Defining the Soul of Oedipus: Sophocles’ Play Alongside Plato’s Republic

Translations of Sophocles’ play are generally interpreted in one of two ways, ‘Oedipus Rex’, meaning Oedipus the King, or ‘Oedipus Tyrannus’, meaning Oedipus the Tyrant. The exact distinction between the two titles is undefined, though through the lens of Socrates’ five characterizations of the soul, the readers can identify what type of man he is. … Read more

From Aristotle’S Rhetoric To Modern Digital Rhetoric

In today’s modern age originally, Aristotle defined rhetoric by any way of persuasion while appealing to emotion. Aristotle defines rhetoric as the counterpart of dialectic. A more definitive description of rhetoric is using symbolisms as a method of persuasion to clarify or an understanding. How Aristotle defines rhetoric leaves many ways to find possibilities to … Read more

The Life of the Founder of Pythagorean Brotherhood

Pythagorean Brotherhood Pythagoras of Samos is the founder of a religion called Pyhagoreanism where he developed the Pythagorean brotherhood (Pythagoras). It is known that Pythagoras made traveled a lot during his life, but he eventually settled down in Croton, Italy (Pythagoras). Throughout his life Pythagoras made discoveries in many fields, including math and medicine. The … Read more

Machiavellian Virtu

The concept of virtu is central to Machiavellian political theory in The Prince. The problematic nature of this term makes a concise definition difficult to formulate. Varying definitions often lead to different interpretations of Machiavelli. In order to understand the implications of Machiavelli’s writing it is important to explore this concept and how it shapes … Read more

Jean Jacques Rousseau’s Legacy

Jean Jacques Rousseau Although most famously known for his work in philosophy, Jean Jacques Rousseau contributed to many other areas during his lifetime. He not only built upon contemporary moral, political, and educational thought, but also developed the subjects of musical composition and writing. His ideas and accomplishments preceded many historical and modern thinkers, who … Read more

Plato and Aristotle on Form and Substance

How can you classify forms according to Plato? According to Plato’s Theory of Forms, the physical world isn’t necessarily the real world, rather reality exists beyond the physical world. There are two realms; the physical realm and the Realm of Forms. The physical realm consists of material things we come into contact with in our … Read more

Hume: Criticism of Descartes

David Hume, a Scottish philosopher and historian, thrived during the Enlightenment era. In this segment of history, which is also known as the Age of Reason, European scholars attempted to find the root of knowledge, often by working through one of two prevalent schools of thought, empiricism and rationalism. Hume, an empiricist, suggested that knowledge … Read more

Allegory of the Cave, Descartes’ Meditations, and The Truman Show

In his Allegory of the Cave, Plato asks us to consider that the world we are living is the equivalent of a cave; in order for us to enter into this “sensible realm” of truth and knowledge we must actively pursue these values. In his First Meditation, Rene Descartes asks us to abandon all preexisting … Read more

Locke’s Proof Against Innate Mathematical Knowledge

John Locke proves that mathematical knowledge is not innate in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding by contrasting Plato’s theory to learning through sensation and perception, thus curating the theory of empiricism. Through his arguments, Locke proves mathematical knowledge is not something that you are born with, clarifying that Plato’s universal consent proves nothing. Knowledge is … Read more

Analysis Of The Case Of TransCanada In Terms Of Kant’s Moral Theory And Utilitarian Perspective

When Evan Vokes, a trained engineer, started working for TransCanada in 2007, he realized that there were some issues in his employer’s work ethics and quickly found himself in a moral struggle. TransCanada is one of the largest companies focusing on oil and gas infrastructure in North America. There are federal regulations on the welding … Read more

Exile and the Kingdom

Amid the feverish horror of rampant sickness and death, The Plague is a parable of human remoteness and the struggle to share existence. In studying the relationships which Camus sets forth, the relationship between man and lover, mother and son, healer and diseased, it can be seen that the only relationship Camus describes is that … Read more

Comparing the Plato and Aristotle’s Perspectives on Human Nature and Purpose

Not all are equal in Plato’s Republic or Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics and Politics. Plato and Aristotle argue that people possess a certain natural ability that determines their role in society. The fundamental character of one’s soul, in part, determines this natural ability. As not all humans have the same capabilities, Plato and Aristotle are proposing … Read more

The biography of Confucius

Confucius (551 – 479 BCE), was a thinker, political figure, educator and founder of the Ru School of Chinese thought. Confucius was born at Shang-ping, in the country of Lu. His given name was Kong, but his disciples called him Kong-fu-tse, (i.e. Kong the Master, or Teacher.) His father passed away when he was only … Read more

A Critique of Discourse on Inequality, a Book by Jean-Jacques Rousseau

How would Rousseau’s General Will eliminate the tendency of individuals to distinguish themselves from each other which he had identified in the Discourse on Inequality? In the Discourse on Inequality Rousseau identifies that individuals developed a need to distinguish themselves from others in an unequal manner by the very act of living together. For a … Read more

Socrates” Wisdom

In response to Crito’s arguments Socrates thinks about/believes first, why the opinion of the majority is not the most important opinion, second, what the results of escaping would be for the city of Athens, and third whether escaping is an unfair action such that it would harm Socrates” soul. Many of Crito’s arguments concern the … Read more

The Conflict Between Duty and Heroism in The Plague

In The Plague itself, Albert Camus uses the concept of a plague to allegorically represent the wartime occupation of France during World War II and symbolize the absurdity of nature. The coastal town of Oran, located in Northern Africa, is burdened by this unstoppable pestilence that threatens the townspeople’s humanity. Camus’ “symbolic plague represents a … Read more

Similarities between Martin Luther King and Socrates

“ Similarities between Martin Luther King and Socrates Throughout history the greatest thinkers were not those who followed the crowd, they challenged why one must follow the crowd? Who decides whether they should follow the crowd? What happens when one doesn’t follow the crowd? These thoughts, challenging the status quo, made them infamous to some, … Read more

TRIPARTITE SOUL THEORY

Plato battles that the spirit contains three fragments especially sensible, appetitive, and the vivacious. These parts also sort out the three spots of a fair framework. Solitary esteem consolidates keeping up the three zones in the correct change, where reason rules while hunger comes. As appeared by Plato, the appetitive piece of the spirit is … Read more

Isolation and the Sublime in Rousseau and Wordsworth

In their article entitled “Me,” Andrew Bennett and Nicholas Royale assert that “Literature, like art more generally, has always been concerned with aspects of what can be called the… ‘not me’ or other,” (Bennett 129-130). Jean-Jacques Rousseau in his Confessions and William Wordsworth in his The Two-Part Prelude expound upon this issue of isolation from … Read more

Comparison: Michel Foucault’s “Repressive Hypothesis” & Alison Bechdel’s "Fun Home"

Michel Foucault begins his essay “We ‘Other’ Victorians” with a description of what he calls the “repressive hypothesis” (Foucault 10). This hypothesis holds that openly expressing sexuality at the beginning of the seventeenth century was considered shameless. Transitioning into the Victorian era and with the development of the Victorian bourgeoisie, sexuality began to take on … Read more

Analysis of Pausanias’ and Socrates’ Speeches in Plato’s ‘Symposium’

In Plato’s Symposium, Socrates’ eulogy, though delivered with the stated intent of praising love, is not truly about love at all. Instead, Socrates claims that the typical definition of love does not exist and instead praises wisdom. In saying that love is desire, and that you cannot want what you already have, Socrates asserts that … Read more

Locke’s Philosophy on the Concepts of ‘Substance’, ‘Nominal essence’ and ‘Real essence’

Within his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke picks up where his predecessors in epistemological theorizing left off and proceeds to shift the study towards a more empiricist approach. Amongst the complexities of his theory, the notions of ‘substance’, ‘nominal essence’ and ‘real essence’ are fundamental and relate, in Locke’s view, to explain the nature of … Read more

Carl Jung Vs Sigmund Freud: A Comparison Of Psychodynamic Theories Of Personalities

Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung both author two separate Psychodynamic Theories of Personality. While former colleagues and even close friends at one time, differences related to their studies led to a falling out. After Jung and Freud’s split, Jung spoke about being in a suffocating atmosphere when it came to working with Freud (Williams, 1963). … Read more

The Virtue of High-Mindedness

Aristotle’s definition of the virtue of high-mindedness in Nichomachean Ethics, and of what constitutes the excess and deficiency of this virtue, poses a problem when applied to Socrates’ in Plato’s Apology. On one hand, Socrates is high-minded when he accepts his death sentence, despite believing that he is serving an important function in Athens, and … Read more

Descartes’ cogito: inference or intuition?

The kind of reasoning utilized by Descartes in order to arrive at his conclusion of the cogito has been questioned since its initial publication in The Discourse on the Method. The conjunction ‘ergo’ suggests the formula of an inference, that Descartes has concluded his existence from a premise. Yet, Descartes himself seems to deny the … Read more

Philosophy of Sex Drawing from Immanuel Kant, Thomas Mappes and Howard Klepper

Of the many topics in the philosophy of sex is permissible sexuality. Philosophy however sometimes tends to overintellectualize the discussion. What makes sex permissible may not be so strict. Drawing from Immanuel Kant’s humanity formulation, I argue that permissible sex requires only informed and voluntary consent, but under two conditions, which Thomas Mappes mostly gets … Read more

The Portrayal of Enlightenment in Allegory of the Cave by Plato

Intro to Philosophy How did Plato use the sun to explain the good? In the Allegory of the cave, there are four main stages of enlightenment. The four steps cover all aspects of enlightenment, from knowing absolutely nothing and perceiving reality only through your sensory organs to reaching full knowledge and having the capacity to … Read more

Locke and Rousseau

Students and scholars alike are often deceived by the association between Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau as founders of the social contract. Grouping these authors together often causes people to forget the essential variations presented by each man. The issue of liberty, for example, takes on an entirely different meaning when viewed from the eyes of … Read more