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Theories Of Kidnapping

Anazonwu, C., Onyemaechi, C. and Igwilo, C. (2018) “Psychology of Kidnapping”, Practicum Psychologia. In the research of Anazonwu, C., Onyemaechi, C. and Igwilo, C. (2018) to understand the motivations and determination of a kidnapper they found that there is not yet a psychological theory for a cause. A kidnapper will usually deliberately inflict violence with strategy. Commonly found within kidnappers is a need for belonging, they are typically not psychopaths and mental illness is not an explanation for their behaviour. Within kidnapping traits, their beliefs tend to justify certain behaviours and tend to have a meaningful cause. A commonly spread view of why kidnappers abduct their victims is for money, revenge, sport, sexual desires or to hurt their victims. There is no specific kidnapper personality type nor is there a profile of a kidnapper. There is still extensive research to be done on the psychology of why kidnappers behave the way they do to develop evidence regarding the psychology of kidnappers. There isn’t enough information on the cause of why kidnappers abduct their victims specifically, however, these explanations have been found more common.

Beck, A. T. (2002). Prisoners of Hate. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40(3), 209–216. Berkowitz, L. (1989). The frustration-aggression hypothesis: An examination and reformulation. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 59–73 Tedeschi, J. & Felson, R. (1994). Violence, Aggression, & Coercive Actions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Studies have shown that there is usually violence within being kidnapped. Tedeschi and Felson (1994) purpose that when there is violence between the kidnapper and their victim it is usually on purpose. Freud’s psychoanalytical theory was that aggression was an instinctual human trait where most people would grow into as part of human development, Beck (2002).

Another theory frustration- aggression may be an explanation for human violence as the kidnapper may have a goal that is being prevented from attaining. Berkowitz (1989) his hypothesis was that “aggression is always produced by frustration” as well as “frustration doesn’t inevitably lead to aggression”. Kidnapping is abnormal and usually involve psychopathology deviant behaviours, Schmid (1988). A mentally ill individual will usually not kidnap in a group but rather alone and for them to become a kidnapper they would need a motive. This information elaborates on the reason why there is violence in kidnapping, however, doesn’t explain why this crime is done alone. Although there is a correlation between kidnapping and violence, kidnapping does not cause violence.

Dodo, W.A. & Ohwonohwo, T.R. (2008): Child trafficking in Nigeria: Causes and remedies. Multidisciplinary journal of empirical research Several of the problems researchers recognized in Nigeria as leading to kidnapping was poverty, the government, the lack of harsher punishments, negligence as well as easy money. Politicians increased their number of kidnapping by using them for the military and train them to fight as a tactic to confuse their opponents. Poverty influences the thrive to kidnap, as it motivates them when they are getting paid for it and can live a wealthier life. The lack of punishment on kidnappers is one of the main reasons it’s so common as the criminal can make a profit while easily avoiding the risk of getting caught. Dodo, and Ohwonohwo (2008), “this is because there is little risk of prosecution for traffickers hence, the trade thrives on.” Most importantly the leading cause is the profit made by them. Kidnapping is easy money for one task, therefore, leads the offenders to make money quickly.

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