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Sports Injury Case Study

Concussion-Sarah MOI: Traumatic blow or force to the skull is the most common cause of a concussion. The object when caused trauma can be stationary (the floor) or in motion (a baseball). Sports such as rugby involve greater levels of traumatic force and contact which makes concussion more common. Signs and Symptoms: Loss of consciousness blurry vision dizziness confusion nausea or vomiting headache change in emotion trouble concentrating memory loss ringing in the ears loss of balance Treatment: An MRI scan may be required, especially if the player loses consciousness. the player will also need rehabilitation exercises.

The player should be removed from activity, the trainer should perform a SCAT test, depending on the severity of the injury a medical professional may need to be involved (An MRI may be required). the player should never be left alone immediately after suffering a concussion. Medical professionals will determine when a player can return to play. A player who has lost consciousness due to a concussion is not allowed return to play unless they’ve been cleared by a physician. Rehabilitation for an athlete can involve both physical and mental exercises in order to normalize the functions of the brain and the body.

Returning to Play Protocol The player should rest until they are asymptomatic. They should stay out of play for the same amount of days that it took them to develop symptoms (4 days to develop symptoms, 4 days of rest). A player who has consulted a medical professional should not return to play until approved by the medical professional. Rehab: The way that a sports medicine trainer should rehabilitate a player from a concussion goes as follows: No activity light aerobic exercise sport specific training non contact training full contact training If the athlete begins to show symptoms again, you must return to step one of rehab.

Sprained Ankle-Umemah MOI Occurs when your ankle ligaments are overstretched. Ankle sprains vary in their severity, from mild “twisted ankle” or “rolled ankle” sprain to possibly a broken bone. An example would be when the foot is awkwardly planted on the ground when you are running or landing from a jump on uneven surface. Signs and Symptoms: · Swelling · Tenderness · Bruising · Pain · Inability to put weight on the affected ankle · Skin discoloration · Stiffness Treatment: Treating your sprained ankle properly may prevent chronic pain and instability.

For a Grade I sprain, follow the R. I. C. E. guidelines: Rest your ankle by not walking on it. Limit weight bearing. Use crutches if necessary; if there is no fracture you are safe to put some weight on the leg. An ankle brace often helps control swelling and adds stability while the ligaments are healing. Ice it to keep down the swelling. Don’t put ice directly on the skin (use a thin piece of cloth such as a pillow case between the ice bag and the skin) and don’t ice more than 20 minutes at a time to avoid frost bite. Compression can help control swelling as well as immobilize and support your injury.

Elevate the foot by reclining and propping it up above the waist or heart as needed. Returning to play: Depending on the severity of the Sprain the athlete’s time to return to play will vary. Mild: In mild cases, you can expect full ligament healing within 2 to 3 weeks, but it will take at least six weeks for full scar tissue to heal. Moderate: Grade 2 injuries occur when you have a significant ligament injury that allows the ligament to excessively stretch. In most cases these injuries result in a recovery period of 4 to 6 weeks. With increasing injury severity, the rehabilitation process becomes more complex and extensive.

Severe: More severe ankle sprain injuries can also include fractures of the bones or high ankle sprains, which will require additional rehabilitation time to a simple lower ankle sprain. The rehabilitation of a Grade 3 ankle sprain normally takes 6 to 12 weeks, but is quite variable depending on your specific injury. Rehabilitation: Alphabet ankles: To perform these, sit on a chair. Elevate your ankle in the air and write the alphabet with your feet. Band foot dorsiflexion and plantar flexion: Sit on the floor and lay the injured ankle on top of the other leg out in front of you.

Grab an elastic band and wrap it around the ball of your foot. Pull and your foot will go into dorsiflexion. From here, move your ankle up and down. Calf raises: Get on something with an edge and go to your toes. Repeat. Taping: Ankle Tape Job: 1. Tape 3 anchors underneath the gastrocnemius and 1 under the ball of the foot 2. Apply the basket weave 3 times 3. Do the figure 8 and then the heel lock 4. Cover up any open skin and redo the anchors Shoulder Dislocation-Areej MOI: Occurs when the ball of the humerus is pulled out of the shoulder socket called the Glenoid Labrum.

The dislocation may occur upon a direct blow/sudden trauma or may be the result of the instability of the shoulder joint. The injury could also be caused by the following causes, Repetitive Shoulder Ligament Overstrain (where the shoulder ligaments in constant strain) or by Multi-Directional Instability (genetic, causing an unstable joint or ligament). Signs and Symptoms: Shoulder Pain Holding the arm in a position indicating that there is pain in the shoulder or arm Shoulder is hanging by the side loosely and the athlete is unable to move it Arm weakness Numbness

A shooting pain, may be described as pins and needles. Later on the doctor will further diagnose it with an x-ray of the joint Treatment: A surgery and rehabilitation exercise will be required. The following are steps of treatments. If the shoulder joint did not pull itself back into the socket, it is necessary to go to a doctor so that they may out back in. By surgery or another method. After the treatment it will be necessary to keep the arm in the sling or shoulder brace to relieve the athlete of pain, and apply ice on the shoulder to prevent inflammation.

Massage and acupuncture may also be substitutions. Taping the shoulder may also help the athlete relieve pain. Start rehab exercises to help the shoulder regain motion. Once the ligament starts to heal however. Massages and other exercises may help as well. Returning to Play Protocol It is important to keep to the athlete is the shoulder sling or brace for about 2-3 weeks. However, before returning to play you must keep the athlete off the field for about 3 months to avoid a recurrent dislocation. Make sure that the exercise has helped the athlete and that the range of motion for the shoulder is fairly high.

Chances are if it dislocates again it will keep dislocating. Rehab Exercises Isometric Extension: Stand straight , back against the, wall with you arms by your side With your hands push forward of off the wall Do the exercise about 5 times and hold the pose for 10 seconds each 2) External Rotation Hold hand in a 90 degree angle standing close to a door or wall Push the hand against the wall putting pressure on the shoulder hold the pose for 10 seconds and repeat 5 times 3) Abduction Stand on one side of the band and have the other side of the band in your hand

While holding the band pull your hand up to shoulder height, keep the hand strength and away from the shoulder, facing hand outward. Hold for a while and repeat several times. Taping: You would usually just take a triangle cloth and use it to tie a sling. Have the athlete hold up the arm by the waist Take the cloth and have the one end under the hand and the other long end on top This should create a cradle to the arm. Now simply take the first end and the second end and tie them together around the neck The last triangle by the elbow can be twisted and tucked in the cradle

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