Panicum is the biggest genera in the Gramineae familly. Inside the variety Panicum antidotale is one of the essential flooded and range grass species in the semiarid and dry Southwest. It is perennial long lasting grass. The plant varies in height from 1.5 m to 3 m (Ecocrop, 2011; FAO, 2011; Surhone et al., 2010). It is a superb sand folio, however of suspicious incentive as grain. It is a nutritious grass and is munched by domesticated animals, especially when it is in right on time vegetative develop.
It has straight erected and woody stems. The stems are firm and has sugarcane like stem base (Freckmann, 2011). Plant has hairy stem. The plant has flat blue green leaves with separate midrib. Leaves length may be between 15-30 cm and are 4-12 mm wider (Freckmann, 2011; Quattrocchi, 2006). The sheaths are glabrous and 4-8 cm long (Freckmann, 2011). The plant has 2.5 mm woody stalks on which spikelet’s panicle carries the inflorescence. Panicle are 13-30 cm long (FAO, 2011; Freckmann, 2011). For increasing demand for fodder and grain production Panicum antidotale is mainly used (FAO, 2011).
Panicum antidotale commonly known as Blue Panic or Giant Panic grass. It is a healthy wild grass. Chromosome number of blue panic grass has been studied by two examiners ,Burton (1942) and Brown (1951) each focused one promotion and found the substantial chromosome number was 2n=18. Brown and Emery (1958) explored mega gametogenesis of two blue panic grass increases and revealed ordinary sexual early organism sac improvement of the Polygonum type.
Amid an examination directed by Bakhashwain et al.,2010 on nutritive estimation of various grasses, for example, moringa, jojoba, millet , blue panic. The canary grass and blue panic had the most minimal CP content. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were higher in blue panic.
The auxiliary mixes examinations indicated insignificant substance of blue panic encourages for total phenol (TP), total tannins (TT) and crude tannins (CT). Panicum antidotale (Begum and Hussain, 1980), show allelopathy to block the related species by lessening their recovery, development and yield. Plant is used as vermifuge. Panicum antidotale shows antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus lactis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Panicum antidotale whole plant utilized as a decoction Antipyretic, hack, dysuria furthermore, renal stones. The smoke of the burning plant is used to fumigate wounds and as a disinfectant in the treatment of smallpox.
Decoction is managed as wash in tonsillitis, diphtheria, and orally managed if there should arise an occurrence of small pox and chicken pox. It is helpful in the event of interminable hack and tonsillitis. It has been accounted for that the plant is disinfectant in small pox. The smoke is utilized for disinfecting wounds and the medication is utilized for sore throat diseases.
The nutritional status of the Panicum antidotale has well studied. The crude protein content in this plant ranges 4.0-15.6% DM (Feedipedia, 2011) and it is higher as compared to other Panicum species. The crude protein can be effected by different plant features such as maturity status and the prevailing environment condition. This grass is highly nutritious before flowering and crude protein content is high in dry matter as compared to the fresh matter. Panicum antidotale in dry areas is used as fodder crop because it can grow in light sandy soils. It provides as a edible grassland for the ruminants (Sarwar et al., 2006). This plant is best utilized by grazing animals during preflowering stage. The palatability decreases as the spikes become harder with woody stalk during flowering (FAO, 2011; Quattrocchi, 2006). Panicum antidotale can be used for silage production. The remaining plant stand are made into hay which provide nutritious green material (FAO, 2011).
During the late flowering stage this plant develop a large concentration of oxalic acid which produces bitter taste. The high amount of oxalic acid produced can cause the kidney disorders (Gohl, 1982). Panicum species are wellspring of oxalate. Oxalates assume noteworthy parts in plant digestion and survival. Thusly, an extensive assortment of plants contain solvent and additionally insoluble types of oxalates, that might be available at various levels in various plant parts. Since oxalic corrosive is a solid natural dicarboxylic corrosive, it might be available as the corrosive, the corrosive particle (hydroxy corrosive ionic shape), the oxalate particle (all dissolvable), or as a salt in the form of divalent cation, for example, calcium.
The plant has low protein content and high energy potential for forage application (Bakhashwain et al., 2010). The maturity status of Panicum antidotale reflects it nutritive value however this research is under study about the maturity effect on plant nutritive value. As the plant goes on maturing the crude protein level decreases by 0.6 ± 0.03% per day. Plant maturity effect the non-digestible fiber content as it increases by 0.9 ± 0.1% per 10 day (Malik et al., 1967). During a research which was conducted to check the effect of blue panic on the cow’s milk yield, it was concluded that blue panic has less milk yield with low fat content. So it was concluded that Panicum antidotale can not be replacer of alfalfa in dairy cows diets (Allam et al., 2013).
This plant has been used for the treatment of constipation, cooling effect, insect biting, gonorrhea (N. Ahmed et al.,2014) , respiratory tract infections and cough. Whole plant paste is used for the early curing of wounds. Used as disinfectant in smallpox (T.I. khan et al.,2003).
Panicum antidotale may contain adequate oxalate to cause oxalate harming in sheep or osteodystrophia in horses. Likewise revealed as a reason for atypical interstitial pneumonia. Called as additionally blue panic grass.
The proximate examinations and tannins content on dry issue premise of the researched Blue panic (g/kg DM).
Crude protein 82, ether extract 11, nitrogen free extract 511, neutral detergent fiber 557, acid detergent fiber 439, acid detergent lignin257, total phenols (eq-g tannic acid/kg DM) 19.8, total tannins (eqg tannic acid/kg DM) 15.7, condensed tannins (eq-g leucocyanidin /kg DM) 0.7 g/kg DM.