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William McIntosh Biography

William McIntosh the chief of the lower-creeks. William McIntosh was born around the time of 1778 in Georgia. William McIntosh was assassinated on April 30, 1825. William McIntosh had a creek mother and a white Scotsman father. He spoke fluent English although he was raised among the creeks. Although his support of several things alienated him from more traditional creeks. Which eventually led him to get killed by his own people.

McIntosh was married on the occasion of three different times. He had children and most of them had married into prominent georgia families.Within Mcintosh’s life he did things that shouldn’t have been done like betraying his people, the creeks. On February 12, 1825 McIntosh signed the treaty of Indian springs which would began Creek removal. This treaty was with the federal government and led by William McIntosh. Signing the treaty allowed alabama to gain almost about three million acres of land by making the creek move.

The creek were very upset because he was one of there people and he betrayed them without their consent whatsoever. The Treaty of Indian Springs, Treaty of Indian Springs the Treaty with the Creeks, (McIntosh’s own people). Which is a treaty concluded between the United States on February 12, 1825 at what is now modern day the Indian Springs Hotel Museum. William McIntosh supported Andrew Jackson in the creek war which was another major person during this time error. He was also in the first semolian war to ever happen. McIntosh’s execution by upper class creeks was because of him leading and signing the treaty of indian springs. McIntosh had two plantations with slaves. In 1821 John Crowell replaced Mitchell as Indian agent. Crowell severed McIntosh’s access to resources. This weakened McIntosh’s influence among the Creeks, who were compelled to sell some of their land to pay debts and to acquire food and supplies. However, for his role in the first Treaty of Indian Springs, in 1821, McIntosh received 1,000 acres of land at Indian Springs and another 640 acres on the Ocmulgee River.

He gained lots from this treaty. Mainly the land which was the most important part as to why this whole treaty was created. Soon after that treaty, Governor George Troup was determined to enforce the Compact of 1802 that called for the extinguishment of all Indian titles to land in Georgia. This would permanently remove them which began to lead to McIntosh’s assassination. Despite the opposition of many Upper Creeks, Chief McIntosh together with a small contingent of mostly Lower Creek chiefs, negotiated the second Treaty of Indian Springs, in 1825. This would hopefully remove all creeks from the area and require them to move someplace else to receive more land for McIntosh. This treaty provided for all Creek land remaining in the state of Georgia in exchange for a payment of $200,000, so the Creeks were gone and the money would be given to McIntosh. This was money that he didn’t receive the first time around from signing the first treaty of indian springs. Once the debate happened the creek lost all the land they had. Then April 30, 1825 he was assassinated by his own fellow creeks because of how he betrayed them.

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