Canning is a process of preserving food in cans or jars in which the food is processed and edible for a long period of time. The food is stored in an airtight container which provides shelf life based on the preserved nutrition and fiber contents that is available in food.
Technically, the processes used are highly efficient and used universally. Problems occur rarely in canning, but the important part of canning is to provide hygiene food. The problems arise either with the sterilization of the containers or its contents or because of the container leaks after closure, permitting infections to occur. If the contained material contains toxins when it is first added to the can they will be there when the can is opened.
The range of products canned has increased which includes meat and poultry, fruits, and vegetables, seafood, milk, and preserves like jams, sweets, pickles, and sauces. Low -acid foods, such as meats are heated to 240°- 265°F;(116°-129°C), while acidic foods, such as fruits are heated to about 212°F;(100°C).
Canning of food was started at the time of wars, where it would be easy for soldiers to carry food at wars. A French confectioner Nicolas Appert is said to be a developer of the canning process. It was said that he was awarded with cash prize by French Government to provide canned food to the army. But, the slow process of canning of food which would take 6hours to cook and the even slower process of transportation prevented the army from shipping and by the end of the last stage of the process, the wars would end. Then slowly this process was carried by other European countries and in the U.S. During the mid-19 th century, canned food became the status symbol of middle-class people in Europe countries. But due to the lack of spoilage was unknown the canning process worsened the situation of the people.
A sudden increase in the mechanization of the canning process, and with a huge increase in urban populations across Europe, resulted in a rising demand for canned food. A number of inventions and improvements followed, and by the 1860s smaller machine-made steel cans were possible, and the time to cook food in sealed cans had been reduced from 6hours to 1hour. Canning process reached the U.S. where Robert Ayars established the first American canning factory in New York in 1812, using improved cans to preserve meats, fruits, and vegetables. Demand for canned food greatly increased during American wars. Urban populations mainly the working class demanded ever-increasing quantities of cheap, varied, quality food that they could keep at home without having to go shopping daily. Existing companies like Nestle, Heinz, Underwood, Campbells have observed the increasing demand for canned food and grabbed the opportunity and provided quality canned food.