In college, students experience many different feelings, emotions and adversities. Some may feel excited about finally being able to start studying towards the career of their choice and feel hopeful about their future. They may be looking forward to their freedom and a chance to experience independence. They may be excited about having a chance to meet people and develop new friendships. Others may not experience those same feelings and may not be ready to enter into such an environment. The thought of being on their own and having to be independent can be very frightening. They may feel uncertain about their future and fear becoming an adult and taking on the extra responsibilities. Having to meet people and develop new friendships can also be frightening. They may fear they will not be accepted or fit in. Some may not even want to be in college. They may have been pressured into going there by their parents. All though college can be a wonderful experience for people, for some, it can be one of the worst.
It takes time for students to adjust to college life. They leave behind the things that are most familiar to them like their families, friends, home, their own room and many other things that may have helped them to feel secure. All of a sudden they enter into a world full of new responsibilities; new people and it can be a very frightening, confusing and lonely time. Many start to feel all the pressures from the minute they arrive. They have a full course load, many late night study sessions, and the stress of assignments that are due, in addition to exams. Some may also have to hold down part time jobs to make ends meet. They may not be used to the added responsibilities of being independent like having to do their own laundry, go shopping and cook for themselves. On top of all that, they may also worry about being accepted by their peers. All this together can be very stressful that would lead to difficulties in managing their moods and feelings.
Truly, how an individual manages his emotions and handle different adversities greatly affect his success in life. This inspired the researcher to deal seriously on this aspect of one’s individuality because of the strong belief that if students will be assisted and helped in managing their emotions and guiding them in facing adversities, success will easily be achieved. At their young age, although others may claim that they can already handle their emotions and able to manage difficulties, still, providing them with assistance not only by their family, but also, the school through their guidance counselors better ensure their emotional well-being and adversity competency.
This study aims to explore the level of adversity quotient and emotional quotient of students on Probationary status in relation to their academic performance. The researcher anticipates that adversity quotient has a correlated impact towards academic performance specifically, with the four dimensions of AQ® identified by Dr. Paul Stoltz namely; Control, Ownership and Origin, Reach and Endurance, a student’s inclination in these areas may hypothetically affect how they bounce back and recover from academic adversity. Also, the researcher would like to determine the level of emotional quotient and its relationship to academic performance. Specifically, with the five areas of personality acknowledged by Dr. Reuven Bar-On namely; Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Stress Management, Adaptability and General Mood. Findings of the study will be an empirical basis for future planning of school activities and guidance intervention program specifically, the students with poor academic performance. In Our Lady of Fatima University, students are not only provided with programs that would improve their academic potentials. The university, with its vision-mission of “improving man as man” ensures that they develop their students holistically and one important component of their development is their emotional well-being and adversity competency.
Significance of the Study
This study aims to determine the level of adversity and emotional quotient of students on probationary status and its relationship to their academic performance. The findings of this study may be beneficial to the following groups of people:
- Selected college students who served as respondents. They may be able to know and understand their level of adversity and emotional quotient which will serve as a framework on how they will improve their emotional competency and manage to handle any adversities in school and at home. This will also help them realize its implication to academic success.
- For the Parents/guardians. This may make them aware of the needs of their children and therefore realize the importance of family in the development of their child’s, adversity management, emotional competency and academic performance.
- Administrators. This study will highlight the need of the students; thus, this may enable them to create an intervention program for the students and provide opportunities that may help them withstand adversities in an effective manner and achieve a better emotional competency. Also, this will help them in planning and giving high regard to the intellectual aspect of the students especially on the students on probationary status.
- Guidance Counselors. They may be able to implement guidance programs and activities that may address the students’ academic failures and affective needs. This will be an appropriate basis for individual counseling and group guidance sessions for adversity management and emotional competency.
- Professor/teachers. This study will provide them with good insights about their students specially those with academic problems, poor adversity management and low emotional competency. And apply suitable teaching strategies that would motivate and encourage the students to perform well in class.
- Researchers. This study may be able to aid other researchers in finding facts and serves as an essential reference in studies related to this topic.
Stolt’z Adversity Quotient
Adversity Quotient® (AQ®) theory was developed by Dr. Paul Stoltz. According to Stoltz AQ® pertains to the ability of an individual to face and overcome adversities, difficulties or problems and also transformed it into an opportunity for greater achievement and success (Matore, Khairani, & Abd, 2015).
In the educational perspective, AQ® is the ability of the students to face and survive with the different demands and challenges of the learning process and achieve academic success. The students’ academic success depends on how students manage and confront difficulties. Not all students are able to withstand problems in the learning process, of course, this will affect the students’ academic performance and achievement. The academic success of student is influenced by the level of intelligence; this is related to how students respond with adversity and have the courage to solve the problems in the learning process which is called the Adversity Quotient®.
The Adversity Quotient® is created based on the theoretical foundations from the concept of science such as psychoneuroimmunology, neurophysiology and cognitive psychology. The psychoneuroimmunology examines the relationship of mind, brain, and immune system. This stresses that our thoughts and emotions regulates the strength of our body chemistry. Likewise, AQ® has a direct link between how an individual respond to adversity, to mental and physical health. Second is from neurophysiology which focuses on how the brain learns and functions. This stresses that our habits of thought and behavior are connected to our subconscious region of the brain. These subconscious habits such as AQ®, can be immediately change and form new habits. Lastly, Cognitive psychology that manages our thoughts and feelings which affect a person’s mental health and improve how to react with negative situations. This also helps to understand why individuals tend to surrender when confronted with adversities. The AQ® is embedded in the theory of “learned helplessness” wherein it is related to giving up completely the sense of control. Control is the first dimension of AQ®.
According to Stoltz there are four dimensions of Adversity Quotient namely: Control, Origin and Ownership, Reach and Endurance. The C stands for Control. This measures the degree of control of the individual has over the adversity. The O2 stands for Origin and Ownership. This refers to the willingness of the individual to take the responsibility for the outcomes of responsibility and for improving the situation. The R stands for Reach. This refers to the extent to which the problem affects other areas of the individual’s life. The E stands for Endurance. This is the perception of the individual in time on how they can endure the consequences or how they will last in handling bad events in their life.
Bar-On Emotional-Social Intelligence
The model of emotional-social intelligence was founded by Dr. Reuven Bar-On. He describes Emotional Intelligence (EI) as a set of noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influences one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressure. Furthermore, Bar-On defines emotional-social intelligence as a cross-section of interconnected emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators that determine how well an individual decipher and express himself, comprehend others and relate with them, and deal with pressures of daily life, including problems and unexpected changes. Bar-On further postulates that an assessment of emotional intelligence levels among students can be significantly used to predict their scholastic performance. He argues that such information can be used to identify “students who are in need of guided intervention” and to enhance their emotional-social intelligence competencies and skills thus helping them to perform better academically.
In Bar-on’s point of view, to be emotionally and socially intelligent, the individual must have the ability to understand one’s emotions, to empathize with others, and to be able to draw upon the best of one’s own inner resources (intrapersonal), while encouraging others to do the same. He added that people who are emotionally intelligent are also socially skilled (interpersonal), have positive outlook (general mood) are innovative and patient (stress-management) and are able to adapt to change (adaptability).
The viewpoints of Bar-On’s model assumed that emotional intelligence is often the most important factor in determining success or failure in a career path. These main beliefs of emotional intelligence are the basis of the researcher in this study.
This study sought to find out the relationship of Adversity Quotient and Emotional Quotient on Academic Performance of students under probationary status of Our Lady of Fatima University.
Student’s academic performance and the results of their AQ and EQ test will be the variables in this research study. Furthermore, the General Weighted Average (GWA) during the First Semester of Academic Year 2018-2019 of the probationary students will be the basis of their academic performance. The respondents’ EQ reveals thru the Bar-On Quotient Inventory: Short Version (Baron EQ-is TM ) while the AQ reveals from Adversity Response Profile®.
The results from the three variables will be correlated in order to a) determine the AQ, b) determine the EQ, c) determine the GWA, d) determine the relationship of AQ and academic performance, and e) determine the relationship of the EQ and academic performance.
The results of this study can be a basis for the teachers, guidance counselors and school administrators for defining the needs of the students especially those with poor academic performance, creating new strategies of teaching and innovative intervention program that will help the students become emotionally competent and able to manage adversities despite increased academic standards and conflicting social and cultural context.
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to determine the level of adversity and emotional quotient of students on probationary status and its relationship to their academic performance.
Specifically, this study attempts to answer the following questions:
- What is the level of adversity quotient of the respondents in terms of:
- What is the level of emotional quotient of the respondents in terms of:
- What is the level of academic performance of the respondents?
- Is there a significant relationship between the adversity quotient and academic performance of the of the students on probationary status?
- Is there a significant relationship between the emotional quotient and academic performance of the of the students on probationary status?
Origin and Ownership
Overall Emotional Quotient
Hypothesis of the Study
This study will test the following hypothesis:
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between adversity quotient and academic performance of students on probationary status.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between emotional quotient and academic performance of students on probationary status.
Operational Definition of Variables
The following terms is conceptually and operationally defined for better understanding of the study.
Academic Performance refers to how the students deal with and accomplish various tasks assigned to them by their teachers as well as with their studies.
Adaptability Scale pertains to skills involved in change management. Managing change involves realistically and flexibly coping with the immediate situation and effectively solving problems as they arise.
Adversity refers to any difficulty and obstacles that emanates particularly to a students’ life.
Adversity Quotient pertains to the ability of the student to respond, withstand and overcome any difficulties or adversities in life. AQ is further defined along its four dimensions: C (Control). This pertains to the ability of the person to control his response to anything that might happen. O (Origin/ownership). This refers to the responsibility of the person in owning the outcome of adversity. R (Reach). This dimension determines how the person understands and perceives the problem to be. E (Endurance). This pertains to how long the person will tolerate the adversities.
Emotion refers to complex experiences of students through the use of a great variety of terms like gestures, attitudes, vocal expressions as manifested to others.
Emotional Quotient refers to the overall emotional and social functioning that directly influence the general psychological well-being of students.
General Mood Scale. Refers to the emotional skills that fuel the self-motivation needed to set and achieve goals. These skills include an optimistic and positive outlook combined with a feeling of happiness or contentment with ourselves, others and life in general.
General Weighted Average refers to the representation of the representation of the overall scholastic standing of students used for assessment. It is computed based on the summation of the grade point and multiplied to the units per subject.
Interpersonal Scale pertains to assessment of social awareness and interpersonal relationship skills. It includes the students’ awareness of others’ emotion, feelings and needs and their abilities to establish and maintain cooperative, constructive and mutually satisfying relationship.
Intrapersonal Scale pertains to the assessment of self-awareness and self-expression. It includes the students’ awareness of themselves and the understanding of their emotions it also refers to their abilities to express their feelings and thoughts assertively; the ability to be self-reliant and free of emotional dependency on others.
Stress Management Scale pertains to the assessment of emotional management and regulation. It refers to the student’s ability to manage and control emotions so they work for others and not against others.
Probation refers to students who will be monitored by the Guidance Counselors because they failed their academics.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study is limited only to students on probationary status across all year level of different programs per college who are officially enrolled in Our Lady of Fatima University, first semester of school year 2018-2019.
The study aims to determine the level of adversity and emotional quotient of students on probation and its relationship to their academic performance. The researcher will use descriptive correlational method in conducting the study.
The researcher will use the Adversity Response Profile® (ARP®) as instrument to measure the Adversity Quotient, the Bar-On Quotient Inventory: Short Version (Baron EQ-is TM) as an instrument of the study in measuring the emotional quotient and the General Weighted Average (GWA) as the basis for academic performance.