Utilitarianism theory was spread by Jeremy Bentham in 18th century and was clarified by his student John Stuart Mill in 19th century. Utilitarians is something that thinks morality is to give high level of happiness and pleasure and decrease bad things such as pain and unhappiness. Goodness is relating to human well-being. Whatever makes life better and easy is consider as good and whatever makes life worse or harm is kind of evil in this utilitarianism theory. Utilitarianism theory consider all the good and bad consequences of behaviour or an action when the consequences emerge during the performance or after the performance. The utilitarian upholder will consider some alternative actions to consider the good and bad consequences of each behaviour before deciding which one is a right action to take on. These utilitarianism theory is seeming to support the moral truth. The rightness are depends based on the good and bad action and situation conquer in the process.
As I said earlier, these acts of utilitarianism was spread by Jeremy Bentham. Jeremy was an English philosopher and a political radical. Starting with moral philosophy, Jeremy Bentham call it as a principle of the happiness or principle of the utility. The moral mandatory is where giving as much happiness as possible to the greatest number of people, and the happiness is being determined to the pleasure and non-appearance of the pain (Iep.utm.edu, 2018). Thus, Bentham writes, “By the principle of utility is meant that principle which approves or disapproves of every action whatsoever, according to the tendency what is the same thing in other words, to promote or to oppose that happiness” (Iep.utm.edu, 2018). And Jeremy Bentham also said that whatever that does not maximize the happiness is consider morally wrong. The rule of utilitarianism exists when John Stuart Mill tries to save his teacher, Jeremy Bentham when Bentham’s principle of utility is challenged by the community. Mill tried to make it as limit as possible of Bentham’s theory as in the rule of utilitarianism. When we compare the rule of utilitarianism and the act of utility, both of this principle is focusing on the rightness of an action. Based on the hedonism theory, this is all about the pleasure and focus only in pleasure. This principle is relating to the happiness and satisfaction of a person in the goods and services. The strength of utilitarianism is to minimize the pain and maximize the happiness, and to make an individual’s life to live better. It is also easy to reveal the principle that utilitarianism is fair and it’s principle are widely accepted.
Then, the weakness of utilitarianism is the happiness and satisfaction cannot always be the head of the objective in a person’s life. These theory is like humaliting human. It humiliates human as the level of animal because these theory talks about people’s goal focuses only in pleasure.