Descartes’ cogito: inference or intuition?

The kind of reasoning utilized by Descartes in order to arrive at his conclusion of the cogito has been questioned since its initial publication in The Discourse on the Method. The conjunction ‘ergo’ suggests the formula of an inference, that Descartes has concluded his existence from a premise. Yet, Descartes himself seems to deny the … Read more

Philosophy of Sex Drawing from Immanuel Kant, Thomas Mappes and Howard Klepper

Of the many topics in the philosophy of sex is permissible sexuality. Philosophy however sometimes tends to overintellectualize the discussion. What makes sex permissible may not be so strict. Drawing from Immanuel Kant’s humanity formulation, I argue that permissible sex requires only informed and voluntary consent, but under two conditions, which Thomas Mappes mostly gets … Read more

The Role of Senses to Rene Descartes

In Ren? Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy, he argues that the senses do not accurately help us understand the world. Descartes writes that he has begun to doubt all of his ideas. He decides that all those ideas come from the senses, which are not trustworthy. In the first few meditations, Descartes shows that one … Read more

Prerogative Power: John Locke’s Dangerous Yet Obligatory Concession

John Locke’s theory of the social contract seems, at first glance, to envision the growth of freedom and the concomitant recession of authority. Considered this way, John Locke’s Second Treatise of Government presents a clear contrast, manifesting individual freedom as the dominant political value to which authority submits. A more searching glance, however, discloses a … Read more

The Conception of God in Descartes and Leibniz

Ren? Descartes and Gottfried Leibniz both espouse belief in a God that is infinitely powerful, infinitely knowledgeable and infinitely benevolent. Nonetheless, Descartes and Leibniz differently structure the hierarchy of those three defining traits as they determine God’s actions. Descartes’ God is a Voluntarist, meaning that God has absolute freedom of indifference. Power is supreme for … Read more

The Manifestation of Aristotle’s Theory in Romeo and Juliet

Aristotle’s Unity of Action in Romeo and Juliet Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, a classic tragedy about two star-crossed young lovers in Verona, can be analysed using Aristotle Unity of action. Firstly, it tells one story – there is one main plot around which all incidents and character revolve. The action itself Is the main focus … Read more

Comparing and contrasting governments in Thomas More’s Utopia and Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince

Government is an important part of any country. Whether the officials in charge are skilled or not at their jobs can make or break the country. The United States of America will probably be headed more toward “break” due to the upcoming election, but I am going to focus on another country’s government for now. … Read more

Locke’s Philosophy on the Concepts of ‘Substance’, ‘Nominal essence’ and ‘Real essence’

Within his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke picks up where his predecessors in epistemological theorizing left off and proceeds to shift the study towards a more empiricist approach. Amongst the complexities of his theory, the notions of ‘substance’, ‘nominal essence’ and ‘real essence’ are fundamental and relate, in Locke’s view, to explain the nature of … Read more

The Conflict Between Duty and Heroism in The Plague

In The Plague itself, Albert Camus uses the concept of a plague to allegorically represent the wartime occupation of France during World War II and symbolize the absurdity of nature. The coastal town of Oran, located in Northern Africa, is burdened by this unstoppable pestilence that threatens the townspeople’s humanity. Camus’ “symbolic plague represents a … Read more

Hobbes’ State of Nature

The state of nature is a concept used in philosophy to create an image of a hypothetical condition in which there is no political authority or association. This concept is used to portray a society in which we no longer abide by the rule of law. Philosophers have used the idea of a state of … Read more

Aristotle courage

Courage and justice have been two highly discussed values throughout the semester, and in this essay I will seek to connect the two together as well as relating the ideas in accordance with Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, The Illiad, and The Epic of Gilgamesh. According to the dictionary, courage is defined as “the quality of mind … Read more

Review of Niccolo Machiavelli’s Book, The Prince

The Prince by Machiavelli is one of the most influential treatises in human history, conceived by Italian political theorist and diplomat, Niccolo Machiavelli. The Prince is often regarded as one of the first true examples of modern philosophy, most notably, political philosophy, and Machiavelli addressed many different attributes of politics, war-time strategies and the implementation … Read more

The Main Idea in “Of Revenge”

In his essay “Of Revenge”, Francis Bacon delves into the topic of revenge, approaching it with objectivity. He acknowledges the pervasive tendency that is revenge, likening it to a which is and yet it must be given legal retribution. A firm believer of the law, Bacon mostly criticizes revenge, and argues that it is more … Read more

Inclusive Connection between Poetics and Oedipus the King

Aristotle’s passage Poetics (350 BC) was written the century after the composition of Sophocles Oedipus the King (428 BC). Despite their chronological separation, the two texts relate in incisive ways. In particular, Aristotle used Oedipus as the foundation for his explanation theory. For Aristotle, a tragedy must have certain characteristics that Oedipus the King contains … Read more

The Virtue of High-Mindedness

Aristotle’s definition of the virtue of high-mindedness in Nichomachean Ethics, and of what constitutes the excess and deficiency of this virtue, poses a problem when applied to Socrates’ in Plato’s Apology. On one hand, Socrates is high-minded when he accepts his death sentence, despite believing that he is serving an important function in Athens, and … Read more

Plato’s biography

Plato whose original name was Aristocles was born into one of the most known aristocratic families of Athens. His father name was Ariston and his mother’s name was Perictione. His aristocrat family and the historic period created lots of impacts for Plato’s point of view on life. He also born in the illustrious city and … Read more

Carl Jung’s Theory of Collective Unconscious

Carl Jung’s writing on dreams is not interested in thelegendarymagic that many associate with the significance of human dreams. Jung is concerned neither with the spiritual mysteries nor the religious aspects that some have linked to our unconscious minds; the writings are rather an exploration of Carl Jung’s theory of the collective unconscious. When I … Read more

The Life of the Founder of Pythagorean Brotherhood

Pythagorean Brotherhood Pythagoras of Samos is the founder of a religion called Pyhagoreanism where he developed the Pythagorean brotherhood (Pythagoras). It is known that Pythagoras made traveled a lot during his life, but he eventually settled down in Croton, Italy (Pythagoras). Throughout his life Pythagoras made discoveries in many fields, including math and medicine. The … Read more

Comparing Martin Heidegger And Soren Kierkegaard’s Philosophies

Introduction Individuality refers tothe existential philosophy and ideology that views and emphasizes the moral worth of the individual by promoting the importance of an individual’s goals and desires. Individuality (also sometimes called ‘Individualism’) valuesone’s independence and self-reliance. It advocates that the interests of an individual should come before those of the state or one’s social … Read more

A Review of Immanuel Kant’s Philosophy on Lying

Lying in engrained into the world’s culture. It has become almost a fundamental in every society and is present nearly everywhere worldwide. But, paradoxically, it is condemned as well. Every major religion, legal statute, and even communal norm advises against telling falsehoods. Philosophers as far back as Immanuel Kant pontificated upon the ideology of lying; … Read more

Is Utopia Possible? Analyzing Plato’s Republic

With the goal of creating the perfect society, the utopia of Plato’s Republic rather presents a dystopia that enforces the marginalization of the individual. Plato believes a strict regulation that constricts independence and individuality makes it possible for citizens to live simple and peaceful lives. Because Plato views freedom as a threat of gaining unnecessary … Read more

Aristotle’s Critique of Plato’s Republic

In book two of Aristotle’s Politics, Aristotle defines his ideal state by criticizing the values put forward in Plato’s The Republic. In doing so, Aristotle censures Plato’s idea of state unification through sharing as much as possible, including wives, children, and property. Aristotle counters that Plato’s concept is detrimental to the state’s unity because it … Read more

The Separation of Mind and Body

Since the publication of The Discourse on the Method, Renes Descartes appears to have become the poster boy for the position of mind/body dualism. Throughout the Discourse and his later works, Descartes postulates several arguments for the absolute distinction and, thus, separateness of the mind and the body. The position is not simply that the … Read more

A Discussion of Power and Discipline in the Essay of Panopticism, Michel Foucault

In his essay Panopticism, Michel Foucault discusses power and discipline, the manipulation there of, and their effect on society over time. He also discusses Jeremy Benthams Panopticon and other disciplinary models. However, after reading Panopticism, the question that baffles everyone is: What is panopticism anyway? One exceptional disciplinary model is the measures taken by a … Read more

Analysis of Albert Camus’ Writing Style

Most of Albert Camus’ writings focus on the philosophy of the Absurd. His main character in the novel, The Stranger exemplifies what an absurd man is and his essay The Myth of Sisyphus takes readers through his reasoning for his belief and the conclusion that he reaches. Camus’ philosophy of life in his opinion is … Read more

The Republic: Plato’s Unspoken Defense of Socrates

Plato’s Republic utilizes a political approach to answer what is essentially a moral question. In attempting to identify justice in the individual, Socrates takes an unmistakable turn toward the direction of political philosophy, describing the formation of his ideal city Kallipolis. It can hardly be disputed that the ideal state described by Socrates in Plato’s … Read more

Civil Disobedience in the Arguments of Henry David Thoreau, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Socrates

Selfish Disobedience? Civil disobedience can be defined in a number of different ways: in its most raw form, “civil disobedience is the refusal to comply with certain laws or to pay taxes and fines, as a peaceful form of political protest because of moral objections to said laws”. While Henry David Thoreau was the first … Read more

How Political Ideas In Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince Relate The Modern Politics

Modern Political Ideas in Machiavelli’s The Prince Machiavelli’s The Prince presents many political ideas that are still relevant in modern politics. He argues on topics such as whether it’s better to be loved or feared, whether to be generous or stingy, and how virture can be manipulated. Machiavelli references well known figures of literature and … Read more

Analysis of Plato’s City-Soul Analogy

Analysis of Plato’s The Republic, City-Soul Analogy In an elaborate effort to comprehend individual justice, Socrates engages in a lengthy debate which explores intricate details, structures, and overarching principles of a just city.  This analysis will explore the City-Soul analogy through three separate human lenses.  Section 1 will delve into the secondhand accounting of Socrates’ … Read more