StudyBoss » Cloning Report

Cloning Report

Of all the terms coined by scientists which have entered popular vocabulary, ‘clone’ has become one of the more emotive. Strictly speaking a clone refers to one or more offspring derived from a single ancestor, whose genetic composition is identical to that of the ancestor. No sex is involved in the production of clones, and since sex is the normal means by which new genetic material is introduced during procreation, clones have no choice but to have the same genes as their single parent.

In the same way, a clone of cells refers simply to the descendants of a single parental cell. As such, adult organisms can be viewed as clones because all their parts stem from the single cell which is the fertilised egg. Likewise, many tumours are clones, derived from one aberrant cell which no longer obeys the normal rules of growth control. The offspring of organisms which reproduce asexually, like corals, are also clones; as are identical twins produced by the natural, or sometimes deliberate, splitting of a single embryo.

Members of a clone are genetically identical and genetic identity has given cloning an additional more technical meaning: namely the rocedures used to create a new organism whose genetic constitution is a replica of another existing individual. Such a feat can be achieved by substituting the nucleus, which contains the genes, from one of the cells making up that individual’s body, for the nucleus of a fertilised egg. Since our genes dictate to a large extent what we look like, how we behave and what we can and cannot do, having identical genes, as identical twins do, ensures something more than mere similarity.

Novelists and film makers have not been slow to exploit the imagery fforded by cloning. Limitless numbers of identical beings manufactured from existing or previous generations has obvious dramatic potential, although seldom of a reassuring nature. Clones traverse the cinema screen as crowds of dehumanised humans destined for monotonous drudgery, as invincible armies of lookalikes from outer space, as replicas of living megalomaniacs and, in the ultimate fantasy, as the resurrected dead – troupes of little Hitlers and herds of rampaging dinosaurs.

Of course, this is science fiction. Nonetheless here is just a whiff of plausibility, a whisker of scientific credibility; enough to plant an indelible vision of what might be, or even what could be. So it is easy to understand why the arrival earlier this year of Dolly, the sheep developed from an egg whose own genes had been replaced by those from an adult udder cell, was seen as the first incarnation of a sinister future.

Dolly was a clone of the sheep (her genetic mother) who provided the udder cell. The package of genes in the nucleus of that udder cell contained exactly the same repertoire of genes as all the rest of her mother’s cells and o Dolly’s genetic makeup was to all intents and purposes identical to her mother’s. No sperm had had the opportunity to add its genetic pennysworth. However, there was nothing radically new, neither technically nor conceptually, in the way in which Dolly was made.

Almost all films and documentaries on cloning still show the same footage, produced more than twenty-five years ago during unsuccessful attempts to clone rabbits, of a nucleus being injected into an egg. What was novel about Dolly was that she was the first unequivocal mammalian clone. Lower vertebrates had been cloned in the early 1960s hen it was shown that a nucleus taken from an adult frog cell transplanted to a frog egg whose own nucleus had been destroyed was able to direct the development of that egg into a swimming tadpole.

Indeed, it was this experiment that first indicated that the genetic content of all our cells, despite the profound differences between a skin cell and kidney cell, must be more or less the same and retain all the genetic information necessary for an egg to develop into a whole organism. While cloning can offer the scientist important answers to fundamental questions about our enes, it has a much older and very natural history which long precedes the sophistications of the modern laboratory. The word ‘clone’ comes from the Greek klwn, meaning twig, and there is a very good reason for this.

For example, every chrysanthemum plant you buy at a Garden Centre is a clone of some distant and probably long dead chrysanthemum which once supplied a side-shoot for rooting. Likewise, whenever you divide an overgrown shrub or successfully cultivate a houseplant cutting you are cloning. In each case you are deliberately propagating a copy of the parent, and eventually over successive ears and many hours in the greenhouse, producing a multitude of plants (clones) all genetically identical to the prized parent.

Elm trees and other suckering plants clone themselves naturally, sending out subterranean roots from which new plants, of identical genetic constitution, will sprout. Deliberate cloning is as old as horticulture itself. Thousands of years before anyone understood the physical nature of heredity, specific genetic constitutions were preserved through cloning because they bestowed on the plant desirable qualities such as disease-resistance, high yield and predictable growth.

Cloning is as important to the production of fine wine, the supply of rubber and the fruit harvest as it is to the variety of an English country garden. Furthermore, natural cloning is not confined to plants: microbes and some insects frequently propagate themselves by producing genetically identical offspring without recourse to sex. The toothless mammal, the armadillo, gives birth not to identical twins but to genetically identical octuplets: every litter a batch of eight clones. There is nothing a priori unnatural about cloning.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Get your own essay from professional writers. We have experts for any subject

Order Original Essay

StudyBoss » Cloning Report

Cloning Report

Have you ever wandered what it would be like to have a clone, or what it would be like have a twin? Well in a few years you might be able to clone yourself. Thats if they legalize it in the US

I.What is cloning?

Cloning is the scientific process of combining the DNA of one organism with the egg of another. Creating a perfect genetically matched lifeform. In other words getting an egg and fertilizing it. Then putting it back in the a surrogate mother.

II.Who cloned Dolly?

Scottish embryologist named Ian Wilmut cloned a Finn Dorset lamb named Dolly from fully different adult mother cells. A.Education Wilmut was born in Hampton Lucey, England, attended the University of Nottingham for his undergraduate work. In 1971 he received a Ph. D. in animal genetic engineering from Darwin College of University of Cambridge. In 1974, he joined the Animal Research Breeding Station in Scotland, which is now known as the Roslyn Institute, and has conducted research there ever since. B.Accomplishments In 1973, he created the first calf ever produced from a frozen embryo which he named Frosty. In 1995 he created Megan and Morag, two Welsh mountain sheep cloned from differentiated embryo cells. In July 5, 1996 he created a lamb called dolly, with the help of Keith Campbell

III.How did they clone Dolly?

In 1990, Wilmut hired cell cycle biologist Keith Campbell to assist in his cloning studies. Their work produced its first success with the birth of Megan and Morag, two Welsh mountain sheep cloned from different embryo cells. In their success, Wilmut and Campbell pioneered a new technique of starving embryo cells before transferring their nucleus to fertilized egg cells. The technique synchronized the cell cycles of both cells and their results led Wilmut and Campbell to believe that any type of cell could be used to produce a clone. On July 5, 1996, Wilmut and Campbell used the same process to produce the first clone from adult cells ,a Finn Dorset lamb named Dolly ,after Dolly Parton. The announcement left the scientific community shocked as well as the public, and kicked off a large-scale debate on the ethics and direction of cloning research.

IV.What other animals did they clone?

February 16, 1998 US Scientists cloned a Holstein cow Using DNA from the cell of a 30 day old fetus, scientists in the United States were able to clone a calf. They named the Holstein calf, Gene. July 5, 1998 a cow was cloned into two calves in Japan Using cells from an adult cow, Japanese scientists cloned the cow into two calves born Sunday, July 5, 1998. July 22, 1998 Mice are cloned. It was announced in the press that Dr. Yanagimachi from the University of Hawaii and colleagues had successfully cloned mice. August 19, 1998 Scientists announce that a near-extinct species has been cloned. David Wells, led the effort at the Ruakura Research Center in Hamilton, New Zealand to clone the last cow a species that once inhabited Enderby Island in the Aukland Islands. A dog named Missy, is to be cloned. The Press announced 8/25/98 that a wealthy couple donated $2.3 million to Texas A & M University to clone their dog. Dr. Mark Westhusin, co-director of the Reproductive Sciences Laboratory, is one of the scientists involved in the project. Lou Hawthorne, president of Bio Arts and Research Corporation, a San Francisco corporation, helped negotiate the deal. The donors wish to remain anonymous.

V.How can cloning help us?

Cloning can help in many ways. It can help us cure many diseases like infertility, Downs syndrome. It can help us get rid world hunger. With cloning technology, instead of using materials foreign to the body such as silicon, doctors will be able to manufacture bone, fat, connective tissue, or cartilage that matches the patients tissues exactly. It can make foods healthier for us.

VI.Why is cloning bad?

If a large percentage of an nation’s cattle are identical clones, a virus, such as mad cow disease, could effect the entire population. The result could be catastrophic food shortages in that nation. Cloning may cause people to settle for the best existing animals, not allowing for improvement of the species. In this way, cloning could potentially interfere with natural evolution. Cloning is currently an expensive process. Cloning requires large amounts of money and biological expertise. Ian Wilmut and his associates required 277 tries before producing Dolly. A new cloning technique has recently been developed which is far more reliable. However, even this technique has 2-3% success rate.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Get your own essay from professional writers. We have experts for any subject

Order Original Essay

Leave a Comment