Microorganisms participate in a significant part of retaining the Earth’s ecosystem and is a huge percentage of the planet’s living material (lumen, 2018). “Microbes” comprises of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms which are categorized as bacteria, fungi, virus, algae, archaea and protozoa. A big population of these microbes doesn’t really pose a significant threat to humans, plants or animals. As a matter of fact it works alongside humans in such cases like digestion of food and decomposition. In spite of that, these microbes still do negatively affect human’s lives in such ways of causing numerous illnesses, contamination of food and damaging products. Bacteria is perhaps the most popular category of microorganisms under the prokaryotes. There are two classes of bacteria, one is gram positive which has a thicker cell wall and the other with the thinner cell wall is called gram negative. This type of microorganism is exceedingly varied and shares a complex relationship with humans. Bacteria is a single-celled organism, its shape varies and is classified into five main categories such as bacillus with a rod-like shape, coccus with a spherical shape, spirochete with a corkscrew-like shape, spirillum with a spiral shape and vibrio with a comma-like shape. Bacteria can transmit through the process of cross-contamination (BioCote, 2018).
Heterotrophic bacteria get their energy from consumption of organic carbon, most absorb dead organic material. Some of these parasitic bacteria kill their host, while others help them. In the other hand autotrophic bacteria make their own food either by photosynthesis, using sunlight, water and carbon dioxide or chemosynthesis using carbon dioxide, water and chemicals such as ammonia, nitrogen, sulfur and others. Bacteria that uses photosynthesis are called photoautotrophs and those that use chemosynthesis are familiar as chemoautotrophs. Bacteria can be found almost everywhere, from soils, water, animals, plants, radioactive waste, deep in the earth’s crust, artic ice and glaciers and hot springs. Aerobic bacteria can only grow where there is oxygen and cause problems such as corrosion, fouling, problems with water clarity and bad odor, anaerobic bacteria can only grow where there is no oxygen at all, they can cause gas gangrene, tetanus, botulism and most dental infections, facultative anaerobic bacteria can live with or without oxygen, they are mostly found in soil, water and vegetation, mesophilic bacteria are responsible for most human infections. Bacteria can reproduce and change using such ways like binary fission which is an asexual reproduction where a cell grows until a new cell wall grows through the center forming two cells, second, transfer of genetic material where cells acquire new material through conjugation, transformation or transduction and third, spores which hold DNA material and contain enzymes used for germination (Brazier, 2017). Many peole are still carrying the burden of food-borne pathogens. Deaths all around the corner. Food is an excellent host of appropriate colonization of many pathogens. The microbiological safety of food is still an intense situation wherein it is stiffly influenced by numerous factors of the food chain.
The right monitoring and surveillance of food safety standards is a must, but there still are factors that are challenging these solutions to be 100% done such as food security, obesity, climate change and competition of resources in the future (Newell et al. , 2010). Food-borne diseases are explained by the World Health Organization as “diseases of infectious or toxic nature caused by, or thought to be caused by the consumption of food or water”. Diarrhea and vomiting are the usual signs of these kind of diseases which is caused by food poisoning from chemicals and food contamination more likely by improper handling of food. Escherichia coli is gram-negative harmless food borne pathogen that can even help in keeping people’s digestive tract healthy. But there are some strains which can cause diarrhea after consuming contaminated food or water. People associate Escherichia coli with food poisoning, pneumonia, breathing problems, gastroenteritis, urinary tract infection and septicemia. Some practices that may lead to Escherichia coli diseases are eating raw meat by not cooking it enough to kill the bacteria, drinking untreated or unpasteurized milk which hasn’t been heated to kill the bacteria because Escherichia coli can get into the milk from the cow’s udder or from milking equipment, eating fruits and vegetables that has been tainted by water that has bacteria which happens when nearby manure of animals mixer with the water supply, consuming unpasteurized beverages or products, swallowing unclean water, transmission from other people and by petting zoos or animal exhibits. Symptoms of Escherichia coli diseases are abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nausea and constant fatigue (WebMD, 2018). Some of the risk factors of having Escherichia coli diseases are age wherein older and younger people are more likely to experience complications, people with weakened immune system, season because Escherichia coli diseases are more likely to occur during the summer months and people with low stomach acid levels (Pietrangelo, 2017). Salmonella typhimurium is also a gram-negative food borne pathogen associated with food poisoning and food contamination.
When it comes to the symptoms, causes and effects it shares the same characteristics with Escherichia coli but Salmonella thypimurium can be passed from the slaughtering of meat and also can be passed from bird’s ovary to the eggs (yourgenome, 2018). This is one of those “intense situations” considering that eggs are the cheapest source of protein and is widely consumed all over the world. On the other hand, human pathogens are pathogens that can cause diseases to humans. Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive major human pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical infections. It is the leading cause of ostearticular, skin and soft tissue, pleuropulmonary and device related infections (Tong et al. , 2015). No one is safe from having Staphylococcus aureus infections, but those people who have greater risks of having one are newborn infants, breastfeeding women and those with chronic conditions such as diabetes, cancer, vascular disease and lung disease. Staphylococcus aureus infections are contagious until not fully healed. Direct contact with the infected wound or with personal care items are common risks of transmission (MedicineNet, 2018). Infections due to Staphylococcus aureus infections include folliculitis which is an infected hair follicle, causing a slightly painful, tiny pimple at the base of a hair, impetigo which consists of shallow fluid-filled blisters that rupture leaving a honey-colored crust that may be itchy or painful, abscesses(boils or furuncles) which are warm, painful collections of pus just below the skin, cellulitis which is an infection of skin and tissue just under it and spreads causing pain and redness, toxic epidermal necrolysis and in newborns, scalded skin syndrome are serious infections, both leading to large-scale peeling of skin. Some of those infections which are contagious are breast infections which may include cellulitis and abscesses which often release large numbers of bacteria to the mother’s milk can develop one to four weeks after delivery wherein the area of the nipple is red and painful, pneumonia that causes a high fever, difficulty in breathing and a cough sputum that may be tinged with blood, bloodstream infection which is a usual root of death in people with severe burns, endocarditis which can quickly damage heart valves, leading to heart failure and perhaps death and osteomyelitis that causes chills, fevers and bone pain wherein the skin and soft tissues over the infected bone become swollen, red and fluid may accumulate in nearby joints (Bush et al. , 2018).
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is agram-negative human pathogen wherein it targets not those healthy persons, but those who are hospitalized, critically ill and those who have a weak immune system. This pathogen can be found broadly in the surroundings such as in soil, water and plants obtained in a hospital area. Infections that can be potentially gained in the hospital are referred as nosocomial infections. This pathogen can infect any part of the body. Infections in lungs and heart tend to be more acute than those infections that happen in the skin. Symptoms varies on the part of the human body that is infected. Some symptoms of bacteria in blood which is called bacteremia are having fevers, chills, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, bacteremia is one of the most severe infections triggered by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, this bacteremia can also cause low blood pressure known as hemodynamic shock which can lead to the failure of the great, kidney and liver. Some indications of the infection of lungs due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa are chills, fever, cough and having a hard time breathing. Some symptoms of folliculitis wherein the bacteria infects the skin, most often affects the hair follicles include redness of the skin, abscess formation in the skin and draining wounds. Some symptoms of infection of the external ear canal which results in swimmer’s ear are swelling, ear pain, itching inside the ear, discharge from the ear and having a difficult time in hearing. Some symptoms where the bacteria infects the eye are inflammation, pus, pain, swelling, redness and impaired vision. Conditions that may enlarge the chance of having an infection involves having burn wounds, receiving chemotherapy for cancer, having cystic fibrosis, having HIV or AIDS, presence ofa foreign body like a mechanical ventilator or catheter and going trhough an invasive operation like surgery (Cafasso, 2016). A fungus is under the group of eukaryote organisms that digests food externally and absorps nutrients directly through its cell wall, most of the fungi can reproduce by spores and have a thallus composed of microscopic tubular cells called hyphae. Fungi heterotrophs and obtain their carbon energy from other organisms. Fungi are an ancient group but not as old as bacteria, its fossil evidences suggest may be 3. 5 billion years old (Carris, L. M. , C. R. Little, and C. M. Stiles. , 2012).
There includes about 144,000 known species of organisms in the kingdom of fungi, some are yeasts, rusts, smuts, mildews, molds and mushrooms (Moore, 2018). Aspergillus niger is a fungus that cause diseases to humans, plants and animals. Aspergillus niger isn’t as notoriously dangerous as Aspergillus fumigatus, which is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen (Latge, 1999). However Aspergillus niger contains toxins that can target those people with weak immune systems, and when inhaled, commonly by people who work near or around plants or peat can cause a lung disease called Aspergillolis, which infected over 300,000 people around the world(Keir, 2013). Black mold, caused by Aspergillus niger create economic losses under post-harvest, and under storage conditions various crops (Dicklow, 2013). In result will be a huge decline in the economy and agriculture. Ashitaba or Angelica keiskei plant is hardly perennial herbal plant and is widely cultivated in many countries including Korea where is it own as “sinsuncho” or “tomorrow leaf” (Maronpot, 2014, 112-119). Several essential benefits are proven to be found in ashitaba’s leaf (Dr. HealthBenfits. com, 20 Proven Health Benefits of Ashitaba Leaves, 2017). However, antifungal effects of the plant has not been detected so far (Sharma and Tripathi, 2008, p. 337-344). This study assesses the potential anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and the range of the biological control properties of Angelika keiskei’s plant’s leaves againts Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa baceria and Aspergillus niger fungi.
Specifically this research focuses on a comparative evalutaion of inhibitory properties of the aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extract of the plant’s leaves. Agriculture as studied is the practice of “farming” and people can farm almost everywhere, even in their own backyards. Does Ashitaba (Angelica keiskei) plant from aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts has a potential anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and antifungal effects on various bacteria examples? The null hypothesis is Ashitaba (Angelica keiskei) plant from aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts have no potential anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and antifungal effects on various bacteria examples. The alternative hypothesis is Ashitaba (Angelica keiskei) plant from aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts has a potential anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and antifungal effects on various bacteria examples. This study aims to inform the people to be aware of certain capabilities and limitations of the Angelika keiskei’s plant leaves regarding various microorganisms which remain a real threat to humans and hinder the growth of the economy and agriculture around the world.