Mission to Colonize Mars

Mankind has always reached for the “stars” and the moon and its now Mars. The stars are exploding balls of gas like the sun and cannot be landed on. Man went to the moon in 1969, and from that mission has learned how to live in space for a short time successfully. Colonizing Mars is … Read more

Single-nucleotide polymorphism

First and foremost Single nucleotide polymorphisms, frequently called SNPs or pronounced “ snips”, is a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide as A, T, C or G in the genome differs between members of a biological species or paired chromosomes in a human. The less common base must have a frequency of SNPs … Read more

What is pH?

“ Before delving into the adverse effects of changes of pH in our body it’s important to understand what pH is. pH is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration or how acidic or alkaline a substance is on a scale ranging from 1 to 14. In fact the different parts of our body have varied … Read more

What is blood’s composition?

All humans have blood, but what is blood? What is blood’s composition? What is blood’s purpose? How is blood produced? How does the blood circulatory system work? What are the types of blood? Do all animals have blood? Is blood always red? This report will tackle these questions and provide a scientific answer to each. … Read more

The apoplastic pathway

The apoplastic pathway or also knowned as a non-living pathways provides a direction toward the vascular stele through free spaces and cell walls of the epidermis and cortex. In addition,the apoplastic route allows direct access to the xylem and phloem along the margins of secondary roots. Secondary roots formed from the pericycle, a cell layer … Read more

A Critique Of Emily Dickinson’s Poem Much Madness Is Divinest Sense

How does Dickinson’s “Much Madness Is Divinest Sense” address a peculiar or ironic aspect of society’s relationship to the individual? Use your answer to explain Bartleby’s actions The author of the “Much Madness is most divine Sense” considerately criticizes the inability of the society to approve rebellion as a way of finding an alternative solution … Read more

Demonstration of Different Biological Events: Diffusion and Osmosis

Introduction Homeostasis, the tendency of an organism to maintain a stable, constant environment, is a fundamental characteristic of all living systems. Diffusion and osmosis are two biological processes that promote homeostasis. Diffusion is the ability of a substance to dissipate to equilibrium in a media (Lange 2015). Osmosis is the flow of water across a … Read more

The Diffusion of Glucose and IKI: An Experiment Report

Lab Write Up A: Diffusion Aim/Question: In a plasma membrane where the net movement of molecules move from higher concentration to lower concentration, will the dialysis bag turn blue because of the diffusion of glucose and IKI into the dialysis bag? Hypothesis: If I added the glucose and IKI into the the distilled water, I … Read more

Heat exchanger technology and applications in heat exchanger engineering

Over the years, all parts of a commercial refrigerator, such as the compressor, heat exchangers, refrigerant, and packaging, have been improved considerably due to the extensive research and development efforts carried out by academia and industry. However, the achieved and anticipated improvement in conventional refrigeration technology are incremental since this technology is already nearing its … Read more

Laws of Physics in everyday life

Dynamics related to the study of forces and torques and their effect on motion. It is the branch of physics (specifically classical mechanics). It is the opposite of kinematics. Kinematics studies the motion of objects without reference to its causes. Laws of Physics in everyday life Simple Mechanical Devices We can see physics in many … Read more

Superconductors: Their History And Uses In Factories

SUPERCONDUCTIVITY The definition of superconductivity. Superconductivity is a phenomenon displayed by certain conductors that show no resistance to the flow of electric current. Conductors are materials in which the electron current goes through. There are 4 different kinds of conductors. Insulators, like glass or wood, have a very high resistance while semi-conductors, such as silicon, … Read more

Personal Statement (Neuroscience)

I am Niyati Pandya, a biotechnologist fascinated by the world of neurons and synapses. For me, science has always been a pursuit to a new world, unfathomable and unimaginable, yet visible and lucid the minute one is conscious about it. And this ability to become aware of one’s surroundings is attributed to a delicate coordination … Read more

The Beginning of the Universe

Billion years ago, there was an extra-ordinary event without which nothing would exist. It was the beginning of the universe. It was the time when a large amount of energy in an infinitely small space violently expanded and led to the creation of universe and everything else that we see around us today. It can … Read more


In pregnant woman there are many physiological changes during pregnancy, which are entirely normal, including changes in different trimesters and changes in different systems like cardiovascular, metabolic, renal, hematologic, and respiratory changes. The progesterone and estrogens levels rise continually during pregnancy, and they suppress the hypothalamic axis and therefore also the menstrual cycle. Endocrine system … Read more

The mysterious archaeans

What are archaeans? Archaea were discovered in the early 1970s. Similar to bacteria they are single-celled prokaryotes. Archaeans DNA structure places it in a separate kingdom. There is still much about archaeans that are not known. What we do know is that most of them can survive in highly extreme environments and are known as … Read more

The difference between generations

Life of present generation is faraway different when compared with the older ones. Things have changed significantly. The way things used to work in the past are not the same as now because new systems of doing things have been make known to the society. The way we consolidate things is different from how our … Read more

Subjective well being

Subjective well-being (SWB) has been defined as a person cognitive and affective evaluations of his or her life’ (Diener, Lucas, & Oshi, 2002). The cognitive component refers to what one individual thinks about his or her life satisfaction in universal terms (life as a whole) and in domain terms (in particular areas of life such … Read more

Cells and Mechanical Force

It is the cells in tissues that are responsible to mechanical forces. It is now well recognized that mechanical forces play a fundamental role in the regulation of cell functions, including gene induction, protein synthesis, cell proliferation, migration, death, and differentiation, which are essential to maintain tissue homeostasis and functions such as in muscle, bone, … Read more

The Life of Henri-Louis Le Chatelier

Henri-Louis Le Chatelier is a world renowned French scientist and chemist. He is most linked with Le Chatelier’s principle, the principle enables predictions on the effects a dissimilarity of pressure or temperature has. Chatelier is well-thought-out to be one of the utmost chemists because his code industrialized a highly competent chemical procedure. He was born … Read more

Presentation: The Chemistry of Commercial Instant Hot and Cold Packs

Slide 1- Title Slide 2- Overview: What is it? Brief History Uses How it works Environmental benefits and concerns Current research and future direction Slide 3- What are Instant Hot and Cold Packs? plastic bags containing different chemical compounds When squeezed, hot packs create an exothermic reaction releasing heat Cold packs create an endothermic reaction … Read more

What is an emulsifier?

An emulsifier is a substance that stabilizes an emulsion. They make it possible to mix two oil and water-base components together. An emulsion is a combination of two liquids that would not normally mix. Emulsifiers are the chemicals that cause emulsions to happen. They also make it easier to create a stable, smooth emulsion. A … Read more

Zero gravity in space: A look at the experience of Astronauts

APPARENT WEIGHTLESSNESS A frequent misunderstanding by many people today is that astronauts experience zero gravity especially when referring to astronauts in space. Many believe astronauts are weightless in space and that justifies their ability to float and travel through space. However, physics has proven this statement inaccurate and astronauts only weight about 10% less in … Read more

Physics in figure skating

“You have to do the opposite of what people expect. How else will you surprise them?”-Victor from the Japanese Anime Yuri on Ice. As the quote depicts sometimes to learn and enjoy something more you have to do the unexpected. This chance to explore one of my favorite sports through physics and connect to even … Read more

The structure of an atom

An atom has protons and electrons. The protons are placed in the nucleus of the atom while the electrons are situated in the orbital shell of the atom. The way these electrons are positioned is known as the electron configuration. Each shell can hold a certain amount of electrons before moving onto the next shell. … Read more

Structure and Function of Haemoglobin

Primary structure: This is hemoglobin at the simplest level, it is made up of chains of amino acids, in which peptide bonds separating each amino acid. It consists of four polypeptide chains, two alpha (?) chains, and two betas (?) chains. Secondary Structure: The two types of secondary structure found in proteins are the alpha-helix … Read more

Survival of the fittest seminar

Charles Darwin gave his theory of evolution by the way or Natural Selection in 1858 as an explanation for adaptation and variation in species and organisms. Natural selection is the differentiation of organisms due to the differences in phenotype. Natural selection acts on the phenotype of an organism. The phenotype is the observable characteristics of … Read more

Computer Viruses

The Anna Kournikova worm Anna Kournikova (named by its author as “Vbs.OnTheFly Created By OnTheFly”) was a computer worm written by a 20-year-old Dutch student named Jan de Wit who called himself ‘OnTheFly’ on February 11, 2001. It was designed to trick email users into opening a mail message purportedly containing a picture of the … Read more

The distinctive features of eukaryotic cells

There are different cells, but there are 2 cells that you have to focus on: the plant’s cell and animal’s cell. We can compare and contrast the 2 cells. So first you got the plant cells. They are eukaryotic cells of eukaryotic organism. These distinctive features include the following: A cell wall composed of cellulose … Read more

Dr. William Edwards Deming – The Father Of The Quality Evolution

American statistician, business consultant, and educator Dr. William Edwards Deming introduced methods and ideas that have left a profound impact on modern businesses and develop the effective management techniques used today. Born in Sioux City on October 14, 1900, W. Edwards Deming attended the University of Wyoming earning his B.S. in 1921, University of Colorado … Read more

Survival of the fittest seminar

Charles Darwin gave his theory of evolution by the way or Natural Selection in 1858 as an explanation for adaptation and variation in species and organisms. Natural selection is the differentiation of organisms due to the differences in phenotype. Natural selection acts on the phenotype of an organism. The phenotype is the observable characteristics of … Read more

Periodic trends in the world

2nd period, going from alkali metal to noble gas. Explain why this is so. Is the trend periodic? The atomic radius decreases going from alkali metal to noble gas in the second period, as the atomic number increases. This can be explained by the increase in nuclear charge as the atomic number, the number of … Read more

Solute – Solvent Interactions in Aqueous Solutions

Solvation defines the interaction of solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. Ions, and to some cases, molecules, perform along intensely with solvent, and also the strength and nature of this interaction results some properties of the solute, additionally to solubility, reactivity, and color. Within the progress of solvation, ions are enclosed by concentric … Read more

An Examination Of The 1,2-Diphenyl-1,2-Ethanediol Synthesis Through The Reduction Of Benzoin In Sodium Borohydride

To carry out the sodium borohydride reduction, 1.0g benzoin previously synthesized was combined in a 125mL Erlenmeyer flask with 15mL 100% ethanol and 250mg sodium borohydride. The flask was stirred on a magnetic stir plate for 15min. After 15 minutes, a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis was performed to check for reaction completeness. The TLC developing … Read more

Atomic Spectrometry procedure as viewed by a laboratory test

Lab Discussion Experiment 14: Atomic Spectroscopy In this experiment students have the opportunity to notice and acknowledge how the process of spectrometry actually works and they can also observe how different substances emit different colors due to the specific wavelength that is emitted. The objectives of this experiment were accomplished through the initial spectroscope calibration … Read more

Comparing the relationship between fovea palatinae and vibrating lines

Denture retention will be a subject perplexing and perpetual until its troubles find their logical solution in under- standing its physics.[1] This understanding now in fact exists but it is obscured by repetition of long-held erroneous beliefs. Although the various issues have been analysed in detail and discussed at length, an up-to-date account based on … Read more