Social Inquality Essay

As we prosper through time, inequality is slowly less evident. A lot of people don’t realize that although things are improving with time, inequality is still prominent in our society. The people that are failing to realize that there still is inequality, are the fortunate ones. They rise well above the poverty line, and usually live relatively economically sound lives. They are the people who are supplied with our society’s benefits. The people that are in pursuit of social change, and constantly bring attention to issues of equal rights and privileges, are often the people that do not have them.

They are the ones who suffer daily from different levels of inequality. The majority of post-secondary students are considered to be privileged people. This tends to cause an ignorance, or lack of education, towards inequality because most of the students do not experience great levels of inequality. When our class was given our first quiz, everybody was able to feel a sense of inequality. As the class was divided into the different time groups, every student felt the unequal opportunity.

Even the students that were allotted the most time for the quiz were able to at least see the inequality. As different times were announced the less fortunate students began to complain, and the more fortunate ones realized that their once equal peers, were now placed in an unequal situation. Since most of the students do not experience great amounts of inequality, the unequal time distribution shocked them. Fortunately for myself, I have grown up in an upper-middle class family. Although my parents have always tried to educate me on inequality, I never experienced much of it.

During a class exercise I was placed in a group, and was given six minutes to complete my quiz. Although this was almost enough time for me to complete my quiz, I was definitely jealous of the students that were allotted more time. Even though the groups were arranged randomly, I still felt like I was treated unequally to my peers. I felt unequal to both my peers that had more, and less time, than me. The situation made me angry, and I wanted an explanation from the instructor for the unequal situation that was forced upon me.

I felt the injustice because I had a different time to write my quiz than a neighboring peer; who pays the same tuition, and attends the same class as I do. I wanted to know why some of my peers were given more time than I was, thus enabling them to possibly score higher on the quiz. This quiz was the first mark of the course, and was I worried that my first grade was going to be a poor one. When the instructor explained the purpose of the exercise I realized what an excellent point he had proven. He forced us in an unequal situation that was out of our control.

It was nothing we could have predicted or done anything about. This unique exercise put me on a new level of stratification that I was not used to. It made me feel how other people, not only in my society, but worldwide, feel about inequality everyday. The difference was that I was soon given an explanation, and returned to my regular level of stratification. Many people in our society are given no explanation to their forced inequality. Although the classroom exercise does not compare to the real world, it still stirred feelings of rage, helplessness and discouragement.

Looking through the window of the unequal situation changed my views on lower groups of society. It made me realize how difficult social mobility can be. I can understand the Davis-Moore thesis, which states that stratification has beneficial consequences. It is easy for people on the higher end of the stratification hierarchy to agree with this because they believe that the harder one works, the more they will achieve, thus promoting production in society. Individuals at lower ends of the stratification system disagree with that.

Their social status prevents them from achieving their best because all of the benefits and advantages are given to those of a higher status. The lower class is constantly denied society’s privileges, such as education. This tends to discourage them, often leaving them feeling helpless. Unfortunately this helplessness tends to be viewed by many higher class people as laziness. What is not realized is that social stratification is a character of society, and not just a reflection on individual differences. Stratification is universal but variable.

It involves beliefs and persists over generations (Macionis 220). The lower class often questions the point of its effort into an unforgiving society when the outcome is inevitable. This all ties in with the numerous reasons that cause poverty and homelessness. This ultimately creates a never-ending class system of inequality that so many are trying to dismantle. Class systems are based on individual achievement, which strongly ties in the Davis-Moore Thesis. Unfortunately social mobility is not evenly achieved amongst the levels of stratification.

The higher the level of stratification the easier social mobility tends to be. In the example of the class exercise, the level or stratification can be compared to the time given in each group. The more time the person had, the better chance they had at scoring higher on the quiz. The people who had more time on the quiz can be compared to individuals at higher levels of stratification. Lower classes of stratification are not given the same opportunities as higher classes. Lower classes have ascribed statuses that are difficult to rise up from.

For example, if an individual is born into a family where the children are forced to work to support the family, these children may be deprived of the opportunity to prosper. They have the ascribed status of a worker, and have little, if any chance of achieving a more successful status in life. If the individual’s family suffers a great deal of inequality, and the individual wishes to pursue extended levels of education for greater career opportunities, because of their ascribed circumstances they may not have the opportunity.

Most people look down upon lower classes, failing to realize that inequality deprives those people of the equal rights to prosperity. This occurs not only in a few societies, but all around the world. According to the social conflict paradigm, society is a complex system characterized by inequality and conflict, which generate social change. Power and privilege are distributed unequally by social class, race, gender and age. These inequalities are often reinforced in societal institutions (Macionis 19).

My participation in the class exercise allowed me to have an experience of life through the eyes a lower class individual. Even though the real world is much more extreme than the class exercise, I was still able to understand society and its levels of inequality. After experiencing society from a different perspective, I realize that although society has changed from the days of extreme inequality, it still needs much attention to equalizing the privileges between the different levels of stratification.

Ovarian Cancer Essay

Of all gynecologic malignancies, ovarian cancer continues to have the highest mortality and is the most difficult to diagnose. In the United States female population, ovarian cancer ranks fifth in absolute mortality among cancer related deaths (13,000/yr). In most reported cases, ovarian cancer, when first diagnosed is in stages III or IV in about 60 to 70% of patients which further complicates treatment of the disease (Barber, 3). Early detection in ovarian cancer is hampered by the lack of appropriate tumor markers and clinically, most patients fail to develop significant symptoms until they reach advanced stage disease.

The characteristics of ovarian cancer have been studied in primary tumors and in established ovarian tumor cell lines which provide a reproducible source of tumor material. Among the major clinical problems of ovarian cancer, malignant progression, rapid emergence of drug resistance, and associated cross-resistance remain unresolved. Ovarian cancer has a high frequency of metastasis yet generally remains localized within the peritoneal cavity. Tumor development has been associated with aberrant, dysfunctional expression and/or mutation of various genes.

This can include oncogene overexpression, amplification or utation, aberrant tumor suppressor expression or mutation. Also, subversion of host antitumor immune responses may play a role in the pathogenesis of cancer (Sharp, 77). Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma was first described by Peham in 1899 as “hypernephroma of the ovary” because of its resemblance to renal cell carcinoma. By 1939, Schiller noted a histologic similarity to mesonephric tubules and classified these tumors as “mesonephromas.

In 1944, Saphir and Lackner described two cases of “hypernephroid carcinoma of the ovary” and proposed “clear cell” adenocarcinoma as an alternative term. Clear cell tumors of the ovary are now generally considered to be of mullerian and in the genital tract of mullerian origin. A number of examples of clear cell adenocarcinoma have been reported to arise from the epithelium of an endometriotic cyst (Yoonessi, 289). Occasionally, a renal cell carcinoma metastasizes to the ovary and may be confused with a primary clear cell adenocarcinoma.

Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) has been recognized as a distinct histologic entity in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of ovarian tumors since 1973 and is the most lethal ovarian neoplasm with an overall five year urvival of only 34% (Kennedy, 342). Clear cell adenocarcinoma, like most ovarian cancers, originates from the ovarian epithelium which is a single layer of cells found on the surface of the ovary. Patients with ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma are typically above the age of 30 with a median of 54 which is similar to that of ovarian epithelial cancer in general.

OCCA represents approximately 6% of ovarian cancers and bilateral ovarian involvement occurs in less that 50% of patients even in advanced cases. The association of OCCA and endometriosis is well documented (De La Cuesta, 243). This was confirmed by Kennedy et al who encountered histologic or intraoperative evidence of endometriosis in 45% of their study patients. Transformation from endometriosis to clear cell adenocarcinoma has been previously demonstrated in sporadic cases but was not observed by Kennedy et al. Hypercalcemia occurs in a significant percentage of patients with OCCA.

Patients with advanced disease are more typically affected than patients with nonmetastatic disease. Patients with OCCA are also more likely to have Stage I disease than are patients with ovarian epithelial cancer in general (Kennedy, 348). Histologic grade has been useful as an initial prognostic determinant in some studies of epithelial cancers of the ovary. The grading of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma has been problematic and is complicated by the multiplicity of histologic patterns found in the same tumor.

Similar problems have been found in attempted grading of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (Disaia, 176). Despite these problems, tumor grading has been attempted but has failed to demonstrate prognostic significance. However, collected data suggest that low mitotic activity and a predominance of clear ells may be favorable histologic features (Piver, 136). Risk factors for OCCA and ovarian cancer in general are much less clear than for other genital tumors with general agreement on two risk factors: nulliparity and family history.

There is a higher frequency of carcinoma in unmarried women and in married women with low parity. Gonadal dysgenesis in children is associated with a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer while oral contraceptives are associated with a decreased risk. Genetic and candidate host genes may be altered in susceptible families. Among hose currently under investigation is BRCA1 which has been associated with an increased susceptibility to breast cancer. Approximately 30% of ovarian adenocarcinomas express high levels of HER-2/neu oncogene which correlates with a poor prognosis (Altcheck, 375-376).

Mutations in host tumor suppresser gene p53 are found in 50% of ovarian carcinomas. There also appears to be a racial predilection, as the vast majority of cases are seen in Caucasians (Yoonessi, 295). Considerable variation exists in the gross appearance of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinomas and they are generally indistinguishable from other epithelial ovarian arcinomas. They could be cystic, solid, soft, or rubbery, and may also contain hemorrhagic and mucinous areas (O’Donnell, 250). Microscopically, clear cell carcinomas are characterized by the presence of variable proportions of clear and hobnail cells.

The former contain abundant clear cytoplasm with often centrally located nuclei, while the latter show clear or pink cytoplasm and bizarre basal nuclei with atypical cytoplasmic intraluminal projections. The cellular arrangement may be tubulo acinar, papillary, or solid, with the great majority displaying a mixture of these patterns. The obnail and clear cells predominate with tubular and solid forms, respectively (Barber, 214). Clear cell adenocarcinoma tissue fixed with alcohol shows a high cytoplasmic glycogen content which can be shown by means of special staining techniques.

Abundant extracellular and rare intracellular neutral mucin mixed with sulfate and carboxyl group is usually present. The clear cells are recognized histochemically and ultrastructurally (short and blunt microvilli, intercellular tight junctions and desmosomes, free ribosomes, and lamellar endoplasmic reticulum). The ultrastructure of hobnail and lear cells resemble those of the similar cells seen in clear cell carcinomas of the remainder of the female genital tract (O’Brien, 254).

A variation in patterns of histology is seen among these tumors and frequently within the same one. Whether both tubular components with hobnail cells and the solid part with clear cells are required to establish a diagnosis or the presence of just one of the patterns is sufficient has not been clearly established. Fortunately, most tumors exhibit a mixture of these components. Benign and borderline counterparts of clear cell ovarian adenocarcinomas are theoretical possibilities.

Yoonessi et al reported that nodal metastases could be found even when the disease appears to be grossly limited to the pelvis (Yoonessi, 296). Examination of retroperitoneal nodes is essential to allow for more factual staging and carefully planned adjuvant therapy. Surgery remains the backbone of treatment and generally consists of removal of the uterus, tubes and ovaries, possible partial omentectomy, and nodal biopsies. The effectiveness and value of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy has not been clearly demonstrated.

Therefore, in patients with unilateral encapsulated lesions and istologically proven uninvolvement of the contralateral ovary, omentum, and biopsied nodes, a case can be made for (a)no adjuvant therapy after complete surgical removal and (b) removal of only the diseased ovary in an occasional patient who may be young and desirous of preserving her reproductive capacity (Altchek, 97). In the more adv- anced stages, removal of the uterus, ovaries, omentum, and as much tumor as possible followed by pelvic radiotherapy (if residual disease is limited to the pelvis) or chemotherapy must be considered.

The chemotherapeutic regimens generally involve driamycin, alkylating agents, and cisPlatinum containing combinations (Barber, 442). OCCA is of epithelial origin and often contains mixtures of other epithelial tumors such as serous, mucinous, and endometrioid. Clear cell adenocarcinoma is characterized by large epithelial cells with abundant cytoplasm. Because these tumors sometimes occur in association with endometriosis or endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary and resemble clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium, they are now thought to be of mullerian duct origin and variants of endometrioid adenocarcinoma.

Clear cell tumors of he ovary can be predominantly solid or cystic. In the solid neoplasm, the clear cells are arranged in sheets or tubules. In the cystic form, the neoplastic cells line the spaces. Five-year survival is approximately 50% when these tumors are confined to the ovaries, but these tumors tend to be aggressive and spread beyond the ovary which tends to make 5-year survival highly unlikely (Altchek, 416). Some debate continues as to whether clear cell or mesonephroid carcinoma is a separate clinicopathological entity with its own distinctive biologic behavior and natural history or a histologic variant of endometrioid carcinoma.

In an effort to characterize clear cell adenocarcinoma, Jenison et al compared these tumors to the most common of the epithelial malignancies, the serous adenocarcinoma (SA). Histologically determined endometriosis was strikingly more common among patients with OCCA than with SA. Other observations by Jenison et al suggest that the biologic behavior of clear cell adenocarcinoma differs from that of SA. They found Stage I tumors in 50% of the observed patient population as well as a lower incidence of bilaterality in OCCA (Jenison, 67-69).

Additionally, it appears that OCCA is characteristically larger than SA, possibly explaining the greater frequency of symptoms and signs at presentation. Risk Factors There is controversy regarding talc use causing ovarian cancer. Until recently, most talc powders were contaminated with asbestos. Conceptually, talcum powder on the perineum could reach the ovaries by absorption through the cervix or vagina. Since talcum powders are no longer contaminated with asbestos, the risk is probably no longer important (Barber, 200).

The high fat content of whole milk, butter, and meat products has been implicated with an increased risk for ovarian cancer in general. The Centers for Disease Control compared 546 women with ovarian cancer to 4,228 controls and reported that for women 20 to 54 years of age, the use of oral contraceptives reduced the risk of ovarian cancer by 40% and the risk of ovarian cancer decreased as the duration of oral contraceptive use increased. Even the use of oral contraceptives for three months decreased the risk. The protective effect of oral contraceptives is to reduce the relative risk to 0. or to decrease the incidence of disease by 40%.

There is a decreased risk as high as 40% for women who have had four or more children as compared to nulliparous women. There is an increase in the incidence of ovarian cancer among nulliparous women and a decrease with increasing parity. The “incessant ovulation theory” proposes that continuous ovulation causes repeated trauma to the ovary leading to the development of ovarian cancer. Incidentally, having two or more abortions compared to never having had an abortion decreases one’s risk of developing ovarian cancer by 30% (Coppleson, 25-28).

Etiology It is commonly accepted that cancer results from a series of genetic alterations that disrupt normal cellular growth and differentiation. It has been proposed that genetic hanges causing cancer occur in two categories of normal cellular genes, proto- oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Genetic changes in proto-oncogenes facilitate the transformation of a normal cell to a malignant cell by production of an altered or overexpressed gene product. Such genetic changes include mutation, translocation, or amplification of proto-oncogenes Tumor suppressor genes are proposed to prevent cancer.

Inactivation or loss of these genes contributes to development of cancer by the lack of a functional gene product. This may require mutations in both alleles of a tumor uppressor gene. These genes function as regulatory inhibitors of cell proliferation, such as a DNA transcription factor, or a cell adhesion molecule. Loss of these functions could result in abnormal cell division or gene expression, or increased ability of cells in tissues to detach. Cancer such as OCCA most likely results from the dynamic interaction of several genetically altered proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (Piver, 64- 67).

Until recently, there was little evidence that the origin of ovarian was genetic. Before 1970, familial ovarian cancer had been reported in only five families. A familial cancer registry was established at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in 1981 to document the number of cases occurring in the United States and to study the mode of inheritance. If a genetic autosomal dominant transmission of the disease can be established, counseling for prophylactic oophorectomy at an appropriate age may lead to a decrease in the death rate from ovarian cancer in such families.

The registry at Roswell Park reported 201 cases of ovarian cancer in 94 families in 1984. From 1981 through 1991, 820 families and 2946 cases had been observed. Familial ovarian cancer is not a rare occurrence and may account for 2 to 5% of all cases of ovarian cancer. Three conditions that are associated with familial ovarian cancer are (1) site specific, the most common form, which is restricted to ovarian cancer, and (2) breast/ovarian cancer with clustering of ovarian and breast cases in extended pedigrees (Altchek, 229-230).

One characteristic of inherited ovarian cancer is that it occurs at a significantly younger age than the non-inherited form. Cytogenetic investigations of sporadic (non-inherited) ovarian tumors have revealed frequent alterations of chromosomes 1,3,6, and 11. Many proto-oncogenes have been mapped to these chromosomes, and deletions of segments of chromosomes (particularly 3p and 6q) in some tumors is consistent with a role for loss of tumor suppressor genes. Recently, a genetic linkage study of familial breast/ovary cancer suggested linkage of disease susceptibility with the RH blood group locus on chromosome 1p.

Allele loss involving chromosomes 3p and 6q as well as chromosomes 11p, 13q, and 17 have been frequently observed in ovarian cancers. Besides allele loss, point mutations have been identified in the tumor suppressor gene p53 located on chromosome17p13. Deletions of chromosome 17q have been reported in sporadic ovarian tumors suggesting a general involvement of this region in ovarian tumor biology. Allelic loss of MYB and ESR genes map on chromosome 6q near the provisional locus for FUCA2, the locus for a-L-fucosidase in serum. Low activity of a-L-fucosidase in serum is more prevalent in ovarian cancer patients.

This suggests that deficiency of a-L-fucosidase activity in serum may be a hereditary condition associated with increased risk for developing ovarian cancer. This together with cytogenetic data of losses of 6q and the allelic losses at 6q oint to the potential importance of chromosome 6q in hereditary ovarian cancer (Altchek, 208-212). Activation of normal proto-oncogenes by either mutation, translocation, or gene amplification to produce altered or overexpressed products is believed to play an important role in the development of ovarian tumors.

Activation of several proto- oncogenes (particularly K-RAS, H-RAS, c-MYC, and HER-2/neu) occurs in ovarian tumors. However, the significance remains to be determined. It is controversial as to whether overexpression of the HER-2/neu gene in ovarian cancer is associated with poor prognosis. In addition to studying proto-oncogenes in tumors, it may be beneficial to investigate proto-oncogenes in germ-line DNA from members of families with histories of ovarian cancer (Barber, 323-324). It is questionable whether inheritance or rare alleles of the H-RAS proto-oncogene may be linked to susceptibility to ovarian cancers.

Diagnosis and Treatment The early diagnosis of ovarian cancer is a matter of chance and not a triumph of scientific approach. In most cases, the finding of a pelvic mass is the only available method of diagnosis, with the exception of functioning tumors which may manifest ndocrine even with minimal ovarian enlargement. Symptomatology includes vague abdominal discomfort, dyspepsia, increased flatulence, sense of bloating, particularly after ingesting food, mild digestive disturbances, and pelvic unrest which may be present for several months before diagnosis (Sharp, 161-163).

There are a great number of imaging techniques that are available. Ultrasounds, particularly vaginal ultrasound, has increased the rate of pick-up of early lesions, particularly when the color Doppler method is used. Unfortunately, vaginal sonography and CA 125 have had an increasing number of false positive examinations. Pelvic findings are often minimal and not helpful in making a diagnosis. However, combined with a high index of suspicion, this may alert the physician to the diagnosis.

These pelvic signs include: Mass in the ovarian area Relative immobility due to fixation of adhesions Irregularity of the tumor Shotty consistency with increased firmness Tumors in the cul-de-sac described as a handful of knuckles Relative insensitivity of the mass Increasing size under observation Bilaterality (70% for ovarian carcinoma versus 5% for benign cases) (Barber, 136) Tumor markers have been particularly useful in monitoring treatment, however, the arkers have and will probably always have a disadvantage in identifying an early tumor.

To date, only two, human gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha fetoprotein, are known to be sensitive and specific. The problem with tumor markers as a means of making a diagnosis is that a tumor marker is developed from a certain volume of tumor. By that time it is no longer an early but rather a biologically late tumor (Altchek, 292). Many reports have described murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) as potential tools for diagnosing malignant ovarian tumors. Yamada et al attempted to develop a MAb hat can differentiate cells with early malignant change from adjacent benign tumor cells in cases of borderline malignancy.

They developed MAb 12C3 by immunizing mice with a cell line derived from a human ovarian tumor. The antibody reacted with human ovarian carcinomas rather than with germ cell tumors. MAb 12C3 stained 67. 7% of ovarian epithelial malignancies, but exhibited an extremely low reactivity with other malignancies. MAb 12C3 detected a novel antigen whose distribution in normal tissue is restricted. According to Yamada et al, MAb 12C3 will serve as a powerful new tool for he histologic detection of early malignant changes in borderline epithelial neoplasms.

MAb 12C3 may also be useful as a targeting agent for cancer chemotherapy (Yamada, 293-294). Currently there are several serum markers that are available to help make a diagnosis. These include CA 125, CEA, DNB/70K, LASA-P, and serum inhibin. Recently the urinary gonadotropin peptide (UCP) and the collagen-stimulating factor have been added. Although the tumor markers have a low specificity and sensitivity, they are often used in screening for ovarian cancer. A new tumor marker CA125-2 has greater specificity than CA125.

In general, tumor markers have a very limited role in screening for ovarian cancer. The common epithelial cancer of the ovary is unique in killing the patient while being, in the vast majority of the cases, enclosed in the anatomical area where it initially developed: the peritoneal cavity. Even with early localized cancer, lymph node metastases are not rare in the pelvic or aortic areas. In most of the cases, death is due to intraperitoneal proliferation, ascites, protein loss and cachexia. The concept of debulking or cytoreductive surgery is currently the dominant concept in treatment.

The first goal in debulking surgery is inhibition of debulking surgery is inhibition of the vicious cycle of malnutrition, nausea, vomiting, and dyspepsia commonly found in patients with mid to advanced stage disease. Cytoreductive surgery enhances the efficiency of chemotherapy as the survival curve of the patients whose largest residual mass size was, after surgery, below the 1. 5 cm limit is the same as the curve of the patients whose largest metastatic lesions were below the 1. 5 cm limit at the outset (Altchek, 422-424).

The aggressiveness of the debulking surgery is a key question surgeons must face hen treating ovarian cancers. The debulking of very large metastatic masses makes no sense from the oncologic perspective. As for extrapelvic masses the debulking, even if more acceptable, remains full of danger and exposes the patient to a heavy handicap. For these reasons the extra-genital resections have to be limited to lymphadenectomy, omentectomy, pelvic abdominal peritoneal resections and rectosigmoid junction resection.

That means that stages IIB and IIC and stages IIIA and IIB are the only true indications for extrapelvic cytoreductive surgery. Colectomy, ileectomy, splenectomy, egmental hepatectomy are only exceptionally indicated if they allow one to perform a real optimal resection. The standard cytoreductive surgery is the total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy. This surgery may be done with aortic and pelvic lymph node sampling, omentectomy, and, if necessary, resection of the rectosigmoidal junction (Barber. 182-183).

The concept of administering drugs directly into the peritoneal cavity as therapy of ovarian cancer was attempted more than three decades ago. However, it has only been within the last ten years that a firm basis for this method of drug delivery has become stablished. The essential goal is to expose the tumor to higher concentrations of drug for longer periods of time than is possible with systemic drug delivery. Several agents have been examined for their efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetic advantage when administered via the peritoneal route.

Cisplatin has undergone the most extensive evaluation for regional delivery. Cisplatin reaches the systemic compartment in significant concentrations when it is administered intraperitoneally. The dose limiting toxicity of intraperitoneally administered cisplatin is nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and emesis. The depth of penetration of cisplatin into the peritoneal lining and tumor following regional delivery is only 1 to 2 mm from the surface which limits its efficacy. Thus, the only patients with ovarian cancer who would likely benefit would be those with very small residual tumor volumes.

Overall, approximately 30 to 40% of patients with small volume residual ovarian cancer have been shown to demonstrate an objective clinical response to cisplatin-based locally administered therapy with 20 to 30% of patients achieving a surgically documented complete response. As a general rule, patients whose tumors have demonstrated an nherent resistance to cisplatin following systemic therapy are not considered for treatment with platinum-based intraperitoneal therapy (Altchek, 444-446).

In patients with small volume residual disease at the time of second look laparotomy, who have demonstrated inherent resistance to platinum-based regimens, alternative intraperitoneal treatment programs can be considered. Other agents include mitoxantrone, and recombinant alpha-interpheron. Intraperitoneal mitoxanthone has been shown to have definite activity in small volume residual platinum-refractory ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, the dose limiting toxicity of the agent is abdominal pain and adhesion formation, possibly leading to bowel obstruction.

Recent data suggests the local toxicity of mitoxanthone can be decreased considerably by delivering the agent in microdoses. Ovarian tumors may have either intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. Many mechanisms of drug resistance have been described. Expression of the MDR1 gene that encodes the drug efflux protein known as p-glycoprotein, has been shown to confer the characteristic multi-drug resistance to clones of some cancers. The most widely onsidered definition of platinum response is response to first-line platinum treatment and disease free interval. Primary platinum resistance may be defined as any progression on treatment.

Secondary platinum resistance is the absence of progression on primary platinum-based therapy but progression at the time of platinum retreatment for relapse (Sharp, 205-207). Second-line chemotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer is dependent on preferences of both the patient and physician. Retreatment with platinum therapy appears to offer significant opportunity for clinical response and palliation but relatively little hope for long-term cure. Paclitaxel (trade name: Taxol), a prototype of the taxanes, is cytotoxic to ovarian cancer. Approximately 20% of platinum failures respond to standard doses of paclitaxel.

Studies are in progress of dose intensification and intraperitoneal administration (Barber, 227-228). This class of drugs is now thought to represent an active addition to the platinum analogs, either as primary therapy, in combination with platinum, or as salvage therapy after failure of platinum. In advanced stages, there is suggestive evidence of partial responsiveness of OCCA to radiation as well as cchemotherapy, adriamycin, cytoxan, and cisPlatinum-containing ombinations (Yoonessi, 295). Radiation techniques include intraperitoneal radioactive gold or chromium phosphate and external beam therapy to the abdomen and pelvis.

The role of radiation therapy in treatment of ovarian canver has diminished in prominence as the spread pattern of ovarian cancer and the normal tissue bed involved in the treatment of this neoplasm make effective radiation therapy difficult. When the residual disease after laparotomy is bulky, radiation therapy is particularly ineffective. If postoperative radiation is prescribed for a patient, it is important that theentire abdomen and pelvis are ptimally treated to elicit a response from the tumor (Sharp, 278-280).

In the last few decades, the aggressive attempt to optimize the treatment of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma and ovarian cancer in general has seen remarkable improvements in the response rates of patients with advanced stage cancer without dramatically improving long-term survival. The promises of new drugs with activity when platinum agents fail is encouraging and fosters hope that, in the decades to come, the endeavors of surgical and pharmacoogical research will make ovarian cancer an easily treatable disease.

Poverty – Canada and the third world

Poverty is an issue which society faces each day. It is a constant struggle that cannot be ignored. Defeating poverty would take great efforts and contributions from all. Canada and the third world are examples of countries which are experiencing poverty, yet each differ in different ways. Once seeing the multitudes of condominiums, expensive restaurants, and streets jammed with cars, one would never see Canada as a place suffering from hunger, lack of food or clothing. Yet poverty exists. Poverty in Canada cannot be compared to that of a 3rd world country, since many of the poor have access to transportation and television.

What people lack is ability to see the inadequate nutrition overcrowded housing and chronic unemployment. A visitor to Canada from Africa or Asia, if told if told that there is a widespread poverty in this country, might find the statement hard to credit. (Schlesinger 89) In most places, the poor are thought to be isolated, away from shopping zones as well as residential areas. They are seen as a crowded cluster, living in shantytowns drinking a bottle of whisky, uselessly lying there in search for a job, or some method of employment.

This is just one of the stereotypes given to the poor person, we must first define poverty. Individuals and families whose financial resources and/or other resources (including educational and occupational skills, the condition of the environment at home and at work, and material possessions) fall seriously below those commanded by the average person or family in society, are in poverty. (Schlesinger 105) The poverty line, is a method used by the government to determine the number of poor people living in a certain area. It is based on an individuals income.

Anyone below the annual level of income is classified as being poor. Who Are Our Poor? The Special Senate Committee on Poverty, using a poverty line, calculated that approximately five million Canadians live in poverty (NCW 10) Studies show various groups in society tend to be poorer in comparison to others. Over 1 million Canadians who work are poor. The working poor are usually employed in service sales, farming, fishing and clerical jobs characterized by low pay, limited opportunities for advancement, and instability. It is said 1 person in every eight who lives alone is member of the working poor.

NCW 6) The second highest group is individuals that live in poverty are the elderly. 500 000 elderly people in Canada are poor. Many of them, live on fixed amounts from pension. They rely on transfer payments from the government as their main source of income. Old Age Security, Guaranteed Income Supplements and Spouse Allowances are the basic public pensions for elderly persons, but they still find themselves 15% below they poverty line. The third group of poor people living in poverty is the unemployed. There are approximately 480 000 unemployed people in Canada.

Unemployment insurance provides benefits for those who have been employed and contributed and then lost their jobs; it cannot help the disabled elderly or those tied down by parental responsibilities that are not part of the labor force. Disabled persons make up the next largest category of poor people. There are 460 000 disabled people presently living in poverty. It is very difficult for a disabled person to find work since they are constantly prone to discrimination. Conditions will not change until the attitudes of others change. Single-parent families are the next in line to face the struggles set down by poverty.

Over 150 000 single parent families are poor. About on in every four marriages end in divorce. (Schlesinger 56) These parents cannot afford the expenses for daycare facilities as well as lunchtime and after school supervision for their child therefore, and required staying home. They can receive up to $500 a month in Family Benefits and Baby Bonus. Finally, the last category or group, which live in poverty, is the Canadian Indians. 105 000 Canadian Indians are unemployed. Their housing units are overcrowded and , have no running water.

Available social services do not develop Indian people either individually or as a whole. Why are some Canadians Poor? After acknowledging which Canadians are poor, we ask ourselves why them? There basically 5 broad categories which each can be placed in. 1) Those who are not able to work because they are too old, too young, disabled, or tied down by social responsibility. 2) Those who are able and qualified to work but can not find it. 3) Those who are not equipped to fill available job either because they are undereducated. (Immigrants have language barriers)

Or, because theyre old skills have become outdated. Those social and personal problems have brought them to a point of self-defeating discouragement. 5) Those who are underemployed, underpaid, or unable to get a fair price for what they have to sell. (Ex. Farmers) What is being done? There are many social programs available to help the poor. However, there are always some conditions of eligibility. Others depend on the individual s income, the household income and participated on the labor market. Poverty in Third World Countries In 1994 more than one billion people live in absolute poverty. This means they cannot afford essential nutrition, clothing, and shelter.

India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Africa are most known for their third world one can state and acknowledge that there is little hope for change. It has reached the state where citizens have given up on trying. Yet are they the ones to blame? For every time they have tried to improve their standards of living, they have only experienced failure. Poverty in third world countries does not occur overnight. There are many signs that reveal if a county is underdeveloped. The most popular symptoms, which may also be in the most evident, are hunger and malnutrition.

In most low income nations food supplies are at or below the minimum required to feed the population. (Aubert 70) In poor countries distribution of food is not equal. The wealthier citizens are able to receive twice as much food as compared to those of the lower class. Diphtheria, Leprosy, Yellow fever and Kwashiorkor are examples of childrens diseases due to the lack of nutrition (protein). Fighting these types of diseases has become a problem among the people of poverty. A great deal of deaths has occurred because of these overpowering diseases, which is one explanation of povertys overpopulation rate.

The men and women of poverty believe that one way to fight poverty is by having children. Their theory behind this statement is that by having more children they all will be able too work, either on farms or in the city. It is these children who represent the labour an income the poor need to survive especially in old age. (Bender 121) People in wealthier countries usually think that people are poor because of bearing too many children. Surprisingly enough it is the opposite way: people have many children because they are poor. Another sign, which is just as important as over population, is unfair land and food distribution.

Developing countries (known as third world) such as Indonesia and Peru depend on their land for farming which will bring employment to the city. The problem though is that rent costs are too high and the wages are low. This results in most of the pay going towards the land, therefore leaving no money to be sent for the family to buy food. The cost of food imported to developing countries is controlled by multinational companies (Aubert 94) People who work for low pay may not always be able to afford food at whatever price it maybe.

It is these people who eventually end up developing a disease from malnutrition or starvation and eventually die. Even though food is bought into the country, it is not distributed evenly among the population. Some may be receiving twice as much calorie intakes than needed as compared to those who dont receive any at all. Which goes to show that if one is able to pay then they are able to eat, if not they go hungry. Low income salaries also results in no education for the children and harmful living condition such as bad situation and poor shelter. What is being done?

In order for those problems to be resolved programs must be created to promote development in countries such as Africa, and parts of Asia. Overpopulation must be controlled and resource development should be focused on. Programs such as World vision Canada, Green Peace, UNICEF, and Oxfam have already begun to help these countries in need. Since the government has been force to decrease their spending on health and education these non-government organisations had decided to take it upon them selves to help out the poor. (Bender 82) A popular way in which their organisations are able to receive the money to help out is through the public.

By sponsoring children in developing countries, the monthly donation will be used towards immunising children, providing loans for communities to begin income projects, teaching literacy, providing the children with an education and educating women on basic health, nutrition and family planning. Family planning is one effective way of helping development in third world countries. (Bender 97) If there are fewer births, the government will not have to supply as many schools, hospitals, or other institution needed for raising a child. Parents can better feed clothes and care for fewer children they have.

Although some countries are the processes of these programs they are still dependent on foreign aid. The only problem, with foreign aid is that most of the time the food is never directly given to those in need of it. For example, in Somalia 80 percent of the food ended up in the hands of the military officers and government officials. (Aubert 119) This able to explain why there are still so many people going hungry? Yet for those who are lucky enough to receive it, it does improve their standard of living and gives hope to do well in the future. In order for future development of third world countries one most consider new technologies.

Technology has always been directed to the North since progress is always noticed. (Bender 22) These nations have preferred to ignore countries such as Africa since their modern skills may be more successful elsewhere. If technologies were to be created in third world countries which the North already has for some years of these utilities one already may notice that it wont be cheap. Thousands of dollars must be spent. Once again the same problem exists: there is not enough money to provide all of these commodities which may help the development of the third world nations.

Barn Burning: Sarty’s Transformation Into Adulthood

In William Faulkner’s story, “Barn Burning”, we find a young man who struggles with the relationship he has with his father. We see Sarty, the young man, develop into an adult while dealing with the many crude actions and ways of Abner, his father. We see Sarty as a puzzled youth who faces the questions of faithfulness to his father or faithfulness to himself and the society he lives in. His struggle dealing with the reactions which are caused by his father’s acts result in him thinking more for himself as the story progresses. Faulkner ses many instances to display the developing of Sarty’s conscience as the theme of the story “Barn Burning.

Three instances in which we can see the developing of a conscience in the story are the ways that Sarty compliments and admires his father, the language he uses when describing his father, and the way he obeys his father throughout the story. The first instance in which we can see a transition from childhood to adulthood in Sarty’s life is in the way he compliments his father. Sarty admires his father very much and wishes that things could change for the better throughout the story.

At the beginning of the story he speaks of how his fathers “… wolflike independence… 145) causes his family to depend on almost no one. He believes that they live on their own because of his fathers drive for survival. When Sarty mentions the way his father commands his sisters to clean a rug with force “… though never raising his voice… “(148), it shows how he sees his father as strict, but not overly demanding. He seems to begin to feel dissent towards his father for the way he exercises his authority in the household. As we near the end of the story, Sarty’s compliments become sparse nd have a different tone surrounding them.

After running from the burning barn, he spoke of his dad in an almost heroic sense. He wanted everyone to remember his dad as a brave man, “He was in the war. “(154) and should be known for it, not burning barns. He seems to care about, but not condone his father and his actions. Another instance where we see a transition is in the language he uses when describing his father. At the beginning of the story he spoke as a child watching and looking at the things around him. He said that an enemy of his fathers was “… ur enemy… “(147) and spoke with the loyalty of a lamb, never knowing that it could stray from the flock.

Near the middle of the story, we can see the tone of his speech change. Sarty shows change when he asks his father if he “… want[s] to ride now? “(149) when they are leaving deSpain’s house. He seems to have the courage to ask his dad certain things, not fearing the consequences. At the end of the story, the language Sarty uses becomes clearer and more independent. As he runs from the deSpain’s house, like a child, he cries for Abner saying, “Pap! Pap! (154), but when he stops and recalls the event, he says, like an adult, “Father! Father! “(154).

He shows his development through these examples of his speech. The last instance where he shows us that he is developing a conscience is in the way he obeys his father. Sarty seems to do anything his father says at the begging of the story. When Sarty is called to stand at his fathers trial, he says that his father “… aims for me to lie and I will have to do hit. “(144). He is totally loyal at the beginning of the story, but as the tale progresses, we see his obedience weaken. After the cleaning of the rug, we see Sarty’s father ask if he has “… put the cutter [horse] back in the strait stock… 150) and we find that Sarty disobeys his father for the first time when he says “No sir. “(150).

He begins to have a say in things in a slight way. But near the end of the story, his mind totally decides for itself when he was told to stay at home. He told his mother to “Lemme go. “(153). He seems willing to go to any length to disobey his father for the purpose of serving justice now. After reading about Faulkner’s transitional phases of the compliments, peech, and loyalty of Sarty, we can see the change from childhood to adulthood or from a person of innocence into a person with a conscience in Sarty.

Faulkner gradually develops Sarty into a man of his own deeds throughout the story. Sarty has to finally realize that blood is not always thicker than water. Faulkner’s story symbolizes the way in which society works today. If one individual is doing wrong, you must overlook the relationship you have with him and look at the wrong deeds he is doing. If you happen to face your fears and set strait the wrong, in the end, the good will always prevail.

Life Cycles of as Depicted in My Antonia

In the past, critics have ad moralized and/or brutalized every writer they could get their pen on. This is seen from criticisms of Henry Adams to William Butler Yeats. These writers critique everything about the writer and his/her works. For instance, many critics criticize Willa Cather’s novel, My Antonia. Their criticisms lie on the basis that My Antonia is based on cyclical themes with no structure holding each of the My Antonia’s books.

In other words, as a collection of five different accounts remembered by the main character, Jim Burden, My Antonia is characterized by a loose plot structure yet the existence of common themes is expressed in a cyclical nature. According to James E. Miller, Jr. ‘s ” My Antonia; A Frontier Drama of Time,” Willa Cather’s novel, My Antonia, is “defective in structure. ” (Bloom 51) Its structure is basically based on the narrators’, which is Cather herself, point of view about when the main character, Jim Burden, remembers specific moments in an abstract pattern in his life about his Antonia.

This is so because the collection of books that make up the novel, My Antonia, is about Willa Cather; the narrator’s idea of what and to what point Jim Burden remembers. Miller also states that the novel “lacks focus and abounds in irrelevancies. ” (Wells 1) This is due to the fact that Cather didn’t provide and consistent character portrayal throughout her novel. Another critic, Kim Wells, asserts Miller’s opinion on the novel.

Because as he states the novel has many “variations from a theme. ” (Wells 1) For instance the section about the hired girls and also the part when Peter and Pavel, two lonesome Russian Settlers, tell Jim and Antonia a tragic tale that horrifies and fascinates the children. This tale was about when Peter and Pavel drove a sled with a bridal couple across dark, snowy Russian country and were attacked by hordes of ravenous wolves, where the wolves killed both the bride and the groom.

These examples are “divergences which weaken the overall structure of the novel. ” (Wells 1) Even though both critics say that the novel has a loose structure, they also state that the only thing that resembles any type of structure is the constant use of cyclical themes. For instance as Miller puts it, ” the cycle of the seasons of the year, the cycle of the stages of human life, and the cycle of the cultural phases of civilization. (Bloom 59)

In Miller’s essay he states that in The first book of My Antonia, The Shimerdas, introduces from the start the drama of time in the vivid accounts of the shifting seasons…portraying the terrible struggle for mere existence in the bleakness of the plains’ winter, dramatizing the return of life with the arrival of spring, and concluding with the promise of a rich harvest in the intense heat of the prairie’s summer. This is Jim Burden’s remembered year, and it is his obsession with the cycle of time that has caused him to recall Antonia in a setting of the changing seasons. ” (Miller 55)

Book one, “The Shimerda’s”, introduce the beginning of two cyclical themes. One of which is the cycle of the seasons of the year, which begins in the narrators’/Jims’ mind in the autumn when the Shimerdas move to Nebraska, the winter when Mr. Shimerda commits suicide, then spring followed the death of Mr. Shimerda, and finally summer in the cyclical theme of the seasons of the year which created another cyclical pattern within itself. This imbedded cyclical theme is on the stages of life is based on the fact that Antonia moves into adulthood while Jim stays as a child as stated by Kim Wells.

Wells 1) This happens because in the section the hired girls Antonia moves into the city from the farm where she used to live. The movement from a rural to an urban area made Antonia mature quicker so she would be able to survive in the city. While on the other hand Jim leaves the farm to go to college, in which inclosing walls unlike that of Antonia protects him. Then Antonia moves into adulthood with a marriage and birth while Jim is at college toiling on the prospect of adult love with Lena Lingred.

Finally, Jim moves into an odd marriage and then goes back to the farm with Antonia and her children. In the novel the reader encounters the impression that Jim is more closely alike to the children in maturity than that of the maturity of Antonia. “She was a battered woman now, not a lovely girl; but she still had that something which fires the imagination, could still stop one’s breath for a movement by a look or gesture that somehow revealed the meaning in common things. Cather 261)

In this we see Jim’s feeling of incompleteness while on the other hand Antonia is an adult with a worn body and a spirit which is there unlike that of Jim’s spirit which appears lost even though his body looks new. The theme that life is a cycle in My Antonia is also supported by Harold Bloom’s comment, “It is in the dramatization of Antonia from the girlhood of the opening pages through her physical flowering in the middle books to, finally, her reproduction of the race in a flock of fine boys in the final pages of the book that her life it represented…as a cycle in its stages of birth, growth, fruition and decline. Bloom 54-55)

In which he describes how Antonia went from girlhood in the beginning of the novel to her regression back into childhood. Even though the regression is usually seen in Jim Burden going “home to [him] self. ” (Cather 273) The fact that Jim is going back to Antonia is like going home to his childhood. It is at that moment that he realizes that Antonia’s and his love does not depend on physical proximity.

“The fittest place to talk to each other. Cather 239) Also in coming back to his psychological childhood he asks Antonia, ” ‘I’d have liked to have you for a sweetheart, or a wife, or my mother or my sister–anything that a woman can be to a man. ‘” (Cather 240) The end of the novel is also without a circle. The completion of the novel has a literal homecoming and completion of the circle. This circle is when Jim Burden goes back to the road with which the novel began, and ending as it began in the autumn of the year.

An even greater importance is Jim’s sense of returning to an awareness of the deep sources of his life, as symbolized in his childhood, in the land, and in Antonia. “The feelings of that night were so near that I could reach out and touch them with my hand. I had the sense of coming home to myself, and of having found out what a little circle man’s experience is. ” (Cather 273) Every writer has been criticized in the past. The future will hold the same thing for them, whether it is a brutalizing and/or admoralizing pen.

Willa Cather’s novel, My Antonia, is one of hundreds of thousands of novels, poems, and etc. of literary works, which are criticized. The critics that criticize the novel, My Antonia, all explain the fact that the novel has a very loose structure or none at all. With that in mind they also explain that the only literary technique, which was used in the novel, that holds the whole novel together is the constant cyclical themes. These themes are the cycle of the stages of human life, the cycle of the seasons of the year, and the cycle of the cultural phases of civilization.

In the Search for Liberty

Being a Cuban must be a terrible thing, not for the fact of being from Cuba but because of the type of government Cuba has, the government of Cuba is very extrict and sometimes very mean. Cuba is a beautiful country, but they do not have liberty there, Cubans can not leave the country, so some of the citizens do not have other resources that to join other thousands of Cubans that make rafts and go into the sea hoping to reach the coast of Florida for relieves and a new life.

The story Jumping off for Freedom written by Anilu Bernardo lets the reader knows how a Cuban family goes through just to get the liberty. The author easily expresses her outstanding style of writing by the plot, the conflicts and the setting.

To begin with, the book or the story is about a fifteen year old man name David Leal that with his family had not other choice but to make a raft and search for freedom, David, Miguel (David’s father) and Luis (helped making the raft) were the only ones supposed to get on the raft, but while aborting the raft ‘El Toro’ (Luis’ friend) with the help of Luis got on the raft as well, he was rude, he never had a smile of approbation, David and his dad had to keep up with his bad jokes, and bombastic comments, he also made inveigh comments to the Leals.

David and Miguel were disappointed because he was not supposed to be on the raft, since he did not have the prerogative to be on it and they only had food and water for three persons. They were also scared of the see because they were callow, they did not know much about rafts or the ocean, but they ameliorated later, they learned from their own experience.

The author easily express her great form of writing and also share it with the reader through the plot, the plot is the sequence of events in a literary work, in this case Jumping off for Freedom, Arilu Bernardor wrote the book in such way that it makes the reader like what he or she is reading and also makes it easy to follow. The exposition introduces the setting and the character, the reader notice this at the very beginning of the book, for example, when Elena, David’s girlfriend, told Rosa and Miguel, David’s parents that David has been arrested by the police, the reader has been introduced to three characters and one conflict as well.

The raising action will follow, this is when the central conflict is introduced, by chapter 5 you have been introduced to at least three conflicts, like when David was arrested, the second one was when Luis told ‘El Toro’ that they were going to leave the country and head to Florida and the third conflict will happen when they are in the raft because ‘El Toro’ was not suppose to leave with them and they did not get along that well, of course there were more that three conflicts but these are three of the most important.

The climax will follow the rising action, the climax is when the reader meet the highest point of interest, the climax of Jumping off for Freedom is when the four members of the raft are in the middle of the sea, they were kind of lost so their only resource was praying God. The reader will meet with the falling action when they finally saw land and of course this will tied the resolution, when they arrived safely to land and got a chance to talk with their families and assuage their feelings since they really missed their families, and their families were really worried about them, and that will be the end of the book.

Another good feature that Jumping off for Freedom contains are the conflicts, as the one already knows, conflict is the struggle between opposing forces, while reading this story the reader will find a lot of stories, basically the entire book is a conflict, without the conflicts this book would have been a boring book, the first conflict starts when David get arrested by the Cuban police because he let Pepe, a friend of David, used his back and apparently he killed a cow, in Cuba a cow is government property, and if someone destroy that property they are infringing the law.

Since they found the bike near by where the incident happened, they arrested David and this inspired David’s family to take off to Florida. Other conflicts will happen later in the raft, this is one of the features that made the book unique, ‘El Toro’ was always messing with the Leal family, he was always saying rude comments and jokes that were not so nice, he always kept saying that they were not going to make to Florida, but the Leal family had a lot of patience and kept up with him until they got to the United States’ coast.

Most of these conflicts were human Vs human, but that was not it they had to face with another obstacle, human Vs nature, while on the raft they were in dangers of sharks, the sun was also an obstacle. Since all of the members were sun burned, they felt jaded, but they made it through that obstacle. They also faced with storms and they almost lost their lives.

Finally the last characteristic that makes this book so unique is the setting; the setting is the time and place that scene of the story take place. In Jumping off for Freedom the author explains really well where the story takes place, for example the author says “The next morning David and his family after seeing the beautiful sun and the birds flying by through the window they decided to go to Luis’ house”, after the reader read this he or she will figure out that the day is shiny.

Also after David, Luis, Miguel, and ‘El Toro’ took off to Florida Anilu Bernardo, the author of Jumping off for Freedom, explains with detail the setting, that way the readers knows and feels what they four members of the raft goes through, for example while reading the book the reader knows that the weather in the sea is not a good help for the crew. Also while reading the last part you know the weather was favoring them and that help them to reach Florida.

In conclusion Jumping off for Freedom, is a very unique, interesting book to read, it takes the reader’s imagination through what a Cuban family lives through when they made the decision of leaving the country in search of liberty. The author, Anilu Bernardo, is a meritorious and very smart lady, Bernardo found a new life in South Florida in 1961, when her family escaped the Communists take over of their land, she now lives in Plantation with her husband and her daughters, Stephanie and Amanda.

Anilu Bernardo writes from the heart. Jumping off for Freedom is a moving, sensitive and informative novel, told with clarity and compassion. She also shows her intelligence and great style of writing through the plot, the conflicts and finally the setting. She knows what it feels because she went through what the Leal family went through, There are now thousands of Cubans who leave the country yearly just looking for freedom, some Cubans die in the ocean while sealing to South Florida.

Understand The Significance Of The Yellow Wallpaper

For the women in the twentieth century today, who have more freedom than before and have not experienced the depressive life that Gilman lived from 1860 to 1935, it is difficult to understand Gilmans situation and understand the significance of The Yellow Wallpaper. Gilmans original purpose of writing the story was to gain personal satisfaction if Dr. S. Weir Mitchell might change his treatment after reading the story. However, as Ann L. Jane suggests, The Yellow Wallpaper is the best crafted of her fiction: a genuine literary piecethe most directly, obviously, self-consciously autobiographical of all her stories (Introduction xvi).

And more importantly, Gilman says in her article in The Forerunner, It was not intended to drive people crazy, but to save people from being driven crazy, and it worked (20). Therefore, The Yellow Wallpaper is a revelation of Charlotte Perkins Gilmans own emotions. When the story first came out in 1892 the critics considered The Yellow Wallpaper as a portrayal of female insanity rather than a story that reveals an aspect of society. In The Transcript, a physician from Boston wrote, Such a story ought not to be writtenit was enough to drive anyone mad to read it (Gilman 19).

This statement implies that any oman that would write something to show opposition to the dominant social values must have been insane. In Gilmans time setting The ideal woman was not only assigned a social role that locked her into her home, but she was also expected to like it, to be cheerful and gay, smiling and good humored (Lane, To Herland 109). Those women who rejected this role and pursued intellectual enlightenment and freedom would be scoffed, alienated, and even punished. This is exactly what Gilman experienced when she tried to express her desire for independence.

Gilman expressed her emotional and psychological feelings of ejection from society for thinking freely in The Yellow Wallpaper, which is a reaction to the fact that it was against the grain of society for women to pursue intellectual freedom or a career in the late 1800s. Her taking Dr. S. Weir Mitchells rest cure was the result of the pressures of these prevalent social values. Charlotte Gilman was born on July 3, 1860, in Hartford, Connecticut in a family boasting a list of revolutionary thinkers, writers.

And intermarriages among them were, as Carol Berkin put it, in discrete confirmation of their pride in association (18). One fact that catches our ttention is that, either from the inbreeding, or from the high intellectual capacity of the family, there was a long sting of disorders ranging from manic-depressive illness to nervous breakdowns including suicide and short term hospitalizations (Lane, To Herland 110). Harriet Beecher Stowe, Gilmans aunt, also complained about this illness. When writing to a friend, Beecher said, My mind is exhausted and seems to be sinking into deadness (Lane, TO Herland 111).

She felt this way for years and did not recover from so many breakdowns until finding real release in her writing of Uncle Toms Cabin (Lane, To Herland 111). And Catherine Beecher, another famous writer and lecturer at that time, was also sent to the same sanitarium for nervous disorders. As Gilman came from a family of such well known feminists and revolutionaries, it is without a doubt that she grew up with the idea that she had the right to be treated as anyone, whether man or woman.

Not only did this strong background affect her viewpoint about things, it also affected her relations with her husband and what role she would play in that relationship. From the beginning of her marriage, she struggled with the idea of conforming to he domestic model for women. Upon repeated proposals from Stetson, her husband, Gilman tried to lay bare her torments and reservations about getting married (Lane, To Herland 85). She claimed that her thoughts, her acts, her whole life would be centered on husband and children. To do the work she needed to do, she must be free (Lane, To Herland 85).

Gilman was so scared of this idea because she loved her work and she loved freedom, though she also loved her husband very much. After a long period of uncertainty and vacillation she married Charles Stetson at 24 (Lane, Introduction x). Less than a year later, owever, feelings of nervous exhaustion immediately descended upon Gilman, and she became a mental wreck (Ceplair 17). In that period of time, she wrote many articles on women caught between families and careers and the need for women to have work as well as love (Ceplair 19).

The stress that Gilman was under of rejecting the domestic model of women led to her breakdown and caused her to meet Dr. S. Weir Mitchell. She attempted to express the tensions she felt her work, her husband, and her child in her writing. She did her best to fight against the depression but finally she collapsed tterly in April 1886 (Ceplair 19), forcing her to turn to Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, a nationally renowned neurologist in womens nervous diseases. He told Gilman that she was suffering from neurasthenia, or exhaustion of the nerves the diagnosis required his renowned rest cure (Lane, To Herland 115).

The treatment required for the cure involved 1) extended and total bed rest; 2) isolation from family and familiar surroundings (Lane, To Herland 116). The treatment was basically a version of how to be submissive and domestic according to the dominant social values outside of the sanitarium. After being reated for a month Gilman was sent home and was told to live as domestic a life as possibleand never touch pen, brush or pencil as long as you live (Lane, To Herland 121). Having a strong love for her work and being a free thinker and writer, Gilman would naturally consider this way of treatment a cruel punishment.

In her diary she wrote, I went home, followed those directions rigidly for a month and came perilously near to losing my mind (Lane, To Herland 121). In the late 1800s women did not have the opportunity to have both a career and their families. They have to give up their families if hey waned to pursue a career. Despite the great controversy she created, Gilman decided to choose her work over her family when she divorced her husband in 1887 and moved to California. A few years later, she gave her child to her ex-husband in order to lecture across the country.

In 1890 she wrote The Yellow Wallpaper in reaction to Dr. S. Weir Mitchells rest cure. In her Why I wrote The Yellow Wallpaper? in The Forerunner, Gilman portrays the years I suffered from a severe and continuous nervous breakdown and goes on to talk about the doctor who treated her and how in reaction to reatment had sent a copy to the physician who so nearly drove me mad (Gilman 19, 20). And she says, the best resultyears later I was told the treat specialist had admitted to friends of his that he had altered his treatment of neurasthenia since reading The Yellow Wallpaper (Gilman 20).

Despite what Gilman said, we can sense a tone of this work being close to her emotional and psychological reality. Besides, many studies have been carried out to find what Gilmans intent was in writing The Yellow Wallpaper. Joanne Karpinski says, one theme that seems to run through all her worksis desire for order and coherence in lived experience (3) while Lane suggests, (it) is an intensely personal examination of Gilmans private nightmare (To Herland 127). This implies that she wrote this story to sort through her emotions and fears in her own life.

If her revenge for Dr. Mitchell is part of the reason in writing this work, it is also true that her creation of this story allows her to reveal her emotional and psychological state of mind. Even though The Yellow Wallpaper is just a story that is most probably fictitious, there are amazing similarities between Gilmans real life experience and what s depicted in the story. Lane describes one of Gilmans diary entry where she wrote, I made a rag babyhung it on the doorknob and played with it. I would crawl into remote closets and under beds — to hide from the grinding pressure of that profound distress (To Herland 121).

This is amazingly similar to what is described of the narrator in the story, who crawls and creeps in the corners of the room. Gilman showed her emotions in the story and tried to discover what happens to our lives if we let others run them for us (Lane, introduction xviii). The attempts to discover was hard for her (it) must have aunted Gilman all her life because it answered the question: what if she had not fled her husband and renounced the most advance psychiatric advice of her time? Lane, Introduction xviii).

The Yellow wallpaper is a testament to Gilmans own life experience. We can feel the tough decisions she made and how those decisions affected her emotionally as Lane puts it, perhaps the emotional truth and intensity of The Yellow Wallpaper drained her; perhaps it frightened her (To Herland 127). Gilman delved deep into her emotions and feelings in The Yellow Wallpaper and that is why it is Gilmans best-know work today (Charters 318).

Marx and Nietzsche

Society is flawed. There are critical imbalances in it that cause much of humanity to suffer. In, the most interesting work from this past half-semester, The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx is reacting to this fact by describing his vision of a perfectly balanced society, a communist society. Simply put, a communist society is one where all property is held in common. No one person has more than the other, but rather everyone shares in the fruits of their labors. Marx is writing of this society because, he believes it to be the best form of society possible.

He states that communism creates the correct balance between the needs of the individual and the needs of society. And furthermore thinks that sometimes violence is necessary to reach the state of communism. This paper will reflect upon these two topics: the relationship of the individual and society, and the issue of violence, as each is portrayed in the manifesto. Before expounding upon these ideas, it is necessary to establish a baseline from which to view these topics. It is important to realize that we as humans view everything from our own cultural perspective.

Marx speaks of this saying, “Your very ideas are but the outgrowth of the conditions of your bourgeois production and bourgeois property, just as your jurisprudence is but the will of your class made into a law for all, a will, whose essential character and direction are determined by the economical conditions of existence of your class. ” With this in mind, some perspective on the society of that time is vital. During this time the industrial revolution is taking place, a massive movement away from small farms, businesses operated out of homes, small shops on the corner, and so on.

Instead, machines are mass-producing products in giant factories, with underpaid workers. No longer do people need to have individual skills. Now, it is only necessary that they can keep the machines going, and do small, repetitive work. The lower working class can no longer live a normal life following their own pursuits, but are lowered to working inhumane hours in these factories. This widens the gap between the upper and lower class-called bourgeois and proletariat-until they are essentially two different worlds.

The bourgeois, a tiny portion of the population, has the majority of the wealth while the proletariat, the huge majority, has nothing. It is with this background that Marx begins. First, the topic of the individual and society will be discussed. This topic in itself can be broken down even further. First, the flaws with the “current” system in respect to the bourgeois and proletariat will be shown, which will reveal the problems in the relationship between individual and society.

Secondly, the way that communism addresses these issues, and the rights of the individual, as seen through the manifesto, will be elaborated on in great detail. Quite clearly, Marx is concerned with the organization of society. He sees that the majority of society, more specifically, the proletariat, are living in sub-human conditions. Marx also sees that the bourgeoisie have a disproportionate amount of property and power, and because of that, they abuse it. He writes of how the current situation with the bourgeoisie and proletariat developed.

The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. ” There has always been struggles the between two classes, an upper and lower class. However, Marx speaks of the current order saying, “It [bourgeois] has but established new classes, new conditions of oppression, new forms of struggle in place of the old ones. Our epoch, the epoch of the bourgeoisie, possesses, however, this distinctive feature: it has simplified the class antagonisms.

Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat. ” The very nature of the bourgeoisie causes it to grow in size and power while the proletariat shrinks, therefore increasing the gap between the two. Marx goes on to describe how this situation came about, with the industrial revolution and other factors. Modern industry has established the world-market, for which the discovery of America paved the way. This market has given an immense development to commerce, to navigation, and to communication by land.

This development has, in doing so, reacted on the extension of industry; and in proportion as industry, commerce, navigation, railways extended, in the same proportion the bourgeoisie developed, increased its capital, and pushed into the background every class handed down from the middle Ages. We see, therefore, how the modern bourgeoisie is itself the product of a long course of development, of a series of revolutions in the modes of production and of exchange. With these thoughts in mind, a more defined view of the individual classes can be attained.

First, the proletariat: in several places Marx speaks of how the proletariat is oppressed. He speaks of past societies and the current society when he says, “Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed” Bourgeoisie and proletariat could quite easily be added to this list of oppressor and oppressed. In every way the proletariat is oppressed, with no hope of improving their place in society. Rather, they are forced to live on hopelessly, knowing that they will not be released from their labors till death.

Marx also writes of the relationship between the proletariat and the machines, which is a result of the split between the bourgeoisie and proletariat. “He [proletariat] becomes an appendage of the machine, and it is only the most simply, most monotonous, and most easily acquired knack, that is required of himNot only are they slaves of the bourgeois class, and of the bourgeois State; they are daily and hourly enslaved by the machine, by the overlooker, and, above all, by the individual bourgeois manufacturer himself. ”

Marx draws a picture of how the majority of the population is in an oppressed situation of slavery. The people of the proletariat are not to be envied. From here, Marx moves on to describe the oppressor, the bourgeois. He is quite eloquent in his description of this class: The bourgeois, wherever it has got the upper hand, has put an end to all feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations. It has pitilessly torn asunder the motley feudal ties that bound man to his ‘natural superiors,’ and has left remaining no other nexus between man and man than naked self-interest, than callous ‘cash payment.

It has drowned the most heavenly ecstasies of religious fervor, of chivalrous enthusiasm, of philistine sentimentalism, in the icy water of egotistical calculation. It has resolved personal worth into exchange value, and in place of the numberless indefeasible chartered freedoms, has set up that single, unconscionable freedom-Free Trade. Here Marx is speaking of how the bourgeoisie- controlled society takes every aspect of society and puts them in terms of an exchange value. They reduce all that is noble and admirable about humanity to monetary matters, all in the name of capitalism.

Again, “All that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is profaned, and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses, his real conditions of life, and his relations with his kind. ” Marx uses very strong language in these passages, saying that the bourgeois ‘profanes the holy’, and ‘drowns the most heavenly ecstasies of religious fervor. ‘ The bourgeois removes the humanity from society, creating a system in which anything and everything is measured by its worth in the capitalist structure. Now that the roles of the bourgeoisie and proletariat have been established, it is possible to reconsider the communist ideal.

Clearly, Marx believes that it is wrong for the majority of society, the proletariat, to suffer. He believes that individuals should be equal, not divided into two distinct worlds. Marx describes the current individual in society saying, “In bourgeois society capital is independent and has individuality, while the living person is dependent and has no individuality. ” He also makes the distinguishing point that it is important for the reader to realize that objections have more than likely arisen from their own bourgeoisie background.

You must, therefore, confess that by ‘individual’ you mean no other person than the bourgeois, than the middle-class owner of property. This person must, indeed be swept out of the way, and made impossible. ” Marx, and also communism, wants to correct society so that all individuals benefit without a particular ruling and enslaved class. Marx speaks for communism saying, “All that we want to do away with, is the miserable character of this appropriation, under which the laborer lives merely to increase capital, and is allowed to live only in so far as the interest of the ruling class requires it.

Marx declares if communism is implemented that “In proportion as the exploitation of one individual by another is put an end to, the exploitation of one nation by another will also be put an end to. ” With all of this established, clearly Marx thinks it wrong that a small group of people should profit so much from the destruction of so many. Any society that encourages this, or allows this to develop is wrong, and should be changed. He believes that society is incorrect and corrupt to allow so many people to suffer.

As a result he writes this manifesto that lays out the problems, and explains why he believes that communism will correct the balance of society and create an existence where every person is valued, and no one can raise himself or herself up by oppressing another. The next obvious question is how society is going to make the transition from the current capitalism to Marx’s communism. Obviously the ruling bourgeois are not going to wake up one day and realize that the whole basis of their society is cruel and corrupt and decide to redistribute their wealth.

However, Marx believes it is inevitable that the proletariat will realize their situation and their power, and overturn the current society. “Its [bourgeois] fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable. ” It however, still be necessary for the proletariat to take things into their own hands and correct the current problems. This brings up the topic of violence. As mentioned before, the bourgeois will not be readily willing to give up their position, so stronger measures will be necessary to create the change that is necessary. Marx has two things to say on this subject.

Primarily, violence in and of itself is not a good thing. Second, however, it may at times be necessary to achieve a greater good. First, let’s establish Marx’s position that violence in general should be avoided. Marx speaks of constant upheaval and violence in several places. “oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary re-constitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes. ” Constant opposition, or violence results in the destruction of both sides, according to Marx.

Again, he says, “Constant revolutionizing of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. ” Quite clearly, constant terror and violence is not a good thing, but is damaging to both the individual and society. However, in order to achieve communism, which is the greatest good according to Marx, a revolution is necessary. A revolution does not necessarily mean violence. However, in this case violence will be difficult to avoid, and Marx states that violence may be necessary.

Marx wrote several passages regarding this. He declares that, “The proletariat, the lowest stratum of our present society, cannot stir, cannot raise itself up, without the whole superincumbent strata of official society being sprung into the air. ” What is being described here is clearly nothing less than a revolution, a complete reversal in thought and society. Marx then describes the first step in this revolution. “We have seen above, that the first step in the revolution by the working class, is to raise So it is clear that the first step is to raise the proletariat to the ruling class, but how is this done?

Marx writes that “we, traced the more or less veiled civil war, raging within existing society, up to the point where that war breaks out into open revolution, and where the violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie lays the foundation for the sway of the proletariat. ” He speaks directly of violence when he says that: “If the proletariat during its contest with the bourgeoisie is compelled, by the force of circumstances, to organize itself as a class, if, by means of a revolution, it makes itself the ruling class, and, as such, sweeps away by force the old condition of production”

If the proletariat is forced to violence, then violence should be used, because it is for the greater good. Marx puts it all together in one final statement. “In short, the Communists everywhere support every revolutionary movement against the existing social and political order of things. ” Putting things back into perspective again, it is important to realize that this violence should be short lived, and only continue until the proletariat is in a position to make some changes to society.

Of course, in the beginning, this [the establishment of communism] cannot be effected except by means of despotic inroads on the rights of property, and on the conditions of bourgeois production; by means of measure, therefore, which appear economically insufficient and untenable, but which, in the course of the movement, outstrip themselves, necessitate further inroads upon the old social order, and are unavoidable as a means of entirely revolutionizing the mode of production. ”

Marx uses terms like ‘despotic inroads,’ ‘necessitate,’ and ‘unavoidable’ to describe the necessary violence. Violent acts are terrible things in and of them, but must be used at times for a greater good. However, in his ideal society, once communism has been reached there will be no more violence. After all this, however, it is clear that Marx makes some rather remarkable assumptions regarding human nature. First, he believes that it is inevitable that the proletariat will realize that things are not as they should be, and that something needs to be done about it.

Secondly, he believes that people will know the correct amount of violence necessary to achieve their goals, and will not exceed that. Finally, he assumes that once the state of communism is reached, that there will be no one that will try to take advantage of the situation and raise him or herself up. The rule of Stalin and Lenin are good examples of people taking an opportunity to exploit and oppress. The idea of communism would appear to be just that, an idea, and an ideal.

It may not necessarily be bad to try to approach it, but because human nature is necessarily flawed, in all likelihood communism will never be reached in full. However, even with all of this, the idea of communism has done some good. Clearly it caused some reform in the area of capitalism, toning it down from what it was during the time of Marx. It has helped by acting as a mirror in which it is possible to see where society is making mistakes, and where a new balance must be struck between the needs of the individual, and the needs of society.

Even an idea such as communism, which may not be fully applicable can still have, and has had, a profound effect on future society and humankind. Friedrich Nietzsche was on the cutting edge of sociological and philosophical theory when he lived in the latter part of the Nineteenth century. His ideas and theories about the world around him inspired some of the most recognized schools of thought in the modern world(or post-modern as it is seen).

His post-humus work The Will to Power is the culmination of his life’s work and allows for all who read it to understand the genius behind one of the greatest thinkers of all time. In The Will to Power, Nietzsche explains how the will is the controlling device each of us, and that the true will should only be used on oneself and not to take advantage of or injure another. Nietzsche seeks all who read it to understand how this is the true exercise of will and how the world has been run down by people using their will in the wrong way.

The Red Guards

In the summer of 1966 there was a new effort on the part of the head leaders in China to further control the actions and thoughts of the people in China. The Red Guards were the force to do it all. A group of kids who mostly in their teens and some in college were put into this gang. This so-called military force was called the Red Guards. Groups of these Red Guards traveled from the large cities all the way to empty country sides. They held huge demonstrations at every stop. Their main goal was to eliminate as many as possible of the customs and traditional thoughts of he old China.

They participated in Long Marches and other activities. The man they looked up to most was a person by the name of Mao. They carried huge portraits of him and also carried banners and flags. Many people in the group beat on gongs and drums. Some observers said it looked more like a circus then a political demonstration. They did a lot of things that many thought were outrageous. At one point they raced widely through Peking denouncing anyone who was in a business. They even made a demand to change the meaning of the colors in a stop light.

According to the Red Guards, that because the color of communism is red, that you should go on red and stop on green. When the Red Guards added students from another school or workers from another factory they decorated the entrance with purple paper, lanterns and a red cloth covered with flowers. People who did not agree with Mao Tse-tung and his teachings were often dragged through the streets and forced to wear dunce caps. The main reason of course was to humiliate. This group in time became more destructive. Even some of China’s highest leaders were taken.

The Red Guards demonstrations asted through fall, and winter of 1966 and well into 1967. The Red Guards highly looked up to Mao they thought of him as a father who shared the same views. Chairman Mao greatly influenced many of their decisions. They stormed on to railroad trains to spread their ideas coast to coast. Many people thought of them as a disorderly young army. Most of their efforts were devoted to wholesale destruction of reputation and careers. One of their best weapons were political posters which were about many high political figures.

Political people were not the only ones to be embarrassed, professors and ngineers were also humiliated by the young group. Many young people agreed with the Red Guards and their point of views. They felt that schools and universities were being run to produce a small group of highly educated people. Then those people would go ahead to become leaders. They would soon consider they were better than the workers and peasents and it would be like they were under the emperors once again. The Red Guards did not care about anything that they destructed. In Peking, Red Guards attacked and burnt down the Brittish Embassy.

In 1967 a mob f the guards stormed the Foreign Ministry. They destroyed some achives, carried away others, and even attempted to kidnap the Foreign Minister but they were unsuccessful. No one in China could accuratly tell you an explanation on of why they organizied. Some people think they were inspired because the wanted to become communist leaders after Mao’s death and take over government. Some say their main reason was to make certain politicians get a bad name and have them removed from their postions. Which would make it easier for them to rule in China in Mao’s name.

The Green Mile

Set on Death Row in a Southern prison in 1935, The Green Mile is the remarkable story of the cell block’s head guard, who develops an emotional, and unusual relationship with one inmate who possesses a magical gift that is both mysterious and miraculous. This inmate is John Coffey, who beyond his simple naive nature possess a supernatural gift. This gift is what introduces the correlation between Coffey and Jesus Christ. The easiest similarity to find between the two characters is there initials. There is a connection between JC, John Coffey and JC, Jesus Christ.

Despite his size John Coffey was humble and gentle. Though the guards were slowly but surely convinced that something was different about this man, no one noticed that he was a hero. It was almost like the guards were his apostles; they were the only people who knew the truth about his special talent. The execution of John Coffey was powerful. People mocked and jeered and yet the men that were closest to him really knew he was innocent. Even though he knew he was on the way to his crucifixion, he still performed his mission without complaint.

The prison guards were brought to tears because of the life of this one man who humbly accepted the execution that should have been for someone else. He even asked for forgiveness and was humbled to the point of death. This is another strong quality he shared with Jesus. Jesus was deserted by all his friends, yet through his strong heart he endured. In John Coffey we see a true Christ figure that had miraculous powers and died in the place of another. This movie is a great representation of Jesus Christ and the life that he lived.

Upon doing research for this paper I also found out many other similarities that I had not realized when I read the book. For example, when asked by another prisoner if he wants to help him escape, “John Coffey’s response is surprising and perfect. He wants to die, wants to return, to leave this earth, because the pain of other people is too strong to bear (“like shards of glass in my head”), hence the constant mourning for others, not for himself or for his own fate. This is a clear connection to Christ in that modern desires to die almost always only stem from an intense personal pain, not a pain felt for others.

He does show a hint of a human side in his nervousness and as he sings “heaven.. I’m in heaven.. ” before the switch is thrown. This correlates well when Christ himself calls out to his father while on the cross (“heaven”) and also when he prayed beforehand in the garden. ” Though these two characters have many similarities they also share differences. The first is there appearance, though John Coffey was very gentle, you would never know it by his appearance. The difference in appearance between the two characters is significant. Their height, weight, occupation, and nationality all differ.

Another big difference is when Coffey transfers evil from his mouth to the mouth of the guard (Percy). Though Percy was evil, Coffey deliberately held it until he was near Percy. This action resulted into both murder and insanity. Though this act might have been justified the question is would Jesus do such a thing? I personally cannot see this happening. Though they did share some differences in John Coffey you get to see a true Christ figure that had miraculous powers and died in the place of another. This book is indeed a great representation of Jesus Christ and the life that he lived.

The Inherent Need for Government Secrecy

There are many national governments present in the world today that have been elected democratically by the people whom they represent. These governments are directly responsible and accountable to the people, and exist to better the lives of a majority of the people they serve and are chosen by. Being directly responsible to and for the people does not however entail a complete and open honesty with the people of that nation. In many cases it is in the best interest of the nation and its citizens to remain ignorant or purposefully deceived in regards to certain information.

This is where intelligence agencies and government security organizations come into play. These organizations specialize in not only acquiring important information, but also in determining what information is suitable for the public at large and in classifying and keeping this information controlled and hidden. It is vital to national security that some information be kept from the public , or even that in certain cases the public be purposefully deceived with certain information.

A nation’s defense forces rely heavily on intelligence and secrecy in performing a number of operations in everything from weapons research to the actual waging and fighting of a war. The information utilized by a nation’s defense organizations is necessarily kept private and classified in order to maintain a clear advantage over potential enemies. This information may be in the form of weapons research and development, espionage and reconnaissance information, or in government plans of foreign action to name a few.

All of these types of information are necessarily withheld from the public eye to retain and advantage over foreign intelligence services and to maintain national security. An example military research being shielded from public access is the ultra-secret Manhattan Project created and carried out before, during and after World War II. This project was created in the interest of developing nuclear weaponry capable of controlled mass destruction. The experiments carried out in the interest of this project were numerable and extensive, and many were also very controversial.

Despite the controversy surrounding these experiments however, their necessity in the proper development of defense mechanisms (such as the atomic bomb) was placed in higher priority than that of the health of the people involved in and harmed by the experiments. Had the results of the nuclear research and testing been released to the public, the controversy surrounding the human aspect of the experiments would likely have led to the termination of the Manhattan Project.

It was very important that the public not be made aware of the Manhattan Project because the project was a major step in developing the modern US defense system and maintaining the national security of the US likewise. The reason for the atom bomb’s development was the inherent need for a defense mechanism that was more advanced than that of the enemy. At that time it was believed that Hitler was also in the midst of building an atomic bomb , and the only way to defend against nuclear threat is with nuclear weapons of your own. This is an example of a balance of terror.

Especially after the actual creation of the atom bomb it was imperative that the public not be allowed access to such extremely valuable and potentially volatile information. If allowed into the wrong hands, it could certainly have meant the destruction of human life as a whole. An example of intelligence information obtained in part by espionage and used to gain a clear and decisive advantage over the enemy comes from World War II. During the war the German military utilized a complicated and ingenious method of cyptology in the form of a machine called Enigma .

Enigma was an electromechanical machine used to encode messages sent between factions of the German military. The level of Enigma’s technology was well ahead of its time and German intelligence officials were sure that it was absolutely uncrackable and completely safe. The British cryptanalysts however, housed at Bletchley Yard , managed to decrypt this intricate code and after countless hours of work, gained access to virtually every command sent between German military factions.

Though the genius of the Bletchley Yard cryptanalysts and the secrecy of the British reciprocal code, Ultra , Britain gained a considerable and perhaps decisive advantage in World War II. The access to virtually all German transmissions regarding everything from supply transport to planned military offensive operatives gave Britain an inside advantage in being one step ahead of the enemy at every single turn. Had the knowledge of Britain’s possession of Ultra-Enigma leaked to the public, the Germans would have undoubtedly found out through spy reconnaissance and immediately changed their code.

This simple secret could have drastically changed the outcome of the war had it been handled improperly. The British may not have shared victory in WWII without the advantage that Ultra-Enigma gave them. A national government’s various security and intelligence organizations are often privy to a rather large amount of information not available to the general public. This classified information is on a wide variety of subjects, but all pieces of information share one thing in common.

They are sensitive and valuable pieces of information whose secrecy is a major factor in maintaining national security. This intelligence is quite often foreign intelligence, such as in the case of the Central Intelligence Agency in the United States . That is they deal primarily with information about countries and organizations other than the country in which the organization is based. It is from this intelligence that government agencies plan their foreign policies and actions.

If information on these foreign policies were to be accessible by the general public, it is unlikely that any government would be able to carry out foreign operatives. The information would inevitably reach the foreign target country, by word of mouth or by intelligence transaction, and the work of the intelligence agency would go to complete waste. An example of this type of operative and the necessary security involved took place in 1961 when the CIA planned and executed several isolated invasions of Cuba .

The culminating “Bay of Pigs Invasion” was in the interest of assassinating Cuban President Fidel Castro and eliminating the new Communist government of Cuba. What with a large population of Cubans in the southern state of Florida, and the American popular affinity for isolationism, the Bay of Pigs invasion would likely have failed if the public gained knowledge of the impending attack. With a large base of discontent among the population, the invasion could not have gone as planned, if at all, and the CIA’s intelligence and reconnaissance work would have been worthless.

Had the public known about the operation, news of the invasion would likely have reached Castro himself in Cuba as well, and a counterattack on the US would likely have been planned, threatening the national security of the US and creating a multitude of new problems for the Americans. It is clear that national governments and affiliated intelligence and security organizations must make certain information inaccessible to the public. This information must be kept classified and controlled for the sake of maintaining national security.

The information dealt with often regards controversial government actions, plans for foreign operatives, and research and development vital to a nation’s security. If this information were to leak and end up in the wrong hands, it could mean a serious breach of national security or a worldwide disaster in the worst of cases. It is for these reasons that some information must be kept from the citizens of a country. In many cases where intelligence and national security is concerned, ignorance really is bliss.

Robert Frost’s Home Burial

Robert Frost’s Home Burial is a narrative poem that speaks of life’s tragedies. Robert Frost’s writing style is very straight-forward and direct. In Home Burial the setting appears to be the background of a tragedy that centers around the death of a child. It is important for the reader to recognize that Home Burial was pubished in 1914. That gives the reader a better insight to understand the husband’s reaction to the death of the child.

During this time period Society dictated that men should not show their true feelings. Therefore, men tended to have dealt with conflicts by working hard and being domineering. Home Burial demonstrates how one tragedy can cause another to occur. There are three different tragedies that transpire throughout this poem. The first tragedy is the burial of the child. The second tragedy is the burial of the marriage. Finally, the most symbolic and ironic tragedy is the burial of the home.

Because of unfortunate circumstances the three things closely associated with this home becomes buried. All of these tragedies occurred as a result of the child’s burial. This couple’s marriage could not survive such an emotional loss. Therefore the marriage becomes buried. When the marriage became buried the home became its own burial spot for this family’s life. Home Burial tells a tale of tragedy in one family’s life. Robert Frost portrayed a very realistic chain reaction to tragedy in Home Burial

Oedipus – The Tragic Hero

In the play Oedipus Rex by Sophocles, Oedipus is a classic tragic hero. According to Aristotle’s definition, Oedipus is a tragic hero because he is a king whose life falls apart when he finds out his life story. There are a number of characteristics described by Aristotle that identify a tragic hero. For example, a tragic hero must cause his own downfall; his fate is not deserved, and his punishment exceeds the crime; he also must be of noble stature and have greatness. Oedipus is in love with his idealized self, but neither the grandiose nor the depressive Narcissus can really love himself (Miller 67).

All of the above characteristics make Oedipus a tragic hero according to Aristotle’s ideas about tragedy, and a narcissist. Using Oedipus as an ideal model, Aristotle says that a tragic hero must be an important or influential man who makes an error in judgment, and who must then suffer the consequences of his actions. Those actions are seen when Oedipus forces Teiresias to reveal his destiny and his father’s name. When Teiresias tries to warn him by saying I say that you and your most dearly loved are wrapped together in a hideous sin, blind to the horror of it (Sophocles 428).

Oedipus still does not care and proceeds with his questioning as if he did not understand what Teiresias was talking about. The tragic hero must learn a lesson from his errors in judgment and become an example to the audience of what happens when great men fall from their lofty social or political positions. According to Miller, a person who is great, who is admired everywhere, and needs this admiration to survive, has one of the extreme forms of narcissism, which is grandiosity. Grandiosity can be seen when a person admires himself, his qualities, such as beauty, cleverness, and talents, and his success and achievements greatly.

If one of these happens to fail, then the catastrophe of a severe depression is near (Miller 34). Those actions happen when the Herdsman tells Oedipus who his mother is, and Oedipus replies Oh, oh, then everything has come out true. Light, I shall not look on you Again. I have been born where I should not be born, I have been married where I should not marry, I have killed whom I should not kill; now all is clear (Sophocles 1144). Oedipus’s decision to pursue his questioning is wrong; his grandiosity blinded him and, therefore, his fate is not deserved, but it is far beyond his control.

A prophecy is foretold to Laius, the father of Oedipus, that the destiny of Oedipus is a terrible one beyond his control. But when it is prophesized to Oedipus, he sets forth from the city of his foster parents in order to prevent this terrible fate from occurring. Oedipus’s destiny is not deserved because he is being punished for his parent’s actions. His birth parents seek the advice of the Delphi Oracle, who recommends that they should not have any children. When the boy is born, Laius is overcome with terror when he remembers the oracle.

Oedipus is abandoned by his birth parents and is denied their love, which is what results in what Miller calls Depression as Denial of the Self. Depression results from a denial of one’s own emotional reactions, and we cannot really love if we deny our truth, the truth about our parents and caregivers as, well as about ourselves (Miller 43). The birth of Oedipus presets his destiny to result in tragedy even though he is of noble birth. In tragedies, protagonists are usually of the nobility that makes their falls seem greater.

Oedipus just happens to be born a prince, and he has saved a kingdom that is rightfully his from the Sphinx. His destiny is to be of noble stature from birth, which is denied to him by his parents, but given back by the Sphinx. His nobility deceived him as well as his reflection, since it shows only his perfect, wonderful face and not his inner world, his pain, his history (Miller 66). When he relies on his status, he is blind, not physically, but emotionally. He is blind in his actions; therefore he does not see that the questioning would bring him only misery.

Later, after his self- inflicted blinding, Oedipus sees his actions as wrongdoing when he says What use are my eyes to me, who could never – See anything pleasant again? (Sophocles 1293) and that blindness does not necessarily have to be physical as we can se when he says, If I had sight, I know not with what eyes I would have looked (Sophocles 1325). In the play Oedipus Rex, Sophocles portrays the main character, Oedipus, as a good- natured person who has bad judgment and is frail. Oedipus makes a few fatal decisions and is condemned to profound suffering because of them.

Agreeing with Aristotle that Oedipus’ misfortune happens because of his tragic flaw. If he hadn’t been so judgmental or narcissistic, as Miller would characterize a personality like Oedipus, he would never have killed King Laius and called Teiresias a liar. In the beginning, Teiresias is simply trying to ease him slowly into the truth; but Oedipus is too proud to see any truths, and he refuses to believe that he could have been responsible for such a horrible crime. He learns a lesson about life and how there is more to it than just one person’s fate.

Beowulf – Analysis of the Epic

The Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf is the most important work of Old English literature, and is well deserved of the distinction. The epic tells the story of a hero, a Scandinavian prince named Beowulf, who rids the Danes of the monster Grendel, a descendent of Cain, and of his exploits fighting Grendels mother and a Dragon. Throughout the epic, the Anglo-Saxon story teller uses many elements to build a certain depth to the characters. Just a few of the important character elements in Beowulf are Wealth & Honor, Biblical & Paganistic, and Man vs. Wild themes.

Many of the characters in Beowulf are, like in most epics, defined by their status. But, in addition to status, the Anglo-Saxon culture also adds an element of honor. To the Anglo-Saxons, a characters importance, as well as their wealth and status, where measured not only in monetary terms, but it was also measured in terms of honor, fame, and accomplishments. Hrothgar, king of the Danes, is one example of the Anglo-Saxon measurement of importance in Beowulf.

In Canto 1 the story teller describes his wealth and importance, not as mounds of gold or jewels, but instead as his ability to [lead] the Danes to such glory. nd as his tendency to In battle, [leave] the common pasture untouched, and taking no lives. Through this display of compassion for the commoner who doesnt fight in battles, Hrothgar proves the full extent of his honor and therefore the extent of his wealth and status.

Beowulf, the hero-prince, also proves his true wealth and status through his deeds as defender of the Danes.. As he fights and defeats Grendel, Beowulf Earns Fame and wealth from his companions, and from the Danes, but more importantly, he earns honor raising him to the level of an archetypal hero. Grendel, on the other hand, is the total opposite of Beowulf.

He has no wealth, no honor, and he in infamous as an evil killer. This lack of wealth and honor defines Grendel as a symbol of evil and corruption. In addition to using Honor and wealth to define a characters character, the story-teller(s) have incorporated alternating Biblical and Paganistic motifs in the epic-poem. The original Epic was obviously Paganistic due to the time period of its creation. But, as time wore on, the rewriting and touching up of the manuscripts by various sources including religious onks, caused the characters to have slight Christian characteristics.

These Christian themes have become very important to the epic to add am element of depth that wouldnt be possible in modern times due to the lost of the Anglo-Saxon culture and beliefs. An example of the Biblical motif in Beowulf is Grendel. Grendel it biblically described as evil in this excerpt: [ Grendel] was spawned in that slime, Conceived by a pair of those monsters born Of Cain, murderous creatures banished By God, punished forever for the crime Of Abels death. The Almighty drove

Those demons out, and their exile was bitter, Shut away from men; they split Into a thousand forms of evil–spirits And feinds, goblins, monsters, giants, A brood forever opposing the Lords Will, and again and again defeated. The Biblical reference in the epic has become a modern day archetypal motif, and serves to give the listener an idea of the extent of Grendels pure evil and gives a logical explanation for Grendels murderous behavior. This example, not only shows the evil in Grendels nature, but also the torture in his heart caused by his Banishment from God.

It serves to give the reader an idea of why Grendel would kill the Danes for no reason other than their happiness. Beowulf also has a religious motif to his character. One example of this is in Canto 6 line 381 in which Hrothgar states, Our Holy Father had sent [Beowulf] as a sign of His grace, a mark of His favor, to help us defeat Grendel and end that terror. This religious description shows Beowulf as a sort of messiah sent by god to save man from evil. But, more than that, since Beowulf is in fact not a messiah, this description shows the good in Beowulfs heart and the urpose of his mission.

Another Biblical reference in Beowulf is shown in the tower of Herot which is very similar to the tower of Babel in the fact that its built as a sign of superiority and accomplishment. Like Babel, though, Herot only serves as a symbol of downfall more than one of glory because it causes many deaths and the coming of Grendel. Apart from Wealth, Honor, and Paganistic vs. Biblical themes and motifs, character is also shown through a certain Man vs. Wild motif. This motif shows the difference between mankinds ways (good), and evils wild nature (evil).

Grendel for one, is totally wild and is therefore shown as evil. His wild home, Grendel, who haunted the moors, the wild marshes, and made his home in a hell not hell but earth. shows his wild, untamed, and therefor evil nature. Grendels wilderness is countered in mankinds ways, especially Beowulfs. Beowulf is tame and civilized, the epitomy of goodness and purity. Beowulf doesnt fight evil in a wild manner, rather, as shown in his first battle with Grendel. First off, Beowulf is pure and shows this before his battle when he removes his armor and vows not to use a eapon to defeat Grendel.

Defeating Grendel, he shows that man, without armor and weapons, can defeat evil in any form including that of his foe Grendel. This deed serves throughout the epic serves as a symbol of Beowulfs Goodness. Beowulf has many other such archetypal, symbolic themes and motifs, but the most important themes that serve to add depth to the characters are the wealth, honor, religious, man, and wildness themes. These themes dont only serve to define a character, but they also factor in as a motive for their actions.

The Life of Aristotle

When Plato died in 347 bc, Aristotle moved to Assos, a city in Asia Minor, where a friend of his, Hermias (died 345 bc), was ruler. There he counseled Hermias and married his niece and adopted daughter, Pythias. After Hermias was captured and executed by the Persians, Aristotle went to Pella, the Macedonian capital, where he became the tutor of the king’s young son Alexander, later known as Alexander the Great. In 335, when Alexander became king, Aristotle returned to Athens and established his own school, the Lyceum.

Because much of the discussion in his school took place while teachers and students were walking bout the Lyceum grounds, Aristotle’s school came to be known as the Peripatetic (“walking” or “strolling”) school. Upon the death of Alexander in 323 bc, strong anti-Macedonian feeling developed in Athens, and Aristotle retired to a family estate in Euboea. He died there the following year. Works Aristotle, like Plato, made regular use of the dialogue in his earliest years at the Academy, but lacking Plato’s imaginative gifts, he probably never found the form congenial.

Apart from a few fragments in the works of later writers, his dialogues have been wholly lost. Aristotle also wrote some short technical notes, such as a dictionary of philosophic terms and a summary of the doctrines of Pythagoras. Of these, only a few brief excerpts have survived. Still extant, however, are Aristotle’s lecture notes for carefully outlined courses treating almost every branch of knowledge and art. The texts on which Aristotle’s reputation rests are largely based on these lecture notes, which were collected and arranged by later editors.

Among the texts are treatises on logic, called Organon (“instrument”), because they provide the means by which positive knowledge is to be attained. His works on natural science include Physics, which gives a vast amount of information on astronomy, meteorology, plants, and animals. His writings on the nature, scope, and properties of being, which Aristotle called First Philosophy (Prot philosophia), were given the title Metaphysics in the first published edition of his works (circa 60 bc), because in that edition they followed Physics.

His treatment of the Prime Mover, or first cause, as pure intellect, perfect in unity, immutable, and, as he said, “the thought of thought,” is given in the Metaphysics. To his son Nicomachus he dedicated his work on ethics, called the Nicomachean Ethics. Other essential works include his Rhetoric, his Poetics (which survives in incomplete form), and his Politics (also incomplete). Methods Perhaps because of the influence of his father’s medical profession, Aristotle’s philosophy laid its principal stress on biology, in contrast to Plato’s emphasis on mathematics.

Aristotle regarded the world as made up of individuals (substances) occurring in fixed natural kinds (species). Each individual has its built-in specific pattern of development and grows toward proper self- ealization as a specimen of its type. Growth, purpose, and direction are thus built into nature. Although science studies general kinds, according to Aristotle, these kinds find their existence in particular individuals.

Science and philosophy must therefore balance, not simply choose between, the claims of empiricism (observation and sense experience) and formalism (rational deduction). One of the most distinctive of Aristotle’s philosophic contributions was a new notion of causality. Each thing or event, he thought, has more than one “reason” that helps to explain what, why, and where it is. Earlier Greek thinkers had tended to assume that only one sort of cause can be really explanatory; Aristotle proposed four.

The word Aristotle uses, aition, “a responsible, explanatory factor” is not synonymous with the word cause in its modern sense. ) These four causes are the material cause, the matter out of which a thing is made; the efficient cause, the source of motion, generation, or change; the formal cause, which is the species, kind, or type; and the final cause, the goal, or full development, of an individual, or the intended function of a onstruction or invention.

Thus, a young lion is made up of tissues and organs, its material cause; the efficient cause is its parents, who generated it; the formal cause is its species, lion; and its final cause is its built-in drive toward becoming a mature specimen. In different contexts, while the causes are the same four, they apply analogically. Thus, the material cause of a statue is the marble from which it was carved; the efficient cause is the sculptor; the formal cause is the shape the sculptor realizedHermes, perhaps, or Aphrodite; nd the final cause is its function, to be a work of fine art.

In each context, Aristotle insists that something can be better understood when its causes can be stated in specific terms rather than in general terms. Thus, it is more informative to know that a “sculptor” made the statue than to know that an “artist” made it; and even more informative to know that “Polycleitus” chiseled it rather than simply that a “sculptor” did so. Aristotle thought his causal pattern was the ideal key for organizing knowledge. His lecture notes present impressive evidence of the power of this scheme.

Araby: Joycean Romanticism of the Church

Life is filled with loneliness and times when a person feels unsure. When these times arise is when most people turn to their faith in the church or faith in fate. Certain events in one’s life can send them reeling for something that they can find solace in. Security from the turbulent world is given through faith and hope. When times are at there hardest what can you do? Without faith you can get stuck, and slowly dragged down by the world decaying around you. In the story Araby by James Joyce you find what happens when you give up on faith.

He also loses faith in romantic love, religious love, and material love. Evidence of this is found in the form of sexual, spiritual, and financial experiences throughout the story. The story is a more modern symbolism of the fall Of the Garden of Eden. James Joyce speaks of the death of the Church. Joyce grew up in Dublin, Ireland and was raised as a Roman-Catholic. He lost faith in the Church early in his life, which is proved by the beginning of Araby. Araby is a short story from Dubliner’s that tells of a young boy’s revival to move away from the church and to live his life as he chooses.

In the beginning of the story Joyce makes a reference to blindness. This refers to his sense of reality. The boys at the Catholic school have been trapped by the church and cannot escape. Joyce longs to be free of the church and wishes that he could relinquish the ties that bind him to it, like the house. The house was formerly own by a priest who has since passed away. The death of the priest signifies the death of the church. The priest also has more significance to the story. He also represents the hypocrisy of the church.

Although the priest was thought of as charitable he dies with a substantial sum of money which gives the impression that he had not been as charitable as he possibly could have been. Joyce also shows the deviance of a young boy as a peeping tom. Mangan’s sister is the object of his affection. He sees in her what most would see in the Virgin Mary. She is illuminated in all of the splendor that would be found in that of a religious icon. The boy doesn’t realize that he is sexually attracted to Mangan’s sister. It may be because of the influence of the church on all of his life.

When the boy thinks of the girl he thinks of her not in a sexual manner but in a religious one. He confesses that he doesn’t understand why he is feeling confused about what he wants. One evening the boy is left alone on a rainy night. He is in the back drawing room and the evidence of his sexual tension. Trying to suppress his sexual feeling for the girl he feels his senses, “seem to desire and veil themselves until I felt I was about to slip. ” This line refers to a classic masturbatory situation for the young boy.

The murmuring of “O love, O love. ” Refers to the climax of his sexual tension. The trip to Araby shows his final realization. His trip will show the boys thoughts on materialistic love. It shows that some people will give up anything for the promise for something in return. When the boy receives a florin from his father, which is a considerable amount of money for a young boy in the Victorian era, he proceeds to spend it foolishly. His trip to the fair takes him on a long journey to find his prize, the promise of a night with the girl.

He spends his money rashly, which represents why he doesn’t think before he makes his decision about the girl. His journey also brings him to enlightenment. His enlightenment comes when he once again finds himself all alone. This discovery leads the boy to finally see, which ties in with the blindness from the beginning of the story. He realizes the vulgarity of his quest in the eyes of the church and finds that his animal desire had overwritten the teachings of the church. His realization: Like every one else. He is human.

False Friendship – Othello

“Friends” A friendship is not always, what it is made out to be. Sometimes, the perceived level of security a friendship gives is false. This ‘false friendship’ is portrayed explicitly in William Shakespeare’s “Othello. ” Superficially, Roderigo and Iago are friends. In reality, Iago is using Roderigo to seek revenge on Othello and they are in fact, not friends. Iago’s jealousy of power and love consumes him into using his apparent friend for his own personal gain. In these relationships, there is always a stronger person who uses a weaker person’s need for a friend, to achieve their desired goals.

It is evident just by looking at the amount of lines Iago has, that he is much stronger, where Roderigo only listens, and follows the shepherd. By Act II, Scene iii, it is evident that Roderigo is inferior to Iago because he latches onto Iago, who has a much stronger character. It is also evident that their friendship is false. He does not realize that he is being used for Iago’s personal gain. Roderigo admits he is weaker than everyone is and that he has lost all patience and motivation to go on: “not like a hound that hunts… lmost spent” (II, iii, 363-5).

Iago immediately turns Roderigo around by saying e is poor because he has no “patience” (II, iii, 370). Roderigo feels as if he is being used but Iago always talks him into seeing a just cause for his actions: “And thou by that small hurt… first will first be ripe” (II, iii, 375-7). Iago is using Roderigo’s love for Desdemona to keep him motivated. He uses food imagery to say that soon Roderigo’s hunger for love will be fulfilled soon, and he only needs to take hold of patience.

He says that now that Cassio is out of the way, Roderigo has a straight line to get to Desdemona. Nevertheless, what Iago really wants is for Cassio to be removed of his rank and Iago can take his place and gain power, then becoming closer to separating Othello and Desdemona: “Two things are to be done… coldness and delay” (II, iii, 382-8). Without Iago, Roderigo is in fact stronger. Alone, he begins to walk down the path towards the truth and loses strength to go on. However, Iago always leads him off into a direction away from what is known by all but Roderigo.

I have been tonight exceedingly well cudgeled” (II, iii, 365-366): not only has Roderigo been physically beaten, but also he is weakened every time he is turned around and lost on his way to the truth. Throughout the first act, hints of a false friendship appear, some more clearly than others. In the opening lines, Roderigo states that Iago controls him: “That thou, Iago… were thine,” (I, I, 2-3). He says that Iago has his money, and is controlled by strings, as if he were a puppet. However, Iago easily sways Roderigo’s view of their friendship.

He openly lies to Roderigo, telling him he is speaking nonsense: “If I did… abhor me” (I, I, 3-4). Once he knows Roderigo will do anything for him, Iago then explains his intentions to crush Othello. It is ironic that Iago says he would never dream of ontrolling his friend, and goes on to coerce Roderigo into working with him against the Moor. Later in the act, Roderigo gets discouraged and depressed: “I will incontinently drown myself” (I, iii, 300). It takes skillful planning on Iago’s part to keep Roderigo in his plans.

A torn friend approaches him, and only the perfect wording will give Roderigo strength again. “Put money in thy purse” (I, iii, 335): the extended metaphor of money is brought up again, meaning patience and strength. Iago repeats at least six times that Roderigo needs to make money, or take heed of patience and strength. Wilt thou be fast to my hopes, if I depend on the issue? ” Iii, 358-9), and (I: Roderigo is already swayed back into Iago’s plan, and all he wants is Iago’s word, which is worthless.

I’ll sell… sport and profit” (I, iii, 373-377): Roderigo has received enough strength from his friend’s words to equal the value of his land. But at the same time, he has given up all of his land to Iago. Because of this, Iago admits for the first time his true intentions for keeping Roderigo as a friend. He knows he controls Roderigo, and openly states he is using him for his own profit. At this moment, the friendship that had been seen hroughout the play crumbles, and poor Roderigo is last to know.

It is sad, because this idea of a false friendship appears commonly in everyone’s life. Whether in war, in politics, or simple high school kids, the weak suffer, and the strong get their desired indulgences by stomping all over their apparent friends. In literature, the false friendship is merely a takeoff of mistaken identity, where the weaker man mistakes a stronger person as a friend, when he is far from it. Roderigo only wants to have love, not the love Iago talks about, but true love. He is a moral man, and that is why Iago breaks him.

The Great Gatsby – The American Dream

The Great Gatsby, a novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald, is about the American Dream, and the downfall of those who attempt to capture its illusionary goals. This is a common them central to many novels. This dream has varying significances for different people but in The Great Gatsby, for Jay, the dream is that through wealth and power, one can acquire happiness. To get this happiness Jay must reach into the past and relive an old dream and in order to do this he must have wealth and power. Jay Gatsby, the central figure of the story, is a character who longs for the past.

Surprisingly he devotes most of his adult life trying to recapture it and, finally, dies in its pursuit. In the past, Jay had a love affair with the beautiful and seemingly innocent Daisy. Knowing he could not marry her because of the difference in their social status, he leaves her to accumulate his wealth to reach her economic and social standards. Once he acquires this wealth, he moves near to Daisy, “Gatsby bought that house so that Daisy would be just across the bay (83),” and throws extravagant parties, hoping by chance she might show up at one of them.

He, himself, does not attend his parties but watches them from a distance. When his hopes don’t show true he asks around casually if anyone knows her. Soon he meets Nick Carraway, a cousin of Daisy, who agrees to set up a meeting, “He wants to know…if you’ll invite Daisy to your house some afternoon and then let him come over (83). ” Gatsby’s personal dream symbolizes the larger American Dream where all have the opportunity to get what they want. Later, as we see in the Plaza Hotel, Jay still believes that Daisy loves him. He is convinced of this as is shown when he takes the blame for Myrtle’s death.

Was Daisy driving? ” “Yes…but of course I’ll say I was. ” (151) He also watches and protects Daisy as she returns home. “How long are you going to wait? ” “All night if necessary. ” (152) Jay cannot accept that the past is gone and done with. Jay is sure that he can capture his dream with wealth and influence. He believes that he acted for a good beyond his personal interest and that should guarantee success. Nick attempts to show Jay the flaw of his dream, but Jay innocently replies to Nick’s statement that the past cannot be relived by saying, “Can’t repeat the past?

Why of course you can! ” (116). This shows the confidence that Jay has in reviving his relationship with Daisy. For Jay, his American Dream is not material possessions, although it may seem that way. He only comes into riches so that he can fulfill his true dream, Daisy. Gatsby doesn’t rest until his dream is finally lived. However, it never comes about and he ends up paying the ultimate price for it. The idea of the American Dream still holds true in today’s time, be it wealth, love, or fame.

But one thing never changes about the American Dream; everyone desires something in life, and everyone, somehow, strives to get it. A big house, nice cars, 2. 5 kids, a dog, a beautiful devoted spouse, power and a ridiculous amount of money. That is the classical American Dream, at least for some. One could say, an outsider perhaps, that Americans strive for the insurmountable goal of perfection, live, die and do unimaginable things for it, then call the product their own personal American Dream. Is having the American Dream possible? What is the American Dream?

There is one answer for these two questions: The American Dream is tangible perfection. In reality, even in nature, perfection does not exist. Life is a series of imperfections that can make living really great or very unpleasant. Living the American Dream is living in perfection, and that by definition is not possible, thus deflating our precious American Dream. F. Scott Fitzgerald proves this fact in The Great Gatsby, through his scintillating characters and unique style. Characters in books often mirror the author’s feelings towards the world around them.

In The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald suggested the moral decline of the period in American history through the interpersonal relationships among his characters. The situations in the lives of the characters show the worthlessness of materialism, the futile quest of Myrtle and Gatsby, and how America s moral values had diminished- through the actions of Daisy, Tom, Jordan, and Gatsby’s party guests. Despite his newly acquired fortune, Gatsby still cannot afford his one true wish, therefore he cannot buy everything which is important to Daisy. “..

Their love is founded upon feelings from the past, these give it, notwithstanding Gatsby’s insistence on being able to repeat the past , an inviolability. It exists in the world of money and corruption but is not of it. ” (Lewis 48 ) In the novel The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald uses the uses of literary technique of symbolism to reflect what life in the 1920’s was like, through Fitzgerald’s eyes. The image of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg’s eyes is used to signify an ever watchful godlike figure. “Just as Wilson comes halfconsciously to identify the eyes of Doctor T.

J. Eckleburg with God, so the reader gradually becomes aware of them as representing some kind of detached intellect, brooding gloomily over life in the bleak waste land surrounding it, and presiding fatalistically over the little tragedy enacted as if in sacrifice before it. ” (Miller 36) The eyes not only symbolize a godlike being but also Fitzgerald himself and his negative views of 1920’s society. Fitzgerald’s negative views of society are society are also portrayed through his depiction of certain guests at Gatsby’s parties.

The symbol of the two women dressed identically in yellow at Gatsby’s party represent the values of the people of the 20’s. The two women meet Jordan and Nick at Gatsby’s party and are completely selfinvolved. These women are only concerned with what happens to them and the fun that they have at the parties and don’t even inquire the names of Jordan and Nick who they are so openly speaking with. “Do you come to these parties often? ‘ inquired Jordan of the girl beside her. The last one was the one I met you at,’ answered the girl in an alert, confident voice. She turned to her companion: Wasn’t it for you Lucille?

It was for Lucille too. I like to come,’ Lucille said I never care what I do, so I always have a good time. ” (Fitzgerald 47) Lucille admits that her general attitude toward life is that she does not care what she does as long as she has a good time. Her entire motivation in her life is to enjoy herself. When all she was asked was if she came to the parties often she also felt the need to inform the rest of the guests of her trivial anecdote. The reason that these women are indicative of the generation is because of their selfabsorbed characters and egotistical nature.

Also, the food served at Gatsby’s parties symbolize the attitudes of most people living in the 1920’s. At Gatsby’s parties, most of the food was just show and no one really ate it. People display Large amounts of expensive food at parties to subtly remind the guests how much money they have, which is exactly what Gatsby did and the food was wasted. This incredible wastefulness is representative of people who lived in the 20’s. They were so extremely wasteful because they assumed with all they had gone through, they deserved to be.

After so many years of being unhappy and repressed from, among other things World War I, they thought it was okay to become carefree when indeed it was not. Through Fitzgerald’s use of symbolism to describe the costumed characters of the 20’s the reader can learn to constantly and conscientiously examine the people that they surround themselves with. The novel also teaches the lesson of being true to one’s self and following one’s own personal dream, not the one Americans are programmed to have. Fitzgerald is not only a consequential author but and effective moral adviser.

Kantian Morality Essay

Kant’s theory of morality seems to function as the most feasible in determining one’s duty in a moral situation. The basis for his theory is perhaps the most noble of any– acting morally because doing so is morally right. His ideas, no matter how occasionally vague or overly rigid, work easily and efficiently in most situations. Some exceptions do exist, but the strength of those exceptions may be somewhat diminished by looking at the way the actual situations are presented and the way in which they are handled.

But despite these exceptions, the process Kant describes of onverting maxims to universal laws to test their moral permissibility serves, in general, as a useful guide to and system of ethics and morality. The Kantian Theory of Ethics hinges upon the concept of the Categorical Imperative, or the process of universalization. Kant describes taking a possible action, a maxim, and testing whether it is morally permissible for a person to act in that manner by seeing if it would be morally permissible for all people in all times to act in that same manner.

Thus, Kant says that an action is morally permissible in one nstance if the action is universally permissible in all instances. In fact, parts of the theory even say that it is one’s moral duty to act on these universalizable maxims, and that people should only act on those maxims that can be universalized. The stability of Kant’s theory rests not only on the fact that it is completely objective– every action is definitely either morally permissible or not– but also on the fact that the theory is non-consequentialist.

Kant truly does not look to the consequences of an action to see whether the ction is morally permissible, but rather to the morality of the action itself. Kant assumes that universal morality is inherent in being, thus avoiding complications in trying to determine which actions lead to better consequences. However, Kant does not speak of perfect and imperfect moral duties, those duties that respectively do or do not involve qualifications as to the particulars of the situation at hand, thus complicating the issue.

Several objections can be raised to the theory Kant sets forth, but each of them seems to stem from the thought that the theory cannot account for ll actions and situations. Certain moral duties, for instance, are brought about by relying on more than just the Categorical Imperative and process of universalization, specifically on the subjective definitions of certain terms and ideas about what is and is not and of itself moral. Also, one might say that in some situations a maxim that can be universalized is still not morally permissible, while one that cannot be universalized is indeed permissible.

In all these situations though, it seems at least somewhat possible to lessen the objection by taking a closer look at the situation, perhaps by changing or eexamining the maxims behind it. An example of one of these moral duties not derived entirely from the Categorical Imperative is that of the “rugged individualist” who refuses to help as much as he refuses to be helped. The universalization applicable in this situation relies on the assumption that not helping is definitely immoral, which may or may not necessarily be true.

This rugged individualist seems to follow a maxim to the effect of “I should refuse help and refuse to help. ” However, had the universalization of this maxim- ‘everyone refuses help nd refuses to be helped”- been followed by all people up to this point, society would not have been able to function, and because of that people would have been directly harmed, a fairly immoral result. Thus, it can be said that not helping is then not morally permissible.

So, although the morality of not helping when help has always been refused may in and of itself be open to moral debate, the universal would be immoral as it still harms people. Looking at the situation differently allows the principles to work. Kant thus seems to be more interested in doing what is morally right ather than deciding which actions are necessarily moral in and of themselves. A second criticism raised would be that certain maxims cannot be universalized, yet it does not seem morally wrong to act on them.

For example, using contraception during sexual intercourse and removing money from the bank to buy gold at a fixed price; if everyone used contraception there not be any procreation and if everyone removed his or her money from the bank, the economy would collapse. Thus, the process of universalization fails, since using contraception or withdrawing money is not immoral. However, aside from the fact many consider the use of contraception to be, in fact, immoral, the original maxims in either case focuses on a goal- either on not having a child or on making money.

Thus, these issues are contingent on their consequences. A non-moral choice is involved, thus making the issue as a whole not necessarily a solely moral issue. While a maxim such as “I will not murder anyone” rests on morality alone and holds true under the Categorical Imperative, these two examples both require non-moral conditions and choices to be made. The corollary to the previous objection is that while some maxims can be universally applied, acting on those maxims would not be permissible.

An example would be allowing anyone with a star shaped birthmark on their back to steal. Universalizing this seems to be possible, at least at first glance. However, universalization implies that a maxim be applicable throughout time. No matter how unlikely, perhaps the future will contain nothing other than birthmarked clones. In that case, the maxim cannot be universalized. And again, the conditions presented do not affect the morality of the ituation, but rather to whom the morality is applied, thus contradicting the idea of an objective, universal morality.

The main issue with these objections seems to be that Kant’s theory breaks down to some extent in certain situations. However, it becomes possible that by further analyzing the situation at hand, certain allowances can be made. Perhaps then the most convincing argument for the theory is that on a day-to-day basis. Kantian Ethics provides a method for deciding the best and most moral course of action. Perhaps this is the purpose of moral theory in the first place.

A Worn Path – Love

Love Conquers All In “A Worn Path” Eudora Weltys plot is not all that clear in the beginning of her short story, but progresses as her character carries on against all of the overwhelming forces against her. In this short story a black elderly woman, Phoenix Jackson, must overcome the odds against her as she valiantly travels through many obstacles in order to contribute to the wellness of her grandson, for whom she is making this trip down “a worn path.

It is at this point that all of Weltys readers hearts open up to this poor, elderly woman as she makes an attempt to carry on her love for her grandson by taking a long journey down a familiar path in order to get medication that seems to help ease his sickness pains. However, there are many forces against Phoenix that Welty includes in her story in order to make Phoenixs adventure end in a victory. Poverty, old age, and her journey through the woods are all of the odds which Phoenix must overcome.

Poverty is a major hardship that most of us will never have to face, but in Phoenixs case, poverty is present everyday in her and her grandsons life. Since she is in this state of poverty, Phoenix is not able to enjoy lifes luxuries as others do and must make do with what she can. As she begins her journey, it becomes clear that she lacks the money to pay for transportation to and from town; therefore, she starts down her path carrying a “thin, small cane made from an umbrella” (132).

Although Welty never really emphasizes what this is used for the reader can assume that she uses it because she does not have the money to buy the actual cane needed to help her walk properly. Another conflict dealing with poverty arouses when she feels it necessary to steal from a hunter she encounters in the woods. While the hunter walks away her sneaky “fingers slid down and along the ground under the piece of money with grace and care they would have in lifting an egg from under a setting hen” (134).

Here Welty shows that Phoenix must do what she has to in order to survive. Even though it may not appear right, her poverty forces her to act in a way that she only knows best. For instance, when people have a barrier separating them between something they want, they are going to do what they can to achieve their goal no matter what stands in their way. In this case Phoenix is a poor woman and the money catches her eye. Acting on her instinct, she takes what is not hers and hopes that she can get away with it.

However, because of her perseverance and determination to better the health of her grandson, Phoenix journeys into town to receive charity that the doctors office provides her. This “soothing medicine” they give her is the reason why she makes this trip in the first place (136). However, she is looked upon as a charity case since she has no money to pay for the medication he needs and is given the medicine for free. All of these examples that Welty has described in “A Worn Path” allow her story to develop by making readers think about what she writes.

Poverty is an important issue in todays society and it makes one think of all the fortunes they have. In this sense, Welty also makes one fear poverty by the way she addresses it. The images allow one to feel Phoenixs pain that comes along with poverty. Joyce Carol Oates backs up this statement by adding that by “disciplining her [Weltys] vision in order to gain deeper penetration into the dark and lovely realities of the lonely human spirit and shaping her fiction so that each story should be something achieved… ” (362).

Oates simply means that Welty goes beyond normal realities in order to grab the readers attention. Through poverty, Welty takes a worldwide problem and stretches it to a level in which the person reading her story feels saddened by the power she displays. To be old, poor, and a surrogate mother is a hard job, and Welty does a wonderful job of portraying this through the underlying problem of poverty. Another overpowering element in “A Worn Path” is Phoenixs age. Welty writes that she has “numberless branching wrinkles” which illustrates that she has many years behind her (132).

It is here that Welty begins painting a portrait in which the reader can envision scenes from her story. Because of her old age, Phoenix lets her feet do the walking while her mind runs free and wild. This is where her age seems as though it is a constant problem. As seen in the movies or in real life, old people often have a problem with keeping all of their thoughts straight. Not only is it dangerous, but it also adds to the flare of Weltys story. Now the odds have gone up against this poor, old woman. Welty carries on with this image of an old woman traveling a path as if she were sleep walking.

But as she approaches the doctors office ” her feet knew to stop,” and she appeared to have no recollection as to where she is going or what she is doing there (135). As she enters the office she stares off into space and “for[gets] why[she] made [her] long trip” (136). It seems that she has come all of this way and cannot remember a thing, except the daydreams she floated in and out of on her way there. However, one thing does stand out: the gold diploma seal in the doctors office (135). Here Welty allows Phoenix, an old woman, to recall the one thing that symbolizes something to her, a victory.

Phoenix may not recollect why she is there, but that certain document lets her know that she is where she needs to be. It also stands for a prize, her grandsons medicine. A good friend of Weltys adds that “there are half-states, mixtures of dream and reality, or rapid shifts between the two worlds” which are “fact and fantasy” (Vande Kieft 135). Ruth Vande Kieft also explains that “A Worn Path” is not the only story in which Weltys characters drift between dream and fantasy life (82-92). The odds against Phoenix are definitely taking their toll upon her.

On an earlier page, 133, the author describes one of her movements relating to a baby. Is Welty trying to imply that Phoenix displays characteristics of a young child, not only in action but in thoughts as well? Some say that when someone becomes old, they start to revert back physically as well as mentally. As Welty shows the effects of old age, it is at this time that the conflicts become very apparent. This particular conflict is with herself. She is old and cannot stop the occurrences that take place to her body and mind as she grows older.

Another conflict that contributes to the plot is Phoenixs journey through the woods. An obvious factor is the trip to town. Since Phoenix lives out in the country, she must walk a far distance to encounter any kind of civilization. The title “A Worn Path” implies that Phoenix has made this journey many times. Here the reader gets the impression that these are her marks and that this path is worn because of her. As she walks through the dangerous terrain, Phoenix encounters a bush which fails to let her by: “Thorns, you doing your appointed work.

Never want to let folks pass, no sir” (132). Welty describes this path that Phoenix chooses as a sort of obstacle course. She must stretch and shrink her body in order to get through the almost impassable obstacles. Even though the path may be worn, it is as if something is trying to hold her back. Maybe it is a way of telling her that her grandson may never get better and in actuality the medication she gets for him may not be working as it seems. Welty insinuates this by the conversation that takes place between the nurse and Phoenix.

The nurse asks Phoenix if her grandson was any better since her last visit to the doctors office for medication (136). Now the reader can conclude that the medication may never cure him. However, with her determination and motivation her feet keep on moving. Along with the thorny bushes, a barbed wire fence and a log over a creek put her in great danger, but Phoenix continues to proceed with her journey. After all of these setbacks, she then comes face to face with a white hunter. Welty uses this white hunter as a conflict because it is relevant to the time the story took place.

The reader can assume from looking at the date above the story that this was a time which racism was a problem. Therefore, the hunter nags her a while then pulls his gun slowly up to her. Phoenix replies “I seen plenty go off closer by, in my day… ” (135). What is exactly meant by this? One possibility may be that Phoenix feels the hunter caught her stealing. Phoenix also gives the impression that she may have done this before and gotten caught. Why would Welty add this in her story? It can be assumed that the date again has strong significance. Well, the possibilities are endless.

But, it is clearly seen that these encounters that she faces are not common in everyday life. What do all of these setbacks add to her story? They offer the end of the journey to be more courageous on Phoenixs part and they give the reader a sense of open-heartedness towards Weltys character. This journey through the woods shows Phoenixs love for her grandson. With all of the hardships on this journey love conquers all and Ruth Van Kieft states: “There are no significant barriers to the expressive love of old Phoenix, and this is reflected also in her sense of familiarity with nature… 29).

This familiarity allows the reader to feel that Weltys character has a deep love for nature. In the story, Welty includes many conversations with animals during her journey through the woods. Basically Weltys character appears comfortable with nature and does not see the journey as a burden, as does the reader, but as an adventure. Not only does her journey endanger her, but the fact that she is making this journey for the love of her grandson adds so much more to her effect of the story.

Furthermore, these incidents indicate that Phoenix adapts to the dangers that face her, and allows the plot to then become clear. Welty catches the readers attention by how real her short story seems. Even though many people may never experience Phoenixs problems, the descriptions and images she uses allows her to create a powerful story in which many feel they can relate to in some way. Her three major problems, poverty, old age, and some form of a journey, are all obstacles which all of her readers will one day face as they travel through their own paths

The Theory and Testing of the Reconceptualization of General and Specific Deterrence

In the May 1993 issue of the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, the introduction of the reconceptualized deterrence theory was presented, explaining that general and specific deterrence are both functions of crime. Mark C. Stafford, an Associate Professor of Sociology and Associate Rural Sociologist at Washington State University, and Mark Warr, an Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Texas in Austin, introduced this theory.

They argued that there is no reason to have multiple theories for general and specific deterrence. Rather, a single theory is possible that centers on indirect experience with legal punishment and punishment avoidance and direct experience with legal punishment and avoidance. 1 General deterrence includes the knowledge of criminal acts performed by others and the consequences or absence of consequences from the activity.

Specific deterrence relies upon personal experience of punishment and the avoidance of punishment for a criminal activity previously committed. Both Stafford and Warr theorized that people are exposed to both types of deterrents, with some people exposed to more of one type than the other. In addition both general and specific deterrence effects may coincide with each other and act as reinforcement. In the May 1995 issue of the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency a preliminary test was conducted on Stafford and Warr’s deterrence theory.

Raymond Paternoster and Alex Piquero, both professors in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Maryland, attempted to elaborate on Stafford and Warr’s original findings. They, Paternoster and Piquero, argued that although they could find some support for the basic features of the deterrence theory, there was still a significant component that Paternoster and Piquero could not address. Without being able to measure the consequences of the illegal behavior of their respondents’ peers, they could not separate the effects of indirect punishment avoidance from indirect punishment.

Furthermore, they claimed that the personal experience of punishment had a definite role in substance abuse, as well as leading to additional criminal activities because of formal sanctions. Stafford and War’s deterrence theory provides a valuable insight into the mind of criminal or would-be criminal for the sake of determining deterrence from criminal activities. Strong arguments and logical reasoning are the foundations that their theory is built on, bolstered with their own personal knowledge of the subject matter, making it a sound argument.

Paternoster and Piquero provide data from a well though out experiment that supports the deterrence theory. However, their insufficiency of much needed data to examine a major part of the theory, and the fact that they have only conducted a preliminary test of the theory, leave them open to the possibility of errors. Stafford and Warr’s reconceptualization of general and specific deterrence evaluates the premise that the rate of crime in any population is a function of both general and specific deterrence.

Using empirical data deprived from their own practical experience, as well as from the observations and experiments of their other colleagues in their field, they attempt to establish their theory of the reconceptualization of general and specific deterrence. First, it is important to understand the background of their work and the foundation of deterrence. There are two types of deterrence, general and specific. In analyzing the deterrent effects it is highly important to distinguish between general and specific deterrence, because they are very different. General deterrence refers to the effects of legal punishment on the general public (i. , potential offenders), specific deterrence pertains to the effects of legal punishment on those who have suffered it. 3

Both kinds of experience rely upon individuals to have some degree of knowledge or experience with the justice system’s punishment to dissuade them from committing criminal acts. For members of the general public (general deterrence) it is indirect experience with punishment (observing or otherwise having knowledge of the punishment of others) that deters, whereas for punished offenders (specific deterrence) it is direct (personal) experience.

Within general deterrence, two types of people can be found that must be taken into consideration. Stafford and Warr used the findings of J. P. Gibbs, author of “Crime, Punishment, and Deterrence” for the Social Science Quarterly, to examine these two types of people. The first are those who have never committed or have taken part in any criminal activity, excluding those wrongfully punished for crimes they did not commit. The second type of person is one who has attempted or successfully completed a crime and has avoided legal consequences.

In relation to cause and effect, while the first type of person has had no direct experience with legal punishment, the effect on the second type of person is that he or she has gained valuable insight on avoiding sanctions by the justice system. It is a factor that may lead to the possibility of committing future crimes, making it a crucial factor of the deterrence theory. Individuals who avoid punishment or have little experience with it may begin to assume that they are not susceptible to punishment. Perhaps the greatest value of the concept is that it underscores the fundamental principle that no criminal act is without consequences.

Most specific deterrence studies rely upon examining the punished offender and post-punishment offending to determine a level of deterrence from crime. A major argument, again, is that this procedure ignores the probability of someone being punished while having knowledge of punishment from the experiences of others. 6 An individual punished for one crime may know others who have: (a) committed the same crime and avoided punishment, (b) committed the same crime and received a smaller punishment, or (c) committed the same crime and received a harsher sanction.

Stafford and Warr’s argument is that deterrence from crime will rely solely upon the individual’s knowledge. The general public and punished offenders have a combination of both general and specific experience with punishment and punishment avoidance. Take, for example, an offender who is caught and punished for crime type A, but has avoided punishment for crime types B, C, and D. The effects of punishment avoidance and indirect experience with punishment must be taken into consideration when determining the offender’s future behavior.

Put quite simply, the direct experience from crime type A cannot be the only factor used to predict the offender’s future behavior. Crime types B, C, and D must also be included along with crime type A. Stafford and Warr’s reconceptualization of general and specific deterrence states that the rate of crime in virtually any population will be a function of both general and specific deterrence. 7 It provides many advantages over the system currently in use. First, both general and specific deterrence can be used on any given population of people.

Secondly, a clear distinction is made between those being punished and those avoiding punishment. Thirdly, it is compatible with the contemporary learning theory with the difference between observational/vicarious learning and experiential learning. 8 It should be noted, however, that most of their conclusions are drawn from supported opinions instead of fact. While supported opinions have more credibility than unsupported opinions; it cannot turn an opinion into fact. Most of their work is based on empirical data from their own practical experience along with the experience of their colleagues.

Most of their reasoning was based on deductive reasoning, where they began with their general proposition and established a chain of reasoning that lead to their conclusion. In the tradition of deductive reasoning, they began with the major premise that the rate of crime in virtually any population would be a function of both general and specific deterrence. Next, the minor premise, presents a specific example of the belief that is stated in the major premise, which is that people have a mixture of general and specific deterrence with punishment and punishment avoidance.

Though they used supported opinion, their reasoning is sound, so the conclusion naturally follows from the two premises. Both general and specific deterrence can operate for any given person in any given population, providing one theory of deterrence, eliminating the possibility of overlooking critical issues. The tone of the overall argument suggests a rational appeal to the reader, due to the lack of such fallacies as an argument to the people and the bandwagon effect. One fallacy that might be applicable is a hasty generalization of their theory.

Stafford and Warr’s conclusions appear to be based on too little evidence; in addition, they have not substantially tested their theory. Other than the detection of this one fallacy, their overall argument is a sound and relatively rational one. Stafford and Warr commented on a very strong variable, which is associated with crime, peer involvement. People who have friends who committed criminal acts displays a behavior that mirrors indirect experience with punishment and punishment avoidance. It may affect the certainty of sanctions, because the person will have access to the knowledge of their friends who have direct experience.

In addition, peers provide a larger wealth of knowledge on punishment and punishment avoidance to an individual than that individual would have from his or her own experiences. It is this which will determine whether or not an individual will be deterred from a criminal act or not, by allowing the individual to asses the efficiency of law enforcement. Stafford and Warr are quick to point out that their theory has shown that a complex experimental examination is needed to test the effects of indirect and direct experience with punishment and punishment avoidance. This maybe a more important issue as far at the deterrence theory is concerned.

Paternoster and Piquero conducted preliminary testing on the main components of Stafford and Warr’s reconceptualization of general and specific deterrence. Through their testing, they have confirmed many of Stafford and Warr’s speculations, on both general and specific deterrent effects on a person’s view of sanctions, and the inhibiting effect caused by them. In addition, they discovered that substance abuse was directly related to those previously sanctioned as a result of their delinquency. Unlike Stafford and Warr, Paternoster and Piquero used inductive reasoning instead of deductive reasoning to reach their conclusions.

They drew their conclusions based on specific facts and observations made from their experiments, unlike Stafford and Warr’s use of supported opinions. It should be noted that an inductive conclusion is never certain, only probable, and it relies on an inferencea conclusion about the unknown based on the known. Their data came from an experiment in the form of a questionnaire, administered to all 10th grade students in nine high schools in and around an anonymous southeastern city in the United States during the fall of 1981, consisting of 2,700 students.

Approximately one year later an identical questionnaire was administered to the same students, now juniors. It measured the student’s direct and indirect experiences with punishment and punishment avoidance as well as the risk or certainty of the threat of sanctions for oneself and for others. Students were tested on their perceived threat of sanctions, asking the likely hood of them being caught for underage drinking and marijuana use. The two delinquent offenses were combined into one scale, measuring the perceived risk to oneself.

Within the same category of perceived threats of sanctions, students were to estimate out of 100 people, the number who would be arrested in their town for the same two offenses. Again, the responses for both crimes were combined into one composite scale. The students’ experience with punishment and punishment avoidance was measured on a point system. A student started with zero points and added one point for each of the following: being apprehended by police, taken to a police station, arrested, or taken to juvenile court.

A score of zero means the student had no experience with punishment from the criminal justice system; a score of four meant the student had been apprehended by police, taken to a police station, arrested, and has been juvenile court. Punishment avoidance measured the number of times the student committed the two delinquent offenses, minus the number of times they reported being caught for such crimes. Therefore, it reflects the number of times that drugs and alcohol were used without apprehension or sanction. 10

The indirect experience with punishment and punishment avoidance variable tested the knowledge of the students’ peers in criminal activity and the punishment experiences. A major shortcoming was that the separation of indirect experience of punishment and punishment avoidance was impossible to obtain with their data. Therefore, the level of experience with a student’s peer in terms of punishment and punishment avoidance could not be calculated. Instead, Paternoster and Piquero were forced to measure only the extent to which respondent’s peers were involved in drinking and marijuana use.

It must be noted that this may cause errors in their empirical data. Peer involvement was measured by asking respondents to report the proportion of their friends who drink liquor and use marijuana. 11 As before, liquor and marijuana use was combined into one composite scale to publicize the majority of friends who use alcohol and drugs. Paternoster and Piquero attempted to expand Stafford and Warr’s theory by suggesting that three other personal experiences influence perceptions of the risk of punishment for one’s self and others.

These three experiences would be (a) the amount of informal surveillance one experiences, (b) one’s moral evaluation of each act, and (c) the closeness of emotional bonds with conventional others. 12 Informal surveillance is provided by the parents, who may or may not develop a higher perception of risk, depending upon the level of surveillance provided by the parents. The system used to test the students’ level of informal surveillance consisted of a two-item question. First, they were asked if their parents knew where they were and whom they were with outside of their home.

High scores meant there was strict supervision while low scores reflected low supervision. Moral evaluation of a criminal act asked the students to state whether they saw underage drinking and marijuana use as morally wrong. The question was based on a five point system, with answers ranging from never wrong to always wrong. Answers containing a high score reflected those students who expressed a higher level of morality. The closeness of emotional bonds to others, argues Paternoster and Piquero, will also determine the likely hood of committing criminal acts.

They hypothesized that the moral beliefs of one’s friends might constitute a kind of indirect moral barometer that would affect both the perceived risk to others and self. 13 Measuring the friends’ beliefs was based on a five point system, asking if their friends would approve or disapprove of their use of alcohol and marijuana. A high score meant there was a high degree of peer support for substance abuse, while a low score meant peer support for substance abuse was low. Approximately one year later a second questionnaire was administered to the same students, nearly identical to the first.

The students were asked the number of times they had consumed alcohol or smoked marijuana within the last twelve months. These two behaviors correspond to those referenced in the scales of measuring moral beliefs, friends’ beliefs about substance abuse, friends’ behavior, perceived risk to self, and perceived risk to others. Because the measure of self-reported substance at Time 2 was positively skewed, with a small percentage of youths reporting very high frequencies, higher frequencies were truncated to the frequency corresponding to the 90th percentile. 14

The results of Paternoster and Piquero’s testing have been divided into three segments, each discussing the various findings of the reconceptualization of general and specific deterrence. These three segments explain the findings on the operation of general and specific deterrence, the differential impact of direct and indirect experience, and the interaction of direct and indirect experience. An unexpected result was that substance abuse was directly related to those who had been previously apprehended by law enforcement and sanctioned as a result of their delinquency.

Lawrence Sherman, author of the “Defiance, Deterrence, and Irrelevance: A Theory of the Criminal Sanction” for the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, explains what she calls the defiance effect of sanctions. This is where the offender feels that the punishment administered is unfair, either due to a procedural or substantive element. In accordance with the cause and effect relationship, the result is an offender who feels anger and shame and responds with further defiance. However, Paternoster and Piquero note, most of the juveniles in their sample who were punished did not respond with further defiance.

Other results have confirmed that punishment avoidance has a positive effect on substance abuse, which induces (a) a self-perceived reduced risk of sanctions on oneself, (b) a weakening of moral beliefs, (c) parental surveillance, (d) and emotional bonds, (e) while strengthening delinquent bonds, (f) and encouraging future use if not caught. Consistent with the general deterrent effect, a person’s indirect experience with a peer’s behavior has a reverse effect on both perceptions of risk and beliefs.

A person’s friend who uses illegal substances is more likely to start using than if his or her friend did not use drugs. It is quite conclusive that the test results confirm that deterrence involves both general and specific deterrence. Stafford and Warr are correct in suggesting that the inhibiting effect of perceived sanction threats involves both general and specific deterrence mechanisms. 15 Direct and indirect experience makes the individual’s compulsion to commit crimes strong or weak, depending upon their experiences, and how they perceive the risks to themselves and others.

The differential impact of direct and indirect experience determined the likeliness that indirect experiences will influence individuals who lack direct experience. By analyzing the data received from the questionnaires, there is enough evidence to support the idea that those who have little direct experience will have stronger amounts of indirect experience, and vice versa. Therefore, general deterrence tends to be more associated with those who have less experience, while specific deterrence is more closely associated with those who have more experience.

Stafford and Warr’s hypothesis about the differential impact of direct and indirect experiences seems to hold true. The interaction of direct and indirect experience contemplates whether or not Stafford and Warr’s theory that direct and indirect experience affect an individual’s perception of risk above their respective separate effects is correct or not. 16 The result is that if a person receives a continuos message that the risk of a crime is minimal, that person will have lower estimates of the certainty of punishment for themselves than those who receive either mixed messages, or consistent messages that substance use is risky.

Paternoster and Piquero’s overall testing of Stafford and Warr’s reconceptualization of general and specific deterrence has proved that their theory holds true to some degree. People are indeed affected by a mixture of both general and specific deterrence, with either one being used more so than the other depending upon the experience level of each individual. However, without being able to calculate the level of experience with a student’s peer in terms of punishment and punishment avoidance allows errors to develop that might prejudice their conclusions.

Those who have less experience tend to be affected by general deterrence, while those having a high level of experience are more so affected by specific deterrence. Unexpectedly they found a direct link to the substance abuse by those previously sanctioned, and concluded that they are likely to commit future acts of delinquency. These insights will shed more light into disentangling deterrence from defiance, making it a new and important area of research.

Stafford and Warr used deductive reasoning for their deterrence theory, supporting their findings with supported opinions from themselves and other colleagues in their field. While the opinions come from credible people with vast knowledge in their area of study, it does not displace the reality that an opinion can never be fact. By using a rational tone instead of an emotional one, Stafford and Warr did create sound arguments about the reconceptualization of general and specific deterrence, despite having a logical fallacy in their overall work.

By only including empirical data from personal experiences and observations from others, they lack the sufficient evidence to support their claim. This is known as a hasty generalization; when little evidence is used to defend an argument. At no point in Stafford and Warr’s conclusion did they ever use faulty analogies, stereotypes, or oversimplified the issues at hand. To do so would invalidate their work. In spite of some shortcomings, Stafford and Warr have made a convincing statement of their theory.

Paternoster and Piquero tested Stafford and Warr’s theory by using inductive reasoning, basing their conclusions on observed facts and hard evidence obtained from their experiment, unlike Stafford and Warr. The experiment was well though out, covering many diverse areas pertaining to general and specific deterrence. While examining the obtained data, Paternoster and Piquero were able to find evidence to support Stafford and Warr’s theory while discovering that people previously sanctioned are more likely to commit further acts of delinquency.

The shortcoming of the experiment was that it could not separate the indirect experience of punishment and punishment avoidance. Instead, Paternoster and Piquero measured the extent to which the students’ peers used alcohol and marijuana. This could cause the possibility of errors within their findings, making their conclusion inaccurate. In defending their finding that people previously sanctioned will tend to commit further delinquent acts, Paternoster and Piquero used an effective cause and effect scheme as well as using the works of Sherman to prove their point.

As with Stafford and Warr, Paternoster and Piquero did not prejudice their research with any faulty analogies or stereotypes. Though these are preliminary tests, their use of a rational tone supported by clear and accurate evidence suggest they are correct in their findings. Stafford and Warr presented their theory of reconceptualization of general and specific deterrence, and Paternoster and Piquero attempted to confirm it by an experiment. The conclusions of both groups were faulty in some areas, but strong in others.

However, both groups did an excellent job in determining if the crime rate of a population is a combination of both general and specific deterrence. Where one group was lacking, the other group was able to confirm this theory. Though further testing needs to establish if this theory is correct, it will provide a single theory for deterrence, eliminating the possibility of accidentally excluding essential issues, and provide more resources to those trying to distinguish between deterrence and defiance.

Kinship in Sudan: Buth and Mar Among the Nuer

The Nuer people are one of more than one hundred ethnic groups in the northeastern African country of Sudan, which stretches stretches southward from Egypt for 2000 kilometres and westward from the Red Sea for 1500 kilometres. The Nuer are the second largest tribe in southern Sudan, numbering over one million people, according to estimates from the 1980’s. Other tribes in the south include the more populous Dinka, the Shilluk, Anuak, Acholi and Lotuho, along with numerous smaller tribes. The Dinka are closely associated with the Nuer, and are often integrated into Nuer society when they reside with, or marry into a Nuer village.

Principally the Nuer inhabit the swamps and expansive open grasslands on either side of the upper Nile River, and its tributaries, in the south. The south has an equatorial rainy climate, divided by a very dry season and a very wet one, and Nuer life is regulated entirely by the seasons. In the dry season only a few of the older folk remain in the village, the rest going with the cattle to water-holes or to the river bank, where summer camps are built. The Nuer are pre-emiinentaly pastoral, though they grow more millet and maize than is commonly supposed (Evans-Pritchard, 1940:16).

The lives of the Nuer revolve around their herding practices, raising cattle, and the seasonal patterns of the terrain. Like many of his pastoral neighbors, the dearest possession of the Nuer is cattle, and their herds play a significant role in the economy, social structure, and religion of these communities. The Nuer cattle are used as payment for virtually everything and are also the main source of food; they are used in purchases of land, as payment of bride price, and for milk, blood and meat.

Cattle are passed down as part of inheritance, and can stay in the family for several generations. An ox or lactating cow is always a part of any religious ceremony no ritual is complete without the symbolic or actual sacrifice of one of the herd. Cattle also play a part in the kinship system used by the Nuer. Kinship is defined by Chodkiewicz (1998, Oct. 9) as the ideology of domestic life. Kinship systems are formed by sets of rules concerning four areas. Descent concerns all the rules of inheritance in group membership, name, property or status.

Affinity deals with all the rules defiing which kind of marriage is forbidden, permitted or perferred. Residence rules dictate where new spouses wil live, and kinship terminology are the named for the categories of relatives which are recognized by a society. It is these four areas of Nuer society that will form the primary focus of this paper, however other areas influence kinship and will be dealt with as they arise. Bibliography for Kinship in Sudan: Buth and Mar Among the Nuer References listed are the primary ones used in the development of ideas or quoted.

Kinship Lecture: Social Organization in Cross Cultural Perspective. October 9, 1998 1940The Nuer: A description of the modes of livelihood and political institutions of a Nilotic people. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1951Kinship and Marriage Among the Nuer. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1956 Nuer Religion. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1987 African Systems of Kinship and Marriage. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. 1932Pagan Tribes of the Nilotic Sudan. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. The position of leader is not an inherited responsibility.

Leaders emerge in the community after demonstrating leadership qualities and gaining the respect of the other community members. Leaders were often the elders in the community The people are generous to each other, but any request which has an overtone of an order can quickly anger them. Friends must have an obligation to be hospitable to each other. Hospitality offered by one friend must be returned by the other at a later time. Relative age is of great importance in interpersonal relations. Every person is categorized in terms of an age set which is an association made up of equals in age.

Males are divided into age grades so that each one is a senior, equal or junior to any other males. One is deferential to a senior, informal with an equal and superior to a junior. Women belong to the system as mothers, wives, sisters or daughters of the males. The Nuer are kind to their aged and usually respect their opinions. Age, rather than relationship, governs the use of terms of address. Anyone older is addressed as “father” or “mother”; anyone younger is addressed as “son” or “daughter”. The very old are called “grandfather” or “grandmother”.

People of the same age are addressed as “brother” or “sister”. The cutting of six tribal scars on each side of the forehead is seen as qualifying a boy for manhood and he is then able to fight in battles. The typical age of initiates has decreased over time. During the 1930’s, the typical age range was 14-15 years which decreased to between 9 and 13 years in the 1980’s. A celebration takes place and a big cow is killed. The age set may then take on the name of the cow’s color as part of their name. The ultimate goal of marriage is the bearing of children.

Therefore, a woman’s standing with her husband and his people, is governed by her ability to bear children. To be the mother of many children is the greatest privilege and honor. Should she be unable to bear children, her position is insecure, and her husband will try to get another wife who will bear children. In Nuer culture, gender roles have traditionally been well-defined. Men tended the cattle and other animals and were the warriors fighting neighboring tribes for land, cattle and out of a sense of pride in their tribe and abilities.

Women managed the household and made most decisions regarding rearing of the children. However, the idea of “home” included both men and women; that is, without a man, there is no home and without a woman, there is no home. In fact, a “home” is more easily maintained if the husband/father dies, in which case the children will stay with the mother, than if a wife/mother dies, in which case the children are given to relatives for care until the man remarries. In addition, women were often consulted on issues of public affairs and played an important role in mediating disputes.

Everyone in the family participated in planting and harvesting the few crops grown (millet and maize) and fishing. Marriage, a home and children are the goal of both men and women. The simplest expression of the family consists of husband and wife, or wives, with their children. Men normally marry around 20 years of age; women marry when they are mature enough to bear children (15-18 years). Before a man can marry, all of his older brothers must be married. Although a man may indicate his preferred choice for a wife, the final choice is the woman’s family who must approve of the suitor’s family.

A man will not approach the woman’s family unless he has assurance from the woman that she will accept him as her husband. It is said that the woman can refuse to marry the man approved by her family, but in practice this is very difficult. Marriage is a civil contract in which both parties commit themselves to certain obligations. The contract calls for a transfer of goods or money, or both, from the groom’s family to the bride’s family. A marriage concluded without this dowry means humiliation and even dishonor to the wire. The medium of transfer is usually cattle.

In the event that a man dies, leaving a wife and children, the younger brother of the deceased takes over the responsibility for the wife and children. The younger brother becomes the guardian of the family. Marriage does not occur and the widow retains her name as the wife of the dead man. Because the living brother feels a strong sense of obligation for the future of his dead brother’s family, the children are taken care of very well. Divorce can be granted for reasons such as drunkenness, sexual and temperamental incompatibility, unfriendly relationships with a mother-in-law, adultery, barrenness and impotence.

Divorce rates among the Nuer in Sudan have increased in recent decades. Studies conducted in the 1980’s indicated that up to one-third of marriages experienced divorce. In Sudan, in cases of divorce, child custody typically goes to the males. If a husband and wife are having difficulties, members of the extended families, both men and women, will meet to discuss the situation. The wife will go to her parent’s house. The husband and his relatives will then meet with the male relatives of the wife’s family to further discuss the situation and determine a course of action.

In most cases, the husband and wife will follow the recommendations. This method of solving family disputes is frequently not possible in the United States since many of the Nuer are young adults without the benefit of extended families. Ideal family size was quite large in the Sudan and a family might have more than seven children. Abstinence for up to 3 years was practiced after the birth of a child. Other forms of birth control were generally not practiced in the Sudan.

The purges in the Red Army

Joseph Stalin was maybe the biggest mass murderers of the twentieth century. From the purges in the Red Army to forced relocations, Stalin had the blood of millions on his hands. This essay is not going to debate the fact that this was indeed a brutal and power hungry individual, because he was indeed just that. I will on the other hand show you that through his way of governing the Soviet Union, he actually saved mother Russia from the German invasion in World War Two through he cunning and ruthlessness.

Joseph Stalin was a very industrious person and used every means possible to better prepare his country for the coming war that he believed was inevitable. Wether it was diplomatic plotting, economic maneuvering, or just plain brute force, Stalin used every tool in his vast arsenal. The following are some of the more important decisions and methods that Stalin employed. Stalin was forced to consolidate his power through harsh means to better rule the Soviet Union. He ordered the five year plans to industrialize the nation and ordered one of the largest military build up plans ever.

Stalin attempted many times to reach a diplomatic solution and ways to delay war with the Axis powers while at the same time trying to guarantee security from the West. Stalin wanted nothing less than to rule the Soviet Union and make her the greatest country in the world and he would stop at nothing to reach those goals. In his quest for leadership Stalin wished to consolidate his power in only himself, thus enabling him to better rule the Soviet Union. Stalin’s roots in politics go all the way back to him being expelled from the theological seminary in Tiflis, Georgia in 1899.

This was where Stalin got his first real taste for politics and from that point on his political ambitions grew greater and greater. Stalin soon joined up with the Social Democratic Party and after the party split over ideological differences in 1903, Stalin joined the Bolshevik party under Vladimir Lenin. From 1903 to 1912 Stalin was arrested, and managed to escape, several times. He was exiled to Siberia from 1913 to 1917, returning only after the fall of the Tsar. With the fall of the Tzar and the country in the hands of the revolutionaries Stalin believed it to be the perfect time to come back and renew his political ambitions.

Stalin was appointed Commissar of Nationalities after the Bolsheviks came to power in 1917. After Lenin’s death in 1924 the country was ruled by a triumvirate consisting of Stalin, G. E. Zinoviev and L. B. Kamenev. From this point on Stalin simply concentrated more and more power into his own hands. In 1925 Stalin made a turn to the right, got rid of his two companions and established a coalition with moderate leaders Burkharin, Rykov, and Tomsky, which lasted until 1928, when collectivization of agriculture and the forced industrialization came about.

Stalin now followed a simple pattern, he simply systematically replaced all those who were not his absolute followers. By 1930 his rule was absolute. Stalin was now free to go ahead and pursue his plans to industrialize and arm the Soviet Union. The only other obstacle in his path was the army leadership. Stalin viewed the army as a threat to his power and took steps to remove that threat. He organized all of his followers to delve into the lives of the military leadership and find out if they were traitors. Many of Stalin’s followers used this as a way of getting back at old rivals and enemies.

All kinds of false evidence was manufactured. Stalin took all of this at face value and a great number of the army leadership was either killed or exiled. There were also several show trials put on to demonstrate to the Soviet people that all of the killing was being done for a reason and that there really were conspirators and spies among them. Several accused openly confessed to active membership of a plot to murder the Soviet leadership. With the Army purges done, Stalin had not only control over the country but the military as well.

With Stalin’s iron fisted rule things were able to happen much more quickly then they would have under a large bureaucracy. Indeed the great advances in industrialization and defense would almost definitely not have as high as they were at the outbreak of war if not for Stalin rule. Stalin instituted the Five year Plans to boost Soviet society and industry. In 1928 Stalin put into effect the first Five Year industrial and economic development plan for the Soviet Union which forced the country to develop as an industrial nation.

The plan called for the industrial output to rise by over 20 percent annually. The optimum variant of the plan assumed: a) a significant expansion of connections with the world economy, both as a result of greater exports and especially as a result of greater long-term credits for equipment and technical aid. The problem with this plan was that it depended upon to many variables and the depression in the West plus low crop yield hampered the project. Yet during the first Five Year Plan, 1,500 big enterprises were built.

New sectors of industry were established, which had not existed in tsarist Russia-machine tool production, automobile and tractor manufacturing, a chemical industry, motor works, airplane factories, the production of powerful turbines and generators, production of high grade steel, ferrous alloys, synthetic rubber artificial fibers. Construction was begun of thousands of kilometers of new railroads and canals, the eastern part of the country became the second metallurgical and oil center of industry.

With Stalin’s push towards industrialization the Soviet Union was well on its way to create a formidable defense industry. All of the infrastructure was being laid that had previously not existed 10 years ago. The second Five Year Plan was in many ways just like the first but thought through more. This time the government took more of a direct control over everything from budgetary discipline to reorganization of the state- supervised collective-farm markets. In just a very short time, the Soviet Union had managed to pass nations that had been markedly ahead of them in terms of industrialization.

The third Five Year Plan was that of complete military armament. The military budget was vastly increased and training of men was also increased greatly. Through Stalin’s direction the Soviet Union went from a backwards country to a first rate industrial and military power. This would not have been possible without the concentrated power that Stalin had amassed. Although industrialization had occurred much still remained to be done in the defense sector. With all the turmoil in Europe and the thunder heads of war gathering Stalin turned his attention towards modernizing the Red Army.

Stalin ordered one of the largest military build ups and defensive programs that the world had ever seen. During the 1930s, Stalin ordered a 1,200-kilometer-long line of strong heavy fortifications extending the entire distance between the Baltic and the Black seas. Under the third Five Year Plan, massive amounts of money and resources were pumped into the defense industry. Stalin still believed that war with Germany and Japan was possible. Preparations were made by creating a modern defense industry, military aviation, an up-to-date navy, civil-defense training for the whole population, and so on.

During the two year period before the War with Germany the Soviet defense expenditure, wich had been 25 percent of the total budget in 1939, rose in 1941 to 43 percent of the state budget. Prior to this time the Soviets were getting away from the individual militias ans starting to concentrate on creating a standing army. The number of Soviet soldiers grew from 1. 9 million in 1939 to 5. 4 million by June 22, 1941, but most of their equipment was not new. The Soviet war industry was slowly but surely beginning to produce more and more equipment, this all thanks to Stalin’s reforms.

The mass production of the T-34 tank had commenced as well as the katucha rocket launcher vehicle. These two vehicles would prove to be the backbone of the Red army vehicle core. Also of note was that the Red Army had some of the best artillery of the was. While the Soviet War industry had accomplished a great deal before the war it really performed amazing feats during the war. In the early part of the war it was apparent the Germans were at least initially going to make great inroads into Soviet territory.

This was due to the fact of the size of the German army and speed at wich the Blitzkrieg was performed. This was where Stalin had the foresight to move the war industries further east. Altogether, between July and November 941 no fewer than 1,523 industrial enterprises, including 1,360 large war plants had been moved to the east. The “evacuation cargoes” amounted to a one and a half million railway wagon-loads. This transportation of industry during the second half of 1941 and the beginning of 1942 and its “rehousing must rank among the most stupendous organizational and human achievement during the war.

This was an extemely important decision by Stalin, for in a modern mechanized army, even small drops in production or the loss of a few plants can mean the difference between victory and defeat. In 1942-43 the Soviet was industry not only caught up to the Germans in equipment quality but started to surpass them as well as the rest of the world. The La-5-FN proved to be better then any German fighter, the T34 tank had earned the reputation as the best medium tank of the war and the new heavy JS(“Stalin”) tank was described as the best heavy tank in the world.

By 1943 ever facet of Soviet industry was running at full steam and everything that the Soviets had lacked at the beginning of the war they now had thanks to Stalin’s industrialization plans. Stalin had planed for war but he had also played the diplomatic card to improve his chances as well. Stalin had attempted many dfferent diplomatic solutions with both the Allied and Axis power and tried to delay the Soviet Unions involvement in the war as long as possible.

Stalin absolutely did not want to involve his country his country in the war unless he absolutely had to and even then he wanted to manoeuver it so the Red Army would only play a supporting role. Even long before the war, Stalin carefullly distinguished between the “aggressive” powers (Germany, Italy, japan) and the “non-aggressive” powers (France, Britain, USA, Canada). For the early part of the 1930’s Stalin really didn’t have a firm foreign policy. The only thing that his foreign policy did at the time was look out for the Soviet Union and nothing else.

This can be best understood from an excerpt from one of his speeches to the sixteenth congress: ‘We do not want a single foot of foreign territory, but we will not surrender a single inch of our territory either. ‘ this policy did not change until the late 1930’s when the real threat of a Second World War became apparent. Stalin now wanted to create a firm foreign policy to better open up dialogues with neighboring countries as the rush was on to create alliances to better prepare for the imminent threat of war.

The policy that was created was one that stressed defense as well as opening up and maintaining relations with other countries. The tasks of the Party in foreign policy were: 1-To pursue the policy of peace and of the consolidation of business relation with all countries. 2-To observe the greatest caution and not to allow our country to be drawn into conflicts by war provocateurs, who were in the habit of getting others to save them when they got in over there head. 3-To strengthen in every way the military might of the Red Army and Navy.

To strengthen the international bonds of friendship with the workers of all countries, workers whose interest it was to maintain peace and friendship among people. After the new foreign policy was created, Stalin set about to create protective alliances, which proved to be quite difficult to achieve. The first thing Stalin did was try and get treaties signed with those countries on the eastern front to try to create a buffer zone between Germany and the Soviet Union. Poland agreed to prolong her non-aggression treaty with the Soviet Union but things were progressing very slowly with the southern countries.

At the beginning Stalin wished to have his alliances with the Western powers and not the Germans. Yet time after time the Soviet ideas of alliances with the West were discarded. What Stalin really wanted was a strong system of alliances that promised military support and mutual aid if one of the signatory countries was attacked. What the Western powers wanted however was a series of large alliances for a psychological effect and not real support. This was unacceptable to Stalin therefore he started to probe the Germans for a possible treaty.

The Soviet Union signed several treaties with France, Czechoslovakia, Mongolia, and China but they were not really what Stalin wanted. In 1939 after numerous attempts for a grand mutual assistance treaty with the West, Stalin got the closest thing without even having to commit himself. On march 31, 1939 Chamberlain made his famous speech on Poland. Later that speech was also extended to Rumania and Greece. ‘Rumania and Poland practically form a continuous front from the Black Sea to the Baltic, a front separating Germany from the USSR.

Germany cannot attack the Soviet Union without going through Poland or Rumania, i. e. without bringing into play the Western guarantee, and without having to commit himself, Stalin secured a Western guarantee in the East which he had sought in vain for ten year… Once again attempts were made for an Anglo- Franco-Soviet alliance but it was doomed for failure again mostly due to the fact that Poland would absolutely not let any Soviet forces through their territory even as German forces were about to invade. From this point on a deal with Hitler was almost certainly on Stalin’s mind.

Stalin sought a deal with Hitler so he could keep his country out of the war and then possibly be an arbiter in the aftermath, so preparation he began to make a deal with his arch-enemy. All of Stalin’s actions were intended to protect Soviet Union. It must have occurred to Hitler that he did not want to risk a two front war, at least in the early stages of the war. We can see this because all of a sudden his anti-Russian views changed to that of friendship. On August 23 a deal between Germany and the Soviet Union was hammered out.

In the pact they undertook to remain strictly neutral towards each other if one of them should be involved in war. Stalin now had the breathing room and the time that he desperately needed. Stalin did not believe this to be a permanent arrangement but he thought that the Germans would not break the pack, or at the vary least officially break off relations and declare war before attacking. Defense preparations were already underway but through Stalin’s diplomacy he had bought the Red Army valuable time in which to turn itself into a modern mechanized army.

Stalin may have saved the Soviet union from the Germans but that does not mean he was without fault, quite the contrary. Stalin ignored a great deal of evidence that the Germans were going to attack in June 1941 and did nothing to bolster border defenses. A German deserter actually gave the Soviets the exact time and date of the attack, Stalin ignored this. This enabled the Germans to capture more territory than they initially should have. The army purges also contributed to the Germans winning almost all the opening engagements as the red Army had very few able Generals and officers.

Others might point out to the lack of material and equipment. All of these things were done for very specific reasons, Stalin weighed the gains and losses before acting and ultimately made some vary hard but mostly sound decisions. Stalin did not give the deserter any credit because he believed that Hitler would not be foolish enough to attack the Soviet Union when Britain was still fighting and the Battle for Africa waged on as well indeed no one else thought that Hitler would attack the Soviet Union either.

Stalin did not send masses of troops and equipment to the border because he thought that he could still negotiate and that Hitler would not risk a two front war. He did this because he knew that the border fortification would not be ready for another six months. The army purges were done to limit the militaries opposition against him so he could have greater control over the military. Stalin and many other truly did believe that the military was corrupt and compromised.

As to the lack of equipment, Stalin had instituted a massive military industry at the beginning of the war and up-to-date equipment was starting to be delivered to the front. The movement of the war industry east contributed to the lack of material but proved to be the saving grace of the army in the end. At the end the Soviet war industries were producing some of the best equipment in the world. In the end I do believe that through Stalin’s leadership the Soviet Union was saved.

Had it been under the leadership of the intended Communist bureaucracy it would have surely fallen. As we have seen in our country even simple matters can take forever to go into effect or get started under a bureaucracy. In that highly volatile and dangerous time period only an iron fisted rule could bring about change fast enough to due any good. True in the short term peoples right were trampled upon and millions died from famine, purges, and the war itself but in the end hundred’s of millions were saved.

Assyrian Warfare Essay

During Mesopotamian times, wars were what divided ruling periods. There were many different peoples that dominated Ancient Mesopotamia and the Assyrians were one of them. The Assyrians prospered mainly because of their divine talent to defensively resist and offensively overwhelm their enemies. At no point of Assyrian rule was there ever a time without conflict of some sort. The Assyrians were known to have a powerful, ruthless army. The army was the largest Middle East or Mediterranean fighting force that had ever been seen.

It is believed that God himself promised the Israelites that if they disobeyed Him he would allow them to be taken up and carried away to foreign lands. His promise is explained in Isaiah 5:26-29. It reads, He will whistle to them from the end of the earth; Surely they shall come with speed, swiftly. No one weary or stumble among them No one will slumber or sleep Nor will the belt on their loins be loosed, Nor the strap of their sandals be broken; Whose arrows are sharp, And all their bows bent; Their horses hooves will seem like flint, And their wheels like whirlwind.

Their roaring will be like a lion, They will roar like young lions; Yes, they will roar And lay hold of the prey; They will carry it away safely, And no one will deliver. Israels rebellion angered God and it led to war with the invincible Assyrians. The Northern Kingdom of Israel was wiped out. Why were the Assyrians at war so much? is a likely question to arise when discussing these people. And in my eyes the answer is simple. For land and power. The map of the beginning of the Assyrian empire compared to the end of the Assyrian empire shows great difference.

It is obvious that much expansion took place during this rule. Like the Chinese Han dynasty, there was an explosion of territory growth in the Assyrian time period. Not being able to control all the land and people was the Hans weakness and led to their downfall. The Assyrians had an interesting policy that eliminated this problem. They would deport defeated nations and led them to captive lands. This would destroy the individuals sense of nationalism and would cause them to be much more willing to submit to Assyrian rule.

They figured that the less people would resist, the less problem they would have with their captives and it worked well for them. What led the Assyrians to be so successful was location, technology, and resources. They were located in the center of all other civilizations, in-between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, as well as many others. They had the ability to use the fertile land to grow a strong, healthy people which brought tremendous advantages over the competition. The exigencies of war awakened much technological development.

Aside from all the mathematical inventions like the division of the circle into 360 degrees to lateral and longitudinal graphical navigation. They established advanced metal working techniques to develop weapons like swords, armor, battering rams, and lances that benefited them in battle. A plunderer is someone who takes things wrongfully or with force. That term can describe Assyrian warfare very well. It is believed that Assyria was Gods army. If God was unhappy with unrighteous decisions of other counties then the Assyrian army had the duty to destroy that nation.

Assyria was Gods rod and he would use them to carry out his wrath on those ungodly nations. And they did indeed take care of those nations. With extreme power and without mercy the Assyrians annihilated their enemies. With this power also came pride. Assyria demanded all to pay tribute to them. In their minds they were the superior people and everyone should show that through money and other worldly possessions. Of course from this arose additional conflicts, so they had to react to the resistance.

They skinned victims alive, cut of their hands, feet, ears, noses, eyes, pulled out tongues, and made? out of heads to burn fear into those considering to not pay them tribute. All the pride and arrogance the Assyrians displayed made more enemies than they probably could have handled. Their rival enemy, the Babylonians, were also skilled in warfare and had developed fighting tactics. In 652 B. C. the Babylonians began rebelling against their Assyrian rulers but weren’t as successful as they would have hoped.

Later, in 612 B. C. , the Medes and Scythians allied with Babylonians all rebelled against Assyria. As the three allied groups were about ready to retire, a flood came which demolished the Assyrian walls and opened the doors that in turn put an end to an evil empire. It seems to be an ongoing cycle; a group prospers and does well until they get too powerful and full of pride when others team up against them, eventually bringing them down and starting another ruling period.

Oedipus the King: Critical Paper

Sophocles is able to accomplish to achieve several objectives in his play, Oedipus the King. Sophocles magnificently retells a classic Greek tale while also describing the characters and their motives in great detail. Of the characters Sophocles naturally spends the most time characterizing the protagonist of the play, Oedipus. Sophocles conveys Oedipus’ ideals, moral, and opinions about several topics throughout the play. Among the most important and prominent of his beliefs that are revealed dealt with Oedipus’ value of reasoning, intellect, inquiry, and measurement.

Sophocles portrayed Oedipus as an amiable character that the Greek audience could sympathize with and perhaps even relate to. The audience saw a respectable figure, who did not seem to commit any blatant evil, come to his destruction. They saw an indubitable tragedy. Sophocles ensured that the audience would view Oedipus as a respectable and  plausible hero by giving Oedipus many of the popular sentiments of the time. These ideals were brought about by a philosophy that was thriving in Greece during Sophocles’ lifetime.

Most of Oedipus’ notions, can be traced back to either the dialectic Socrates in who appeared in Plato’s several works, or Plato’s student Aristotle. These notions were being circulated throughout Greece during the time period which Oedipus was thought to be presented, making them common knowledge for the audience of the time (Friedlander 7). Of all the virtues that the Greeks, especially the Athenians held dear was wisdom, wisdom dealing with everything in life (Friedlander 8).

Socrates spurned this Greek movement for wisdom when he not only proclaimed that wisdom is the one true virtue from which all other irtues originated, but he also put forth the notorious quote, “The unexamined life is not worth living. “(“Apology” 203) . Socrates throughout all of Plato’s dialogues, advocated the importance of the wisdom and said that the desire for this wisdom is the only true path to divinity. Aristotle later contributed to the theory when he wrote in his Nicomachean Ethics, that wisdom separated mankind from the animals and wisdom placed the Greeks closer to the gods that they worshiped and admired(435).

The Greeks constantly sought for this wisdom so that it may bring them to their greatest pleasure, the purpose in life, a true and final happiness, the aim of their Eudaimonia. ( “N. E. ” 397)  The Greek audience for which Sophocles wrote could easily sympathize with Oedipus in his play. This is due to the fact that Oedipus was struck down from his pedestal while merely attempting to discover himself and in that process to attain wisdom and happiness. The goals for which Oedipus sought were noble goals that a majority of the audience members may have been seeking.

Plato, in his Republic delineated a duelist theory of our world. Plato wrote that our world is actually a cave where people are bound and forced to look at shadows on the wall for their entire life(67). In Plato’s opinion, reality cannot exist in this world because only shadows cast by a fire are seen(69). According to Plato, the only way to see anything in its quintessence, the only way to see bona fide truth and wisdom is to escape the cave(71). By escaping the cave the person could  see the fire as a deceiver of reality because that person has now seen true light and virtue.

This light, this philosophic insight of reality allows the person to return to the cave, to see objects in their veritable conformations and give them their appropriate judgement and value(74). This theory is the basis for what Socrates in Plato’s Protagoras avouched his concept of “The Art of Measurement. “(“Prot. “163). Socrates holds that since the world is in a cave, the people cannot trust their judgement or perceptions because they are only of false shadows. Socrates proffered this theory in response to Protagoras’ question of why mankind commits acts that are ultimately harmful, such as smoking or excessive drinking(165).

Aristotle believed that this was because of a weak moral habit(“N. E. ” 411). However, Socrates did not believe in Aristotle’s famous Akrasia thesis, Socrates believed that no passion or pleasure could possibly overcome the omnipotent knowledge(“Prot. 141”). During the famed dialogue, Protagoras raised an obvious question when he asked why people will continue to smoke although they know it will cause them pain(143). In order to keep from refuting his argument, Socrates explained his Art of Measurement.

Socrates declared that the only reason mankind does such harmful things such as smoking is that they simply have no way to measure the immediate pleasure of smoking against the distant pain of the cancer of other disease that smoking causes(144). Socrates said simply that these people have a flawed sense of measurement due to the dark cave they dwell in(“Prot. ” 144). Without this art, the essence of wisdom, one cannot accurately weigh pleasure versus pain and one cannot achieve final pleasure… Eudaimonia.

The first step in achieving wisdom is the quest for self-knowledge, the quote on the base of the oracle’s statue at Delphi, “Know Thyself”(Friedlander 5). This was the identity that Oedipus was seeking. According to Socrates, the only way to achieve knowledge in general was though the use of inquiry(“Apology” 210) . Socrates practiced inquiry throughout his entire life. He started this practice when an oracle of Apollo told him that no one was wiser than he(“Apology” 215). In either modesty or disbelieve, Socrates led most of his life questioning others trying to find someone wiser than he.

However, although he learned a great deal through his questioning, Socrates discovered only that not one person, philosopher or sophist was truly wise because Socrates would reveal their self-contradictions(“Apology” 217). Regardless if Socrates would ever find anyone wiser than himself through inquiry, he believed that the life of inquiry was the most philosophical, and therefore the most divine(“Apology” 220). Oedipus too, seems to believe this as he spends a great majority of the play asking questions to anyone he suspects potentially has any information.

Oedipus questions everyone that approaches him and questions every scenario that confronts him. Oedipus constantly asks questions, “How can we cleanse ourselves- what rites? What’s the source of the trouble? “(164). Whether it is Jocasta or the messenger that Oedipus is speaking with, he is constantly and desperately trying to discover Laius’ murderer, and later his own identity. The most obvious and practical use of this inquiry is to acquire new knowledge so that intellect can be strengthened. It is obvious that Oedipus is eager to solve his problems.

He is all too eager to find the killer of Laius, his statement “I’ll bring it all to light myself! “(167) illustrates his unwavering determination for answers. As Oedipus uses his intellect to analyze the information he has, his desire for answers only becomes stronger. His desire becomes strongest when Jocasta urges Oedipus not to pursue his past any further, Oedipus ignores her request stating “I must know it all, must see the truth at last. “(222). Oedipus seems to be constantly using his intellect to determine the best method to accomplish his goals.

Most of his decisions are made by weighing all of his options and finding the best choice, he calculates the best option in regard to the scenario. During the beginning of the play, Oedipus says, “I have wept through the nights, you must know that, groping, laboring over many paths of thought. After a painful search I found one cure. . . .”(162). This shows the extent he labors himself to determine these calculations. The second tool that Oedipus uses to strengthen his intellect is reason. Oedipus frequently uses reason in the play in order to resolve which path he must next take, what inquiries he must further make.

Virtually all Greek philosophers including Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle believed that man was a being built on reason and that reason was the most necessary and healthy activity for man to practice. In this sense Oedipus seems to be the ideal person as he uses a great deal of sound reasoning. He uses this sound reasoning to accurately judge the situation and continue on his path to identity such as when he states to the chorus leader that if the killer did not flinch at murder, then he will not flinch at the words of Oedipus’ threats (175).

He also uses his reason when he tells Creon that he may be danger from the killer, which ironically enough would later come true(167). However, Oedipus proves that he is still in Plato’s dark cave when he uses an even greater amount of false reason and judgement. Oedipus is often quick to judge a situation and to let anger cloud his judgement, such as when he accuses Creon and Tiresias of plotting against him(189). He also fails in his reasoning when he persists to learn the truth despite Jocasta’s pleas(223-224).

If Oedipus had stopped his quest for identity when he realized that he was Laius’ killer, he would have avoided a significant amount of pain. Oedipus uses his intellect and his reason to calculate his decisions such as whom to question or who to accuse. However, his calculations are not always correct. Oedipus seems to deviate from his reason at times. For instance, he wrongly accuses Creon of attempting to take his throne and Oedipus even has the gall to call Tiresias ignorant and blind to the light of truth to which Oedipus is actually blind (181).

The quest for Oedipus’ identity is actually a simple equation which Oedipus himself cannot see because of his clouded senses. His lack of the “Art of Measurement” keeps Oedipus from true reason and intellect. However, Oedipus’ hubris leads him to believe that his judgements are in fact sound and he continues blindly into a quest for knowledge which may not be beneficial. His flawed perceptions prohibit Oedipus from accurately comparing the pleasure and the pain that his identity would cause him. Tiresias indeed had the “Art of Measurement” as he vehemently tells Oedipus to, “Go on reflect on that, solve that. 185).

One of the most prevalent ironies in the play is that Oedipus himself is blind to accurate measurement and truth until he blinds himself. He expressed extremely sound judgement and measurement when he gouged out his own eyes. Oedipus compared the future pain his eyes would give him against the initial pain of the needle and made a justified decision and Oedipus seems content with his decision to wander the mountains. Oedipus had finally seen the light outside the cave, unfortunately, it would be too late to save Oedipus from disgrace.

Every decision or quest that Oedipus made was solved by a simple equation. The equation was a matter of simply comparing pleasure and pain to decide the best path to a hedonistic lifestyle. Philosophers of the time such as Plato and Aristotle wrote of such equations and they described things such as the “Art of Measurement” and true reason to help describe what would be needed to correctly solve such an equation. Oedipus as well as other characters in the play embodied these virtues and skills, or even their defects in order to draw yet another link between literature and philosophy.

The Poetry of William Cullen Bryant and Emily Dickinson: The Theme of Death

Many poems are written about death. The two poets William Cullen Bryant and Emily Dickinson were very influential trancendental writers. Bryant writing Thanatopsis And Emily Dickinson’s “Because I Could Not Stop for Death” are basically more alike then than they are similar for the fact that there views on Death are the same, but what happens to you after is what is disimiliar,although Dickinsons and Bryants poems are very different as seen in specific detail. As in both poems death is present, the way the two authors express it however is a it unsimiliar.

One of many things that is similar is the fact that both authors present there poems in first person view,but the way they describe what happens to you after death is what is very dissimilar. In the poem when she says “We passed the school where children played ,We passed the the fields of blazing grain,” shows her use of Idealisation of Nature. Bryants whole poem is Idealisation of nature, by choosing but one sentence would be cutting the poem short. By both uthors using the same romantic element is just another example of how they are similar.

Thanatopsis and Because i could not stop for Death,are somewhat dissimilar , for instance when in Dickinsons poem when she says “We slowly drove he knew no haste,” she is referring about death taking her away and she sees everything on this journey. william Cullen Bryant however sees Death a little different ,like in his poem when he says ” There comes a still voice yet a few days . and thee you will see no more,”He is saying that it will be very peaceful nd fast.

That when you hear the voice, all is gone. They both had different romantic/trancendental connections,bryant used heavy Idealisation of Mature by saying “To him who in the love of nature holds Communion with her visible forms. “Emily Dickinson used supernatural for the fact that she says ” Because i could not stop for death he kindly stopped for me. ” Meaning I had no time for death ,”HE” being death himself stopped for me. By her saying that she is showing her transcendental elements.

All in all these two poems that have been compared and contrasted are similar, however they still have very strong Unsimiliar elements. The two authors Emily Dickinson and william Cullen Bryant definitely have similar elemental intuitions for there poems are so alike. By comparing these poems there similarities have greatly shined and only by reading the deep inside of the poem can you notice that , by only skimming the surface of these poems you surely are not getting the full effect of the poems written by these eccentric authors.

Judge Corruption Essay

The NYC court system was designed to ensure justice for all people. Its purpose is to provide a fair and just evaluation of each individual case and make an unbiased decission based on how the law applies to the facts given. Although, this is how the court system is suppose to be administered, it has fallen short of its responsibilities. Who is to blame for these short-comings? Is it the attorneys who will do whatever it takes to win a case; including lying and stealing? Is it the judges who do not penalize the attorneys for their behavior?

Or is it the a Commission on Judicial Conduct, which has the authority to impose sanctions, from admonition to removal, on judges and justices of state and local courts, who do not hold the judges and attorneys accountable for their actions? The blame can not be placed on one party it is a joint responsibility. These rules govern the procedure in the United States district courts in all suits of a civil nature whether cognizable as cases at law or in equity or in admiralty, with the exceptions stated in Rule 81 . They shall be construed and administered to secure the just, speedy, and inexpensive determination of every action. vil procedure: an overview Broadly speaking, civil procedure consists of the rules by which courts conduct civil trials.

“Civil trial” means the judicial resolution of claims by one individual or group against another, and is to be distinguished from “criminal trials,” in which the state prosecutes an individual for violation of criminal law. “Procedure” is to be distinguished from “substantive law” in that substantive law defines the rights and duties of everyday conduct. Substantive law includes contract law, tort law, and so on. A procedural system provides the mechanism for applying substantive law to real disputes.

A good procedural system should provide guidelines as to what information is received by the judge or jury, how that information is to be presented, and what by standards of proof (“beyond a reasonable doubt,” “by clear and convincing evidence,” “by a preponderance of the evidence”) the information will be adjudged. A good procedural system ensures that similar cases will be treated similarly by the courts. Although the majority of suits filed in the United States are settled before trial through negotiated settlements or arbitration, “civil procedure” strictly defined applies only in formal courts of law.

Under the American “common law” system, the initial burden is on the complaining party (the “Plaintiff”) to file suit in court. The Plaintiff also has the initial burden of demonstrating he has a legitimate claim. In America, civil procedure usually takes the form of a series of rules and judicial practices. The federal courts follow the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; the state courts follow their state rules of civil procedure. In federal courts, evidentiary rules are governed by the Federal Rules of Evidence. The state courts follow their state rules of evidence.

Jane Eyre – Critical Evaluation

The novel “Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Bronte consists of the continuous journey through Jane’s life towards her final happiness and freedom. This is effectively supported by five significant physical’ journeys she makes, which mirror the four emotional journeys she makes. 10-year-old Jane lives under the custody of her Aunt Reed, who hates her. Jane resents her harsh treatment by her aunt and cousins so much that she has a severe temper outburst, which results in her aunt sending her to Lowood boarding school. At the end of the eight years, she has become a teacher at Lowood.

At the age of eighteen she seeks independence and becomes governess at Thornfield Hall. Over time, Jane falls in love with its master, Edward Rochester, who eventually proposes to her. On their wedding day, the sermon is abruptly halted by the announcement that Rochester’s insane wife is kept locked up in the attic of Thornfield. Jane runs away. Penniless and almost starving, Jane roams the countryside in search of shelter, until she finds the house of St John, Mary, and Diana Rivers, who take her in and nurse her back to health.

Jane then acquires an unexpected inheritance from her uncle. One night, Jane hears’ Mr Rochester’s voice calling for her, and decides to return to Thornfield immediately. On her return, she finds Thornfield to be a “blackened ruin” due to a fire which has left Rochester blind with only one arm and killed his wife. Jane goes to Rochester’s new home, and they are married. Jane’s physical’ journeys contribute significantly to plot development and to the idea that the novel is a journey’ through Jane’s life.

Jane Eyre’s” chronological structure also emphasises this idea, the journey progresses as time goes on. Each journey causes her to experience new emotions and an eventual change of some kind. These actual’ journeys help Jane on her four figurative’ journeys, as each one allows her to reflect and grow. The journey only ends when she finds true happiness. Jane makes her journey from Gateshead to Lowood at the age of ten, finally freeing her from her restrictive life with her aunt. Before making her journey, Jane’s feelings are conveyed by Bronte through the use of pathetic fallacy: … he grounds, where all was still petrified under the influence of hard frost. ”

The word choice here reflects Jane’s situation – she is like the ground, petrified’ under the influence of her aunt, whose behaviour is mirrored in the term “hard frost” because of the icy discipline she bestows. Mrs Reed’s attitude towards Jane highlights one of the main themes of the novel, social class. Jane’s aunt sees Jane as inferior as she had humble beginnings: she is “less than a servant”. Jane is glad to be leaving her cruel aunt and of having the chance of going to school.

Eight years later, when Jane travels from Lowood to Thornfield, she is much more contented. She has come to be respected by the teachers and pupils at Lowood, largely due to the influence of her teacher, Miss Temple, to whose instruction she “owed the best part of her acquirements” and who had stood her “in the stead of mother, governess, and latterly, companion”. Jane has found in Miss Temple what Mrs Reed always denied her. This particular journey marks a huge change in Jane’s life; it is a fresh start for her: “A new chapter in a novel is something like a new scene in a play… ”

This comment also shows that Jane herself thinks of the move as a new beginning and is looking forward to her “new duties” and her “new life”. When Jane arrives in the town of Millcote, she is fearful: “… I am not very tranquil in my mind…… I looked anxiously around….. all sorts of doubts and fears are troubling my thoughts. ” Her anxiety, though, is counterbalanced by the “charm of adventure”; Jane is finally independent and in control of her own life.

Although journeying into the completely unknown, Jane does not look back, only forward to her new life and her freedom at Thornfield: … I saw a galaxy of lights… ” Jane’s reference to galaxy’ highlights the idea that she is not only alone in the world but alone in the whole universe at this point, yet she is excited and fascinated by this. The third important journey which Jane makes is from Gateshead back to Thornfield having visited her Aunt Reed on her deathbed. By then Jane realises that she loves Rochester, but has no idea that her feelings are reciprocated. A key theme is raised: Jane has a fierce desire to love and be loved.

She feels alone and isolated when she has no friends around her. This is a stark contrast to the search for money, social position, God etc. – which drive the other characters. These contrasting themes reinforce Jane’s affectionate nature, intelligence, and sense of justice, all of which are strengthened with every journey she makes. During this journey, Jane is afraid of what the future holds for her. She believes at this point that Mr Rochester is going to marry Blanche Ingram, and that she will have to leave Thornfield and never see Mr Rochester again.

For a week before Jane’s departure, she dreams of a baby each night: “… a dream of an infant… it failed not for seven successive nights to meet me.. ” This recurrent image is possibly personification of the innocence and vulnerability of Jane herself: she has to support herself and still feels alone because she does not believe that Rochester loves her. Jane is not enthusiastic about returning to a place so filled with bad memories, but doing so allows her to finally put her experiences at Gateshead behind her.

Making this journey shows that she has become strong enough to face her aunt as an equal and that she no longer resents her. When returning to Thornfield Jane is unhappy; she feels a mixture of anticipation and fear for the future. Preparation for the pain she will feel when Rochester marries distresses her. Nature again mimics Jane’s situation and emotions: “… the sky, though far from cloudless, was such as promised well for the future… it seemed as if there was a fire lit, an altar burning behind its screen of marbled vapour, and out of apertures shone a golden redness. ”

The sky, here, symbolises what is to happen to Jane – the clouds depict that only heartache seems to be ahead for her, but actually she is about to become indescribably happy. The fire represents Jane’s strength of character – although so many terrible things are happening to her, her spirit remains unbroken. “Golden” symbolises her goodness and purity, while the “redness” symbolises the passionate feelings she has for Rochester. However, her happiness is short-lived.

When Jane flees from Thornfield after the discovery of Mrs Rochester, she is more distraught than she has ever been: … ay you never feel what I then felt! May your eyes never shed such stormy, scalding, heart-wrung tears as poured from mine. ” Alliteration displays the depth of her anger, and Bronte’s use of strong metaphors is highly effective in conveying Jane’s sorrow.

“Stormy” describes her turmoil. Her tears cause her so much pain that they “scald” her face. There seems no hope or happiness left in her heart. Despite this journey being so traumatic for Jane it is an important one for her personal development, she shows astonishing bravery amidst total despair.

Religious imagery highlights this: Jane has vowed to “keep the law given by God, not by man. ” She is doing what she thinks God would consider right, sacrificing her happiness rather then committing a sin. Jane “hearing” Rochester’s voice calling to her prompts her final physical journey from Marsh End to Ferndean: “… it did not seem in the room – nor in the house – nor in the garden: it did not come out of the air – nor from under the earth – nor from overhead… where, or whence, for ever impossible to know! ”

Jane has not actually “heard” Rochester in a literal way; she senses that he is crying out for her. This event takes place after she asks God for guidance, linking the theme of religion to that of the supernatural, guiding hers and Rochester’s fate. On arrival at Ferndean, Jane and Rochester’s relationship blossoms once again, but differently than before. In the past, Jane felt like an inferior to Rochester because he was her employer and was wealthy. Jane now feels at “perfect ease”, her “whole nature” having been “brought to life and light.

Her personality has developed; she can now tease Rochester and make him jealous as they are now on a more equal footing, both emotionally and financially: “I love you better now, when I can be really useful to you, than I did in your state of proud independence…. ” Rochester has been made a better man because of his disabilities, he is no longer the arrogant master, he must depend physically on Jane as much as she depends emotionally on him. The great irony here is that Rochester can only see the way to happiness now that he is blind. Their marriage is what finally brings Jane true happiness.

These five journeys mirror Jane’s four emotional journeys. She transforms from an immature child to an intelligent, accomplished adult at Lowood. Jane also changes gradually from innocent and naive to mature and strong-willed. Both her experiences at Thornfield, where she learns what it is like to love and to feel loved, and her time of reflection at Marsh End, where she has time to clear her head and discovers her true family roots facilitate this. The time Jane spends at Marsh End allows her to gain a new perspective, she now sees that loving Rochester is not enough, they must be equals and have no secrets.

She sees that she was right when she “adhered to principle and law, and scorned and crushed the insane promptings of a frenzied moment. ” To start with, Jane is oppressed by her aunt and is allowed no will of her own, she is completely “a dependant” and has “no money”. This situation improves enormously when Jane goes to Lowood, although she is still a servant in Thornfield until she runs away to Marsh End, where she must still depend on others in order to survive. Jane eventually gains her freedom through her inheritance, and the fact that she no longer has to depend on Rochester.

The Bob Marley biography

Jamaica has produced an artist who has touched all categories, classes, and creeds through innate modesty and profound wisdom. Bob Marley, the Natural Mystic who introduced reggae to European and American fans still may prove to be the most significant musical artist of the twentieth century. Bob Marley gave the world brilliant music and established reggae as major forces in music that is comparable with the blues and rock&rolls. His work stretched across nearly two decades and still remains timeless. Bob Marley & the Wailers worked their way into all of our lives.

He’s taken his place with James Brown and Sly Stone as pervasive influence on r&b”, said Timothy White, author of the Bob Marley biography “Catch A Fire”. It is important to think of the roots of this legend: the first superstar from the Third World, Bob Marley was one of the most charismatic and challenging performers of his time. His music reflects only one source: the street culture of Jamaica. Later, in 1930, Ras Tafari Makonnen was crowned Emperor of Ethiopia. Tafari claimed to be the 225th ruler in a line that went back to Menelik, the son of Solomon.

The Garvey followers in Jamaica, who consulted their New Testaments for a sign, elieved that Haile Selassie was the black king that Garvey had said would deliver the black race. It was the start of a new religion called Rastafari, which Bob was into heavily. Fifteen years after, in Nine Miles deep within Jamaica Robert Nesta Marley was born. His mother Cedella Booker was an eighteen-year-old black girl while his father was Captain Norval Marley, a 50-year-old white man working for the Jamaican Forestry Commission. The couple married in 1944 and Norval left Cedella to legitimize their unborn child. Then Bob was born on February 6, 1945.

Norval’s family applied constant pressure to Bob and, although he provided financial support, Norval seldom saw his son who grew up in St. Ann to the north of the island. Bob Marley, barely into his teens, moved to Kingston (Trench Town) in the late Fifties. His friends Were other street youths, also not happy with their place in society. One friend Neville O’Riley Livingston was known as Bunny, Bob met Bunny when his mom took work taking rooms behind a rum bar owned by Toddy Livingston Bunnys father. Bob took his first musical steps with Bunny. They were fascinated by the music they could pick up from American radio stations.

Especially Ray Charles, Fats Domino, Curtis Mayfield, and Brook Benton. Bob and Bunny also paid close attention to vocal groups, such as the Drifters, who were popular in Jamaica. Bob quit school and seemed to have one ambition, music. He took a job in a welding shop, but spent all his free time with Bunny working on their vocal abilities, with the help of one of Trench Town’s famous residents, singer Joe Higgs. Higgs held informal lessons for aspiring vocalists. At one of those sessions Bob and Bunny met Peter McIntosh, who also had musical ambitions. In 1962 Bob Marley auditioned for Leslie Kong.

Impressed by the quality of Bob’s vocals, Kong took Bob into the studio to cut some tracks; the first was called “Judge Not” and was released on Beverley’s label. It was Bob’s first record. The other songs – including “Terror” and “One Cup of Coffee” – received no airplay and attracted little attention. However, they confirmed Bob’s ambition to be a singer. The following year Bob had decided to form a group. He joined Bunny and Pete to form The Wailing Wailers. The new group had a mentor, a Rastafarian hand drummer Alvin Patterson who introduced them to Clement Dodd, a record producer in Kingston.

In the summer of 1963 Dodd uditioned The Wailing Wailers and pleased with the results, agreed to record the group. The Wailing Wailers released their first single, “Simmer Down”, during the last weeks of 1963. The following January it was number one in the Jamaican charts, where it stayed for the next two months. The group – Bob, Bunny and Peter together with Junior Braithwaite and two back-up singers were big news. “Simmer Down” caused a sensation in Jamaica and The Wailing Wailers began recording regularly. The groups’ music identified with the Rude Boy street rebels in the Kingston slums.

Jamaican music had found a tough, urban stance. Despite their popularity the group broke apart and Bob’s mother remarried. She then moved to the U. S and wanted Bob to come to start a new life, but before they left Bob met a girl named Rita Anderson and they wed on February 10, 1966. Marley joined up with Bunny and Peter to re-form the group, now known as The Wailers. Rita, too, had started a singing career, having a big hit with “Pied Piper”, a cover of an English pop song. Jamaican music however, was changing.

The bouncy ska beat had been replaced by a slower, more sensual Rhythm called rock steady. The group formed their own record label, Wail ‘N’ Soul; however, the label folded in late 1967. The group however survived as songwriters for Johnny Nash who had an international hit with Marley’s “Stir it up”. The Wailers also met up with Lee Perry, whose genius transformed recording studio Techniques into an art form. In 1970 Barrett and his brother Carlton joined the Wailers. Working with the Wailers on those groundbreaking sessions they were unchallenged as Jamaica’s hardest rhythm section.

In the summer of 1971 Bob accepted an invitation from Johnny Nash to accompany him to Sweden. While in Europe Bob got a recording contract with CBS, hich was also Nash’s company. In spring of 1972 the Wailers were in London promoting their single “Reggae on Broadway” when CBS dumped them. As a last attempt Bob Marley walked into the Studio of Island Records and asked to see its founder Chris Blackwell. The company had been the reason behind the rise of Jamaican music in Britain. Blackwell knew of Marley’s Jamaican reputation. The group was offered a deal unique in Jamaican terms.

The Wailers were advanced $4000 to make an album and for the first time a reggae band had access to the best recording studios and were treated in the same way as their contemporaries. Before this reggae sold only on singles and cheap compilation albums. The Wailers’ first album “Catch A Fire” broke all the rules. It was beautifully packaged and heavily promoted. Although “Catch A Fire” was not an immediate hit, it made a considerable impact on the media. Marley’s hard rhythms and his lyrical stance came in complete contrast to most of mainstream rock. Island decided The Wailers should tour both Britain and America.

During the American tour they supported the young Bruce Springsteen. With the demand for an autumn tour, one was arranged with seventeen dates as support to Sly & The Family Stone. Four shows into the tour, however, The Wailers were taken off the bill. It seems they had been too good because support bands should not detract from the main attraction. In 1973 The Wailers released their second Island album, “Burnin” that included new versions of some of the band’s older songs for instance, “Small Axe” and “Put It On” – together with such tracks as “Get Up Stand Up” and “I Shot The Sheriff”(which was a massive worldwide hit for Eric Clapton. By the summer of 1975, the band was on the road again.

The shows were recorded and the live album together with the single “No Woman No Cry” made the charts. Bob Marley & The Wailers were taking reggae into the mainstream. By November, when The Wailers returned to Jamaica to play a benefit concert with Stevie Wonder, they were obviously the country’s greatest superstars. Its international success helped Marley’s growing political importance in Jamaica, where his Rastafarian stance found a strong home with the youth.

To thank the people of Jamaica Marley decided on a free concert, to be held at Kingston’s National Heroes Park on December 5, 1976. The idea was to emphasize the need for peace in the slums of the city, where gang war had brought turmoil and murder. Just after he concert was announced, the government called an election for December 20. The campaign was a signal for renewed ghetto war and on the eve of the concert gunmen broke into Marley’s house and shot him. In the confusion the would-be assassins only wounded Marley. He was taken to a safe haven in the Hills surrounding Kingston.

For a day he decided on playing the concert and then, on December 5 he came on stage and played a brief set in defiance of the gunmen. It was to be Marley’s last appearance in Jamaica for nearly eighteen months. Immediately after the show he left the country and lived in London where he ecorded his next album “Exodus. ” Released in the summer of that year, “Exodus” properly established the band’s international status. The album remained on the UK charts for 56 weeks straight and its three singles – “Exodus”, “Waiting in Vain” and “Jammin” – were all massive sellers.

The band also played a week of concerts at London’s Rainbow Theatre; their last dates in the city during the seventies. At the start of the following year – a new decade – Bob Marley & The Wailers flew to Gabon where they were to make their African debut. They heard they were playing in front of the country’s young elite. The group, nevertheless, was to make a quick return to Africa, this time at the official invitation of the government of liberated Zimbabwe to play at the country’s Independence Ceremony in April 1980.

It was the greatest honor ever for the band, and one, which underlined the Wailer’s importance in the Third World. At the end of the European tour Marley and the band went to America. Bob played two shows at Madison Square Garden but immediately afterwards was taken away seriously ill. Three years earlier, in London, Bob hurt a toe while playing football. The wound had become cancerous nd was treated in Miami but not right away, yet it continued to fester. By 1980 the cancer, in its worst form, had begun to spread through Bob’s body.

He fought the disease for eight months, taking treatment at the clinic of Dr. Joseph Issels and for a time Bob’s condition seemed to stabilize. Eventually, however, the battle was too much and at the start of May Bob Marley left for his Jamaican home, a journey he did not complete. He died in a Miami hospital on Monday May 11, 1981. The previous month, Marley had been awarded Jamaica’s Order Of Merit, the nation’s third highest honor, in recognition of his outstanding contribution o the country’s culture.

He was thought of as a prophet of hope by the downtrodden and oppressed by supporting populist political movements. On Thursday May 21, 1981,Robert Nesta Marley was given an official funeral by the people of Jamaica. Following the service – attended by both the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition – Marley’s body was taken to his birthplace at Nine Mile, on the north of the island, where it now rests in a mausoleum. Bob Marley died when he was 36-years-old. But as Elton John would say “His candles burned out long before his legend ever would. “

Shakespeare’s “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”

In Shakespeare’s “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” the mortal teenage characters fall in love foolishly, and the character Bottom states, “O what fools these mortals be”. They are foolish because they act like children. Although Lysander, Hermia, Demetrius, and Helena appear grown-up, when they are in love they act foolishly. The four teenage lovers are fools. Demetrius is a fool because he is unaware that his love changes through out the play. At the start of the play Demetrius does not love Helena. (II ii,line 188)

Demetrius says, “I love thee not, therefore pursue me not. II ii,line 194) “Hence, get thee gone, and follow me no more. ” In III ii, Demetrius after being juiced begins to love Helena. (III ii,line 169-173) Demetrius says, “Lysander, keep thy Hermia; I will none. If e’er I loved her, all that love is gone. My heart to her but as guest- wise sojourned, And now to Helen is it home returned, There to remain. ” This proves he is a fool, because he is not aware of his changing love for Helena. Helena is a fool because Demetrius does not love her but she still persists in chasing him. Demetrius shows no love for Helena.

Demetrius says, “I’ll run from thee, and hide me in the brakes, And leave thee to the mercy of wild beasts. ” (II i,line 199-201) “Do I entice you? Do I speak you fair? Or rather do I not in plainest truth Tell you I do not, nor I cannot love you? ” Demetrius clearly illustrates to Helena that he has no interest, but Helena persists. (II i,line 202-204) Helena says, “And even for that do I love you the more. I am your spaniel; and, Demetrius, The more you beat me, I will fawn on you. ” (II i,line 220-222) “Your virtue is my privilege. For that It is not night when I do see your face, Therefore I think I am not in the night;” This proves that Helena is a fool because Demetrius does not love her, but she still persists.

Lysander is a fool because he persuades Hermia to avoid death and run away with him. Hermia must marry Demetrius or she will be put to death. (I i,line 83-88) Theseus says, “Take time to pause, and, by the next new moon- The sealing-day betwixt my love and me, For everlasting bond fellowship- Upon that day either prepare to die For disobedience to your father’s will, Or else to wed Demetrius, as he would,” Hermia does not love Demetrius.

I i,line 140) Hermia says, “O hell! To choose love by another’s eyes. ” Hermia loves Lysander. (I i,line 150-155) “If then true lovers have been ever crossed, It stands as an edict in destiny. Then let us teach or trial patience, Because it is a customary cross, As due to love, as thoughts and dreams and sighs, Wishes and tears, poor fancy’s followers. ” Lysander has an alternative idea. (I i,line 157-159) Lysander says, “I have a widow aunt, a dowager Of great revenue, and she hath no child; >From Athens is her house remote seven leagues. (I i,line 164- 165) “Steal forth thy ather’s house tomorrow night, And in the wood, a league without the town. ”

Lysander is a fool because he convinces Hermia to risk death and run away with him. Hermia is a fool because she risks death for love. Hermia is to marry Demetrius, or be put to death. (I i,line 95-98) Egeus says, “Scornful Lysander, true, he hath my love, And what is mine my love shall render him. And she is mine, and all my right of her I do estate unto Demetrius. ” Lysander suggests an idea. (I i,line 157-159) Lysander says, “A good persuasion. Therefore her me, Hermia.

I have a unt, a dowager Of great revenue, and she hath no child;” Hermia agrees with the idea. (I i,line 168-169) Hermia says, “My good Lysander, I swear to thee by Cupid’s strongest bow,” (I i,line 178) “Tomorrow truly will I meet thee. ” Hermia is a fool because she is risking death for the love of Lysander. Therefore this proves, the four teenage lovers are fools. (VI i, Theseus states) “Lovers and madmen have such seething brains, Such shaping fantasies, that apprehend More than cool reason ever comprehends. ” William Shakespeare’s A Midsummers Night’s Dream shows how childishly foolish lovers can be.

Shirley Jacksons short story, “The Lottery”

According to anthropologist, William A. Haviland, ” ritual is the means by which the social bonds of a group are reinforced and tensions relieved. ” Shirley Jacksons short story, “The Lottery,” vividly illustrates the ease with which the individual in society tolerates and even participates in acts that if undertaken singly would be considered reprehensible. The authors skillful use of setting, mood and foreshadowing, brings to life this story of an otherwise idyllic community who, to the last child, participate in an annual ritual of sacrifice.

The Lottery” begins in a setting that embodies light, warmth and community spirit. All the citizens are gathered in the village square, complete with children playing as the adults observe the daily, mundane conventions of small talk and the teens grouped by sex, nervously observe each other. When the purpose of the gathering is revealed, the setting heightens the contrast of such an unusual event occurring in a traditional small town. The mood of the story at first seems almost festive.

Then in small, but telling glimpses we are told that the men are smiling rather than laughing at the jokes, and the conversation among the bystanders turns to murmurs as the town official, Mr. Summers arrived in the square, carrying the “black box. ” Then the good-natured folk keep their distance and Mr. Summers must ask for help. There seemed to be a resigned air among the citizens. The narrator recounts a partial history of rituals involving the black box, complete with rumors of chants, recitals, stances, dim memories of the way the lottery used to be conducted.

The reminiscing serves as a reminder to the villagers of the way things are and the way they have always been. The sheer weight of generations of villagers following the lottery tradition is felt. The mood of the people shifts from amicability, to false bravado, to relief and finally nervous release as they fulfill the obligation of stoning the victim. Even little Davy Hutchinson is handed a pebble to wield against his mother.

Genetic Engineering: A leap in to the future or a leap towards destruction

Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from an analytical engine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history has science be able to so deeply affect our lives as genetic engineering will undoubtedly do. With the birth of this new technology, scientific extremists and anti-technologists have risen in arms to block its budding future.

Spreading fear by misinterpretation of facts, they promote their hidden agendas in the halls of the United States congress. They fear that it is unsafe; however, genetic engineering is a safe and powerful tool that will yield unprecedented results, specifically in the field of medicine. It will usher in a world where gene defects, bacterial disease, and even aging are a thing of the past. By understanding genetic engineering and its history, discovering its possibilities, and answering the moral and safety questions it brings forth, the blanket of fear covering this remarkable technical miracle can be lifted.

The first step to understanding genetic engineering and embracing its possibilities for society is to obtain a rough knowledge base of its history and method. The basis for altering the evolutionary process is dependant on the understanding of how individuals pass on characteristics to their offspring. Genetics achieved its first foothold on the secrets of nature’s evolutionary process when an Austrian monk named Gregor Mendel developed the first laws of heredity. Using these laws, scientists studied the characteristics of organisms for most of the next one hundred years following Mendel’s discovery.

These early studies concluded that each organism has two sets of character determinants, or genes (Stableford 16). For instance, in regards to eye color, a child could receive one set of genes from his or her father that were encoded one blue, and the other brown. The same child could also receive two brown genes from his or her mother. The conclusion for this inheritance would be the child has a three in four chance of having brown eyes, and a one in three chance of having blue eyes (Stableford 16). Genes are transmitted through chromosomes which reside in the nucleus of every living organism’s cells.

Each chromosome is made up of fine strands of deoxyribonucleic acids, or DNA. The information carried on the DNA determines the cells function within the organism. Sex cells are the only cells that contain a complete DNA map of the organism, therefore, the structure of a DNA molecule or combination of DNA molecules determines the shape, form, and function of the [organism’s] offspring (Lewin 1). DNA discovery is attributed to the research of three scientists, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and James Dewey Watson in 1951.

They were all later accredited with the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine in 1962 (Lewin 1). The new science of genetic engineering aims to take a dramatic short cut in the slow process of evolution (Stableford 25). In essence, scientists aim to remove one gene from an organism’s DNA, and place it into the DNA of another organism. This would create a new DNA strand, full of new encoded instructions; a strand that would have taken Mother Nature millions of years of natural selection to develop. Isolating and removing a desired gene from a DNA strand involves many different tools.

DNA can be broken up by exposing it to ultra-highfrequency sound waves, but this is an extremely inaccurate way of isolating a desirable DNA section (Stableford 26). A more accurate way of DNA splicing is the use of restriction enzymes, which are produced by various species of bacteria (Clarke 1). The restriction enzymes cut the DNA strand at a particular location called a nucleotide base, which makes up a DNA molecule. Now that the desired portion of the DNA is cut out, it can be joined to anothe strand of DNA by using enzymes called ligases.

The final important step in the creation of a new DNA strand is giving it the ability to self-replicate. This can be accomplished by using special pieces of DNA, called vectors, that permit the generation of multiple copies of a total DNA strand and fusing it to the newly created DNA structure. Another newly developed method, called polymerase chain reaction, allows for faster replication of DNA strands and does not require the use of vectors (Clarke 1). Viewpoint 1 The possibilities of genetic engineering are endless.

Once the power to control the instructions, given to a single cell, are mastered anything can be accomplished. For example, insulin can be created and grown in large quantities by using an inexpensive gene manipulation method of growing a certain bacteria. This supply of insulin is also not dependant on the supply of pancreatic tissue from animals. Recombinant factor VIII, the blood clotting agent missing in people suffering from hemophilia, can also be created by genetic engineering. Virtually all people who were treated with factor VIII before 1985 acquired HIV, and later AIDS.

Being completely pure, the bioengineered version of factor VIII eliminates any possibility of viral infection. Other uses of genetic engineering include creating disease resistant crops, formulating milk from cows already containing pharmaceutical compounds, generating vaccines, and altering livestock traits (Clarke 1). In the not so distant future, genetic engineering will become a principal player in fighting genetic, bacterial, and viral disease, along with controlling aging, and providing replaceable parts for humans. Medicine has seen many new innovations in its history.

The discovery of anesthetics permitted the birth of modern surgery, while the production of antibiotics in the 1920s minimized the threat from diseases such as pneumonia, tuberculosis and cholera. The creation of serums which build up the bodies immune system to specific infections, before being laid low with them, has also enhanced modern medicine greatly (Stableford 59). All of these discoveries will fall under the broad shadow of genetic engineering when it reaches its apex in the medical community. Many people suffer from genetic diseases ranging from thousands of types of cancers, to blood, liver, and lung disorders.

Amazingly, all of these will be able to be treated by genetic engineering, specifically, gene therapy. The basis of gene therapy is to supply a functional gene to cells lacking that particular function, thus correcting the genetic disorder or disease. There are two main categories of gene therapy: germ line therapy, or altering of sperm and egg cells, and somatic cell therapy, which is much like an organ transplant. Germ line therapy results in a permanent change for the entire organism, and its future offspring. Unfortunately, germ line therapy, is not readily in use on humans for ethical reasons.

However, this genetic method could, in the future, solve many genetic birth defects such as downs syndrome. Somatic cell therapy deals with the direct treatment of living tissues. Scientists, in a lab, inject the tissues with the correct, functioning gene and then re-administer them to the patient, correcting the problem (Clarke 1). Along with altering the cells of living tissues, genetic engineering has also proven extremely helpful in the alteration of bacterial genes. Transforming bacterial cells is easier than transforming the cells of complex organisms (Stableford 34).

Two reasons are evident for this ease of manipulation: DNA enters, and functions easily in bacteria, and the transformed bacteria cells can be easily selected out from the untransformed ones. Bacterial bioengineering has many uses in our society, it can produce synthetic insulins, a growth hormone for the treatment of dwarfism and interferons for treatment of cancers and viral diseases (Stableford 34). Throughout the centuries disease has plagued the world, forcing everyone to take part in a virtual lottery with the agents of death (Stableford 59).

Whether viral or bacterial in nature, such disease are currently combated with the application of vaccines and antibiotics. These treatments, however, contain many unsolved problems. The difficulty with applying antibiotics to destroy bacteria is that natural selection allows for the mutation of bacteria cells, sometimes resulting in mutant bacterium which is resistant to a particular antibiotic. This indestructible bacterial pestilence wages havoc on the human body. Genetic engineering is conquering this medical dilemma by utilizing diseases that target bacterial organisms.

These diseases are viruses, named bacteriophages, which can be produced to attack specific disease-causing bacteria (Stableford 61). Much success has already been obtained by treating animals with a phage designed to attack the E. coli bacteria (Stableford 60). Diseases caused by viruses are much more difficult to control than those caused by bacteria. Viruses are not whole organisms, as bacteria are, and reproduce by hijacking the mechanisms of other cells. Therefore, any treatment designed to stop the virus itself, will also stop the functioning of its host cell.

A virus invades a host cell by piercing it at a site called a receptor. Upon attachment, the virus injects its DNA into the cell, coding it to reproduce more of the virus. After the virus is replicated millions of times over, the cell bursts and the new viruses are released to continue the cycle. The body’s natural defense against such cell invasion is to release certain proteins, called antigens, which plug up the receptor sites on healthy cells. This causes the foreign virus to not have a docking point on the cell. This process, however, is slow and not effective against a new viral attack.

Genetic engineering is improving the body’s defenses by creating pure antigens, or antibodies, in the lab for injection upon infection with a viral disease. This pure, concentrated antibody halts the symptoms of such a disease until the bodies natural defenses catch up. Future procedures may alter the very DNA of human cells, causing them to produce interferons. These interferons would allow the cell to be able determine if a foreign body bonding with it is healthy or a virus. In effect, every cell would be able to recognize every type of virus and be immune to them all (Stableford 61).

Current medical capabilities allow for the transplant of human organs, and even mechanical portions of some, such as the battery powered pacemaker. Current science can even re-apply fingers after they have been cut off in accidents, or attach synthetic arms and legs to allow patients to function normally in society. But would not it be incredibly convenient if the human body could simply regrow what it needed, such as a new kidney or arm? Genetic engineering can make this a reality. Currently in the world, a single plant cell can differentiate into all the components of an original, complex organism.

Certain types of salamanders can re-grow lost limbs, and some lizards can shed their tails when attacked and later grow them again. Ever of functional tissues. But before controlling the blastema is possible, a detailed knowledge of the switching process by means of which the genes in the cell nucleus are selectively activated and deactivated is needed (Stableford 90). To obtain proof that such a procedure is possible one only needs to examine an early embryo and realize that it knows whether to turn itself into an ostrich or a human.

After learning the procedure to control and activate regeneration, genetic engineering will be able to conquer such ailments as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and other crippling diseases without grafting in new tissues. The broader scope of this technique would allow the re-growth of lost limbs, repairing any damaged organs internally, and the production of spare organs by growing them externally (Stableford 90). Viewpoint 2 Ever since biblical times the lifespan of a human being has been pegged at roughly 70 years. But is this number truly finite? In order to uncover the answer, knowledge of the process of aging is needed.

A common conception is that the human body contains an internal biological clock which continues to tick for about 70 years, then stops. An alternate watch analogy could be that the human body contains a certain type of alarm clock, and after so many years, the alarm sounds and deterioration beings. With that frame of thinking, the human body does not begin to age until a particular switch is tripped. In essence, stopping this process would simply involve a means of never allowing the switch to be tripped. W. Donner Denckla, of the Roche Institute of Molecular Biology, proposes that the alarm clock theory is true.

He provides evidencefor this statement by examining the similarities between normal aging and the symptoms of ahormonal deficiency disease associated with the thyroid gland. Denckla proposes that as we get older the pituitary gland begins to produce a hormone which blocks the actions of the thyroid hormone, thus causing the body to age and eventually die. If Denckla’s theory is correct, conquering aging would simply be a process of altering the pituitary’s DNA so it would never be allowed to release the aging hormone. In the years to come, genetic engineering may finally defeat the most unbeatable enemy in the world, time (Stableford 94).

The morale and safety questions surrounding genetic engineering currently cause this new science to be cast in a false light. Anti-technologists and political extremists spread incorrect interpretation of facts coupled with statements that genetic engineering is not natural and defies the order of things. The morale question of biotechnology can be answered by studying where the evolution of man is, and where it is leading our society. The safety question can be answered by examining current safety precautions in industry, and past safety records of many bioengineering projects already in place.

The evolution of man can be broken up into three basic stages. The first, lasting millions of years, slowly shaped human nature from Homo erectus to Home sapiens. Natural selection provided the means for countless random mutations resulting in the appearance of such human characteristics as hands and feet. The second stage, after the full development of the human body and mind, saw humans moving from wild foragers to an agriculture based society. Natural selection received a helping hand as man took advantage of random mutations in nature and bred more productive species of plants and animals.

The most bountiful wheats were collected and re-planted, and the fastest horses were bred with equally faster horses. Even in our recent history the strongest black male slaves were mated with the hardest working female slaves. The third stage, still developing today, will not require the chance acquisition of super-mutations in nature. Man will be able to create such super-species without the strict limitations imposed by natural selection. By examining the natural slope of this evolution, the third stage is a natural and inevitable plateau that man will achieve (Stableford 8).

This omniscient control of our world may seem completely foreign, but the thought of the Egyptians erecting vast pyramids would have seem strange to Homo erectus as well. Conclusion Many claim genetic engineering will cause unseen disasters spiraling our world into chaotic darkness. However, few realize that many safety nets regarding bioengineering are already in effect. The Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) was formed under the National Institute of Health to provide guidelines for research on engineered bacteria for industrial use.

The RAC has also set very restrictive guidelines requiring Federal approval if research involves pathogenicity (the rare ability of a microbe to cause disease) (Davis, Roche 69). It is well established that most natural bacteria do not cause disease. After many years of experimentation, microbiologists have demonstrated that they can engineer bacteria that are idence of regeneration is all around and the science of genetic engineering is slowly mastering its techniques. Regeneration in mammals is essentially a kind of controlled cancer, called a blastema.

The cancer is deliberately formed at the regeneration site and then converted into a structure just as safe as their natural counterparts (Davis and Rouche 70). In fact the RAC reports that there has not been a single case of illness or harm caused by recombinant [engineered] bacteria, and they now are used safely in high school experiments (Davis and Rouche 69). Scientists have also devised other methods of preventing bacteria from escaping their labs, such as modifying the bacteria so that it will die if it is removed from the laboratory environment. This creates a shield of complete safety for the outside world.

It is also thought that if such bacteria were to escape it would act like smallpox or anthrax and ravage the land. However, laboratory-created organisms are not as competitive as pathogens. Davis and Roche sum it up in extremely laymen’s terms, no matter how much Frostban you dump on a field, it’s not going to spread (70). In fact Frostbran, developed by Steven Lindow at the University of California, Berkeley, was sprayed on a test field in 1987 and was proven by a RAC committee to be completely harmless (Thompson 104). Fear of the unknown has slowed the progress of many scientific discoveries in the past.

The thought of man flying or stepping on the moon did not come easy to the average citizens of the world. But the fact remains, they were accepted and are now an everyday occurrence in our lives. Genetic engineering is in its period of fear and misunderstandifng, but like every great discovery in history, it will enjoy its time of realization and come into full use in society. The world is on the brink of the most exciting step into human evolution ever, and through knowledge and exploration, should welcome it and its possibilities with open arms.

The action of William Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying

The action of William Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying is simple: Addie Bundren dies; and in answer to her wishes, the body is taken for burial to Jefferson, some forty miles away. But the weather intervenes, and floodwaters require that the cortege take detours. Some nine days pass before the coffin, which before long clearly announces its passing to neighboring places, is finally laid to rest. These days involve battling flood water and a fire set by one of the children, the threat of buzzards, the hazards of a broken leg, and other incidental losses and disasters.

In the end, after Addie is buried, her bereaved husband appears with the second Mrs. Bundren. She brings with her a gramophone as dowry, and the Bundren family is once again reunited, with the exception of Darl, who has been sent to the state hospital. Faulkner exposed the Bundren family to two of the greatest disasters known to man: Flood and Fire. But As I Lay Dying is not merely a story of disasters or of a mission nobly achieved in spite of serious difficulties. Nor is it simply a comedy of horrors. Whatever it has of biblical or legendary suggestiveness is a matter of inference.

Primarily the novel is a psychological study of several perspectives upon truth, and the truth in this case is not dying, but the circumstances of being born and of the living. This interpretation of the novel makes Addie imperatively its center. It is her consciousness and her memory of the Bundren past that makes the narrative passages of her family what they are: reflections in both style and point of view of the place of each Bundren in the whole. Addie has only one monologue to herself, but it is the key to the novel.

It is ironically placed in the external action after her son, Jewel, has rescued her coffin from floodwaters. The monologue occurs “as I lay dying,” but it is revealed to us that she lay dead, her will still powerfully dictating the acts and temperaments of her children. As the passage begins, Addie remembers her life as a schoolgirl before her marriage to Anse. To get away from the hateful school she took Anse; and she shortly discovered, with the birth of their first child, that “living was terrible and that this was no answer to it.

That was when I learned that that words are no good; that words don’t ever fit even what they are trying to say. ” (Faulkner AILD pg. 171). These words she remembers are Anse’s, and Anse remains a man of words, who shunts aside with words and folk pieties all responsibilities to act. But Cash, the first-born, who arrived before the dissolution of Addie’s love and trust, proves a reliable, practical, and a sensible person; in a sense the folk-hero of the novel. Cash’s birth was the dividing line in Addie’s relationship with her husband.

She now knew “that we had had to use one another by words like spiders dangling by their mouths from a beam. “(AILD pg. 172). But she is further embittered in the second birth: “Then I found that I had Darl… It was as though Anse had tricked me, hidden within a word like within a paper screen and struck me in the back through it”. (AILD pg. 172) Her bitterness over the trick is translated into hostility for Darl, who becomes the most vocal, the most strangely upset, and eventually destructive member of the family. His acts and his words are both desperate stratagems to assert himself a….. member of the human race and of the family.

The rhetoric of Darl’s words and the violence of his acts are a direct result of the circumstances of his birth. At this point Addie fully realizes “how words go straight up in a thin line and how terribly doing goes along the earth, clinging to it, so that after a while the two lines are too far apart for the same person to straddle from one to the other. “(AILD pg. 173) She severs all meaningful relationship with her husband, “And then he died. He did not know he was dead. “(AILD pg. 174) and she has an affair with the preacher, Whitfield, also a man of words.

Jewel is the result, a bastard son. The birth of Jewel is a consequence of her testing the word sin against the act of it. The act is vitiated because Whitfield does not deeply participate in it, but Jewel becomes to her the only real son, the only one not associated with Anse. To Jewel Addie entrusts her salvation, which is to mean the successful progress of her coffin to the family grave in Jefferson. Before she died, she had said to Cora Tull, an imperceptive and smugly righteous neighbor, that Jewel “is my cross and he will be my salvation.

He will save me from the water and from the fire. Even though I have laid down my life, he will save me”. (AILD pg. 168) Jewel does just this. He is a man of few words, and he believes in pure act. As I Lay Dying’s great dramatic conflict has nothing to do with Anse’s fulfilling his mission or is only incidentally concerned with it. It is essentially a novel of the tensions between Darl and Jewel, the one an unwanted and the other an illegitimate son. About the other children, Addie says, “I gave Anse Dewey Dell to negative Jewel.

Then I gave him Vardaman to replace the child I had robbed him of. And now he has three children that are his and not mine. And then I could get ready to die. ” Addie’s monologue is brilliantly explanatory. The peculiarities of the style and the strange shifts of actions are dissolved in the light of Addie’s control over her children’s status and their response to it. It is fitting also that Vardaman and Dewey Dell should become close in the end to Darl’s position: They are all three children of Anse and only indifferently of Addie.

Vardaman’s style of monologue even approaches Darl’s, in spite of a disparity in their ages. Darl’s curious power to see beyond space and time barriers is also explained; his speculation upon being is directly related to his sense of isolation from his mother. Darl says, “I don’t know what I am. I don’t know if I am or not. Jewel knows he is, because he does not know that he does not know whether he is or not. ” Jewel is in terms of Addie’s being; when Addie dies and is finally buried, Jewel’s is will become was.

But Darl’s existence depends on his breaking through that being; and when he fails, he fails altogether of being and goes off to the house of schizophrenics in Jackson, where the disparity of being and not being will not matter. The affairs of the Bundren’s are seen in the alternating bright glare and fitful light of their divergent conciousnesses. So far as they are concerned, their eccentricities are sufficiently explained. But it all comes together with Addie’s chapter. Her monologue is the needle that ties up many loose ends. Faulkner essentially uses her to put everything together. Addie is Faulkner’s glue.

Breast Implants Essay

One of the first uses of silicone in a medical implant came in the form of lifesaving tubes implanted into young children to funnel excess fluid from the brain into the chest cavity, where the fluid could be safely metabolized and excreted. Since these “shunts” were first used, in the late 1950s, silicone in various forms has come to be an important part of many implants. “It is used in tracheotomy tubes, in artificial lenses for the eye, in artificial heart valves and in facial implants for birth defects or re-constructive surgery after cancer” (Ames 1).

The most widely used implementation of silicone is through breast re- onstructive surgery through elective surgery of an individual, or re- constructive surgery to replace breasts due to women recovering from mastectomies from breast cancer or miscellaneous types of accidents. The early history and use of implants showed no ill effects of the use of paraffin or silicone. Because of this newly developed surgical process and relatively little use of FDA guidelines there was no comprehensive testing done to ensure the utmost safety of a silicone recipient. By this time the millions of women throughout the world who already had

Dow’s silicone prosthesis implanted into their breasts had no idea of the dramatic health risks. Because of these potential health risks, women should avoid the use of breast implants. In 1976, Congress gave the FDA authority to regulate breast implants. By this time breast implants had been in use for a significant amount of time and were considered “grandfathered. ” This means that they were allowed to remain on the market, even though they have not gone through stringent testing. The FDA felt there was no evidence to substantiate that the implants were harmful. Furthermore Congress also gave the

FDA the power to go back and require manufactures to provide proof that the implants were indeed safe and effective, if it was felt that there was a reason to do so. (Bruning 7) “In 1977, Richard Mithoff, a Houston attorney, wins the first lawsuit for a Cleveland woman who claims that her ruptured implants and subsequent operations had caused pain and suffering. She receives a $170,000 settlement from Dow Corning. This case received little publicity” (Frontline 1). Since this case received little attention women from all walks of life still continued to seek out cosmetic surgery.

In 1982 the “FDA proposed to classify silicone breast implants into a Class III category that would require manufacturers to prove their safety in order to keep them on the market” (Frontline 2). It wasn’t until 1990 that heavy media exposure began to unveil the possible links between silicone breast implants and various types of toxic disorders. Connie Chung of Face to Face of this same year confronted Dow Corning executives who vehemently denied any link to toxic disease from their silicone implants (Frontline 2). For better or worse, we live in a society that puts great emphasis on ppearance.

This preference apparently knows no boundaries. In the 1940’s, “Japanese prostitutes had their breasts injected with substances such as paraffin, sponges and non-medical grade silicone to enlarge their breasts, believing that American servicemen favor women with large breasts” (Frontline 1) this is the case today as-well. During the 1960’s breast implants made a boom as women discover that there rolls in the job market can be increased by the way they look. With the help of the sexual revolution women also found it pleasing to create a better them through breast enlargement.

Not only was there a desire for women to seek this type of elective surgery, but prosthetic medical use for breast implants was increasing dramatically from women suffering from breast cancer. Many women have conflicting images of their breasts. On the one hand, breasts are symbols of beauty, sexuality, and nurturing; on the other, they are troublesome organs that are increasingly likely to threaten women’s lives. In the United States the likelihood that a woman will be found to have breast cancer has slowly and inexorably mounted since the 1930s, when some systematic data collection began.

The increase in diagnoses, already a cause for concern, accelerated in the 1980s, growing by a rate of four percent a year. This year, according to the American Cancer Society, some 184,300 women will discover that they have the disease; another 44,300 will die of it. Of the women in whom cancer is diagnosed, 9,200 will not yet be forty–nearly twice the number of women under forty who were found to have breast cancer in 1970. “The disease is now the leading cause of death for American women aged forty to fifty-five, and causes women to lose more years of productive life than any other disease.

Numbers like these are why breast cancer is often called an epidemic” (Plotkin 2). Silicone as a synthetic plastic was first developed in the 1930’s. It contains silicone, a natural material, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that have been polymerized, a process in which molecules are combined to form more complex molecules. Silicone can be processed into three forms: a gel, a solid like compound known as elestomer, and a fluid. Early breast implants were made of polyurethane foam, paraffin, steel, and grafts of human tissue.

These were not successful and when the first breast mplant became available in the 1960’s through Dow Corning, they were held as a breakthrough. Although an improvement, the first silicone implants had problems as well. Gradually the product improved. “With the advent of silicone gel, implants felt softer and looked more natural” (Bruning 6). With the development of the silicone implant there came about several alternatives besides silicone. These alternatives include gel-filled implants (the most frequent type used), saline-filled implants, and double lumen implants.

Some have outer shells that are textured or coated. Since extensive research had been conducted on the development of synthetic implants and cosmetic surgery clinics have become increasingly popular and economically affordable, women have sought out these clinics in droves. This enabled women to feel more confident about themselves and gave them a feeling of higher employability. For example, we see many women in the movie and television industry who have opted for a more well developed breast.

These women such as Pamela Anderson Lee, La Toya Jackson, Helen Hunt, Lonnie Anderson and Dollie Parton just to name a few, have had very successful careers not only ecause of their acting or singing abilities, but because of a better endowed body. On a recent episode of the WB program Judge Judy that aired on November 12, 1996, the former actress known as Roz Kelley of Happy Days fame was contesting a decision of a law suit about her breast implants which she claims has caused Rheumatic disease. Ms. Kelley claimed that her fame was based solely on her appearance and that is the only reason why she decided to get the surgery.

A witness for the defendant was the actress Rhonda Shear of USA’s Up All Night contended that although her implants had helped her career, it was not why she lected to have the surgery. The surgery was done out of personal choice and her statement for the defense was that “all women who have cosmetic surgery, make a conscious choice in doing so. ” There was no coercion involved. Not only in Hollywood do we see this type personal enhancement performed, but in magazines, modeling, and in the exotic entertainment industry also. Why is there such a dramatic emphasis on these women who decide to increase their bust line?

That question remains known only to the individual who elects to have the surgery. Because this type of surgery has become so popular, many women in today’s society have elected to have breast augmentation solely for cosmetic purposes. “When the ASPRS (American Society of Plastic and Re-constructive Surgeons) survey asked women why they chose to have breast augmentation, the three most common reasons given were: The desire for a more proportionate build (93%), a more appealing appearance (83%), and a boost in self confidence (76%)” (Bruning 27). The ideal woman started to become taller and thinner.

Men desired slim hips and large breasts. This image screams at us day and night on TV, at the movies, in magazines and newspapers, and at the health clubs. Women have fallen into the epitome of “buy this product and you will belong to the club of the attractive and well endowed” (Bruning 27). In September of 1991 the FDA after receiving numerous complaints issued a public report stating that silicone breast implants would not be deemed safe or harmful until further studies could be conducted. This statement outraged many women who had already began to feel the effects of their implants. Implants, both ruptured and intact, have been charged with causing a tremendous rray of diseases.

These range from memory loss to difficulty swallowing to joint pain to decreased sex drive to “skin tightening” to autoimmune diseases and even to cancer. Some have referred to this broad constellation of symptoms as “silicone gel syndrome” (Doyle 1). The first public hint of serious problems did not surface until 1977, when an investigative story of breast enlargement was published by Ms. Magazine contained a revealing article the headline “A 60% Complication Rate for an Operation You Don’t Need” (Bryne 81-82).

After a shocking discovery from investigating Dow Corning’s nternal memo’s, thousands of these memo’s revealed lack of long term testing, complaints from doctors, and leakage of silicone from the implants. The most outrageous incident discovered was complaints from surgeons of implants rupturing in the operating room, as they tried to install them into women’s breasts (Byrne 98). Pathology reports indicate considerable silicone reaction to the extruded material can cause severe foreign body reaction in susceptible individuals.

A letter written to Dow Corning from Charles A. Vinnick a predominant cosmetic urgeon in California wrote: ” I am loathe to publish my series of cases as I feel that it may open Pandora’s box. I do feel, however, that rapid dissemination of this information is very necessary to protect your comapny and my colleagues” (Bryne 98). Vinnick complained to Dow about an incident when he removed a pair of silicone implants, the gel in a ruptured implant was terribly runny while the gel inside the other implant was of ideal cohesion. This difference led him and some others to believe that when silicone gel came into contact with tissue fluids and fat the gel’s consistency changed.

William Faulkner’s Barn Burning

Some of things that people think are built on a righteous foundation are often the result of actions or events that are completely dishonorable. Aspects like wealth and influence can be gained by means that are immoral and inhumane. This is the case with Sarty Snopes fascination with the wealth of Major de Spain. He cannot see through the huge house and vast estate to the barbarity by which it was gained. In William Faulkners Barn Burning, the de Spains are barbaric, because their wealth was gained through the inhumane institution of slavery and is maintained by cheap labor.

Because of the de Spains barbaric nature, Sarty Snopes feelings towards the de Spains are misplaced. William Faulkners Barn Burning takes place in the south during the post-Civil War era. During this time many people were adjusting to a life without slaves. Before the war, people gained wealth at the expense of cheap labor from slaves. Slavery was one of the few ways that people could manage a huge estate like the de Spains and still be able to turn a profit. It is evident in the story that the de Spains were possible slave owners given the fact they still have Negro help now.

The de Spains probably owned many more slaves before the end of the war when the institution was outlawed. These slaves probably lived in inhumane conditions in which they worked for little or nothing based on the amount of worked they performed. Based on these facts the barbarity of the de Spains is clear. The de Spains can also be considered barbaric in the way they maintain their wealth during the time Sarty and his family move onto the de Spains holdings. Because of the absence of slavery, the de Spains now maintain their land by means of sharecropping.

Sarty father states, Pretty and white aint it? Thats sweat. Nigger sweat. Maybe it aint white enough yet to suit him. Maybe he wants to mix some white sweat with it (1252). Sarty and his family are now some of de Spains modified slaves. The fact that Major de Spain can force any race into cheap labor shows his complete lack of care for human welfare. This lack of care for human welfare is evident when Sartys father damages the de Spains rug. Major de Spain orders Mr. Snopes to pay twenty bushels of corn on top of what he already owes for the land.

Such a punishment is unjust for a rug and it will keep Sartys family on the land longer. The Justice states, Twenty bushels of corn seems a little high for a man in you circumstances to have to pay (1256). This shows how clear it is to everyone except Sarty how unjust Major de Spain is. Major de Spain is willing to keep Sartys family inhumanely on his land merely because of his wifes attraction to a rug. Sartys attraction to the de Spains is based on the grandeur of all he sees. What makes the de Spains barbaric is what Sarty doesnt see.

Sarty describes the de Spains as having peace and dignity (1251). However, this peace and dignity was gained through the violent and dehumanizing institution of slavery. The de Spains peace and dignity is now maintained now by a new form of slavery that Sarty and his family will now take part in. Given Sartys character, but probably not his upbringing, one can believe that if Sarty knew the barbarity through which the de Spains gained their peace and dignity the de Spains lifestyle would not have such an appeal to him.

Internet and Its’s services

Working with Internet does not mean just browsing www and sending and receiving e-mails. The Basic Structure of the Internet was developed through last 30 years of existence of the Internet. The Internet is a heterogeneous worldwide network consisting of a large number of host computers and local area networks. The Internet uses the TCP/IP suite of protocols. This allows the integration of a large number of different computers into one single network with highly efficient communication between them. This way, the user can access information on all kinds of host computers from a desktop PC, Macintosh, or whatever he/she has available.

TCP/IP, the communication standard underlying the Internet, originates from work done at the US-Department of Defense in the late 1960s. The first version of the Internet was built in 1969 and consisted of just four computers. In 1982 a set of specifications and protocols have been implemented, which became known as TCP/IP in reference to their two major elements, the “Transmission Control Protocol” and the “Internet Protocol”. The development and implementation of TCP/IP stimulated a massive growth process for the Internet. “By late 1987 it was estimated that the growth had reached 15% per month and remained high for the following two years.

By 1990, the connected Internet included over 3,000 active networks, over 3,000 active networks, and over 200,000 computers. By January 1992 the number of hosts on the Internet was 727,000, doubling about every 7 months. Various groups of users are connected to the Internet: universities and other educational institutions, government agencies, the military, and at an increasing number private businesses. The most fundamental function of the Internet is to pass electronic information from one computer to another. A 32 bit Internet Address or IP-Number identifies every computer on the network.

This number is commonly represented as four numbers joined by periods. The Internet uses these numbers to guide information through the network. This is called routing. For human users, however, such numbers are usually difficult to keep in mind. Therefore, computers are also identified by Domain Names, which are to some extent similar to mailing addresses. Special programs, called name servers, translate domain names into IP-Addresses. Internet services can be divided into two groups, communication services, and information services.

In the first group, the Internet mediates in the communication between two or more individuals. In the second group, the user turns to the Internet-service in search for some particular information. Communication services can roughly be compared to a telephone call, information services to a dictionary . The most important communication services on the Internet are electronic mail, Netnews and some derived services. Major information services are terminal emulation and file transfer, Gopher, WAIS, and World Wide Web. Electronic mail is the most popular and widely used network service.

It can be viewed as the electronic equivalent to a regular mail letter. When one user wants to send a message to another Internet user, he types the message into a special computer program, adds the e-mail address of the recipient, and sends the message off through the network. Typically, the message reaches its destination almost immediately, even when it is on another continent. Practically all gateways between the Internet and other computer networks can handle e-mail messages. Therefore, many more people can be reached by e-mail than are connected to the Internet via TCP/IP.

The major advantage of e-mail over regular mail is that an e- mail message comes in electronic form. Therefore, it can easily be handled and interpreted by a computer program. This feature is use by electronic discussion lists. They operate a database of subscribers and each incoming e-mail message is automatically distributed to each subscriber. Listserv, the most popular program for managing discussion lists also handles subscription via mail messages, archives incoming messages, and allows users to retrieve these and other archived files. Thousands of discussion lists focusing on all kinds of topics exist on the Internet.

Topics range from various hobbies, political discussions to operational aspects of different computer systems and research questions. For the user, discussion lists are an easy way to identify and contact a large number of people with similar interests. A discussion list can also be considered as a worldwide forum for expressing views and discussing opinions. While messages are automatically sent to all subscribed users in the case of a discussion list and one has to be subscribed in order to receive the messages, messages in Netnews are distributed between a net of servers.

Messages are organized in a hierarchy of newsgroups. Incoming messages are stored for a particular period in a publicly accessible area. Each user can connect to this area, browse through the stored messages, and respond to any one of them. This way Netnews allows for a better overview of ongoing discussions but requires the user to actively connect to the respective area. One of the reasons for the creation of a computer network like the Internet was to give users access to remote computers and to allow them to transfer files to and from this machine. These are typical demands for Telnet and FTP for file transfer protocol.

In both services, the user specifies a specific remote host through its IP-number or domain-name that he wants to access. When the user has an account on this remote host, he can work there just like on a local machine. With telnet available, increasingly Internet-sites allowed outside users to access some of their information services. Typical examples are electronic library card catalogs, campus information systems, and other database applications. Today, the electronic card catalogs of practically all-major libraries and many university libraries in Europe are publicly accessible through the Internet.

Many sites run large specialized information systems for the network community. A similar type of anonymous access is available through FTP. Many Internet sites allow users to log in as anonymous through FTP. The way the sites can make files publicly available. This system has led to a huge supply of freeware- and shareware-software that is distributed through this channel. Practically all network software is available in this way. In addition, information files specifications of network standards; research papers, multimedia files, and even the complete texts of classical books can be accessed through anonymous FTP.

When using an FTP client program to download files, assure yourself, that it is giving a bogus password, like [email protected] com, not your real one. If your browser lets you, turn off the feature that sends your e-mail address as a password for anonymous FTP sessions. The File Transfer Protocol, as its name states, is a set of rules that dictates how files should be transferred over the TCP/IP protocol. A basic FTP connection consists of a client and a server. The client gets a file by opening a connection to the server. Usually, the server is run on port 21, however, the system administrator can change this if he or she wishes.

William Shakespeare: Most Famous of All English Writers

William Shakespeare, the most famous of all English writers, has written many works. One such work is Much Ado About Nothing, a comedy that includes humor, love, and deceit. Several incidents in the life of the author influenced him to write this play in the fashion that he did. These events come from his life and the point in history in which he lived, thus producing Much Ado About nothing. Shakespeare’s life has very much to do with the style of his writing as his stories are from his past experiences. Shakespeare had a life that involved oth the good and bad aspects of love.

He was married for a short while, however, the marriage was suspected to be an unhappy one because he spent much of his later life away from his family. Shakespeare’s misfortune in love is shown in Much Ado About Nothing when it is said, “Speak low if you speak love. ” (Shakespeare). Contrary to this, the positive side of love is apparent: “Friendship is constant in all other things Save in the office and affairs of love: Therefore all hearts in love use their own tongues; Let every eye negotiate itself And trust no agent. (Shakespeare)

So let it be known, Shakespeare obviously learned a great deal about love throughout the course of his life. He learned not only the good, but also the bad, and in this, love plays a major role in Much Ado About Nothing (Wright 10- 13). Another element used in Much Ado About Nothing is deceit. This deceit involves a conflict between two brothers in which one wants to keep the other unhappy and unwed. This conflict is present as it is said, “There’s a skirmish of wit between them. ” (Shakespeare).

Shakespeare, in his life, had some deceitful things forced upon him where he was cheated out of something. He was forced out of school at an early age of fifteen to help his father financially. Furthermore, he was forced into marrying a women that was eight years older than himself because she was three months pregnant. In result of his unsuccessful marriage, it is reason enough for him involving love and deceit as one in this play. So Shakespeare also understands deceit as he incorporated it into Much Ado About Nothing (“Shakespeare, William”).

Contrary to love and deceit, Shakespeare uses comedy as the third and final element of the play. Comedy is what gives Much Ado About Nothing it’s cheerful happiness and wit that gives this play it’s recognition. Shakespeare had many happy experiences in his life due to his great success in being a playwright. His success started with him becoming the top writer of The Chamberlain’s Men, which would later be renamed The King’s Men. This led to his great career of writing which brought him fame and fortune, causing him to live and die a happy man (Wright 10-13).

The happiness and clever wit is described like, “Merry as the day is long. ” (Shakespeare). All throughout this play, there is constantly a tone of Comedy although interrupted by scenes of deceitful hate. This is very similar to the life of William Shakespeare, and it clearly the reason that he writes in the style he does. All in all, Shakespeare’s ability as a Comedic writer is very well spoken for and is the reason that he wrote this play. The elements used in this play as they have happened in Shakespeare’s life are established in the relationships of the characters of the play.

Benedict and Beatrice, throughout the entire beginning of the play, display love, deceit, and comedy. Beatrice finds all men to be repulsive, not in the physical sense, but in the psychological sense. Benedict does not like her attitude and does everything he can to spite her. Through all this, they both love each other, but both are as stubborn and hard headed as each other so it is impossible for either one to know this. At a costume party, Benedict tricks Beatrice into thinking he is someone else by wearing a costume and disguising his voice by talking with a different accent.

Beatrice, not being aware of this, talks badly about Benedict to whom she thinks is a stranger. Afterwards, Benedict is furious about her statements and complains to the prince, so everyone else conspires to get them together. They do this by letting them individually overhear talk of each other loving one another. When they hear this, they are both very happy and end up telling each other their true feelings resulting in them getting married at the end of the play.

The purpose of telling the story of Benedict and Beatrice is that their dialogue and actions esemble the tones and elements of the play, therefore they greatly contribute to what I am proving (Shakespeare). Finally, the elements used in Much Ado About Nothing directly coincide with the events of Shakespeare’s life. The style that he uses comes from his life from birth to death. In this, it is obvious that Shakespeare experienced love in all it’s aspects, he experienced deceit in a way, but more minor than others, and also he experienced comedy from all the happy times he had in his life as do these experiences in the play.

The story “Young Goodman Brown”

Nathaniel Hawthorne comes from an interesting background. He was born in Salem and later returned to live there. He was a descendant of William Hathorne, a puritan judge who persecuted Quakers, and John Hathorne, a puritan magistrate who participated in the Salem witch trials. Hawthorne’s kinship to these two notables of puritan history makes the story “Young Goodman Brown,” all the more interesting.

Hawthorne alludes to John Hathorne when he writes about Goodman Brown’s “fellow traveler” commenting on Brown’s grandfather, who “lashed the Quaker woman so smartly through the streets of Salem. Young Goodman Brown” is about one man’s journey through the woods with the devil and his encounters that make him doubt his faith in himself, his wife, and the community in which they reside.

The theme of this story is that beyond any intangible evil, the evil that men do is ultimately the more damaging. Throughout the story Hawthorne uses setting and characters as symbols representing different aspects of good and evil and he uses the plot to develop the eventual win-over of evil over “Goodman” Brown’s “Faith. ” Not surprisingly “Young Goodman Brown” takes place in Salem during the puritan era.

The story begins with Goodman Brown departing from his wife in the village to meet with and take a stroll in the forest with a “fellow-traveler” the devil. The contrast between the forest and the town is symbolic. On the outside, it seems like a normal, religious puritan village, but when one goes in deep, one sees there is a center of darkness. The deep, dark forest in the puritan town represents the internal evil of the villagers. The forest is viewed as mysterious, unknown and inhabited by the devil, while the town is pleasant safe and where his wife, “Faith,” is.

During Goodman Brown’s walk through the “dark forest,” he sees and learns that many of his mentors and relatives have chosen the path of evil. The forest is where all the respectable people of the town go to vent their evil while outside of the forest, they seem like they are pure and good. Hawthorne adds to the symbolism by personifying the trees “which barely stood aside to let the narrow path creep through” as Brown “walks alongside a dreary road. ” Hawthorne uses the characters of the story also to represent good and evil. The names of the main character and his wife are ironic.

Faith, in the literal context of the story, is Goodman Brown’s wife. In the connotative sense, Faith represents Brown’s actual faith in God and goodness of humankind. She is a symbol of Brown’s faith who then becomes tainted by evil. The pink ribbons in Faith’s cap represent purity, white, tainted by the evilness of the devil, red. He believes that his wife, Faith is good. Although the devil shows Brown that his father, the deacon, and the rest of the townspeople turned to evil, he will not go with the Devil because of his thoughts of Faith.

There is a certain point in the journey when he asks where his Faith is, at this point, he is symbolically seeking his own faith in goodness, or the righteous path and is wondering why he is on this path with the devil. Toward the end, when he sees his wife among the others in the woods, a participant of the ceremony, he loses faith. He wakes up and is left miserable, alone and distrustful of all the villagers including his wife. The main character’s name, Goodman Brown, is ironic because for all his “goodness” and faith in his beliefs, he becomes the one person in the village who personifies evil.

In the end of the story, the event changes Goodman Brown’s life and, whether it was reality or a trick played by the devil in Brown’s dream, the effect it had on him lasts the rest of his life. Brown doesn’t trust anyone, He doubts everyone, and sees evil in everyone. He becomes “stern, sad, darkly meditative, and distrustful. ” Brown would not participate in singing holy psalms. Goodman Brown “would turn pale whenever the minister spoke from the bible. ” He shrank from his wife, scowled when his “family knelt down for prayer” and his “dying hour was gloom. ”

The “fellow-traveler” who suddenly appears “at the foot of an old tree” is symbolic of evil and seems to be the devil. He carries a staff shaped in the image of a snake that “assumes life. ” The staff also consumes life as is it does when the devil uses it to transport “Goody Cloyse” to her destination. The devil allows Brown to see corruptness. The devil magnifies Brown’s temptation when he tells him of his relatives and peers succumbing to these evil doings. When he shows Brown these people that are his relatives and mentors choose to walk with the devil, Goodman Brown becomes disheartened. He can no longer trust anyone.

After the journey Brown doubts everyone’s faith and no longer trusts what people say. Everyone is evil. The journey through the woods is a metaphor for the journey that Goodman Brown and all humans, must face in choosing which path to take in life. This story revolves around Goodman Brown’s decision to discard his formerly pious life for one of hate, distrust and misery. He becomes evil. In the end, few people were willing to acknowledge his existence “when he was born to his grave, besides neighbors not a few, carved no hopeful verse upon his tombstone. ” In effect, he became the evil that everyone else turned their back on.

Sophocles play Oedipus Rex

In Sophocles play Oedipus Rex Oedipus Even though “fate” seems to determine Oedipus’ life, . he does infact have a free will. His choices brought the prophecy to life. Only his decisions (not influenced by anybody) he made. Of course those decisions were in side of the limits set by fate. When Oedipus heard a prophesy that his going to kill his father and sleep with his mother he ran away, even when he new there were suspicions of him being the real son of his parents.

There some lines from the play: “There was a man dining with us one day who had too much wine and man shouted at me-half drunk and shouting that I was not rightly called my father’s son. Without my parent’s knowledge, I went to Delphi, but Apollo did not say what I had gone to hear. Instead, he answered questions I had not asked and told of horror and misery beyond believe – how I would know my mothers bad and cause the death of my own father. ” The prophecy drove the Oedipus away from home; the terror of the predictions was too much to live with.

Oedipus tried everything not to meet the prophecy, and still when he came to Thebes and became a king Oedipus married an older lady. It was his choice, even when he knew there was a danger of him to know mothers bad, he made it. Oedipus’ quest for truth was his choice. When the Teiresias tried not to reveal the truth, The Oedipus was the one, who made the priest to talk: “This city gave you life and yet you refuse to answer! You speak as if you were her enemy. For God’s sake, if you know, don’t turn away from us! We are pleading. We are begging you. You will not tell?

You monster! You could stir the stones of earth to a burning rage! You will newer tell? What it will take? ” As the truth is getting revealed: ” You, Oedipus, are the desecrator, the polluter of this land. ” Oedipus does not believe (his choice). He (Oedipus) start to accuse Creon of truing to take his powers away (king). And still want to reveal whole truth. After talking to Jocasta Oedipus faces that he in fact might killed the king Laius. ” There was s herald leading a carriage drawn by horses and the man riding in the carriage The driver pushed.

In anger, I struck him. The old man saw it, reached for his lash and waited till I had passed. Then he struck me on the head. But he paid-oh yes he paid. I killed him. And again that was a choice, he (Oedipus) knew that he will kill his own father, even when he killed an old man he didn’t thought of possibility, that the old man might be his father. Oedipus fate was determined before he was even born, and by trying t o overcome it, he actually perfectly filing in his position in life which is a prophesy.

Oedipus thought that he oversmarted the Gods, but in fact every his move he made moved him closer to prophesy becoming a reality. Oedipus Essay (Fate) Sophocles Oedipus the King is a tragic play which discusses the tragic discovery of Oedipus that he has killed his father and married his mother. The story of Oedipus was well known to the athenians. Oedipus is the embodiement of the perfect Athenian. He is self-confident, intelligent, and strong willed. Ironically these are the very traits which bring about his tragic discovery. Oedipus gained the rule of Thebes by answering the riddle of Sphinx.

Sophocles used the riddle of the sphinx as a metaphor for the 3 phases of Oedipus life and to futher characterized him as a tragic man. The Sphinx posed the following riddle to all who came to obtain the rule of thebes: What is it that walks on 4 feet and 2 feet and 3 feet and has only one voice, when it walks on most feet it is the weakest? Oedipus correctly answered Man and became the king of Thebes. This riddle is a metaphor for the life of Oedipus. As a child man crawls on his hands and knees this is the four feet to which the Sphinx refers. Also man is at his weakest as a small child.

He depends solely on others for his nourishment and well being. Oedipus was the child of Jocasta and King Laius who was taken to the mountain by a shepard to be killed so the omen of the god apollo that Laius son would kill him and lay with Jocasta would not come true. Oedipus was the weakest of his life at this point. If it has not been for the shepard spairing his life and giving him to Polybus to raise as his own Oedipus would have died. Man walks on 2 feet when he has matured. This is a metaphor for Oedipus when he reaches adulthood and leaves Corinth to escape the oracle.

Oedipus meets up with a band of travelers and in a rage kills them. Inadvertently Oedipus has killed his own father. Oedipus then answers the riddle of the sphinx and becomes king of Thebes. By becoming king of Thebes he marries Jocasta the Queen of thebes and his own mother. Many years later after bearing children with Jocasta a plague kills many of the inhabitants of Thebes. Oedipus is told by the gods to find the killer of Laius. He is very dilligent in the inquiriy and finally comes to the horrible truth that he himself is the murderer.

Jocasta kills herself at the horrible realization that she has layed with her son and Oedipus puts out his eyes at finally seeing the truth. This fulfills the final part of the Sphinxs riddle for Oedipus will have to walk with a cane for the rest of his life because of his blindness, this will give him the 3 feet which man walks with at the end of his years. Oedipus used his intellect and diligence to answer the riddle of the Sphinx. Many of the most intelligent young men of thebes has been killed attempting to answer the riddle but Oedipus proved his intelligence superior to theirs.

Oedipus uses the same intelligence and perseverence to find the killer of Laius. He does not give up his search even when Jocasta warns him to stop and let the matter rest. He calls the shepard and interrogates him till he discovers the horrifying truth that he is the killer. Oedipus intelligence was ultimately his flaw. Also, if Oedipus had not had been as coarageous he would have have never ventured to answer the riddle of the Sphinx. Thus even though he had killed his father he would have never become king of Thebes and laid with his mother.

In addition, if Oedipus had had the courage but not the intelligence the Spinx would have killed him for answering the riddle incorrectly. Sophocles used this to characterized Oedipus as a tragic man for he came about his tragic discovery not because of an evil act or an evil trait but because of the person he was. Oedipus traits which gave him riches and power ultimately led to his tragic ending. Also, the god apollo did not predestine that Oedipus would kill his father and marry his mother by the oracle, he only stated what he knew was inevitable because of who Oedipus was.

The sphinxs riddle was used by Sophocles to characterize Oedipus as a tragic man and as a parallel to his life. The riddle describes the 3 stages which Oedipus went through in his life. Also in answering the riddle Oedipus inevitable brought about his own tragic ending by a horrible discovery. . Oedipus does not unselfishly seek out the truth even though he knows it will be painful for him, rather, he has no idea what the outcome of his search will be, denies the truth at every turn, and threatens those who speak it.

Many people may paint Oedipus as a great man, pointing out that he pursues the truth at whatever personal cost and has the strength to accept and endure it when found. They admire that Oedipus was willing to bring himself down in his lust to find his true identity. However, the driving force of Oedipus fact-finding mission is an attempt to end the disease that plagues his city. He doesnt realize the personal consequences his hunt will have for him, and his loyalty to the truth is based on his ignorance of it. In fact, if we examine his “quest for identity”, it becomes apparent that the sequence of events are quite coincidental.

First, he summons Tiresias to name the killer, who Oedipus does not at the time believe to be himself. Secon! The tragic hero Oedipus emerges as anything but a social person. He may begin that way, motivated by a genuine desire to help the people, but what emerges throughout is different. It becomes plain to see that Oedipus is actually, deep down where it really counts, far more concerned with his own sense of self and demands for justice on his terms, than in compromising his desires like any other true leader would.

This tragedy reminds us that even the bravest, those known throughout the world for their knowledge, are doomed if they set themselves up against the mystery of life itself, and if they try to force life to answer them, they are going to self-destruct. Oedipus Rex – Bliss in Ignorance Oedipus Rex – Bliss in Ignorance One of the most memorable and meaningful Socratic quotes applies well when in context of Sophocles’ Theban Trilogy. “The unexamined life is not worth living,” proclaims Socrates. He could have meant many things by this statement, and in relation to the play, the meaning is found to be even more complex.

Indeed, the situation of Oedipus, king of Thebes, the truth of this statement is in question. Would Oedipus have been better off if he was blind to the knowledge of his birthing and the fate which was foretold to someday befall him? Truly though, his life would have been a far better and easier path had he never known about his true origins. His life in Corinth would have been long and prosperous, and Thebes would have lived on under King Laius. In fact, everyone would have been better off in the long run if Oedipus had not ventured out beyond the walls of Corinth. So is it worth living an examined life?

Socrates had made this statement long after the creation of the Theban Trilogy. In the context of his own time, this was meant to imply that life must be examined and reflected upon, known and discovered by each individual philosopher to better enrich life for all. Yet in terms of Sophoclean drama, specifically Oedipus Rex, this was meant in a vastly different way. The unexamined life was one that was in the dark, unknown as to what fate lied beyond every turn and irony of living. Oedipus, up to the point in which he heard the comment in the tavern in Corinth, lived an unexamined life.

To Socrates, he was an unfulfilled man, one who deserved to know more, one who not complete. However, in a much less metaphysical sense, Oedipus’ life was complete, in that he had all that he needed, and was living a happy and fruitful life. As the drama progresses, he finds out more and more, learning exactly what the implications of his birth was, he suffers the fate for examining his life. So what Socrates had meant, that the life which was not rich with self exploration and reflection was not worth living, was indeed different than its application in terms of Oedipus, who’s life was unexamined, yet complete.

The question arises, what would life have been like, if Oedipus had not discovered his true origins? If he had stayed in Corinth, would this have ever happened? We find that indeed, we would have had no story, if not for that lone comment of a drunkard which sparked the fire of rebellion in the young prince Oedipus. He ventured out to Delphi, to pry knowledge of his background out of it, and to discover if this was indeed the truth, despite the fact that his adopted parents of Corinth had assured him of it falseness. Oedipus leaves Corinth, fulfilling the Socratic idea of the unexamined life.

However, we must evaluate the eventual consequences of his actions and the implications which they possess. What becomes of his fateful journey out of Corinth leads to the downfall of an entire city and family line. If he had not murdered King Laius, the Sphinx would have never descended upon Thebes, he would have never fulfilled the prophecy, and all would have lived on in a relative peace and tranquillity. Once examining these aspects of the relationship between the quote and Oedipus Rex, we can come to a final examination of its implications.

The question which was addressed, that of the value of the examined life, can be answered. Indeed, if Oedipus had not ventured beyond the protective walls of his adopted home, would anything such as what occurred in the play ever have transpired? If Oedipus had not pursued that answers to the mysteries that plagued him, despite the pleading warnings of Iocasta, in fact his life would have been contented and happy. Instead, he follows the Socratic method of exploration and discovery, and proceeds down the path of pain and distraught.

Was, after it was over, all worth it? We find that no, it was not. Being content and suited with what he knew of himself would have saved Oedipus and his children/siblings much agony. However, in the typical Greek tragedy, we must see his fall from grace through, which is indeed what happens. In the bliss of ignorance, much pain and difficulty is averted. For what worries does the ignorant man have? In the case of Oedipus, ignorance would have suited him fine. The Socratic quote “the unexamined life is not worth living” certainly doesn’t hold true in the case of Oedipus Rex.

While it may hold importance and a substantial meaning for our own lives, in the case of Oedipus Rex, he would have been better off without it. Indeed, for while the unexamined life is poor in a metaphysical sense, Oedipus would have truly been fine without it. For the unexamined life is a simple one, and he would have lived a long and happy life, never discovering the true nature of his birth, nor even caring. Oedipus Rex Sophocles’ “Oedipus the King” is a tragic play which discusses the tragic discovery of Oedipus that he has killed his father and married his mother. The story of Oedipus was well known to the athenian’s.

Oedipus is the embodiement of the perfect Athenian. He is self-confident, intelligent, and strong willed. Ironically these are the very traits which bring about his tragic discovery. Oedipus gained the rule of Thebes by answering the riddle of Sphinx. Sophocles used the riddle of the sphinx as a metaphor for the 3 phases of Oedipus’ life and to futher characterized him as a tragic man. The Sphinx posed the following riddle to all who came to obtain the rule of thebes: “What is it that walks on 4 feet and 2 feet and 3 feet and has only one voice, when it walks on most feet it is the weakest?

Oedipus correctly answered “Man” and became the king of Thebes. This riddle is a metaphor for the life of Oedipus. As a child man crawls on his hands and knees this is the four feet to which the Sphinx refers. Also man is at his weakest as a small child. He depends solely on others for his nourishment and well being. Oedipus was the child of Jocasta and King Laius who was taken to the mountain by a shepard to be killed so the omen of the god apollo that Laius’ son would kill him and lay with Jocasta would not come true. Oedipus was the weakest of his life at this point.

If it has not been for the shepard spairing his life and giving him to Polybus to raise as his own Oedipus would have died. Man walks on 2 feet when he has matured. This is a metaphor for Oedipus when he reaches adulthood and leaves Corinth to escape the oracle. Oedipus meets up with a band of travelers and in a rage kills them. Inadvertently Oedipus has killed his own father. Oedipus then answers the riddle of the sphinx and becomes king of Thebes. By becoming king of Thebes he marries Jocasta the Queen of thebes and his own mother.

Many years later after bearing children with Jocasta a plague kills many of the inhabitants of Thebes. Oedipus is told by the gods to find the killer of Laius. He is very dilligent in the inquiriy and finally comes to the horrible truth that he himself is the murderer. Jocasta kills herself at the horrible realization that she has layed with her son and Oedipus puts out his eyes at finally seeing the truth. This fulfills the final part of the Sphinx’s riddle for Oedipus will have to walk with a cane for the rest of his life because of his blindness, this will give him the 3 feet which man walks with at the end of his years.

Oedipus used his intellect and diligence to answer the riddle of the Sphinx. Many of the most intelligent young men of thebes has been killed attempting to answer the riddle but Oedipus proved his intelligence superior to theirs. Oedipus uses the same intelligence and perseverence to find the killer of Laius. He does not give up his search even when Jocasta warns him to stop and let the matter rest. He calls the shepard and interrogates him till he discovers the horrifying truth that he is the killer. Oedipus’ intelligence was ultimately his flaw.

Also, if Oedipus had not had been as coarageous he would have have never ventured to answer the riddle of the Sphinx. Thus even though he had killed his father he would have never become king of Thebes and laid with his mother. In addition, if Oedipus had had the courage but not the intelligence the Spinx would have killed him for answering the riddle incorrectly. Sophocles used this to characterized Oedipus as a tragic man for he came about his tragic discovery not because of an evil act or an evil trait but because of the person he was.

Oedipus traits which gave him riches and power ultimately led to his tragic ending. Also, the god apollo did not predestine that Oedipus would kill his father and marry his mother by the oracle, he only stated what he knew was inevitable because of who Oedipus was. The sphinx’s riddle was used by Sophocles to characterize Oedipus as a tragic man and as a parallel to his life. The riddle describes the 3 stages which Oedipus went through in his life. Also in answering the riddle Oedipus inevitable brought about his own tragic ending by a horrible discovery.

Every Thing You Ever Wanted to Know About EDI

Well EDI, or Electronic Data Interchange, is the transfer of business documents such as sales invoices, purchase orders, price quotations, etc. using a pre-established format in a paperless electronic environment. Usually this transfer occurs over VANs, Value Added Networks, but it is becoming increasingly popular over the Internet because of cost savings and ease of use. EDI has been around for approximately 30 years. “The true genesis of EDI occurred in the mid-1960s, as an early attempt at implementing the fictional “paperless” office by companies in transportation, grocery and retail industry segments.

Although EDI never eliminated paper documents, it decreased the number of times such documents were handled by people. Reduced handling resulted in fewer errors and faster transfers” (Millman, 83). EDI technology is rapidly changing the way business is conducted throughout the world. Firms that use EDI are more efficient and responsive to the needs of customers and partners and in many cases have jumped out ahead of the competition.

Many businesses are already using EDI with suppliers and customers, and if your firm wants to do business with companies involved in Government Dealings EDI must be part of your business no later than January 1, 1999. In May of this year, the major industrial groups in charge of standards setting for EDI, have united behind a set of standards that will allow for seamless web-based forms using extensible markup language, similar to HTML, thereby increasing the accessibility of EDI for small businesses on the Internet (Campbell, 28).

An example of an application for EDI is filing tax returns with the Internal Revenue Service. The IRS offers several options for filing your tax return, one of which is filing electronically and receiving your refund by electronic funds transfer or “direct deposit. ” The forms used are available in tax preparation software, which can be downloaded off the Internet or purchased by retail. The forms are filled out directly on a PC then transmitted to another computer, which acts as a midpoint to the IRS. The IRS receives your forms and can issue a refund without ever having to reprocess the data.

By using this method you save yourself and the IRS time and money (Campbell, 28). Table came from Information Technology for Management by Turban, McLean and Wetherbe page 244. Information, such as purchase orders for medical supplies, flows from the hospital’s information system into an EDI station, which consist of a PC, an EDI translator and a modem. From there, the information moves to a VAN (Value Added Network). The Van transfers the formatted information to the vendor, where the vendor side EDI translator converts it to a desired format (Turban, 244).

An EDI translator does the conversion of data into standard format. An example of such formatting is shown below. Table came from Information Technology for Management by Turban, McLean and Wetherbe page 243. “An average hospital generates about 15,000 purchase orders each year at a processing cost of about $70 per order. The health Industry Business Communication Council estimates that EDI can reduce this cost to $4 per order, potential yearly savings of $840,000 per hospital. The required investment ranges between $8,000 and $15,000.

This includes the purchase of a PC with an EDI translator, a modem, and a link to the mainframe-based information system. The hospital can have two or three ordering points. These are connected to a value-added network (VAN), which connects the hospitals to its suppliers. (See figure on previous page) The system can also connect to other hospitals, or to centralized joint purchasing agencies. ” (Turban, 244). There are numerous benefits associated with the adoption of EDI. Probably the most important and largest benefit is efficiency. By utilizing EDI businesses are able to streamline their whole supply chain process.

Whether it is upstream to suppliers or downstream to customers, EDI eliminates repetitive tasks such as entering data multiple times and cuts costs of printing hard copies and transportation costs. EDI also allows you to send and receive large amounts of data quickly to or from anywhere in the world. Anywhere that there is access to the Internet there is access to EDI. For example a supplier could be located in Taiwan while the customer is sitting in Memphis, TN and in no more than a few seconds thousands of product order forms could be sent between the two without any errors or lost data.

Companies in partnership agreements can gain access to one another’s shared databases to retrieve and store regular transactions. These partnerships tend to last for a long time as well because of the commitment of a long term investment and refinement of the system over a period of time. EDI creates a complete paperless Transaction Processing System environment, which saves money and increases efficiency. Collecting bills and making payments can be shortened by several weeks because the data doesn’t have to be reentered several time (Turban, 245).

There are other benefits to using EDI – security and validation. Using EDI is secure as long as it is not conducted over the Internet. The information is transmitted over a VAN and on to your partner, but never enters the realm of the World Wide Web. There are only three points of contact versus the millions of interconnections and links over the Internet. The use of EDI also provides a means of validation through time code embedded in the string of electronic codes that are attached to each file. It is time coded at every step in the transmission process.

Imagine no longer having to rely on postmarks or call a package delivery service, or check to make sure a fax went through (Campbell, 28). Despite all of the benefits of EDI there are still some disadvantages that have caused much criticism. First and foremost is the cost, the only companies that can really afford to utilize EDI to its fullest potential are the Fortune 1,000 and Global 2,000 firms (Millman, 83). “Traditional EDI works fine in the larger enterprises because they have IS professionals to maintain the system,” says Dennis Freeman, director of product marketing at Harbinger, an EDI software and services supplier in Atlanta.

Those companies exchange business documents with their trading partners and save themselves a huge amount of money by not using paper,” Freeman continues. “For smaller companies, that process becomes much more daunting. They don’t want – nor can they afford to own a full-blown EDI server. For them, Internet-based EDI is a low-cost answer” (Millman, 38). Another disadvantage of EDI is there could be communication problems with trading partners who use different EDI software. Internet EDI has solved this problem but at the cost of decreased security which is a major issue right now not to mention that network capacity may be unsatisfactory.

EDI in the Federal Government. Under the Federal Acquisition Act (FASA), as of June 1, 1998 any organization that wanted to do business with the Department of Defense was required to register with the Centralized Contractor Registration (CCR) to receive government contracts. Companies with existing contracts did not have to register initially but the DOD will institute a system-wide electronic funds transfer payment system by January 1, 1999. By that time every contractor that wants to get paid must enter it’s register” (Campbell, 29). The resistance behavior of some firms towards the adoption of EDI is still very evident today.

Recently EDI has received much attention in the transportation and logistics literature, particularly in the area of shipper-carrier relationships. EDI is often considered an indicator of mutual cooperation between a carrier and a shipper, as well between a customer and a supplier in a supply chain. As people began viewing EDI as the glue that holds partnerships together, the decision to adopt (or not adopt) became a decision to be made by multiple firms rather than a single-firm decision. The use of EDI for transportation-related transactions by a shipper, for example, requires the use of EDI by its carriers.

Similarly, if a retailer wants to use EDI for achieving higher operational efficiency, the use of EDI by its suppliers is a must. In other words, a successful implementation of EDI strategy (strategic use of EDI for achieving higher cost efficiency and improved customer service) greatly depends on whether a firm can persuade its trading partners to adopt the EDI system. Given these situations, firms pursuing the EDI strategy began feeling the need to learn effective ways of persuading their trading partners to adopt the EDI system” (Suzuki, 36).

In an attempt to provide insights on how to persuade non-adopters to adopt EDI, numerous researchers conducted studies to determine the factors that influence the decision to adopt or not. Those studies are invaluable tools that firms can use to attempt to persuade their trading partners to adopt EDI. The studies, however, did not study why firms choose not to adopt EDI. Adoption and resistance behavior may seem to be opposite sides of the same coin but in fact there could be numerous reasons not to adopt EDI.

For instance a firms business environment may not require the adoption of EDI, that doesn’t mean that firm is resisting EDI it just means it doesn’t need it. On the other hand if a firm has adopted EDI but only uses it for certain limited purposes, like the issue of bills of lading, despite repeated requests by its trading partners to increase usage that firm, although it has adopted EDI, still shows strong resistance. In the studies there arose three main factors that contributed to a firms resistance to EDI.

These factors were as follows: uncertainty, EDI standardization, and perceived EDI benefit. Each factor will be discussed in the following paragraphs. The concept of uncertainty has been defined as the “inability of a firm to forecast accurately the technical requirements of the EDI system in the relatively near future” (Suzuki, 37). When there is a high level of unpredictability firms tend not to form long lasting agreements with other firms, such as those found in an EDI partnership, because they wish to retain the flexibility to terminate relationships whenever necessary.

EDI increases the strength of the partner relationship therefore a firm is less likely to accept EDI sharing with its trading partners when that firm perceives a high degree of uncertainty in EDI technology. EDI standardization refers to the distribution level of an industry wide EDI format. When Company exclusive (many different) EDI formats are more common in an industry, the EDI standardization in this industry is considered low. However, if the industry wide (standardized or similar) EDI formats are more common, the EDI standardization is high.

The lack of EDI standardization is considered to be a major barrier towards the adoption of EDI. Firms with limited EDI knowledge can become confused with all of the different formats for EDI and be dissuaded from adopting EDI for their firm. Basically in industries where firms adopt their own EDI format other firms are less likely to accept EDI agreements because linking with these firms would require that firm to adopt more document formats. EDI benefits have been discussed deeply in this paper, in literature, and just about every article or study about EDI.

The lower the perceived benefit a firm has towards EDI the less likely that firm is to adopt the technology. If a firm believes that EDI has no benefit for that firm it may not and probably will not adopt EDI technology despite the pleadings of its trading partners or it may adopt the system but be reluctant to use it (Suzuki, 39). The most obvious benefits of EDI are speed and accuracy of data transmission but can and often do include improved customer service quality.

A successful implementation of EDI strategy greatly depends on whether a firm can persuade its supply-chain partners to adopt the EDI system. Convincing other parties to use the EDI system, however, may not be an easy task, because partners often show strong resistance to EDI usage. The study of resistance to the adoption of EDI indicated that firms tend to show stronger resistance to EDI when firms perceive a high level of uncertainty, low distribution rate of industry wide EDI formats and standards, and little benefits of using EDI for reducing processing time” (Suzuki, 40).

Therefore in order to successfully implement EDI across the entire supply-chain a firm must clarify the details of the agreement, adequately demonstrate the reliability and benefits of EDI, and insure a set global format that can be used anywhere. While EDI may not be for everyone any other form of Electronic Commerce cannot match its benefits and popularity across all industries. “EDI’s cost savings are the stuff of accounting legends.

For example, RJR Nabisco estimates that the cost for processing a paper-based purchase order is almost $70, whereas the same transaction performed through EDI costs less than $1. Further, EDI’s single entry of transactions minimizes repetitive data entry and reduces keystroke errors. The almost instantaneous nature of an EDI transaction shortens the time between creating a purchase order and sending an invoice to seconds. Until recently, there were few alternatives to EDI that offered the speed, standardization, and acceptance in the global business community.

Now, Internet-based EDI solutions, such as those found at Hewlett Packard (See figure below), promise to trim the cost and mass of EDI and add new life to an antiquated system” (Millman, 83). In the past, EDI adoption was a slow process because EDI exchanges were based on an exclusive company to company system. Now EDI on the Web will greatly accelerate exchanging business documents all over the Globe. As the prices of EDI plummet, interest continues to soar, which will bring about lower prices and offer more flexibility for companies conducting Internet commerce.

Overview of Italy

Italy is a country located in southern Europe. Italy occupies a boot-shaped peninsula that extends into the Mediterranean sea from southern Europe. The country also includes two large islands, Sicily and Sardinia. The History Italy has had a long and colorful history. For much of its history, Italy has been divided into many small and often warring city states. This occurred after the break up of the Roman Empire when much of Europe became feudal. In 476, Odoacer defeated the last emperor of ancient Rome, Romulus Augustulus. Odoacer ruled for 13 years after gaining control.

He was then attacked and defeated by Theodoric, the king of a Germanic tribe named the Ostrogoths. Both kings, Theodoric and Odoacer ruled jointly until Theodoric murdered Odoacer. Theodoric continued to rule Italy with a government comprised mostly of Italians and an army composed of Ostrogoths. During his rule, he brought peace to the country but after his death in 526, the kingdom began to grow weak. In 553, Justinian, the Byzantine emperor who ruled the eastern part of the Roman Empire, defeated the Ostrogoths and expelled them. For a time, the Old Roman Empire was united again.

Byzantine rule in Italy collapsed as increased attacks from Germanic tribes weakened the empire. Byzantine rule collapsed in 572 when the Lombards invaded. In the 400s and 500s the popes increased their influence in both religious and political matters in Italy and elsewhere. The popes were usually the ones who made attempts to protect Italy from foreign invasion or to soften foreign rule. The popes for almost 200 years had opposed attempts by the Lombards, who controlled most of Italy, to take over Rome. The popes defeated the Lombards with the aid of two Frankish kings, Charlemagne and Pepin the Short.

The papal states were created out of land won for the popes by Pepin. From the 10th century on, Italian cities began to grow rapidly and became increasingly independent of one another. They flourished because of their access to the Mediterranean trade routes and almost had a complete monopoly on all spice and silks coming into Europe. They became centers of political life, foreign trade and banking. At this time, the church grew in power also. The Italian popes became increasingly more involved in the European political scene.

Many of these city states became extremely wealthy and powerful and resisted the attempts of noblemen and emperors to control them. During the 1300s, one of the greatest eras in human history occurred, The Renaissance. The Renaissance occurred primarily in Italy in the various city states. Many great artists and philosophers lived during this period and enhanced Italys prestige. The kingdom of Italy was formed in 1861. Five years later, in 1866, Venetia became a part of that kingdom. Rome became its capital in 1871. Benito Mussolini became premier in 1922.

In 1940, Italy entered World War II on the side of the Germans. Italy surrendered in 1943 and established a new republic in 1946. Culture and Customs The population of Italy is approximately 58 million people, most of whom live in the urban cities. The four largest cities in Italy, in order of population are Rome, Milan, Naples and Turin. The most densely populated areas of the country are the industrialized regions of Lombardy and Liguria in the northwest region of Campania in the south. The areas with the lowest population density are the mountains of both the north and south.

More than two thirds of Italys population reside in cities. Most live in large, concrete apartment buildings. A few of the more wealthy people live in single-family homes. The oldest sections of an Italian city are made up o low buildings that have apartments around a central courtyard. Newer parts of the city often have larger apartment buildings. Poor neighborhoods are usually found on the outskirts of the city. Most unmarried children live with their parents. Parents often help an adult son or daughter purchase an apartment near their own.

Many young women work outside the home, and grandparents often help care for the children of working mothers. Many urban areas provide public child-care centers. City growth and the increased use of the automobile have led to some serious problems with urban pollution in Italy. In large cities, the air pollution poses a health hazard and has damaged priceless architecture. Many cities have banished private cars from the city centers. Most rural communities in the past consisted of a compact settlement surrounded by a large area of agricultural land.

The farmers usually lived in town and traveled to work in the fields each day. This pattern of living was especially common in southern Italy, in northern Italy the farmers usually lived on their land. Italians take great pride in the quality of their cooking. They traditionally eat their main meals at midday. Large meals usually consist of a past course, followed by a main course of meat or fish. Italian foods vary greatly by region. In the north, flat, ribbon-shaped pastas served with cream sauces are most popular. In the south, macaroni served with tomato-based sauces is the favorite type of pasta.

Italians enjoy a wide variety of sports. Soccer is the most popular sport in Italy. Every major city has a professional soccer team. But soccer is not just a spectator sport- on weekends Italys parks are filled with children and adults playing the game. Basketball is also very popular, and some cities have more than one professional basketball team. Other popular sports include fishing, hunting, cycling, roller skating, and baseball. Major Religions About 95 percent of the population in Italy is Roman Catholic. Most religious ceremonies such as baptisms, weddings and funeral services are held in church.

Only about 30 percent of all Italians attend church regularly. Many others occasionally attend church. An agreement called the Lateran Pact governs the relationship between Italy and the Roman Catholic Church. For example, the pact exempts priests and other members of religious orders from military service and gives tax exemptions to Catholic organizations. The Roman Catholic Church has had a strong influence on laws in the past, but that influence has weakened. For example, until 1970, the church was able to block attempts to legalize divorce in Italy.

Vatican City, the spiritual and governmental center of the Roman Catholic Church, lies entirely within the city of Rome. But Vatican City is independent from Italy and has its own diplomatic corps. There are several small religious groups in Italy. The other groups include Protestants, Muslims and Jews. Political Systems Italy set up its present form of government in 1946. That year, the people voted to change their nation from a monarchy ruled by a king to a republic headed by a president. King Humbert II immediately left the throne. The president of Italy is elected to a seven-year term by both houses of Parliament.

The president must be at least 50 years old. He or she appoints the premier, who forms a government. The president has the power to dissolve parliament and call new elections. The president is the commander of the Italian armed forces, and can declare war. The premier determines national policy and is the most important person in the Italian government. The premier is selected by the president from the members of Parliament and must be approved by Parliament. The premier has no fixed term of office, and can be voted out by office by Parliament at any time.

Members of the Cabinet are chosen by the premier and are usually chosen from among the Parliament. The Parliament consists of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate. Both of these houses have equal power in passing laws. The Senate has 315 elected members and the Chamber of Deputies has 630 members. All former presidents become Senators for life. In elections for the Chamber of Deputies, the country is divided into 32 constituencies. The number of Deputies to be elected from each constituency is determined by its population. Each political party presents a list of candidates for the position of deputy from the district.

The deputies selected from a party are chosen in the order of number of preference votes each receives. Senators are chosen in much the same way, but are elected from twenty regions instead. Italy has a complicated system of election to parliament based on proportional representation. In the Parliament, the percentage of seats held by each political party is about the same as the percentage of the total votes received by the partys candidates. Since 1948, Italy has experienced frequent Cabinet changes. Most Cabinets have lasted less than a year, but many members of one Cabinet have remain in the new one.

If some of the parties in the Cabinet are disagreeing with the Cabinets policies, they may withdraw support and require the formation of a brand new Cabinet. The fascist government that once ruled Italy is on the rise again. The fascist party grows in membership each year. Italy has also been reluctant to talk about the joining of the European nations into one large economic super power. Economic Systems Since World War II, Italy has shifted from a predominantly agricultural economy to one based on modern industries. As recently as the 1950s, more than a third of all Italians were employed in agriculture.

From 1953 to 1968, industrial production almost tripled. By the late 1980s, only about 10 percent of employed Italians worked in agriculture. The transformation has been most complete in northern Italy, which is now one of the most advanced industrial areas of Western Europe. Southern Italy remains poorer and less industrialized, despite long-term efforts of the Italian government to improve the regions industry and agriculture. In 1957, Italy became a member in the European Economic Community. This union of Western European nations, also called the European Common Market, has abolished tariffs on trade among its members.

This membership has helped strengthen the economy of Italy. Service industries account for about two-thirds of Italys gross domestic product. Trade ranks as Italys most important type of service industry. It accounts for a larger percentage of the countrys gross domestic product and employs a greater share of workers than any other service industry. Manufacturing accounts for almost a fourth of Italys gross domestic product. Languages The language of Italy is Italian. Like French and Spanish, Italian is a romance language – one of several languages that evolved from Latin.

There are only a few communities in Italy in which Italian is not spoken as the first language. German is the first language of many of the Terntino-Alto Adige region. French is spoken as a first language in portions of the northwestern part of Italy. Solvene, a Slavic language, and Ladin, a language similar to the Romanasch of the Swiss, are spoken in northern sections of Italy. The Land, Environment and Growth Potential Italy has eight different regions. The first one is the Alpine Slope. The Alpine Slope runs across the northernmost part of Italy. Its landscape includes huge mountains and deep valleys.

Forests are found in the lower areas, in the higher areas, there are grasslands and conifer forests. The melting snow feeds many rivers. Many hydroelectric plants have been built along these rivers and help to power the factories of the north. The second region of Italy is the Po Valley. This area is also referred to as the North Italian Plain. It is a broad plain that stretches between the Alps in the north and the Apennine mountains in the south. This valley floods periodically, but a intricate system of dikes helps control the flooding. The third region is the Adriatic Plain.

It is a small region north of the Adriatic Sea. Its eastern edge borders Yugoslavia. This area is not very well suited for farming. The fourth region is the Apennines. This region stretches almost the entire length of Italy. The mountains in this region have steep inclines of soft rock and are constantly eroding as a result of heavy rain. The northern Apennines have some of the largest forests in the country and much pasture land. The central part of the range has productive farmland and grazing. The southern Apennines include the poorest part of Italy. This area has plateaus and high mountains, but few natural resources.

The fifth and sixth regions are the Apulia and southeastern Plains. These form the “heel” of the boot-shaped peninsula. This region is composed of plateaus that end as cliffs at the Mediterranean Sea. The seventh region is the Western Uplands and Plains. This area stretches along the Tyrrhenian Sea from La Spezia, a port city just south of Genoa, southward past Naples to Salerno. It is a rich agricultural region, second only to the Po Valley in agricultural output. Sicily is the eight region. Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is separated from mainland Italy by the Start of Messina.

The island has mountains and plains. Mount Etna, one of the largest active volcanoes in the world, dominates the landscape of northeastern Silicy. Sever erosion caused in part by the clearing of forests, has hampered agriculture and made travel in many inland areas difficult during the wet season. The climate of Italy is temperate. The spring, summer and fall are generally sunny, but winter is rainy and cloudy. In early spring, hot dry air from the Sahara expands and covers Italy. The summer climate of much of Italy is dry, with occasional rainstorms.

Technology Italys technological level is equal to that of the U. S in certain areas. The northern part of Italy uses some of the most advanced manufacturing methods in its factories. One quarter of the countries power is supplied through state of the art hydroelectric dams. More than 450 privately owned television stations and over 1000 private radio stations are operating in Italy. Italy has an excellent system of roads. Large, modern superhighways run the length of the Italian peninsula. Tunnels though the Alps link the highway system to those of neighboring countries. Italy has an average of about 1 car for ever 3 people. When compared to the United States, Italy is only slightly behind.

The United States has more advanced computers and telecommunications system. In medical technology, Italy is equal to the U. S but the technology is not as widely available as it is in the United States. Natural Resources Italy is limited in the number of natural resources and must rely on imports. Much of the mineral deposits in Italy are found on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and in the regions of Lombardy, Tuscany and in the north-central and northwestern parts of the peninsula. The most important natural resource of Italy is natural gas, which is found primarily in the Po Valley.

Italy also produces abundant amounts of marble and granite. Other minerals important to Italy are feldspar, pumice and sulfur. For it its energy supply, Italy relies upon other countries. Petroleum imported from Libya provides more than half of the countries energy. Italy imports much of its oil from Iran and Libya. Italy produces very small amounts of petroleum. Most of Italys petroleum is found in Sicily. I found Italy to be an interesting country. Many of the greatest and most important eras in mankind occurred in Italy. The Renaissance, The Roman Empire and some of World War II all happened in Italy.

I believe the historical and cultural significance of Italy is largely overlooked. Another reason I chose Italy is that it is a country we rarely study in school. When we study European history, we mainly cover France or Germany, etc. We rarely get into countries that are just as important as Italy. When we do study them, we blend them all together and just get a brief overview of the countries history and culture. One of the things that fascinated me about this country was its place in current world economics. Italy has a high GDP and is heavily involved in trade on the Mediterannean. Italy has the largest shipping fleet in the world.

When the news mentions the strongest economic nations, you never hear about Italy. Yet I found that Italy is a significant player in world economics. The government and political system of Italy also fascinated me. The political system there seems more complex than the one in the United States. The House of Deputies has over 600 members and the Senate over 300. I also found It interesting that ex-presidents are given permanent positions in their government as Senators. One of the things that bothered me in researching this paper was that it was difficult to summarize the history of the country.

Many of the books I had were long and covered the history in so much detail that it was hard to skim through and take out the important events and make them fit into this paper. When researching this paper at the library, many of the books were either travel guides or books about the art of Italy. There were quite a few about the culture and past but it took awhile to find them among all the travel guides. If I had a chance to visit this nation I definitely would. Italy seems like a fun place to visit because of all the old historic sites. It would be interesting to visit all the old Roman and middle age ruins that are located in Italy.

Don’t Judge A Book By It’s Cover

Looks can be deceiving, and in the case of Sir Andrew and Feste the fool, the statement certainly applies. Looking at the personalities of these two characters throughout Twelfth Night, no one will see that each character is the exact opposite of each other. Their comparison is their contrast. The first, Sir Andrew, is of “foolish wit”, who looks that part he is supposed to play on the outside. He looks sophisticated and very intelligent. Yet when actually speaking with this character, the opposite applies and he really is just a fool.

And Feste, the other character, looks the part of a fool and is used for mere entertainment. Yet on the inside, he exhibits the mind of an intelligent person, maybe even a scholar. These two characters compare in their extreme differences. A fool must look the part as well as play the part. But does Feste do this? He does this quite well actually. But then how can one call him witty and intelligent? It is basically because he only plays the part of a fool. The key word is “plays”. He is not really a fool. He states “I wear not motley in my brain. “(pp. 28).

This quote reinforces that he only wears the clothes of a fool on the outside, but his over brimming amount of intelligence shows he is a real person, with thoughts, ideas and comments to be made. Only being a fool may restrict him from doing such. Throughout the play, Feste acts as witty as a mischief-maker. He does get to use his wit, just not in an ideal fashion. Unlike Sir Andrew, he does not brag about qualities he does not posses. Feste has many talents that do not go unnoticed. He may be considered the most intelligent person in the whole cast of haracters.

Sir Andrew Aguecheek is a lover of life and a pure fool. He looks the part of a noble man, and tries to play the part as well. Even his title, “Sir”, refers to a knight. But what is he really like? “He’s as tall a man as any’s in Illyria” (pp. 14), according to Sir Toby Belch. Toby is very mistaken though, since Andrew is no more than a foolish drunk. The only thing that separates his personality from Sir Toby’s is that he is a natural fool. In a scene, Feste first says, “Beshrew me, knight’s in admirable fooling:, and Andrew replies, Ay, he does well enough if he be disposed, and so do I, too.

He does it with better grace, but I do it more natural. ” (pp. 58). Andrew himself is stating that he is a fool by nature. Clearly he looks the part of a refined gentleman. He says he speaks another language but when spoken to in that language, he doesn’t understand it. And this shows to be more proof that Andrew is a fool hidden behind a mask of a noble person. A fine comparison was made between these two crucial characters. A fool who is smart, and a nobleman who is a fool. Shakespeare really is brilliant, since he though up uch an elaborate story that says looks can be deceiving.

And that statement sticks out plain as day. The next clown on the street that you see could be the smartest person to ever walk the Earth, and the same goes with the next smart looking teacher you see. On the other hand he/she could be a genuine idiot. So as a final proposition, Shakespeare asks us to not judge a person by their outer wear and their fake public behavior. The only contradiction with this statement is that since Shakespeare lived in the 1600’s, he was brought up to do just the opposite. Sad, but true.

Steinbeck’s Grapes of Wrath

The migrant situation of the 1930s as depicted in Steinbecks Grapes of Wrath was caused by many diverse factors. It started with an extremely dreadful drought, known as the Dust Bowl, which swept through the mid-west. The gluttonous landowners and the multitudes of fliers that they passed out made the situation even worse. To top off all of that the nation was going through a terrible depression. At this time the whole nation was changing as a whole. These few main factors led to one of the most widespread waves of migrant workers this country has ever seen.

All of these problems began when the horrific drought called the Dust Bowl tore through the mid-west. Nearly all of the crops perished. The farmers were then forced off of the land they were raised on because the owners of the land couldnt make any money off of it anymore. Without food to feed their families or money to buy food they were starving. The only answer they could find was the fliers that advertised work in the west.

The leading cause of the migrant situation was the flood of fliers pouring in from California. The western landowners passed out more fliers than they needed jobs to be filled. When the workers arrived they had to work for little pay. They had no choice because there were many other people willing to work for less. When all of the work was done the local police and landowners would kick the migrants out of town. Thus, keeping the cycle going.

Finally, at this time the whole nation was in a progressively changing. Everyone from the truck driver to the waitress in the restaurant was involved in the change. Everyone was moving from only worrying about himself or herself to worrying about the whole. They realized that they had to band together and help each other out to survive. This demonstrates the I to We Theme as well. Pa said, Were thankful to you folks. Were proud to help to help, said Wilson. (189)

The creation of the migrant situation was a major part of the nation in the 1930s. The drought killed their crops. The landowners treated them like bums. Yet the country was learning to band together to survive. It had many causes and was felt by the whole country.

True love or infatuation

Many different types of love play an important role in the world today. True love and infatuation coexist to make up love that can occur between a man and a woman. Although true love and infatuation may appear similar on the surface, they actually reside on opposite ends of the spectrum. Many young people today have experienced infatuation, but only a select few have actually experienced true love. The faster one learns to distinguish between the two, the less likely one ends up making a big mistake. Infatuation may last for a while and may pleasure and entertain while it lasts, but only true

Although people sometimes find it hard to distinguish between true love and infatuation, a few major differences separate the two. First of all, infatuation involves just a feeling; real love requires a commitment also. Infatuation only allows for love of emotion. Real love, though, commands love of devotion. Only the emotions are affected in infatuation, but real love involves both emotions and will. Next, a person can fall into infatuation, but a person has to grow into real love. For instance, when a guy sees a girl so beautiful that his heart starts pounding every time he sees her, he xperiences infatuation.

Even though he knows nothing about the girl, she Several things compose true love, a very special kind of love. It occurs between two people and it grows stronger every day. Many older people will say that a person will only experience true love once or maybe even twice in a lifetime. On the other hand, many people will never experience true love. If an individual asks any happily married adult, How will I know that I am in love? , about ninety-five percent of them will say, One will just know. Well, since I know I have never really experienced true love, I can only give a ew characteristics of true love.

First of all, if a man loves a woman, he will love, trust, and respect the woman as much as he loves, trusts, and respects himself. He will also put her needs ahead of his own. The foundation of true love should rest on the relationship of two people as a whole, not just their On the contrary, the inverse proves true for infatuation. Instead of loving and trusting each other, one often wonders about the faithfulness of the relationship. Sometimes he wonders if his partner really even cares about him at all. Also, he always seems excited and eager when he dates this person hat he thinks he loves, but he may forget about her after a few days.

People that let infatuation drive their relationships always find little imperfections in their spouses and make a big deal over them. When a person truly loves someone, he accepts them and looks over their minor imperfections. Infatuation is usually self-centered, short-lived, and when it ends, one usually Infatuation may last for a while and may pleasure and entertain while it lasts, but only true love can last a lifetime. One should always remember this when he begins looking for a spouse. A person would never want to marry nyone that only infatuates him because the marriage would end up in an ongoing fight.

People in marriages based on infatuation continually try to make their spouses into what they want. One should also realize that marriage doesnt change people. More than likely, if a couple fights a good bit now, they will also fight a good bit after they get married. Many marriages that people enter into planning to change their spouse end in divorce. Getting a divorce has become all too popular among todays society. I dont like to see people getting a divorce because it not only affects the couple, it also affects their families and their children.

The conception of Gay Parenting

The conception that lesbians and gay men may be parents is frequently perceived in todays society as impossible or immoral. Gay men and lesbians are often viewed as excluded from having children because sexual reproduction is related to men and women only. My approach to this uniquely controversial topic of gay parenting will be that of attempting to analyze the Pro side first. Gays and lesbians are human too and who is to say that they dont deserve equal rights in society.

Society has to realize that the modern family has developed into many different forms in recent years in that the “nuclear family” is not necessarily the most common form anymore. Then I will attempt to analyze the Con side which expresses the fact that two people of the same sex should not be raising and rearing children together. Many believe that if the couple is unable to produce children together, then they shouldnt be raising them as parents.

Children need a balance in their lives and different sexed parents can provide that balance efficiently. Each parent (mom or dad) socializes the child differently and the child needs to be introduced to both worlds. I will then proceed to critique both sides on strengths and weaknesses, based on facts, studies, and my own opinion, and then draw some of my own conclusions on this controversial topic of Gay Parenting.

The causes and effects of the recent rise in divorce rates

From the past to present, people all over the world have determined to live together, which is called get marriage in another word, so that they depend on for living each other. Nevertheless, some couples are unable to maintain their relationship; therefore they choose divorce, which is one of the solutions to cope with problems between husband and wife. Furthermore, most people think carefully before they get marriage. However, the divorce rates trend to continually increase nowadays, thus it might be argued that divorces can be taken place easier than the past.

There are three main causes of divorce: changing womans roles, stress in modern living and lack of communication, which are highlighted below. The first significant cause of recent rise in the rates of divorce is that women completely change in roles. In the past, men have to earn whole money to afford the expense of family, whereas woman only do housework, hence women have no money leading to depend on husbands money. Because of these situations, it is too difficult for most women to separate from their husbands. Nonetheless, these situations entirely change nowadays.

The equality between men and women in roles are very clear at the moment, thus women can work outside to earn money, while men share the household tasks such as cooking, cleaning, washing as well as caring for children. It can be clearly seen that women are independent from money as they can earn money by themselves to support their living cost. Accordingly, the divorce rates recently rise. Another cause to confirm the recent increase in divorce rates is stress in modern living. Many people, who live in globalisation, have considerable pressures to earn money.

It can be obviously seen that the stress has occurred since they are children. For instance, in Thailand, students generally want to go to famous school so that they take advantage to go to well-known universities. Studying in celebrated universities mostly causes having a good opportunity to find a job or earn a lot of money. This circumstance not only happens in Thailand, but also occurs in many countries. Some people are laid off from their companies; consequently the stress occurs in their family, which leads to divorce.

Some families can earn money, but inadequate for covering their expenses, therefore it is easy to think about divorce. Nevertheless, the rates of unemployment trend to continually increase as a result the divorce rates can also rise. It is no doubt that the stress in modern living may lead to recently increasing divorce rates. The final cause of recently increasing divorce is lack of communication. Owing to financial status in each family, many people are fairly busy. For this reason, they have inadequate time to talk to the problems with their partners, which produces the likelihood of divorce.

Some couples are often quiet when they have problems each other, as a consequence little problems can be expanded to probably become huge problems, resulting in divorce. It is quite clear that the more communications are used, the more divorce rates are reduced. Although, these three cause of the recent rise in divorce rates are expressed above, there are also two effects of the recent increase of divorce rates: negative effects and positive effects Firstly, the effects of recent enlargement in divorce rates are negative effects.

Most couples normally have children when they get marriage. Accordingly, divorces can directly effect on children. Children living in single parent families are more probably to get pregnant as teenagers, drop out of high school, abuse drugs and have aggressively emotional and behavioural problems, which lead to social problems. Some children decide to go out of their home when their parents separate each other, and subsequently they become homeless children. They do not have good opportunities to find a job due to shortage of education.

Consequently, crime may likely be the end result. These are significantly negative effects of recent expansion in divorce rates. Secondly, on the other hand, another effects of rise in divorce rates are positive effects. People, who divorce by consent from their partners, want to have better quality of life, since they are unhappy with their spouses. Accordingly, they can work efficiently, which results from fine mental condition. They not only have more free time to do many things, but also free from their spouses murmurs.

In addition, divorces also get rid of the violence of quarrel between husband and wife, hence everybody in family get better in physical and mental healthy, particularly for children. These are the advantageous effects of increasing divorce rates. In conclusion, a family is one of the important parts of society, thus many people had better aware of the significance of relationship in family. At the moment, divorce have become the substantial problem because of changing womens roles, stress in modern living and lack of communication.

Nevertheless, there are also the two different ways in effects, which are negative and positive effects. Some couples, which have no children, divorce by consent, therefore divorce should be good solution for couples to deal with this problem. On the other hand, some couples having children in their family should think deliberatively before they end their marriage in divorce; otherwise innocent children probably become victims for this situation. Although people trend to think carefully before they get marriage, the rates of divorce continuously rise nowadays.

Sexual Orientation Essay

Sexual orientation refers to one’s degree of emotional and erotic attraction to members of the same sex, opposite sex or both sexes. Heterosexual persons are romantically and erotically attracted to members of the opposite sex, whereas homosexual persons are attracted to those whose sex match their own. A person who is bisexual is attracted to both men and women. According to a recent national survey, about 7 percent of all adults regard themselves as homosexual or bisexual. That means that roughly 7 people out of every hundred are bisexual or homosexual; 50 million people in the U. S. one are gay, lesbian, or have a family member who is homosexual.

The question is, however, do they choose to be gay or is it genetically predetermined. I once asked a homosexual friend why he chose to be gay if it was indeed such a headache. “Choose to be gay? ” he asked. “It is NOT a choice. If I could choose to fall in love with a woman, marry her and live a so-called normal life, I would do so in a minute. ” I was surprised, because being as nave as I was, that possibility had never occurred to me. Then, I asked him if it was possible to pretend, for the sake of an easier life.

He replied, “Pick a woman, any woman. Now imagine having to have sex with her and spending the rest of your life with only her and never touching a man again. ” I shuddered at the thought! He smiled and said, “That is exactly how I feel. I have no desire to touch a woman in any other way than a friend would touch a friend. All I am attracted to is men. ” Recent scientific discoveries are fast supporting this claim. Whereas history has always assumed that homosexuals chose to “sin” and be “different,” studies are claiming the exact opposite.

In the summer of 1993, Dean H. Hamer and his research team at the National Cancer Institute announced their discovered evidence of a connection between genetics and homosexuality. Hamer located a region near the end of the long arm of the X chromosome in DNA that likely contains a gene influencing sexual orientation. Hamer announced, “We have now produced evidence that one form of male homosexuality is preferentially transmitted through the maternal side and is genetically linked to chromosome region Xq28. ” 2 A study released by the National Institute of Health (NIH) also indicated a correlation between a specific chromosomal region in human males and homosexuality.

The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (NGLTF) called for an end to discrimination based on sexual orientation and issued a statement regarding this study. “The NIH study is an important addition to the growing body of evidence indicating a genetic basis for homosexuality,” said Peri Jude Radecic, NGLTF Deputy Director of Public Policy. “And it shows that homosexuality is a naturally occurring and common variation among humans — a fact that gay and lesbian people have known all along. ” 3 So with growing evidence of predetermined sexual orientation, should laws be changed and society forced to accept homosexuality as natural?

Time magazine projected an ethical and political forecast: “If homosexuals are deemed to have a foreordained nature, many of the arguments now used to block equal rights would lose force. ” Time also cited a gay attorney who said, “I can’t imagine rational people, presented with the evidence that homosexuality is biological and not a choice, would continue to discriminate. ” 4 Whether it is a choice or not, homosexuals should not be discriminated against. Matthew Shepard’s death in Wyoming was one of the most public occurrences of gay hate crimes, but unfortunately not uncommon.

Homophobia, which is having a powerful fear of homosexuality, and heterosexism, the belief that heterosexuality is better or more natural than homosexuality, are fairly common. 5 Even though it has become politically correct in many circles to be supportive of homosexuals, they are far from not being discriminated against. Vermont is, to date, the only state that recognizes legal same-sex marriages. 6 The nation watched the fight for same-sex marriages in Hawaii end in December 1999, when the Hawaii Supreme Court voted against it. 7

Even if proven to be genetically determined beyond a shadow of a doubt, society could still choose to refuse homosexual behavior. Homosexuality could be accepted as a biological fact, but may be rejected socially on the grounds that it lies outside of a culture’s traditional values. Such results are seen in unacceptable, though often genetically based, disorders, such as alcoholism and obesity. 8 Therefore, even knowing that it is not a choice and that homosexuals are not intentionally trying to go against traditional values, this still may not change the minds of society.

So, therein lies the question: are we capable of changing our minds about something we have believed in our entire lives? Speaking of change in beliefs, can the church view homosexual activity as a sin if it is proven to be a natural state of man? When this has been proven, how will the church react? Can 50 million Americans be destined to an eternity in Hell for simply being what nature intended? What does the bible say about homosexuality? According to faith, it is God who creates us. Our genes, temperaments, talents, gifts and weaknesses-are all part of God’s plan for us.

So somehow God must behind the fact that some people are homosexual. Why then should God’s word in the Bible condemn homosexuality? There must be a mistake somewhere. Could it be that homosexuals are the mistake? That God played some cruel joke or messed up? But that cannot be so, for God doesn’t make mistakes and is not evil. Many people are starting to question the interpretations of the Bible. For example, in Matthew 19:24, Mark 10:25 and Luke 18:25, Jesus says, “It is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of the needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God.

One would take this to mean that a rich man would need a miracle to get into heaven because how could anyone ever pass a camel through the eye of a needle? However, in Jerusalem there was a very low and narrow gate through the city wall, called “the eye of the needle”. When traders came into town, they had to unpack their camels and lead them through crouching down, and then repack them once inside. Within the context of His time, you could reinterpret what He said to mean that it is only much harder for a rich man to get into heaven and that he must first unload his material possessions.

To say what a biblical text teaches us today, you first have to understand the text in its original situation and then apply the meaning to the present situation. However, many people take the bible too literally. This approach keeps the Bible simple, but it has the disadvantage of many different people finding different meanings. All can claim that the text actually means whatever they interpreted from it and that other interpretations are wrong. So how is this settled? In the end, popularity decides what the Bible means.

But just because many people believe in something, it doesn’t necessarily make it right. Slavery was a good example of that. 10 Another disadvantage is the selective use of the Bible. Preachers may condemn homosexuals because the Bible mentions it in passing, but the same preachers do not support slavery even though all of Philemon and long passages in Ephesians, Colossians, Timothy and Peter advocate it. They do not encourage people to cut out their eyes or their hands if temptation strikes, even though Matthew 5:22-29 suggests it.

The Bible clearly condemns divorce, women teaching in Sunday school and allowing women to come to church in fine jewelry or without a hat; yet preachers allow it. In biblical times there was no understanding of homosexuality as a sexual orientation. Our question today is about people and their relationships, not just about sex. The story of Sodom is probably the most famous Bible passage that deals with homosexuality, or at least, is said to deal with it. It is found in the book of Genesis.

A man named Lot offered two angels, who came to the city of Sodom, a place to stay for the night. In that day and age, hospitality was extremely important. But, later that night, the men of the city came to Lot’s house and asked for the two men staying there, so that they could “know” them. 11 Most people believe it means the men of Sodom were interested in taking the two men at Lot’s house for the purposes of sex and that was their sin. However, there are 943 times that the translation of “to know” someone has been used in the Old Testament and only ten of them refer to sex.

Many people argue that it simply means that the men of Sodom wanted to find out who these strangers were and what they were doing in their town. After all, Lot was not a native of Sodom and they were unhappy with his inviting strangers to stay with him. Whenever reference is made to Sodom in the rest of the Bible, there is no mention of sexual offense except that of adultery. Moreover, it is the inhospitableness of the people of Sodom because they refused to take in needy travelers, that was, in God’s eyes, a great sin. Even Jesus understood the sin of Sodom as the sin of inhospitality.

Many other passages in the Bible say exactly that. Yet people continue to cite the story of Sodom to condemn gay and lesbian people. The irony of Sodom is that the very people that oppress homosexuals because of the supposed “sin of Sodom” may themselves be the real “sodomites,” as the Bible understands it. 12 I was surprised at the great number of books that I found dealing with this subject. I discovered at least a hundred via the Internet and the local library with only minimal effort, and most of them were published within the last few years.

Most of these books go into great detail regarding what the Bible really says about homosexuality and how misconceptions were originally made during interpretations and translations. These respected professors, doctors and priests insist that homosexuals should be accepted as natural men and women of God, created in his image as everyone else was. Jesus said, “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God” (Matthew 5:8). 13 Being a good person: honest, loving, just, kind, merciful and peaceful; that is what matters before God. Most people’s attitude toward homosexuality is that it is dirty or unclean.

This is a behavior that children learn from adults who are uncomfortable with it. Many never get beyond the influence of those feelings. People feel uncomfortable about it, so they say it’s wrong. A popular phrase is “God meant for Adam and Eve, not Adam and Steve. ” However, when they are pressed to explain why, exactly, it is wrong, they cannot come up with good reasons. With the evidence of the predetermined genetic disposition of homosexuals and interpretations of the Bible bringing to light the acceptance of all men, society no longer has any excuse in discriminating.

Instead of being discouraged by the hate crimes and lack of support from the masses, homosexuals are becoming more determined then ever to earn equal rights and an equal place in society. Thanks to a constitution that allows for equal rights under God, new evidence will eventually win the equality in all areas of life that all people deserve, whether heterosexual or not. With any luck, children of today will grow up with a better understanding and an acceptance so that the oppression of homosexuals will be nonexistent tomorrow.

JD Salingers’ Catcher in the Rye

In JD Salingers’ Catcher in the Rye, a troubled teenager named Holden Caufield struggles with the fact that everyone has to grow up. The book gets its title from Holden’s constant concern with the loss of innocence. He did not want children to grow up because he felt that adults are corrupt. This is seen when Holden tries to erase naughty words from the walls of an elementary school where his younger sister Phoebe attended. “While I was sitting down, I saw something that drove me crazy. Somebody’d written ‘Fuck you’ on the wall.

It drove me damn near crazy. I thought how Phoebe and all the other little kids would see it, and how they’d wonder what the hell it meant, and then finally some dirty kid would tell them- all cockeyed, naturally- what it meant, and how they’d all think about it and maybe even worry about it for a couple of days. I kept wanting to kill whoever’d written it. I figured it was some perverty bum that’d sneaked in the school late at night to take a leak or something and then wrote it on the wall.

I kept picturing myself catching him at it, and how I’d smash his head on the stone steps till hew as good and goddam dead and bloody. ” (201) His deep concern with impeccability caused him to create stereotypes of a hooligan that would try to corrupt the children of an elementary school. Holden believed that children were innocent because they viewed the world and society without any bias. When Phoebe asked him to name something that he would like to be when he grew up, the only thing he would have liked to be was a “catcher in the rye.

He invented an illusion for himself of a strange fantasy. He stated that he would like to follow a poem by Robert Burns: “If a body catch a body comin’ through the rye. ” He kept “picturing all these little kids playing some game in this big field of rye and all. Thousands of little kids, and nobody’s around- nobody big, I mean- except me. And I’m standing on the edge of some crazy cliff. What I have to do, I have to catch everybody if they start to go over the cliff- I mean if they’re running and they don’t look where they’re going I have to come out from somewhere and catch them.

Thats all I’d do all day. I’d just be the catcher in the rye and all. I know it’s crazy, but that’s the only thing I’d really like to be. ” (173) Holden wants to stop children from “falling” into losing their innocence and becoming an adult, and he takes pleasure in the attempted thwarting of maturation. In the beginning of Catcher in the Rye, his initial character is one of a child. Throughout the book, he takes steps and the forces of change take a toll on his childish ways. In the end, he seems to be changed into a man.

Holden is definitely extremely immature in the beginning of the book. He characterizes almost every person he meets as a “phony”. He feels that he is surrounded by hypocrites in a school filled with fakery. Principal Thurmer, the principal of Holden’s high school, Pencey, was the leader of the whole charade. During a teacher/parent day, Principal Thurmer would only say hello to the wealthy parents of students. He would not associate himself with those that were not financially stable, because he was a phony. Holden also maintains a lack of responsibility throughout the whole book.

He was the equipment manager of the fencing team at Pencey, but he lost the equipment on the subway. He also failed out of two schools for lack of effort and absences from classes. Holden also had a daydream about two children who never grew up, whore main in a perfect world forever. This daydream is a result of his younger brother Allie’s death. Allie represents the unchangeable youth of which Holden must let go if he ever expects to maintain sanity. Holden has a fixation on childhood, which shows itself in many forms.

His glorification of children, inordinate admiration of Phoebe, idealization of his dead younger brother, and the joy he gets from reminiscing about his own childhood all contribute to his obsession with innocence and youth. Throughout the middle of the book, forces of change unfold on Holden. While waiting for an old friend of his, he had the sudden urge to go into a museum that he had visited while still a child in school in order to bring back memories of his childhood. However, when he finally reached the museum, he decided not to.

Then a funny thing happened. When I got to the museum, all of a sudden I wouldn’t have gone inside for a million bucks. It just didn’t appeal to me… ” (122) This shows that Holden is becoming an adult. He did not want to enter the museum because he realized that he was too old to take part in such an activity. When he takes Phoebe to a carousel later in the book, he decided not to ride on it, or even stand on it during a rain storm, because he felt “too old” to get on. Holden also had another one of his childish fantasies for his future.

He wanted to go and be a deaf mute somewhere in the west, so he wouldn’t have to deal with all the phonies and hypocrites of every day life. Phoebe told him that she wanted to go along with him, but he denies her of this because of his growing responsibility and metamorphosis as an adult. He told her, “I’m not going away anywhere. I changed my mind. ” (207) At the end of the book, Holden seems to be much more mature. His key step was when he did not ride with Phoebe on the carrousel. Holden only watched his sister ride along. In the center of the carousel, there was a gold ring.

The children riding on the carousel would reach for the gold ring in order to win a prize. “All the kids kept trying to grab for the gold ring, and so was old Phoebe, and I was sort of afraid she’d fall off the goddam horse, but I didn’t say anything or do anything. The thing with kids is, if they want to grab for the gold ring, you have to let them do it, and not say anything. If they fall off, they fall off, but it’s bad if you say anything to them. “(211) This carousel symbolizes life, and the constant journey of childhood into adulthood.

Children would sometimes fall when striving to reach the gold ring in the center of life, or their complete success or adulthood. Holden would have yelled out to the children that it was dangerous to try to achieve this goal, but he realized in this anagnoresis that the children should go along the path of life by themselves. Throughout the book, Holden tried to save all children from growing up and losing their innocence. When he realized that he could not achieve this goal, he had a nervous breakdown and could not deal with it. However, it is an inevitable fact that everyone has to grow up.

Down’s Syndrome Essay

Down’s syndrome is a genetic condition involving an extra chromosome, this change occurs around the time of conception. A person with Down’s syndrome has forty-seven chromosomes instead of the usual forty-six. A relatively common genetic disorder, Down’s strikes 1 out of 600 babies. In 95 percent of all cases, the disorder originates with the egg, not the sperm, and the only known risk factor is advanced maternal age-at age 35, a woman has 1 chance in 117 of having a baby with Down’s; at 40, her odds are 1 in 34. (Graves, 1990)

People with Down’s syndrome all have a certain degree of learning disability . This means that they develop and learn more slowly than other children. However, most children with Down’s syndrome today will walk and talk, many will read and write, go to ordinary school, and look forward to a semi- independent adult life. (Platt and Carlson, 1992) Facts on Down Syndrome *Down syndrome is not a lethal anomaly. One to two percent of persons born with this disorder have uncorrectable heart defects at birth. The average life expectancy for all others is now beyond age 55 years. Today less than 5% of persons with Down syndrome have severe-to- profound mental retardation.

The majority are on the border of mild-to-moderate mental retardation, and some are exhibiting normal IQ scores today. *The average reading level for persons with Down syndrome is 3rd grade, with many reading at 6th-12th grade levels today. *The vast majority of adults with Down syndrome today can be expected to live semi- or totally independently and many enter the work force with today’s supported employment programs and some are competitively employed.

Scientists at Norfolk’s Jones Institute for Reproductive Medicine say they have overcome most technical hurdles to screening embryos for Down syndrome and many other chromosomal defects before the embryos are implanted in a woman’s uterus. The institute, part of Eastern Virginia Medical School, hopes to try out the technique with a handful of high-risk couples who come to the institute for in-vitro fertilization, in the near future.

Eventually, all couples who go through the Jones Institute may have the option to screen for Down and most of the other conditions caused by an extra hromosome on one of 23 pairs that make up the normal complement. The technique has been developed in part to help parents avoid a difficult moral decision – what to do if the fertility techniques cause the mother to become pregnant with many children at once. At the same time, it opens up a host of other ethical questions for parents and society as a whole, say people who have children with Down.

According to Kingsley and Levitz (1994), in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is a technique in which eggs are removed from a woman’s ovaries and combined ith sperm in a dish. The resulting embryos are transplanted into the woman’s uterus. Before transplant, a single cell will be removed and exposed to probes made up of genetic material treated with fluorescent dye. Each probe has been designed to attach to a specific chromosome in the nucleus. Using a special microscope, a scientist can count the dots of various colors. Three of a specific color means that there is one extra chromosome of that type.

The institute will test five pairs that account for most chromosomal defects. The first cases will be done for free. When the procedure becomes common, the procedure will add about $2,000 to the cost of IVF, about $7,500. The Chairman of reproductive endocrinology at the Jones Institute said the procedure was developed primarily to avoid the multiple births that sometimes happen with IVF. (www #1) Most transplanted embryos, and many naturally conceived ones, never take root and grow because they have the wrong number of chromosomes.

In IVF, doctors try to improve the odds by implanting three or more, assuming that some will be lost. But sometimes, many or all of the embryos are viable. The parents then must decide – do they selectively abort some, or do they take on the hugely demanding task of having many babies at once? If doctors could screen the embryos, he said, they could limit themselves to implanting two and still enjoy a high probability that the embryos will survive. Nevertheless, the ability to screen out embryos with Down syndrome still worries families of people with the condition.

The option not to have a child with Down already exists. Tests during pregnancy can detect the condition. Parents may choose an abortion. Parents of hildren with Down syndrome, say that other parents who choose to discard an embryo in a laboratory are further removed from the implications of their decision. Doctors at the medical center say that they want very much for people confronting the decision to understand that having a child with Down syndrome can be very fulfilling.

They says the Jones Institute isn’t trying to devalue people with Down syndrome by offering the test. But they say this information has such important ramifications for the family, if we have that information, we would give it to them and they make the choice. Polar Body Analysis Physicians at Illinois Masonic Medical center have discovered that they can determine if a woman will have a baby with Down’s syndrome before she gets pregnant, provided she is willing to undergo in-vitro fertilization.

Using an experimental technique called polar body analysis, the genetic material of an egg can be checked before laboratory fertilization, helping some women avoid abortions. Chicago researchers at Masonic reported on a yearlong study involving 100 women who underwent the polar body procedure, they say that several women lready have delivered healthy babies, and more than 20 are pregnant with no sign of Down’s. But the possibility exists that the Masonic patients could have achieved the same results without genetic testing.

The majority of women who have conventional in-vitro fertilization are older and have normal pregnancies. Dr. Charles Strom, director of medical genetics at the hospital said that, polar body work gives a 35-year-old female the same chance of conceiving a chromosomally normal baby that a 21-year-old has. He said at least half the women in the in-vitro fertilization program are 35 or older. www #2) Polar body analysis hinges on basic biology. During normal development, the human egg contains a sac of excess chromosomes called the polar body before it gets ready to be fertilized by a male’s sperm.

Since this sac, is a mirror image of the egg, the genetic content of the egg itself can be determined through this procedure. (www #3) Without such testing, about 30 percent of the Down’s pregnancies resulting from in-vitro fertilization would have miscarried naturally, and others could have been picked up by the standard prenatal testing techniques, chorionic villi sampling and amniocentesis. In-vitro fertilization is expensive, labor intensive and often disappointing.

The polar body test would add another $2,000 to $2,500 to its costs. www #2) The Triple Screen The “triple screen for Down syndrome” has been in existence for over five years. However, just this past year, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists officially recommended that this test be offered to all pregnant patients of all ages. This implies a legal mandate to practicing physicians who cannot afford the liability of not offering such a test after a national recommendation has been made. This “mandate” has been met with great controversy.

The “triple screen” actually involves drawing maternal blood to test for serum levels of three hormones: human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), alphafetoprotein (AFP), and estriol (E3). The pattern of the levels of these hormones predicts the presence of Down syndrome in the fetuses in up to 60-70% of pregnancies affected. By using computer formulas, the hormonal levels can be found that are predictive for a risk of Down syndrome in the fetus that approximates 1 in 190 – which is the same risk that a pregnant woman has at age 5.

Thus, the test has been recommended now for women at all ages. If it is “positive”, it should be followed by ultrasonography and then amniocentesis to make a definitive diagnosis. (www #3) Some uses of the triple screen are seen as positive by all. If the test is negative, these results can prevent further unnecessary ultrasonography, or amniocentesis, or chorionic villus sampling – for women 35 or over; or for the woman with a previous fetus with Down syndrome. Normally these more expensive and invasive tests would have been recommended in those settings.

It is the use of the test for all pregnant women that begins to stir controversy. Only one such serum test has ever been recommended so widely before – the serum (AFP) alphafetoprotein screen. It is a screening test for multiple types of fetal defects that affect the “neural tube” in the fetus. These defects include such problems as anencephaly, holoprosencephaly, or einencephaly, as well as many levels of spina bifida. Down syndrome is certainly not the same as the wide range of anomalies termed “neural tube defects,” but the Triple Screen makes it seem an equal to many lethal defects.

The triple screen actually detects many more fetal anomalies than Down syndrome, including the AFP-related anomalies mentioned above and several lethal trisomies, such as Trisomy 18. The Triple Screen is called a screen “for Down syndrome” for marketing reasons, as much as for scientific accuracy. The Triple Screen is, in fact, a very poor screen, identifying only about 65% of fetuses with Down syndrome in utero. No other screen with such low validity has been universally recommended for all pregnant women. Such a recommendation means billions of dollars for the genetics industry and the researchers involved. (www #3)

The Picture of Dorian Gray

Harry is Pan, the piper who leads Dorian on his path to destruction, decadence, and moral decay. As with Pan, the merry and much-loved god, the victim of the god’s attention does not fare well. As Pan had Syrinx and Echo, Harry has Dorian. Pan caused madness and panic with his passions; Harry seems to have had the same result with Dorian. Wilde reveals much of Harry’s character in the writing. His is the predominant voice; he delivers most of the dialogue. Is Harry the autobiographical character? He is shown as the clever, witty, blase sophisticate; jaded, bored, and poised for an interesting project.

Enter Dorian, whose innocence and beauty present an irresistible challenge. Before Harry, Dorian was unaware of his beauty. “The sense of his own beauty came on him like a revelation. He had never felt it before. ” (p. 18) It is Harry who makes him see and fall in love with his own beauty, and realize the brevity of youth. “Then had come Lord Henry Wotton with his strange panegyric on youth, his terrible warning of its brevity. ” (p. 18) In the space of an afternoon Harry has cast his spell; Dorian is convinced that youth is the only thing worth having.

The gods had an unfortunate lapse in their wisdom. While Sibyl and her fellow goddesses asked for eternal life but forgot to ask for eternal youth, Pan has it right- the object of his affection will never become ugly and grotesque. Harry toys with Dorian, takes pleasure in his game. “Talking to him was like playing upon an exquisite violin. He answered to every touch and thrill of the bowThere was something terribly enthralling in the exercise of influence. No other activity was like it. ” (p. 26) This becomes a satisfying entertainment for Harry. He creates and dominates.

He would make that wonderful spirit his own. ” (p. 27) He projects his soul into the pure and graceful form that is Dorian. The tension between Harry and Dorian heightens; he fascinates and is reflected more brilliant by Dorian’s gaze. “He felt that the eyes of Dorian Gray were fixed on him, and the consciousness that amongst his audience there was one whose temperament he wished to fascinate, seemed to give his wit keenness, and to lend colour to his imagination. ” (p. 31) Harry fills Dorian with the desire to know everything about life; that the search for beauty is the real secret of life.

Sadly for Dorian, beauty is elusive, empty, shallow. As his life spirals downward, beauty becomes a mockery. He is trapped in his eternal beauty; forever young and forever unwise, petulant, and self-centered. Dorian does not have the capacity to sift Harry’s theories through the sieve of wisdom. Lacking depth and dimension, he can only focus on his own desires. Harry teaches Dorian until the end. It is their final conversation that makes Dorian realize that his reformation is just another vanity, horribly revealed in the painting.

Harry is content with his creation; he is Marsyas listening to Apollo. If Harry knows the reality of Dorian’s torments, he does not care to acknowledge it. He wishes to keep his creation unsullied and unspoiled in his imagination, as pretty as a picture. The comforts of home can be deadly. Just look at Harry. Comfort killed him off long before his infection did the job. Comfort was the gangrene of his soul, surely and systematically invading and contaminating his interiority just as the infection dominated his body. Comfort dulled his mind, stifled his creativity, robbed him of his vitality.

Willingly or not, Harry found a home, and became afraid to venture out again. Harry’s home developed a high wall, a gate, a moat. Unpenetrable. Behind the walls of his castle he may have been bored, but he was safe. Who was Harry’s enemy? What did he fear? Why did he embrace the comforts of the woman- the money, the booze, the easiness? Harry was confrontational with danger; he had done it all. Guns, girls, treachery, torture- he had the guts and the glory. Harry’s gangrene, of course, was fear. The worst fear for a writer- not being able to write.

Now he would never write the things that he had saved to write until he knew enough to write them well. Well, he would not have to fail at trying to write them either. ” (p. 5) Harry had been dying for a long time. Every story he didn’t write removed another page from his life. He denied his talent, stifled his flame. His body finally found a way to give him want he wanted. The fear kept him home, safe from confronting his torment. Could he write it? More adventures? Continued curiosity? Without the courage to confront his essential fear they were empty activities. As empty as the pages he never wrote.