This chapter discusses about the analysis of the layout alternatives proposed using the Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) methodology as discussed before. The results generated will be compared to the existing layout and the best alternative will be chosen.
Analysis 1: Layout Design I
In the layout Design I, the results of the proposed layout design is evaluated in terms of the total distance travel, output and average resource utilization. As in existing plant layout, the complete removal of husk requires 2-3 passes with the use of stone rollers as required. These 2-3 passes leads to broken and powdering of pulse. Improper conditioning of pulses gives lower dehusking efficiency by 10% to 20%. So the layout design I is done on the basis of using of preconditioning of raw pulse which passes through single stone roller. This preconditioning of pulses minimized the losses to 5% to 8% by adopting improved technologies.
The performance comparisons on the basis of various factors used in SLP between the existing layout and the alternative layout as proposed. According to the study of the CFTRI technique of pulse milling, treatments have been suggested for the preconditioning of pulses before milling to loosen the adhesive bond between the kernel and the husk. This helps to completely loosening of husk without the help of oil application by successive heating and cooling of pulses. The pulses grains subjected to heated air about 120o –160oC for a specific duration of time. When grain temperature reached about 65o – 75oC, the grains were cooled by forcing ambient air through the grains. The successive heating and cooling of pulses grains leads to be most effective in breaking the adhesive bond between the husk and the cotyledons. Dehusking Roller machine dehusked more than 95 percent in single pass.
After analysing the existing layout, the Modify P-Q chart shows that the production of 150 tons of pulse varies to 160 tons of pulse in the input of 200 tons of raw pulse per month for the modified layout. Remaining 32 tons of cattle feed, 4 tons of reject pulse and remaining 4 tons of contaminated matters which include dust particle, stone or aggregate etc. It is observe that if the grains are soaking for 2 hours followed by 1 hour sun drying gave the best milling results. Implementation of newly developed layout can gives about 80% efficiency which is about 5% more than existing plant layout. It is due to the reduction of the distance between two stone rollers to single stone roller and by using the CFTRI techniques for completely loosening of husk.it provides smooth and efficient flow of material throughout the cycle. Therefore rearranging the layout improves material flow, reduced travelled distance and increase in production of finished pulses.
After analysing the improved layout, the Modify flow of material shows that the improved effective sequence of the activities as comparison to Figure 5.9 as we discussed before. The operation process is increased by reducing transportation of pulse flow. It also represents overall process of pulse production by increasing productivity from 75% to 80%.
After analysing the improved layout, the Modify Activity Relationship chart includes 10 steps. These are Cleaning, Preconditioning, Dehusking, Grading, Conditioning, Splitting, Separation, Sizing, Polishing and Packaging. We can also analysis that “E? represents that the cleaning and preconditioning processes are especially important to each other. “A” represents the preconditioning and dehusking processes are absolutely necessary to each other. Similarly “U” represents the cleaning and packaging processes are unimportant to each other. In the same way each vowel represents the relative importance with each process. Thus the new process “Preconditioning” is an especially important process in the process of pulse milling which is not only increase the dehusking efficiency but also increase the milling efficiency.
After analysing the improved layout, the Modify Relationship diagram represents the relative importance between each activity. Here symbol indicate cleaning process number 3 inside it and symbol indicate preconditioning of raw pulse represent by number 4 inside it connecting by three lines. These three lines between cleaning and preconditioning processes indicate that the both activities are closeness especially important to each other. Similarly preconditioning and dehusking processes represents by four lines indicates that the both activities are closeness absolutely necessary to each other. In the same way number of connecting lines between each symbol indicates closeness between each activity which we already discussed in Figure 5.11.The information of space requirements of modify plant layout is summarized in table 5.1
After analysing the improved layout, the Modify Space Requirements consider the total space requirements of each processing area in relation with the equipment. Here the total space required by the modify plant layout is 3175ft2 which is less than 74ft2 of existing plant layout.
After analysing the improved plant layout, the Modify Space available is visual representation of improved plant layout in which there is reduction of total space required by increasing its dehusking efficiency and milling efficiency. Here the first stone roller and second elevator replaced by dryer for preconditioning of raw pulse purpose. This preconditioning of raw pulse reduced the work of two stone rollers to single stone roller.
After analysing the improved layout, the Modify Space relationship diagram represents the relative importance between equipment.
In an alternative layout design I, the two stone rollers are replaced by single stone roller. The dryer is move to the left hand side by eliminating the elevator. This leads to preconditioning of grain before dehusking. This preconditioning process dehusked about 97-99% of grains in single pass as before of 80-85% in double passes through stone roller. This improvement could reduce the excessive distance of two stone rollers to one. Although plant has sufficient space for performing each process in separate areas. But according to plant due to unavailability of skilled staff, intermittent order flow it is unable to arrange separate areas for each operations. By improving the pulse flow at each workstation preventing the pulse from damage.
After proper analysing of layout design I, it is found that layout design I results in higher productivity. There is no extra space is needed during the re-layout. This will enable smooth flow of material and provide better product by proper utilization of space.
Analysis 2: Layout Design II
The alternative layout design II has found various advantages on the existing plant layout. It is observe that the floor space is so reduced so that workers could reach at any floor easily without taking lot of time. It becomes easy to Manager to supervise and controlling the workers from any distance. It helps to increase labour productivity hence increase efficiency. It also reduced the useless floor area. The result is continuous work flow with a same sequential departmental arrangement as before. Beside that sometimes they share common personnel, similar type of supervision, same space or equal opportunity of convenience.
The advantages of this alternative layout are as follow:
It will be easy to handle: For new layouts, Machinery and equipment are arranged as that the workers reach at ant floor without taking more time as in existing plant layout. So, it is easy to handle the machinery without wasting time. It also reduces the effort of the worker to handle the machinery and product.it also helps to eliminating congestions.
It will be easy to reach in any floor. Where new layout is planned, it helps to improve proper utilization of floor space. The equipment is well established as close as the point where it is to be used.
It will increase floor space: It enables to increase floor space by utilizing existing staircase space. As we observe in improved alternative design, there is easily reaches at any floor by using direct staircase to each floor which obviously helps to increase floor space.
It will require less number of workers: In improved layout, the processing of pulse milling does not need large number of workers. It will be reduced to 6 from 8. So that it will reduce labour costs and hence increase labour productivity.
It will improve other working conditions: It improves working condition of workers. In this alternative design layout, they have to cover short distance as before in existing layout. It will provide better employee services and facilities.
It will enable to utilise labour efficiently: It helps to utilize labour efficiency by increasing output per man-hour. It also reduced overall time of processing of raw pulse to finished pulse.
It is easy in supervision and control: It helps to easy in control of supervisior by taking whole views from ground floor. It eases the burden of supervisior. It helps to eliminate various unnecessary movements by easy supervising and controlling.
After proper analysing of layout design II, it is found that layout design II results in terms of reduce total travel distance, total travel time, travelling cost and utilization of floor space in the system. This will enable ease in work of workers and supervisor. This layout provides some ergonomics advantages over existing plant layout.