around half a million of Australian women have been a victim of domestic violence in the form of both physical and sexual abuse (ABS, 2006).

These women come from diverse backgrounds such as women with disabilities, young women, women from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, Indigenous women, same-sex attracted women and older women (National Plan, 2014). Kwan and Thomas, 2016, state ‘Migrant women are particularly vulnerable’ and that Indigenous women are 34 times more likely to hospitalised as a result of domestic violence than non-Indigenous women. Where it happens Domestic violence occurs across the Australian community and some of these women will have limited access to service. Additionally, the women in these groups are often at increased risk of violence.

Causes of Domestic Violence A number of factors have been identified as causal to domestic violence, things such as anger, stress, frustrations, inadequate money, unemployment, infidelity, jealousy, use of drugs et cetera (Morgan and Chadwick, 2009). Many theories have attempted to explain the reasons for domestic violence ranging from wars, government, repression to acts between the couple and the individual. Domestic violence is particularly hard to understand given the complexity of gender and sexuality and therefore it requires investigation within the context of their respective societies (Lemkey, 2001).

Feminist theory believes the main contributing factor is the patriarchal cultural value system, a system dominated by men and a system that shows men have authority over women and children. A social system that condones and endorses domestic violence and where male abusers want to feel they are in control which hence becomes a behaviour. This suggests that domestic violence by men against women is a result of long ormed traditions that men should be seen as heads of the family and should always be in control.

Patriarchal culture encourages men to believe that they are entitled to power and control over their partners and, therefore, in the case of misunderstanding between intimate partners a case of domestic violence (Tracey, 2007). Even though responsibility for the actual violence lies with the perpetrator alone, in today’s society, people have some beliefs about domestic violence against women that makes it difficult for women and children to get help. The following section explores crime theories explaining why people commit domestic violence.

Theories of Domestic Violence Social Learning Theory Social learning theory argues that people develop behaviours they have been exposed to in childhood and have learned from family members. Children adopt violent behaviours reinforced into adulthood as a way of resolving conflict. These children are 30 to 60% more likely to become abusers themselves. Furthermore, abusive partners are 30 to 60% more likely to abuse the children in the home as well. The children raised in violent families are likely to accept violence as a norm acceptable within the home and view it as an effective way of solving problems or changing the behaviour of others.

Bandura, 1999) Culture of Violence Theory The culture of violence theory proposes that domestic violence occurs specifically where societal norms and structures allow perpetrators to assault others in the name of their culture. For example, with the increasing number of bilingual persons in Australia, cross-culture studies indicate that wife beating is more typical in Australia and that the magnitude of wife beating is influenced by a variety of social factors within the society e. g. tolerance of violence, competitiveness between men and women, presence of support networks for women and so forth (Lemkey, 2001) Prevention Strategies

There are three forms of prevention advances they include, primary, secondary, and tertiary strategies (Wolfe, 1999). Primary strategies look to reduce incidences of domestic violence among vulnerable populations before it occurs. Secondary strategies are programs that attempt to decrease the incidences of domestic violence by reducing known or suspected risk factors. Tertiary prevention includes efforts to reduce recurrence of domestic violence once associated causing factors have been identified.

Tertiary advances act more as interventions, for example the use of media to raise awareness. An example of this is the White Ribbon Campaign. It is the world’s largest male led campaign to end violence against women. Since its introduction in Australia in 2003 it has inspired men from politicians to popular sporting figures to become white ribbon ambassadors and reach a vast audience through advertising media. Their message is for today’s generation of men to challenge social attitudes and behaviours by speaking out against those that condone violence towards women.

The campaign features an online website where males can enter their details and take the white ribbon oath. To date 187,253 oaths have been taken, which indicates the success of he campaign to reach a large audience (White Ribbon, Australia’s campaign to prevent men’s violence against women 2015) (Source: barossaherald White Ribbon Oath 2014) Strategies developed to address Domestic Violence Strategy- Creating awareness among young people A prevention program aimed at preventing incidences of domestic violence in areas where it occurs most.

This applies the social learning theory and how children emulate behaviours they have been exposed to since childhood. Therefore, it is important to develop a strategy that addresses the cause of the biggest problem perhaps by creating awareness among dolescents and young adults. (Sewell, 1999) Program: Adolescent and Young Adults Seminars This age group provides unique opportunities for the prevention of domestic violence whereby prevention efforts are focused on the vulnerable group i. e. oth adolescents and young people. Here, an awareness program is of paramount importance for creating awareness of how violence in relationships occurs and for teaching targeted group proper ways of forming intimate relationships. The program will help in the creation of universal knowledge. It will be done through high schools and universities where sexual ssaults and homicide cases are more prone. The program will incorporate information on the effects of drugs that allow perpetrators to incapacitate potential victims.

Besides, targeted group should be made aware of risks of emulating abusive behaviours as well as the need for not following cultural norms that support domestic violence at the societal level. Evaluation Plan of the Strategy The effectiveness of the program can be evaluated by various methods. First, there has to be a record of the rate of incidences of domestic violence such as sexual assaults in the institution before the implementation of the program. This will be compared with the rate or number of sexual assaults after implementation of the program.

Second, the strategy can be evaluated by checking for notable behavioural changes in targeted population. In addition to that, the strategy can be evaluated by gathering targeted group feedback about the impact and how they feel about domestic violence to gauge their readiness to embrace change. One of the things people dealing with domestic violence finds troubling is the underreporting of incidences of domestic violence. It means those statistics provided here is not accurate because literature eview indicates there are so many incidents of domestic violence that go unnoticed and unreported.

Conclusion The statistics indicate that domestic violence in Australia is a crisis and is widespread amongst the community. It can happen anywhere and to anyone, regardless of gender or age. It is only recent that the issue is receiving the recognition it requires. A collaborative approach by law enforcement, the justice system and social services to reduce domestic violence with early intervention provides the best option to address the issue and ending the violence towards women and providing a safer environment for women in society.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.