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What are the advantages and disadvantages of the various types of vaccines?

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Vaccines:

“Vaccines are dead cells that are introduces to body for sake of killing microbes or adding immunity to body against particular disease”

Role of Vaccines in development of immunity:
Vaccines increase immunity in a body against infection.
Sometime these type of infections are not deadly and even not cause illness but also they did not show any type of symptoms.
Therefore, when vaccines injected some imitated vaccines show symptoms.
When the infection goes over then memory develops by T lymphocytes against this disease in a body for future.
However, vaccines did not give immunity to the body at once after injection.
It may take several days to get immune after getting vaccines.
By vaccination, you get immune to different diseases.
If someone is not vaccinated it may cause risk for others as well because he/she is capable to spreading disease to others.
Risk of outbreaks can develop.
An outbreak is a cluster of cases of particular disease within a community.
Outbreaks in epidemics caused by unvaccinated individuals and becoming more common.
For example, now a day in Pakistan (December 2017 and January 2018) swine flu is spreading in different cities.
Five people are dead due to influenza virus because they are not vaccinated for swine flu /influenza virus.
An outbreak of seasonal influenza has seen in Multan and Lahore and 23 lives have claimed out of 47 total patients.

Types of vaccines:

There are different types of vaccines
There are several types of vaccines in use. They are

  1. Whole-Organism Vaccine
  2. Purified Macromolecules as Vaccines
  3. Recombinant vaccine
  4. DNA vaccine
  5. Multivalent Subunit Vaccines

Description: Vaccines have different types as well as different advantages and some disadvantages.

1: Attenuated vaccines:
This type of vaccines used to increase immunity and made up of virulent microorganism whose effectivity reduced to from virulence. These vaccines are activated (live).

Advantages:

  1. It is low cost vaccine .
  2. It provide immunity quickly and instantly.

Disadvantages:
1. The virus can spread and can cause disease.

2: Inactivated vaccine:

  1. Killed microorganisms make this vaccine and their effectivity is totally reduce from virulence.
  2. They are killed cells off microorganism, which are used in inactivated vaccines.
  3. They provides immunity to body against pathogenic attack.

Advantages:
1. No spreading of viruse and did not cause disease.

Disadvantages:

  1. They produce weak response in contrast to live vaccines.
  2. Adjuvant is require to initiate their activity or their proper functioning.

3:Toxoid vaccine:

  1. As the name indicated, it is made by poison which different pathogen secrets.
  2. This poison is made harmless but can cure disease.
  3. They act against different toxic.

Advantages:

  1. They are used to prevent original toxin activity in a body .
  2. They develop memory in a body after first injected.
  3. Disadvantages:
    1. They did not cause any disease as well but some time can cause side effects to mount immune system.

    4: conjugate vaccines:
    They are composed of strong and weak antigen attachment by covalent bonds to increase to effectivity of weaker antigen.

    Advantages:
    1. This vaccine show up very important property, which is safe vaccination or safety because it did not cause any harmful disease of any side effects like live attenuated vaccination.

    Disadvantages:

    1. As this vaccine made by purification process, so more and more purification can show the risk /loss of immunogenicity.
    2. It does not show long time memory /immunity.

    5: DNA vaccine:
    In this type of vaccine, genetically engineer DNA introduced to the body, which can produce itself antigen.

    Advantages:

    1. No booster /adjuvant is require for DNA vaccines.
    2. They are not pathogenic (live or dead) cells so the risk of causing disease is also not concerned.

    Disadvantages:

    1. This vaccination process is limited to pathogens /microorganisms yet .and the pathogens included who have immunogen proteins.
    2. Sometime body can develop response against foreign DNA vaccine or mutation can occur.

    6:Recombinant proteins vaccine:
    This vaccine made up of protein subunit of pathogens /virus who show their part in immunity. They can also consist of antigens.

    Advantages:

    1. It is safe for use because it did not cause side effect.
    2. It have ability to show up long-term memory after first induction.

    Disadvantage:

    1. They depend only on recombinant technology and produce specific antigen to inflammatory agent (subunit vaccines)
    2. Viruses’ subunit can cause adverse effects in a body or may be virulent.

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