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Informative Speech On Cell Cells

Have you ever wondered what living things are made up of? If you answered cells, then you’d be correct. A cell is the smallest thing that can be alive, and all living things are made of cells! Cells are made of tiny organelles that work together to help the cells live, just like organs in our body keep us alive. You must also remember that there are two types of cells. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic. The differences are simple; Eukaryotic cells are more complex and have more organelles while Prokaryotic cells are simple and have little organelles.

Also, Eukaryotes (eukaryotic cells) have one or more cells while Prokaryotes (prokaryotic cells) are only made up of 1 cell. Today, I’m going to show a model of a Eukaryotic plant cell model along with their organelles and explain to you how they work. An organelle in both Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells is a Cell membrane. It is outside of a cell and is made of a Phospholipid Bilayer of fats and phosphates. This Phospholipid Bilayer allows some things in and out and offers protection from things like bacteria and viruses that make you sick. Without this organelle, anything could go in a cell and make you sick.

There would also be nothing surrounding the cell and giving it shape. A Cytoplasm can be found in all cell types and can be found inside of a Cell Membrane. Its texture is like Jello and allows the organelles to float freely around the cell like astronauts do in space. The Cytoplasm also has nutrients for the organelles. Without the Cytoplasm, organelles cannot move around and do their job. Another organelle that can be found in a cell types is a Ribosome. Every cell has thousands of these and are found either on the Endoplasmic Reticulum (explained later) or found floating freely around the cell.

Every cell needs Ribosomes to make proteins, just like farms selling their produce to the market. If a cell had no Ribosomes, then there would be no protein to keep you strong and healthy. An organelle that is similar to the Cell Membrane is a Cell Wall. However, a Cell Wall can only be found in Prokaryotic and Plant cells. This organelle is like a second Cell membrane but is instead around it. Like a Cell Membrane, a Cell Wall protects and allows things to get in and out of a cell. However, its main purpose is to give the cell a shape.

Without it, cells may not have a distinctive shape. Only Prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic plant cells One of the most important parts of a cell is its Nucleus, Nucleolus and DNA that can always be found in the cytoplasm, surrounded by the Endoplasmic Reticulum. All Eukaryotes have all 3 of these while Prokaryotes only have free-floating DNA in coils and loops. A Nucleus has a clear membrane that allows some things to go in and out. Inside the Nucleus is Chromatin, which is contains DNA that carries the information of who you are.

A Nucleolus is a dark, round ball in the centre of the Nucleus. The Nucleus directs cell activities and tells cells what to do, just like a Principal of a school tells students and teachers what to do. If there isn’t a Nucleus, then organelles wouldn’t know what to do. A Mitochondria organelle is only found in Eukaryotic cells. It is rod-shaped and is disputed evenly around the cell’s cytoplasm. This organelle does Cellular Respiration to make energy. Cellular Respiration uses food and oxygen and turns it into Water, Carbon Dioxide and Useable Energy.

Without Mitochondria, the cell would have no energy to do cell processes that are necessary for the cell to survive. Chloroplasts are only found in a plant cell’s cytoplasm, and are green. They contain Chlorophyll, which makes a plant green. Chloroplasts do photosynthesis, which is the opposite of Cellular Respiration. It uses Water, Carbon Dioxide and Sunlight Energy to make Oxygen and Food, which is called glucose for plants. Without Chloroplast doing its job, Plant cells won’t have food for energy. All Eukaryotic Cells have a Golgi Apparatus, which is made up of 5-6 sacs called vesicles.

The Golgi Apparatus is also in the cytoplasm and processes and packages proteins and fats. Its vesicles are responsible for moving materials, like proteins, around the cell like a mailman that carries mail. Without the Golgi Apparatus, proteins would not be processed, packaged, or delivered to where they’re supposed to be delivered. An Endoplasmic Reticulum that can be found in all Eukaryotic Cells, around the Nucleus, and is made of tubes and sacs. There are two types; a Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum, which doesn’t have Ribosomes and a Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum that has Ribosomes.

This organelle is like the “protein highway” that transports proteins and also breaks down toxic materials. Without this “protein highway,” proteins wouldn’t know where to go and toxic material may stay in a cell, causing toxic material to pile up. Another organelle that is in all Eukaryotic cells Lysosome. It is a Vesicle built by the Golgi Apparatus and sometimes attaches itself to the Vacuole in the Cytoplasm. Lysosomes digest worn-out organelles and food particles, and can be related to a trash can.

Without the Lysosome, there might be lots of waste that can pile up within a cell. Lastly, there is the Vacuole that can be found in all Eukaryotic Cells, in the cytoplasm. While there is only one that is large in the plant cell, there are many that are small in the animal cell. In both plant and animal cells, it has to store water, digest and remove waste. In a plant cell, it also gives the cell some shape and keeps the cell upright. Without the Vacuole, there might be no place to store the water, and plant cells may not have a distinctive shape.

A Cellular process that particles do is diffusion and osmosis. It is when particles spread out evenly and move from places with a lot of particles to little particles. An example is cooking. When you start to cook or bake, the smell of the food is really strong in the kitchen. But as the particles spread out, you might be able to smell it all around the house. That is diffusion of the smell of cooking. Osmosis, however, is the same as diffusion, but with water particles. Water Particles spread out in or out of a cell to carry out osmosis.

Another Cellular Process is Cell Division, which is when a cell divides in half and makes a copy of itself. When you grow, your cells are simply dividing themselves. In plant cells, the cell first swells and turns bigger. Then, it makes a 2nd Nucleus to get ready for dividing itself in half. A cell plate then slides between the 2 nucleus’ and divides the cell in half, making 2 of the same cells. In Animal cells, the process is the same, but there is no cell plate. The cell first swells and makes a 2nd Nucleus. Then, the cytoplasm pinches in half, and a 2nd cell is made.

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