Not everyone knows about some of the main scientific discussions that are happening around the world, one of them being the talk about human genome, and also the genetic modification of our DNA. This paper is focused mainly on the change of our DNA that can occur, within our bodies genetic code, and any mutation. Many types of disease such as sickle cell anemia and different types of cancer. The use of genome modification can be found in many different types of fields, ranging from foods, plants and many other organisms.
The medical practice that will be introduced is Human Gene Therapy. Types of technology, and what is it used for? Many different types of technology have been found within the last decade of genetic modification. One of the most recent being crispr. This gene editing technology s able to cut and replace mutated DNA strands, and also be able to attach entirely new bases for the genetic code. Now how might this help, These different technologies can aid in the genetic code to find and terminate problems, and terminal diseases.
Many believe this to be revolutionizing the change in the human body and a world with little to no genetic problems. Since or genes are coded for many different aspect for our bodily functions, these different technologies can aid with the codes that help growing, and also repairing any mutations that have not been caught. Like said before there are many different types of technology that have been made, some that are already in people‘s houses and some that have not even been released to the public, yet many people have no idea what really do.
Somatic ( most the cells in our body ) and germline ( our sex cells) genetic engineering is the field which really is based on the changing of our genetic code, and they’re focused on the change within our cells that may be passed onto offsprings. How Genetic Modification is applied in relation to Human Gene Therapy To my knowledge Human gene Therapy is based entirely off of genetic modification, this means that DNA strands that may have the disease must be modified either by cutting and removing the section or replacing it with an entirely new base pair from other strands.
Genetic modification main use in medicine is therapy, and making genes split allowing for changes of code to appear. Human gene therapy main topic is both somatic and germline cells, different types of technology made can access the DNA within these cells like CRISPR. Changing the strands to match and fix mutation like stated before. Without any problems genetic modification is able to reach into these cells these things added to our cells are called vectors, and these do the maintenance on the cell. Scientists have tried to take advantage of the virus’s biology and manipulate its genome to remove human disease-causing genes and insert therapeutic genes. ”( Kathi E. , 2006) There are different types of vectors ranging from viruses to machines. The Specific scientific techniques involved in the technology Within human gene therapy the whole idea is moving, and changing mutated, and ”bad” genes, for example genes that can code for diabetes.
DNA Is our bodies code, and different technologies, and vectors can attempt to break apart the DNA to replace certain gene, or just remove them entirely. The therapy itself includes introducing genetic material into cells through these vectors, and fix the abnormalities that are faced with the protein. Gene therapy is able to add a normal, and allow the copy of this DNA for the protein to restore proper function and replication. This is a vector / an example of one. Vectors bind to the cell membrane, and gain access to the nucleus of a cell.
This vector brings another strand of the proper DNA to replace the pre existing one with problems, and then is disposed of. Another type of technology involved is CRISPR/Cas9 CRISPR is newly made enzyme that is able to go within the cell, and break apart a DNA strand to make a brand new bonds to replace mutated, and disorders. The steps it takes is exactly like most types of gene therapy, but Cas 9 Nuclease is a substitute for Helicase, and force the break and the new strands to be made to takeover the proteins being made
Both of these methods of gene therapy involve a certain type of a cellular vehicle, or man made enzyme, that can intercept DNA strands and fix impurities, and also add new normal strands this all happens within the nucleus. What is the impact of this technology around the world? Advantages Biologically this can help with the elimination of terminal diseases carried on by parents to their off springs, causing a lower amount of different diseases like diabetes and sickle cell anemia to decrease around the world.
This cause death rate to also go down. I think this is an advantage that far outweighs any of the disadvantages that have been presented against gene therapy. Giving someone a chance at a normal life should be enough for many of the people that oppose this technique to change their minds. ” ( B. Rocholl, 1996) The social factor of gene therapy can allow people to focus on what they really care, about and also this can help with making new jobs, by teaching the field many people would be able to learn and research gene therapy and help with all the new technology that’s been made over the last decade to be perfected and out to the public
This is legal, and can also be help since its modification is being tested on humans and even now has been used for the first time. “A gene tool that may have extraordinary promise in curing myriad diseases has been used in a human for the first time. ” ( R. Dicker, 2016). This stating that is it legal within some parts of the united states. Disadvantages One of the major issues with gene therapy is the ethical idea of changing someone’s body. In many religions the modification of our bodies is looked down upon, and also even sinful.
Yet not even just religious people have problems with the idea of changing your DNA. Even though gene therapy is for the aid in mutations, and illnesses in our genes, attempting to turn or DNA back to normal is its goal not to change our looks. Yet again many people believe that you would be playing god and that we should not be able to make, and change how a human was made. Something to compare this to is designer babies, the idea of people being able to choose any type of genes for their child.
Even though the biggest disadvantage would be the ethical problem, yet there’s still some of a social factor that comes with the disadvantages. “ They believe that if prenatal tests are performed that these could lead to an increase in the number of abortions. Many people that hear a positive test for a disease are now are faced with a dilemma. ” ( B. Rocholl, 1996). This comes to the idea of lots of money being spent on a cure and for the gene therapy, and also it gives the parents the idea of abortion like Rocholl had stated. Making parent chooses the life they want, and their child.
Another social problem is that people are not informed, and are to scared of this procedure since they don’t know what it is and what it does. This makes it hard for when people hear gene therapy and they may perceive is much differently than it is. Biologically the main issue is that it may take more than one attempt for gene therapy to work. With genetic screening and how they find the genetic code itself takes some time, and when using different amounts of different genes some need to make sure that they reach a balance between the bases that are being replaced.
And hopefully not harming the proteins any more, this cause an even larger mutation or even an insertion to the incorrect DNA strand. My own opinion, and what action i will take with this technology. Well seeing that i am religious and believe that humans were made like they were for that reason. I do agree with many of the ethical issues, yet i also understand that it’s good for this to be introduced to our medical field. Many people are affected by terminal diseases, making their life very hard and a very stressful on how they are going to cooperate with it.
Us Become Genetically modified organisms is something that many people don’t want as a title. The Action that i would take upon myself would be to inform more people about human gene therapy. Like I said before many people don’t know what’s going on in the science communities, and it’s our job as students, and role models to explain and understand what’s happening with our cells during gene therapy. Leaving no question unturned, and allow these people to understand DNA and how we are who we are because of our DNA.
This also including how the therapy works and how it replaces a mutated DNA strand or remove a disease that’s encoded in us. How is Human gene therapy regulated in Canada, and how does it relate to the united states. Canada regulations with gene therapy is a very open topic and is discussed from the drugs used, to what’s being monitored. Many of Canada’s focus is on the impact it can cause though such as the potential risk, manufacturing, testing, and inspection of the genes. Canada’s use of gene therapy is legal, and useable.
Yet again many people have never heard the words gene therapy. Relating to the united states which is already starting its testing on their first patient to ever use by CRISPR/Cas9 is very big, this meaning there is a much broader idea of gene therapy in the united states. When going more in depth to their legislation on gene therapy, it states that anybody that will be going through this process will need to pass an assessment of overall human body, and how necessary it is. Once approved they are then able to go through gene therapy.
This is much different than canada, since there was nothing stating about approval within their website. The Founding fathers of human gene therapy Friedmann and Roblin(1972): First to bring the idea of gene therapy, and wrote a paper indulging on their theory Later in the 1980 they have discovered a method of insertion of foreign genes into an organism William French Anderson (1990): He is the first person to ever succeed using gene therapy on a young girl. Using clinical research.
Cancer gene therapy was introduced in 1992-1993: the first use was for a fatal brain tumor and was fixed using vectors. These few people were the founding father of the idea of gene therapy, The idea of vectors, and also the style of treatment, their contribution to what gene therapy is enormous, since what they studied and found is still used to this day, just more advanced. Scientist many have never know that it was possible to insert foreign genes into an organism, and also have it work on a 4 year old girl and alter the genetic formula for her disorder of her immune system.