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What Is Prescription Drug Misuse?

From Nationally Known Pop Stars like Michael Jackson to Prince and among several others, prescription drug misuse has become a wide spread occurrence in the United States. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration states, “Prescription Drug Misuse is defined as intentional or unintentional use of medication without prescription in a way other than prescribed, or the experience or feeling it causes”. (The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration, 2015).

Whether is intentional due to a medical condition or for other reasons prescription drug misuse can lead to addiction, and abuse of the drug(s). In the Article readings listed, I chose to read and review the topic of Prescription Drug Abuse. I will attempt to discuss and summarize these article Studies conducted. In the first article titled “Ethnic /Racial Differences in Peer and Parent Influence on Adolescents Prescription Drug Misuse. ” This article discussed the influence of Parental or Peer approval or disapproval effects whether adolescents misuse prescription drugs.

The researchers used different racial/ethnic subgroups aging from 12-17. These subgroups consisted of African Americans, Hispanics, and White Americans, half of the group were males and the other half were females. The participants were tested to find out one, if Ethnic/Racial groups rates differ among the Nonmedical use of Prescription Drug (NMUPD) two, if the participants recognize peer and parental disapproval, and if it has an influence on whether the misuse the drugs. And three, to find out if the disapproval influence affects them, and what the differences in the ethnic groups are.

Each variable or drug use was measured and broke up on to three different analyses in this study. The first analyses was nonmedical pain reliever, tranquilizers stimulants and sedative use, family income, poverty level, age, gender, ethnicity, and nonmedical prescription drug use. The second, was age, and gender differences based on the peer or parental disapproval with substance misuse, the last analyses was based on Peer and Parental disapproval based on ethnic group differences. The independent variable in this study was drug use the dependent variable was the Peer and Parental influence on the drug misuse.

Results in this study show overall when parents have a greater amount of influence on the adolescents the less likely they are to misuse prescription drugs. This supports the generated hypothesis stated above. It was stated that there was useful information found in this study as well. It was reported that there was a significant difference in the ethnic group rates and the misuse. This too was supported by the generated hypothesis. The girls reported to more likely misuse prescription drugs, these results show gender and age difference in Peer and Parental disapproval.

In conclusion of this article new ethnic group information was found. The Parental and Peer disapproval of the drug affected whether or not the adolescent used or misused the drug. If parents are educated about these issues, then possible prevention and treatment plans could be used in efforts to prevent the misuse of prescription drugs. Parents holding a higher influences on the disapproval of the drug, could make for better decisions made by these adolescents. The Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment states that “Prescription Drug misuse has emerged as a significant problem among young adults. (Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 2014).

In the second article reading “Influences of Motivational contexts on prescription drug misuse and related drug problems” it focused on what positive or negative influences, or environments causes a person to misuse prescription drugs. A study was conducted on 400 young adults’ age ranging between 18-29 years old. More than half of the participants were single and more than half had 4 year college degrees. Each participant had to report misusing prescription drugs a least three times within a six month range, as well as reporting misuse of prescription drugs within three months.

Using a wide range of venues in a time space setting, such as the night life scene in NYC, the researchers wanted to find out if (a) what situations or circumstances determine how often and when they misuse the prescription drugs and (b) to examine whether negative, positive, and tempting situations lead to increases in the use of prescription pain killer, sedative, and stimulant misuse (c) if and what motivational contexts influences the frequent misuse of prescription drugs.

To collect data for the motivation contexts they used the Inventory of Drug Taking Situations (IDTS). The IDTS has eight subscales such as unpleasant emotions, Physical discomfort, conflict with others, social pressures to use, pleasant times with others, pleasant emotions, testing personal control, and urges and temptations. Before collecting data the researchers conducted field work over a 12 month time period. The Venues were used during night hours depending on hours of operation. Each Participant was screened approached, and then greeted.

They were given a description of the study, and asked for consent to participate in the anonymous survey. Surveys were conducted on IPOD touch devices. The researchers collected information such as race, sexual orientation, the highest level of education completed, current level of education if any, parent socio-economic status, whether or not they worked, if they were a student or unemployed, and Substance abuse. The independent variable was the Motivational Contexts was the and dependent variable Drug Misuse in this study.

Results for this study show that one-third of the participants were of ethnic background, the situation or place may not be as significant due to limitations on the age and the nightlife scene, and therefore this may not be supported by the generated hypothesis. They researchers found that tempting situations had no influence of the frequent misuse of ant prescription drug type positive tempting situations, which does not support the generated hypothesis as well.

Overall finding state that motivational contexts in negative situations influence prescription drug misuse, so this does support the generated hypothesis stated above. In conclusion acknowledging the negative situations as a key motivator that enhances the misuse of prescription drug use can be meaningful in recognizing and understanding of the triggers of misuse. Having an understanding of this can help to prevent abuse, misuse, and relapses with drug use in our young adults. We can use the both positive and negative cues to promote the uptake of harm reduction strategies.

In the article, it was stated that “Nonmedical prescription drug use-use without a prescription or use with prescription but in a manner other than how prescribed- is the fastest growing drug problem in the US. ” Office of National Drug. Control Policy. (2011). Epidemic: Responding to America’s Prescription Drug Abuse Crisis. “Nonmedical prescription drug use among US young adults by education attainment” is an article written about a study conducted on about 36, 781 participants from the ages 18-22 years old. This study was collected over a 12 month period (2009-2010).

Data was collected on the participants based on their educational achievement, if they were a current college student, high school graduate or obtained a GED, did not complete high school. They also had to state their age, gender, and where they reside. The purpose if this study was for the researchers to find out whether nonmedical prescription drug use and disorder (Opioid) vary due to education. Also to see if there is a risk in using nonmedical prescription drugs in age/gender and ethnic subgroups and education.

Results for this study show that participants who had a college degree had a higher prevalence of nonmedical use compared to those with no college degree, but at least a high school degree. And Participants with a degree had a high misuse of stimulants. The Education attainment interacted with gender and race. Females who completed high school but not in college scored a significantly greater risk of opioid disorder, than female college students, these result show support from the generated hypothesis because it shows the differences in the gender subgroups and education.

For both the male and females having less than a high school degree was associated with a greater risk of nonmedical use of prescription drugs, which makes this a true support of the generated hypothesis as well. There was an insignificant risk of the use of opioid across the education attainment, which means the more education the participant attained the less likely they are to misuse drugs. In conclusion with these results more you are educated the less likely you will partake in the misuse of prescription drugs.

Going beyond college campuses with prevention strategies or awareness can help in the prevalence of this wide spread issue. The independent variable The Drug Misuse is and the dependent variable was the Drug use and Education Attainment. In the summary of these three articles the base of the problem is the choices that are made. Whether or not the misuse is used for pleasure or a medical condition, the knowledge of what could happen has to be presented.

Education and understanding by providing early intervention to young adults and adolescents before college could help guide them for a better life outcome. At the end of each articles conclusions, it states that if there could be some education and prevention it could possibly help young adolescents/adults to make a better choices due to the parental or peer influence. Learning the techniques of the negative triggers that aid to making poor choices and finding positive ones to make better decisions and obtaining some type of higher education can lead to having a positive life.

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